SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

NS. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands.-t. Kanara forests. indigestion. yellow. anthelmintic. Himalayas up to 1700 m.-Mar. LOC. LOC. See—Timbers. piles. Malay Islands. anti-pyretic. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Kochi. relaxation of the uvula. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Fl.5X2-2. :—E. Shige. It is given in diarrhœa. mouth troubles. Sige-balli or kai. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. linear-oblong. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Ritha. In ulceration of the gums. measles and other skindiseases. Sd.-6-10 . (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Tans. COM.8 cm. bronchitis. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. FAM. Lalkhair. DISTR. cooling. Saradruma. leucorrhoea. urinary and vaginal discharges. Burma. 5-10 cm. ulcers.. CHAR. H. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. M. Deccan. acrid. Sk. hypertrophy of tonsils. Manda-otte. Vidula. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. M. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). Phena. strengthens teeth. Soap-pod tree. leaflets 10-20 pairs.—bipinnate.—in fascicled globose heads. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. heaviness. fleshy when green. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). along the coasts of Konkan and N. Dipta. Kushthari. Dantadhavan. Khandesh Akrani S. given in elephantiasis.-July. M. Saptata. boils. Fr. erysipelas. Yajnika. Fl. :—Common throughout the Stale . K. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. leprosy. Kath-bole. " Kapha ". antidysenteric. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. LOC. wrinkled when dry . Khair. Charmakusha. :—An extensive woody climber. Shikekai. . Country and Gujarat. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests.—pod. Western Peninsula. L. Kanara (often on laterite). gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). DISTR. Pegu. psoriasis..USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. overlapping. throat diseases. aphrodisiac. 7. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. :—Rajastan. prurigo. China. Chikakai. tonic. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Sikkim. Khadira.5-12.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. " Vata ". Bhuriphena. Dyes. Sk. sore-throat and tooth-ache. cures itching. :—Throughout India. inflammations. gums. long.

Sponge tree. Girimeda. Jheri baval. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. blood-diseases. LOC. See—Timbers. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. . often planted . common in eastern parts of the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. In Philippines decoction. burning sensation. Sk. LOC. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . Pissibabul. anthelmintic. Vilavati kikar. Gandhelo khair . leaves and gum. purgative. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Cassia flower. NS. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. cooling. H. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Stinking acacia. HABITAT :—Moist situations. caries of teeth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. deobstruent. stomatitis. leucoderma. :—E. Sind. ascites. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). itching. causes " Vata". K.pungent. Kari jali. ulcers. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. anti-diarrhoeal. biliousness. Kankri.. improves appetite. tonic. buboes. cardio-tonic. eczema. Internally they are aperient.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Gums and Resins. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. anti-dysenteric. not indigenous but naturalised. erysipelas. often cultivated. M. cures stomatitis. piles. bronchitis. externally they are applied to leprous patches. alexiteric. Gum—sweetish. Arimeda.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). Sauna jali. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. cures " Kapha. Gandhbabul. LOC. digestible. Jali. FAM. Marudruma. Devababhul. detergent. anthelmintic. erysipelas. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. blood diseases. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . inflammations. G. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. DISTR. leucoderma. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. prurigo. expectorant and good emetic.

NS.-Jany. Ceylon. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. :—An erect herb 0. brown. Khajoti. Utranigida. Agheda-di.5x2-4.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. H.—greenish white. CHAR. Country.5 cm. many. oblong-cylindric. Arittamanjaria. K. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. erect herb. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.3-0. . Sd. G. high. clustered near the summit of spike. Fl. CHAR. Sk. pale-brown. about 50 cm. Ksharamadhya. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. Philippines. Apang. FAM. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. The plant contains acalyphin. smooth. one-seeded.—truncate at apex. females. M. :—Annual. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.—Euphorbiaceæ. scattered. axillary spikes . 3.. 2. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.—Amarantaceæ. Aghada . Sk. few.—capsule. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. M. high. Latjira . erect.—utricle. COM. softly hairy. rounded at base.9 m. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. H. Fl. brown. DISTR. Merkati. NS. :—Throughout India. pneumonia and rheumatism. :—E. Chalmari.5-4. angular. elongate. Vasira. Kharamanjiri. Chichra. Fl. elliptic obovate. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Khokali. :—G. LOC. branches terete or quadrangular striate. asthma. M. in lax. Prickly chaff-flower. LOC. long in fruit. enclosed in perianth smooth. stem stiff. L. ascending. small. Fl. 30-75 cm. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn.—June-Sept. Kuppi-gida. Kantarika. t. tropical Africa. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. t. Var. It is used in congestive headache.8-6. :—Common in the Deccan and S.—Nov. L. males. Sd. minute. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. Kuppi. Khokla. crenate-serrate.— ovoid. K. COM. FAM. Vanchhikanto. in elongate terminal spikes. Apamarga.—monœcious. Leaves are also used in skin diseases.3 X 2. somewhat 3-nerved. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. branches long. Chirchira.57. perianth 4-5 segments..—opposite. hispid.5 cm. Uttrane .

acute. epilepsy. Ugragandha.8 cm. Baja . top pyramidal. throat. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. PARTS USED : —Root. anthers yellow.8 X 1. diuretic. L. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. stomachic.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. toothache. inflammations. long. NS. long. carminative. fevers. carminative. Gandhilovaj. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. thirst. heating. laxative.. K. "Vata". improves appetite. voice. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. LOC. stomatitis. ascites. skin eruption etc. Bhutnashini. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. Jatila. FAM. Ceylon. kidney troubles. leaves.—Araceæ. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. bright-green. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m.7-3. H. bitter. slightly curved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. dysentery. :—An aromatic herb . useful in abdominal pains. obtuse. loss of memory. brain-tonic. Vekhand . LOC. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. flowers and seeds. rat-bite. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). heart diseases. expectorant.—turbinate. America. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. improves appetite. Vekhand.9-1. G. heating. emetic. piles.. sepals scarious. DISTR. carminative. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. :—Throughout India. laxative. Godavaj. dyspepsia. M. flatulence. blood diseases (Ayurveda). bronchitis. good for mouth diseases. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. Sk. emmenagogue . Baluchistan. anthelmintic. liver and chest pains. . delirium. America. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. leucoderma (Yunani). LOC. tumours. COM. See—Sacred Plants. thickened in the middle. dysentery. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. :—E. Gorbach . PARTS USED :—Root. Tropical Asia. and is considered useful in dropsy. Europe and N. Vacha. Fr. Australia. piles. spadix. inflammations. Throughout Asia. Africa. spathe 15-75 cm. boils. hysteria. useful in dyspepsia. margins wavy. Sweet flag . 0. pungent. Sikkim. 5-10 cm. bronchitis. alexiterie. laxative. CHAR. Bach. useful in vomiting. prismatic. Bitter. etc. abdominal pains. useful in general weakness. green . creeping and branching. itching.

root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. :—K. in children. Gorakamali. M. NS. It is a good remedy in asthma. leaf and fruit. fever. bark. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. :—Western Peninsula. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. LOC. Kanara evergreen forests. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. PARTS USED : —Root.. Haggodgimara.:—Konkan.—Bombacaceæ. LOC. N. K. colic. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. M. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. useful in biliousness. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. Brahmamlika. Bukha. Sk. fevers and other maladies. dysentery. NS. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. indigenous in tropical Africa. G. LOC. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Goremlichora . Gorakshi. Powder is very effective insecticide. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Baobab. HABITAT':—Cultivated. African calabash. Tudgensu . Deccan. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and .USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. Panch-parnika. :—Grown in many places in India . etc. anti-pyretic. aerial parts yield a volatile oil.—Lauraceæ. Gopali. Gorakhaamli. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. COM. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. See—Timbers. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . DISTR. Gujarat. Pisa. H. COM. Rukhdo . vomiting. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. FAM. Gorakhchinch. Monkey-bread tree. :—E. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Pichli. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

G. inflammations. China. Kaloshirish. Kalshish. cures erysipelas. Onkla. Shirish. :—E. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). blood diseases. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. tonic. COM. LOO. it is said to stop after-pains. cures " Kapha". . Akoly. Karnapura. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. wasting diseases. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. M. Shyamala. Uddanaka. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Ankola. heating. Chinchola. LOC. Piloshirish. Ankotha. Kalosadasado. and fruit. anthelmintic. commonly planted along roadsides. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Ankoli. Root-bark— used in piles. Shirish. expectorant. biliousness. Sage-leaved alangium.—Leguminosæ. stem. Sk. Shankiniphala. Ankola. H. See—Timbers. leaves (rarely). useful in inflammations. burning of body. rat-bite. NS. Tantia. (Mimosaceæ). gleet. Juice—emetic. acute fever. anthelmintic. :—Throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. H. spermatorrhoea. alexipharmic . Anedhera. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. often along banks of nalas in N. Sk. Krishnashirisha.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. :—Throughout India. colic. Dodda-Hombage. See—Timbers. Malaya. COM. S. lumbago. Sirai. Ankota. Sirisa. useful in worms. Ankora. inflammations. Dridhakantaka. aromatics or honey. Sirsul. K. Seeds—cooling. Kullumavu. diarrhœa. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Asroli. Shirisha. FAM. Kathora. hydrophobia. Ankoli. pungent. lumbago (Yunani). Fruit—laxative. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). G.) FAM. Ceylon. Kanara. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. poisonous bites. alexiteric. Root-bark poisonous. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Kalashirish. dysentery. K. :—E. Philippines. blood diseases. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. " Vata "-pain. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Garso. LOC. carminative. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Gudhapatra. M. Ankola. aphrodisiac. Vamaka. fish-poison. DISTR. indigestible. NS. Tamraphala.—Alangiaceæ. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Ankol. alterative.

etc. anthelmintic. LOC. Palandu. useful in malaria. eruptions and swellings.. diarrhœa. tonic. bleeding piles. occasionally used in fever. Piyaz. maturant. :—Native country probably Persia. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. asthma. stomachic.:—E. emollient. LOC. DISTR. FAM. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. itching. G. good in rat-bite.. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. which acts as a diuretic. cooling. blood diseases. Dungari.—Liliaceæ. ophthalmia. Bark-bitter. Root—astringent. deafness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. used in leprosy. NS. Seeds—fattening. bark. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. excessive perspiration. body pains. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. aphrodisiac. spleen diseases. Sk. given in piles. syphilis. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. epistaxis. B & C. seeds. boils. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. See—Vegetables. cures "Vata". COM. LOC. usually planted. flowers. scabies. Rajapriya. Rochaka. useful in vomiting. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. Flowers—aphrodisiac. piles. enriches blood. biliousness. inflammations. ear-ache. Bengal. . M. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits.K. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. dropsy. piles. Onion. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. leaves.: —Throughout India. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. paralysis. volatile oil. and also in skin diseases . strengthens gums and teeth. Seeds—tonic to brain. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Ulageddi. Ceylon. Kanda. tumours. skin-diseases. Leaves—good in night blindness. See—Timbers. erysipelas. Oil is used in leprosy. improves taste. bronchitis. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. and chronic bronchitis . their smell useful in hemicrania. scabies.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. Bark— anthelmintic. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. seeds. weakness. catarrh. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. Burma. etc. cultivated everywhere. Bark and seeds are astringent. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. stimulant and expectorant. leucoderma. It is an important garden crop. vomiting. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). Bulb—tonic. prescribed in ophthalmia. relieves tooth-ache. The plant contains vitamins A.

thins the blood (Yunani). epileptic fits. Kattali. leucoderma. Lasun. K. aphrodisiac. complexion. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. G. thirst. Ugragandha. useful in diseases of eye and heart.—Liliaceæ. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Kumari. lumbago. Country. useful in inflammations. body and joint pains. leucoderma. NS. improves appetite. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. FAM. thirst. It is an important garden crop. hemiplegia. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. asthma. FAM. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. oleaginous . LOC. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. G. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. COM.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. carminative. Kanya. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. paralysis. In cases of diphtheria. K. NS. bronchitis. Korkand. tumours. Sk. Sk. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. :—E. Kumari. H. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. Ghi-kumari. In Cambodia. Bellulli. See—Vegetables. M. In pulmonary phthisis. good for lumbago. low fevers. paraplegia and convulsive affections. M. Garlic. Lashuna. chronic fevers. Kapila. ear-ache (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Lolisara. Lahsan. caries of teeth. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. " Vata ". :—E.—Liliaceæ. Kuvarpatha. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. COM. LOC. piles. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. troubles of spleen. sciatica. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Lasan. Korphad. liver and lungs . alexipharmic. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. clears voice. M. Lasan. ALŒ VERA Linn. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Rasonaka. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. heating. digestive. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Indian aloe. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. inflammation. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. Ikshurmallika. tonic. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. H. Diuretic. The plant contains vitamin C. fattening. . voice.

jaundice. Barbados. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek.—in dense racemes . Kadusale. L. strangury. Hale. vomiting. pain in muscles. asthma. :—Wild along the coast in S. DISTR. wild along the coast. skin diseases. spleen enlargement. simple or branched. bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. aphrodisiac. Root. margins spiny. Kaduhale. useful in eye-diseases. emollient and demulcent. useful in splean inflammation. Satwin. milky juice. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. liver troubles. pale-green. cooling. Australia. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. used in form of paste in pleurisy. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. leaves. Fl. alterative. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. The plant contains aloin. :—Throughout India. purgative. NS. :—A perennial herb . also cultivated.—Apocynaceæ. E. used in fevers. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. purgative. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. lumbago. FAM. Saptachhada. piles. perianth cylindric . crowded. Dita bark tree. Bitter . and it is largely imported into India. isobarbaloin and emodin. tonic. DISTR. somewhat divided. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Ceylon. carminative. tropical Africa. Mediterranean. common in the rain-forests of N. :—E. tonic. K. It also acts as a mild purgative. Sk. Java. methritis. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. ulcers (Ayurveda). alexiteric. Kanara. Chatian. digestive. LOC. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. bronchitis. LOC. gonorrhœa. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. Br. PARTS USED :— . pendulous. West Indian Islands. liver complaints. India. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. biliousness (Yunani). biliousness. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. yellow. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. COM. planted in Indian gardens . Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. M. lanceolate. Saptaparna. scape longer than the leaves. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. H. Jamaica. Satian. inflammations. fattening. ophthalmia. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. Native of S. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. Satwin. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. LOC.—sessile. fleshy. C. tumours. scaly. stem short thick. Africa.

Apamarisha. M. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. bronchitis. Pathyashaka. biliousness. also in fields. rugose. Kante math.8 cm. obtuse. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. apiculate. laxative. leprosy. often reddish. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. ulcers. Sk. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. long. boils and burns. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . HABITAT :—In waste places. hallucination. ovate. See—Vegetables. Kantanatia. numerous. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. antipyretic. oleaginous. L. Tandulibija. Kantanu-dant.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes.). DISTR.3—3. K. laxative. diseases of the blood. Tandulja. :—An erect glabrous herb. piles. leucoderma. lanceolate. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. unisexual. entire. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. Cholai.2—7. improves appetite. burning sensation. obtuse. leucorrhoea. CHAR. :—Throughout India.— 3. useful in " Kapha ". female calyx oblong. tumours. stomachic. Drug Com. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. Kantalo dambho. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. good in diseases of the heart. :—E. Fr. tropical countries.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. appetiser.. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. G. LOC. FAM. See—Timbers. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. rat-bite. Root—heating expectorant. ovoid. antiperiodic and febrifuge. NS. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. anthelmintic. rubbish heaps . diuretic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Ceylon. thickened at the top. male calyx acute. alexiteric.—Amarantaceæ. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. H. 30-60 cm. sudorific and febrifuge. COM. also useful in catarrhal fever. galactogogue. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. LOC. Mulladantu. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. Bark—acrid. Prickly amaranth. " tridosha " pain. bitter. Tandulaja. Mullarave-soppu. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. Fl. blood diseases. high. rubbish heaps and fields. digestible.5 X 1.— capsule. heating. asthma. bristles pointed. . PARTS USED :—The whole plant.

—Nov. . Tropical Africa. Kandavardhan. DISTR. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. constipating. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. H. high. enlargement of the spleen.:— Konkan. Blistering ammania. causes itching sensation. Sk. the plant. NS. " Vata. fresh or dried. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. H. Afghanistan. L. pungent. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate.—capsule. corm. It is also used as an emmenagogue. asthma. G. G. fevers etc. Jangli mehandi. K. acrid. :—An annual. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. China. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). Grows wild on the banks of S. increases appetite and taste. LOC. M. Gujarat and Kanara. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. LOC." blood troubles. Fr. FAM. vomiting. Suran. Suran. Australia. Arshaghna. tumours. useful in piles. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Sukaranda. :—Throughout India in moist places. t. Kandala. Deccan. COM. globose. 8-65 cm. :—E. Vatari. Sk. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Sd.—Lythraceæ. COM. Kanthalla. laxative. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. :—E. sessile.—Araceæ.—opposite. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. stomachic. aphrodisiac. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). branches usually opposite. LOC. Kuranda. Konkan rivers. Bitter and acrid . Kurendika. removes " Kapha ". irregularly circumsciss above the middle. bronchitis. abdominal pains. M. red. :—Cultivated widely in the State. Malaya. Dadmari. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. used as an appetiser (Yunani). much narrowed at the base. strangury . elephantiasis . Bharajambhul. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. depressed. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. erect or subscandent herb. FAM. Suran . blood diseases. harmful in "Kapha". Jalavgiyo. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. Fl. CHAR. DISTR. Suran. Elephant's foot. In the Konkan. Kuranti. Vikata. Ceylon.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . LOC.

digestible. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Kaju. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. H. K. bark vertically furrowed . many flowered. aphrodisiac. swollen peduncle of fruit. COM. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). tumours. dysentery. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. CHAR. See—Vegetables. Fish-Louse Berry. FAM. Kakamari. ascites. cordate or truncate. and trace of C. Sk. also cultivated. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. The plant contains Vitamins A. Kanara. Kakkisoppugida . Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. Fl. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kakaphal. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. Corm is poisonous. . corns and obstinate ulcers. Kakamari. DISTR. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. skin diseases. :—A native of tropical America. Kakanashika. :—E. Kakamari. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . It is supposed to have restorative power. fever. See—Timbers. NS. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. Cashew apple-nut.— subcoriaceous. Govamba. COM.—Menispermaceæ. which is nutritious and emollient. hot.5-12. NS. flowers.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. Gerubi. leaves. Sk. L. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. G. leucoderma. ringworm. Garalaphala. long. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The seed contains vitamin A. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. PARTS USED :—Bark. ulcers. 5-nerved. M. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. FAM. Kaju . broadly ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. M. Kaju. . Gova. Sophara. USES :—Bark is alterative. sweet. piles. Upapushpika. :—E. K. & A. Kakamari. Kajutaka. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. G. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. H.. equal to almond oil. LOC. Crow-Fish Killer. Oils. Kakamari. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast.5 cm. Jermic. Prithagbija. anthelmintic. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy.—in panicles 25-35 cm. Agni-krita. LOC.—Anacardiaceæ. B. 10-12 X 7.

black . :—Khasia Hills. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. fruits. N. Mahateet. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Ananas . Kiryat. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. good expectorant. cultivated. Parvati. LOC. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. PARTS USED :—Roots.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Ananas hannu. :—E. E. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. dioecious.—Bromeliaceæ. Olen kirayat. COM. Sk. Kanara. petals absent. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Pine-apple . :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). t. K. Kantak sanjika. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. LOC. smooth. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . leaves and fruits. LOC. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Fl.—Sept. Kirata. :—Konkan. Ananas. from Orissa to Ceylon. it is useful in jaundice. DISTR.) LOC. Olikiriyat. G. Ama. Bengal. G. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Ananas . and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. M. native of Brazil (tropical America). It acts also as diuretic. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. See—Fruit Trees. Kiriyata. H. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. K. Creat. also acts as a purgative. removes gases from the intestines .—Acanthaceæ. Ananas. DISTR. Ananasa. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. a poison to fish (Yunani). Assam. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Sk. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Mahatit. FAM. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. to a certain extent in Gujarat. causes cough and biliousness. Nelabevu gida. . :—E. Bhuinimba.-Oct. M. H. COM. FAM. NS.

Br. COM. Sd.9 m. rugosely pitted. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. acute at both ends . Gojivana. alterative. distant.—many. thickly woolly. approximate above. PROPERTIES AND LOC. lower 3lobed. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. bracts lanceolate. DISTR.3-10 X 2-4. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. high. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. smooth. Fl. 6. Fl. white below. tonic. Karitumbe.—Labiatæ.. Alamoda. purple. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic.3-0. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. acute.-Oct. made into an electuary. distant. yellowish brown. pale above. solitary. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. Green leaves. Kanara.-Nov. Sundara. :—E.—lanceolate. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. :—Throughout India. 1. :—An erect shrub. and certain forms of dyspepsia. clothed with woolly hairs . Chodhara. Fl. LOC. t.5 cm.—in dense whorls . PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Malabar Catmint. and anthelmintic. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Sk. Vaikunth. Fl. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. L. K. extensively used in Bengal. sometimes cultivated. crenate-serrate. rose coloured. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . undulate. :—Deccan. Fr. CHAR. Fr. :—Konkan and Kanara. Oshthaphala. Ceylon. stomachic. C—2-lipped. pale beneath. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. :—An erect branched annual 0. very small. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. M. C—2-lipped.8 m. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Dec. t. polished brown. :—S. lateral lobes small. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. and N. stem quadrangular. lower lip very large and broad . LOC. HABITAT. oblong-lanceolate. Plant is useful in general debility.— capsule.—small. Roots and leaves are febrifuge.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.2-1.—Ghats. DISTR. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. forming a spicate inflorescence. Karnatak. NS. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. G. high. Malay Peninsula. . Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis.—very thick. FAM. dyspepsia and fever from teething. L. Sundraphul. upper lip 2-toothed. linear-oblong.—nutlets. ellipsoid. dysentery.

increases biliousness . Bark is a powerful astringent. Sitaphal. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Dhavada. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness .—Combretaceæ. Fruit—sweet. leaves. increases muscular strength. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Krishnabija. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. :—Throughout the greater part of India. LOC. good tonic. now cultivated throughout India. H. LOC. Sugar apple. Root—cathartic. PARTS USED :—Root. enriches blood. M. Ceylon. Kanara border. Pitaphala. K. Dhavada. :—E. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. causes fever and furunculosis . Shushkanga. FAM. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Dhavala. Sitaphala. See—Timbers. Anuram. sedative to heart. Sitaphala. G. chronic diarrhœa. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Dhava. Sk. enriches blood . discharges. NS. DISTR. cooling. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. astringent to the bowels. improves taste and appetite .MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. H. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Sitaphala. bark. fruit and seeds. (Yunani). Sweet-sop. Amritphala. Seeds—difficult to digest. Dindala. COM. Button Tree. :—E. DISTR. tasty. M. :—A native of West Indies . PARTS USED :—Root. leaves and fruits. Bakla. Bark is bitter. Durangi. Bahubijika. applied to skin-diseases. expectorant. LOC. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Sk. flavoury. cooling . :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. COM. NS. Dabria. Dindiga. produce ulcers in the eye.—Anonaceæ. Damora. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". bark. stimulant. K. Custard apple. and eyesores. Bejjalu. Dhamora. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. abortifacient. Anan. Ata. Dohu. erysipelas. Dyes. useful in anaemia. Dhava. Sitaphala. useful in liver complaints. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Sharipha. FAM. G. LOC.

Kadamb. DISTR. saline. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ceylon. K. :—W. Kadamb . :—G. " Kapha". Tennaserim. good in uterine complaints. Malay Islands. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Sprouts—acrid. LOC. Nadija. . FAM. FAM. wild or cultivated. Kadamb. Karnapuraka. K. astringent to bowels. stomachic. is a good hairwash. PARTS USED:—Bark. bitter. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. mixed with gram-flour. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. burning sensation.—Moraceæ. COM. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Kanara . USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. sprouts and fruits. indigestible. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. LOC. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. alexiteric. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. It is generally considered tonic. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. " Vata". H. Fodder Plants.—Rubiaceæ. sap of the tree. Chandkuda. vulnerary. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Bairi. Sk. acrid. Ashokari. Fruit—heating.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Surabhi. Niv. DISTR. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Jajpugri. USES:—In the Konkan. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Malayan Peninsula. Nipa. causes biliousness when ripe. Burma. PARTS USED :—Seeds. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Kadam. Chandkuda. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. aphrodisiac. NS. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. H. M. sweet. They are detergent and their powder. common near Yellapur. Sacred Plants. Kaduve. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Chandala. strangury. galactagogue. Valkala. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. blood diseases. biliousness. See—Timbers. often cultivated. Sk. M. Ajjanpatte. cooling. :—E. COM NS. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. See—Fruit Trees. Kadubale. Upas Tree. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Kadamba. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. aphrodisiac. LOC. :—Throughout India. Kadamb . In eye inflammations. Pegu. Peninsula. Seeds yield an oil and resin.

vittae broad. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. rays 5-10. inflammations. :—A biennial plant. fever with cough. erect. L. G. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. rectal troubles.:—Foot of the N. Chinimung. cauline 3-partite. The plant contains vitamins A. Wild celery. abortifacient. astringent to bowels . Snehabijaka. Karafs.. Bhuimug. ascites. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Celery. See—Vegetables. CHAR. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. hiccup. good in ophthalmia. H. nasal catarrh (Yunani). pedicels 6-16 . cure " Kapha ". M. Ajmoda . PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds.— in umbels. vomiting. Sk. aphrodisiac. Markati. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. specially near large cities. useful in ophthalmia. appetiser. Abyssinia.4 m. LOC. COM NS. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. LOC. vomiting. H. W. heart and spleen diseases. FAM.3-2. improve appetite . urinary discharges.— radial. Asia. Europe. branching. tooth-ache. amenorrhœa. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). and γ-antiarin. Bhuimug. COM. chest-pains.—1. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. K. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. See—Timbers. abdominal pain. Fibres. bronchitis. " Vata " . traces of B and C. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. 0. Bhuchanak. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. scorpion and other stings. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. anthelmintic. apex toothed . Shimbika.—Umbelliferæ. cure asthma. N. :—E. β-antiarin. Mandapi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. NS. ridges narrow.5-2 mm. used in anasarca and colic. Africa. Sk. G. segments once or twice trifid. :—E. Moda. Bori ajmud. high. . Ajamoda. Ugragandha. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Brahmakoshi. good for heart. Java and Malaya. scabies. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. rheumatism. Fl. Bodi ajomoda. Mungphali. Fr. Glucoside apiin is present. Afghanistan. Ground-Pea-nut. M. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). W. Nelkadle. tonic. Ajmud. Seeds—carminative. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. DISTR. Monkey-nut. Bhuimug-chana. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic.

LOC.—Palmæ. gum. USES. :—E. Akota. LOC. Seed cooling. Pophal. Pugiphal. Bengal.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. giddiness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Indo-Malaya. H. Adki. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. See—Food Plants. K. DISTR. Sopari. Chikkan. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. M. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. useful in urinary disorders. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Chhataphala. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Betel-nut palm. leaves (rarely). improves appetite and taste. Burma. Kanara. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Hopari. removes foul breath. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms.. Deccan. Gum pungent.:—Extensively grown in N. bleeding gums. M. LOC. FAM. Malabar. used for eye-inflammations. Oils. DISTR. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Tantusara. Kaungu. fairly largely in the Konkan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). cardiotonic. Poga. Betta. Supari. removes pus (Yunani). aphrodisiac. cooling. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. emmenagogue. Suppiyari. Assam. LOC. gleet. G. Mysore. :—Madras. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Sk. seeds. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Areca palm. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. indigestible. Chikka. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Nut astringent. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. COM. Areca-nut palm. Country. Supari. Siam. Gujarat and S. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. digestive. In French Guinea. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. laxative. .

Svarnakshiri. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections.3-0. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India.—capsule. Root anthelmintic. cures leprosy. Seeds are laxative. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. stem 0. Fruit Trees. USES :—Root is an alterative. purgative. L. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. brownish black. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent.5-5 cm. This is said to bring the worm out at once. sinuately pinnatifid. relieves blisters. oblong. PARTS USED :—Root. Bharbhand. K. Mexican prickly poppy . expectorant and demulcent. Pirangi datturi. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . DISTR. G. Srigalkanta.8 cm. high. Indigenous in tropical America.5-3. Seeds—purgative. antidote to various poisons. . emetic. Sk. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. Bila dhatura. Fr. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. veins white. Brahma dandi. t. Juice—used as a collyrium. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph.—all the year. Plant enriches blood. Fl. Daruri. Pita-pushpa. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. various skin-diseases. spinous. Datturi. COM. globose. netted. useful is strangury. FAM. :—E. Shialkanta. prickly. opening by 4-6 valves. destroys worms . and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers.—Papaveraceæ. and in pertussis and asthma. oblong-ovoid 2. juice yellow. stem clasping. diam. Darudi. H. seeds and yellow juice. inflammations and bilious fevers. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. sedative. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. 7. arecoline. Fl. LOC. LOC. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). 2. See—Timbers. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa.). It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. arecaidine. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.—thistlelike. Ind. branching. jaundice and cutaneous affections. and guvacine. M. Sd. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). glaucous herb .12 m. nauseant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. Balurakkisa.—numerous. :—A glabrous.— terminal. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. It is also diuretic. prickly. NS. yellow. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases.5-18 cm. India.

reniform or broadly ovate. Elephant Creeper.3 cm. Ajantri. bracts large . LOC. Samudrashok. C—5-6. . Kiramar. oblongellipsoid. used in gleet. Samandarka phal. ovate glabrous above.—Aristolochiaceæ. cultivated. Fr. Fr. Kidamari. Kitakaba. Kitamari. aphrodisiac. useful in " Vata". stems. Ceylon.— 7. W. Sk.—in sub-capitate cymes. Java.-Sept.3-25 cm. G.8-7. :—Throughout India.—Aug.—deltoid with cordate base . (sometimes even larger). infundibuliform. FAM. :—E. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. Samudrashosh. prostrate. the bands silky pubescent outside. G. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. Hastivalli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. tubular. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. gonorrhœa. Fl. Adumuttadagida. absorptive.—solitary. :—A very large climber.—Weed of cultivation in black soils.— 3.5 cm. with revolute margins. pedicel with a large bract at the base. diuretic . Arabia. white-tomentose L. Samudraballi. Peninsula. tube inflated. DISTR. t. stems stout. COM. Bracteated Birth-wort. striate.. L. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. H. M. Vridhadaraka. :—E. base cordate with wide sinus . Fl.5-4.5 cm. Fl. Ganda. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. long.—capsule. M. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan.-Nov. Varghoro. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. long and as broad as long. CHAR. Deccan and S. :—Bengal.5-30 x 6. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tropical Africa. 12-ribbed . Fl. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). Soge.:—Konkan. Gandali. NS. long. " Kapha" fevers. long. white-tomentose beneath. Kidamar. In synovitis.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. tip linear dark purple. Sd. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. Samardar sokh. Gujarat and S. H. Sk. HABITAT. LOC. 1. CHAR. Dridhadaru. pubescent outside. Dhuma-patra. COM. base cordate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter .3-2 cm. t. white-tomentose. base subglobose. strangury. Leaves are maturative. rose purple. DISTR. FAM. K.—Convolvulaceæ. painful joints. perianth 2. Country. Krimighni. :—A slender perennial. weak.— globose apiculate. Shyambhuna. M. Country. perhaps a native of Bengal. LOC. chronic ulcers (Yunani). K. anthelmintic. Samudrapatrashoh. glabrous inside. M. powdered root is given with milk. peduncles stout. Konkan.— Aug.

M. LOC. Ceylon. Gathona. :—E. Sd. entire with undulate margins.5x7.5 cm. Dona. purgative (Yunani). Fl. Indian Birth-wort. COM.) FAM. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. LOC. globose-oblong. joint-pains. Dhor-davana. and is also applied externally to the abdomen.—Nov. CHAR.5 cm." pains in the joints. base vaiable. Mastaru. also useful in dropsy. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa.—Compositæ. Nagduna. COM. Isvara balli beru . In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. 3. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). biliousness. NS.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Ruhimula. Arkamula. PARTS USED :—Roots.—flat. :—Western Peninsula. G. dry cough. K. long with globose inflated base. leaves and seeds. H. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma.. Isharmula. L. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Mother or Mugwort.:—Konkan and S. Plant is used as an abortifacient. :—E. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Ishvari. Nagdamani. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. t. Stem long. winged. The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Flea-bane.—variable linear oblong. obovate oblong 10-12. reaching 4. Indian wormwood. M. NS. DISTR. Seeds useful in inflammation. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. alexiteric. Dovana. The plant contains an alkaloid. Nepal. Majtari. useful in " Tridosha. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. bract opposite the pedicel. woody at the base. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. Sk.—Aristolochiaceæ. Nakuli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.5 cm. K. — capsule. emmenagogue.3-2. Bengal. . Saraparni. tonic. FAM. perianth greenishwhite..8-10 X 1. grooved. Sapsan. H. M. Sk. slender. Fl. Country. Arkamula. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. :—A twining shrub. dyspnoea of children. bitter. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Manjipatri. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. 6-valved. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Sugandha. Nilpushpa. Fr.

DISTR.—Urticaceæ.10x2. Panas. upper leaves smaller. :—Konkan. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Thailand (Siam). involucral bracts villous. but rather difficult to digest. :—Widely cultivated. The unripe fruit is astringent. fertile. grown in gardens also. Phanas. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. LOC. K. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. ripe fruit laxative. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. aphrodisiac. LOC. "Vata". cures "Kapha". useful in biliousness. DISTR. Seeds sweet. inner hermaphrodite. Panos. deeply pinnatisect.—Jany. asthma and brain diseases. tonic.5-5 em. tonic. minute. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). appetiser. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. . although very nutritious. solitary or 2. 3-fid or entire. Ghats. H.:—A perennial shrub. :—E. aphrodisiac. G. petioled. Sk. LOC. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. aromatic. M. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Jack-fruit tree. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Kujja. ovate. asthma. Kanara. See—Timbers. 0. Vanas. temperate Asia. oleaginous. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. fattening. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. COM. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. Java.6-2. toothed or again pinnatisect. Kanthal. itching (Ayurveda). outer flowers female. base lobed. constipating (Ayurveda). Skandaphala. " Vata". Jack-Orange wood. Fruit Trees and Dyes. Fl.— achene. ulcers. Fl. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. often planted along roadsides in N. fruit and seeds. leprosy. aphrodisiac. NS. Externally it is used in fomentations. alexiteric. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. diuretic. Phanasa. stems leafy. Tage. Ceylon. Fr. An infusion is given as a tonic. " Kapha".4 m. deobstruent and antispasmodic. lanceolate. hairy. Panesa. enriches blood. Chakki. white tomentose beneath. t.-Hilly districts. cooling. The plant contains an essential oil.—heads ovoid or subglobose. HABITAT.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. FAM. Kantakaphala. L— lower leaves 5. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. lobes entire. Halasina. pubescent above. oblong ellipsoid.

tumours. red when ripe. oleaginous.000 m. LOC. Fr. LOC. Fl. tonic. linear. Satavari. 2.-Dec. thin.—June-Sept.5 cm.3-2. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. oblong. :—G. indigestible. 0. Fl. Indies.ovoid. :—Extremely scandent. valvate in bud. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. t. . solitary. H. Fl. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. Sd.2 m. naturalised in many parts of India. Svadurasa. galactogogue. Tropical Africa. segments.—orange in axillary umbels. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.—opposite 7. K.—lobes reflexed in flower. Sk.5-5 cm. root-stock tuberous. COM. alterative. Siprimuli. FAM. high.—linear with a stout spinous spur. L. S. Kaktundi. C. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. curved. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. straight. cooling. cultivated as ornamental plant. Var. appetiser.9-1. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. FAM. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. narrowed at both ends. cladodes in tufts.-Feb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. Satamulika. A fibre is extracted from the plants. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. lanceolate. :—E. Satavari. stomachic. white.5-10 X 1.—Asclepiadaceæ. thorn. Fr. with coma. globose. CHAR. useful in dysentery. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column.—berry. astringent to bowels. spinous. Country.5 cm. M. NS. in the Himalayas. Fl. up to 1. Kuraki.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. biliousness. 7. Shatavari. fragrant. throat complaints. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. M. and moist monsoon forests. leaves and flowers. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. t. abundant round about Poona. Satavari. PARTS USED:—Root. tapering at both ends. :—Introduced from the W. Asual Shatavari. :—An erect undershrub. Flower is a good styptic. DISTR. DISTR. :—Deccan. aphrodisiac. CHAR. blood and eye diseases. COM. M. long.—Liliaceæ. from Kashmir eastwards.— follicles. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. spines recurved. erect. undershrub. common in the Deccan.—in simple raceme.. Java and Australia. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. dark brown. JAVANICA Baker. inflammation. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED:—Root. Svetmuli.

—sessile. PARTS USED :—Root. long. pointed. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. H. useful in jaundice and anasarca. 4-8 seeded. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). And. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. aphrodisiac. lanceolate. improve blood (Yunani). tropical and S. Africa. upper 2-fid. L. tonic. 3. Ceylon. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Vajrakantaka. expectorant. night-blindness (Ayurveda). useful in diarrhœa. t. Ekharo. 18 X 3-3. aphrodisiac. Gokhalkanta.—capsule. aphrodisiac .— purple blue. M. bracts. colic. antispasmodic. 2 outer large. Ikshura. NS. sedative to gravid uterus . anæmia. and dysentery. scalding of urine. Kalavankabija. Gokshura. tonic. and alterative tonic. diuretic.8 cm. C. leaves and seeds. hairy. Vishnu Taila. ciliate . stems fasciculate. high. USES. Talamkhan.2 cm. LOC. Fr. :—G. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. 4 inner small.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. abruptly swollen at the top. eyediseases.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . linear oblong. thirst. anuria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. leprosy. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. Vikhara.6-1.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Leaves good for cough. Phalaghrita. laxative. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Fl. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Talim-khana. LOC. inflammations. Fl. Kolavalike. gleet. Used in diarrhœa. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. galactogogue.—June-Jany. hispid with long hairs. gonorrhoea. K. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa.. hypnotic. tonic. abdominal troubles. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. HABITAT:—Swampy places. Gokhran. ascites. :—A stout herb. tube. 0. Talamkhana. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Narayana Taila. Shrigalghant. dysentery. Seeds cooling. Konkan and Deccan. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic.) FAM. urinary calculi and discharges. aphrodisiac . thickened at the nodes. biliousness. erect. CHAR. Kak-Kokilaksha. . whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Sk.— Acanthaceæ. widely 2-lipped. like leaves.:—Common throughout the State. Seeds fattening. tonic.) LOC. USES :—The root is refrigerant. (Yunani. constipation. aphrodisiac. The root is sweet. COM.5 cm. lips sub-equal. DISTR. :—Throughout India. demulcent. subquadrangular. lower deeply 3-lobed.

dried fruit is given in fevers. sessile. Sk. Fruit sour. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. Nirbrahmi. HABITAT :—Damp places. Coromandel gooseberry. when fresh. useful in bad ulcers. pale blue or white. oblong.:—E. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. also used in diarrhœa. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. C. Kirihuli. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics.:—Konkan and Deccan. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. rarely wild. found wild near N. lobes equal spangled. solitary. 6-25 X 2. leprosy. astringent to bowels. anæmia. striate. COM. K. indigestion. Barambhi. Root is given in cases of poisoning. H. branches many ascending. Bama. Sd. Carambola apple. Thyme-leaved graticula . pale. fruits. allays thirst. perhaps a native of Malaya. Karmal. HABITAT :—Cultivated. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. Fruits are used in pickles. See—Fruit Trees. heating. pungent. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. M. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). FAM. Kamaranga. ascites. LOC. heats the body (Ayurveda). K. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . LOC.—Scrophulariaceæ. NS. Brahmi. Shiral. t. CHAR. DISTR. . Darehuli.:—Throughout India in wet places. Fr. Fl. astringent to bowels .) FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. DISTR. tumours. Brahmi. Sk. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . G. Safed-Kammi. Soumyalata. stems rooting at the nodes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. emetic. Mudgara. Manduki. axillary. Kamarakh. Karmar.. Kanara villages. decussate. laxative. acute. Karmare . Kamarakha. enlargement of spleen. M. Jalneam. Jany-May. Kamrang. Fl. Tamarak. L. tonic. Karuka. 2-lipped. NS.5-10 mm. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. digestible. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay.—Oxalidaceæ. causes biliousness (Yunani). stops diarrhœa and vomiting. causes biliousness. ovoid. obovate-oblong or spatulate. creeping herb. fleshy. "Vata". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—A glabrous. Brahmi. inflammations. capsule. Ceylon and all warm countries. black dotted : entire. :—E. with shining dots. succulent. COM. H. LOC. sour.

anasarca and jaundice. is used as a local application in rheumatism. epilepsy and hoarseness. capsule. high. purifies blood. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic.8 m. Danti. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. in monsoon forests of N. COM. Kaduharalu. leaves and seeds. Dantika. of three 2-valved cocci. useful in pains. diuretic. toothed. itching. LOC. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). good in scabies. Peninsula. the upper small. Leaf-juice. conjoined with petroleum. L. 0. M. enlarged spleen. alexiteric. branching from the roots. K. often palmately 3-5 lobed.. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. jaundice (Ayurveda). :—G. yellowish. K. FAM. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. inflammations.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. smooth. N. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. Danti. Jatala. Malaya. Guggula. Seeds are poisonous. :—Bihar. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. Gum gugul. Danti. Gugul. NS. M. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. diseases of skin and abdomen. all male or with a few females below. Burma. anaemia. Vishodhini. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. W. epilepsy and hoarseness. NS. sinuate. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Rechani. LOC. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Bengal. DISTR. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. syphilis . abundant on the hills of Karanja. ellipsoid. Fr. wounds. Guggula. t. G. the lower large. obovoid. leucoderma. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Jamalgota. Sk. Uddipta. Root and leaves are cathartic. Devdhup. . Kanara. anthelmintic. piles. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. They are used in dropsy.9-1. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Dec. Fl. Hakum. H. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. :—Dry open Deccan plains. purgative. Mukul. or in monsoon forests. FAM. :—A stout undershrub.—Euphorbiaceæ.—Burseraceæ. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. 2-glandular. hairy. Chota Nagpur. leucoderma. CHAR. Dantimul. Fl. Guggula. Guggul. useful in insanity. :—E. mottled. Danti. Sd. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. Assam. LOC. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. COM. aphrodisiac .

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

LOC. cures biliousness. Fr. not indigenous. Sd.10-15. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. :—E. DISTR. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). dehiscent. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. thirst. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Kushmanda. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). blood impurities. . Dorokaru. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. used in piles. flat. tuberculous glands. menorrhagia. used in dry cough. cures biliousness. Tallow-White gourd. Burma. LOC. USES :—Root-decoction is given. Sikkim. NS. Bark—astringent to bowels. used in strangury. leprosy. biliousness. Fl. it is also anti-fat remedy. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Kudimah. See—Ornamental Plants. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. thirst. red and white. anthelmintic. Shikhivardhaka. tonic to liver. anal troubles. asthma. Seeds— cooling. 15-20 X 1. appetising. bark and flowers. dysmenorrhoea. burning sensation. enriches blood. Fruit—antiperiodic. eye diseases. cardiac and general tonic. astringent. LOC. Koholu. H. urethral discharges. Golkaddu. fever. G. asthma.-Apl.-Feb. M. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Bhuru-koholu. cough. biliousness. seeds. blood diseases . There are two varieties. :—Cultivated throughout the State. wounds and ulcers. "Kapha". Kumaon. in dyspepsia and flatulence. Root.5 cm. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kondha. tuberculous glands. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges and calculi. removes foul taste from mouth. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. used as gargle in stomatitis. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. leprosy. aphrodisiac.—Cucurbitaceæ. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. leucoderma. diuretic. blood diseases. Budekumbalkai. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. COM. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. Buds—indigestible. ulcers. t. Timisha. heart tonic (Ayurveda). " Tridosha". DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. tonic. K. Sk. cures strangury. Ash pumpkin. oil from the seeds. given' to corpulent persons. Kohala. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. tonic. cough.—pod. FAM.8-2. Karkutika. vaginal discharges.

0. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. China. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. often incised or lyrate. haemoptysis. bitter. :—Throughout plains of India.—heads many. LOC. heart diseases. Kalhar. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. burning sensation. t. FAM. L. Tamrachuda. good in syphilis (Yunani). Fl. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. and nutritious tonic. Oil—is soporific.3—0. Fl. Kukurbanda. asthma. catarrh. pubescent. H. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. pungent.—the lower ones petioled.:—In plains south of Bombay.-achene. Kanara. Mriduchhada. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. oblong. thirst. COM. Malaya. elliptic-oblong. inner bracts with green midrib. Tropical Africa. cures bronchitis. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. See—Vegetables. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. Kukkurdru. :—Annual herb.—Jany. CHAR. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. sharply serrate-dentate. febrifuge. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Kakarunda. upper subsessile. cooling.9 m. Sk. sweetish. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. etc. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. pappus white. ash colored. it is also useful in insanity. Deccan. DISTR. :—G. blood diseases. Kakaronda. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. laxative. Fruit is made into confections. Pilokapurio. densely glandular. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. mixed with black pepper. finely silky pubescent on both sides. it is given in bleeding piles. Australia. BLUMEA LACERA DC. Ceylon. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). anti-pyretic.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. stem erect.—Compositæ. NS. good for the brain and liver. . Jangali-muli. not ribbed. Konkan. LOC. Fr. Country. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). and diuretic. astringent. M. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. M. with a strong odour of turpentine. LOC. fevers. high. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. Bhamurdi. phthisis. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. base tapered. S. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot.-Apl.

Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. useful in ophthalmia.—Palmæ. Bitter. LOC. :—A diffuse herb. generally found in poorer soils. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. G. Moto-satodo. native of tropical Africa. asthma. inflammations. Persian Gulf. . It produces a very marked and persistent. cultivated and self-sown. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. FAM. margins undulate. LOC. Fr. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. K. —Nyctaginaceæ.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Leaves— appetiser. Brab tree. Madhurasa. anæmia. carminative. P. leaves and seeds..:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. sub-orbicular. K. NS. DISTR. Sk.—clavate. common in S. cultivated. H.—in corymbose umbels. Vasu. Fan Palm. :—E. Uttar Pradesh. Dhvajadruma. (Ayurveda). whitish beneath. cooling .3—2 cm. root large. Raktakanda. gonorrhœa. Hogweed. COM. 1. spleen enlargement. DISTR. HABITAT :—A weed. :—Tropical India. Seeds—tonic. expectorant. and dropsy. M. Tad. Indian Archipelago. astringent to bowels . M. Shothaghni. green above.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Tala. very small. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . heart diseases. FAM. Fl.— Nov. Santhikari. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). fusiform. Africa and America. H. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. alexiteric. pinkish. scabies. Desert Palm. L. useful in biliousness. leucorrhoea. very glandular . :—E. Tad. alterative. "Kapha" heating. blood impurities. Varshabhu. Dholia-saturdo. Sk. "Vata". Plant contains large quantities of pot. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Celyon. t. Punarnava. It is used in jaundice. NS. in pain of joints. tumours. stem prostrate or ascending. bluntly 5-ribbed. COM. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Talimara. Fl. LOC. abdominal pains. India. Ghetuli. Burma.—in unequal pairs at each node. G. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Palmyra Palm. Tad. Lekhyapatra. Asavardu. Kolaba and Thana districts. useful in lumbago. Ceylon. Kommegida. CHAR. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. Baluchistan.

Sambrani. DISTR. also used as antiperiodic. Dhup. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . used for boils. allays. fattening. blood complaints . flowers. thirst. LOC. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. FAM. G. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). biliousness. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Loban. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. fattening. Gum—hot. Salai. strengthens teeth. Guggali. vaginal discharges. bronchitis. bad throat. useful in intestinal troubles. Dhupam. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). allays asthma. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . scabies. Gum is of five kinds . HABITAT :—Open formations in hills.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. convulsions. Kundur. Luban. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. Fermented juice—tonic. invigorating. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. with a good flavour. useful in skin and blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mukulsalai. mouth-sores. astringent to bowels. LOC. purifies blood. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Bark-decoction. intoxicating.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. thirst and scalding of urine. COM. Salgond. hot. Salphali. Dup. cures dysentery. useful in biliousness. Guggula. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. K. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. Fruit—aphrodisiac. also found in Belgaum District. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Vishesha-dhupa. skin diseases. tonic. allays thirst. antipyretic. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. fatigue. "Vata". helps delivery. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. leaves. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. cough. burning sensation. Indian olibanum tree. asthma. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . fruits. diuretic . Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. expectorant. laxative. antidysenteric. removes "Kapha". cooling. dry. H. aphrodisiac. fevers. bitter. NS. See—Timbers. binding. :—E. antibilious .—Burseraceæ. antiglycosuretic. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases.. diaphoresis. may cause vomiting. purifies blood (Yunani). M. . Moddi. " Vata". Gums and Resins. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Sk. expectorant. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. causes headache. Sugars. causes " Kapha ". heals wounds . with a little salt added. fruit and gum. Salashi. flowers. Fruit—cooling. intoxicating. Liquors. juice. ulcers . improves taste. aphrodisiac. Salpe. alexiteric.

Seeds act as digestive condiment . neuralgic and rheumatic affections . mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. Black-True mustard. used with butter in syphilis . " Vata". biles. COM. LOC. Jwalanti. spasmodic. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. . Seeds-laxative. cure skin-dissases. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Kaira. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Cultivated in India. Dharwar and Belgaum. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). anthelmintic . Asuri. Rajika. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). See—Timbers. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. dispel fever . K. increase bile. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. good in cough and for inflammations. Kari Sasive . cure nose. cure enlargement of spleen. Khandesh. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . FAM. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. M. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. DISTR. H. good for throat complaints. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Broach. internal congestions. bechic. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Seeds— remove cough tumours. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. cause burning . as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. Rai. Taramira . G. NS. Surat. chiefly in Nasik. lessen oedema of body. Sarshapa.—Cruciferae. stomachic. Mohori. :—E. rheumatism. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. eye-troubles. Gums and Resins. kill external parasites. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. LOC. Sk. vermicide. spleen. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Kali-rai. India. ear. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. and toothache. increase appetite . It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. appetiser.

corolla companulate. deeply cordate base.. paler and smooth beneath.:—Throughout India. Kaj. Philippines. PARTS USED :—Root. long.—Euphorbiaceæ. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Chandra. COM. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. COM.—yellowish brown. smooth. Fl. diam. :—G. 3—2 . in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. corolla as in the male .—baccate. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). DISTR. margins sinuate denticulate. t. Sd. Tans. Garige. Sk.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. southward to Ceylon. Asana. bluish green. :—G. Fr. :—An annual scandent herb. glabrous .— membranous. lobes oblong lanceolate. Australia. :—Deccan. LOC. Asana. green and scabrid above. hot. Fl. Shivlingi. ovate-oblong. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Apastambhini. Country. hemiplegia. Gauli. Patharphoda. subsessile. Kavodi. H. Gargumaru. M.— Aug-Sept. bark. useful in "Vata". Shivalingi.. or few or many. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. and in fevers with flatulence. Mahavira. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. tropical Africa. Khaja. 5-lobed. FAM. of Shivaling shape . Malaya. bitter. streaked with broad vertical lines .— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. LOC. 1 . K. H. Asana. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. It is used in bilious attacks. Lingini. LOC. Manj. FAM. NS. lumbago. CHAR. Suviraka. Ekalkanto. stem grooved. 5-partite.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. M. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. S. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. See—Timbers. alterative. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. 5 cm. heating. Goge. Mauritius. 10-15 cm. Lingaja. Kassi. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Sk. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Asana. globose. Mullu-siru Honne. Ekadivi. Gunjan. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. M.. . pungent. female flowers solitary. Ishawara-Shivalingi. Shivavalli. DISTR. NS. tendrils 2-fid : L.

inflammations. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. Panphui. Rajadana. NS.—variable. Thailand (Siam). Country. Gujarat. high. carminative. HABITAT :—Dry.—Crassulaceæ. Tapaspriya. Cochin-China. M. Pyalchar. binding. Dhanu. laxative. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). in large panicles. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). S. Charpoppu. FAM. Country. analgesic. COM. burning sensation on body.—swollen and octagonal at the base. Burma. Sd.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla.—Jany. reddish purple. Piyal. deciduous open forests. NS. Fr.—pendant. gum (rarely). leaflets ovate.2 m. lower usually simple. K. Charoli. Lalana. Char. DISTR. cures blooddiseases. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. See—Ornamental Plants. The bark is bitter and poisonous.) FAM. C. LOC. K. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. useful in diarrhœa. Sk. astringent to bowels.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves.. cardio-tonic. the older light-coloured. Zakhi-haiyat. Paira. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". Lonnahadakana gida. Char. fevers.—Anacardiaceæ. Murukali. PARTS USED :—Roots. Deccan. S. aphrodisiac. :—Hot and drier parts of India. alexipharmic. seeds. H. purgative. Char. when punctured. :—Konkan. M. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. LOC. Charoli. with opposite branches . Sk. L. smooth. Snehabija. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. Stems obtusely 4-angled. It is a disinfectant. aphrodisiac. elliptic. fruit. Panphuti. bruises. CHAR. Priyal. Fl. younger reddish. DISTR. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). occasionally compound. also wild. cooling. speckled with white. :—Native of tropical Africa. "Vata" and biliousness. tonic. Asthibhakshya. lobes triangular. M. :—G. allays . stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . constricted in the middle. ulcers. t. COM. upper 3-5-7 foliate.3-1. buds with root. expectorant. :—Konkan. vomiting. :—H. thirst. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. M. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. leaves. decussate.—small. purifies blood. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Fl. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. boils and bites of venomous insects. Leaf-juice digestive. Deccan. Cambodia. Parnabija. the Dangs. crenate or serrate. fattening. Kolegeru.

Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Leaves—good for eye diseases. aperient used in urinary discharges. M. COM. pterygium. lessens inflammations. Dhak. India. Palas. Palas. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . G. DISTR. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. NS. skindiseases. biliousness. diuretic . fractures. lessens lumbago. dysentery. buboes. Dyes. cures excessive perspiration. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Khakera. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Oils. gum. burning urine. emmenagogue. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). astringent. cures ulcers and tumours. Seeds tonic to body and brain. useful in bone fractures. Palash. diseases of anus. useful in piles. tonic. Gums and Resins. :—E. bark. carminative. PARTS USED :—Root. dry. Sk. Kinshuk. anthelmintic. in the Khandesh Akrani. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. strangury. ascends to 1200 m. corneal opacities. H. Flower—aphrodisiac. good in dysentery. tumours. Muttuga. K. inflammations. gout. Chichra. lessens biliousness. flowers. Leaf—very astringent. tonic. piles. Fruit and seed—hot. seeds. Kakria. stomatitis. hydrocele. purifies blood. gonorrhœa. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. eye diseases. Yajnika. prickly heat and itch. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. leprosy. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . cold and cough. worms and piles. colic. tonic to liver. stomachic. useful in elephantiasis. Bark—appetiser. aphrodisiac. good in biliousness. burning sensation. used in liver disorders. remove bad humours. LOC. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. cough. aphrodisiac. laxative. gonorrhoea. LOC. Flowers—cure " Kapha". anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). if chewed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. topically in piles and hydrocele. piles. Muttala. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). digestible. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. relieves abnormal thirst. Kshatadru. Tripatrak. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. Khakda. Khakhrao. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. leaves. cause headache (Yunani). Ceylon. anthelmintic. cure tumours. Gum—astringent to bowels. anthelmintic. Gum—acrid. Bark—appetiser. Bastard teak. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Kuntz. LOC. good in fevers. used in diseases of chest and lungs.) FAM. dysmenorrhoea.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. thirst. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. useful in syphilis. expectorant. Fruit and seeds—oily. pimples.

Physic nut. heating. useful in colic. aphrodisiac and diuretic. shortly stalked. petioles prickly. elliptic-oblong. Fever nut. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). flowers and fruit. :—E. ringworm. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Katkaranj. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. leprosy (Yunani). densely armed on the faces with prickles. lead-colored 1. CHAR. the tropics generally. astringent to bowels.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ".—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. anthelmintic .—abruptly pinnate.5 cm. Flowers are astringent. t. prevents contagious diseases . NS. fevers. act as rubefacient. very common near the sea-coast. LOC. K. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. cures urinary discharges. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Tapasi. H. asthma and colic. Gajjige. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. DISTR. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. leucorrhcea. sprouts useful in tumours. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.5 X 4. M. leaflets 6-9 pairs. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. aphrodisiac. Seed—styptic. They are applied to orchitis. Leaves contain a glucoside. Dyes. Karanja. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. See—Timbers. Fl. 5-7. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. LOC. Gajaga. strongly mucronate. Fl. Katkaleja. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. 30-60 cm. Gums and Resins. long. wounds. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin.—JulySept. Sind. :—Throughout India. Deccan hills. Gajga. skin-diseases.) COM.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. Fr. hydrocele. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic .3 cm. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. etc. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent.5 cm. anthelmintic. cures inflammation . Kuberakshi. L. :—An extensive climber. leaves. FAM. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. Sd. Sagargota.—pod. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. malaria. long . Kakechika.—yellow. G. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Gum solution is applied to bruises. oblong 5-7.—1-2 oblong. antiperiodic. Sk. Fruit—acrid. piles. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. .

Ekke. Gigantic swallow-wort. Punnaga.. Tungakeshera. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. branches stout. astringent. Malaya. M. L. high. used in chronic fevers. NS. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. often gregarious. DISTR. Ark. Ponne. 10-20 X3. covered with cottony pubescence.. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. CHAR. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. much branched. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. PARTS USED :—Bark. and for its oil. sessile. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. LOC. Kshiranga. and oil.. Vuma. Ceylon. LOC. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. very common in N. Akdo. Sk.4-3 m. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. FAM. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata".. Australia. Purasakeshera. G. East African Islands.8-10 cm. Ak. elliptic or ovate oblong. The gum from wounded branches. Surpan. H. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Br. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Rui. Sultanchampa. Undi. COM. . mixed with bark strips and leaves. Arka. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. both surfaces tomentose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Undi. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. 2. thick. improves complexion (Ayurveda).—Guttiferæ. :—E. sometimes amplexicaul. Shuka-phala. NS. Alexandrian laurel. Surangi. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers.. Arka. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Sk. Polynesia. Kshirparni. :—E.—Asclepiadaceæ. Mandara. Kanara associated with littoral species. COM. Akand. Punnag.H.— opposite. K. See—Timbers. :—Cultivated throughout India. Oils. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Madar. base cordate. lessens appetite. gum. FAM. M. K. Dholaakdo.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. :—A large shrub. Madar. Surhonne. Mandara.

high. PARTS USED :—Root. cures leucoderma. Ark. Malay Islands and S. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. 9-10 cm. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. Sd:—many. Madar. buds globose.— Feb.—about 2. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. Juice—anthelmintic. Ak. depilatory.—7. leaves applied to paralysed parts.7—15 X 4. green. eruption on body.—subsessile. tumours. ovate oblong. Flowers—stomachic. purplish or white. apex with two auricles. ellipsoid or ovoid. China. Rajarka. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. cures leprosy. catarrh and loss of appetite. L. Safedak. C. swellings. usually 5. used in cough.-July.—Asclepiadaceæ. expectorant and anthelmintic. Fl. ascites and anasarca. Mandara. cures inflammations. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. spleen and liver diseases. ringworm of scalp. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. diaphoretic. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. LOC. young parts white. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . t.8-2. coughs. elliptic or obovate.2 cm. useful in leprosy. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. leaves and flowers. Milk— caustic. cures asthma and syphilis. rat-bite. ulcers. tonic and stomachic in action. comose. Fr. laxative. broad. flattened tomentose. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin.. asthma. See—Fibres. purgative. :—An erect shrub usually 1. painful joints . FAM. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . .4 m. asthma. cures piles and "Kapha". HABITAT :—Dry waste places. heal wounds. corona shorter than the column. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. good for liver (Yunani). C.—in umbellate cymes.—follicles. Mandara. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. Milk— heating. scabies. back much curved. DISTR. Fl. spongy.5-8. ascites. alterative and purgative properties. NS. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. dropsy. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. Flowers—digestive. very common. comose .5 cm. astringent. elephantiasis. Root-bark is diaphoretic..:—H. subglobose. piles. cottony. COM. liver and spleen enlargement. Flower—analgesic. :—Throughout warmer parts of India.5 cm. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. M. also useful in intestinal worms. Br.—lobes deltoid-ovate. acrid .— purplish in umbellate cymes. LOC. lobes usually erect. bark. Fr. buds ovoid..5-10 X 5-7. very common is S. across. long. Sd.—broadly ovate. tumours. CHAR. India. Ceylon. bark corky. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. oleaginous. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. Sk.

Waziristan. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Tamateballi.3 cm. COM. narrow. :—E. Kalehu. hernia and colic. Shitarambha. membranous.—Scitaminaceae. DISTR. (Chopra). Shimbi. Abai. L. bracts oblong. :—E. 3 sub-erect. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. high . Sambe. Gavara. tonic. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. LOC. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. on trees and hedges . FAM. long. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Kardali. lanceolate to ovate. Koshaphala. root-stock tuberous. Kamakshi. Egypt. Devakeli. indigestible. K. Hudingana.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions..—segments 2. stem 0. but doubtfully wild. Sk. Gigantea. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. veins arching. G. abundant in Sind. staminodial segments. LOC. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Fl. Asishimbi. Arabia.. Tarvardi. green. Kadavare. ulcers (Ayurveda). The pods contain vitamin A. FAM. biliousness. tropical Africa.:—Perennial herb . Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. acrid. Paraholiya. Iran. they are given in cholera.9-1. Indian shot.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. spatulate. Sabbajaya. NS. See—Fibres. CHAR. K.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). appetiser.5 cm. Flowers used as detergent. G. Nilashimbika. Khadsambal. cooling. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. H.2 m. Sarvajaya. Sema. Gavria. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Pods. CANNA INDICA Linn. erect. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. LOC. flowers and milky juice. greenish or colored. Warm leaves used as poultice. NS. H. Kadsambu.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. M. 1 linear . Broad—Sword bean. COM. Afghanistan. Akalabera. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. useful in burning sensations. oval or orbicular. Sarvajaya. P.

cause headache. high in its feral state. causes thirst. Fl. hallucinations. useful in convulsions.9-1. tonic. aphrodisiac. alterative . PARTS USED :—Bark. excessive use causes indigestion. See—Ornamental Plants. COM.—achene. Vijaya. Female inflorescence is stomachic.—alternate or the lower opposite. oil-good for earache. LOC. Seeds—carminative. Harshini. L. flowers and seeds. K.—Urticaceæ. antidiarrhoeic. check vomiting. 3-lobed. echinulate . Unmattini.5 m. useful in " Kapha". female crowded under convolute bracts. Bhang. restlessness. good for hydrocele. tonic. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute .:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. inflammations. lower 3-8 foliate. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. LOC. Leaves—bitter. Sk. Bark—tonic. NS. Siddhapatri. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ganja. female perianth hyaline. lessen inflammation. globose. LOC. cough. Bhang.—small axillary. M. stomachic. causes thirst and biliousness. Ganja. sepals 5. PARTS USED :—Roots. Bhangi. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Hemp. imbricate. :—Throughout India. soporific. :—E. piles. leaves. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. CHAR. insanity.—many. intoxication (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Fr. leprosy. soporific. intoxication. upper 1-3. serrate. (3) Charas. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. (2) Bhang. dioecious. male flowers. H. Mohini. also wild. G. FAM. Sd. dropsy. DISTR. Wild in the Himalayas. Fl. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Shivapriya. water extract anthelmintic. causes biliousness. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male.—sub-globose or oblong . HABITAT :—Cultivated. flowers. t. Ganja. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). hot. leaves. usually 0. shining. :—Widely cultivated in India. Fr. male fascicled. Not indigenous. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. intoxicating.—more or less throughout the year. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). melancholia. astringent. impotence. black. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. astringent to bowels. They are broken in small pieces. seeds and resin. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). Central Asia. aphrodisiac. abortifacient. heating. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. DISTR. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling.

in the form of electuary. Mirchi. whooping cough. H. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. cholera. COM. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Tikshna. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). loss of consciousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. often found as an escape. Capsaicin and Solanin. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. delirium (Ayurveda). The plant contains cannabinin. Mirchi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. increases biliousness. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Marichiphala. See—Condiments and Spices. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. Chillies. Tivrashakti. and is employed by Indian physicians.—Solanaceæ. K.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. dyspepsia. useful in brain complaints. Menshinkai. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. Sk. M. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. . LOC. LOC. weakness of body. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. :—Cultivated all over India. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Country in Deccan. Raktamaricha. acute mania. chronic ulcers. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. spermatorrhoea. HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Gums and Resins. dysuria. and dropsy. Narcotics. Vegetables. :—E. Marchu . diarrhœa. Cayenne-pepper. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. also in gout. G. It is stomachic. asthma. DISTR. erysipelas. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. The fruit contains Capsisin. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Lanka mirchi. increases appetite. and flatulence. muscular pains. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. expectorant. M. Ujjvala. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. Fibres. useful in indigestion. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Madana modak used in cough. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). :—Extensively cultivated in S. Lalmirchi. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. NS. FAM. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Fruit—pungent.

:—Annual or perennial climbing herb. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Deccan. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Sakralata. :—Most warm countries. Root is considered diaphoretic. :—Throughout India. Girikarnika. .:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Ghats.—white. dry. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. smooth. LOC. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. " Vata ". Karnasphota. leaves and seeds. Maniju balli. M. Kumbha. winged at the angles. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . petals 4.—Myrtaceæ. stem wiry. See—Timbers. FAM. Kumbhi. DISTR. H. Kapalphodi. C. ultimate segments lanceolate. Root. Shaundi. :—E. NS. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. K.— alternate. Kangu. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Daddala. NS. Karolio. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. COM. Kalindi. epileptic fits.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. colic. useful in tumours. Malay Peninsula. Fr. bark. urinary discharges. M. bladdery . FAM. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. when moistened. Wild guava . anthelmintic. Gavvahannu. introduced. 2-ternate. piles. Sk. it is mucilaginous. K. black. alexiteric. Fibres. HABITAT :—In hedges .MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. abscesses and ulcers. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. skin-diseases. rounded at the apex. G. Blister creeper. Agni-erum. hot. Fruit—acrid. Hennumatti. Sk. DISTR. Kumbi. Jyotish-mati. LOC. subglobose. L. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sind. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers and fruits. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. leaves. Sd. Fl. deltoid. Kanphuti. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. bark. :—E. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent.—Sapindaceæ. aphrodisiac. diuretic and aperient. trigonous. Vakambi. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. Thailand (Siam). inciso-serrate. dyspepsia. G. Ceylon. Kumbhi. Konkan and W. CHAR.—globose. common in S. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. bronchitis. Balloon vine.—capsule. leucoderma. very acute apex. and is administered in fevers. The plant contains saponin.

"Tridosh". ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. Fruit—stomachic. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. FAM. G. LOC. Kusumbo. :—Grown extensively in Poona. G. aphrodisiac. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion.—Caricaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. made into curries. H. Papaya. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. of W. relieves obesity. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. DISTR. K. enlargement of spleen. Popayi. . Papaya. FAM. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. hypnotic. expectorant. Leaves—hot. Safflower. cure urinary discharges. removes biliousness . :—E. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. seeds and oil. M. carminative. appetiser . Karrak. digestive. Papita. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. LOC. cures insanity (Ayurveda). cures inflammation. Indies. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. fruit and seeds. NS. Flower—tonic to liver. Seeds—oleaginous.—Compositæ. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). useful in expulsion of lumbrici. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. it is used to procure abortion. cause biliousness. bronchitis. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. White thin latex contains Papain. cures inflammations. piles. bleeding piles. See—Fruit Trees. appetiser. cooling. M. Oil—indigestible. Sk. in haemoptysis. Ahmednagar and Nasik. "Kapha". Papaw. Kardai. Pangi. cure "Vata". good for eyes. scabies. DISTR. Agnishikha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. leucoderma. :—Native throughout India. leprosy. COM. K. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Dyer's saffron. Papaya. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Karada. ringworm. H. removes urinary concretions . Papayi. used. flowers.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). depilatory. aphrodisiac. Nalikadala. bile. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :— E. Chibda. heating. laxative. Kusumba. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Mexico and Brazil. diuretic. Kusumbha. Barre. Kusumba. diuretic. diuretic. Kamalottama. causes burning sensation . strangury. astringent to bowels. Pappayi. unripe fruit. LOC. wounds of urinary track. Kusumba. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Guppe. NS. Chirbhita. Sk.

K. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. leaflets 10-12 pairs. See—Vegetables. carminative. FAM. LOC. DISTR. enlargement of spleen. spleen. M. downy beneath. cure catarrh. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Iran. appetiser. good for old people. purgative. atonic dyspepsia. :—E. diuretic. See—Condiments and Spices. Ajamoda. NS. Dodda sagate. emmenagogue and sedative. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. Omu . pinnate. tonic and carminative properties. myrabolans and rock salt. Dadamardana. Dadmardan. vomiting. COM.—Umbelliferæ. Europe. good in weakness of limbs. Bishops' weed . Elgra. chest and throat pains. Oil—good in all diseases. piles. and even in cholera. stimulant. G. Ajamo . USES :—Flowers are stimulant. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. Dyes. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. carminative. aphrodisiac . aphrodisiac. Dadrughna. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. Ajwain. paralysis. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. CASSIA ALATA Linn. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. Dipyaka. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Oils. rachis . liver. Ajowan. good for heart and tooth-ache. Seeds—purgative. long. NS :— E. K. bitter. stimulate intestines. Datka pat. L. LOC. carminative. Baluchistan. chest pains. and diarrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. kidney troubles. Simyatase. mucronate. The seeds bitter and hot. Winged senna. Sk. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . H. :—Cultivated extensively in India. vomiting. H. Oma. Owa. FAM. inflammation (Yunani). Egypt. hiccup.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). cure ascites. Ringworm shrub. improve speech and eyesight. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. abdominal tumours. Sk. oblong-obtuse. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. Dwipagasti. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). Leaves contain vitamin A. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. subsessile. They are administered in flatulence. pungent. CHAR. bechic. oblique at the base. 30-60 cm. Tivragandha. Afghanistan. enrich blood. abdominal pain. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. laxative. stomachic. dyspepsia. COM. give lustre to eyes. tonic. strengthening. they are used in jaundice . good for ear boils.

Gujarat and S. thirst. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. DISTR. Pitakilaka. ringworm. obliquely septate. useful in thirst. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. Burma. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. pale beneath. 28-4-88). Fl.—pod. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers.—bright yellow with darker veins.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Tarwad. LOC. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. urinary discharges . long. fruits and seeds. reddish brown. buds in yellow bracts.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Sakusina. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). dull green above.-July. skin-diseases.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. G. mucronate. bark smooth. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. . Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. across. Bark has the same properties. and throat troubles. :—E. Country. Mayahari. Avarike. flowers. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely).—pod long. Mukerji). N. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. " In eczema. alexipharmic . asthma . asthma. oblong-obovate. Tarwad.. straight. itching. rachis densely pubescent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric.-Oct. Tanner's cassia. M. HABITAT :—Planted. causes flatulence . yellow with orange veins. Tangadi. Fr. skin diseases. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. leaflets 8-12 pairs. pedunculate racemes . rhombohedral. good for ulcers. anthelmintic. along the sea coast in laterite region. NS. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. C.—30-35. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. diabetes. :—Introduced into India. Fr. leaves.—Jany.6 cm. H. LOC. Sd. reniform. membranous. stipules very large. 10-20 X 1.. Awal. Fl.5 X 10 cm. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . 5 cm. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. cough. The whole plant. M. very likely a native of the W. useful in vomiting. L.—large. leprosy. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. rotundate. cm. Ahmed. Sd.-50 or more. Peninsula. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes.—in spiciform. t. vermicide (Ayurveda).. Sk. Ph. DISTR. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda).3-1. Avartki. LOC. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). 20-25. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. LOC. Taroda. Charmaranga. CHAR.) COM. cures tumours. Fl. Madhya Pradesh and W. Ceylon. Fl. J. USES:—Bark is considered astringent.—7. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. cure " Vata ". slightly overlapping. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. K. nocturnal emissions. t. Indies.

carminative. smooth. Flowers—improve taste. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. K. Hema-puspha. Pudding-pipe or stick. Flowers—purgative. Tans. Indian laburnum. griping. LOC. Arimarda.) COM. In Konkan. Arogyashimbi. cause flatulence. LOC. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. transversely septate. Chimkani. Seeds— oily. Rankasvinda. base somewhat oblique. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. . Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. Stinking weed. See—Dyes. Negro coffee. L. leprosy. Fl. long.5 cm. cure " Kapha ". Aragina. biliousness . useful in chest and liver complaints. G. Dodda-tagase. t. Fr. H. tuberculous glands.) COM. FAM. cooling. also planted. used in rheumatism. Kasari. Kasonda. G. branches furrowed. Ornamental Plants. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. M. Fl. Chakinda. Ane sogate. fruit and seeds. Leaves lessen inflammation. ovate-lanceolate. Golden shower. laxative. :—E. apex acute. Kacodari. safe for children and pregnant women. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. It is a mild laxative. CASSIA FISTULA Linn.—petals 5. astringent. Konde. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Balla. Kasoda. Kasondi. Garmala. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. hard. improve appetite. DISTR. distinctly torulose. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. C.—very foetid when bruised. Ceylon. purgative. CHAR. Sk. K. syphilis. juice given in erysipelas. Fruit—digestible. faintly veined with orange . :—E. often purplish. Rechana. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. flowers.— Jany-March. eye-diseases. Burma. heal ulcers . rheumatism. corymbose. Sk. recurved. Kasundari. NS. throat-troubles. Leaves—anti-periodic .— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. long. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Vyadivata. NS. Suvarnaka. abortifacient.. antipyretic. (Ayurveda). demulcent. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit—antipyretic. Bahava. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. cooling. Kasmarda. yellow. M. See—Timbers. :—Throughout India. purgative. cures burning sensation. and Famine Plants.—in few flowered racemes. Amaltas. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. lessens inflammation and body-heat. H. FAM. Rajataru. 15-20 cm.—20-30. shining dark olive-green. leaflets 3-5 pairs. 10—12. Sd.—pods. Kakka. leaves. Bandartauri.

USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. Sk. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. mixed with honey. Ran tankala. in Kutch. Fl. are given in diabetes. heals wounds.—pod. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Sd. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. long .Jany. leaflets 6-10 pairs. annual or perennial. LOC. Leaves—aphrodisiac.—in axillary. high. ovate. FAM. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. PARTS USED :—Root. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places.. Kasamarda. LOC. t. stomachic. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. septate between the seeds . See—Famine Plants. cough. cures ascites. LOC. leaves and seeds. CHAR. petals 5. leaves and seeds. In many countries root is considered diuretic. yellow. The bark. LOC. opposite. alexiteric. few flowered corymbose racemes. Kasondi. K. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . :—G. .—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). fevers. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. tonic and febrifuge. C. rachis grooved . the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis.—30-40 broadly ovoid. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. Talapota. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. hiccup. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them.4-3 m.— Nov. :—A shrub 2. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. with a solitary conical gland near the base . base rounded. Banar. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. " Vata ". PARTS USED :—Bark. slightly recurved. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). NS.. Fl. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. DISTR. Seeds used in heat of the blood. cure " Kapha". lanceolate. DISTR. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. obtuse. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. Kasundari. See—Famine Plants. elephantiasis. Baskikasondi. The plant contains glucoside emodin. leaves.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. Kasamarda.—18-23 cm. COM. Fr. M. 7. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. dark brown . H.510 cm. asthma. and seeds are cathartic. L. turgid. At Kotra. " tridosha " .

Fr.—Celastraceæ. hot. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. 1-6 completely covered with red. bitter. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. G. aphrodisiac. Kangli.8-7. Sd. usually unisexual. C. L.5 cm. shining above. Chagoche. COM. Foetid cassia. stem upto 23 cm. Tagache. opposite (lowest smaller). In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. PARTS USED :— Root. Sk. t. long. :—Large deciduous climber. Dadrughna. H. emetic.5 mm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. M. alternate. crenate. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. reddish brown. high. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. capsule.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . 12. Velo . obliquely septate. . FAM. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Fl. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Tarota. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Svarnalata. Fl. :—An annual foetid herb. K.. Sk. powerful brain tonic. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Sd. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). L. fleshy arillus. 18 m. upper petal 2-lobed . unarmed. Burma. Pamad. Malkakni. Seeds—bitter. Malkamni. rachis grooved. Climbing-staff plant. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. in diam. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". Malkangoni. :—E. NS. Kanguni. CHAR. bright yellow. Dadamari. Takala. 7. Fr. Black-oil tree. ovate or obovate. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. globose. laxative. Taga. Intellect tree. Malhangana.3-10 X 3. H. obovate. Madras State. expectorant. in drooping panicles. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd.5-10 cm. 6.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Kangodi. high. Chakunda.— petals 5. cause burning sensation.—pinnate.) COM. Kangani. Taragosi. 30-90 cm. Jyotishmati. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. appetiser.. DISTR. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething..5-20 cm.—pod. Sphutabandhani. DISTR. FAM. brain and liver tonic. M. cure joint-pains. K. LOC. leaflets 3 pairs. covered with lenticels. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. small yellowish-green. much curved when young. Panevar. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. X 4. oblong. Chakramarda.—after the rains. Seeds— acrid. Ceylon. :—A very common weed all over the State. base oblique. CHAR. leaves and seeds. pale yellow. branches rough.

—capsule.). long. stem creeping with long internodes. COM. and is employed for external application. tonic. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Brahmi. :—G. Barmi. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. FAM. :— E. CHAR. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. NS. Vallari . Jhinkun-kariatum. base deeply cordate stipulate. M. used in leprosy. linear-oblong. CHAR. Don. especially in Bengal. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. H. Country. M. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin.—tubular lobes 5. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Fl.—Feb. FAM. paralysis and leprosy. Vondelaga. G. cauline smaller. minute. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. pink. persistent. reniform. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). Fr. hard-rugose. Fl. Deccan and S. t.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. pink. Fl. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. spreading star-like .—Umbelliferæ. rooting at the nodes. Mahaushadhi. orbicular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. :—Konkan. :—A slender herbaceous plant. Jangli-karayatu. cloves.-Apl.—Gentianaceæ. radical leaves revolute. Fr. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. L.). they are also sudorific. Sk. ovoid. Brahmamanduki. Fl.—3 from each node. Mandukparni.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness.—in fascicled umbels. LOC. elliptic. narrowly oblong . obovate or oblong. NS. COM. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Seeds are hot. . aphrodisiac and stimulant. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn.—opposite.—4 mm.—May-Nov. Lahanchirayat. LOC. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. t. Ekpani. H. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. high. Oil stomachic. M. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. L. DISTR. K. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. Brahmamanduki. gout. good for cough and asthma. :—Throughout India. C.

. abundant on the Malabar Coast. and a bitter substance odollin. ointment. water courses throughout the State.) DISTR. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Plant—bitter. tonic. sedative to nerves. headache . Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. asthma. bechic. fevers. LOC. spleen enlargement. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. bronchitis. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. Chanda. antipyretic. LOC. inflammations. diuretic. improves appetite (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Bark is purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. Leaves are also diuretic. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. Honde. milky juice. cooling. :—K. biliousness. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. twigs. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. Malay Archipelago. asthma. blood diseases. anæmia. Tande. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. M. alexiteric. bronchitis. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. :—South Konkan and N. China. fruit. thirst. PARTS USED :—Bark. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. memory. plaster or bath are used. voice. stomachic. Australia Pacific Islands. alterative. cures leucoderma. FAM. " Kapha ". PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Apocynaceæ. improves appetite. For external use powder. digestible. urinary discharges. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . NS. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. See—Timbers. cures hiccup. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. :—In moist situations (streams. cardio-tonic. tonic. clears voice and brain. used in insanity (Ayurveda). nut is narcotic and poisonous . USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. carminative. Leaf-powder. Kanara. COM. laxative. DISTR. soporific. Sukanu. nallas. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. scalding of urine. bitter. leaves and seeds). In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. :—Throughout India near the coast. small-pox.

LOC. urinary concretions.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. Chalmeri. useful in thirst. H. M. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Chillika. :—Cultivated in India. LOC. Chana. DISTR. M. root and the seed are cathartic. NS. Rayara nelli. eye-diseases.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Deccan and S. NS. But. biliousness. Lavali. heart. LOC. acrid. piles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. biliousness. Sk. Country. fragrant. See—Fruit Trees. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. sour . abdominal pains. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). FAM. :—Very common in the Deccan. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. :—Widely distributed. vomiting. :— E. Harparauri K. FAM . Bathusag. Agralohita. Rai-avala.. piles . Kanchuki. tonic. Chick pea. "Vata". Goose-foot. diuretic. also cultivated as a pot herb. anthelmintic. Pandu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. fruit and seeds. throattroubles. USES :— Root is purgative. LOC. Balabhojya. spleen (Ayurveda). useful in biliousness. Chania. :—E. Harparrevdi. Fruit is very sour . diseases of blood. H. The plant yields an essential oil. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. useful in bronchitis. NS. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Sk. oleaginous. Vajibhakshya. LOC. Country gooseberry. Chana. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. K. Ksharadala.—Euphorbiaceæ.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Chunna. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. COM. Chanaka. Harbara. Chakwat. Cheel. Chandanbedu. G. H.—Chenopodiaceæ. constipation. Kadale. "Kapha". Tanko. laxative. tonic to liver. Kari-Kempukadale. DISTR. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Skandhaphala. G. K. Laveni. :—E. COM. M. Bengal—Common-gram. Chakravarti. Chakravati. Sk. improves appetite. Wild-spinach. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. aphrodisiac. .

Seed—stimulant. enriches blood. It checks nausea and vomiting. expectorant. piles. Peninsula. cures skin diseases. Leaves contain vitamin A. useful in " Vata ". causes flatulence. Sk. foul mouth and fever. etc. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. aphrodisiac. Oil—carminative. anthelmintic . Dalchini. M. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. Seed—indigestible. refrigerant. diarrhœa. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. flatulence. throat troubles. Dalchini. FAM. useful in cold.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. diarrhœa and dysentery. indigestion. strengthens liver. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. useful in loss of appetite. blood troubles. COM. alexiteric. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). Bark—tonic. aphrodisiac. Burma. :— Bark and oil. Gudatwaka. aphrodisiac. cold in head. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. liver-tonic . appetiser. PARTS USED. useful in inflammations. bronchitis. headache. vomiting. tonic to hair. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Ceylon. vomiting. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. DISTR. heated brain. PARTS USED :—Leaves. abdominal pains. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. H. heart. chest complaints. Malay Peninsula. Dalchini. toothache (Ayurveda). tonic . Oils. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. See—Condiments and Spices. NS. LOC. toothache. . hiccup. Darchini. tonic. abortifacient. carminative. thirst. improve taste and appetite. :—W. cure bronchitis. LOC. seed and acid exudation. emmenagogue. bronchitis (Yunani). flatulence.—Lauraceæ. Dalchini. LOC. Valkala. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. K. carminative. useful in hydrocele. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. :—G. leprosy. throat troubles. Duk. Lavange-hakke. biliousness. Kanara district. anthelmintic. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. Leaves—purgative. Oil—styptic. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. It possesses carminative. cures thirst and burning. causes salivation. pungent. very common in the N. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Nisane. headache. See—Food Plants. aphrodisiac. rectum and urinary diseases. itching. indigenous and cultivated. pains . biliousness. useful in bronchitis. parched mouth. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). anthelmintic. Kash. astringent to bowels . tonic. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. causes flatulence.

H. smooth. minute. stem thick. itching . Annual Report. Indrayan. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. removes pain.—Nov. CHAR. Nirbisi. i. M. 5-nerved. uterine complaints. H. 1949). asthma . compressed. Sk. Indrayana. Paharmul. Velvet-leaf. Sk. sub-globose. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. HABITAT. E. Uthika. :—In hills.8-10 cm.e. alleviates vomiting. skin eruptions. :—E. 7. L. orbicular or reniform. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. (Ind. solitary. which possibly has a cholinergic action. subglobose.. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. long. Patha. fever. Tumtikayi. axillary racemes . Makal. DISTR. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. or twin. M. Indraphal. t. flesh juicy..—July-Sept. LOC. young shoots woolly. greenish outside. 3. Pavamekke Kayi. CHAR. red. cordate at the base. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . Mahendravaruni. L.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. FAM. R.—A climbing shrub. Chitraphala. peltate. heart troubles.5-20 cm. burning. also for prolapsus uteri. drupe. lobes obovateoblong. Asso. Sd. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. removes intestinal worms. diam. male flowers in axillary cymes.— usually margined. 5-partite. Pahadvel. leaves. subcampanulate. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. yellowish. Indruk. K. FL t. red or yellowish white. LOC. Ghorumba. margins ciliate. PARTS USED :—Root. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". The active constituent of the drug. Indrayan. angular . NS. :—Deccan. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). G. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. diam. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. greenish. dysentery. Fr. monœcious. Africa and America. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. tendrils bifid. hairy. Fl. upto 25 cm. helps parturition.—large. :— E. Kanara.—Cucurbitaceæ. F. Venivalli. G. Kaduvrindavan. waxy coated. has been isolated. Fl. Fr. C. mucronate. solitary. useful in hemicrania. in conjunction with aromatics. diarrhœa. Fl. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. :—An extensively climbing annual. Katurasa. piles. branches more or less pubescent. yellow within. Venivel.-Jany. COM. Colocynth. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. female flowers in elongate. . formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. dropsy and cough.—Menispermaceæ. warm parts of Asia. Trapusi. COM. an alkaloid. Bitter apple. NS. somewhat hairy.

removes biliousness. good in fevers. enlargement of spleen. :—Konkan. pain in joints. ascites.—Rutaceæ. (Poona. tuberculous glands of neck. relieves colds. ulcers. Deccan. LOC. Santra. constipation. G. dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. Doddile. Asia. DISTR. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. anthelmintic . W. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. laxative. LOC. M. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. bronchitis. In the Konkan fruit and root. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). Naringi. relieves vomiting and retching. Gujarat. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. jaundice. :—Widely cultivated in India. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Root and fruit cooling. Cardiotonic. and lumbago. carminative. elephantiasis . good in vomiting and skin diseases. aphrodisiac . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. K. LOC. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). purgative. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. useful in piles. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. N. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. Rind— anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. epilepsy. tonic. constipation. DISTR. Naringa. Kittale. Sunthura. Narangi. anthelmintic. Tvakasugandha. LOC. Nagaranga. cures tumours. urinary discharges. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). diuretic. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). removes fatigue . asthma. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). with or without nux-vomica. useful in biliousness. Sukkare-kanji. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. sweet and has agreeable flavour. Narange. cooling. " Kapha". throat diseases. chest troubles. leuco-derma. astringent. Fruit—sour. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. anæmia. antipyretic. Narenj. FAM. removes " Vata ". fever and worms. Ceylon. bowel complaints. sea-shores. Also indigenous in Arabia. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . H. enlargement of spleen. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. :— E. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . fortifies chest. Sk. aphrodisiac. Kirmirtvaka. tonic. COM. NS. Flower— stimulant.

its preserve is used for dysentery. Harale. Flowers—stimulant. though there are no regular plantations. B and C. used in constipation and tumours. Mahaphala. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. USES. said to be wild in W. Turanj. sharp. increase appetite. VAR. Ghats. hiccup. stimulant. COM. seeds. fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Matalunga. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mahanimbu. Mahalunga. the pulp cold and dry. Bijapurna. astringent to bowels . Thora-limbu. Devamadala. :—Roots. H. According to Theophrastus. Bera nimbu. useful in abdominal complaints. thirst. :—E. G. G. leaves and flowers hot and dry. Bijoru. Bijaura. HABITAT :—Cultivated. oily. . The fruits contain vitamins A. rind of the fruit is bitter. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Madala. Lemon . removes colic. tonic and astringent properties. Sk. bark and fruit. K. Balank. tonic. K. anthelmintic. Mahaphala. Idalimbu. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". M. COM. anasarca and chronic fever. See—Fruit Trees. with a sharp taste. NS. aphrodisiac. Matulunga. intoxication. FAM. DoddaGaja-nimba. asthma. Amlakeshara. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). flowers. cough. digestible. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. LOC. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. LOC. Motalimbu . Jambira. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Adam's apple. dry and tonic . the juice allays ear-ache. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. Limonum. relieve vomiting. heating.—Rutaceæ. Paharinimbu . the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Ruchaka. Citron . Turanj. Matunga. juice refrigerant and astringent. Sk.:—Grown in gardens in the State. LOC. M. flatulence. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Kutla. anæmia. cough. relieves sore-throat. Mavalunga. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Rusaki. PARTS USED :—Root. gastric irritability in general and general debility. H. Seeds—indigestible.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. NS. useful in vomiting. jaundice. :— E. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. :—Citron rind is hot. asthma. also corrects foetid breath. cures leprosy. Fruit—sweet and sour.

hemicrania. COM. Limpaka. whole plant tomentose. loss of appetite. leaves (rarely). it cures and prevents scurvy. plethora. :—G. measles. silky villous. but often found trailing amongst grass. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. H. Lebu. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Nebu. Fl. with flavour. Snuva. appetiser. Sk. Morata. CHAR. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. NS. constipation. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Nimbu.. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Morvel. M. bronchitis . H. Nimbu. burning in the chest. LOC. blades 2-2. long ovate or orbicular. Murva. improves liver. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Churhar. Acida.—achenes. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. also useful in rheumatism. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. vomiting. brain disorders. Nimbe. anthelmintic. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. FAM. Limbe. Sk. white. not good in old age. eyes . Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Kagadi limbu. Nimbuka. Lebu. relieves vomiting . VAR. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. K. Shodhana. fatigue . sepals 4-6. lobes mucronate. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. petioles twinning. Murhari. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Amlasara. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. M.—Sept. Limbu. Morhari. Moravel.—petals O. hairy outside. C. it helps digestion. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. .—simple or once ternate.Nov. Khatalimbu.—Ranunculaceæ. See—Fruit Trees. Rochana. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Madhulika. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Ranjai. G. both as a prophylactic and as a curative.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. stimulant . USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Oil from rind. NS. Fruit—sour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. ovoid. with long feathery tails . USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. COM. Fl. scarletina. heart. :—An extensive climber. sharp taste. relieves biliousness. cures abodominal complaints. t. Devashreni. Dhantiate. Acid-Sour lime . useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Fr. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". where there is dry skin and much thirst.5 cm. throat trouble. stomachic.

Barbara.—Capparidaceæ. :—G. K. Vatari. terminal the largest. Hulhul. H. anthelmintic. hairy. laxative. Sauri. useful in leprosy. petioles of lower leaves longer. Bharang. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. :—Common in grass lands. causes excessive biliousness. oblong-obovate. good in malaria. Nayibela. Juice— cures ear-ache. erect. Brahmani. Leaves—favour digestion. stomachic. L. Talvari.—brownish black. Gantubarangi. and dispel intestinal fermentation. Bharangi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. laxative. Tilparni. Sk. COM.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. HABIT :—A common weed. Fl. t. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. :—G. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. obliquely striate. K. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). FAM. tapering towards both ends . Kanphutia. transversely striate. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Sd. Ghats. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. mixed with oil. high. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. astringent. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. stimulant. . Kiritekki. bitter taste and a strong odour. and fevers. Tilwan. leaflets elliptic-oblong.—petals 4. Fr. externally applied to boils. gradually becoming shorter upwards.—axillary. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. hot. Sk. dryness and urethral discharges. bitter. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. C. Kasaghni. FAM. 30-90 cm. LOC. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. very common in the Deccan. in lax racemes. subglobose. LOC. stems grooved and glandular. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard.—3-5 foliate. DISTR. Bharangi. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. hairy. COM. :—Annual erect herb. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers.—capsule. used internally in thirst. :—W. M. Phanjika. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. removes " Kapha". Fl. H. Jangali-harhar. diuretic. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). NS. yellow. Adityabhakta. Karnasphota. DISTR. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Konkan. Tinmani. CHAR. blood diseases. M. cooling. stimulates secretion of bile.—Verbenaceæ. veined. LOC. reduces tumours and inflammations .—Sept-June. NS. Bharangi. Harhuria. Kanphodi.

H. "Vata". with an orange centre..—much exerted. anthelmintic. good for eye-diseases. There are two varieties :—white flowered. HABITAT :—In hedges. tubercular glands. LOC. solitary. Kalina. t— June-Jany. beaked. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. fevers. Wowatheti. inflammations.—many. diuretic. Sk. Gokarni. L. Aparajita.— drupe.5-15 X 5. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry.—axillary. hairy. epilepsy. Garani.—6-10 yellowish brown. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR.—pale blue. The plant contains an alkaloid.7-6. blood diseases. Vishnukranta. leaflets 5-7.9-2. DISTR. :—G. FAM.-Oct.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. pains. elephantiasis.. Ceylon. the larger lower lobe dark purple. t. lower one deflexed. Girikarnika. laxative. ulcers (Ayurveda). useful in inflammation. elliptic oblong. in lax dichotomous cymes. inflammations. high. stomachic. C. L. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. leucoderma. fevers (Yunani). Gokarnika. also found throughout the State. standard bright blue or white. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. 3. stems bluntly quadrangular. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. obovoid. burning sensation. tuberculous glands. Fl. bronchitis. 12.:—More or less throughout India. asthma. tumours. and blue flowered. Girikarniballi. tube hairy within. fleshy. leaves and seeds. Root increases appetite. Fl. collectively forming a terminal panicle. Kajli. LOC. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . ulcers of the cornea... stems terete. NS. wounds (Ayurveda). :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. showy. Koyala. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. Fl.—ternately whorled. 4 lobes flat. anthelmintic. headache. Fl.5 X 2-3. tonic to the brain. smooth.2 cm. Fr. Malay Peninsula. leaves and seeds. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. lessens expectoration.—Shrub. CHAR.— Aug. alexiteric. acrid. M. 0. ozœna. :—A perennial twining herb. useful in bronchitis. C. PARTS USED :—Root.2 m. consumption. useful in ascites (Yunani). black. Fr. biliousness. heating. nearly straight. Kowa. 2-2. asthma. sometimes opposite. DISTR. sharply serrate.—imparipinnate. Root is purgative and diuretic. cures "Tridosha". burning sensation. hiccup. pubescent. long . Sd. flat.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. Aparajita. COM.3 cm. oblong or elliptic.8-5 cm. . spreading.

Vasantitikta. Tundika. Dirghvalli. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Sk. LOC. Glum. . The fruit contains vitamins A and C. COM. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. useful in ascites and fevers. Fruit— indigestible. Tana. Leaves—acrid. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds are purgative and aperient. leaves. astringent to bowels. Hunder. Deccan. NS. Vevati. USES:—In the Konkan. Vasandi. Root bark. given for uterine discharges. Kanduri. Galedu. See—Vegetables. M. Broom-creeper.) FAM. NS. M. & A. Malaya. asthma. DISTR :—Throughout India. Konkan. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Gujarat. burning of hands and feet. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. cures leprosy. Ghobe. flowers. Bimb. Chireta. :—G. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Oshthi. Ceylon. Vevdi. diseases of blood. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. Jamtikibel. a hormone and an alkaloid. H.:—Cultivated in gardens. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Bimbi. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). COM. S. tropical Africa. Flowers cure itching. allays thirst. fruit. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. " Vata". Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. wild in hedges. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. M. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. aphrodisiac.—E. dried and powdered. Fruit is aphrodisiac. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. stops vomiting. antipyretic . The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Garudi. Faridburti. Sk. biliousness.—Cucurbitaceæ. and jaundice.:—Root cooling. consumption. Tundi.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Parvel. The plant contains an enzyme. FAM. Tondeballi. LOC. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Bimbika. cause flatulence. K. Ink-berry. Bimba. Vasanvel. urinary losses. Kambhoja.—Menispermaceæ. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. COCCINIA INDICA W. Tondali. Country. K. H. G. galactagogue.

causes "Kapha". laxative. Mad. Cocoanut palm. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. K.—dioecious. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. flowers. Toyagarbha. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. urinary discharges. burning sensation. seed. LOC. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". COM.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Leaf-juice.8-6. lessens bile and burning sensation. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . bronchitis. LOC. also in many places in the interior. lessens thirst.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans.—Dec.. NS. female in axillary clusters. Common in Konkan and N. appetiser. dysentery. Kanara. Narial.—drupe. oleaginous. Flower-cooling . USES :—A decoction of fresh root. bark. mixed with water. fattening. G. S. India and Ceylon. size of a small pea. "Kapha" and "Vata".—Palmæ. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. It is also used as a refrigerant. useful in biliousness. .3 X 1. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. it is heating. keeled. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. 2-8 together. enriches blood. aphrodisiac. 3-5 nerved. PARTS USED :—Root. Nalivar. aphrodisiac.8 cm. useful in diabetes. fattening. constipation. Gujarat. Milk—cooling. India. Sk.3-3. Pegu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR.:— A straggling scandent shrub. and put on to sore-eyelids. Fl. rugose . subdeltoid or subhastate. In the Konkan. indigestible. male in small axillary cymose panicles. biliousness. useful in leprosy. M. Naral. t. smells sweetish and pungent. LOC. with a few heads of pepper. L. FAM. DISTR. Fr. laxative. Tenginmara. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. tuberculosis. Narikel. HABITAT :—In hedges. tonic. villous . good in fractures. aphrodisiac. fermented juice. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. tonic. H. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. thirst. Arabia. Tengu. DISTR. laxative and sudorific.—3. tumours. Konkan. China. ovate. ovate-oblong. oil. Fl. which is taken internally with sugar. alexipharmic . :—E. Mangalya. tropical Africa. blood diseases. Mahaphala. it is used for coughs. cardiotonic.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. Jataphala. Deccan. S. as a cure for gonorrhœa. Antipyretic. Seed-cooling. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. young parts densely Villous. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. Nariyal.

Japan. India. diuretic. :—A tall leafy grass. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Polynesia. See—Fruit Trees. tonic. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). asthma. S.—10-15 x 2. abundant in standing water. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. piles . milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. liver complaints. FAM. G. paralysis. diuretic . consumption.5-5 cm. fermented juice is intoxicating. Madhya Bharat. smooth.3 cm. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Fl. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. Gojivha. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. NS. M.—Oct. rooting at the lower nodes. Fl. stem 90-150 cm. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. H. enriches blood.6-10 mm. :—E.5-6. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. DISTR. Bengal. high or more. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. internodes smooth. Ran-jondhala. Fr. base cordate. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. incipient phthisis and cachexia. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. above the bract stout. useful in fever. Assam. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. Oil—indigestible. Oil—sweet. Sk. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . :—Himalayas.—Gramineæ COM. LOC. Jargadi. It is also used for burns. Madhya Pradesh. increases body weight. L. It is refreshing and laxative. sheaths long. Rajputana. long. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. LOC. midrib stout. rachis within the bract slender. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. useful in urinary complaints. Fibres. B and C. Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. useful in lumbar-pain. piles and scabies (Yunani. LOC. Kasai. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. Oils. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). America. Dabha. it also purifies blood. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. lessens inflammations . long. ulcers (Ayurveda). Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. it promotes growth of hair.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins.—broadly ovoid to globose. Job's tears. smooth. polished. spinously serrate margins. HABITAT :—Gregarious. bluish grey. t. tropical Asia-Africa.—monœcious racemes 2. 6. fattening. China. Gurlu .. Gavedhu. polished. notched at the nodes .72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. promotes hairgrowth. CHAR. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). stout.

Sk. stomachic. Kalasaka. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. It is also used as a bitter tonic.2 cm. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. Challa.— capsule. M. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. and intestinal antiseptic. Mannadike. Gujarat. acute or acuminate.—petals 4-5. Gondan.— Sept. Fl. Chaunchan . FAM. Rayagundo. Patta. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. COM. :—E.:—E. See—Fodder Plants. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. LOC. Jute . lanceolate. See—Fibres. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. t.—Tiliaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . Bhokar. Lassora. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Sd. leaves and fruit. fever. cultivated in most tropical countries. Hadige. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. carminative. NS. C. The plant contains leucin. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. .5-10 X 2-3. Col. laxative. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Pistan. anthelmintic. arginine and coicin. also as antiperiodic. growing very tall under cultivation. In jutegrowing districts. G. M. histidin. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin.—in short cymes. PARTS USED :—Root. Bhokar. G. 12 mm. tyrosin. Bhuselu. subglobose. Resalla. Fl. and dyspepsia. NS. serrate. Chhunchh . COM. :—Konkan. yellow. Sk. Fr. smooth. L. :—An annual herb. Sebesten plum. buds obovoid. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. DISTR. K. astringent. 5-valved. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. ridged and muricated. also efficacious in skin-diseases. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. wedgeshaped. Bhukerbudara. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd.—Boraginaceæ.—7. brown. H. not beaked. CHAR. lysin. Bargund. PROPERTIES AND LOC. diam. FAM.—few in each cell.

good in spleen diseases (Yunani). often planted. Sk. M. Bark is used as a mild tonic. vomiting. aphrodisiac. Satpudas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. LOC. prevents coryza and bronchitis. removes bad humours. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. COM. purgative. Fruits are used as spice. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. chronic fevers. bleeding gums. anthelmintic. biliousness. Coriander. Ceylon. thirst. stimulant. Kanara. widely known from Palestine. . uterus and urethra. wild and cultivated.—Umbelliferæ. Syria. Kothambri. The plant and fruit— acrid. stimulant. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Konphir. Leaves—hypnotic. Kothamir. NS. indigestion. bronchitis. FAM. used as an expectorant and astringent. stomachic. burning of throat. Dharika. dyspepsia.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. cooling. vulnerary. also cultivated. useful in hiccup. carminative and antispasmodic. maturant. Egypt. jaundice. tropical Australia. anthelmintic. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. gleet. LOC. diseases of chest and urethra. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). eye-pains. :—Throughout India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. DISTR. expectorant. See—Timbers. Seeds—aphrodisiac. pains in joints.:—E. highly esteemed in coughs. stomatitis. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. H. used in syphilis. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. DISTR. piles. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). cures thirst.:—Throughout the State in W. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. inflammations. headache. heart and liver. causes suppuration. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. biliousness. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). laxative. scabies. LOC. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. anthelmintic. Kustumburi. analgesic. tuberculous glands. used in dry cough. Kothimbir. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. tooth-ache. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. Ghats. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. gives appetite. bechic. Dhania. Fruit is aromatic. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. G. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. leaves (rarely) and fruit. K. Fruit—diuretic. Vitunnaka. antipyretic. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Mesapotamia and Greece. Cochin-China. Fibres. Hivija. Allaka. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. :—Cultivated throughout India. biliousness. diseases of chest. tonic to brain.

5 cm. Pushkarmula. Nervele. red. Khandala. high. spirally arranged. :—G. M. Sk. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. useful in catarrhal fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children.—15-30 X 5. Pushkarmula. Ajapa. :—More or less throughout India. Var.7 m. DISTR. anæmia.— in very dense spikes. crisped. FAM. LOC. also planted near Muslim tombs. Pakarmula. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. FAM. lumbago. H. Hadawarna. S. Madhya Bharat. bracts ovate. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. LOC. Kemuka. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. H. Keu.—Capparidaceæ. disk with a tuft of hair at the base.—Aug. Bilpatri. Shura. CHAR. t. Var. Karikuttu. hiccup (Ayurveda). C. NS. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests.2-2. Chikke. Bitusi. in moist and shady places. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . . nalas. China. Varuna. Pinga. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. NS. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. See—Condiments and Spices. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. M. and aphrodisiac. Fl. It is also astringent and digestive. lobes ovate-oblong. The plant yields an essential oil. Sd. :—An erect plant 1. concave. depurative. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. M. Barna. Varvunna. coughs and skin diseases. Changalkashta. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. lip white with yellow centre. India. a tonic is prepared from it. Mahakapittha. Vayavarna. silky-pubescent beneath. Varno.— tube short.-Oct. rheumatism. subequal. K.— black with white aril. dyspepsia. oblong.:—Konkan ghats. Kust. many. Varuna. root-stock tuberous. Ceylon. PARTS USED:—Root. Penva. DISTR.—capsule. LOC. stem sub-woody at the base . fever. :—G.—Scitamineæ. and " Vata". Castle Rock. S. useful in bronchitis. COM. globosely 3-gonous. COM.7-7. inflammations. Kashmira. Malay Islands. Fr. Vayavarno. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. subsessile. Sk. mucronate. L. Kushtha. bright red. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Country. sheaths coriaceous . K. " Kapha". Fl. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Kumaraka. Biliana. By the earliest writers.

Kanwal.—20-30. detergent. NS. antipyretic. vesicant. bechic. vomiting. stomachic. Nagadown. it promotes appetite. Sd. lumbago.5 cm. found wild in North and South Konkan. anthelmintic. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. Kanda-shalini. 0. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. lung and spleen diseases. flat. bitter. perianth tube greenish-white. flowers and fruits. Nagdavana. Kanmu. long. "Pitta" and "Kapha". bark. beaked. anthelmintic. USES:—Root is alterative. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). :—A herb with tunicated bulb. useful in biliousness. leaves. act as rubefacient and vesicant. diseases of vagina. chest. Patra-pushpi. vulnerary. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. diam. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet.. strangury. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. scape 45-90 cm. thin. laxative. Visha-Mandalamardini. M. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite.9-1. L. urinary concretions. removes "Vata".—subglobose. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in bronchitis. LOC. Fr. defective vision. fragrant at night. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. leaves. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. good in strangury. digestive. laxative. night-blindness. aphrodisiac. CHAR. Tonic. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). diuretic. also wild.:—G. H. bulb 5-10 cm. white. Chindar. Vishamungalli. expectorant. Bark promotes appetite.—1 (rarely 2).5-18 cm. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism.—Amaryllidaceæ. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). . The plant contains saponin. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. Fl. anuria. chest and blood diseases. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. increases secretion of bile. expectorant. antilithic. Nag-damani. linear lanceolate. laxative. carminative. bracts 7. gonorrhœa. tuberculous glands. bright green. Wild or cultivated.—15-50 in an umbel. linear. FAM. X 12. heating. COM. toothache. as long as the tube. See—Timbers.5-10 cm. DISTR. Ceylon. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). and seeds. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. :—Throughout tropical India.. emmenagogue. Sk. K. then sweet. Seeds—purgative. with a sheathing base. Pindar. Nag-damani. urinary discharges. tumours. cylindric. lobes 6.

Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache.—Euphorbiaceæ. As an application to sprains. COM. near Junnar (Poona Dist). excessive phlegm. nauseant and diaphoretic. Ganasur. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. in small doses. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. naturalised or cultivated. bruises and rheumatic swellings. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. COM. bark. Assam to Malacca. See—Timbers.—Euphorbiaceæ. Burma. M. LOC. :—Bengal. NS. Burma. cathartic. Seeds cause burning sensation. :—E. Oil from the seed is purgative. Jamalgota. etc. Sk. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. Chucka . . inflammations. Western Peninsula. China. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. M. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Sk. Nepal. H. PARTS USED :—Root.. G. K. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. Jepal. Bhutankusam. abdominal diseases. NS. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. FAM. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Danti. emetic. Madhya Pradesh. fever. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Kanara. Konkan. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Malay Islands. DISTR. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). DISTR. Nepala . good in sore eyes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. :—Rare in the State. Jayapala. Purging croton . :—Sylhet. tonic. bronchitis (Ayurveda). The plant contains lycorin. Bengal. useful in mental troubles. leaves and seeds. Ceylon . Nepala. insanity. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. Jamalgota . In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. :—Naturalised in S. it is in great request. Danti. :—H. Oil cathartic. Japala. expectorant. Ceylon. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Ieucoderma. Chota-Natpur. convulsions. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb.

bronchitis. Chibuda. colic. ascites. diuretic. diaphoretic. H. Vrittervaru. Kakni. LOC. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. galactagogue. NS. LOC. DISTR. brain and body.:—E. thirst (Yunani). used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. strengthens heart. Kachra. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. dropsy. gives headache. COM. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. laxative. in ascites and anasarca. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. nutritive and diuretic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Sweet melon . obstinate constipation. urinary discharges. Fruit—tonic. ascites. fattening. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kalangida. cures ophthalmia. DISTR. chronic fever. Kharbuja. Pathira . It is useful in apoplexy. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Sk. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. Shadrekha. cooling. synovitis. NS. :—G. Chibdu Shakarteti. G. Tarkakadi. C. Ripe fruit—sweet. K. wholesome. Valungi. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. M. Kharbuja. fruit and seeds. oily. aphrodisiac. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. laxative. See—Timbers. Rind—vulnerary. Kharbuja. Shantanu. Karkali. biliousness. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. M. insanity. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. They are edible. allays fatigue. Valaka. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Karkati. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. &c. and lock-jaw. may cause indigestion. Mutrala. Seeds—lachrymatory. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Said to be truly wild in India. MELO Var. It is given internally with great caution.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. . Kakri. H. Kakadi. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. :—In Deccan. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. used in liver and kidney troubles. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. diuretic. FAM. convulsions. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. tonic. Lomashi. COM. cures " Vata ". Mahanaracha Rasa. Kankadi. LOC. Melon. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. insanity.—Cucurbitaceæ.

and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. seeds. pale yellow when ripe.:—E. Tavasa. melo var.:—N. fruits. pulp bitter. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). male in clusters. improve complexion. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. :—G. "Kapha" and flatulence. enrich blood. G. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Cucumber. female peduncle longer than male. fatigue. astringent. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—monœcious . NS. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. Takamaki. cures biliousness. lobes obovate.—Cucurbitaceæ. Mrigadani. cooling. Cultivated in all parts of India.—Cucurbitaceæ.— suborbicular. stem slender. Ripe one tonic. hairy. tendrils simple. FAM. Kakari. See—Vegetables. Khira. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. COM. Sudhavsa. fever. NS. lobulate or dentate . B. LOC. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. angled. and C. Vishala. margined . DISTR. cordate at the base. LOC. Karit. Sushitala. They are nutritive. CHAR. . dry. Kothiban. Santekayi. M. Fl. Kumbhakshi. causes "Vata". Yunani). diuretic. LOC. Chitravalli. good for brain and body. Kankdi. allay thirst. H.—June-Sept. used in thirst. strangury. Tansali. K. Seeds possess cooling properties. See-Fruit Trees. Fruit—fattening . L. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. Seed oil used in fever. antipyretic. Khira.—yellow segments elliptic. Trapusha. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. rigid. FAM. Fl. biliousness. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). H. COM. India is considered to be the original home. Kakdi. M. purgative. Sk. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. indigestible. they are also used as diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—white. C. stomachic. Sk. are administered in throat affections. cures thirst. Hislambhi.—subglobose or ellipsoid. roasted and powdered. utilissimus (Ayurveda. Sd. :—A perennial climber. Seeds—diuretic. t.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. stomachic. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. In Malabar. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Tambda bhopala. astringent to bowels . NS. USES. Kaddu. Iran. B and C. Australia. Koron. indigestible. Kashiphala. Pitakushmand. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders.:—Considered to be a native of America. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. etc. . improves taste (Ayurveda). LOC. tonic. on hedges. Melon pumpkin. Kushmand. Sk. :—Cultivated.—Cucurbitaceæ. cultivated in many parts of India. fruits and seeds. Sk. K. FAM . DISTR. Ceylon. G. cures cough. LOC. Bhopala. LOC. Kumbala. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. N. LOC. M. COM. LOC.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Kadimah. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Pumpkin. Red squash gourd. COM. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. : — E. Afghanistan. Kumra. DISTR. carbuncles. Karkarn. unhealthy ulcers. FAM. H. Kumbala. See—Vegetables.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. The plant contains glucoside saponin. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. H. Vegetable marrow. Dangari. increases " Vata" . HABITAT. Punyalata. M. Malaya. allays thirst. :—E. Seeds are used as taeniacide. K. Kushmand. NS. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Dried fruit indigestible . Mithakaddu. Fruit contains vitamins A. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda).—Cucurbitaceæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. :—Throughout the greater part of India. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . increases " Vata ".80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Dudia. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Safedkaddu .

beneficial in consumption. sweet. Jira. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. LOC. allays thirst. Fruit—very cooling. Cures " Vata " tumours. also a lactagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Mushalikand . ft contains vitamins A and C. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). Seeds—diuretic. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). Jirige. throat and eyes. DISTR. :—E. abortifacient. Leaves—digestible. leprosy. thirst. fever. Cumin. G. See—Condiments and Spices. Fruit astringent. purifies blood (Ayurveda). tonic to intestine. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. eye-diseases. cures haemoptysis. FAM. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. stomachic.—Umbelliferæ. astringent to bowels. antidysenteric. good for teeth. H. Fruit yields an essential oil. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. NS. Zira. K. Musali. carminative. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. anthelmintic. heals corneal opacities. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. fruit and seeds. astringent to bowels. carminative. leucoderma. analgesic. LOC. Talamulika. astringent. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. alexipharmic. Kalimusali. Seeds are taeniacide. Jiru. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. . vulnerary. appetiser. Kalimusali. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. Sk. LOC. cure haemoptysis. Neltati gadde. remove biliousness. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. and the root for making these more potent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. cures leprosy. COM. Kapha " and " Vata ". NS. tonic. Dirghaka. scabies. carminative. increases appetite . fattening. H. Girautmi. Gaurajerka. FAM. gonorrhœa. Seeds anthelmintic. Jire. K. Kalimusali. tonic. diuretic and demulcent. COM. M. antipyretic.—Amaryllidaceæ. aphrodisiac. biliousness. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. fever. :—G. Ajjika. See—Vegetables. Dipaka. enlargment of the spleen. cooling. emmenagogue. laxative. belching . relieves hiccup. M. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Neladati. stops epistaxis . Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. fatigue. uterine stimulant. inflammations. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Fruit. asthma. haematinic. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn.

82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. diuretic. " Vata". W. Peninsula. DISTR. root stock large. with a beak . gonorrhœa. stomatitis (Yunani). L. ulcers on penis. :—Stemless herb. expectorant. useful in piles. t. fatigue. oblong. Fl. flowering bract greenish-white. laxative. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. 1545 X 1. Fr. indigestion. Ambahaladara.—Scitamineæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. LOC. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. antipyretic.5-15 X 3. diarrhœa. all skin-diseases. clavate . linear or linear-lanceolate . antipyretic. Mango-ginger.5-12. oblong.8-5 cm. vomiting. biliousness. 30-45x7. cylindric or ellipsoid. alterative and tonic. appetiser. maturant.—sessile or petiolate. shining . bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. :—Konkan and Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Root. L. jaundice. aphrodisiac. often cultivated. Karpuraharidra. useful in bronchitis. Java. Ambehalad. emollient. perianth segments elliptic. NS. FAM. Sk. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. Kapurahaldi.:—W. Fl. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Ambahaldi. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. Kanara. HABITAT :—Often cultivated.— in racemes.3-2. LOC. during convalescence after acute illness. useful in biliousness. tubers thick. DISTR. colic.-Sept. LOC. tonic. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. Fl. scape. pale yellow inside . bitter. causes "Vata". M. :—E.5 cm. aphrodisiac. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . inflammations (Ayurveda). Bengal. fattening. hairy on the back. piles. rhizome. H. Assam. asthma. aphrodisiac. oblong lanceolate. Sd. common at the beginning of rains. K. G.— in autumnal spikes 7. Fl. scabies.— May-June. ophthalmia. antipyretic. gleet. cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. appetiser. :—Konkan and N. t.:—Sweet. gonorrhœa. appetising. blood-diseases (Ayurveda).—long petioled in tufts. lumbago. distichous. Amragandha. Malay Archipelago. diarrhœa. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . tips sometimes rooting. useful in inflammations. lumbago. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers.—grooved. Bitter. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. yellow. hiccup. sessile. C—white or very pale-yellow. Peninsula. debility and impotence. bronchitis.5 cm. Root—carminative. alexiteric. very short. . pains in joints (Yunani). troubles in the mouth and ear.—capsule. hydrophobia. :—Bengal. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. CHAR. gleet. :—A small herb. black. Amhaladi. alterative..

used as an application for skin-diseases. lateral lobes oblong. biennial. Halad. long. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. COM.-May. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. Indian saffron. G. Aranyaharidra. L. palmately branched. Vanhaldara. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. base deltoid. :—Western Peninsula. rounded at the tips. . Vanarishta. G. LOC. :—Stemless herb. Sholika.—Scitamineæ. Cochin-Wild turmeric. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. Sholi. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. H. Ran-halad. C. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. NS. Haridra. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. CURCUMA LONGA Linn.5 cm. green.— flowering stem sheathed. Banhaladi. Arishina. it is seldom used alone . K. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. LOC. annulate. 3lobed. Mangalya. sometimes cultivated. pale green. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. Kapur-kachali. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. variegated above.—tube 2. :—E. Also cultivated in Konkan. t. M. root-stock large. upper half funnel-shaped. FAM. appearing before leafing stem.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Harita. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. sessile. long. appetiser . CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . Fl. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Sometimes cultivated. Turmeric. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. forming pouches for the flowers. CHAR. NS. lobes pale-rose. Bengal. lip yellow.. flowering bracts cymbiform. in spikes 15-30 cm. Halad. DISTR. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. See—Condiments and Spices. Sk. flowers fragrant. It is considered tonic and carminative. Banharidra. Sk. Halada. H. PARTS USED :—Tubers. :—E. Fl. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Jayanti. Varnadatri. also stomachic. DISTR. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Yellow Zedoary.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. M. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. COM.—Scitamineæ. the dorsal longer. FAM.

alexiteric. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. L. G. good for liver affections. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. See—Condiments and Spices. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. bruises (Yunani). :—Stemless herb.:—E. . Fl. useful in " Kapha". alexiteric. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. bitter. bruises. annulate tubers. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. coma-bract crimson or purple . Zedoary. used in prurigo. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. swellings. bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sprains (Ayurveda). Himalayas and Chittagong. "Vata ". urinary discharges. and yields an essential oil. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. flowering bract green tinged with red . Fr. H.—capsule. lobed . taste bitterish spicy. pale-yellow inside. clothed with sheaths. C. heating. vulnerary. anthelmintic.—Scitamineæ. 3-gonous. carminative. LOC. long. K. Kachari. improves complexion. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. In coryza. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . Karechura. It contains vitamin A. leucoderma. Bitter. bronchitis. destroys foulness of breath. said to be Wild in E. deepyellow. laxative. blood diseases. boils and urticaria. Kachuri. internally administered in blood disorders. Shathi. anthelmintic. bruises. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. In small-pox and chicken-pox. appetiser. DISTR. Jatala. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. heating. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. Gandhamulaka sara. Narakachora. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. an alkaloid. fumes are used during hysteric fits . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. piles. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . CHAR. cylindric. The plant contains curcumin. M. fragrant. tonic. itches etc. oblong.—funnel shaped. Kachora. externally applied to leech-bites. boils. asthma. scabies. Hakhir. NS. useful in leucoderma. oblong-lanceolate. flowers yellow in spikes. maturant.— flowering stem 20-25cm. 30-60 cm. jaundice. :—Cultivated in the State. FAM . root-stock of palmately branched. vulnerary. lip 3-lobed. scabies. urinary discharges. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. Sk. clouded with purple down the middle. long. LOC. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. COM. small-pox. antipyretic. Kachora. Tuber is used as a stimulant.—4-6 with long petioles. emollient. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. odour like camphor. appearing before the leaves. inflammations. diuretic. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy.

hot. up to over 1. Bhustrina. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. good odour.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. also used as a tonic and depurative. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. Bitter.:—E. sharp hot taste. appetiser. furunculosis. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. glaucous green. L. sprains. nodding.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. Gavati-chaha.. epileptic fits. PARTS USED :—Leaves. midrib whitish on the upper side. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. Gandhatrina. alexipharmic. leprosy.—linear tapering upwards to a point. and is of great value in cholera. It is also aromatic. sheaths of the culm tight. tuberculous glands of neck. Lilicha. expectorant. alexipharmic. COM. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. LOC. K. tonic to brain and heart. gastric irritability. chronic rheumatism. it is stimulant. LOC. erect. It is an excellent stomachic to children. culm stout. neuralgia. others narrow and separating. . throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. Takratrina. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. useful in bronchitis. Majjige hullu. upto over 90 cm. laxative. Putigandha. inflammations. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. LOC. toothache (Yunani). DISTR. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. it is also a good application for ringworm. enlargement of spleen. anthelmintic. Tubers yield an essential oil. long. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. long. G. aphrodisiac.—Gramineæ. and other painful affections. Sk.8 m. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. pains. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. velvety at the nodes. Ligule very short. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. sheaths terete . CHAR. :—A tall perennial. laxative. probably of Indian origin. useful in griping of children. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. applied to bruises and sprains. stimulant and carminative. Lemon grass. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). of much use in typhoid fevers. emetic. NS. high. emmenagogue. Purhati hullu. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. sharp. Externally it is rubefacient. H. carminative. M. carminative. FAM.

soft. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. narrowly linear. Saugandhika. Bhutika. Harali.—spikes 2-nate. Deccan.—Gramineæ. Country. throat troubles. Konkan. Dhro.—throughout the year. high. NS. upto 2. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). widely creeping. Kobbar. high. prostrate . Durba. useful in fevers. Bahuvirya. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Shatagranthi.4 m. most warm countries. S.. X 1 cm. sheaths tight. Fl.—Oct. Shatamula. Burma. 1 mm. Gharo. Rhusghas. heart diseases. t. bronchitis. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. slender. vomiting. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. Mangala. Baluchistan. bitter. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. H. Sk. long. Fl. DISTR.:—Grows all over the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. NS. LOC. FAM.—grain. straw coloured. M. cooling. M. and Ceylon ascending to 3. CHAR. :—Cosmopolitan . usually broad.5-30 cm. CHAR.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2.—Gramineæ. stem. Sind. Roshagavat. leafy.—flat. Garikehallu. :—A perennial grass . margins scabrid. bad taste in the mouth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. L. with erect flowering branches 7. green or purplish. finely acute. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. hallucinations. M. Africa to Morocco. thirst. Bujina.5-5 cm.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. through N. scabies. glaucous beneath. H. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. :—Sourashtra. in the Himalayas. W. Roshdo.3 cm. throughout India. Shyamaka.000 m. particularly the Deccan trap areas. FAM.—2-10 cm. Durva. Gujarat. skin . The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. Afghanistan. pains. COM. wide below. Fr. :—E. :—Punjab. smooth. K. Rohisha. Geramium grass. Fl. useful in biliousness. G. Ghats. subcordate or rounded at the base. 1. sweet. forming matted tufts. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. 12-18 mm. See-Oils. K.-Nov. Dhoboghas.t. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Fl. Mirchiagand. L. G. burning sensation. long. :—E. stem. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. DISTR. COM. leprosy. Durva. fatigue. oblique or divaricate. Rohisha. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. long. carminative. pungent.5-2. long. leprosy. Vasanchullu. LOC. LOC. epileptic fits. Sk.

:—Glabrous herb. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. diarrhœa. . diaphoretic. Bimbal. Kachhola. erysipelas. epistaxis (Ayurveda). ophthalmia. anthelmintic. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. Fl. Motha. pruritis.—Cyperaceæ. dysentery. fevers. trigonous. greyish black. pain. Nut—broadly ovoid. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. stolons elongate. biliousness. juice is used in hysteria. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. USES :—Roots are commonly. expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases.— in simple or compound umbel. stomatitis. Tungegaddo. Sk Bhadramusta. t. thirst. fever. Granthi. dysentery. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis.—shorter or longer than the stem. :—G. fever. vulnerary. appetiser. astringent. stomachic. epilepsy. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. anthelmintic. LOC. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. Nagarmotha. cooling. Motha. spikelets 10-50 flowered. epistaxis. burning sensation.. Mutha. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. Fl. blood diseases. emmenagogue. Bitterish. biliousness. Ceylon.—Sept-Nov. dyspepsia. Koranarigadde. Motha. LOC. most hot countries. See—Fodder Plants. COM. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. FAM. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. urinary concretions (Yunani). Root— diuretic. :—Throughout India. CHAR. NS. Mustaka. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. vomiting. DISTR.5 cm. K. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. vulnerary. LOC. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Sugandhi-granthila. In Ceylon. blood diseases. They are also diuretic and stimulant. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm.82. L. difficult to eradicate. narrowly linear. hiccup (Yunani). useful in leprosy. erysipelas (Ayurveda). H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. acrid. M. diarrhœa. useful in vomiting. it is diuretic.. 0. PARTS USED :—Tubers. bruises. epilepsy and insanity. Tubers yield an essential oil. very troublesome weed. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. useful for ulcers and sores.

limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. LOC. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". LOC. K: Dhattura.—follicle. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). Fl. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. ovate. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. solitary. Kaladhatura. e.—many. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . subglobose. Utran.5 cm. Utarni. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. :—Annual shrub. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. reflexed.2 cm. :—Deccan. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also.5-15 X 3. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). across. very unequal at the base.. white inside. Kanaka.:—E. high. outer truncate. L. Kaladhatura. paralytic ileus. lobes spreading.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. yellowish brown. M. FAM.—Sept-Dec. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Sk. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. nodding. NS. Ceylon. :—H. a glucoside. stem hairy. Phalakantak. L. inner curved high over the staminal column. FAM. Ns. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action.—Asclepiadaceæ. HABIT :—A common weed. t. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. Kala-dhotara. C. long 10-20. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tubular. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. Fl.— tubular. and sub-involution of the uterus. packed. Fr. Bhranta. Sd. :—A perennial twining herb.—Solanaceæ. DISTR. G. M.2-7. velvety pubescent beneath. Kariyu-Um-Matta. Fl. M. . Black-Purple datura. long. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Administered after the third stage of labour. on curved stalk 3.5 cm. 30-60 cm.—thin. corona outer and inner. COM. CHAR.—capsule. greenish-yellow or dull-white. soft spiny. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. usually pubescent. entire or with large teeth or lobes. green. funnel-shapped. beak long. Gujarat. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. COM. Kanaka. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. ciliate. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. acute. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Sd.—7. t. double. diam. glabrous above. Fr. spur acute. Rajdhattura. CHAR. divaricately branched. S. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. Sk.—Aug. H.g.—purple outside. Unmatta. Fl. covered with straight sharp prickles. 18 cm. afterwards racemose. somewhat zigzag. Country.-Jany.

toxic. Europe. LOC. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. Shikkikanda. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above.. . :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. USES :—Out of the two varieties. tonic. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. in gonorrhœa. emetic. relieves pain. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. nosetrouble. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. aphrodisiac. LOC. :—Throughout the tropics. painful tumours. and antispasmodic properties. febrifuge. Sk. ulcers. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. Seeds—narcotic. useful in leucoderma. anodyne. nodes. digestive and heating. (Ayurveda). Gajar. :—E. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Roots. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. anthelmintic. Leaf-juice is given internally. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. cause headache (Yunani). Garjara. emetic. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. skin-diseases. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. black variety is considered to be more powerful. FAM. headache. equal in effect to atropine. leaves and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. toddy. heating. K. biliousness. DISTR. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. Gajra. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. black (Kala) and white (Safed). Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. piles. H. majum. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Gajjari. jaundice. Carrot. NS. Leaf poultice. chronic coughs. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Gajar. ganja. bitter. in combination with subja. leaves and seeds. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. The plant as a whole has narcotic. febrifuge. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. GranthiPinda-Mula.—Umbelliferæ COM. Cultivated in many parts of India. to increase their stupefying effect. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. The whole plant is narcotic. Gajar. with curdled milk. G. M. enlargement of testicles and boils. anthelminitic . It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. mumps etc. HABITAT :—Cultivated.

NS. Ceylon. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. tropical Africa. burning sensation. Tonic. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. Vidarigandha.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. 0. dysentery . Dirghamula. cures typhoid. t. Salwan. pains. alterative. tumours. DISTR. diuretic. throughout India. piles. cough. cures biliousness. Salpani. ovate-oblong. prevents death of fœtus in womb . Deccan and S. Burma. Fr. Salwan. astringent to bowels. asthma. . expectorant. COM. Salwan. Philippines. Fl. margins wavy. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. Murele-honne. sub-falcate. other fevers. antidysenteric. stems and branches angled. green and glabrous above.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). bronchitis. indigestible. It is used in fevers. :—Konkan and N. upper edge straight. cures leprosy. Shaliparni. vomiting. Malay Peninsula and Islands . Root— astringent in diarrhœa.2 m. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. Roots contain vitamins A. USES :—Externally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. good for liver. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Salpan. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. stomachic. H. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Country. Root marmalade is refrigerant. M. FAM. hairy. LOC. China. " Tridosha ". asthma. L. Sk. M. :— G. aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. K. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic.—in terminal or axillary racemes. anthelmintic.—onefoliate. good for inflammation. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . inflammations. thirst. high. Darh. :—A woody undershrub. B and C. they produce a spirituous liquor. hiccup. urinary discharges. paler and hairy beneath. membranous. piles. See—Vegetables. tonic. boiled with honey and fermented. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. Kanara . removes " Kapha". corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Kitavinashini. urinary complaints.—May-July. they are also diuretic. used in bronchitis. LOC. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. thirst. vomiting and asthma. Salparni.. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). C—violet or white.6-1.—pod. Fl. astringent to bowels. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). joints 6-8. standard cuneate at the base . vomiting. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. Ranbhal. nausea (Yunani). Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. CHAR. " Vata". carminative. alexipharmic. useful in chronic fevers. cardiotonic. chronic affections of chest and lungs. fattening. chest troubles. LOC. hooked hairy. biliousness.

Kalatendu. diseases of bladder. Dab. See—Fodder Plants. NS. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Temburni. strangury. Fruit—oleaginous. vesical calculi.:—Saurashtra. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Timbwini. astringent to bowels. Ceylon. Konkan. DISTR. NS. in the beds of rivers and streams. the basal fascicled. Flowers—aphrodisiac. FAM. good for lumbago. long. :—Throughout India. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Fl.. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Banda. Gujarat. M. Darbha. Makurkendi. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. high. Davoli. diseases of blood. Durva. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Thailand (Siam). Malay Archipelago. smooth.—G. Egypt.—many.—Ebenaceæ. :—Perennial tall grass. . erect. Nubia. M. Kusha. Riber ebony.8 cm. Tumaki Mara. Tendu. Tinduka. rootstock stout. cooling. :—Along the coasts of N. tufted. Zeeberwo. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Kanara and the Konkan. Sk. H. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. aphrodisiac. Gavandu. G. Sphurjaka. margins hispid. -panicle 15-45 X 1. stems 30-90 cm. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). reaching 50 cm. Darbha. ligule a hairy line . K.) FAM. Fl. sheaths glabrous. Sk. t. L. LOC. cures ulcers and " Vata". fruit and seeds. COM. vaginal discharges. creeping. stolon very stout. Kalaskandh. useful in blood diseases. LOC. jaundice. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. thirst. :—E. diuretic. DISTR. COM. interrupted. Syria. clothed with sessile spikelets. oleaginous. flowers. Wood cures biliousness.3-3. sedative to pregnant uterus. CHAR. LOC. Tumari. branched from the base. H. covered with shining sheaths.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Gale. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. stout. Dabha.—Gramineæ. asthma. heating. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Wild mangosteen. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Sacred Plants. rigid. erect pyramidal or columnar. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. vomiting. skin eruptions. Anilsara. Pavitra. PARTS USED :—Wood. branches short crowded. bark.—Dec. biliousness.

eye troubles. piles. See-Food Plants. Wandar bashing. FAM. Nasik. improves complexion. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. Basingh. pain in liver. "Vata". leucoderma.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). ovate. Diuretic. fattening. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. :—M. antipyretic. liver troubles. Konkan— Ratnagiri. tumours. :—Tropics of the old world. diseases of the brain and eyes. Sk. Bijapur and Dharwar. . intestinal colic. Kulithaka. :—Rhizome creeping. Sori two in each primary areole. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. causes biliousness (Yunani). Ashvakatri. densely clothed with red-brown scales. hiccup. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Sk. astringent to bowels. COM. H. COM. M. short. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. variously lobed. enlargement of spleen. appetiser. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. NS.Gahat. fertile ones long stalked. Kulith. :—E. grown to a certain extent in S. K. dry. strangury. NS. abdominal complaints. base decurrent on the stipe. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. cordate. Kulathi. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory.—Polypodiaceæ. Kulthi. urinary discharges. Country—Belgaum. Grains contain vitamin A. CHAR. G. Kulitha. acrid. piles. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. bronchitis. generally on trees and rocks. DISTR. asthma. stout. anthelmintic. It is demulcent in calculus affection. Texture membranaceous to leathery. cures " Kapha". Sitetara. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). Kulthi. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. LOC. Surfaces naked. See—Timbers.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. inflammation. Hurali. hot. Kalvrinta. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kulit. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. cures hiccup. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. emmenagogue. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. M. Jurali. heart-troubles. LOC. Horse-Gram. removes stone from kidney. FAM. ozoena. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Tans. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. coughs etc. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia.

used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). used in ophthalmia. sinuate and spinescent. thirst. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. globose. Kadigga-garaga.5 cm. FAM. strigose and hairy. usually oblong-lanceolate. Mochand. spines 2. LOC. :—Konkan. glabrous above. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. Sk. It is used in hoarse cough. Utkatara. Country.—sessile. the lobes triangular and oblong. urinary discharges. Plant stomachic. K. COM. also cultivated to a certain extent. spiny. Utkanta. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Fl.— Nov. Seeds—wholesome. cottony. biliousness. Kantalu. M. Kadechubak. LOC. COM. " Vata". Balari. :—More or less throughout India. hysteria. analgesic. increases appetite. dyspepsia and cough. FAM. Bhangro.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Bhangra. gleet. astringent to bowels . pain in joints. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. inflammations. t. NS.:—Throughout India. subentire. Afghanistan. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). :—G. Sk. Dadhal. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. DISTR. H. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. L. Utkantaka. deeply pinnatifid. antipyretic. oblong. pappus short.—heads white. causes " Kapha". sessile.—achene obconic. yellowish. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. high. tonic. stimulates liver. L.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. S. LOC. bracts 3seriate.—limb linear. improves taste. Utanti. surrounded by strong white bristles. Markara. :—G.—Compositæ. Kantaphala. Bhangra. useful in brain-diseases. chronic fever. . C. diseases of heart. often rooting at the nodes. hot. :—Kanara. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. branches widely spreading from the base. dyspepsia. Ajagara. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter.-Jany. CHAR. densely villous. stems and branches strigose and hairy. H. Fr. bitter. Konkan.3—0. Bhringraj. cottony pubescent. Garagadasoppu. 0.—Compositæ. Utkanto. involucre. intermediate produced in sharp spine. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. CHAR. Keshrangana. Shulio. used in strangury. Root— abortifacient.— opposite. Pitripriya. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). wooly beneath.9 m. Utakatara. :—A much branched rigid annual. Maka. NS. M. long. Kalobhangro . Fl. Deccan. Sunilaka. cooling. hectic fever. DISTR.

Triputa. improves colour of hair. liver pain. cures inflammations. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Elachi. axillary. Fr. cultivated. prevents abortion and miscarriage. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . eyes. Malaya. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. C—often 4-toothed . anæmia. night blindness. and for strengthening gums. :—E. Gandhkuti. good for complexion. asthma. "Vata". DISTR. fevers. Ceylon. a reputed and popular liver tonic. eye diseases. Bahula. cures vertigo (Yunani). It relieves headache when applied with oil. internal diseases. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. Veldoda. Chandrabala. fattening. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). M. alterative. H.— Oct. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. W. hot. :—Western valleys of N. Ilaji. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Gourangi. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. involucral bracts about 8 . Panjab. lustre of eyes. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis.. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. See—Sacred Plants. Madhya Bharat. Choti-Elachi. FAM.—in heads. toothache. good for spleen diseases. Burma. t. ray flowers ligulate.-Dec. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. bronchitis. tonic. heart and skin diseases. Sind. alexipharmic. it is powdered and applied externally. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. teeth. hemi-crania. hair. expectorant. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. disk ones tubular . pappus 0. Fl. COM.:—India (Bengal. K.—achene. Velchi. solitary or 2 together.—Scitaminaceæ. stomachic. Bitter . cuneate with a narrow wing. anthelmintic. LOC. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sk. Yalakki. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. antipyretic. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Peninsula). In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. syphilis. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. NS. Karangi. leucoderma.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. . LOC. There are two forms erect and prostrate. It is given internally in scalding of urine. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. stomatitis. hernia. Kanara (Siddapur. Ela. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . G. "Kapha".

:—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. root is laxative and tonic. NS. Jantughna. K. Narttaka. Nagali. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. FAM. piles. Nachani. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. bitter. lessens inflammation. alexiteric . See-Food Plants. Vavoding. ear and tooth ache. kidney. India. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. carminative. consumption. COM. :— G. pungent. cultivated. It is said to be astringent. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. diuretic. bronchitis. useful in asthma. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Sk. diuretic. LOC. fruit is tonic. most suitable to hard-working classes. Marua. abortifacient. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. tonic to heart. rich or poor. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. See—Condiments and Spices.—Myrsinaceæ. Sk. CUM. bad humours of liver. M. H. PARTS USED :—Grain. chest and throat (Yunani). Kanisha. Bavato. useful in head.—Gramineæ. NS. Grains contain vitamin B. Bidanga. pruritus. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. Varding. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. . stomachic. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. strangury. K. M. laxative. scabies. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Vavading. Navalo-nagali.:—G. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery.. DISTR. fruit and seeds. FAM. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). useful in biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. Makra. stomachic. Boberang. causes thirst. fragrant. Seed—fragrant. LOC. Vayuvitang. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Ragi. It is stomachic. Pavaka. cause biliousness . cooling. diseases of bladder. brain and mouth. Rajika. tonic. Wavrung. stimulant and emmenagogue. LOC. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil.:—Western and S. Rotka. Vidariga. Bhasmaka. H. clear head. cooling. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. In S.

alexiteric. Bitter. poisoning. Amlika. Anola.) FAM. flexible. Sk. sweats. Ambala. inflammations. vomiting. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). good for plethoric constitution. :— E. diseases of heart. antipyretic. greenish yellow. G. China. Fl. Ther. Int. Daula . good appetiser. cures bronchitis . NS. Dadi. Nellika . (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. racemes minute. :—Throughout India. branches long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. erysipelas. t. Western Ghats. leprosy. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. China. Amalaka. Amla. mental diseases. K. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. COM. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. cooling. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. vulnerary. laxative. Arch. LOC. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). wild or planted. jaundice. :—Hilly parts of the State. constipation. ascites. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. bronchitis. Paranjpe and G. " Tridosha ". smooth. slender. carminative. with a sharp bitter taste. PARTS USED :—Root. Malaya. like a pepper corn when dried. piles. elliptic-lanceolate. often planted in Konkan. Seed— acrid. urinary discharges. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). K. Kanara. coriaceous. anthelmintic . shining above. DISTR. analgesic. cures tumours. dyspnoea. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Triphala. Bhoza . :—A large scandent shrub. M. urinary discharges. anuria.—in lax panicles. aphrodisiac. LOC. dry. carminative. thirst. Ceylon. Amlika. paler and silvery beneath. Ceylon. Pharm. anthelminitic. Adiphala. alexiteric. tonic. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. succulent. S. fruit and seeds. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. Avala. purgative. nearly globose. internodes long.—alternate. leaves. bark. bark studded with lenticels . S. Dhatriphala. Embelic myrobalan. et. bronchitis. 42-II-1932). sour. alterative.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. alterative. Dhatri. many. Fl. useful in burning sensation. LOC. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands.—Feb. hemicrania. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . . L. Deccan. biliousness. flowers. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. black when ripe. Gokhale. (Dymock). DISTR. " Kapha'. strangury.—Euphorbiaceæ.—berry. H. HABITAT :—Rain forests. reddens urine. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. Anward. dries wound discharges . Malay Islands. Fr. anæmia. useful in asthma. laxative.

—Aug. Fl. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Chhotakirayat. sour. Fruit Trees. Fruit—acrid. Dyes. M. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). :—G. COM. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. Fr. See—Timbers. Madvinashi. white. . Hallekayiballi. Fl. LOC. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Mamejavo . cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda).—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). 10—50 cm. bark and fruit are astringent. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. R. ellipsoid.— capsule. West Indies. NS. Country. t. Nagajivha. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Sk. H. rounded apex. improves appetite. stems erect or procumbent. Sind. NS. Unripe fruit is cooling. diuretic and laxative. Malaya. high. Giant's rattle. Tans. lobes 5.—Gentianaceæ. tonic. K. Gujarat. Nahu. tropical Africa. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. cooling. Tiktapatra.-Nov. DISTR. USES :—Root. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Mackary bean. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. aperient. COM.) FAM. cold in the nose. mid-nerve strong. LOC. piles. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Garambi. :—Konkan. M. purifies body humours (Yunani). :—A perennial glabrous herb. Tanavadi. :—E. Mabhipaka. eye troubles. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Grey). biliousness. used as laxative and astringent. anthelmintic. LOC. branched from the base. variable. thirst. Dried fruits. sub-quadrangular or terete. vulnerary. expectorant. L. Saurashtra. narrowed at the base. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. useful in heart-diseases. Garbe.—sessile. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume.—sessile. stops nasal hæmorrhage. Kadvinayi. astringent. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Celyon. C—infundibuliform. 3-nerved. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. liver complaints. Doddakampi. FAM. S. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic.). PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Ind. opposite. Lady nut.

pinnae 2—3 pairs. Ceylon. LOC. flowers. Mandara. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sd.—yellow. axillary or from the nodes of old branches .7-5x7. t. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Fr. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. Bangaro. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Paribhadra. Fl. 30-90 cm. rigidly coriaceous. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. Dadap. PARTS USED :—Seeds. G. wide and 3-8 cm. :—Konkan and N. smooth. dark green. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Indian coral-tree. Sk.—2pinnate. Planted as support for pepper vines. Kantakinshuka. LOC. long. Andamans and Nicobar.. the tropics generally. Raktapushpa. indented between the seeds. they are given internally as an emetic.5-10 cm. branches terete. Mochi-wood. 3. stalked. Var.3-2 cm. hot. diam. Nepal. orbicular. Planted as ornament. glabrous. Phandra . The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. M. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". Leaves—bitter. compressed. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. DISTR. oblong or obovate. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. inflammations. Mandara. COM. Salaki.. along sea-coast above high-water. Mullumurige. for grapevines in Nasik district. anthelmintic. cure urinary discharges. N. PARTS USED :—Root. woody.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. slightly curved. long. Kanara. USES :—Powdered kernel. Peninsula. often along river banks. improve appetite. Pegu.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.. in debility and glandular swellings .5-5-7 cm. bark used in dysentery.—pod. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). bark. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Panarvo. 4. stomachic.—6-15. Sundribans. :—E. Tennaserim. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Arakan. Panjira. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara.S.-May. L. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Fl. W. mixed with spices. leaves. leaflets 7-5 x 2. . Halivan. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk.— Mar. thick. shining and brown. Pangara. C. Hongara. :—Coast forests of Malabar. K. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. ORIENTALIS Merr. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Panderavo. DISTR. Pangara. H.

—Euphorbiaceæ. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Sendh. dark green above. Sk. 18th Ind. FL. 15-50 cm.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—E. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. NS. :—Annual herb. Sk. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Milk bush. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Mondukalli. Dudanali. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. with or without a limb. :— E. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Australian asthma herb. Pusitoa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. G. K. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Dudhi. serrulate or dentate. Paradeshi thora . LOC. Duddi. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). COM. Sher. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Cong. gland minute.—capsule. —throughout the year. globose. Dudhi. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . rugose. G. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. . FAM.) FAM. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Shirthahar. The plant contains an alkaloid. M. Vajradruma. bowel complaints and cough in children. high. COM. M. Fr. NS. Dandalio thora. Milk hedge. and to relieve pain of the joints. Ceylon. Dandasruha. obliquely oblong-lanceolate.—ovoid-trigonous. Dudhi. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. it is anthelmintic. Nevli. Sd. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Sc. See—Timbers. t. Achchegida. base unequal-sided. Bahukshira. Govardhan. branches often 4-angled. Fl. Indian tree spurge. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Bottugalli.—involucres numerous. Kodukalli. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Nagpur 1931).—opposite. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. L. CHAR. erect or ascending. pale beneath. H. Pill-bearing spurge.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. reddish brown. K. Sahud. H. appressedly hairy.

asthma. campanulate. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. :—G. LOC. teething of infants .-light blue. elliptic-oblong. leprosy. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. Fr. FAM. milk is alexiteric. Jhinkiphudardi. :—Throughout the State. leucoderma. alterative. alexiteric. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. mostly female. cocci velvety. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. epilepsy. whooping cough. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. colic. L. naturalised in India. dropsy. biliousness.—many. Juice is purgative. Ceylon. tropical and sub-tropical countries. brightens intellect. DISTR. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . useful in abdominal troubles. prostrate. :—A small tree. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. COM. useful in gonorrhœa. Sd. almost leafless. Kalisankhavali. terete. Shyamakranta . EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. jaundice. axillary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. useful in biliousness. Vishnugandhi. Sd— glabrous.—small. stone in bladder (Yunani). involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. DISTR. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. K. :—Sind.—ovoid. dyspepsia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. useful in bronchitis.—capsule. usually clothed with long hairs . employed to raise blisters. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). NS.-Sep. anthelmintic. branchlets whorled. t. Fl. silky hairy. about 6 m. stems many. 4valved. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. spreading. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Konkan and Gujarat. Fl.-Aug. Vishnukranti. solitary or sometimes 2. LOC. also as an alterative. Vishnukranta. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. long (appearing in rainy season) . t.— capsule. high. enlargement of spleen. pungent. smooth. globose. leprosy and leucorrhoea. LOC. tumours. tonic. linear. :—A perennial herb. Sk. and with oil to promote growth of hair.-July-Nov. carminative. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). L. 6-13 mm. M. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. more than 5 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid. . peduncles very long. Fr. long. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. thin. rootstock woody . Nilpushpi. Fl. CHAR. wiry. H. branches erect. LOC. polished. Vishnukranta. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. base acute. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. thick like quill.—Convolvulaceæ. :—Native of East Africa. smooth.

Maval. Rajasthan. Dhamaso . used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. :—Konkan. t.). Waziristan. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Cooling." asthma. Deccan hills and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. cooling. M. Circars. in chronic bronchitis. LOC. Arabia. 1-3 foliate. Bark is used in scabies. emmenagogue. Country. reduces tumours.-Dec.2 cm. deeply 5-partite. Dhamasa.— showy. FAM. typhoid. of 5. root fibrous. toothache. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. vomiting. :—Madras State. L. yellowish brown.—very variable in size and form sessile. Fr. H. Barachirayat.—opposite. :—G. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . petioles deeply striate. Ind. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. M. Fr. :— Sind. Udichirayat. DISTR. DISTR. arising from between the stipules .—capsule. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. leaflets linear. stomatitis. Mysore. Gujarat. COM. elliptic or lanceolate. thirst. removes "Vata". ellipsoid.— ovoid. removes "Vata. Dhanavi. pale rose-coloured. Iran. Fl. alexipharmic.-Oct. LOC. :—An erect annual. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. Baluchistan. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. . fever. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. LOC. Sd. erysipelas. Fl. NS. CHAR. lower half white. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. Dusparsha. stem. about 1. also used in chronic fevers. CHAR. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). purifies blood (Ayurveda). The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Mediterranean. high. Hinguna. long. shining. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. sessile. reaching 60 cm. more or less glandular. C—lobes 4-5. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. the middle the largest. in copious terminal cymes . Atmamuli. ovate. L. obliquely obovate. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. westwards to Afghanistan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. Punjab. smooth.-Aug.-Nov. M. Kashaya. N. small. flattened. ophthalmia. acute. asthma. urinary discharges.—solitary. Sk. Fl. spitting of blood. :— H. Upper Gangetic plains. 1-seeded cocci. COM. good for liver troubles. Prabhodhini. Ustarkhar. t. Coimbatore.—Zygophyllaceæ.—Gentianaceæ. smooth. scarcely branched. glandular hairy. W. cures dysentery. Ghats. FL. pyramidal to the apex. 5-nerved. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. FAM. it has got cooling properties. quadrangular. the upper blue.

—Moraceæ. Self-sown. Nyagrodha. M. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Java. FAM. female. LOC.—coriaceous. . strengthening to gums . common in the Tapi Valley. Kotha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Bargad. Grahiphala. Goli. :— E. difficult to digest. blood impurities. Avaroha. Leaves—very astringent. :—E. Kanara. M. ophthalmia. good for throat. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Vadlo . India. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . H. Bar. Alada. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. L. 10-20 X 5-12. refrigerant. Bhringi. Vad. G.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Malura. NS. often cultivated. " Vata ". Sk. Manmadha. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. country and N. consumption. aphrodisiac. COM. diam. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kathinyaphala. Vad. G.—Rutaceæ. hiccup. H. refrigerant . Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. with spreading branches. Kavath. M. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. CHAR. Balin. liver and lungs . asthma. Dadhiphala. S. Vat. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. alexipharmic. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). shining above.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Kavitha. Banian tree. fruit and seeds. LOC. about 2 cm. Jatala. useful in biliousness. Kapipriya. cordate or rounded base. binding diuretic. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Fruit—sour . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. COM. high. Fruit Trees. dysentery. leucorrhoea. acrid. Kathel. astringent. See—Timbers. Kothun. tumours.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Sk. Kait. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Monkey fruit. K. :—Indigenous in S. tonic to heart. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. K. Seeds—antidote to poison. Fr. vomiting . Bahupada. LOC. ovate to elliptic. Byala. heart diseases. Belada. Bargat. :—Cultivated all over the State. Ghats. NS. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Elephant or wood apple. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. " Tridosha". FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. cures cough. Kavit. Ala.— globose.. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Vata. fatigue. removes biliousness. thirst. Kapitha. DISTR. often planted. with male. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia.5 cm.

Dharwar. pain in chest cures piles. COM. Root—tonic. diseases of head and blood. tonic. NS. leaves. Simeyatu . DISTR. weakness. Grown scattered elsewhere. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. M. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. erysipelas. hill ranges of S. biliousness. aphrodisiac. liver and spleen diseases. dysentery. :—Baluchistan. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). inflammation of liver (Yunani). India. boils and carbuncles. nutritive. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Sacred Plants. alexiteric. Milky Juice—expectorant. vulnerary. leprosy (Ayurveda). Seeds are cooling and tonic. ulcers. W. USES :—Fruit is emollient. :— E. ringworm. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. Kakodumbar. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district.—Moraceæ. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Asia and Mediterranean. FICUS CARICA Linn. in rheumatism and lumbago. Anjir. paralysis. maturant. gonorrhœa. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. root-fibres. Anjir. diuretic. Sk. useful in "Kapha". . Afghanistan. nose-diseases. Bijapur. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. bruises. LOC. biliousness. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. lessens inflammations. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. useful in leucoderma. Anjir. Anjir. useful in "Vata". Leaves are applied heated as poultice. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. LOC. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). K. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. vomiting. leprosy. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Fig. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. useful in syphilis. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Anjura. useful in piles. laxative. stimulates hair-growth. LOC. demulcent. H. inflammations. fever. Cultivated in N. Fibres. useful in inflammation . vaginal complaints. seeds and milky juice. lithotriptic. See—Famine Plants. Aerial root is styptic. thirst. G. W.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR.

LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. useful. Pipal. leaves and fruits. Jari. PARTS USED :—Root. uterus . fruit. Vriksharaj. latex. Ashwatha mara. NS. Umbar. blood diseases. is given to cattle in rinderpest. NS. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. burning sensation. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. ulcers. loss of voice. Pipers. biliousness. menorrhagia. Umbro. HABITAT :—Planted. Sacred Plants. Gular.—Moraceæ. G. Umar. in diseases of blood. vagina. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. Leaves—astringent to bowels . urinary discharges. Atti. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. G. H. leaves. styptic. Ashvatha. leprosy. Pippala. tonic. LOC. nose bleedings. Pimpal. useful in "Kapha". cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. burning sensation. good for gravid uterus. vulnerary. :—E. Peepal tree . Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. (Yunani). M. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Bodhidruma. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Pipli. Bark is cooling. See—Timbers. :—Widely spread throughout India. COM. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Bark. diseases of kidney and spleen. biliousness. leucorrhoea. Udumbara. H. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. COM. Umar. Lalka.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Ragi. good for foul taste. :—E. Sk. Yajnika. good for bronchitis. FAM. :—Throughout the State near villages. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Fruit—astringent to bowels. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. DISTR. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Demera. Pipal. Hemadugdha. K. galactagogue. K. Sk. LOC. acrid. Gular-Country fig. FAM. given in leucorrhoea. Shuchidruma. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). M. cummin.—Moraceæ. bark. . Rumadi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Pippala. Milk—aphrodisiac. planted all over. fatigue. allays thirst. ground with onions. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Pavitraka. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. DISTR. bark. Arani.

Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Circars. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Bhuripushpa. common in the Peninsula. Sk. Swadukantaka. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. cleans ulcers. Badishep. Sk. FAM. S. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Variari. COM. G. Bhanber. upper Gangetic plain. Akrani. Khandesh. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. Young bark useful in bone fractures. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. :—E. good for lumbago. M. SAPIDA Roxb. Bilangra . astringent in leucorrhoea. N. Satpura.—Umbelliferæ. Fodder Plants. aphrodisiac. LOC. M. Fruit—purgative. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Hettarimullu. W. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. gum. Katar. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). . a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Tapaspriya. Shalina. seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. See—Timbers. Sacred Plants. Finkel. Paker. Country and N. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). FAM. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Badisoppu. Bhakal. DISTR. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Kankod . See—Timber. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Soupa. Mullutari. Fruits are sweet. Tambat. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Potika. Variali. Handi Kandai. COM NS. Hunmunki.—Flacourtiaceæ. checks vomiting (Yunani). They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. promotes granulations. The juice is employed in hiccup. :— G. Fennel. Burma. Shateya. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Kanara Jungles. appetising and digestive. LOC. heart diseases. M. fruit. bark. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. K. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. K. and produces sterility in women. NS. Root good for gout. Gajale. HABITAT :—Hills. Ghats.

K.6-0. (Mhaskar and Caius). Kokam. common in S. high. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. thirst. Oils. USES :—Bark is astringent. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. useful in diseases of chest. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". 0. amenorrhœa. lessen inflammations. annual. LOC. USES :—used as stimulant. Konkan and N. dysentery. See—Timbers. Kokam . DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". Ghats south of Bombay. diuretic. often cultivated. leprosy (Ayurveda).— decompound. :—E. Kokam . :—A tall glabrous. Wynaad. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests.—in large umbels . Coorg. stomachic. Kanara. improves appetite and allays thirst. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). cardiotonic. alexiteric. Murjinhalli. Ghats. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. Tintidika. It is much used as a nutritive. aphrodisiac. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. Leaves—improve eyesight. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. yellow. :—Apparently a native of S. difficult to digest. burning sensation.9 m. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. fissures of lips. tumours. dark green. furrows vittate. PARTS USED :—Roots. laxative. anthelmintic. fever. " Vata ". Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. stimulant. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. anthelmintic. . leaves (rarely). FAM. seeds-carminative. ultimate segments linear. M. galactagogue. Amlabija. :—W. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. bracts and bracteoles absent. aromatic and carminative. G. H. dysentery. COM. Sk. causing constipation . cough and asthma. eye-diseases. leaves and seeds. See—Condiments and Spices. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. Wild mangosteen. FL. LOC. L. fruit and seeds. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. :—Endemic in W. Mulgala. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. NS. LOC. carpophore 2-partite. cures "Tridosh". Atyamla. Fr.—Guttiferæ. strengthen eyes (Yunani). spleen. in headache. PARTS USED :—Bark. DISTR. LOC. useful in bleeding piles.—ellipsoid. Ratambi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. ridges prominent. wounds etc. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. wounds. appetiser. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. kidney. demulcent and emollient. Tittidika .

astringent to bowels. lucida (Ayurveda). Peninsula). NS. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. Dakamali. FAM. Cambi resin tree. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. Dikkamalli. high. Dikemali.—Rubiaceæ. Kanara. not fragrant. PARTS USED:-Gum. opaque.-tubular. LOC. :—India (W. same as for G. Burma. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. NS. :—Common from Konkan southwards. M. LOC.. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. :—E. first white then changing to yellow. 1-3 together.-subsessile. Fl. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating.8 m. Dikamari.5x22. . Gums and Resins. Dekamari. Jantuka. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. lucida. 4. about 1. all dry districts of Madras State. elliptic-obovate. Pinda.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn.-sessile. Sk. DISTR. COM. K. Dikamali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite.—Rubiaceæ. oblong or ellipsoid. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). Western Peninsula. buds resinous. oblong.5 cm.5-3. FAM. relieves pain of bronchitis. Fr. shining. t. LOC. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. Fl. PARTS USED :—Gum. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. As sold in the bazar it is hard. L. H. unarmed. G. LOC. :—A deciduous shrub. Northern ghats of Madras State. C. See—Gums and Resins. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. Bikke. -June. common on laterite in southern parts of N. DISTR. CHAR. :—India. Hingu.8 cm.—Feb. COM. HABITAT :—Open situations. See—Timbers. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb.—2. Suvirya. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. long. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards .

Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. useful in chronic ulcers. FL. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. LOC.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. .2 cm.—sessile. FAM.5-3. used to remove placenta from uterus. K. filaments long spreading.—large. In case of retained placenta. NS.-July-Oct. Garbhapatani. t. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. expectorant. leaves and flowers. orange. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. There are two varieties of the plant. root-stock of arched. COM. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.. :—G. linear oblong. abortifacient.—capsule. H. acrid. Fl. Ceylon. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. Karianag. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. :—Herbaceous.—Liliaceæ. changing colours from greenish yellow. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. ovate lanceolate. tall. itching. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. Cochin-China. piles. Dudhio vachhonag. Tropical Africa. L. laxative. solid. thirst. Kulhari. anthelmintic. M. Sk. The former is supposed to be male. given off from young tubers . In Guinea. scarlet.5 X 15 X 2-4. LOC. and crimson from blooming to fading. axillary . DISTR. Sivasaktibalb . heating. Nangulika.3 cm... :—Throughout tropical India. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. inflammations. leprosy. stems annual. alexiteric. margins wavy. solitary. sometimes whorled. perianth segments reaching 6.5 cm. Tuber— astringent. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. Languli. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. 7. abdominal pains. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. branching climber . Indai. Malay Peninsula. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. bitter. Kathari. linear-lanceolate. Akkitang hall. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. Kalihari. Khadyanag. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. scattered or opposite. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. Kalikari. Linn. CHAR. Fr. Huliyuguru. Agnimukhi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. PARTS USED :—Tuber. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side.

It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Gambhari. Tree cotton. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Devkapas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Shiwan. DISTR. Mahabhadra. thirst. useful in hallucinations. tonic. useful in "Vata". Bachanige. piles. anasarca. indigestible. Madhya Bharat. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. NS. LOC. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. See—Fibres. In the Konkan. :— E. anthelmintic . catarrh of the bladder etc. :—Throughout India. consumption. LOC. Sk. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Coomb teak. common on Satpuda. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Gupsi. Rajasthan and N. White teak. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Karibatti. G. Shivan . See—Timbers. abdominal pains. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Var. Ceylon. Kumbudi. Deokapas. K. Oils. improves appetite . gleet. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Savan.—Verbenaceæ. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :— Bengal. FAM. W. chronic cystitis. root is also stomachic and laxative. H. scattered in monsoon forests. leprosy.—Malvaceæ. . flowers and seeds. leaves. burning sensation. Fruit— diuretic. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. flowers and fruit. Philippines. K. laxative. Nurma . Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. COM. Hanji. Khandesh. Gumbhar. Flowers—astringent. Gandhari. G. FAM. Shripani. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. H. COM. Malaya. stomachic. :—Throughout the State and about temples. thirst. Sind. Shivani.:—E. M. Provinces. fevers. ulcers. scalds etc. anæmia. " Tridosha ". Karpasam. urinary discharges. made into paste. useful in indigestion. Devakapus. useful in fevers . Cashmere tree. Sk. consumption and some catarrhal affections . strangury. Gambari. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. the root. leaves. LOC. alterative. Kashmari. Root taken with liquorice. PARTS USED :—Root. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. Shiwan. promotes hair-growth. :—Throughout the State.

tonic. heart and blood disorders. in hills near Poona. removes " Vata" and biliousness. DISTR. Rui. laxative . good for throat . A. Seeds— ' galactagogue. :—Sind. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . Hatti. restore consciousness. :—G. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Karpas. preventing their access to wounds etc. increase flow of urine. Baluchistan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. In India they are used to procure abortion. LOC. wild in Deccan.—Tiliaceæ. H. Syria. acrid. expectorant and aphrodisiac. probably in N.. Pharuah. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot.Phalse. Kapus. extensively in Gujarat. :—E. Cotton . Seeds are used as a galactagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. Iran. M. scabies . U. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. East Tropical Africa. LOC. sour. in hypochondria. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Sk. Seeds are laxative. FAM. cure all ear-troubles. Afghanistan. Roshana. Arabia and Asia Minor. tonic. See—Fibres. M. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Phalsa. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated in the State. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Tadasala. expectorant. good for all kinds of inflammations. Country. fruit. COM.—Malvaceæ. :— Cultivated in N. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. fomentation for burning eyes . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. leaf-juice good in dysentery. Jana. used in orchitis. Phalsi. PARTS USED :—Root. Dhamin. fevers and consumption. Anagnika. Rui. Karihariyale. DISTR. analgesic. K. Kapas . Kupas. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. removes " Vata ". NS. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Buttiyu-dippa. S. Gujarat and S..110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. LOC. M. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. aphrodisiac. Badari. Arali. G. Oils. F. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Sutrapuspha. Mesapotamia. FAM. fruits and seeds. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. NS. cures inflammations. Parapera. (Yunani). Ripe fruit—sweet. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. Tula. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Province (Pakistan). leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. digestible. K. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Parusha. COM. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. demulcent. allay thirst. enrich blood. W. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Mediterranean. Sk. cooling. Egypt. bark. extensively cultivated. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Leaves remove " Vata " . leaves.

— Asclepiadaceæ. :—A large woody climber. Adiyakharan. should not be eaten raw. Ugragandha. Caravella. SK. Gurmar. Tropical Africa. Meshashingi. Kavali. NS. acrid. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. C. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. biliousness. Bedki. the stomachic stimulant. Kabari. Vakundi.—Capparidaceæ. K. The ease of administration. Hulhul. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Small Indian ipecacuanha. K. helps removal of dead fetus. lanceolate. ulcers. ovate. piles. yellow . Arkapuspika. Karalia . Hulhul. Mahabaleshwar and N. LOC. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. COM. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). G. alexiteric. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). Kanara coast. Periploca of the woods. India. tonic. sweet. asthma. base rounded or cordate . Sk. FAM. H. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. . Br. Bastagandha. usually single. inflammations. H. common in hedges in Dharwar district.— with thin marginal wing. :— E. M. strengthens chest and heart. alterative. :—Western Peninsula. elliptic. corona of 5 processes . The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. :—Throughout the State.-May. DISTR. LOC. Sd. Meshavalli. Sannagerse. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Fl. relieves thirst and hiccup. cornea. NS. FAM. Merasingi. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. much branched. Sanngera. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Mardashingi. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. bronchitis. Shrikala. M.— Apl. LOC. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria.— opposite. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens.—in cymes . See—Fruit Trees. Tanmani. stomachic. good in heart-diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. FL. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Fr. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Kanphodi. Pandhari tilwan. Mabli. L. CHAR. Karnasphota. Root and bark used in strangury.— companulate . Sati talvani. cooling. Ceylon. COM. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Vishani. t. S. leucoderma. anthelmintic. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Churota. Tilparni. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. :E. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. G. vitreous body) burning sensation. Fruit—sour.—follicle. young stems densely pubescent.

hairy on the nerves beneath. Murdasing. hairy. Sd. leaves and seeds. :—Deccan.—muricate.12. 5-9 cm. :—An annual erect herb 0. Fl. H. Sd.2 m. earache. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. ulcers.—Sterculiaceæ. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Sinhgad hills. COM. dark-brown . gynophore 2-2. Avartant.-Feb.—many.—June. stipules triangular. with divaricate herbaceous branches . L. FAM.—Rubiaceæ.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas.—in dense bracteate racemes. Kanara. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). K. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. hairy. elliptic-lanceolate. removes "Vata". C. Gidesa Jitasai. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles.—Oct. L. :—G. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. opposite. producing copious exudation. Kewan. DISTR.8-9 cm. M. .6—1. CHAR. HABITAT:—Hills. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. leaflets subsessile. margins crenate-dentate. long . glabrous or pubescent above. stem and branches hairy. Fr. ellipsoid . Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. Murudseng. COM. Marosi. Katraj Ghat. Fl. tapering at both ends. white or blue. :—Konkan—Karanja Island.—3-5 foliate. FAM.5-20 X 3.. acute. hills near Nagothana. hills in Supa Taluka. :—A small deciduous shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. LOC. Jonkaphal Maraphali.—capsule. sessile.—petals 4 with long slender claws. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. Fl. :—M. elliptic-obovate. Kavargi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. . stomachic . pubescent. M. Sk. vesicant. Gujarat. Fl. (Kirtikar and Basu).112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Edamuri. NS. LOC. pedicels viscid hairy. viscid. :—A common weed in all tropical countries.—capsule. Murudi. LOC.—rather rigid. high. S. Country.5 cm. pink . t. China. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. PARTS USED :—Root. pain. good in ascites. long.. t. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Mrigashringa. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. tumours. DISTR.

DISTR. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). uterine complaints. urinary discharges. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections.— with silvery white coma . common in hedges. Sugandhi-balli. angular . Fl. Sk. foul body odour. :—Throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. purplish inside. L. FL. :— E. bilabiate.-biferous. liver and kidney diseases . Fl. lessens griping.3 cm.—throughout the greater part of the year. leucorrhoea. diaphoretic. See—Fibres. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. bronchitis. burning sensation. long. Utpalashariva. alexiteric. L. CHAR. . Upalsali. Anantmula. red at first fading to lead colour. H. Australia and West Indies. cures all skin-diseases. HABITAT :—In hedges. They are demulcent. Root and stem—laxative. epileptic fits. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. COM. Hindisalse.—follicle cylindric. joint-pains. LOC. beaked. poisoning. spirally coiled. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. “tridosh". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. stems thickened at the nodes . astringent to bowels. t. M. obliquely cordate.— very variable. paralysis. bark and fruit. Indian sarsaparilla . blood diseases. good for brain. Anantmula. greenish outside. stem. eye troubles. M. Sd. Fl.—Asclepiadaceæ. Br. Konkan. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. and leaves. Fr. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery.-Dec. asthma. C. often variegated with white above.—tubular. Kapurimathuri. dark-green. thirst. demulcent. Durivel. :—Large shrub or small tree. irregularly crowded. ovate orbicular. India. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic.. anti-galactagogue. asthma. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). Root useful in hemicrania.Sd. Stem lessens inflammation. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. 5-6. cough. astringent to bowels . Upalsari. 7.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. root-Stock woody . "Vata' dysentery. diuretic. Burma. fevers. Ceylon. Hamadaberu . antidiarrhœal. tapering . Country. NS. low appetite. G. "Kapha". useful in gleet. t — Aug. FAM. rat-bites. diarrhœa. Kanara ghat forests. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR.512.—follicle of 5-6. Magrabu. Malaya. Deccan and S.5 X 5-10 cm. scabrous above. Dhaval kashtha. DISTR.—numerous. K. :—Upper Gangetie plain.— in cymes in opposite axils. mildly astringent. syphilis. LOC. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. useful in piles.

then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Jasavand. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). In the Konkan. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. Aruna. FAM. Raktapushpi. DISTR.—during most of the year. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. leaves. Japapushpa. LOC. Jasum. tonic. C. Fr. bark and petals are demulcent.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. flowers. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. See—Ornamental Plants. remove burning of body. L. solitary. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. petals thrice as long as the calyx. and mixed with ghee. yellow.—short petioled. Harivallaba. H.—axillary. It is also diuretic. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. Kempupundrika. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. involucral bracts 5-7. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . K. Native country probably China. Root roasted in plantain leaves. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. Root is valuable in coughs. bright red. Fl. NS. . :— E. fevers. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes.. syphilis and leucorrhoea. Dasavala. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Jasut. PARTS USED :—Root. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. COM. piles. Sk. etc. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient.—no fruits produced in India. and as early as 1864. CHAR.5. diam.—7. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. red. ovate or ovate lanceolate. uterine and vaginal discharges. demulcent. :—A perennial shrub. tubular below. t. cm. entire near the base. glabrous. astringent. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. G. magenta. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. Rudrapushpa. crimson. skindiseases. LOC. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. It is said to purify blood. urinary discharges. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. Dasanihu. useful in loss of appetite. pedicel jointed above the middle. cooling. irregularly serrate towards the top. Jasuva. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. seminal weakness.—Malvaceæ. Shoe flower. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira).

Adimurtte Adirganti.-Dec. M. M. glabrous. Madmalati. 5th petal yellow at the base. :—Throughout the State. on the margins. G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. Fl.—petals 5. Chandravalli. K. uppermost petal broader. young parts silky. purple. entire glabrous.—Malpighiaceæ. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. HABITAT. Fr. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. calyx fleshy. Lal ambadi. Deccan. t. long. erect. Ceylon. COM. L. C. ovoid. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. mid-lobe the longest. Rozelle. sedative and refrigerant. tropics of the old world. Sd. Konkan. Madhavi. flowers. Ghats. acuminate. Kamuka. white. NS. base cuneate.—axillary. Fl.) FAM. Lal ambari. Fl. beaked. 10-18 X 4. asafoetida and molasses. elliptic-oblong.—coriaceous. fringed. much used in curries. H. Malati. Madhavi. stem and branches purple. across. DISTR. C. Fibres. 1. Grows abundantly on the W. long. clawed.lobes oblong. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Leaves. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties.— solitary. Ragotpiti. Kanara. Kempupundrike.—Oct. NS. Haladvel. purple. :—G. Sk. and adding a little salt. Madhavi. :—E. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Atimukta. Kampti. 3-winged.—purple with darker centres. Lal ambadi. Madhalata. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. COM. Fl. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria.—capsule. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.5 cm. (lower leaves sometimes entire). 3-5 lobed. LOC. K. Fr.—large. pepper. covered with minute hairs .3-7.5 cm. Sd. hairy. Vasantduti. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Red sorrel. often blotched with purple with darker centre.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. :—An annual.. See—Vegetables.-Mar. Atimukta. Patwa.—1-3. involucral bracts 10.—5-7. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. globose. black-brown. Madhumalati.—in erect racemes. LOC. CHAR. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. fragrant. H. petioles silky. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. serrate. t. CHAR. Vasantduti. Vasanti. . FAM. :—Cultivated. Madhavi.—Malvaceæ.— Jany.2-2 cm. Pundi-bija or soppu. orbicular.

Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. Karohi. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. broadly ovate or elliptic. Kaduoindrajav. lumbago. heating. diuresis (Yunani). white. Hath. Kutaja. Bark—bitter. :—Throughout the State. piles. C—tubular. aphrodisiac. Kuda. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. excessive menstrual flow. leprosy. Circars.. asthma. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). LOC. Flowers— acrid. colic. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. Nepal. often dotted with white spots. Indrayana. cylindric. bitter. Mt. H. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Seeds—carminative. cures dysentery. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. :—E. PROPERTIES. acrid. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves.—10-20 X 5-11. Malay Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Bark. bleeding piles. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Karuindrayan. Kurchi tree. Thailand (Siam). HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. cough. given in chest affections. LOC. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines.. Abu. Sd. Burma. smoke good for piles. NS. diarrhœa. cooling. tonic. fatigue. urinary discharges. Kura. Siwalik. Kumaon. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. styptic. DISTR. Hale. See—Ornamental Plants. boils. vulnerary. leaves. galactagogue. skin and spleen diseases. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. LOC. thirst. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma.—Apocynaceæ. vulnerary. cause "Vata". Sk.— in terminal corymbose cymes . remove "Tridosh". main nerves conspicuous . fevers. biliousness. ulcers. leucoderma . Karnatak. good in chronic bronchitis. Kudsalu. cool the brain. Fl. t. Seeds—appetiser. strengthens gums. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. CHAR. flowers and seeds. astringent to bowels cure pains. good in headache. long. leprosy. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). tonic. branchlets drooping. Kuda. inodorous. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Leavesastringent. appetiser cure blood diseases. K. Dudhi.—follicles 20-48 cm. L. thirst and inflammation. anthelmintic. Fr. insecticidal. Assam. lessens inflammations. burning sensation. Ceylon. remove muscular pains . wounds. AND USES :—Bark—pungent.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. N. good in erysipelas. burning sensation. Madras State. acrid. FAM. " Kapha". Kodasige. Conessi bark tree. Andamans. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Kaling. FL. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies.-June.—Feb.5 cm. throat hairy inside.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . M. skin diseases. G. COM. China. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Veppale. biliousness. Pandhara Kuda.

Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. The grains contain vitamin B. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. useful in fevers. good for ulcers. Sk. asthma. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Suj. PARTS USED :—Seeds. G. Yava. bronchitis. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Jawa. LOC. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. 1928). allays thirst. LOC. anæmia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tasteless. widely cultivated in temperate regions. NS. DISTR. Ymvah. K. burns. malt sugar and diastase. Javegodhi.—Gramineæ. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Jav. useful in bronchitis. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. dysentery and intestinal worms. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. Java. fevers (Yunani). with radicle attached to it. H. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. . In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. useful in biliousness. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. —Cultivated chiefly in N. nor styptic. especially cod-liver oil. India. :—E. causes constipation. COM. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. Knowles. nor astringent. headache. inflamed gums. diarrhœa. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. stomachic. pains in chest. See—Food Plants. FAM. aphrodisiac. improves voice. Germinated barley. M. fattening. (R. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. demulcent and expectorant. Gaz. febrifuge. sweetish. acrid. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). Divya. Aug. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. They are also used after delivery. kurchine. Satu. biliousness. appetiser. Med. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. Shaktu. Barley. They are astringent. lowers the pulse. Ind. Hayapriya. and kurchicine. Jav.

USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Sk. NS.—Bixaceæ. Dondra. Bhanina. Betaga. FL. more or less coriaceous. dioecious . Bandaru. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Kastel.) FAM. Common in N. Bhrijatuaka. Sk.—Rubiaceæ. tomentose. Malabar. Kowti. M. DISTR. sometimes along river banks. DISTR. Bharnarasalya. Phaldu. .8-7.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . COM. camphor and lime-juice.—numerous. K. Garudphala. Ugragandha. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Amarachala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. LOC. sulphur. size of small apple. LOC.—solitary or in racemes. acuminate. Peninsula. H. CHAR. M. pungent. For scald-head. broadly ovate. 12. C. Bihar. white. Madhya Pradesh. globose or ovoid. Fr. COM. Fl. Kshiradru. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. :—G. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. Bhutabi. increases taste and appetite. Bhorsal.—Apl.5 cm. flat.5-23 X 3. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Sd. Ghats. PROPERTIES AND LOC. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Gandele. Doti. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Kadukavata. bitter. common in Travancore. L. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch.—Jany. Dondru. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition.. :—W. Country and Kanara. S.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. high. good for the throat. Bhringamallika. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. Bhoswar. young parts brown pubescent. Kanara evergreen forests. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. :—K. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Garudphala. t.—berry. See—Oils. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. Southern and Western India. M. Niradivittulu. NS. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests .118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM.

Fl. Sk. black with white scanty coma. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). upper constricted. Kalaka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. fever. Kalmisag. Country. :—G. Nalanibhaji. trichotomous cymes.8 cm. S. Fr. Kalaghantika. acute. prostrate. base rounded. COM. straight or slightly curved. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. :—More or less throughout India. biliousness. 10-15 cm. the powdered wood is used for herpes. Gorwiballi. NS.—4-5-7 X 2-3. In Indo-China. :—Throughout the State. L. M. Sd. The outer layer is tasteless.—Nov. Kanara.—capsule. Java. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. FAM.-Dec. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. L. Siamalata. :—Annual or biennial herb. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Pechuli. H.2 -7. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk.—Apocynaceæ. :—A large twining shrub . thick. Gopini.—5-12.—follicle. hollow. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. cylindric . USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. " Vata ". vomiting. DISTR. Bhadra. glabrous above. M.—in axillary and terminal. C. stems long. FAM.-Apl. t. Br. Sd. See—Timbers. Fr.—1-5 flowered peduncles . Australia. ovoid . . Kanara. Fl. Fodder Plants.5x 3. cooling. NS. very common in Gujarat. LOC. pubescent. elliptic oblong. middle portion much inflated. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. throat and tube dull purple .—Convolvulaceæ. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Sariva. Chandangopa. Karmi. Nalichibhaji. :—H. Kalidudhi. rooting at the nodes .— Nov. LOC.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Fl. young branches finely fulvous tomentose .—tube with narrow portion below. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. rusty pubescent. t.. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests.—linear. Common in the evergreen forests of N. :—Konkan. numerous . CHAR.5 cm. Kalambika. CHAR. aphrodisiac.—4 or 2. cordate or hastate. Kantebhovari. COM. Karihambu. very slender. Sk. C. lobes obscure . Nadika. X 4 cm. greenish white. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. stalks and leaves. trailing on mud or floating. Potuasaga. M. Shradhashaka. Krishnasariva. FL. cures " Kapha ". LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. thirst. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. blood diseases.

Giant potato . alterative. pale. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. burning sensation. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. Fl. thick. root large. indigestible.—10-15 cm. " Kapha " . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. liver complaints. LOC. purple. ovate-lanceolate. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. (Ayurveda). NS. aphrodisiac. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. DISTR. :—Perennial. Africa. blood diseases. anthelmintic. LOC. gonorrhœa and inflammation. Bhunichahragadde. anthelmintic . (Yunani). useful in leprosy. dry. leprosy. Sd. t. biliousness. . :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . lessens inflammation. L. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests.3 cm. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. cures biliousness. (Yunani).8—6. carminative. enclosed in fleshy sepals. improves voice and complexion. K. often broader than long. galactagogue. diuretic. being regarded as tonic.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. stomachic. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. Carminative. lobes 5-7. ovoid. peduncle solitary axillary. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Australia in moist climate. Bhumikushmanda. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Bilaikand . See—Gums and Resins. :—Throughout India. CHAR. vomiting. Fl. Root—heating. Flower causes " Vata ". increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). 3. Nila-kumbala. expectorant. glabrous. stimulant. entire. deeply palmately divided. aphrodisiac. long. jaundice. useful in leucoderma. long. galactagogue.—Convolvulaceæ. Kanara sea coast. flowers (rarely). bronchitis. M. Sk. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. Swadu Vidarikand. 4-celled. H. In Burma. stem long. leaves. :— E. FAM.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Ceylon. near sea coast. 4-valved. to children in case of emaciation. COM. tropical Asia. LOC. Leaves enrich blood.—capsule. Fr.—in. biliousness and fevers. Africa and Australia. demulcent and lactagogue. debility and want of digestive power. tropical Asia. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. alterative. twining. useful in fever. tonic. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. useful in syphilis. America. Bhuikohala. appetiser.-July-Sept. also useful in liver complaints.

Purgative. FAM. abdominal diseases. CHAR. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). :—A herb . Africa.—dark chestnut coloured . and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). headache. stems twining.—capsule. DISTR. LOC. H. :—Western Peninsula. Kaladanah. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. carminative. M.—Convolvulaceæ. broad.— yellow. bechic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. crenate.—capsule. Sk. creeping and rooting at the nodes. Undirkani. deeply three-Iobed. Sk. Sd. K. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Indian jalap. COM. S.5 cm. filiform. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. stems many.—3. leucoderma. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. COM. Mirchai.5 cm. CHAR. H. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. Shyamala-bijak. believed to be of American origin. Vrishchikparni. blue tinged with pink. Fl. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. The plant contains a glucoside.:—Throughout India. Musekani. Fl. diam. LOC. in the Himalayas. diseases of head. Fl. pains in joints.-Oct.3-2. scabies and biliousness. reniform or ovate-cordate.— 4-6. G. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. Fr. long tubular funnel-shaped. Nilvel. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. Fr. sparsely hairy. dries the phlegm. :—G. L. DISTR. Sd. . Undirkani. lobes ovate. 3-celled. petioles hairy. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Nilpushpa.. ovate-cordate. :—Konkan. LOC. Kalokumpo. See—Ornamental Plants. Morning glory. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. bracts linear. Ganribij. M. L. :—An annual herb.—Convolvulaceæ. E. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. glabrous . Deccan. Kaladana.8-5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. anthelmintic. M. C. :—E.) FAM. subglobose or ovoid.—1. subglobose. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Ceylon.-5-12. NS. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. useful in liver and spleen diseases. clothed with long hairs.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . Country. t. surrounded by ciliate sepals. S. cures inflammations. K. axillary. tropical Africa. fevers. NS.—Sept.

strangury. Nishoth. :— E. DISTR. pedicels thickened upwards. paralysis. removes bad humours. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. root long. heart and abdomen. LOC.—5-10 X 1. cooling. M. base cordate or truncate . white variety is a mild cathartic. Sk. long. laxative. pungent. Kalaparni.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. G. Indian rhubarb. when used alone . 3. bladder. Triputi. useful in bilious fevers. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani).—Oct. expectorant. leucoderma. Common in southern Gujarat. muscular pains. Nishottara. pains of chest and joints. also in the Konkan and N. Pithori. Philippines. C. Nashotar. Nahatara. ovate or oblong. :—Throughout India. applied in diseases of eye and gums. PARTS USED :—Root. acrid. COM. paralysis. CHAR. like others of the genus . carminative. L. uterus. Fl. Turbith root. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta.. laxative. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). useful in spleen enlargement. useful in diseases of kidney. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. NS. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. enclosed in enlarged sepals . wounds. twining and twisted together. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Root with bark should be used. fevers. Kanaka. burning sensation and intoxication. antipyretic. useful in bilious tremors of body. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. Br. H. FAM.3-7 cm. t. good in pain. LOC. Malay Islands. useful in loss of consciousness. globose. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). fistula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. much branched.8-5 cm. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. lungs. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Trivrit. mucronate. bechic. HABITAT :—Wild . Nandi.—capsule.—in few flowered cymes. Fr. Mauritius.—Convolvulaceæ. good for weakness. False-Indian jalap. Root— bitter.-Jany. Ceylon. rarely slightly lobed. bracts large. anæmia. It is also alterative. sometimes cultivated. bronchitis.—white. fleshy. Fl. . anthelmintic. purgative. angled and winged. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. Rechani. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. inflammations. brain diseases. stems very long. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). often pinkish. urethral discharges. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. inflammations and abdominal diseases . K. tropical Africa and America. LOC.

:—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. G. L. sessile. imparipinnate. CHAR. Chambeli. sessile. Chambali. Kisukare. M. FAM. stipules . often tinged with pink outside.. wild. t. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. terminal rather larger. :—E. also along river banks. FL—numerous.3 cm. 5-10 X 3. size of a pea. oblong. 3. tube long. across. obtuse . oblong. Anemallige.—ripe carpels 2.2-6. LOC. petiole and rachis margined. Bandhuka. Fr. :—E. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range.3 coriaceous. stipules with a long rigid point. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. Ceylon. intermediate sessile .—opposite.—throughout the year.—globose. Fl. 5-12. C. purple when ripe. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast.5 cm. K. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. leaflets 7-11. Kepala.. :—A large subscandent shrub. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Raktaka. Ajjige. Guddedasal.—Oleaceæ.—opposite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. pale when dry. See—Ornamental Plants.2-6. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. The plant contains glucoside turpethin.—tubular. DISTR.9 m. high. Parali. t. CHAR. distal pair confluent with the terminal. obtuse. proximal petiolulate. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub.—3. very common in Konkan and N. . fleshy. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. in lax axillary and terminal cymes.— Rubiaceæ. Fl. smooth. :—Cultivated throughout India. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. COM. LOC. H. Pendgul. Sk. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. white. :—Western Peninsula. Jai.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. K. FAM. Flame of the woods . Jajimalle. Jati. Bakali. :—Bombay southwards . COM NS. NS.8 cm. of stems and roots. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. M. DISTR. Fl. Sk. Priyanvada. Chambeli. Fr. pale when dry. very slender . L. lobes 4 (rarely). coriaceous. Surabhigandha. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Pankul.—July-Sept. IXORA COCCINEA Linn.

ear. aphrodisiac. Mogro. suppurative. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). teeth. :—Cultivated throughout India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. membranous. Root—purgative. LOC. Banmallika. Mogara. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Sk. Arabian Lily. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. alexiteric. Fl. good in asthma. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. Pramodini. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. Oil—lessens inflammations. Vanchandrika. biliousness. vulnerary. subglobose. leprosy. head. Fr. Chamba. black. Sambac. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. eyes and ear. . usually broadly ovate or elliptic. intoxicating. See—Ornamental Plants.—ripe-carpels 1-2. DISTR. :—A sub-erect shrub. Ananga-mallika. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. very fragrant. Leaves are also used in toothache.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.—white. given in blood diseases. heating. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. biliousness (Ayurveda). FAM. Mallige. brain tonic . good for pains in joints and ear. LOC. Mogra. Plant—deobstruent. cures headache. t. M. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. tonic to brain. L. COM NS. Flower has bitter taste . K. entire. emmenagogue. In Goa. LOC. caries of teeth. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Fl. :—E. anthelmintic. Flowers—tonic. abundant in April-May. diseases of mouth. rheumatism. variable in shape. The plant contains an alkaloid. expectorant. CHAR. it is used in cases of insanity. emetic. allays fevers . stomatitis. Tuscan jasmine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. H. mouth and skin. Iravantige.—opposite. soporific. paralysis. useful in diseases of eye. See—Ornamental Plants. alexiteric. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. softens skin. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. surrounded by calyx-teeth. Navamallika. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. headache and weak eyes. base rounded or subcordate. flowers and oil. alexiteric. useful in stomatitis. aphthae. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). Motia. G. otorrhoea.—Oleaceæ. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. diuretic. and for scabies (Yunani). scarcely climbing.—more or less throughout the year . ulcers.

Barbados Physic nut. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . urinary discharges. and also promotes healing.—capsule. Simeavadala. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. disk of female flower urceolate. 10-15 X 7. subfleshy. Seeds contain active principle curcin. L. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. " Tridosha".—Euphorbiaceæ. thirst. fruits and seeds. L. Sk. juice sticky opalescent. Sd. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. :—E. abdominal complaints. Jangali erandi. Ratanjot.—monœcious. COM. Fr. G. when applied to boils. multifid. stipules capillary.— alternate.—orbicular. CHAR. Vilayati haralu. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). corolla lobes 5. cordate. useful in chronic dysentery. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. NS. black. Virechani. FAM. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. NS.5-12.5 cm. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. 1. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. The acrid. French or Small physic nut. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. Kananerand. LOC. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. COM.5 cm. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn.5-12. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. have suppurative effect. Sk. 7. Sutashreni. Dundigu.8 cm. DISTR. broadly ovate. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. . large.—ovoid oblong. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. Mogali—Ran-erand. Bhadradanti. anaemia. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil.5 mm.—in flat-topped cymes. Fl. garden shrub . Coral plant. male flowers. villous within. long-petioled. 7. Jyotishka. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. CHAR:—A handsome. fistula. Jangali—Pahari erand. M. leaves. Fl. H.. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. 3-lobed. longer than calyx.—E. dull brownish black. across. yellow. long. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. coral-red.—Euphorbiaceæ. K. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). The seeds act as drastic purgative. diam. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. K.— ovoid. LOC. biliousness. herpes. PARTS USED :—Wood. Akhuparnika. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. :—Native of tropical America.

all over the State. K. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle .6-1. fattening tonic . hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. COM. often met with in Bengal.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. Kala adulsa. Bakas. branches subterete with raised lines.—Ghati pitpapda. In Cambodia. NS. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. CHAR. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). vaginal discharges. in interrupted spikes. NS. FAM. Karambal. Kalmashi.—Acanthaceæ. FAM. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. L. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. hot. LOC. :—Bomb. DISTR. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally.—Acanthaceæ. enlarged spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent.5 cm. high . heating. LOC. Nachukaddi.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nilmanjari. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. bitter. useful in piles. LOC. :—H. " Vata ' and "Pitta". wild in Tenasserim. HABITAT :—Shady positions. wounds. purple within. Bhutakeshi. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. Nilinirgandi. DISTR. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). pains. Shindhuka. Fr. native of N. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. dry .2 m. Sk. America. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. purgative. skin-diseases.5-12. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. COM.—capsule. causes " Kapha ". Seed— oleaginous. long. :—A native of China. Karinchki. leaves. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. fevers. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. LOC. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. 7. Fl. clavate glabrous. aphrodisiac. M. Krishna-nirgundi.5 cm.—white spotted. rheumatism and dysentery. tympanitis. M. useful in bronchitis. 5-12. dyspepsia. . eye diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Leaves are used in scabies. inflammations.

. lying flat on the ground. thirst. Fr. :—N. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. Fl. Ceylon.. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. round. :—Konkan. Tubers yield an essential oil. obtuse at both ends. DISTR. ovate or lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. upper lip notched. :— H. Maval in the Deccan. petioles channelled. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. 6. fever.—2-lipped. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. tired feeling. Fl.—2. removes indigestion.—612 from the centre of the plant. COM. LOC. C. Chandramulika. stops vomiting. LOC. M. fugacious. Malay Islands.5 X 4. vomiting. softly pubescent. root-stock tuberous. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. Kachchura . Deccan. burning of body. t. . Australia. CHAR. Fl.— June-July. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . HABITAT :—In hilly parts. purifies blood in skin diseases. Plant diuretic. deep green.—Scitaminaceæ. L. gives lustre to eyes. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). constricted between the seeds . L. Kapurkachri. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. P. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. diuretic. good in spleen diseases. Panchgani. :—More or less throughout India. (Yunani). K. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. diaphoretic. oblong shortly pointed. FAM. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Madras State. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). Sugandhavachai.:—Stemless herb. t. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. urinary discharges. Sk. LOC.—capsule. oval. wandering of mind. pale violet pink.5-9 cm. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. :—Western Peninsula. Travancore. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. Western Ghats .—finely tuberculate. tube funnel-shaped . intoxication. spreading horizontally. Malaya. Fl. constipating . biliousness. NS. pure-white. elliptic. Konkan. enriches blood.-Mar. fragrant.—variable.—in cylindric terminal spikes. Cultivated in gardens.—Oct. thin. strengthens lungs.—lobes lanceolate. South Konkan.3-12. aromatic. teeth. Chandramala. Kachri. lower 3-lobed . Sd. increases " Vata ".

annulate .5 cm. Coorg. S. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. COM. margins undulate. Kanara. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. Country. FAM. Halagumbala. Fl. COM. :—M. long. :—An aquatic herb. inflorescence of many ovaries. NS. FAM. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. Kaddu. Fr. coriaceous.. CHAR. Sk. oblong. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . H. M. L. LOC. M. creeping. remedy for itch. Bottle-gourd. It is useful to anasarcous swellings.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. CHAR. Nelasampige . semicylindric.5-10 cm. :—Mysore. of various shades of purple and white.—30X7. K.5-23 cm. LOC. Sk. FAM. Lauka. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. —Feb. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Dudhi. t. N. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Bhuichapha. spathe 7. Bhuchampaka. Fl. t.-Mar.—15-37. elliptic-oblong. Dudio Tumbada. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. The whole plant. tubular below.-Apl. COM. furrowed. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. Cochin.—globose 3. Tubers yield an essential oil.— sweetly fragrant.. Alkaddu. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds.— inflorescence. Malay Islands. Tumbaka.8-5 cm. Dudhya bhopala. Calabash.—Scitaminaceæ. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Aroideæ.. :— G. in many cycles. Katutumbi. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Cucurbitaceæ. Travancore.. G. used in the form of poultice. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Ceylon. Bhuichampo . rootstock reaching 5 cm. Fl. Labuka. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Kadu bhopala. NS. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. promotes suppuration.. Danta-bija. Bhuichampa . NS. simple. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. M. female cylindric. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Vatsanabhi.—narrowly oblong. midrib very stout. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. :—Stemless plant. crowded in a globose bead . :—E. L. yellow. . K. anthers crowded. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. very poisonous . thick. entire.5 X 5-12. diam. PROPERTIES AND LOC. petiole as long as blade. DISTR. Fl.

pains (Ayurveda). It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. fattening. alexiteric. sweet. Nirbendeka: M. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. fruits and seeds. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. diuretic. fruits and seeds. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. Seeds emetic (Yunani). Taman. LOC. K. Ceylon. cures leucorrhoea. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. earache. Sk. NS. "Vata". Fruit good in bronchitis. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. earache. Ornamental Plants. Flowers cooling. improves taste. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. USES :— Leaves are purgative. piles. scalding of urine. vulnerary. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . See—Timbers. bitter variety is diuretic. :—Western Peninsula. anti-periodic. See—Vegetables. cures asthma. causes bronchitis. laxative. Assam. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. :—H. In the Andamans. Challa. . the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. Malaya. bitter. inflammations. LOC. DISTR. ulcers. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. in many cases only cultivated. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. Tarul. wholesome to fœtus. flowers. refrigerant and anti-bilious. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. leaves. seeds are narcotic. wild (rarely). PARTS USED :—Root. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. LOC. brain-tonic. Bandhara. anti-bilious. China.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. Konkan Ghats. fever. styptic. DISTR. Bark and leaves are purgative. cardiac and general tonic. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice.) FAM. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Holematti. dry cough. antipyretic. There are two varieties. flatulence. bark. emetic. PARTS-USED :—Root. leaves. bronchitis. Seeds—good for hot constitution. cures blood diseases. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. LOC:—North Kanara and S. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. muscular pains. aphrodisiac. Arjuna. lessens inflammations. Flesh of fruit is diuretic.—Lythraceæ. cause haemoptysis. Arjuna. oleaginous. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. increases "Vata". cooling. COM. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers.

dense terminal heads 2.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). causes much flatulence. yellow. common on the Supa Ghats. Kassar. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. COM. FAM. silky beneath. Gorantha. Yavaneshta. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts .5-3. :—E. cooling. Lakh. :—Konkan southwards. K. Khesari. burning. K.—in erect.. oblong flat. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. COM. M. pain. D. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Latri. :—A much branched large shrub. piles and wandering of the mind. See—Food Plants.—ellipsoid-oblong. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. Henna plant. Sandika. Country. tonic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Medika. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. Chickling—White vetch. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. perianth-tube densely silky villous . Lang. Belgaum hills . LOC. Peninsula—Ceylon. heart-troubles. S. M.5 cm. Fl.8 cm. (Ayurveda). Mendi. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Kukurgal. NS. Rametha. NS. bark mottled. G. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Madaranga. FAM. inflammation. :—W. LOC. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. N.—Thymelaeaceæ. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. DISTR. Triputi. Rami. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. oblong lanceolate. improves taste. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. but dangerous cathartic. Sk. Mehndi. Deccan hills. Wooly-headed gnidia. Ragangi. The bark is used to poison fish. subsessile. Medi. common at Mahabaleshwar.—Dec-May. :—E. M. Kanara. The oil from the seeds is a powerful..—Lythraceæ. Nakharanjaka. Mukute.5 X 2-2. (B. 5-7. Fr. DISTR. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. L. lameness. . lobes 4.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. COM. Basu). Fl. Sk.—opposite or scattered. CHAR. t. Tree mignonette. enclosed in the perianth . diam. pointed. G. :—E. glabrous above. swellings etc. Grains contain vitamin A. FAM.

Sd. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. Masura. wild in Arabia. cure strangury tumours. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . & Gib. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. Flowers are refrigerant. The plant contains a glucoside. indigenous in S. supported by persistent calyx. Sk. K. LOC. G. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. diuretic. Masuridal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Iran and Baluchistan. ophthalmia. Lentil. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. Chanangi. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. dysentery. t. flowers. PROPERTIES. Sura. planted as hedge. allay burning sensation. Belgaum and Poona districts. stomatitis. mucronate. syphilitic sores.—opposite. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. expectorant. seeds. LOC. See—Dyes. H. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. globose. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. Massur.—Apl-July. fragrant. in diseases of heart and of . Leaves are valuable external application In headache. HABITAT:—Cultivated.—in terminal. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Europe and in temperate W. cure leucoderma. The oil and essence keep the body cool. white or rose coloured . Ceylon. cure insanity (Ayurveda). Gurubija. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. finger nails and hair.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—E.—angular. DISTR. truncate. boils. Gabholika. improve appetite. :—Grown in Nasik. COM. Leaves—bitter. lateral branches 4-gonous. veined outside. PARTS USED :—Leaves. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. bronchitis. Fl. vulnerary. L.). Masur. Fl. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. Fr. useful in headache. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. ulcers. Ragadali. diuretic. often ending in spinous point. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. amenorrhœa.—capsule. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. Masur. diseases of spleen. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). enriches blood. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. favours hair-growth. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. DISTR. FAM. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. Asia. many. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. useful. scabies. pyramidal and panicled cymes. NS. E. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . lumbago. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. LOC. M. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. skin diseases .

bitter. Fr. aperient. and muscular pains. bronchitis. They contain vitamin B. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. diuretic. Grains contain vitamins A and B. good for pain in abdomen. cures dysentery . affections of spleen. aphrodisiac. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Suvasura. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. H. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Fl. Hurfi. chest complaints. :—An erect glabrous annual. blood and skin diseases. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. eye diseases (Ayurveda). :—E. . tumours and injuries. aphrodisiac . Chandrashura. Seeds contain fatty oil. CHAR. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). enrich blood. Ashalika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. tonic.—Cruciferæ. LOC. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Hot and dry. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. the lower petiolate. useful in diseases of chest. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. LOC. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Ahaliva. C—petals 2-4 or 0. tonic. stomatitis . very likely indigenous in W. Chandrika. :—Cultivated throughout India. Leaves are used as pot-herb. Halim . galactagogue. Raktabija. good in inflammations. L. Sk. Allibija. Kurutige. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Seeds—indigestible. K. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. constipating. DISTR.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. COM. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr).132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables. Asia. Halim. leaves and seeds. rheumatism. FAM. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Asahio. G. bronchitis. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. See-Food Plants. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . upper sessile. often with linear segments . bechic. Garden cress . PARTS USED :—Root. The covering is styptic and astringent. M. NS.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Chavnsar.—small. LOC. white. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). laxative.

Sk. aphrodisiac. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. emmenagogue.— globose. urinary complaints. used in consumption. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. dysentery. hard to digest. G. COM. Jivanika.—Linaceæ. Haimwati. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Alsi. glossy dark-green above. Common tallow laurel. "Pitta". Fr. CHAR. "Kapha". bark somewhat corky. inflammations. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. 7. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Alashi. Roasted seeds are astringent. :—Cultivated throughout India. Malina. 8-12 together in heads.—Lauraceæ. :—E. remove biliousness. Alshi. boils. remove "Vata". :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. NS. Javas . with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. LOC. galactagogue. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson).:—Throughout the Konkan and N. lenticellate. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. L.. DISTR. bronchitis. diuretic. Linseed. Fibres. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. causes loss of appetite. gouty and rheumatic swellings.:—A small evergreen tree. Alasi. tonic. lead to impotency. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. urinary discharges .:—E. Fl. perianth lobes wanting. FAM. Maidelakri. LOC. Alsi. heal ulcers.. M. See—Oils. native country probably Egypt. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. Seeds contain vitamin A. Tailottama. base narrowed. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Medini. pale beneath. H. colds and throat complaints. usually alternate. NS. LOC. burnt bark styptic and healing. . yellowish. Seeds—mucilaginous. black. hot. branchlets densely tomentose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Common flax. FAM.—crowded at the ends of branches. COM. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Sedhavi. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. diam. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Fl. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. M. t. Country.5 mm. Tisi. Sk. cure leprosy. Garbijaur. seeds and oil. Alashi.—May-July. supported by the thickened pedicel. Kanara. Maidalakadi. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. K. leaves. bad for eyesight. good for cough and kidney troubles. back-ache. M. aphrodisiac . USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. flowers. Madagandha.

Nali. acrid. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. leaves. burning sensation. Dhaval. Ranturai. Sd. lobes linear. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. branched upwards. fever. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism.-Mar. G. LOC. tonic. galactagogue. subglobose. Dhamana. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Australia. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. midrib white. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Ridge gourd. biliousness.5-3. Deccan and S. overheated brains. Fr. opening by 2 valves. C—2-lipped. COM. LOC. all oblong. Kalahogesoppu. many. consumption. DISTR. Leaves are mucilaginous. expectorant. aphrodisiac.9 cm. thirst. K. heart. nearly sessile. bitter. Bibhishana. Katukoshataki. diseases of blood. . COM. M. :—Konkan. paralysis. L. Jhinga. It acts as anodyne. CHAR. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". 1. LOC.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. useful in inflammations. Kahire.—Lobeliaceæ. FAM. "vata".2-3 m. G. H. Kandele.—numerous.—Nov. aphrodisiac. Sk.—. Devnal. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. SK. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . lanceolate. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. 2. M. cure cough. bark. Divali. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. long. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. burning sensation. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. AMARA Clarke. much curved. NS. very small. stomachic. long. pains in joints. Wild tobacco. K. useful in biliousness. Malay Islands.—Cucurbitaceæ. spleen diseases. lower much longer. M.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. white. t. vagina.—capsule. stem stout. Ceylon. Nal. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. NS. heating. Narsala. diuretic. Mrityupushpa. fruits and seeds. 3 usually connate throughout . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. FAM. Sthulanala. leprosy (Ayurveda). strangury. uterus. yellowish brown . Fl. Root—astringent. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. light green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. Narttaka.—alternate. aphrodisiac. Kadudodka. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Devanala. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. Karvituri.100 m. high. Country. hollow. throat troubles. Fl. :—E. finely serrulate. Ghontali. Jalini.

ascites. 10-ribbed. DISTR. Pokka. cough. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. carminative. USES. piles. hydrogogue.—obovoid.—petals yellow with green veins .:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Moha. bitter. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Madhusrava. cures "Vata". :—Plant is bitter. H. W. leucoderma. Madhya Pradesh. Sk. at first whitish and softly villous. fruit and seeds. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Mahua tree. jaundice.—small. Fruit cures fever. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. 5-10 cm. K. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. piles. diuretic. pale green. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. tonic to intestines. Fl. recommended in splenic enlargement. Fr. Mahura. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. uterine and vaginal tumours . LOC. Bengal to the W. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. tendrils usually 3-fid. tumours. base cordate. alexiteric. Root-bark is abortifacient. leaves. especially in western Peninsula. DISTR. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. bitter.) FAM. thick.—Sept. obtusely conical at both ends. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). L. Mahua. biliousness. Fl. Mahula. COM. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. females. asthma. :—E. cathartic. inflammations. liver complaints. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Kanara (rare) . tonic and diuretic. long and about 2. palmate. :—Throughout India.. also in Konkan and N. acrid.8 cm. at length scabrid. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. . PARTS USED :—Leaves. Doddippa. Butter tree. PARTS USED :—Bark. "Kapha". anæmia. stems 5-angled. 5-7 lobed. Mhowra. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Gudapushpa. Hunage. tuberculous glands. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani).:—A large climber. Mowda. Mowa. NS. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. asthma. bronchitis. useful in rat-bite. Mahuda. Ceylon. Burma. cures urinary discharges.—monœcious. t.53. laxative. G. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. digestible. LOC. Madhuka. solitary in the same axil as males. C. flowers and fruits. thrives in Deccan trap.—Sapotaceæ. M. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin.

aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. Liquors. fixed oil and a spirit. Mohwa. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Kapilo.—Euphorbiaceæ.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid.) FAM. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Mehua. Madhuka. Movanuhjad. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Mysore. DISTR. cures blood diseases. tonic and nutritive. Monkey-face tree. There is a trace of alkaloid. leprosy. Movaro. bronchitis. USES :—Astringent and emollient. FAM. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. burning sensation. M. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections.—Sapotaceæ. causes "Kapha". Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. :—Western peninsula. K. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. LOC. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. and also a remedy for itch. Flowers—oleaginous. astringent. and appetiser (Sushruta). COM. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. tonic. expectorant. Flower—sweet. Fruit-tonic . G. anthelmintic. Oils. yields two important products. Oils. used in fractures. Sk. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Karnatic. Honey tree. and Kanara. Kambhal Raini. K. Huli. heals wounds . Mahuda. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Kampillaka. Famine Plants. consumption. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Bark. . USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). :—E. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Mohache jhad. Kesarimavu. cures biliousness. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. H. Moha. thirst. :—Konkan. Kapila. Sk. fattening. Kamala. M. COM. LOC. good in heart diseases.. :—-E. fatigue . Kapila. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. flowers act as a mild purgative. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. India . Ceylon. Mahuva of S. and Upper Burma. often planted. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. H. Shendri. flowers and oil. Ippe. ulcers. G. cooling. NS. See—Timbers. galactagogue. Hullichillu. carminative. Oil—emollient (Yunani).

HABITAT :—Common everywhere. improves cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). liver. heals ulcers. diseases of abdomen. dispels langour and burning of body. Fruit—heating. NS. purgative. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. LOC. LOC. alexiteric. bronchitis. Sikkim. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Bhutan. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. G. Mango tree. Astringent. cooling. :—-Throughout the State. DISTR. Cuckoo's Joy. PARTS USED :—Root. sweet. dysentery. COM. K. hiccup. leaves. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. tonic. Ceylon. Ambo. Am. H. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). "Kapha". vomiting.—Anacardiaceæ. spleen. flowers. Sahakara. aphrodisiac. used in chronic diarrhœa. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. stomachic. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. Mavu. stone in bladder. good in cough. Kanara. LOC. anthelmintic. China. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). Sind. styptic. Introduced. thirst. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. vaginal troubles. Dyes. appetiser. Amri. cause flatulence and constipation. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. cure leucorrhoea. sour. fruits and seeds. :—Throughout tropical India. Bihar. tumours. removes bad smell from mouth. bad blood. styptic. diuretic. DISTR. maturant. wounds. M. laxative. purgative. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. Gum . improves complexion. astringent to bowels. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. piles. biliousness. Seeds-astringent to bowels. fruits and seeds. "Pitta". leaves. lessen intestinal pains. beautifies complexion. Mavin-mara. detergent. good in dysentery. :—E. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. cooling. Amba. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). vulnerary. cultivated throughout the State. throat troubles. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Australia. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. tonic to body. Burma. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. :—Tropical Himalayas. carminative. a good collyrium (Yunani). Amra. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. good in heart trouble. useful in bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. urinary discharges. FAM. in "Tridosh". Ghats and the Satpudas. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). chronic dysentery and gleet. ulcers. Khasia Hills. enriches blood. anthelmintic. clears brain. Malay Islands. improve taste and appetite. Rasala. wild and cultivated. Kamarasa. cure "Vata". it exudes a pink coloured gum. liver pain. vermifuge and. useful in skin-diseases. Chuta.

urinary discharges. Khandodi. G. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. . biliousness. Ceylon.) FAM. M. Juss. Madhumalati. USES.—rotate with broad lobes. :—A large twining shrub. LOC. Sd.—6. LOC. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Fl.—many. Kadulimb. rugosely striate. M. :—Deccan and S. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. C. Nimba.5 cm. Fruit Trees. all plains districts of Madras State. piles. useful in bleeding piles. fleshy. asthma. Nimla. Harandori. Sk. Fl.—broadly ovate. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. inflammations. Sk. tumours. Confection made from ripe mango juice. overlapping to the right. Country. DISTR.. pale yellowish brown.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. :—-E. H. stops nasal bleeding. Nimbaka. COM. margined. COM. :—G. green or yellowish green. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. L. few glands above the petiole cordate . :—Bengal.—Asclepiadaceæ. antipyretic. cooling. Hari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Limbra.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. useful in diseases of eye. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. aphrodisiac. leucoderma. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. NS. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. slightly tapering to a very blunt point.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. t. CHAR. Assam. See—Timbers.—follicles. Ripe fruit is laxative. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Nakchhikni. Java. Balant nimba.—Apl. Suparnika. corona lobes large. Dodi. Nimba. Dugdhike . flattened. with lenticels and black dots.—Meliaceæ. Nim or Margosa tree. rat-bite (Ayurveda). M. long. H. good for dyspepsia. K. alexiteric. cures "Vata". astringent to bowels. Ambri. Paribhadraka. Juice of kernel. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Limbada. NS. Kharkhodi.3-15 X 4. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Nim. Hemajyoti-valli. broadly ovate or suborbicular.5-11. older branches ash coloured. 7.) FAM. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. coma copious . if snuffed. It is also anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Fr. Bevu. burning sensation. K.5-10 cm.

bruises. stomachic. tonic. maturant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. convalescence. it is a general vermifuge. leprosy. expectorant. insecticidal. swollen glands. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. and loss of appetite. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. tonic and antiperiodic. piles. alexiteric. biliousness. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. burning sensation near heart. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. relieves "Kapha". fruits and seeds." vomiting. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. lumbago. DISTR. sprains. Ranmethi. Sk. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. bad taste in the mouth. H. FAM.. blood complaints. toothache. urinary discharges. lessens inflammation. resolvant. piles. PARTS USED :—Root. good in ophthalmia. fever. . maturant. fatigue. useful in syphilitic sores. boils. chronic leprosy. "pittadosh. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. cough. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . antiperiodic. See—Timbers. carminative. Tonic. thirst. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. valuable in consumption. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . astringent. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). Burma. LOC. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). refrigerant. Small melilot. cures ulcers and inflammations . :—E. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. leucoderma. leaves. bark. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. earache. anthelmintic. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. general debility. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. stimulant and stomachic. rheumatism . Oils. anthelmintic. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. NS. asthma. for unhealthy ulcers. M. LOC. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. aphrodisiac. pectoral. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. The flowers are stimulant. tumours. flowers. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. good for leprosy. skin diseases. COM. Vanmethika. Banmethi.

Bilari. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. Fr. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . Iran.—Labiatæ. Fr. Pudinah.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. tapering at both ends. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. HABITAT :—In hedges. introduced into many other regions. given as a gruel (Murray). Pudina. Chatinmaragu. Agamaki. M. oblanceolate. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). Afghanistan. oblong-ellipsoid. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. male fascicled on short peduncles. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. :—Western Peninsula. L. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. leaves and seeds. . :—An erect annual herb. females sessile. Khasia. Fl. NS. Pudina. high. t. brown. glabrous or slightly hairy. NS. COM. Fl. :—India (tropical zone). base cordate. :—Common in Deccan. :—E. M. 30-45 cm. LOC. very hispid . especially in strained back. stem angular. deltoid-ovate entire. Fl. in spicate close racemes. Ceylon.—one. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies.—3-foliate. ellipsoid. standard exceeding the wings and keel. north Bengal. Country and Gujarat. poultice or plaster for swellings. DISTR. It has expectorant properties to some extent.—size of a pea. M.—small. LOC. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. Ghugri. of terminal rather long. glabrous. Malaya and Africa.— Jany. scabrid.—variable in size. truncate at the apex. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds.—monœcious . Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. "Sikkim. tendrils simple.—pod. H. finally red. COM. Externally used as a fomentation. lobes dentate or serrate . slightly echinulate. S. Assam. Europe. :—H. rounded. FAM. leaflets toothed. G. FAM..—pale yellow. also in S. at first green and variegated with yellow. young parts white-hairy. C. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short.—Cucurbitaceæ. Corn-March mint. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. K. L. DISTR.

PARTS USED :—Bark. dry. asthma. used for cough. Assam. M. Burma Tenasserim. LOC. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Ceylon Iron-wood. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. MESUA FERREA Linn. the upper similar and large. alexipharmic. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Ceylon. North and West Asia. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. good for fevers. useful in liver and spleen diseases. flowers and fruits. none at the top. emmenagogue. tonic to kidneys .—in axillary distant whorls. C. lined with hairs and hairy outside. digestive. Country. Nagkesara. Travancore. Konkan and N. expectorant. toothed. indigestion and cephalagia. L. LOC. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. Oils. Gums and Resins. lilac. Carminative. and stimulant. cardiotonic. Suvarna. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. good in asthma and sweats. smooth. LOC. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals.-narrowed below. China. Kanara. DISTR. COM. stem short. E. :—E. hiccup.—nutlets dry. small tumours. Himalayas. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. thirst. Nagkinjalka. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. sweats. :—E. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. H. NS. DISTR. Fr. :—Western Himalayas. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. blood and heart troubles. diuretic. FAM. Bengal. Andamans. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). ovate. Europe. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. leaves. K. Fl. infusion is given in fevers. sorethroat. The plant is used in chutneys. Nagsampige. In N. S. stalked. USES :—Root. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. binding. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). Naghas. Nagchapha. M. :—A perennial erect herb . See—Timbers. cough. biliousness. Assam Iron-wood. pains in joints (Ayurveda). hairy. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic.—Guttiferæ. Sk.—sub-equally 4-lobed. foul breath. Nagakeshara. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. headache. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. oblong. skin diseases. vomiting. Nagkesara. Kashmir. . lanceolate.

diaphoretic.—4-merous. Lajalu. S. nausea and fevers . Sampige. Champaka. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . "Kapha". good in leprosy. aphrodisiac. clothed with glandular hairs . near temples and in gardens. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. diuretic.. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. cultivated.—Sept. Sone-chapha. Lajjavati. removes worms. Champaka. Surabhi.—Magnoliaceæ. Kanara. H. rachis bristly. evergreen rain-forest of N. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . petioles hairy. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Champo. Champaka. Raktamula. Pivala chapha. Assam. DISTR. Ghats. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. blood affections. rheumatism. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. M. COM. Champa. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. FAM. Bark is aromatic febrifuge.5 cm. Burma. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. high. :—A diffuse under-shrub. :—E. Muthmurika. LOC. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). G. Pilochampo. Sparshalajja. long. M. facilitates micturition. Risemani. diuretic. Lajja. Fl. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Nachike-gidda. 57. "Vata". leaves. Fr. Lajari. G. glabrous above. Dyes. useful in cough. in globose heads. NS. W. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . bark. See—Timbers. Sankochini. stems and branches sparingly prickly. gout. IndoChina. digitate. ophthalmia. Humble plant. also used as purgative. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. destroys poisons. :—Cultivated all over the State. K. Flowers— expectorant. NS. COM. sensative. bile. Yellow champa . pink. Yunnan. L. Sk. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani).142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Vanamallika. stimulant. Sensitive plant.-pod flat. Golden champa. :—E. Fl. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Fruit. . flowers and fruits.—bipin-nate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Lajalu. pinnae 1-2 pairs. K. Flowers-stomachic. Hem-pushpa. Lajjika. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). FAM. LOC. H. rheumatism. 45-90 cm.-Oct. acrid. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. hairy beneath. t. slightly recurved. CHAR. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Lajalu. India.. Suvarna champaka. Sk. Sonchampo. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. remove biliousness. in vertigo.

See—Ornamental Plants. Juice is applied externally. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Malaya. vulnerary. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. smallpox (Yunani). fatigue. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). COM. In Brazil root is used as emetic. K. good for gonorrhœa. Flowers—expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. Kanara and Konkan. burning sensation. cooling. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). cures "Kapha". inflammations. oleaginous. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. Mugule. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. H. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. headache. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. LOC. ulcers. Anangaka. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. DISTR. :—Naturalised throughout India. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. cooling. flowers and fruits acrid. leprosy. Root is resolvent. cultivated in gardens in pots. sweet. Bark cardiotonic. probably a native of tropical America. piles. Mulsari. acrid. Bolsari. fruits and seeds. jaundice. bilious fevers. Baphuli. Fruit causes flatulence. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. NS. leucoderma. vaginal and uterine complaints. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Sk. Root. alexipharmic. Ceylon. cultivated in the tropics. astringent to bowels.—Sapotaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. in piles and fistula. anthelmintic. Bakul. PARTS USED :—Root. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. M. teeth and gum diseases. Borsalli. often planted in gardens. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. biliousness. useful in blood and bile diseases. Kalhala. Mukul. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Sharadika. blood diseases (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Flowers give taste. It is also resolvent and alterative. asthma. Vovali. LOC. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. cures biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. liver complaints. cure blood diseases. Bakul. stomachic. alterative. Seeds fix loose teeth. :—G.:—Western Peninsula. alexipharmic. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Bakula. Bakul. Ranjal. dysentery. leprosy. Kanara. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. bark. nose diseases. DISTR. LOC. Varsuli. flowers. FAM. cure biliousness.

G. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Karelo. Fr. NS. yellow. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. See—Timbers. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . HABITAT -Cultivated. L. Fl. K.—Cucurbitaceæ. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. native of tropical America.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. lessen inflammations (Yunani). Kareli. COM. Fl. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Kandura. Leaves are maturant. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Marvel of Peru. cordate. Hagala. Karela. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. M. good for syphilitic sores. Hagalkai. and rather fleshy stems .—continually in bloom. M. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. LOC. Karavalli. FAM. Karli. each one surrounded by an involucre. :—Grown throughout India. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Four o'clock plant.—membranous. . often ribbed or rugose. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.—E. Karela. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Oils. :—A herbaceous plant. Fruit Trees. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. 30-75 cm. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. blackish. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. t. It is also tonic and febrifuge. Gulbasa . In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. K. FAM. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Krishnakali. H. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Karala. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Carella fruit. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Sk.—large. Sk. Guleaabbas . Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. :—E. it is applied to relieve headache. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. LOC. CHAR. COM. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. NS.—Nyctaginaceæ.

leaves and fruit. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. asthma. tropical Africa. cure "Vata". Kantolan. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea.'. tonic. antipyretic. LOC. laxative. M. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. eye and heart. appetiser. ulcers. rheumatism. Leaves act as galactagogue. lessens expectoration . and America. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . blood diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fruits contain vitamins A. piles. LOC. bronchitis. Plant cures diseases of blood. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. anthelmintic. Fruit—very bitter. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. anthelmintic. carminative. all kinds of poisoning. excessive salivation. etc. laxative. COM. NS. Karehiballi. It is useful in gout. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root.—Cucurbitaceæ. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. S. Fruit— bitter. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. Kanta. Malaya. hiccup. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. :—Throughout India. digestible. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. Ceylon. boils. M. cures biliousness. stomachic. diseases of spleen and liver. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. used in syphilis. Leaves—aphrodisiac. cooling. See—Vegetables. H. Vandhya. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. laxative and authelmintic. urinary discharges. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. piles. erysipelas (Ayurveda). hearttroubles. Fruit—bitter. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. DISTR. Golkandra. "Kapha". leaves and fruit. rheumatism. stomachic. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. anæmia. tumours. :—G. Kartoli. DISTR. Fruit is tonic. Vishakankini. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. burns. cure "Tridosh". Sk. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. fever consumption. stomachic. FAM. sparingly in Konkan. leprosy. anthelmintic. K. Kantoli. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. also in Malaya. hot alexiteric. Country and Gujarat. longpepper. jaundice etc. urinary discharges. antibilious. asthma. bronchitis. Nagarali. and externally in ague as an absorbent. . B and C. urinary calculi. Gid-hagalu. Beksa. Karkotaki.

The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. Munigha. Sk. inflammations. Indian mulberry. Formosa. G. digestible. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Shevaga. M. spleen enlargement. M. See—Vegetables. Burma. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. DISTR. useful in heart-complaints. tumours. stuttering. Famine Plants. Ab. earache. LOC. Ashyuka. Sajina. K.—Rubiaceæ. flowers. Murangi. removes all kinds of pains. Bartondi. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Seglo. Haladipavate. Indian horse radish . leaves and fruits. causes burning sensation. Rochana. Nuggi.—Moringaceæ. eye diseases. NS. H. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. alexiteric. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. H. cultivated throughout India and Burma. :—E. COM. Drum-stick Tree. Mochaka. Mochaka. anthelmintic. dyspepsia. astringent to bowels. NS. also in the Oudh forests. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. . bark. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. China. K. Tagase . The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . :—E. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. LOC. COM. makes blood impure . Al. Segua. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Ak. G. Introduced var. also wild. Aal. leaves. Tikshnamula. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. HABITAT :—Cultivated .146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Saraoji. Sargavo. FAM. Ainshi. all "tridosha" fevers. Ugra. tuberculous glands in neck. "Vata". DISTR. Root-tonic to body and lungs. biliousness . See—Dyes. emmenagogue. fattening. Achchuka. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. ulcers. analgesic. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Guggala. Mulgule. fruits and seeds. Achi. Sk. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. improves appetite. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. internally they are tonic and febrifuge.

ulcerated intestines. diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. diuretic. gout. See—Vegetables. Oils. Madhu pippali. LOC. MORUS INDICA Linn. expectorant. good for inflammations of throat and chest. good for brain. appetiser. Kanara. K. FAM. sweetish. PARTS USED :—Root. Gums and Resins. lumbago. aromatic and acid flavour. laxative. Tut. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. it is cooling laxative. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Tut.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. LOC. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. obstinate asthma. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. Karihannu. biliousness. enriches blood. Fruits contain vitamins A. H. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. turmeric. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Peninsula. common about villages in N. heart. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. cures gleet. lumbago. COM. . expectorant. Siahtut. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. useful in small-pox. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . with garlic. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. DISTR. Sk. enriches blood. White mulberry. The plant contains an alkaloid. salt and pepper. stomatitis. Fruit—tonic. Shetur. Kambali. fattening. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. G. sour. burning sensation (Ayurveda). :—E. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. leaves and fruit. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. piles. NS. Tuda. See—Fruit Trees. Fibres. loss of appetite. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. increases biliousness. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. wounds. cooling. B and C. enlarged spleen or liver. Root is purgative. Tuta. carminative.—Moraceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. urinary discharges. Ambat. Tutri. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. bronchitis. bark. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. epilepsy and hysteria. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. anthelmintic. diuretic. spleen. Leaf paste. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. rheumatism. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). M.

Hasaguni. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. Fr. leaflets membranous. :—E. " Vata ". Kivanch. dark-purple. Fruit— aphrodisiac. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . M. Adam's Fig. juice given for headache. COM. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Kuhili. DISTR. G.. tonic. grey-silky beneath. PARTS USED :—Root. Kunth. Kela. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. tonic. They are used as anthelmintic. Kavatch. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Vanari.3-11. Plantain. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. which produce intensa irritation of skin. Root—emmenagogue. :—An annual twiner.—in drooping racemes.—Oct-Nov. SAPIENTUM O. Nayi songuballi.—pod. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Bale. Banana. MUSA PARADISIACA L. with honey is given in cholera. Var.2 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—E. M. H. HABITAT :—Humid areas . Sd. Havanch. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. sometimes cultivated. Cowhage. lateral very unequal sided. G. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Maoz kela. LOC. Sk.—5-6 small. . Ceylon. HABITAT :—In hedges. Seeds— alexipharmic. petioles 6. spermatorrhoea etc. laxative. Kadvare. K. LOC. silky. Fl. NS. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Atmagupta. K. NS. Kavach. Kadali. L. CHAR. stem. improves blood. pods and seeds. t. COM. DISTR.5x1. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Kela. Kela.—Scitaminaceæ. terminal smaller. cultivated. Sk. Root useful for delirium in fevers. 5-7.) FAM. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Kivanchha. Tikshna. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. turgid-shaped. PARTS USED :—Root. Urustambha. long. flowers and fruit.3 cm. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant.. Rambha. consumption. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. H. Strong root infusion. LOC. 6-30 flowered. Turashi. biliousness . :—Punjab plains. Himalaya up to 1200 m. common in hedges. Kapikachu. Dirghapatra. Goncha. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. cures blood diseases. FAM. leaves.—3-foliate.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Fl.

C. sore-throat. :—Konkan and N. in " Vata". DISTR. biliousness. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. broad at base. appetiser. antidysenteric. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth.— berry. B and C. diabetes. astringent to bowels. Ipparati. Burnt stem is vulnerary. increases appetite. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Root-juice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy.— July-Oct. Fruit—sweet. causes bronchitis . subglobose. Tropical Himalayas. tonic. blood diseases. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Fibres. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. astringent to bowels. deep golden yellow.—tubular. diseases of uterus and vagina. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. Lawsat. heart-burn and colic. lobes broadly ovate. very hairy outside. COM. leprosy. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. good for dry bronchitis. Bhutakes. improves complexion (Ayurveda). t. Fr. broadly elliptic. buds densely hairy. NS. anthelmintic. kidney troubles (Yunani). Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Shrivalli. leaves. flowers and fruit. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Leaves good for scabies and inflammation.--in terminal cymes. aphrodisiac. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. CHAR. tube slender. indigestible . and are used in acidity. dyspepsia. Andamans. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. . Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. strangury. LOC. Fl. See—Fruit Trees. Bellotti. thickens blood. pubescent. :—S. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. :—A rambling shrub. Fl. menstrual disorders.. hairy. Hastygida. consumption and bronchitis. linear. useful in "Kapha". climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. urinary discharges. K.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Serwadh. Root-juice is anthelmintic. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Nagavalli. M. Bedina. tonic. aphrodisiac. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. Sk. stipules twin. FAM. in thirst. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. :—H. PARTS USES :—Root. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. ear-pain. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Assam. Kanara. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts.

Malati. diuretic. all over the State. LOC. It is used as a substitute for true mace. fruits and oil. It is credited with opposite qualities. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. ovate to lanceolate. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. A decoction is employed. False nutmeg. emmenagogue. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. black when ripe. is regarded as. They are given in asthma. NS. very sweet smelling. :—Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND LOC. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . Ram-patri. cures headache. Myrtle. especially epilepsy. CHAR. M. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. W. FAM.— Myristicaceæ. smoke beneficial to piles. COM. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. common in the Kumta taluka. Kaiphal. Fl. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). :—Western Peninsula. :—E. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Kanage. Habules. Malati. white. Galen and the Arabian writers.—Myrtaceæ. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. as . HABITAT :—Rain-forests. used in stopping vomiting. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Malabar. Condiments and Spices.— solitary.—berry. LOC. axillary on slender peduncles. :— E. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. DISTR. COM.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. FAM. enriches blood. Vilayantimendhi. promotes growth of hair. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. Kamuka. Dioscorides. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. See—Timbers. Fr. LOC. applied locally to relieve pain. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. ellipsoid. L. H. Murad. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. Kanara Ghats . PARTS USED:—Seeds. Sk.—small. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. DISTR. Himalayas. intermittent fevers and dropsy. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. allaying pain. NS. K. small. Pliny. M. :—A shrub. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens.

G. cells 2-seeded. M. Kandalu. 0. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Ambuja. muricate. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. petals 5. Kandabahula. Kamal. white or rosy. :—Konkan. t.3-0. curved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. CHAR. Belakanji. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. fleshy. & A. Nelanaringa . ovoid.-Nov. Kamal. 3-foliate.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. Indian sacred lotus. free. rough with distant prickles . Ambuj.—Meliaceæ. vulnerary. Sk. L. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. LOC. stem. peltate. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa.5 cm. Sarasija. anthers with clavate appendages. Suriyakamal. Kamala. spongy.. orbicular. LOC. Sk. :—W. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. leaves. Sd. DISTR. with slender. bronchitis. FAM.6 m. :—A large aquatic herb. high. dysentery. Fl. Pankaja. Tavari-bija or gadde. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin.—petals many 5-12. cures asthma. C. in diam. hæmorrhage.—pendulous. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. NS. Padam. :—E. :—A small branching undershrub. erect. COM. K. elliptic. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. disk annular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. LOC. petioles very long. Fl. :—E.-Dec. K. Kapurbhendi.—membranous. Fr. Kamal. . L.—capsule.. COM. Fl. DISTR. NS. from Iran eastwards to Australia. radiately nerved. Goanese ipecacuanha. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. Pundarika. Aravinda. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. Fl. Timpani. ulcers (Ayurveda). long. linear spathulate.—July. top flat. entire. axillary. CHAR. Papra-vel. diam. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas.) FAM. Pitmari. 10-25 cm. Ripe carpels. glabrous. See—Ornamental Plants.—Nymphæaceæ. ovoidglobose. M. biliousness. solitary or 2 together.—white. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. torus 18 mm. t. Kanara. alexiteric. Amlavalli. petiole winged. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant.—alternate. H. Chinese water-lily. 3-valved. elongate. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. Padma. NAREGAMIA ALATA W.—solitary. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. concave or cupped.

biliousness.—follicles. honey. CHAR. ulcers and sores of mouth. long. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . Filaments are astringent and cooling. Fl. coriaceous. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. fragrant. NS. Fr.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. M.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. seeds. flowers. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Kaner. leaves. S. planted in gardens throughout the State.—in threes. good in throat-troubles. Upper Gangetic Plains.—Apocynaceæ. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. K. in fever and liverdiseases. PARTS USED :—Root. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. useful in piles. :—Madhya Bharat. improves watery eyes (Yunani). chest-pains. t. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. allays thirst. L.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Fl. leucoderma. FAM. Paddali. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . Ashwa-marak. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). useful in burning sensation of the body. DISTR. tapering into short petiole. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. Cool. heart and brain tonic . removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". diuretic. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. 10-15 cm. India. Sind. also recommended as cardiac tonic. vomiting. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. diseases of skin and eye . :—E. Cool. Karvira. fruit. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. rose or white. Karber. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. In China and Malaya dried red petals. Pratihasa. flowers. Kanher. Kanel. Sk. long. allays thirst. gives tone to breast. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. strangury. slightly bitter. linear-lanceolate. cures cough. Karvira. rigid. Salt Range.—funnel-shaped. also cholera. fever. small-pox. removes worms. C. Kanagile. Baluchistan. stem. Sweet scented oleander. at length separating. menorrhagia. Waziristan. useful in fevers . also for dysentery and dyspepsia . G. leaves. spermatorrhoea. dark green and shining above.—red. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. inflammations and poisoning. COM. astringent to taste . used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . Sd. Kaner. LOC. aphrodisiac. LOC. also as a hedge plant. H. See—Ornamental Plants. 15-23 cm. Vishavrikshanka. throat scaly. . good in blood-complaints. lobes rounded.

scabies (Yunani). about 1. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia.—capsule. very poisonous. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. skin diseases. water from hookha is diuretic.—pink or white. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. sores. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. large (especially lower ones). USES :—Leaves are narocotic. anthelmintic. Bujjarbhang. :—E. cultivated in all tropical countries. COM. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). smoke constipating. nervous depression and sleeplessness. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Fr. LOC. Hoge soppu. Fl. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. a mental stimulant.8 cm. Dhumrapatrika. Tamaku. especially root. funnel-shaped.—in open corymbose panicles . Tamarakuthika. Sk. scabies. Flowers— aphrodisiac. inflammations. dimness of sight. useful in caries of teeth.—Solanaceæ. lobes spreading. M. CHAR. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. The plant contains a glucoside. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). disinfectant. emetic. DISTR. L. Tabak. headache. useful in bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tambakhu.—alternate. also applied in leprosy. conical. H. :—Native of America. Tamakhu. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). base wedgeshaped . sedative and emetic. good for lumbago.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). NS. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. inflammations. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. tonic. are poisonous and are used externally. tubercular glands of neck. G. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. laxative. FAM. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Root—aphrodisiac. the surface is plain or bullate. K. USES :—All parts of plant. foul nose. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. Tambak. wounds. oblong or elliptic. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. Poisonous to fish. carminative. caries of teeth. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. An ointment made . C. Kalanja. across. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. bronchitis. Tobacco. Krimighni. asthma. tonic. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. LOC. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases.

Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. DISTR. cures fevers. Bark cures bronchitis. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. axillary.— more or less throughout the year. PARTS USED :—Root. Prajakta. Sephalika. Fl. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Burma. NS.—capsule. Cultivated in many parts of India. CHAR. obcordate or merely orbicular.—Oleaceæ. :—A large shrub or a small tree. :—E. hairy. Assam. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. Indian Mourner : G. Parijataka. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Shonapadma. useful in bilious fevers. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Har-singhar. young branches quadrangular. FAM. scalp affections etc. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. M. tonic to hair. Nilophhal. Nalkumkuma. astringent-to bowels. K. southwards to the Godavari. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). peduncles 4angled. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. abundant July-Sept. lessen inflammation. Bilitavarai. Sephali. Nyadale huvu . ovate acute. H. C. Bengal.— fragrant. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. LOC. tube orange-coloured. Parijata. :—E. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. t. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. G. Kanval. HABITAT :-Cultivated.—opposite 5-10x2. LOC. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. COM.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. (Ayurveda).. Aravind. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . in terminal trichotomous cymes. stomachic. It is used with honey in chronic fever. densely pubescent beneath. Harsing. Sk. . solitary. Parijata . Lotus. 2-celled. See—Ornamental Plants. Kanwal. Prajakta. H. flowers and seeds. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Kharapatraka. Buds are tonic. compressed. bark. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . carminative.—lobes white. a decoction of root.—Nymphæaceæ. Fl. bark. COM. Har. rough above with bulbous hairs. Alipriya. M. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Chotakanwal. Lalkamal. Kumuda. Madhya Bharat. K. Sk. NS. L.) FAM. Fr.3 cm.5-6. Jayaparvati. leaves. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn.

:—Large aquatic herb . pubescent and prominently veined beneath . Africa. Sabja. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Roots.— in whorled racemes .—peltate. t.6-0. LOC. leucoderma. long. globose. short. Burma. L. DISTR. Ramkasturi. See—Ornamental Plants. " Kapha". emmenagogue. flowers and seeds. diarrhœa and piles . asthma. useful in diseases of heart and blood. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. ripening beneath the water. black and pitted. itch. erect. Sk. cooling . :—Cultivated in many places in the State. Fr. enlarged spleen. COM. oblong. diam. improves taste .—ovate. fleshy. lessens bile. M. "Vata". Fl. Fl. Ceylon. Tungi. Fr. acute. Barbar. diuretic. juice gives lustre to . open in the morning only. :—E. root stock tuberous. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). allays thirst. causes burning sensation. DISTR.. pink or purplish. submerged . thyrsiflora. Sd. Java.5-20 cm. 8-13 mm. C. stems and branches green or purplish. "Kapha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. and nigropunctate above.—3 cm. hot taste. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. high. stamens about 40. :—Var. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. petioles very long. filaments dilated at the base . bitter. C. white. leaves and flower. green. Bahari. anthelmintic. glabrous. :—An erect herb 0. useful in diseases of heart and brain.—petals about 12. irregularly sinuate-dentate. chronic pain in joints. across. Surasa. 7. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Damaro. Fl. antipyretic . roundish. diameter. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. Tukhamariya . terminal raceme longer than the lateral. LOC. leaves.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. inflammations. removes impurities from blood . OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. red. Rihan. Sabja. Sabzah. K. biliousness. febrifuge. long. glabrous or pubescent. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). Sajjebija. aphrodisiac . bracts stalked. peduncles very long . rough. ellipsoid. 15-25 cm.—Labiatæ.—solitary.—2-lipped. bitter taste. pale rose or white.—all the year.9 m. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. G. CHAR. Barbar. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart.— ovoid. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. toothed or lobed.—nutlets about 2 mm. entire. L. NS. Manjarki. Philippines. Var. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). deeply cordate at the base. Surabhi. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Plant has a sharp. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Hungary. H. "Vata". obtuse. LOC. alexipharmic. Ajagandhika. Nasabo. cylindric. Common sweet basil. purple stem.

—nutlets subglobose. Gujarat. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. Fl. LOC. elliptic-lanceolate. Fr. :—Throughout India. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. :—A perennial shrub.5 X 3.—6. brown.7 cm. in close whorls . heating. lower lip longer. diuretic and stimulant. often cultivated : Ceylon.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. skin diseases. G. COM. inflammations. heart. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa.— in simple or branched racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. gland-dotted.8 m. " Kapha".3—12. strangury . Plant has bitter. It is also styptic. Lemon—shrubby basil. high. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. Country. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Java. rachis quadrangular . aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. .2—1. M. diuretic and demulcent properties. C. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. removes foul breath. Rama-Ran tulasi. Ajaka. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. CHAR. young ones pubescent. carminative. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. The flowers possess.8—5. fits. headache. L. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). liver and spleen. H. Rantulasi. During fever when the extremities are cold. pale greenish yellow. M. they are also aphrodisiac. BanMal tulasi. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition.-July-Oct. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. good for griping and piles (Yunani). HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. Sumukha. :—Konkan. alexiteric. stems and branches subquadrangular .. 1.—2-lipped. S. pubescent. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. Deccan. Ram Tulasi.—Labiatæ. FAM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. stimulant. sharp taste . It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. LOC. Fl. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. useful in vomiting. aphrodisiac . branched. DISTR. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). coarsely crenate-serrate. Avachi-bavachi. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. rugose. Large basil. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. t. woody below . " Vata". LOC. good for toothache. earache. :—E. NS. useful in diseases of brain. strengthens gums. Sk.

Fr. " Vata". :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Papli. " Kapha". :—An annual plant. especially in children.5-5 X 1.—on filiform pedicels. long in close whorls . minutely gland-dotted.—2-lipped.—Rubiaceæ.— in racemes 15-20 cm.6— 3. margins recurved and scabrous. purulent discharge of ear. Sk. Tulasa. of children and in hepatic affections .—Labiatæ. Sk.—subsessile. lumbago pains. M. asthma. H. linear or linear-lanceolate. high. angular. COM. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. See—Sacred Plants. elliptic-oblong. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. FAM. Phapti. LOC. LOC. :—An annual herb. painful eye. HABIT :—A common weed. West Asia. purplish.—Sept-Nov. Parpat. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Tulasi. 30-60 cm. Arabia. obtuse or acute.:—E. . clothed with soft hairs . Fl. vomiting. high. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. Krishna tulasi. Kala tulasi. CHAR. strangury. K. long. usually 2-3 cm. Manjari. and are given with honey.—2. anthelmintic. Vishnuvallabha. C.—pale brown. G. hiccup. COM. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Tropical E. Australia. FAM. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Fl. :—Throughout India. purplish. t. globose or pyriform . :—Konkan. Suravallari. used in catarrh and bronchitis . :—Throughout India (cultivated) . DISTR. Damanpaper. leucoderma. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. stomachic. foul smells. Pavitra. yellow with black marking. upper lip pubescent on the back. Fl.. lobes acute. useful in heart and blood diseases. DISTR. Vrinda. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . entire or serrate. alexiteric.— nutlets. H. PARTS USED :—Root. stipules with bristles . NS. L. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. Tulasi. CHAR. smooth. Fr. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. leaves and seeds.2 cm. Ceylon. cholagogue. bronchitis.— capsule. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. NS. Vranda. Asia to Java and the Philippines. :—G. antipyretic. Parapate. stems and branches subquadrangular. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. L. M. Tulasi. bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated. varying from 7. heating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. stems numerous. M. Deccan and S. Malay Archipelago. Sd. pubescent.5—38 cm. LOC.

Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. . or more high. 3 m. inner spathulate. yellow or orange. Nagaphana. used in ophthalmia. spleen enlargement. Hathathoria. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places).—Cactaceæ. :—E. Zhoratheylo. COM. cures bronchitis in children. rusty brown.5 mm. loss of consciousness. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. cures inflammations. largest 3.—5 cm. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. Slipper thorn. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. long. spleen enlargement. burning. subulate. long. NS. cures biliousness. reddish at the tips. Fl. angular or warty. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. Plant juice—heating. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). Phadyanivdung. yellow at the edges. M. Nagdali. H. Joints variable in size. carminative.— berry. DISTR. pyriform. Nagaphana. G. flowers and fruits.5 cm. laxative. L. lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Sher. Snuka. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. Prickly pear. Chorhothalo. anæmia. obovate or elliptic. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. LOC. LOC. outer segments ovate red in the centre. ascites. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. reddish purple when ripe. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. inflammations. dull bluish-green. carminative. digestive. recurved. Fr. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. K. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. FAM. Sk. diuretic. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. stomachic.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. Plant bitter. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. Grown as hedge. good for leucoderma. tumours. Nagaphani. piles.—7. liver complaints. Nagadru. perianth rotate. juice cures earache (Yunani). it is also used in liver complaints. introduced into India. across. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. rather thin. vesicular calculi. ulcers. urinary complaints. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . leucoderma. purgative. CHAR. xerophyte. Vajrakantaka. Mullugalli. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. " Vata". alexiteric. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest.

cooling. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. Alangi. vomiting. COM. Bagi. anthelmintic. M. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Mayarjangha. Tans. It is astringent and tonic.—Gramineæ. Chaval. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. DISTR. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. LOC. Dirghavrinta. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Chokha. Mokka. biliousness. Indian trumpet flower. Rice . Tetu. Malaya. tonic. Sk. M. Ceylon. :—Widely cultivated.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. improves appetite. Vrihi. Cochin-China. tonic. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. DISTR. See—Timbers. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Bhat. fattening. inflammations. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. K. K. diuretic. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). Podval. G. Tetu. :—E. M. Tandula.). asthma.S. Shali. Fruit—acrid. fevers. Fruit—expectorant. H. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Akki. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. leucoderma. Dyes. Shyonaka. Seeds are purgative. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). piles. appetiser. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. aphrodisiac. LOC. Araluka. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). H. useful in " Vata". astringent to bowels . Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Rice. Ghats. NS. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Ava. oleaginous. Tandula. :—E. Arlu. good in heart and throat diseases. Sk. FAM. sweet. COM. HABITAT :—Aquatic. intestinal worms.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. LOC. :—The Konkan and the N.—Bignoniaceæ. Tetu. Kanara ghats . stomachic. R. Nivara. aphrodisiac. LOC. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Tuntaka. Ullu. PARTS USED :—Grain. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. dysentery. anal troubles. improves taste. useful in biliousness . FAM. Pharri. bronchitis. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. G. NS. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent.

in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. gives great relief. Kyirin . rounded at the apex. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. scarlet fever. Dugdhica. Changeri. Sk. L. Amrul. buboes. obcordate. It is a pleasant. C. measles. Fl. LOC. Jaladudhi. :—G. DISTR. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). COM. It is an excellent application to abscesses. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India.— many. H. Fr. . FAM. " Vata " and piles. Marudbhava. oblong. linear-oblong. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. COM. Dudhari. leaflets 1.2—2. Fl.—Asclepiadaceæ. if applied to chest. M. In dysentery. ovoid. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. astringent. sub-umbellate . bruised. removes " Kapha ". prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. Shuklika. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. Chukrita. Ceylon. yellow. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. base cuneate subsessile.—petals 5.—palmately 3-foliate. Dudhani. See—Food Plants. CHAR. K. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. good appetiser . :—A small procumbent acrid herb . HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. petioles very slender. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. :—Throughout the State. K. Ambuti. Dudhialata. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . long. 5-angled. dysentery and scurvy. pubescent. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. to which a little lemon juice is added. Sd.—axillary. easy to digest. ulcers. NS.— Oct-May. t. margins ciliate.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. boils. NS. cures dysentery. Ambastha. beaked. FAM. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Kshiravi. Indian Sorrel. also in burns and scalds. The grains contain vitamin C. bowels or kidneys. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers .5 cm. inflamed piles. brown. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. Amlalonika. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. small-pox. stems rooting. Dugdhike. :—E. Dugdhika. diarrhœa. Dudhialata. Dudhatani. transversely striate.— capsule. Br. M. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases.—Oxalidaceæ. Rice water. H. LOC. used externally.

3 cm. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. Burma. Gandha-pushpa. :—Konkan and N. Kanara. root. long. Sundarbans. often planted. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Ceylon. t. Ketaki. Kanara.—follicles. Java. M. mouth with pubescent ring. gonorrhœa. Ketaka. aphrodisiac. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Fl. pain in the muscles. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. HABITAT :—Usually near water.—very numerous. Kewoda. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). Mundige. linear or linear-lanceolate. heat of body. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Screw pine. " Kapha ". and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :—A shrub up to 6 m. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). X 3. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. Keora. small-pox.8-6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. useful in strangury and tumours. Gogandhul. PARTS USED :-Root. yellow or red. dry. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. coriaceous ensiform. 3. K. stem supported by aerial roots . DISTR. LOC. cough. much branched.— large. Flowers improve complexion. L. NS. :—Konkan. leucoderma. margins and midrib spiny. Fr. diuretic. aphrodisiac. milky juice. with flavour. Dhulipushpika. Leaves are useful in leprosy. juice is used in gleet.8 mm. fruit. :—E.—deciduous.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb.—Dec. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. pale rose or white. stems many. syphilis. S. Chama-pushpa. high. causes flatulence. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". somniferous. rarely erect. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. thin. anthers. Kevada. leaves. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. indigestible. CHAR. anthelmintic. Fl. coma present. LOC. ovoid-lanceolate tapering.—oblong or globose. Fl. alexiteric. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. Giripriya. Poona Sangam. female flower spadix solitary. 4. Fruit—tonic. expectorant. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. Umbrella Tree. bitter. Sd. scabies. fruit and oil from bracts. Deccan.—dioecious.5 m. Ketgi. DISTR. lobes ciliate. tonic. laxative. M. COM. pain. aphrodisiac. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Kedige.5-9 cm. strikingly handsome. C. black. Country— Belgaum. Andamans. H. palegreen. L.—glaucous green. corona staminal. Sk.9—1. purple veined. long. Fr. anthelmintic.—Pandanaceæ. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. Anthers useful in pruritus. PARTS USED :—Plant.. diseases of heart and brain. FAM. LOC. 0.

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

dysentery. Satara.—3-foliate. cure biliousness. slightly recurved. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Fl. Siyindu. long.—Oct. layer. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. H. prostrate. Tadi. broadly spathulate. t. PARTS USED :—Seeds. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. dry. digestible. NS. gout. Koshila. throat inflammations. M. LOC. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. piles. Date sugar palm. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. eye troubles. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. anthelmintic. Magavala. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever.—in sub-capitate. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). :—E. Adabanmagi. Ranmath. nose complaints. LOC. Kallu. Sd. Kolaba and Kanara. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Sendhi. :—G. Ahmedabad. FAM. Fr. light and astringent. K.5 cm. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. good in fevers. Afghanistan. DISTR. inflammations. cures consumption. NS. Shimbiparni. cough. COM. COM. " Tridosh". astringent to bowels. Dharwar. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. The grains contain vitamins A and B. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. Kurangika. yellow. petioles grooved.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Abyssinia. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. LOC. Kapila. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. See—Food Plants. peduncles 10-23 cm.5—5 cm. H. straight subcylindric. long. L. and southwards to Ceylon. LOC. Mugani. laxative. leaflets 1. bitter. M. mugawana. CHAR.:—Very common throughout the State. G. Kharjuri. Kidney diseases.3—2. :—Annual or perennial. FAM. Trianguli. K. burning sensation. Khandesh. Adavada. Kashayi. Kohesaru. wiry.— pod. bronchitis. long. few flowered racemes. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Deccan and Gujarat. good for the eyes . biliousness. Malay Islands. Indian wine palm. Belgaum. as a kharif crop. Ahmednagar. Kalli-chalu. thirst. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit.—6-12. astringent. enrich blood. Konkan. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Boichand. Vanmudga. Ichela-mara. styptic. Sk. Shindi. headache. wild date palm. Seeds— tonic. . HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Kajuri. Khajuri. Kherk. :—Largely grown in. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green.—Palmæ. DISTR. " Kapha". blood diseases. good for eyes. aphrodisiac. Ranmug. Sind. 2. Khaji. glabrous or hairy.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Burma. membranous. antipyretic. Kharjurika. Swadi. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).

and in beds of streams and water courses. rounded at the apex. densely fascicled.5 m.—white or pale-pink. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet.—Fibres.) FAM. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . deeply grooved on one side. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. useful in diseases of heart. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. Jalpippali. good in heart and abdominal complaints. lower 3-lobed.—sessile.5 m. cooling. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. high. :—Tolerably common throughout India. long. L. blood and eye. scented. flowers distant. fruit and juice of the tree. spinous. angular. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. sharply serrate in upper part. ensiform. Ratoliya. fattening. Vashira. vomiting. Fl. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. LOC. wandering of mind.—globose. Jalapimpli. :—G. :—Found fairly in Surat. long. rigid. usually along banks. triangular. erect. 3-4.5—3. upper 2-lobed. Fr.—opposite. oblong. . Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. long. Africa. Sd. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). Okra. orange-yellow.—pinnate.. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. H. male white. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. oblique. flowers very many. :—A tall graceful palm. Coromandel Coast. Siwalik. Ratoliya. aphrodisiac. crown hemispherical. LOC. Toyavallari. t. pointed. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Sk. constipating. Jalapipali.—2. Fl. Bengal. alexiteric. NS. Fr.—rounded at the ends. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). female spadix and spathe as in the male. cooling. Langali. M. spatulate. Poona and Belgaum districts. :—A creeping perennial herb. C. Mysore. spiny at the base. cardiotonic. much branched. t. oblong-ellipsoid. roundish. subsessile. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. See. DISTR. Agnijwala. 9-15 m.—Verbenaceæ. Sholapur. large and thick. Rohilkhand. COM. 15-45x2-2. Fl. Ceylon. L.2 cm. 2-lipped. LOC. Bhuiokra.— dioecious. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. aphrodisiac. fevers. oleaginous. spadix 60-90 cm. :—Throughout India. DISTR.—Jan-Feb. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Bihar. greyish-green. Fl. Famine Plants. wild or more often cultivated. Ratuliyo. petioles compressed towards the apex. stems rooting at the nodes. pinnules many. This is called neera. anthelmintic. outer Himalayas. Baluchistan. Sharadi. clothed with appressed white hairs .—more or less all the year. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich.

Sd. Stomachic. anæmia. Bhuiavli. and without salt may be applied to bruises. Sadahazurmani. females solitary. diuretic.useful in fevers. hiccup. H. disk of the male of minute glands. Leaves are stomachic. Infusion is a good tonic.— numerous. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. Vituntika. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. anuria. Bhumyamali. urinary discharges. fruit. Plant—hot. :—Throughout India. asthma. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. angular. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. :—G. 30-60 cm. The whole plant. elliptic-oblong. FAM. alexipharmic . lobed. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver.—3-gonous. Kiranelligida. smooth. wounds. leprosy. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. LOC. bronchitis. Jaramla. DISTR. longitudinally ribbed on the back. Ceylon. leaves. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. globose. except Australia. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . scabies. useful in thirst. ringworm (Yunani). very small. distichous. high . males 1-3. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Bhuianvalah. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Tropics generally.. Ajata. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. Fl. LOC. wounds. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. annular. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—capsule. Sukshmadala. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). cooling. Bhumyamalaki. Fl. Sk. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. Bhumyamali. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery.—yellowish. bronchitis.—Euphorbiaceæ. Amala. sores. Fr. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. PARTS USED :—Root. maturant. scarcely lobed. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. L. milky-juice. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. t. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman).— July-Aug. very numerous. It is valuable in scurvy. asthma. axillary. M. stem branched at the base. thirst. of female. COM. CHAR :—An annual herb. biliousness. K.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. NS. :—Konkan and Deccan. . LOC. good for ulcers. monœcious. dry.

anthelmintic. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Pan. See—Condiments and Spices. Kalamirich. carminative. NS. night blindness. elephantiasis . chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. bronchitis. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. cultivated in Konkan and N. H. M. stomachic. LOC. clears throat. Vidyache-pan. Kalamiri. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. and fruits (rarely). Kalaka. . Sk. aphrodisiac. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. piles. ozoena. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Panu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. useful in toothache. Fresh leaves. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Vata". Satara. aphrodisiac. DISTR. leavs. Kaphavirodhi. It sweetens breath. carminative. satyriasis and to allay thirst. K. Kanara forests. Malimirich . PIPER NIGRUM Linn. LOC. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. useful in "Vata". liver and muscular pains. Tikshna. Poona. spleen diseases. tonic and digestive. leaf juice and oil are aromatic.—Piperaceæ. Pan. Sk. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. strengthens teeth . M. COM. FAM. Pan. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Vileyad-ele. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Betel pepper. Eleballi. purgative. carminative and astringent. alexipharmic. LOC. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. It contains an aromatic essential oil. given with milk in hysteria. Tambulavalli. hot. acrid. Sholapur. tonic to brain.—Piperaceæ. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. Menasin-kallu . inflammations. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Tambola. urinary discharges. Betelleaf. heating. vulnerary. Nagavalli. heart and liver. Kalimiri. Golmirch . improves voice. laxative. :—E. Menasu. tonic. COM. Warm leaves. PARTS USED :—Fruits. throat diseases. useful in "Kapha". smeared with oil. styptic (Yunani). Mensinballi. K. :—Wild in the N. Saptashira. foul smell in the mouth. ozœna. Marich. FAM. pains. H. NS. It increases saliva. asthma. Linn. generally in Konkan. removes all foulness from mouth. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. G. :—E. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). DISTR. Bhakshyapatra. Black-pepper. increases biliousness. " Kapha ". alterative. G. Betel leaf vine. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. bechic.

tonic and a local stimulant. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. ophthalmia and phthisis. chest affections. hills of S. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Khasia Hills. Fr. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. Kanara in ghat forests. Tammata. C. bruises. Externally it is rubefacient. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Arcot and Salem. Deccan. In physiological action. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. Vehkali. dries body humours (Yunani). facilitates menstruation. LOC. various forms of cutaneous diseases. See—Timbers. :—K. It yields an essential oil. Bark contains a glucoside. W. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock.5 cm. Khandala (pretty common). piperidine and an essential oil. the oil is alterative. petiole longer than leaf-blade. entire or toothed. sprains. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. chronic fevers. It is a good expectorant. base tapering into petiole. FAM.—lobes 4. coma. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. leprosy.5-12. Konkan. DISTR.—capsule. M. See—Condiments and Spices.—Plantaginaceæ. COM. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. Burma. lumbago. long. Fl. lanceolate or greenish . NS. radial 2. weakness following fevers. . CHAR. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. :—E. Lahuriya. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. vertigo. H. used as febrifuge. FAM. N. variable in width. ovoid.— alternate. NS. used in chronic bronchitis. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. Greater plantain . sciatica. and possesses narcotic properties . piles and some skin-diseases . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bartang. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . & A. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . ovate or oblong. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn.—Pittosporaceæ. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. COM. Vikhari. LOC. paralysis . L.

Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. :— E. Lead-wort. afford relief. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. COM. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. PARTS USED :—Roots. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling.-4-8. Ghats. M. Lalachitraka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Fire plant. Lalchitrak. :—A shrub 60-90 cm.. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. alterative. Sd. alterative and diuretic. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. limb wide. :—Cultivated throughout India. LOC. Nilgiris. Chitraka. rosy scarlet. Ceylon. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. PARTS USED :—Roots.. Sk. Raktachitraka. DISTR. leaves. NS. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. HABITAT :—Along river banks. Palni hills. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Burma. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. cures leprosy (Ayurveda).Sept. Lalchita. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. C. FAM. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Mahang. Rosy-coloured leadwort. K. exauriculate petiole. W.-Feb. long in long terminal axillary. Fl. Lalchitrak. high. attenuate. lax spikes. top coming off as a conical lid. t. Fattening. Fl. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . L. obtuse. LOC. Agnishikha. Baluchistan. stems herbaceous. DISTR.—3-5 cm.—throughout the year. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. CHAR.—tube slender. and seeds. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. H. erect. angled. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Chitra. Malaya. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Fl. :—Temperate Himalayas. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). striate . LOC.—large. :—Konkan : Deccan. Assam. base passing into amplexicaul.—Plumbaginaceæ. dull-black. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Ratochatro. t. zeylanica. oblong.Kempuchitramula. G.

NS. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. inflammations. ovate.6-1. dysentery. Chitrak. skin disease. a paste is made with milk. Medi. Root—bitter. scabies. leucoderma. and in leucoderma.—Aug. diarrhœa. vesicant. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. FAM. Chitaro Chitrak. entire. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . bechic. oblong. appetiser. In S. Bengal. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. Vahni. diseases of liver. Fr. LOC. Malay Peninsula. t. woody. stems 0. useful in laryngitis.—thin. See—Ornamental Plants. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. piles. leaves are caustic. C. See—Ornamental Plants.—Plumbaginaceæ.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison.5 m. ascites. lobes 5.—white. long. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. cure intestinal troubles. Ceylon.-Sept. PARTS USED :—Root. Chitramula. M. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. " Vata" and " Kapha". Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. wild in Western Peninsula. spreading. It is used in procuring abortion. Res. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. leucoderma. Chitranga. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. terete. juice. consumption. H. Bile-Chitra-mula. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. L. rachis glandular . It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. stomachic. anasarca. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. " Tridosha" . root-bark. Tropics of the old world. Vallari. COM. expectorant. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. DISTR. Fl. aborti-facient. Chitra . Ind. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Journ. rheumatism. alexipharmic. Chitra. Sk. Chitra . stomachic. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. :—E.—capsule. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. bronchitis. leprosy. tonic. leaves. pointed. January 1933). Jyotishka. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Agnishikha. ring-worm. K. itching. The use of Pl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. cultivated . diseases of spleen.—in elongate spikes. a favourite medicine for flatulence. laxative. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). it may be used in chronic skin diseases. striate. . piles. :—Throughout India. Chitraka. carminative. alterative . it is useful in dyspepsia. astringent to bowels. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). LOC. G. hot. attenuated into a short petiole. anthelmintic.

stems and branches quadrangular. Kanara. Pangli. 3-lobed. Fr.-Feb.2—1. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter.5-18x3. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). rounded. useful in gleet. cylindrical. rarely maturing. high. with an intra-marginal vein. long. Pagoda tree.— large. oblong-lanceolate. Country. Fr. Deccan. :—E. t. NS. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. Fl. :—M. acute at both ends. smooth. FAM. Mahabaleshwar. . NS. acrid. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. CHAR. Kadu-sampige. shining. L. Root-bark is purgative. itching. M. CHAR. common. urinary discharges. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. Goleurchampa.—2-lipped. H. Champakam. leaves and milky juice. Phangla.8 m. C. ulcers. S. LOC. Khairchapha. many flowered. Radha-champo. upper lip white shot with purple. white with a pale yellow centre. very fragrant. venereal sores. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. G. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Fl.-nutlets ellipsoid. COM. 12 cm. DISTR. 15-30 cm. 7. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India.—Dec. Golainchi. lower lip white. entire.—Labiatæ. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—salver-shaped. heating. carminative. :—Native of tropical America. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. broadly ovate.:—More or less throughout India. useful in leprosy. Rhuruchapha. abundant. :—Konkan. abundant from Mar. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. shining black.8-9 cm. ascites (Ayurveda). inner face angular. :—A small shrub 1.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. t. K. divaricate.—Apocynaceæ. Belchampaka. COM. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. pungent. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. 4-lobed.—follicles. Devagangile. spirally arranged.. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. L. cultivated.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. irregularly doubly toothed. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. Frangipani.-May. C. LOC. pains. DISTR. :—All throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores.—practically throughout the year. bark. whorls close. FAM. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. laxative . Fl. M. purple. long.

chronic fever and hydrocele. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). juice is given in colic and fever. relieves inflammation.) FAM. flowers. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. anthelmintic. Karanja. wounds. bark. M. Sk. leucoderma. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. In Satara. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. F. purify and enrich blood. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. ascites. Sk. ulcers. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Agnimandha. also planted. leaves. Kanaji. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). leprosy. Jayanti. urinary discharges . Aran. " Kapha ". Agnibijaka. chest complaints. itching. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. USES :—The fresh leaves. Kirmal. cure earache. vagina. Karanja. wounds (Ayurveda). Ustabunda . alexipharmic . Gaura. skin diseases. cures eye diseases. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. See—Timbers. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. LOC. Kanja. Oil—anthelmintic. K. Kanika. DISTR. :—E. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. J. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Seeds—acrid . COM. piles. skin and in keratitis . Naktamala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. head and brain diseases. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Honge. Arand. H. Indian beech. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Karanj. Chamari. . lumbago. LOC. cures biliousness. H. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. good in scabies. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. NS. chronic fever. Huligili. NS. good for tumour. carminative. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. piles. " Vata ".174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. rheumatic pains. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. Pavaka.—Verbenaceæ. along Deccan rivers . Arni. Gracie). a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. M. PARTS USED :—Root. bruised. lumbago. Karanjmara.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Oil—styptic. Karanj. :—G. Ichu. K. FAM. Agetha. Arni. Oils. fruits and seeds. G. useful in diseases of eye. liver pain.

Piyara.—tubular. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Fr.—hard. good in colic and for bleeding gums. common about Karwar. C. See—Famine Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. sour. Andamans. Safedsafari. Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. Peru . bark yellowish. diabetes. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). entire or upper part dentate. K. hairy in the throat. Gova. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. flowers. high. cool heated brain. bronchitis. cooling. useful in anaemia. Nicobars and Malaya. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. Jamphal. broadly elliptic. :—Cultivated all over the State. LOC. Ash—caustic (Yunani). decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. cylindric. Gum is tonic. LOC. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). Kanara. Jamb. stomachic. aphrodisiac .. G. laxative. Sd. Peruka. stomachic. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. as an astringent to bowels. laxative after food. FAM. greenish yellow. LOC. DISTR. Anthers—dry wound. L.—5-9 X 3. lobes 4. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. rough-tubercled . Fl.3 cm. M. chyluria. trunk and branches sometimes thorny.2-6. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Flowers cool body.— globose. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. Ceylon. Vastula. Fruit—tonic. Young leaves are tonic in the . It is also employed in scurvy. used in bronchitis. H."Vata". Peru.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. t. cooling. blue-black. :—E. smooth. inflammations. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. applied to sore eyes. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Amrut.—Myrtaceæ. pungent. small. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. dyspepsia. Root is laxative. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. fever. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. DISTR. Guava tree. Sk. fruits and gum. It is given in the form of decoction. PARTS USED :—Leaves. piles. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. causes "Kapha". LOC. seated on the calyx . good for liver complaints (Yunani). NS. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.— June-July. for unhealthy ulcers. . heating. constipation. Jamud-rukh. Perala.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). Perala. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. COM.

. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. alterative. white hairy. C. leaves. 3. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". skin diseases.8 X 2. Babachi. Kalameshi. 10-30 flowered racemes . clawed. Sk.2 m. aphrodisiac. Bowach-chi. biliousness. heals ulcers. cures "Vata".—one. 0. cures blood diseases . Fl. vulnerary. CHAR. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Seeds— refrigerant. bitter taste.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. standard orbicular. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. mucronate. Seed—purgative. bronchitis. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. black.—simple. HABITAT :—Waste places. H. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Bukchi. improves hair and complexion. t. causes biliousness. urinary dis charges. anæmia. antipyretic. leprosy.5—5 cm. solitary. M. anthelmintic.—in dense axillary. high. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji).6-1.—Aug-Dec. See—Fruit Trees. Vanguji. NS. Bavachi. piles. K. nigro-punctate. ovoidoblong. Bhavanj. LOC. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. rounded and mucronate at the apex. M. Bavachi. Fl. Fruit—diuretic. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—An erect annual. stomachic. G. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. stimulant. difficulty in micturition. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). laxative. FAM. alexiteric. " Rakta-pitta". good for heart troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. COM. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Konkan and S. Country. diuretic. improves appetite. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). petioles hairy and gland-dotted. Fr. Kushtaghni. vomiting. scabies. good for leucoderma. stem and branches grooved. smooth. Sd. raw one is used in diarrhœa. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic.—bluish purple . Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Babachi. studded with glands and white hairs. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. nephrites and cachexia. anthelmintic. LOC. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. fruit and seeds. inflammation. Bakuchi.—pod. Chandralekha. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. DISTR. L. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. closely-pitted. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil.

ophthalmia. sore eyes brain diseases. H. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Sunila. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. applied to hydrocele. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. K. ascends to 1100 m.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). leprosy. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. spleen complaints. bark. earache. cures " Vata ". erysipelas. fattening. boils. Ceylon. Dalimb . Khandesh and Dangs. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. :—E. FAM. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Kabul and Baluchistan. cultivated in many parts of India. LOC. :—E. good for biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. Dadima. griping. PARTS USED. useful in all body diseases. scabies. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Sk. Dharimb . :—Wild in Iran. urinary discharges (Yunani). blood diseases. useful in eye troubles. Benga. Indian kino-tree. Flowers—check vomiting. Anar. Bio. Dadam. H. flowers and fruits. DISTR. in Akrani. Gum—bitter. Gum. Honi. leucoderma. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. anthelmintic. ulcers. tonic.—Punicaceæ. Bark—astringent. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). biliousness. anthelmintic. chest troubles. Honne. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). PARTS USED:—Root. tonic. LOC. M. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Pitasar. Common in N. stomatitis. Bijak. called kino. " Tridosh". Bigsah. Hulidalimb . . strengthens gums. See—Timbers. COM. Bija. enriches blood. Gums and Resins. flowers and gum. LOC. K. prolapsus ani. M. diuretic. used in piles. fever. body eruptions. Hirdokhi. :—Western Peninsula and S. alterative . Flowers—useful in epistaxis. DISTR. " Kapha ". Kanara. NS. allays thirst. Flowers— improve appetite. Fruit-appetiser. Malabar kino-tree. useful in biliousness. somewhat milder in action than catechu. elephantiasis. also in Konkan. Dalimba. colic. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. Mahakutaj. NS. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. liver tonic. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. Bibla. anal troubles. Sk. useful in vomiting. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. sore-throat. Dhalim. styptic. Dadimba. Bibla. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). used in sore throat. urinary discharges. antipyretic. :—Leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Bibla. thirst. burning sensation. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. heart-disease. scattered but not gregarious . laxative. Valka-phala. gleet. G. Raktabija-pushpa. India. vulnerary. Dadima. FAM. G. Bia. Pomegranate tree. COM.

LOC. calyx tube long.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. dark green. FAM. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Midhola. Barmasinivel. LOC. COM. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. Madana. Chinese honeysuckle. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. H. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. G. In China. Minkare. t. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. . HABITAT :—Cultivated. H.5 cm.—opposite. COM. M. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. FAM. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. M. Country and Kanara. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. NS. base rounded. The rind of the fruit. Karhar Mainphal. :—E. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk.—Rubiaceæ. Malaya. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. glabrous above. Dharaphal. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. M.—Combretaceæ. Fruit contains vitamin C. Rangoonkibel. USES :—In Amboyana. Mindhola. Gela. widely cultivated all over India. 7. acuminate.—in axillary and terminal spikes. Rangoon creeper. Emetic nut. :—E. LOC. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Gelphal. long. It is given in the form of decoction. hairy beneath. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. at first white then deep red . CHAR. C—petals 5. L. Lalchameli. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . pendant. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. DISTR. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. jasmine . the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Rangoonchavel. Pinditak. S. acutely 5-angled. Fr. K. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Mangari-kai. elliptic. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn.-Aug. Annam. :—A strong climber. Konkan. numerous. G. lanceolate . NS. Karigidda. nearly 6 cm. Fl. Fl.— ellipsoid.—Mar.

Mula. laxative. carminative. destroys "Vata". FAM. Radish. piles (Ayurveda). Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. heating. its action is very safe. Tropical Africa. Mura. The plant contains glucoside saponin. cholera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. carminative. leprosy. certain and regular. :—E. emmenagogue. boils. fruit and seeds. cures abscesses. Juice of . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. S. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. Java. bitter. K. bad taste. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. useful in chronic bronchitis. paralysis. produce alopecia (Yunani). binding. Sk. DISTR. emetic. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. G. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . Mali. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. antipyretic. H. Sumatra. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. DISTR. anthelmintic. Ksharmula. emetic. Hastidanta. China. LOC. Mula. stomachic. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. aphrodisiac. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. NS.—Cruciferæ. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . good in tumours. M. purgative. Muri. muscular pains. skin-diseases. carminative. Muro. " Vata" and " Kapha". inflammations. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. good for spleen and in paralysis. sweet. ulcers. eruptions. Seeds-sharp. Mulak. useful in diseases of heart. See—Timber. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. COM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leprosy. It is also used to poison fish. it is equal to it in every respect. and all inflammations . piles. tumours. Ruchira. alexiteric. asthma. inflammations. leucoderma (Yunani). Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. leaves. amenorrhœa. flowers. Bili Mulangi. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. :—Throughout India. hiccup. used in diseases of the brain. E. Bitter. PARTS USED :—Root. It also contains an essential oil. juice relieves earache.

:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma.5-6. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. specific for insanity. serpentinine. ajmalicine.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. Sarpagandha. COM. NS. COM. Gaja-karni. See—Vegetables. Juipani. Fr. irregularly. Root contains vitamins A. Garudpatala. bright red . Chhotachand. t. Harki. Nai. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Doddapatike. NS. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. :—H. ulcers (Ayurveda). acrid. Nakulikand. Sk. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. diuretic. K. M. Java. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. :—H.—Apocynaceæ. LOC. used in hyperpiesis . CHAR. DISTR. nodular.3 cm. laxative. white.9 m. Andamans. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. In the Konkan. carminative. yellowish root stock. Yuthikaparni. expectorant. Sivanabhi. B and C. leaves (rarely). . swollen a little above the middle. Mungusavel. Kanara. Sk. LOC. corrective and emmenagogue. 7. PARTS USED :—Root. Chandrika. L. sharp. ajamalinine. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. seeds are considered peptic. pale beneath. with a long. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. anthelminitic .—drupe. lanceolate. Palakjuhi. heating. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter.— Mar. M. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. acute.. Fl. Chandrika. single or didymous.-May. and black salt. pungent.—tubular.5-18 X 2.-in whorls of 3. Sarpakshi. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. Western Peninsula. often tinged with violet.. Harkaichand. thin.) FAM..—in irregular corymbose cymes. Fl. sedative. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. bright green above. K. shady open places near rain-forests. Group B — Serpentine. HABITAT :—Moist forests. :—An erect perennial shrub. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Ceylon. FAM. ginger. cures " Tridosha ". It is hypnotic.—Acanthaceæ. black shining. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N.

Madagascar (cultivated). Erand. ascites. useful in pains. alterative. pubescent: C. Belgaum. leaves.—Oct.—lipped. entire. increase biliousness. Fruit— appetiser. 0. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. Divald. LOC. Erand. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). carminative . strangury. Root-bark—purgative. glandular. upper lip bifid . narrow. good for burns. oil—anthelmintic. :—Undershrub. pain in back. typhoid. diseases of rectum and head. stems obscurely angled. Ceylon (wild) . Khandala. elephantiasis. Sholapur). Vardhaman. lumbago. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac. eructations.. night-blindness. Erand. rheumatism. Eranda. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". COM. H. generally cultivated.—nearly sessile. t. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. inflammations. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. vaginal pains. LOC. solitary. velvety hairy Sd. piles. intestinal worms. M. Fl. amenorrhœa (Yunani). Fr. Country (Dharwar. convulsions. pointed. :—Probably of African origin. Vardhamana. hills near Belgaum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. Tirki. L. widely cultivated in tropical countries. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. bracts ovate lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. high. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. :—E. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch).-Jany.9—1. black. HABITAT :—Hills. ring-worm. asthma. K. inflammations. ascites. lumbago. elliptic lanceolate.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Sk. glands. Triputiphala. Cattle are fed with leaves for . piles. Divaligo. Arand. Castor oil plant. useful in liver troubles. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. bronchitis. cultivated. increases "Kapha". Mahabaleshwar. hairy outside . tumours. dropsy. tropical Africa. useful in skin-disease. Country. DISTR. pains. Haralu. leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Leaves—galactagogue. leprosy. earache. Straits-Settlements. LOC. white. NS. Very little in other districts of the State. flowers and seeds. body pains. anal troubles. S. LOC. useful in heart diseases. G. :—Deccan. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. fevers. Seeds and oil have a bad taste.— tuberculate. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. boils. M. Seed and oil—cathartic. Java. Chitrabija. leaves and seeds.5 m.—capsule. some fevers. useful in inflammations. asthma. Fl.—Euphorbiaceæ. Palma christi. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. ascites. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). alterative. liver and spleen diseases. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. DISTR. purgative. paralysis.

K.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). Sudburj. Ati-manjula. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. See—Oils. Flower—bitter. red. G. In constipation it is used as an enema. antipyretic. much used in lotions and collyria . laxative. :—E.—pinnate.5 m. intestinal affections. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. LOC. sometimes striped . COM. hairy. H. stipules scarcely dilated. P. M. benefits lungs. Shatadala. Fl.—Rosaceæ. :—Origin unknown. removes bad odour from mouth. They are also applied to painful joints. inflammations. CHAR. tonic. expectorant. 2. astringent when dry (Yunani). cephalic. stomatitis. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. which is a powerful poison.. laxative. ovate oblong. Soumyagandha. good for eyes. LOC. stems with stout and hooked prickles.—obovate . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.— usually corymbose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. seldom griping or causing flatulency. Gulab. PARTS USED :—Flowers. Gulab. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. liver. mild and safe purgative. Greece and Germany. Pannira. Lakshmipushpa. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. FAM. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. aperient removing bile and cold humours. chronic fevers.3 cm. :—A perennial shrub. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Ghazipur is a chief centre. etc. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. head-ache. petioles prickly. double. excessive perspiration. cultivated all over India. burning sensation. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. Tarana. they are cold. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. biliousness. DISTR. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Gulab . cures leprosy. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . Sk. used in heat of body. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . pink or white. improves appetite (Ayurveda). t. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. tooth-ache. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. adults. sweetish. France. cardiotonic. Fr. Fl. Punjab and U. Italy. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. cardiotonic. attaining 1. NS.5-6.— all the year. aphrodisiac. L. cooling. kidneys. long. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. sometimes glandular. dry. serrate. with a good odour. acrid. See—Ornamental Plants. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . . " Vata".

:—Perennial climbing herb. lethargy. inflammations. uterine pains (Yunani).—in terminal panicled cymes. Manjishtha. Fr. NS. valves hyaline. used in eye-sores. :—Root. with a thin red bark. 15-30 cm. Fl. all scabrous with white prickles. Decoction tinges blood. laxative. CHAR. FAM.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . leucorrhoea. Amlavetasa. H. leaves and fruit. t-Oct. FAM. ovate. cures " Kapha ". obtuse. heating. LOC. lactagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. diuretic. Chukra. elliptic. five-nerved. antipyretic. anthelmintic. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. K. Japan. liver complaints. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. Manjit. LOC. tropical Africa. leucoderma. grooved. CHAR. leucoderma. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. Fr. H. shining. Tamravalli. Indian Madder. Ambat Chuka. Aruna.—didymous or globose. Sk. Chitralata. paralysis. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. the Konkan and S. M. L. roots very long. one pair with longer petioles ovate. paralysis. piles. and was much used in dropsy. purplish black when ripe. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. L. orbicular . Chuka. Manjishha. jaundice.—in whorls of 4. prickly. jaundice. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. DISTR. COM. spleen-enlargement. M. Gulmketu. ulcers and skin-diseases. improves voice and complexion . Sorrel. diseases of uterus. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Bladder. eye. branches quadrangular . acrid. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. smooth. blood..—white or pink. base cuneate. cylindric. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. erect glabrous herb. :—E. urine and even bones red. ulcers. Sk. greenish. petioles triangular. lower leaves larger. PARTS USED. urinary discharges. vagina. .5—7. NS. emmenagogue. erysipelas. inner perianth-segments membranous. high.—Polygonaceæ.—Rubiaceæ. COM. :—Annual. Java. Fl. Leaves-sweet. bitter. M. cordate or hastate. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). :—E. pains in joints.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. ear.-Jany. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. stems very long. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. rheumatism. Root—bitter. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. oleaginous . Malay Peninsula. Fl. increase appetite. alexiteric. Manjishtha.5 cm. branched from the root. Raktasara. antidysenteric. Dock. dysentery. Majit. Rohini. Ceylon. analgestic. analgesic. it powerfully affects the nervous system.—2. Country.

bronchitis.—Rutaceæ. Kharmor.—Acanthaceæ. asthma. laxative. See—Vegetables. N. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. Satapa . vomiting. Deccan. useful in heart troubles. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—suborbicular. :—A herb . Fl. . NS. diseases of the spleen. piles. Sadabu. FAM. then erect. rugose with furrow. Vishapaha. H. stems usually decumbent. bites and stings of poisonous animals. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. bracts elliptic. LOC. dyspepsia. Kanara. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. alcoholism. Fr. DISTR. Nagadali. The seeds have the same properties . useful in scabies. toothache. tonic. Pismarum Sadab. while fresh they are bruised. with darker spots. :—Common throughout the State. :—Western Punjab. COM. Ceylon. Khatselio .—Nov. pains. ciliate. tumours. Country. constipation. Sadapaha. Konkan. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. hiccup. USES :—Leaves are cooling. upper emarginate. they are prescribed. Havananju. generally in the Deccan. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens.—white.— subsessile. C. Satap. Persia. M. M. acute.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. pale brown. LOC. lower shortly 3-lobed. flatulence. roasted. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. S. stomachic. Ghati pittapapada . 2-lipped. FAM. t. analgesic. CHAR. checks nausea and promotes appetite. Parpatha. in dysentery. Cooling. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Trans-Indus Hills. ovoid oblong.—capsule. Sk.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). L. Common—Garden-rue . Sd. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Fl. G. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. DISTR. H. often rooting near the base. Sk. COM. also considered as a vermifuge. oblong lanceolate. Afghanistan. :—E. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. aperient and diuretic. acute . K. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Satri. leucoderma. blue or pink. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour.-Jany. NS. LOC. Africa. The juice allays tooth-pain. M.

Poona. DISTR. Fr. Rikhu. tonic. Powdered and combined with aromatics. spathulate or linear-oblong . diuretic. glandulose punctate.—angled. abortifacient. emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda).—capsule. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems..—in divaricately spreading corymbs. garden. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. DISTR. Gudakastha. Gudatrina. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Ingotu. etc. M. Satara. in pots. increases mental activity. and externally used as a rubefacient. useful in fatigue. Sherdi. indigestible. COM. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). petioled. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). G. Naisakar. S. heats body. oleaginous. oblong-obovate. :—A strong smelling herb . flawed. Ukh . Us . The oil is the best form for administration. segments cuneate. flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. decompound. The plant contains glucoside glutin. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia.—petals 4.-alternate. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC.—Gramineæ. forest and mountain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. Kabbu. cultivated throughout India. digestive. . leprosy. amenorrhœa. FAM. K. Ikshu. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . :—Egypt and Algeria. H. HABIT :—Cultivated. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. Sd. C. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. LOC. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. colic. laxative. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. M. it may be given internally in hysteria. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman).MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. S. The plant is tonic. particularly Deccan. epilepsy. There are three varieties . Ganna. Sk. Kumad. NS :—E. all over the State. Rasala. anti-aphrodisiac . Madhuyashti. grown in gardens. yellowish. LOC. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. heating to body . diuretic. L. :—Grown everywhere in India. Sugarcane. Tanigarbu . obtuse . The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. thirst. Fl. cooling. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic.

Fruits are deobstruent. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . analgesic. leucoderma. bad for liver (Yunani). inflammations. See—Food Plants. Tooth-brush tree. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. tonic to liver. :—Drier parts of India. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. strengthen teeth. Mahaphala. H. Cane—sweet. L. Leaves—bitter. bile. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. leaves. In the Punjab. Abyssinia. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. C. the Konkan and N. Asia. aphrodisiac .—Salvadoraceæ. improve diuresis (Yunani). useful in heat. Jal. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. tonic and aperient.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. Pilu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. laxative. useful in nosetroubles. often mucronate at the apex. Fr. dry regions of W. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. COM. Goni. improves appetite. Sind. The juice contains vitamins A and B. M. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive.—drupe. deobstruent. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). K. Kanara in littoral forests. :—E. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. sugar is considered heavy. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. G. carminative. stomachic . USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. numerous. Egypt. delirium. deeply cleft. disorders and wind. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. pectoral and aphrodisiac. alexiteric. Pilu. fleshy. opposite. DISTR. piles. :—Dry districts of the State. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. corrective. useful in biliousness.—very thin. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. Pilu. LOC. FAM. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. lessen inflammation . anthelmintic. near the coasts of Gujarat . Seeds—purgative. Fl. Fruit—aphrodisiac.". Fl. finely striate. scabies. good for lungs . astringent to bowels. In cases of poisoning by copper. diuretic.—Nov. smooth. white. drooping. PARTS USED :—Bark. 3 mm. purifies blood . red when ripe. lobes much reflexed. Khakan Mirjoli. It is good in calculous complaints. branches numerous. erysipelas. Pilu. globose. oil is digestible. Kharijal.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. LOC.. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. fattening. Sugar causes " Kapha". Brihat madhu pilu. Sk. fruits seeds and oil. greenish-yellow. useful in biliousness. often planted near Muslim tombs. ulcers. t. anæmia. . Piludi. Ceylon. sometimes it raises blisters. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate.-Feb. diuretic. carminative and diuretic. shining. LOC. causes " Kapha. diam. NS.

Anthuvala. Mangalya. astringent to bowels . Root—expectorant. small-pox (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. Sandal. much cultivated. Country and N. exhilarating. G. laxative. Arishtaka. cholera. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Phenilu.—Santalaceæ. :—E. stomachic. strangury. Shrigandhalmara. Fruit—bitter. Sk. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Oil. Mysore and parts of Madras State. to temples in fever. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Bhadrasri. :—Western Peninsula. Chandan. M. PARTS USED :—Root. paralysis. India. gonorrhœa. useful in chronic dysentery. Suket. vaginal discharges. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Aritha. hemicrania. Antharalo. up with water into a paste. K. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. H. Sk. epileptic fits of children. Ceylon. LOC.—Sapindaceæ. Burugukayi. fruit and seed. " Kapha ". LOC. Ringni. antipyretic. Kanara. head-ache (Yunani). tubercular glands. abortifacient. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . acts as diaphoretic. cures "Tridosha". Cultivated elsewhere. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Bhadrasara. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Chandal. thirst. often planted. . Ritha. allays uterine pains. tonic. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. to allay heat and pruritus. gleet. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. burning sensation. M. Phenila. NS. See—Timbers. COM. in skin-diseases. COM. lumbago. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. DISTR. is applied to local inflammations. biliousness. Kumblabijaka. Sandal-wood Tree.. Rishta. diarrhœa. USES :—Wood. useful in diseases of heart. Ritha . LOC. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. PARTS USED:—Wood. emetic. Chandan. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. K. Chandan. Agarugandha. Sukhad . Malayaja. Bhogivallabha. FAM. :—E. cold in head. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). chiefly in S. alexiteric. FAM. Arithan . aphrodisiac. alexiteric. Soap-Nut tree. Oils. ground. H. :—Indian Peninsula. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. NS. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Kugale. M. useful in inflammations.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

diuretic and lactagogue. bleeding piles. H.—in lax. yellow. Raysingani. hair-tonic. Waziristan. etc. C.— abruptly pinnate. :—G. useful in sorethroat.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 7. gouty joints. Shewari. NS. small-pox. inflammations (Yunani). Seed-oil—fattening. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. removes "Kapha". few flowered axillary racemes. Jinangi. branches striate. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. astringent to bowels. probably a native of tropical Africa. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. long.5-15 cm. 4-5 m. Baluchistan. long. aphrodisiac. lung diseases. :—Cultivated all over India. beaked. Sk. LOC. seeds. M. an emollient poultice is also made from them. Jayanti. septate between the seeds. leaves.—20-30. diseases. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. See—Oils. inflammations. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. They are also emmenagogue. applied to gouty joints. useful in dry cough.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. white and red. carminative. There are three varieties of seeds : black. and as an oildressing for ulcers. tonic. tonic. cooling. anthelmintic. such as dysentery etc. seeds. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. Janjhan. spleen troubles. syphilitic ulcers. Rasin. oleaginous. burning sensation. of eye and ear. scabies. in height. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). strengthening. alterative. obscurely angled . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. Black variety is common. urinary concretions. Nadeyi. suppurating wounds. bark. Fr. Jayantika. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. 15-23 cm. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . LOC. DISTR. pendulous. leaflets 914 pairs. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. L. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. FAM. Jayat. Fl. asthma. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. mottled with purple on the outside. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. eye diseases . They are nourishing. inflammations. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. slightly torulose. CHAR. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. cures . enrich blood. Jayanti. Sd. Jaya. applied to ulcers and piles. into claw.—pod. COM. They have been used to procure abortion. HABITAT :—Cultivated. promote hair growth. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. K. Jayanti. Seeds contain vitamin A. :—A soft-wooded shrub.—standard as broad as long. useful in diarrhœa. diuretic. oil. strangury. cure menorrhagia. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. galactagogue. opposite. indigestible . biliousness. linear-oblong..

The plant contains vitamin A. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. allays thirst. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. Hatiya . Leaves—purgative. See—Vegetables. LOC. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. fruits. LOC.— pod. diabetes. flowers. Bark—astringent. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. leucoderma. improve appetite . Agasti.— flowers at various times. :—G. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. epilepsy. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands.8 cm. useful In diseases of spleen.—in racemes . t. 2-4 white or red. useful in ozœna. anthelmintic. 6-9 m. leprosy. :—A soft wooded tree . NS. Seeds—emmenagogue. . is applied in painful swellings. Fl. is applied in rheumatism. Kempagase. useful in ophthalmia. K. Agati.—7. leaves. gout . Agathio. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. FAM. Agasta. Indigenous from Malaya to N. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. improves taste. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. Ornamental Plants. long. Vranari. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). Agase. C. CHAR. cure quartan fever. Basna. Fr. "Kapha" and inflammation. anaemia. Australia. M. Bark— astringent. COM. biliousness. linear oblong.— pinnate. 15-30-cm. tumours . astringent. DISTR. Bak.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). fevers. long. 50 cm. dysentery and paludism. stimulant.5-8. anthelmintic. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. night-blindness. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. HABITAT :—Cultivated. very showy. Fruit—laxative . alexiteric. demulcent. PARTS USED :—Root. rubbed into a paste with water. bronchitis. cure itching. relieves throat-troubles. leaflets 16-30 pairs. long. Dirghashimbi. An infusion is given in small-pox. See—Fodder Plants. Sk. Leaves—indigestible. ulcers. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). gout. Agusta. maturant. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. Kanali. diarrhœa. Munidruma. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. high. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. L. H. cures " Tridosh " pains. Flowers—cooling. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda).

pedicel jointed about the middle.—6-8 mm. yellow. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). ovate-oblong. crenate. Prahasa.. Bala. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. H. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'.—solitary or few together.—2. LOC. cooling. :—Konkan (common). digestive.—5-6 mm. removes " Vata ". Batyalaka. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Khareti. t. " Pitta ".3 cm. Kareta. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). emollient. K. awns 2. Fl. aphrodisiac . Kumghi. Bala.—Nov. with ginger. is given .—smooth. leaves and seeds. Deccan and S. astringent. M.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. :—E. Bariara. diuretic. Sk.—Malvaceæ. diam. awns 2. Root—cooling. Kherati. COM. LOC. G. Tukti. Kharanti. FAM. black. carpels 7-10. Baladana.5-5 cm. puberulous. PARTS USED :—Root. M. L. Gujarat and S. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. upper margins ciliate.—1-2 in each axil. sharply serrate.. dorsal margins toothed. useful in blood and throat diseases.—Malvaceæ.Dec. LOC. diam. M. DISTR. CHAR. Sk. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Sd. Fl. LOC. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. " Kapha " . Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). :—A shrub. cordate. glabrous. Country Mallow. Vatyapushpi. long. linear . dorsal scabrid. base rounded. strongly reticulated . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. a weed. Fr. Jayanti. pedicel jointed much above the middle. t.-Nov. Pata. :—G. Chittuharatu.5-6. NS. strongly reticulated. COM. branches slender. CHAR. Barial. obtuse. bleeding piles.-Oct. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. lanceolate. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. bark. linear. long. FAM. L. :—Konkan. Chikna. scabrid-hairy. minutely hairy. Kisangi. Country. Chikna. Fr. HABITAT :—Moist places . Hettutti-gida. Bala. useful in fever. Country. carpels 5-9. softly hairy all over. decoction. Rajbala. M. DISTR. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . PARTS USED :—Root. NS. Fl. astringent. H.— yellow. stomachic and tonic.. Pata. Fl. Samanga. :—Hotter parts of India. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. C.—2.

-Dec. triangular-ovate. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. :—A large annual herb. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra.—opposite. also in colic and tenesmus.—Compositæ. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. Fl. Externally. NS. involucral bracts 2 rows. high. 5 outer clavate. :—G.—achene. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. all running down wing-like into petiole. facial paralysis. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. . Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. M. pappus 0. Ceylon.—Nov. DISTR. juice is used for healing wounds. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". 0.—heads small in leafy panicles . M. tinged with purple. LOC. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. FAM. 5 inner boat-shaped. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. t. S. those of the ray red beneath. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Fl. Pilibadkadi. Fl. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. common. and head-ache. noise in ears. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. stiff-neck. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. :—Deccan. cystitis. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. COM. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. erect. CHAR. slightly rough. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections.—yellow. rhomboides Roxb. administered in hemiplegia. It is also used to favour menstruation. Fr. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. diaphoretic. Katampu. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. Linn.6—1. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. black.2 m. L. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. :—Throughout India. deeply and irregularly toothed. stem stiff. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Country.

sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. lessens inflammations. 0. or triangular-ovate. DISTR. M. Ubhi-bhuringni. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine.—Solanaceæ. loss of appetite. Fr. subentire. G. lobed. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. cardiotonic. Vadikadheri. Dorli.3—1. Bhantaki. recurved. NS. vomiting. LOC. diam. Malpya. M. Kadusonde. COM. G. Vrittaphala. Egg Plant. t. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. improves appetite. analgesic. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". high. L. pruritus ani. :—Widely cultivated in India. " Kapha".—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Fruit—cardiotonic. Philippines. Sd. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. globose. Baingan. Kattarta. stem stout. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). Barhanta. maturant. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. Bhanta. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Root is applied to lessen pain. leaves (rarely) and fruits. ovate. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. petiole prickly. Vayase.—minutely pitted: Fl. rarely wild.5 cm. Mhotiringni. FAM. " Vata". :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Nilaphala. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. dark-yellow when ripe. :—E. Hinguli. Brinjal. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM.5—7. 8 mm. Ceylon. LOC. pain. covered with stellate hairs.— berry.5 m. prickly. Indian Nightshade.. digestive.-Aug. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating.—Solanaceæ. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. clothed outside with purple hairs . causes biliousness. China. astringent to bowels. NS. Brihati. Badanikai. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Sk. bad for piles if taken internally. asthma. H. . Vantak. laxative. sharp..-Oct. K.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. C. Vartaki. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. leaves. Habba-Kirigulla. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Ranringni. K. Bhantaki.—5—15 X 2. Rigana. Fl. very. Vange. fruit and seeds. Vengni.. It is seldom used alone. fever. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mahotika. prickles large. COM. H. enriches blood. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Sk. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria.—pale-purple. bronchitis. LOC. removes foulness of the mouth. Hinguli. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in leucoderma. base unequal-sided.

improves voice . Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. griping. Hound's Berry. Tiktika.. C. yellow.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. gonorrhœa (Yunani). but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. 3-8 flowered cymes . inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root. dysentery. . Black Night-shade. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. in pains. Kakamunchi. throat burning. 6 mm.—many. Kamoni. CHAR. cathartic and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. B and C. The seeds are used as a stimulant. DISTR. " Tridosha". chronic fever. Root-bark—laxative . bark. Sd. etc. piles. diarrhœa. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. Kakamachi. minutely pitted . bitter. liver inflammation. eye-diseases hydrophobia. See—Vegetables. laxative. Fl. L. worms in ear.—discoid. much divaricately-branched . Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. Katuphala. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. diam. alterative. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. M. leucoderma. fever. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. useful in diseases of eye. diuretic. fever. tonic. In S. taste. aphrodisiac. improves appetite. t.-Jany. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. useful in giddiness. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Gurkamai. in extra-axillary. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). leaves and fruit. dysuria and asthma. Fr. bronchitis. tapering into petioles. :—E. NS. shining.—small. COM. :—Throughout India. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. asthma. subumbellate. not to be given to pregnant women. LOC. Ceylon. Morellel.— berry. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. entire or sinuate toothed. itch. Fl. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. :—A variable annual herb .—Solanaceæ. Vayasi. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. LOC. ovatelanceolate. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. K. FAM. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. Kabaiya. Sk. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). useful in heart and eye-diseases. It acts as a hydrogogue. Kakamachi. ear and nose . G. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. Makoi. bronchitis. hiccup. Seeds—laxative. smooth. stem erect. and used with success in psoriasis. Fruit contains vitamins A. Piludi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. inflammation. heating. H. vomiting. urinary discharges. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases.—Sept. good for neck ulcers.

COM. asthma. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Sind. K. Chikka-sonde. urinary concretions. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . :—Throughout India. anthelmintic . DISTR. S. E. Nirgol. Sk. Dhavani. & Wendl. flowers.— June. pruritus . Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. G. good in inflammation. yellow and shining. they are used in the burning of feet. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Durrah. stomachic. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). H. Jolah. :—Common in the Deccan . HABITAT :—Cultivated. strangury. petiole prickly. hairy on both sides. lobes deltoid. LOC. Fruit—laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. base unequal-sided. Jonera. Ceylon. dysuria. fevers. hairy outside. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. long. tropical Australia. NS. LOC. laxative. 3-2 cm. lumbago.7 cm. fever. fruits and seeds. C. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. prickles compressed. thirst. chronic bronchitis. biliousness. Konkan. appetiser.3 cm. ovate or elliptic. Fl. L. Nele-Rama-gulla . FAM. Root—aphrodisiac. Africa.-5-10 X 2. Jowari. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic.—berry. Malaya. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. stems.—Solanaceæ. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. aphrodisiac. COM.5-5. Seeds—anthelmintic. Kateli. Sundia . sinuate or subpinnatifid. M. FAM. Jondhala. Sorgho. straight. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. LOC. t. H. Ikshupatraka. Kantakini. sterility in women. Shalu. muscular pains. CHAR. Dirghashara. Bhui-Kate-ringni.—Gramineæ. Basu). Sk. heart disease. :—G. Katai. Yuvanala. Yengara . Sholapur. Nidigdhika. PARTS USED :—Root.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. expectorant and febrifuge. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. "Vata" and " Kapha". Kantakari. :—E. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). NS. D. Ringni. Brihati. heating. leaves. pains. K. Bhoyaringni. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. M. useful in bronchitis. :—A very prickly diffuse. yellow or white with green veins. Leaves—good application for piles. ozoena. Fl. Vrittatandula. It is used in asthma. diam. catarrhal fever and chest pain.. piles.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . bright green perennial herb . often exceeding 1. Great Indian millet. stem zig-zag..—purple. Fr. Kenjal. asthma. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Bijapur and E. Jundri. stone in bladder. surrounded by enlarged calyx . Jowar.

:—G. Vritta. ulcers. high. :—Bark. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Ahmedabad. Rohani. Munditika. Ruhin. fevers. Grains contain vitamin B. while Belgaum. common in Gujarat. Tans. Gums and Resins. bladder and kidney complaints. L. DISTR. Khandesh and S. H. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Sumbi. . introduced into America and Australia. M. Kumbhala. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). NS. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. LOC. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Some. Rohini. Aruna.—sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES. vaginal injections and enemas. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Gorakhamundi. hence used in intermittent fevers. ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. refrigerant. Bijapur and E. HABITAT :—Open situations. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Bodiakalara. DISTR. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. :—Bark-acrid. diseases of blood. piles. stem and branches cylindric. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. Swami-mara. LOC. tonic and antiperiodic . Juss. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. M. COM. CHAR. leprosy and dysentery . POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. glandular. Dharwar. :—Dry forests of W. FAM: —Compositæ. on dry stony hills. Poona. Rawtarohan. cures " Tridosha ". Indian Red-Wood. K. aphrodisiac. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Sk. PARTS USED. tumours (Ayurveda). See—Food Plants. indigestible. See—Timbers. biliousness. FAM. good for sore-throat. COM. improves appetite and taste. with toothed wings. Gorakhmundi. Country. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. M. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Karanda-gida. Fibres. H. G. Agniruha. Bastard Cedar. NS. :— E. hairy. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . K. :—The grain is cooling. :—Widely cultivated in India. Asia and Africa. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. useful in " Kapha". constipating. Pravrajita. Gorakmundi. Mahamundi. laxative. Sk. :—Seeds.—Meliaceæ. general debility. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Rohina. Rohun.

used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).—compound heads. scalding of urine. :—E. flowers and seeds. truncate. HABITAT. :—Throughout India. Fl. L. USES. Sk. :—Root. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. Pappuso. FAM. Celyon. peduncles reaching 10 cm. :—Common in rice-fields. stalked. peduncles with toothed wings. alterative. serrate or dentate. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. solitary or subpanicled. LOC. Australia. pain in uterus and vagina. dysentery. bark. ovate-oblong. used in insanity. Akara-karava. compressed . NS. emmenagogue. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. :—Deccan. . fattening. in cases of worms and indigestion. t.—opposite. globose ovoid.—Nov. anthelmintic. urinary discharges. LOC. Africa. cooling. S. laxative. epileptic convulsions. gives lustre to eyes . ring-worm of waist. LOC. sometimes grown in gardens. Pellitary . increases appetite. Country and Kanara. DISTR. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. spleen diseases. looseness of breasts. :—Root. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. urethral discharges and jaundice. laxative. anæmia. good for eyesore. depurative. enriches blood . Akkalkara .. vomiting. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED.—Nov-Jany. t. Fl. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. M. C. involucre bracts linear. alexipharmic.—in heads ovoid. Tonic. rectal pain.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. Fl. HABITAT. base usually acute. irregularly crenateserrate. elephantiasis. hemicrania (Ayurveda).—purple. glaborous. stem and branches hairy. PARTS USED. :—Wild and cultivated. :—Throughout India. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. CHAR. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. Akarakara . Fr. leucoderma. long. jaundice. :—Common in the Konkan. COM.— achene. indigestion. digestible. leaves. gleet. They are chewed to relieve toothache. :—Hot. Fr. useful in skin diseases. glandular hairy. M. They are given in powder form. tonic. bronchitis. asthma. tuberculous glands. lessens inflammations . used also for local application. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. :—Annual herb.—Compositæ. chest diseases. H. Ceylon. Fl. all warm countries.. strangury. and tonic (Stewart) . biliousness.—Achene. oblong. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cools brain. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . piles. Malay Islands. Powdered root is given as tonic. leaves and flower-heads. ovate. It is also used as fish and crab poison. ciliate near the ends . scabies. with honey they are given in cough. biliousness. DISTR. boils. the latter when present minute. PROPERTIES AND LOC.

SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Patala.. NS. Toyadhivasini. oblong. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Amate. M. cures rheumatism. :—E. HABITAT.5 m. destroys " Vata ". astringent. Indian Hog-Plum. hard. Pandri. Kamduti. K. Avatekayi. Hude. pinkish green. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. :—H. stone woody. :—Often planted throughout the State. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. bark smooth. Konkan. CHAR. Kumbhi. Fruit—indigestible. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. high. entire. Kapichuta. Ambada.— petals 4-5. Gujarat. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Indian Archipelago. trunk straight. blood complaints . long. Kariguddada.-Apl. enriches blood . appetising. Andamans.—Anacardiaceæ. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. 3.5 cm. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. DISTR.—drupe.8 cm. Western Peninsula.—Bignoniaceæ. . It has been found useful in dysentery. :—Bark. FAM. LOC. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. aphrodisiac. ovoid. Padal. round with furrows and cavities. LOC. oblique. W. Sk. Ceylon. good for sore-throat. Bile Tree. Pahad.8-7. Kanara. t. Marahunise. leaves and fruit. Hulave. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. ovate oblong. Hongkong. COM. PARTS USED. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Sk. Amra. Sd.-usually 1. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES. long. :—Leaves-tasty. Fl. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. widely planted.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. K. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. :—A tree 9-10. biliousness. Dr. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism.. Giri Hadari. Ali-vallabha. Country. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Salt Range. Parur. M. NS. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). See—Gums and Resins. C. yellow. tonic. Amrataka. Kalavrinta. Gum is demulcent. Fr. phthisis. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Ambodha.Feb. ash-coloured .. :—Cultivated. Padiala. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. Tungi. branches nearly horizontal. burning sensation. M. Patala. COM. L. Pitana. Ran-amba .5-18 x 3. ulcers. Padal. Wild Mango. refrigerant. Fl. H.

tonic. Karnatak. LOC. N. Ittangi. heating. emmenagogue . useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". appetiser. pungent. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. "Vata". Burma. Kajavara. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. blood diseases. cures pains in joints. burning sensation. ring-worm.—Loganiaceæ. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. asthma. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Laos. Crow Fig. Vishamushti. Kakatinduka. lumbago. Kachita. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. :—E. aphrodisiac. diuretic. Fruit—bitter. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Travancore . heating. tonic. Kajra. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Kuchla. See—Timbers. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge.. heating. M. vomiting. ulcers. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . west coast of Madras State. Planted in Ceylon. diuretic. tonic. LOC.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Flowers— acrid . inflammation. :—Fruit-acrid. COM. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Nirmal. :—Root. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . LOC. cures leucoderma. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. G. jaundice. Visha-druma. Kajra. thirst. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. useful in bilious diarrhœa. astringent to bowels. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. :—In forests south of Bombay. :—Root-bitter. :—Wood (rarely). leaves. fevers. Kuchla. fruit. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. anæmia. blood diseases. sub-Himalaya. Poison Nut. Circars. Kanara. H. PARTS USED. NS. Kelakutaka. Kuchala. Kangira. Sk. seeds. piles . Indo-China. Ceylon. PARTS USED. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. fruit. Karaskara. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). Hemushti. loss of taste. DISTR. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . FAM. It is regarded as cooling. bitter. "Kapha". Kupaka. itching. eructations. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Travancore. poisonous. flowers. :—Monsoon-forests. Kanara. antipyretic. :—More or less throughout tropical India. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). K. DISTR.

:—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. . It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. (Rasendrasarasangraha). also in Konkan. relieve colic (Yunani). Seeds—bitter. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. alexiteric. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. :—E. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. fruit and seeds. cures inflammations. gonorrhœa. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. M. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. :—Sand-stone hills of S. jaundice. Clearing Nut Tree. Chittu bija. K. Aduguchali-bija. Nelmal. anæmia. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. See—Timbers. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. Seeds—acrid. aphrodisiac. Shodhanatmaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. Nirmali. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. HABITAT. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Fruit useful in eye diseases. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. PARTS USED. hallucinations. M. Madhya Bharat. poisoning. causes biliousness. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Sk. kidney complaints. astringent to bowels. diaphoretic. urinary discharges. Ceylon. :—Root (rarely). Kataka. diuretic. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. emetic. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. alexipharmic. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. LOC. See—Timbers. H. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. cure strangury. :—Western Peninsula.. Ambuprasadini. DISTR. :—Root cures leucoderma. Country.—Loganiaceæ. :—Deciduous dry forests. good for liver. FAM. Kanara and Khandesh. tonic. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. head-diseases (Ayurveda). lithotriptic. Nivali. PROPERTIES AND USES. increases "Vata". LOC. improve eye-sight. thirst. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. Burma. COM.

4-winged. Lodh Tree. Bose). acrid. Peninsula). Lodhra. Sk. HABITAT. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Loder. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. FAM. :— E. ovoid or oblong. broadly ovate. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. Tiritaka. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. C. Chota Nagpur.. colloturine and loturiaine. :—M. E. LOC. Fr. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. t. Bark—bitter. Burma. cures cough. :—Bark. Lodh . Kadu. :—Hilly parts. PARTS USED. 0. bleeding gums . emmenagogue.-Jany. M. DISTR. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. biliousness. useful in eye-diseases. See—Timbers. astringent to bowels. inflammations. vaginal discharges. Deccan. quadrangular. C. diseases of blood. L.. COM. Torna fort. :—Root. Mahabaleshwar. CHAR. DISTR. Lodhra . white with blue veins. 5-nerved . LOC. flowers (rarely). leprosy. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Lodhraka. China Nora.—Symplocaceæ. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. aphrodisiac. in powder or in fresh decoction.9 m. PARTS USED. Bhilli.— Oct. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin.—Gentianaceæ. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Peninsula. Country. winged . high. etc. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani).—capsule. Broughton). cooling. COM. throughout N.— lobes 4-5. FAM. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Fl. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . :—Konkan and N. Deccan . :—An erect herb. alexiteric. . PROPERTIES AND USES. digestible. Shavaraka. K. stem densely leafy. H. :—W. C. :—The whole plant is bitter. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. Sd.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . :—Western Ghats . :—India (W. Tillaka. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Lodh. eye-diseases and ulcers . :—Bark-acrid. useful in abortions . decussate. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. M.— sessile. NS.3-0. Dyes. 2-valved. Fl. Balaloddujinamara. Lodh is used in raw condition.—many. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). Californian Cinchona. dysentery. LOC. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions .204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. S.

PROPERTIES AND USES. Nilphala. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. etc. DISTR. Kokileshta. PARTS USED. Australia. Jambu. good lotion for ring-worm in head. M. H. :—E. Nenda. Neralu. Sk. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. asthma. Malay—Rose apple. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). LOC. ulcers. blood impurities. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. good gargle for sore-throat. digestive. Jam. :-Black-Java Plum. Ceylon. Gulabjaman. increases "Vata".MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Nerate. Jambura. LOC. strengthens gums and teeth. carminative and diuretic. biliousness. bronchitis. Fruit—acrid. Jambu. :—Bark. fruit vinegar is tonic.—Myrtaceæ. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent.) FAM. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). astringent. COM. NS. anthelmintic. :—Throughout the State. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Shukapriya. good for sore-throat. K. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. astringent to bowels. See—Timbers.) FAM. both wild and cultivated. Jambudi. :—Bark-acrid. carminative . . Jambu. gargles and washes . Jamburaj. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. dysentery. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. thirst. H. Shukapriya. Jambu-Nayinerale. useful in spleen diseases. COM. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. K. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Pannerali. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. sprouts. fruits and seeds. dry.—Myrtaceæ. Malaya. also used in spongy and painful gums. NS. sweet. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. :—Throughout India. G. Pharenda. enriches blood. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. common along river banks. very often planted. removes bad smell from mouth. common at Mahabaleshwar. Jambul. M. LOC. cooling. Jamen. Jambu. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Seeds—diuretic. Jambul. Sk. Gulab-Jamb. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. astringent to bowels. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Fruit Trees. Jambula. Surabhipriya. also wild.

Ananta. Root—bitter . double. L. Nandi." biliousness. 1-3 ribbed. useful in "Kapha. :—Bark. LOC. fatigue. aphrodisiac. LOC. NS. Garhwal. with milky juice . orange within. Bengal. astringent to bowels.—Apocynaceæ. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes.—snow-white. astringent to bowels. Assam.) FAM. removes bad humours. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). heavy speech. fruit and seeds. used in asthma. C—lobes overlapping to the left. G. lobes 5 in single. useful in paralysis.. . indigestible. acrid. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. liver and spleen .— opposite.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Burma. Tagara. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Fr. heating. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. :—Root. PARTS USED. salver-shaped.5-15 X 2. thirst. improves voice. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. lessens pains in limbs and joints . Br. Yunnan to Australia. fragrant at night. used in liver complaints. Trinidad . rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. cultivated in many parts. inodorous during the day. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. emmenagogue. alexipharmic. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. :—E. used in syphilis (Yunani). COM. tonic to brain. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. . DISTR. Wax flower. HABITAT. digestible. tonic to brain. purgative. E. PROPERTIES AND USES. hot. wood and oil. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Fruit—sweet and tasty. dysentery. astringent to bowels. bitter. glossy green above. and an essential oil. cures epilepsy. See—Timbers. divaricate. pale beneath. :—Root is acrid. :—Bark is sweet. Taggar. strangury. across. tonic. M. Chandani.5-5 cm. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES. Root chewed relieves toothache . Maddarasa gida . bronchitis. The plant contains an alkaloid. Seeds are astringent to bowels.—rainy season. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. Fl. Cultivated in many places. indigestible. Ashvathabheda. CHAR. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). It is very cooling in ophthalmia. :—Cultivated in gardens. K. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. Khasia Hills. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. t. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. Fl. LOC. Tagar. 7. weakness of limbs. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.5-5 cm. :—Sikkim Terai. Tagar . Kottuhale. Sk. margins wavy. H. PARTS USED.—follicles.

LOC.5-20 X 3. Maddarssa. stomachic. NS.—white. L. LOC. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). DISTR. somewhat boat-shaped. HABITAT. Amlike. belching. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. :—Leaves and flowers. coriaceous. :—Rain-forests. Genda. 2. Imli. Guljharo. kidney troubles. oil. Zendu. Makhamal. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. DISTR. Nagakuda. FAM. acrid.000 m. throughout the Konkan and N. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. K. :—Cultivated...2-7. FAM. :—Same as T. COM.4-4. carminative. useful in scabies. C. yellow when ripe. high. t. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. oblong lanceolate . Nuli. Zanduga. Halmeti. astringent. H.—Apocynaceæ. Fr. good for teeth . Amala. :—Flower-pungent.5 cm. Fl. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sd. NS. H. French Marigold. :—Shady parts of rain-forests.—opposite. : K. :—Malabar. :—E. PARTS USED. PARTS USED. muscular pains.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Amla. :—Native of Mexico. Amli. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.— tube inflated near the top. Tintrani.—Compositæ. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. rough.—surrounded by red pulp. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. bark grey.5 m.. Makhamali. Sthulapushpa.. Fl. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State.5 cm. Amlika. :—Root. Sandu. grown in gardens all over India. CHAR. COM. HABITAT. lessens inflammation . M. 7.— Mar-Apl. :—E. Makhamala. bitter. Sk. Travancore up to 7. Kalaga. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. Tintidika. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . HABITAT. G. Leaves—good for piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. Flower—bitter. FAM. Gultora. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Chinch. M. See—Ornamental Plants. divaricata. wood. Tamarind. . across in pedunculate cymes . G. NS. Nagaskuda. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. their juice is given in ear-ache. Chinch. Amli. Chinchika.—follicle. internally they are said to purify blood. Kanara. Pandarakuda. common in rain-forests. M. LOC. Teter.

HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. causes cough. DISTR. bark. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Sk. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. heals ulcers. eye-diseases. sore-throat. Seeds are good astringent. K. Teka. :—Throughout India. intoxication &c. flowers and seeds. Burma. Kanara. Sagwan. LOC. small-pox. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. vomiting. aphrodisiac. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. COM. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Sagun. G. tumours. useful in liver-complaints. digestive. stomatitis. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. useful in giddiness and vertigo. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES. Cultivated also. anthelmintic. Circars. Malay Peninsula. tonic. H. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. astringent to bowels.—Verbenaceæ. such as body-burning. biliousness. DISTR. Tropics generally. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. tonic to heart. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. Anil. flowers. Madhya Bharat. Arna. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. and for sizing materials. leaves. laxative.. scabies. Mahapatra. M. Fruit—sour. FAM. Condiments and Spices. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani).. tasty. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. . Fruit-sour. Sagwan. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Sagach. PARTS USED. Sag. Teak. heating. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Flowers— appetising . TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. indigestible. and laxative. NS. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. wood. Tega. laxative. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. heals wounds and fractures. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Seeds astringent. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. LOC. :—E. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. urinary discharges. sweetish. earache. Sag. fruit and seeds. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. costiveness. boiled they are used as a poultice.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. abundant all along the slopes of W. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. Sumatra and Java. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Tegu. :—Bark. carminative. Kanara. Bark—astringent.

Leaves—tonic to intestines . Konkan. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. biliousness. allays thirst. increase "Vata". Phanike. DISTR. L. t. COM. M. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. alexiteric. anthelmintic. Wood good for head ache. silkyhairy beneath. LOC. laxative. Sarphoka. Fl. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. Bark is an astringent.. anthelmintic. Sharapunkha. glabrous above. cures diarrhœa . Wood—acrid.—pod 3—4. Sharapunkha. CHAR.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. urinary discharges. . useful in scabies. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. leaves and seeds. oblanceolate. mucronate. fresh root-bark. LOC. cultivated lands and roadsides.—petals clawed.—5-6 . Sk. Sarphonka. S. Empali. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. Plihari.5 cm. improve appetite. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). enriches Blood . gonorrhœa (Yunani). suborbicular. pubescent on the back. FAM. red. See—Timbers. mucronate. biliousness. spleen diseases. branches spreading. asthma. high. inflammations. blood. Malay Peninsula. Jhila.-June.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). C. antipyretic. :-G. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . tumours. sedative to gravid uterus. boils and pimples. root. spleen. "Root—diuretic. useful in piles. cures diseases of liver. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon.—Oct. PARTS USED. good in piles. HABITAT:—Open situations. Deccan. ulcers. Fl. Fr. 2—2. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani).. H.2 cm.8—1. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . along forest borders. 30—60 cm. slightly curved. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Flowers—acrid. heart. Unhali. leprosy. long. leaflets 11—21. Ghodakan. cooling. LOC. Gujarat. allays thirst. Sd. NS. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. dry. M. ground and made into a pill. it acts also as a vermifuge. Country.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. poisoning. :—Plant-digestible. expectorant. K. asthma. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). :—All over India. useful in lung and chest diseases. syphilis. linear. Sarpankho. burning pain over the region of liver. :—A perennial herb. standard. Kogge.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. useful in bronchitis. alterative. liver. bitter. Kalika. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Udhadi. :—The whole plant. long.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. useful in bronchitis.8 X 0.

digestible. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. NS. anæmia. Hela. intoxication. Expectorant. Arjun Sadada. PROPERTIES AND USES. strangury. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Sk. Karvirak. biliousness. M. Arjuna. with milk. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Indradruma.. tumours. Burma. sore-throat. Koha. Belleric Myrobalan. G. " Kapha". Bedda Nut. Arjan. anthelmintic . allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). Bark is astringent and febrifuge. in the sub-Himalayan tract. very common in South Konkan. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Behada. PROPERTIES AND USES. Voting. aphrodisiac. useful in fractures. fruit (rarely). PARTS USED. K. Kakubha. externally in wounds and fractures. styptic. Bahaza.. Shantimara. in Khandesh Akrani. H. Madhya-Pradesh. COM. Fruit-pungent. Behedo. except in dry arid regions. H. useful in biliousness. & A. acrid. FAM. G. diuretic. Vibhata. Sadura. false presentation of fœtus.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. strangury. Sadado. Aksha. asthma. K. Tari. Beheduk. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. ulcers. :—Bark. excessive perspiration. :—E. Kahu. NS. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Arjun-Sadada. Bibhitiki. Arjuna. inflammation. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. useful in bronchitis. Bahara. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma.—Combretaceæ. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. LOC. anthelmintic. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Bastard Myrobalan. Madras State. biliousness. :—Alexiteric. DISTR. :—Bark. LOC. Chota-Nagpur. Baire. urinary discharges. Tara. Madhya-Bharat. Arjuna. leaves. . Dhanvi. Rajastan and Sind. Karshaphala. Sk. Sagona. blood-diseases. :—Konkan and Deccan. heart disease. Vibhitika. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. White Marudah. M. See—Timbers. laxative. DISTR. Ceylon. Kushika. COM. tonic. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. :—Throughout the forests of India. :—E. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb.. fruit and seed. tonic. Kalidrum. Bera. LOC.—Combretaceæ. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. leucoderma. FAM. Buhura.

cold in head. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. diseases of spleen. heating. Har. heart and bladder. stomachic. useful in thirst. carminative. antidysenteric. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. LOC. —E. bleeding piles. piles. applied to eyes. :—Fruit-dry. Haritaki. the fully ripe or dried fruit. anaemia. sore-throat. vesicular calculi. useful in dyspepsia. tonic. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. alterative . :—Bark and fruit. LOC. tumours. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. piles and diarrhœa. bleeding and ulceration of gums. nose. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. Sk. hoarseness. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). carminative. DISTR. K. NS. Kanara. mixed with honey. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. dyspepsia. enriches blood. vomiting. diseases of eye. H. delirium (Ayurveda). eyes. intoxicating. Harara. LOC. Ceylon. inflammations. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. Hirda. Kernel has narcotic properties. piles. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. Ripe fruit—purgative. PARTS USED. Haria. antipyretic. Jivanti. Harade. brain tonic (Yunani). biliousness. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz.—Combretaceæ. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. hiccup. ascites. Abhaya. tonic. vomiting. Haritaki. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. in Travancore. common in Khandesh Akrani. typhoid fever. tonic. FAM. thirst. gout. Fruit-astringent. strangury. expectorant. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Black myrobalan. PROPERTIES AND USES. Alate. heart and bladder. Hirdo . decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. bilious headache. M. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. anthelmintic. COM. useful in caries of teeth. Seed—acrid. good in ophthalmia. corneal ulcers. USES. Jivantika. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. aperient. is used as an application in ophthalmia. elephantiasis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. Burma. Chebulic myrobalan. attenuant. eye diseases etc. urinary discharges. Gums and Resins. itching pain. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. See—Timbers. diarrhœa. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. which is considered a good digestive. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. diseases of eye. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. strengthens brain. Dyes. G. constipation. used in paralysis (Yunani). leucoderma. useful in asthma. gums.

Kuberaksha. Bengal. produces worms in intestines . Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Burma. LOC. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . PROPERTIES AND USES. Gajadanta. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Parisha. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Bhindi. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali).. Jogiyarale. . flowers and fruit. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Kanara. H. Paras-piper. Bugari. aphrodisiac . ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. See—Timbers. :—E. Parasipu. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. difficult to digest. Paraspiplo. LOC. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. acrid . HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. DISTR. increases " Kapha " . Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Eastern and Western Peninsula. M.—Malvaceæ. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. :—Coast forests of India. Portia Tree. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Kandarala. Mhaskar and Issac). especially centipedes. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. PARTS USED. :—Fruit-sour. Paraspipal. Tulip Tree. Arasi. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). COM. Suparshuakan. leaves. K. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. NS. Bhend. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. Ranbhendi. also planted as roadside tree.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Sk. Fibres. Gandarati. Dyes. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". burning of body . See—Timbers. profuse discharge. FAM. Phalisha. Tans. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. :—Bark. Hucerasi. G. Bhandi. Sacred Plants.

Fl. skin diseases. cures " Vata " . Pila kaner. :—An extensive climber. long. Fr. endocarp corky. Uganiballi.. dorsally convex.-spirally arranged. frequently planted. Burma. Gado.—Menispermaceæ. grooved . said to be antiperiodic in small doses . . DISTR. fevers.5 cm. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. 7—9 nerved. pungent. Sk. L. FAM. root. FAM. Amarvel. :—E. :—Stem. worms. H. HABIT :—In thickets. t. lobes 5. NS. Gulo. Gurch.—generally 4. yellow. elliptic. useful in urethral discharges. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.—Apl. piles. bladder. DISTR. H. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. G. often planted in India. across. Jwaranashini. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. females solitary. CHAR. COM. Sd. Andamans and Ceylon. virgin uterus. :—E. Pila kanir.5—12. it has no action on digestive enzymes . Zard kunel. Heart-leaved moonseed. HABITAT. tubular. 5 cm. and blood vessels . PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Vatsadani. throat campanulate. LOC. Karvira. Fl. very poisonous (Ayurveda). 7.—Apocynaceæ. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. ventrally flat. PARTS USED. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. :—Bark. yellow. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. M. Amrita-Valli. bark corky. CHAR. LOC. :—Throughout tropical India. bronchitis . Gulvel. Fr. L. Gulancha. linear. Indies . astringent to bowels. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). hot. :—Native of S. wounds. mesocarp bony.—broadly obovate.. with milky juice. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. but its use is attended with considerable danger. crowded . red. acrid.—membranous. Gulvel. Fl. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. corona in the throat. K. Haripriya. Shatakumbha. :—Often planted. seeds and milky juice. exocarp fleshy. See—Ornamental Plants. G. 1—3.—in axillary and terminal racemes. growing on mango and other trees. male fascicled. Pivali kanher. Amritvalli. 5—10 cm. LOC. Sk. PARTS USED. leucoderma. Gulhel. COM.—in terminal cymes. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. C. Exile or yellow Oleander. Ashvaghna.—drupes. America and W. size of a pea . Pittaghni.. eye-troubles. bright green and shining above.

— alternate. jaundice. stimulates bile secretion. especially acid. :—Stem-bitter. leaves. male flower bud globose. H. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. Stem-bitter. leaflets sessile. PROPERTIES AND LOC. enriches blood. PARTS USED. piles. oblong. Konkan and Kanara. size of a large pea. :—E.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. USES. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. good in cough. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Gangalaki.. FAM. tonic appetiser. Jangali-Mirchi. K. antipyretic. CHAR. burning sensation. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. M. dark shining green above. cures jaundice. :—Root. Manger. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. HABITAT. Lopezroot Tree. 5-10 X 1.—globose. stomachic . stigma sessile. Root and stem are bitter. diarrhœa. NS.—in axillary cymes. .-Jany. chronic fever. Macimullu. Limri. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. LOC. t. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases.—Dehan. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. giddiness. renews blood. causes constipation. vomiting. useful in skin diseases. Mirchi. also in the Deccan hills. bark. expectorant. China. unisexual. :—All over the Madras State . fruits. stimulant and anti-periodic. tropical Africa. LOC. vaginal and urethral discharges.—Aug. Ceylon. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Khasia Hills. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. Java. orange coloured. vomiting. Dahan. crenulate. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Root-bark is aromatic. Fl. Fl. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. fever. white. stomachic. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. juice useful in diabetes. 5-7 lobed. Sumatra. (Kirtikar). FT. armed with small hooked prickles . high. Kumaon to Bhutan. allays thirst. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Philippines. :—Rain-forests. pitted on the rind. anæmia. diuretic.—Rutaceæ. ovary rudimentary. digitately trifoliate. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. DISTR. Kaduhakukare. Sk. female flower buds oblong. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers.8. common in S. 3-5 grooved. coriaceous.8-3. 15 m. tonic. Forest Pepper. COM. L. Kadu-menasu.

Sk. M. Mandurike. causes " Vata " . useful in ulcers. Shingoda. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. itching. See—Timbers. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. cures fevers. burning sensation. biliousness. astringent to bowels. FAM. COM. Toon. Gandhagarige. urinary discharges. Shingada. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Malaya. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. aphrodisiac. Lim. astringent to bowels.) FAM. removes " Tridosha". (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Chota-Nagpur. often cultivated. Trikone-phala. useful in . HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Indian Mahogany. LOC. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). LOC. Nand-vriksha. antipyretic . Water-chestnut. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ceylon. Chittagong. Gums and Resins. Tundu. M. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N.—Onagraceæ. Dyes. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. burning sensation. Waitz). aphrodisiac. Kalingi. :—Bark-acrid. PARTS USED. Lud. :—E. leprosy. Kanara. COM. aphrodisiac. Assam. cures leprosy. LOC. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES. Trikota. removes " Kapha ". :—Bark and flowers. Singhara. Singodi. :—Fruit. Deodari. NS. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. K. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Jalakantaka-valli. cardio-tonic. tropical Africa. :—E. Tuni. PARTS USED. Shringa-kanda-taka. Apina. DISTR. fattening. biliousness. Kaechaka. expectorant. :—Aquatic (in tanks). Kuruk. astringent to bowels. of India). The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. indigestible. H. HABIT. anthelmintic. Bark—bitter. digestible.—Meliaceæ. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Tunika. G. Garige. Mahalimbu. inflammation. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. :—Cooling . H. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. headache. strangury. Sandal Neem. Burma. NS. fatigue. "Tridosha". tonic. Kuberaka. cooling.. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. good for scabies and gleet. Tun. Sk. DISTR. blood diseases.

Chhota gokhru. :—Plant is cooling tonic. Karahate. Petari . LOC. NS. Gamhar. Calthrope. Aphrodisiac.—globose. t. See—Timbers. Sk.. FAM.—Zygophyllaceæ. Malay Peninsula. Shadanga. one of each pair smaller than the other. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. thirst.—several in each coccus . alexiteric. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. H. DISTR. Sd. antipyretic. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. COM. Gokharu. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. pain. See—Food Plants. leaflets 3—6 pairs . bile and phlegm. appetiser. sharp spines. L. bronchitis. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Gokhru. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. Pindara. along nalas and in swampy localities. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. lumbago. :—Throughout India. COM. Kurangaha. Gokshri. a common weed of the drier parts. young parts silky. Gokshura. useful in chronic fevers.—Euphorbiaceæ. stems and branches pilose. Java. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. DISTR. solitary. Sumatra. CHAR. Kere Padye.. mucronate. yellow. :—H. biliousness. Assam. NS. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Deccan and S. Tumri. They are also used in the form of poultice. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Hussuk.—opposite. FAM. Kanara. Ceylon. Gokhru. Gujarat.—throughout the year. M. Kantaphala.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda).. M. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. Fibres. Sk. in Kashmir. The plant contains an alkaloid. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. bad-teeth (Yunani). considered cool and sweet. . hairy. LOC. Seeds abound in starch. Trikantaka. Ceylon.:—Saurashtra. used as food. oblong. sore-throat. Fl. Gokhura. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . :—E. Country. :—The whole plant. K. Kadu Kange Kumbala. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. one pair longer than the other . K. Negalu . improves taste . Sarata. G. of 5 woody cocci. upto 3300 m. Pindara. PARTS USED. LOC. each with 2 pairs of hard. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. abruptly pinnate. LOC. base oblique. :—A procumbent herb. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fr.

Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. yellowish brown. FAM. increases menstrual flow. which is taken in large quantities. asthma. tonic. gonorrhœa. emmenagogue (Yunani). USES :—Fruits are cooling. inflammations.—Compositæ. Mt. —achene.— purple. Country. pruritus ani. Talakanto. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. ciliate. slender.—sessile. stomachic. enriches blood . diuretic. Brahmadandi. alleviating burning sensation. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). base of the cauline leaves not auricled . USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). the Deccan. removes " Tridosha ". involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Brahma-dandi. leaves.— Dec. Central India. Diuretic. leprosy . HABITAT. :—Cooling . Kanara. cures "Kapha". The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). PARTS USED. S. PROPERTIES AND USES. gleet. stem erect. S. H. . NS. Fr. ovoid. reduces inflammation. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. aphrodisiac. pappus shorter than the achenes. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. Physiaran. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. :—Hot. LOC. cough. purifies blood . piles. Mota-Motachor. :—Root. improves appetite . long. pain . COM. tonic . :—A glabrous herb. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Aja-dandi. spinous toothed or serrate. useful in strangury. fruits.—heads 6—8 mm. fattening. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. seeds. urinary discharges. Brahmadandi. alterative . :—Western Peninsula. t. tonic. bloody urine. copious. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). cures skin and heart diseases. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. lumbago . CHAR. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. :—The whole plant. diuretic. West Rajastan. LOC. L. M. Fl. "Vata". LOC. K. :—Wild in places. faintly ribbed. C. Kantapatraphala. S. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). urinary disorders and impotence. Abu. : — G. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. DISTR. suppression of urine. Konkan. bitter. vesicular calculi. branches angled and ribbed. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. cures strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. oblong. reduces inflammation . Brahmadandi. Brahmadandi. appetiser. Kanara. linear-oblong or lanceolate. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. M.

axillary. NS. slightly hairy. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. Panduka. Leaves—good for biliousness. Makal. pungent. FAM. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. ovoid-fusiform. Ceylon.—Cucurbitaceæ. variable. tendrils 3-fid. DISTR.—2. Lal-indrayan. :—E.-6. scarlet when ripe. slender. — surrounded with red-pulp . Fr. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers.. distantly denticulate. stems 3.3 cm. long. K. antipyretic. stomachic.5 m. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Fl. tendrils 3 cleft. CHAR.6—4. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). it is given in decoction with ginger. Malay Peninsula. Sk. Perula.3-12. white.—July-Oct.5 cm. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta).—Cucurbitaceæ. male in axillary racemes. Katuka.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Jangali chichonda. lobes ovate-oblong. Fruit—hot. base cordate . NS. Ratan-indrayan. Kaundal. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. asthma. burning sensation. LOC. M. bitter. PARTS USED. alterative. CHAR. Malaya. eye diseases. long. N. Mahakala. LOC. leaves. leaf-juice is emetic. palmately 3-5 lobed. L. K. cures itching. erysipelas. females solitary. Sd. leprosy. headache and boils. G.-5-12. orbicular. HABITAT:-In hedges.-male in axillary . Jangli— Kadu padval.—monœcious. Australia. cures bronchitis. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. green with white stripes when raw. L. Indrayan. COM. leucoderma. H. stem robust. Wild Snake-gourd.5—7. useful for boils and intestinal worms. FAM . chireta and honey. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. fruit. :—Root-cathartic . In Bombay. :—A scandent annual. oil. dentate or serrate. M. with a long sharp beak. Fl. dark-green above. COM. alexiteric. deeply 5-lobed. :—Throughout India. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Patola.5 cm. paler beneath. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. Jyotsna. Kiripodla. Sk.. antipyretic.. Kadvi-padyal or patola . woody below. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. Mukal. anasarca and ascites. H. :—Root. Avagude-hannu. furrowed. base deeply cordate. laxative. —G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. long as well as broad. Root-juice is very purgative. ulcers. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. the Deccan. Betlada padaval. long. reniform or broadly ovate. allays thirst. blood diseases.

FAM. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. Malaya. middle lobe smallest. Country. cures hemicrania. :— Wild in Konkan.. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. limbweakness. bracts large. :—Abundant in the Deccan. NS. t. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. densely silky hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Wild in hilly parts. C. Fr. . ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). :—Root and fruit. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Fr. DISTR. LOC. stem and branches hairy. acute.—petals wedge-shaped. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . fringed. DISTR. the smoke causes hæmatemesis.—Compositæ. which is found abundantly all over the country. L. M. ovate-elliptic. slender. axillary.—1. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil.. Ceylon. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. sparsely white hairy.—many .— achene.—globose 3-8. Fl. lessens inflammations . Japan. ligules yellow. Fl. peduncles very long. purgative. rheumatism. all over the State. :—M. heat of brain. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. Sd. :—Leaves. female solitary. PARTS USED. :—A perennial straggling herb. N.— Apl. leprosy.—throughout the year.-July. t. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. high. 30-60 cm. gargle good for toothache. very hairy. petioles densely hairy. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. PARTS USED.—head solitary..75 X . boiled with gingelly oil. HABITAT. LOC. 3-partite. glandular. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. China. COM. used in epilepsy. Fruit—carminative. many years ago. inner slightly longer than outer. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. Fl. Ray flowers ligulate. outer involucral bracts ovate. LOC.. Australia. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. Kirkee. Juice of fruit or root-bark. white. ophthalmia. abortifacient. :—Throughout India. black. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles.75-1 in. on the Himalayas. bruises and wounds. diam. CHAR. Ekdandi. Deccan and S. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. hairy.5 cm.

piles. LOC. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. LOC. DISTR.—opposite.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. appetiser. Methi. Fl. Konkan. chronic cough. Pitabija Vedhini. HABITAT. enlargement of spleen and liver. long. Fl. CHAR. . applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. Country. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns.—deeply lobed. dysentery. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. G. bronchitis. LOC. M. PARTS USED. greenish-yellow outside.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Cultivated. Muthi.—follicles. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. ovate or elliptic oblong. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. they are also aphrodisiac. H. Methi . prevent hair falling off (Yunani). Kashmir. removes bad taste from mouth. Menthe—palle. suppurative. enlargement of spleen and liver. Pitakari (Pitamari). cultivated in many parts of India. 5-10 x 2. aperient. :—Hot. useful in dropsy. Sd. tapering to a fine point at the apex. Methi. :—E. Methini.5-5. Nepala . useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Fenugreek . dropsy. See—Vegetables. NS. Sk. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. long. :—South of Bombay. COM. cures leprosy. NS. :—Punjab. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. Chandrika. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A.-Nov. Hot and dry. much used in colic. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. M. t. K. roots many. COM. astringent to bowels. Jyoti. FN. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. and the seeds contain vitamin A. also in low and sandy localities. FAM. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Kanara. antipyretic. corona gibbous below. Antamul. base cordate. tonic and carminative. 7.—in umbellate cymes . purplish within. S. C. diuretic. K. L. flatulence. anthelmintic. fleshy. narrowed at the apex to a free point. vomiting. large for the genus. "Vata". with coma .7 cm. dyspepsia with loss of appetite.— broadly ovate. Janglipikvan. Methi. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State..—Asclepiadaceæ. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. FAM. emmenagogue.. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. tonic. :—H. diarrhœa. :—Leaves and seeds.5—10 cm. :—A twining perennial. M.—Aug.

:—E.—in racemes 15-30 cm. drooping. hairy beneath. :—Roots and leaves. FAM. URARIA PICTA Desv.— petals lanceolate. long. C. found useful in dysentery. Pitavan . 20-30 cm. C. CHAR. KolaPutakand. DISTR. Fl. light-brown .—appearing after the flowers. folded on one another.-Sept. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Sd. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Prishna-parni. 15-45 x 1.. :—Throughout the plains of India. :—A perennial shrub. Thailand (Siam). Malay Islands. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.. long. :—A herb. USES. USES. G. 0. long. stems downy with hooked hairs. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. Peninsula. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. PROPERTIES AND LOC... diaphoretic and expectorant. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). linear-oblong. Fr.—capsule. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion).8 m. ellipsoid. W. COM. FAM. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. Ceylon. NS. blotched with white above. Borneo.5 cm. :—Wild.— flattened. HABITAT. NS. :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Rankanda. Bihar.9-1. black. Chota-Nagpur. tropical Africa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. :—Western Himalayas. :—Throughout India.. t. M. scape erect 30-45 cm. Fl. HABITAT. PARTS USED. Dried leaves are emetic. Jangli-Ran-khanda. Fl. Jaglipiaz. stalks long. Sk. H. polished.— imparipinnate.3-2.. Pitvan. joints 3-6. Pithavan. LOC. flat. Malay Islands. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. . L. Burma. glabrous. :—Sandy places. M. tapering to both ends .— pod. COM.—Aug. pale lead-colored. Sk. :—Konkan. Ranganja . PARTS USED.— Liliaceæ. :—Common on sandy shores. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. perianth campanulate. LOC. Ceylon. high. Shankaraja . Panjala. CHAR. 5-7 (rarely 9). Fr. :—G. white. linear. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Vanapalandu. Dabra.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children.—purple. tropical Africa. H. Philippines. Indian Squill. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. DISTR. 10-20 cm. L.

bronchitis. renal calculi. . Gujarat and Kanara. Atiras. Sk. Sarpagandha. PARTS USED. obtusely keeled.— July. Ceylon. :—The bulb is pungent. long. toothache. L. USES :—Expectorant. Bihar. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. 1931. alexiteric. asthma. lip bluish dotted with purple. A. Persara. M. :—Konkan. Fl. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. Chota-Nagpur. column very short. and an acute interposed one. anthelmintic. :—Root is bitter. Br. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. CHAR. boils in the scalp.. stem 30-60 cm. DISTR. praemorse. :—G.—Orchidaceæ. t. long. 15-20 X 1. tip..3-2 cm. acute. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. hiccup. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. skin diseases. K. 2-lobed. long. (In Med. HABIT. LOC. :—Epiphyte. S. Rasna. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. Nakula. laxative. good for piles. COM. inflammations. Banda. diseases of nose.—thickly coriaceous. erect. diuretic. W. heals fractures (Yunani). VANDA ROXBURGHII R. diseases of the abdomen. Fl. Madhya-Pradesh. Root is bitter. :—Root and leaves. LOC. Vriksharuha. rheumatic pains. complicate.. The plant contains an alkaloid.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. NS. bronchitis. heating. bronchitis. internal pains (Yunani).—capsule. antipyretic. and U. alexiteric. Travancore. tonic to brain and liver. stimulant and diuretic. lumbago. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Vanda. Rasno. The bulb is stomachic. :—Bengal. anthelmintic. useful in paralysis. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. :—An epiphyte.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. lessens inflammations . pollinia ellipsoid. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. alexiteric. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Peninsula. rheumatism. Gaz. FAM. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. emmenagogue. cardiac. dropsy. useful in dyspepsia. tremors (Ayurveda). and was found useful (Koman).5—9 cm. purgative. H. heating. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. scilla of Great Britain. stout. LOC. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rasna. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. scandent by simple or branching roots . maritima of U. Bandanike. Rasna. recurved.

yellowish. diam. CHAR. dark. Shandike.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. NS..—Dec. amenorrhœa. detergent. :—E. Fl. M. Kubbila. PARTS USED. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. Gums and Resins. Country. M. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa.-Jany.—Dipterocarpaceæ. dysentery. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. C. Khandvel. :—E. Lokhandi. Oils. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. Fl. Kanara and S. H. also planted. alexipharmic. K. :—A large much branched woody climber..-nut about 5 mm. :—Bark.—in large drooping terminal panicles. carminative. Bilidhupa. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Tenasserim. tuberculous glands. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Haruge. Mysore.8 cm. M. Poppli. Pitti. Safed-damar. Coorg in Ghats. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. abundant in S. USES. Sekalyel. 1-nerved wing. cures cough. bechic. debility and slight cases of fever. fruit. Madidhupa. piles. whitish). entire or crenate. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. buds 5-angled. :—Madras State. See—Timbers. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. resin. NS. in chronic bronchitis. H. :—Bark-hot. anæmia. ulcers and wounds. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat.5-3. boils and ringworm. Red Creeper. LOC. rheumatism. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . Shala. expectorant. Ragatarshado. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. tonic. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). Raktavalli. Dhupa. acrid. greenish. tonic and stimulant. alexipharmic. :—Bark. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. . diarrhœa. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. t. globular. Sk. urinary discharges. (T. LOC. Sk. DISTR. also in N. :—North Kanara. Malamaitra. good for sore-throat. hemicrania. Kaharub. with an offensive odour. PARTS USED. Ceylon. young branches and panicles pubescent. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kundura. FAM. Sandras.. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. LOC. Dhupa.—Rhamnaceæ. G. skin eruptions. :—Western India.—petals 5. stomachic. COM. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. L. COM. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. deciduous and monsoon-forests. itch (Ayurveda). DISTR. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). Fr. Sarjaka. eardiseases. prolonged into a linear-oblong. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. Travancore. useful in atonic dyspepsia.—5-10 X 2. useful in leprosy. FAM. Kanara.

branched near the top.Feb. Fl. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Kutki. on long petioles. Sundika. and leaves. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. Ceylon .—capsule. often cultivated. Kalijiri.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Vanajiraka. Purple Fleabane. Sk.—Compositæ.—alternate. Deccan . :—Throughout India. :—Annual. Kulara. Sk. Ceylon. leafy herb . NS..-rotate.5—3. C.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. Kalizhiri. Fr. China. astringent to bowels. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. CHAR.—Dec. anthelmintic.9 m. :—Plant. 5—9 x 2. PARTS USED. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda).-achene oblong cylindric. pappus reddish.8 cm.—Scrophulariaceæ. Gujarat. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). L. hairy. stems 60—90 cm. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. NS. DISTR. :—Seeds-acrid. Seeds— anthelmintic.. t. Gadar-tambaku. lobes 5. high . :—Throughout India . Vishamushti. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. warted.. PROPERTIES AND USES. cure ulcers. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. CHAR. squeezed out by pounding. M. HABITAT:-Waste places. The juice mixed with mustard oil. K. Kadvojiri. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. yellow. The juice of the whole plant. rounded. Fl. Java . t— Jany. M. LOC. G. Bhutakeshi.6-0. lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. L. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. in equal proportions. Somaraj. Country. hairy on both sides. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.—oblong. FAM. all coarsely dentate. Kalhara. Agnibija. involucre bracts linear. high. Sd. about 40-flowered. COM. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. :—Konkan . ofter cultivated. .-May. :—E. used in skin-diseases. sub-globose. H. lyrate.. PARTS USED. 10-ribbed. M. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. with purple tips . erect. Fr. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Fl. innermost the longest. coarsely serrate. COM. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. Kalejire. rachis glandular pubescent. Bakchi. robust. K. :—G. LOC. Kulhala. hairy. Vapehi. :—An annual herb. Afghanistan. Somaraj. hairy. stem 0. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.2 cm. "Vata" and "Kapha". compound or pinnatisect. LOC.—heads subcorymbose. truncate. Fl.) FAM. H.

They are also used as tonic. VERNONIA CINEREA Less.—Jan. L. asthma. Devika. Bala. Vecrnam. PARTS USED. Cuscus grass. In Ceylon. used for asthma.-Feb. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). NS. Ushira. silky on the back. cures "Tridosha". HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil.— pinkish violet.—Compositæ. striate. stomachic and diuretic. H. :—Annual. Khas. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Shit-Sugandhi mulak.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. 15—75 cm. Bena. flowers. NS. Sahadevi. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Ardhaprasadana. M. bronchitis . Fr. The plant with quinine. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. tonic. FAM. t. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. LOC. stomachic. Lavancha. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. CHAR. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. :—E. DISTR. M. erect herb. Fl. G. K. tropical Asia. Africa . they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Sk. good for sores and itching of eyes. oblong. a depilatory (Yunani). hiccup . cold. awned. astringent. LOC. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. Sadodi. Sedardi. alternate. :—Plant. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. clothed with white hairs . COM. :—Throughout India. Kuruvelu. pappus white. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. high. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. applied in inflammatory swellings . consumption.—simple. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. K. Sind. Sahadevi. kidney troubles. Valo . Sahadevi. made into a bolus with lime-juice. Dandotpala. with lime-juice. heads small. Sadori. are used in destroying pediculi. Koosa. LOC. The expressed juice is given in piles. FAM. Sk. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis).. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. :—A common weed throughout the State.—achene. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). H. Panni. Australia. COM. Fl. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Osari. Mudivala. . remove blood from liver. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Ash-coloured Fleabane . G. plant is used in fever convulsions.—Gramineæ. stem stiff. :—E. Vala. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. pubescent. seeds.

8 m. Leaves are aromatic. :—Throughout India. Nilpushpi. lower ones keeled and fan-like. FAM. strangury.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. LOC. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. refrigerant. bitter. Culms stout. foul breath. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . Nirgud. :—Throughout the State. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. bitter. biliousness. Cooling to brain. promotes hair-growth. tonic and vermifuge. DISTR. Sambhalu. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). asthma. LOC. DISTR. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. thirst. erect. The otto is used as a tonic. Bilenekki. :—Common in Gujarat and N. inflammations. Nirgari. bilious fevers. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. expectorant and diuretic. leaves. long. Sinduvara. blood diseases (Yunani). Nukki. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. useful in burning sensation. margin spinously rough. Sessile spikelets. NS. astringent. West-Indies and Brazil.. astringent. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. colour varying from yellowish to black. bronchitis. Kanara in damp places. COM. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. Fl. slender. :—G. Philippine Islands. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . Lakki. :—Root.-leaf sheaths compressed. throughout the Malayan regions. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. :—Cooling. inflammations and irritability of stomach.—panicle up to 30 cm. leucoderma. Indrani. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . PARTS USED. stomachic. Afghanistan. stomachic. Sk. :—Roots. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. heating. anthelmintic. soporific. bitter. usually sheathed all along. PARTS USED. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots.—Verbenaceæ. USES :—Root is tonic. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. alexiteric. up to over 1. Nigod. M. long. L. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. diuretic. useful in spermatorrhoea. Ceylon. Sind. spleen enlargement. H. K. febrifuge. high. pale green. Nirgundi. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. Konkan and Deccan. consumption. rachis stout. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. head-ache. cephalic. also cultivated. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. Nirgundi. The roots contain an essential oil.. Nirgundi. useful in eye diseases. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. racemes up to 5 cm. stimulant and tonic. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). sweats. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache.

aphrodisiac. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). NS. M. FAM-—Vitaceæ. good for lungs. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. and traces of vitamins B and C. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. W. Country. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. allays vomiting. Draksha.. The plant contains an alkaloid. difficult to digest. fruits. skin should not be eaten. diarrhœa. fattening. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. a remedy for skin diseases. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. stones in bladder. piles. Sap of young branches. Draksha. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Madhurasa. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Drakh . Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. Fruit is nervine. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. laxative. fattening . VITIS VINIFERA Linn. jaundice. Flowers—expectorant. catarrh and jaundice. applied in scabies. Darakh. expectorant. cures thirst. Ahmednagar. seeds. Sk. produces constipation. flowers. fever. and given in coughs. LOC. leaves. Guchaphala. purifies and enriches blood . DISTR. asthma. Draksha. cooling useful in thirst. heat of body. LOC. causes gases in the stomach. testicle swellings and piles. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Grape-vine. H. bad effects of drinking. :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Stem. diuretic. blood diseases. sweet. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". produces alopecia. India. . good for eyes and throat. Seeds—aphrodisiac. G. fever. See—Timbers. Yakshmaghni. aperient. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. :—Deccan. burning. :—Fruit-acrid. tonic to liver. allays vomiting. diuretic . Angura. stops bleeding from mouth. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. PROPERTIES AND USES. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). HABITAT. :—A native of western Asia. emmenagogue. Fruit— digestive. K. good in chronic bronchitis . useful in old fevers. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. cooling. COM. astringent to bowels. cooling . The fruits contain vitamin A. laxative. strangury. Gujarat and S. appetiser. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. cough. syphilis. stomachic. emmenagogue. M. spleen inflammation. sparingly in Poona. hoarseness and consumption. Angur. Draksha. Khandesh. liver and kidney.

main rachis armed with prickles.. anthelmintic. (not common. Sk. useful in "Vata". ghats near Mahabaleshwar. insomnia.—pod.—petals 5. K. PARTS USED.—greenish or lurid yellow. :—Deccan. Fl. long. tonic. Ashvagandha. somewhat scurfy.5 cm. pinnae 4-6 pairs. C. M. PARTS USED :—Root. rachis grooved with soft hairs. Punir. heating. :—A robust woody climber. hard. Canaries. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. oblong. :—A branched erect undershrub. senile debility.5-5 cm. NS.—3-4. bony Fl. Asgund. Tuber—bitter. 6 mm. "Kapha". tonic. red. Gandhpatri. Wagati. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM.) DISTR. L. Fr. lumbago. inflammations. ovate. armed with prickles . :—K. LOC. CHAR. asthma. bronchitis. emmenagogue . Asgundh. dark-green. aphrodisiac. constricted between them. aphrosidiac.— Sept. Sogada-beru. Kanchuki. L.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. smooth.—2-pinnate. Fr. Asoda. leaves. USES. slightly 5-angled. alexipharmic. See—Fruit Trees. CHAR. inflammations.—Solanaceæ. 0. t. high. long.5-12. acrid. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. swollen above the seeds. G. psoriasis. Sd. base dentate. Deccan. t.—berry. Sd. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). anthritis. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . ulcers. inserted on the top of. diam. Ghodasoda.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). :—Tubers-bitter. branches terete. Kamrupini. calyx-tube. coriaceous.. Wagati. FAM. . COM.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. M. HABITAT. entire.-Feb..—yellow. leaflets 5-7 pairs. oblong. Drakshasava—used as tonic. enclosed in inflated calyx. good in asthma. green berries. scabies. marasmus of children. Hooliganji. Fl. NS. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme .-Jany. Wakeri. Gujarat. DISTR. long. Cape of Good Hope. Amangura. LOC. favours constipation (Yunani). Ceylon. Balada. 7. Fl. obovate. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. alterative. branches armed with recurved prickles . Winter-cherry. :—Root and bark. chest troubles etc. minutely hairy. H. Asan. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. consumption. leucoderma. abundant in Sind .3-1. spathulate. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. pretty common in the ghats. bronchitis. linear oblong. Vajini. PROPERTIES AND USES. hoary tomentose . :—Konkan jungles. Mediterranean regions. 23-30 cm. seeds. :—Drier regions. Kanara. :—In the drier regions of India . dark-orange. FAM. :—E.—5-10 X 2.5 m. Hirimaddina-gadde.

Dhawadina. Kalakuda. Sd. China. :—G. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. wedge-shaped. Dhateki. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Sk. Madhuindrayava. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Swetakutaj. Fl. COM. H. :—Root is regarded as tonic.) FAM. The plant contains an alkaloid. Baluchistan. Kalikari. Dudhi. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. brown. toxic. used in thirst. ovate-lanceolate. Dhavani. Tamrapushpi. HABITAT. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Indrajav.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. alexiteric. See—Tans. M. 1 cm. :—Pungent. leprosy. diuretic and deobstruent. FAM. Hayamaraka. Hallunova. Ornamental Plants. emaciation of children. :—Bark and flowers. Fl. Indrajav. erysipelas. LOC.—Apocynaceæ.-May. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. :—G. rheumatism. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Ceylon..—capsule. acrid. nigro-punctate beneath. irregularly dehiscent. Hale. . Sumatra. simple.5 cm. cooling.— numerous. scarlet. useful in leucorrhoea. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). anthelmintic . Khirni. leaf-infusion is given in fever. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. branches long. Madagascar. Dhawai. :—Monsoon-forests. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent.—Lythraceæ. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Fr. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bela. smooth. NS. Dhaiti. It is narcotic. L. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. common in the Konkan and N. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Dyes. Java. Kuda. USES. Dhavani. DISTR. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . tropical Africa. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. LOC. dysentery. COM. long. M. Japan. debility from old age. Kanara near the sea-coast. Dhaw. on trap in the Akrani. uterine sedative. NS. 5-9X 1. lumbar pains. PARTS USED. velvety above. Are. haemorrhoids. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. alterative. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Santha. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. K. H. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying.—numerous. :—Throughout India. Indrajav. Phulsatti. ulcers and painful swellings . Madhavasini. Dec. blood diseases. Kodamurki. K.—mostly opposite. and in derangement of liver .3-2. Br. Vanhishikha. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Sk.

LOC. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). useful in cancer and strumous diseases. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . tonic. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. antidysenterica (Yunani). Clot-Cockle-bur. Dumundi. long and broad. all over the State. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda).—Compositæ.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. Khandesh at 1050 m. LOC. COM. 1-3 cm. with 2 erect beaks. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. tonic.Feb. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Madhya Pradesh. :—Cooling.. stem short. fever. memory. antipyretic.1-6. Banokra. LOC. In S. involucre of fertile head. Itara. LOC. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox.—Jany. salivation. Gadrian. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn.—many. complexion.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. :—Bark and seeds. PARTS USED. 5-7. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. irregularly incisoserrate . voice.achene. Ceylon. G. West-Peninsula. oblong ovoid. especially root and fruit. poisonous bites of insects. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. See—Timbers. the bark is specially useful in piles. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. 3-lobed. .. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . barren heads many. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. Fr. Kambu-Vanamalini. alexiteric. biliousness. Bur-Weed. compressed . PROPERTIES AND USES. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. laxative. Sarpakshi. improves appetite. :—Annual herb . common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. rough with short hairs . USES :—Root is bitter.-E. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Sk.. digestive. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. DISTR. :—Rajastan. ovoid in fruit. H. Timor. Aristha. Shankhahuli. :— Throughout India. long. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. CHAR. anthelmintic. at the top. NS. hairy on both sides. axillary. Dutundi. hard and tough. Fl. cures leucoderma. Sankeshwar. M. fertile heads few. :—The whole plant. t. in W.5 cm. stout. Fl. DISTR. L. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. fattening. epilepsy. FAM.

Alen. Kandara. It is stimulant. expectorant. inflammations. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. asthma. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. G. carminative. loss of appetite and piles. Adrate. FAM. carminative. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. vomiting. :—Rhizome. useful in heart and throat diseases. DISTR. Gulmmula. good in piles. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. Sk. :—Cultivated. K. gives lustre to eye. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. COM. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Bordi. pains (Yunani). it cleans throat. HABITAT. Kuvali. Bor. head-ache. NS. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Beri. Egasi. useful in elephantiasis. LOC. Bogari. Indian Cherry. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). anthelmintic. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. LOC.—Scitaminaceæ. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. "Kapha". Plum. Ginger. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Rhizome-pungent. stomachic. :—E. Bore. appetiser. aphrodisiac. FAM. Ber. vomiting. to prevent nausea and griping. Alen. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. M. flatulence. Sk. tongue and increases appetite. H. Koli. Anupama.—Rhamnaceæ. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). K. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. G. Shringavera. stomachic. bronchitis. Bor. dyspepsia. M. tonic. lumbago. H. alexiteric. NS. removes pain due to cold. See—Condiments and Spices. on poor soil and in rocky places. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism.. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . laxative. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. and dry situations. colic. Dridhabija. pains. Boyedi. Hasisunthi. rheumatism. Alla Adrak. Ipanji. Ber. . Badari. Rhizome—pungent. heating. Ardraka. :—E. piles. COM. Ada. PARTS USED. "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES. Chinese Date. Ajapriya. eructations. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. it is also given in the form of infusion.

:—Root. leaves. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. causes cough. abundant in the Deccan. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). tonic. reduce obesity. Australia. Leaves antipyretic. seeds. PARTS USED. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. good in consumption and blood-diseases. bark. biliousness. Fruit— cooling. Afghanistan. DISTR. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. . aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. Fruit—sweet and sour. wounds and ulcers. Burma. thirst. Fruit Trees. vomiting. frequently planted as a fruit tree. tonic to heart and brain . LOC. head-ache. on the laterite near the coast in N. Fruits contains vitamin A. Africa. Leaves—anthelmintic. indigestible. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . Ceylon. cooling. Kanara. removes biliousness. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. Seed—astringent.. good in liver complaints. useful in fevers. Leaves form a plaster to boils. :—Root-bitter. causes diarrhœa in large doses . See—Timbers. laxative. China. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . allays thirst (Yunani). abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. cure asthma.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. fruit. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Root and Bark tonic. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. burning sensation. Bark—causes boils .

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