SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

:—Throughout India.-Mar. measles and other skindiseases. LOC. Fr. Fl. 7. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Sikkim. In ulceration of the gums. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. :—Common in the Konkan and N. FAM. Chikakai. urinary and vaginal discharges. China. Manda-otte. Himalayas up to 1700 m. Sk. Ritha. Malay Islands. Kushthari. M. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Sk. LOC. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. . LOC. Western Peninsula. L. Khair. Dipta. " Kapha ". DISTR. leaflets 10-20 pairs. mouth troubles.. H. yellow. bronchitis. ulcers.5-12. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). M.—bipinnate. DISTR. " Vata ". CHAR.-6-10 . branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Tans. tonic.. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea.-t. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Kanara forests. anti-pyretic. Soap-pod tree. psoriasis. cures itching. K. inflammations. Fl. cooling. Dyes. astringent to bowels. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. prurigo. erysipelas. :—E. antidysenteric. anthelmintic. heaviness. palate and tongue (Chakradatta).—in fascicled globose heads. :—Rajastan. piles. NS. wrinkled when dry . relaxation of the uvula. Vidula. leucorrhoea. strengthens teeth. Kanara (often on laterite). given in elephantiasis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. leprosy. linear-oblong. Sige-balli or kai.8 cm. overlapping. Kochi. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. long. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. Shikekai. Charmakusha. :—An extensive woody climber. Saradruma. Deccan.—pod. :—Common throughout the Stale . along the coasts of Konkan and N. acrid. fleshy when green. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth.-July. COM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). M. Pegu. 5-10 cm. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Lalkhair. gums. Khadira. Burma. G. Dantadhavan. It is given in diarrhœa. Bhuriphena.5X2-2. Khandesh Akrani S. Country and Gujarat. boils. sore-throat and tooth-ache. hypertrophy of tonsils.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Yajnika. aphrodisiac. indigestion. Shige. See—Timbers. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Sd. Kath-bole. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. Saptata. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Phena. throat diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.

anthelmintic. often cultivated. Kankri. biliousness. itching. cures " Kapha. often planted . Internally they are aperient. LOC. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. anthelmintic. cardio-tonic. See—Timbers. purgative. cooling. expectorant and good emetic. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). M.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ).6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. improves appetite. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. blood-diseases. Sponge tree. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. erysipelas. G. Sk. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. LOC. Cassia flower. . Gum—sweetish. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . stomatitis. prurigo. Pissibabul. ascites. Devababhul. externally they are applied to leprous patches. DISTR. Stinking acacia. Gandhelo khair . alexiteric. Sind. FAM. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. blood diseases. leaves and gum. buboes. detergent. leucoderma. anti-diarrhoeal. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. COM. deobstruent. eczema. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. Gums and Resins. burning sensation. leucoderma. erysipelas. K. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. Jali.. Vilavati kikar. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Girimeda. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. not indigenous but naturalised. H. Kari jali. digestible. anti-dysenteric. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Gandhbabul. piles. tonic. bronchitis. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Jheri baval. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . In Philippines decoction. HABITAT :—Moist situations. inflammations. cures stomatitis. ulcers. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. causes " Vata". Arimeda.pungent. Sauna jali. Marudruma. LOC. caries of teeth. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea.

30-75 cm. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. tropical Africa. stem stiff. L. 2. :—Common in the Deccan and S. minute. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. H.9 m.8-6.—utricle.—greenish white. Fl. M. in lax. Aghada .—opposite. . branches long. :—An erect herb 0. Sk. M. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic.5x2-4. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. high. :—Throughout India. rounded at base. Prickly chaff-flower. L. pale-brown. Sd. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. elongate. Kantarika. enclosed in perianth smooth. NS. The plant contains acalyphin. Fr. erect herb. Country. Kuppi-gida. G. t.-Jany. about 50 cm. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. ascending. scattered. softly hairy.—June-Sept. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.3 X 2.—capsule. COM. brown. clustered near the summit of spike. COM. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. Chalmari. Philippines. Kuppi. FAM... smooth. brown. CHAR. somewhat 3-nerved. branches terete or quadrangular striate. LOC. high. angular. hispid.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places.—Nov.3-0. elliptic obovate. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Latjira . Sd. perianth 4-5 segments. Chichra. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. Khokla. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. :—Annual. FAM.5 cm. Sk.—monœcious. CHAR. axillary spikes .57. Arittamanjaria. Khokali. Ksharamadhya. Apang. Utranigida. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. M. in elongate terminal spikes. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. :—E. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis.—truncate at apex. Fl.—Euphorbiaceæ. LOC.— ovoid. :—G. asthma. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.5 cm. NS. Agheda-di. Fl. Apamarga. Chirchira.—Amarantaceæ. Fr. oblong-cylindric. Vanchhikanto. 3. males. small. Ceylon. Khajoti. Merkati. long in fruit. It is used in congestive headache. females. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Fl. K. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. pneumonia and rheumatism. crenate-serrate. Vasira. erect. many. Var. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. few. t. one-seeded. Kharamanjiri. Uttrane .5-4.

HABITAT :—Marshy places. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. M. Bach. expectorant. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. throat. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. Europe and N. prismatic. 0. carminative. LOC.—turbinate. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. useful in abdominal pains. etc. Fr. boils. bronchitis. toothache. useful in dyspepsia. improves appetite. Baluchistan. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. See—Sacred Plants. America. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. NS. green . FAM. itching. thickened in the middle. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia.—Araceæ. margins wavy. CHAR.8 X 1. Sikkim. leucoderma (Yunani). it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Ugragandha. PARTS USED : —Root. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m.. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. piles. hysteria. liver and chest pains. bitter. dysentery. diuretic. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. :—Throughout India. delirium. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. blood diseases (Ayurveda). America. Tropical Asia. :—An aromatic herb . ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). Australia. heating. improves appetite. LOC. anthelmintic. flowers and seeds. inflammations. carminative. Africa. ascites. DISTR. Sk. abdominal pains.8 cm. dysentery. L. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. Sweet flag . alexiterie. Gorbach . useful in vomiting. top pyramidal. epilepsy. flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. useful in general weakness. fevers. dyspepsia. Gandhilovaj. creeping and branching. Bhutnashini. heating. piles. inflammations. stomatitis.9-1. loss of memory. laxative. spadix. emetic. rat-bite. Bitter. "Vata". Baja . . Ceylon. brain-tonic. Vacha. Jatila. emmenagogue . Throughout Asia. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. H. LOC. acute. skin eruption etc. carminative. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. heart diseases. anthers yellow. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. bright-green. Godavaj. thirst. voice. pungent. long. :—E. stomachic.. Vekhand. obtuse. COM. laxative.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. K. kidney troubles. Vekhand . tumours. long. spathe 15-75 cm. good for mouth diseases. leaves. sepals scarious.7-3. 5-10 cm. slightly curved. G. and is considered useful in dropsy.

—Lauraceæ. Gujarat. Gorakhaamli. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. NS. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. colic. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. Gorakhchinch. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . M. Gorakamali. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains.—Bombacaceæ.. Gopali. vomiting. useful in biliousness. Deccan. :—K. dysentery.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . :—E. FAM.:—Konkan. PARTS USED : —Root. DISTR. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. fevers and other maladies. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. :—Grown in many places in India . LOC. Baobab. Rukhdo . anti-pyretic. COM. Pichli. Powder is very effective insecticide. Haggodgimara. Bukha. Monkey-bread tree. COM. Panch-parnika. N. leaf and fruit. G. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Sk. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Kanara evergreen forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Brahmamlika. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. etc. indigenous in tropical Africa. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. NS. Tudgensu . DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LOC. bark. K. :—Western Peninsula. Goremlichora . keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. fever. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. Gorakshi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. It is a good remedy in asthma. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. African calabash. HABITAT':—Cultivated. FAM. M. Pisa. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. H. in children. See—Timbers.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

Seeds—cooling. Philippines. it is said to stop after-pains. hydrophobia. H. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). S. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Chinchola. gleet. biliousness. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. " Vata "-pain. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. :—Throughout the State. Sirai. NS. alexiteric. Ceylon. Juice—emetic. colic. Ankotha. LOC. Fruit—laxative. Sirisa. wasting diseases. alterative. Shirish. DISTR. LOO. Kanara. H. Sage-leaved alangium.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. LOC. Tantia. spermatorrhoea. Shankiniphala. anthelmintic. Kalosadasado.—Leguminosæ. Ankol. commonly planted along roadsides. aromatics or honey. Asroli. Ankora. cures erysipelas. M. Sk. M. acute fever. Kathora. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. indigestible. blood diseases. Kalshish. stem. Anedhera. Malaya. expectorant. burning of body. Shirish. Garso. COM. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. inflammations. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. dysentery. pungent. poisonous bites. Root-bark poisonous. . G. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Kullumavu.—Alangiaceæ. lumbago (Yunani). fish-poison. lumbago. Onkla. Dridhakantaka. Ankola. Kalashirish. heating. Ankola. diarrhœa. Shyamala. Ankoli. inflammations. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Uddanaka. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Piloshirish. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. Karnapura. (Mimosaceæ). :—E. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. anthelmintic. Vamaka. FAM. Sk. Ankoli. Sirsul. Tamraphala. Root-bark— used in piles.) FAM. Ankota. useful in worms. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. See—Timbers. Kaloshirish. leaves (rarely). Gudhapatra. China. carminative.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. Krishnashirisha. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout India. Ankola. COM. alexipharmic . K. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. K. Dodda-Hombage. :—E. cures " Kapha". Shirisha. and fruit. NS. often along banks of nalas in N. G. blood diseases. rat-bite. useful in inflammations. Akoly.

PARTS USED :—Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. COM. weakness. appetiser. asthma. FAM. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Bark— anthelmintic. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. skin-diseases. anthelmintic. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. strengthens gums and teeth. See—Timbers. DISTR. scabies. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. emollient. erysipelas. Rajapriya. leucoderma. Piyaz. aphrodisiac. bark. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. Ceylon. alexiteric. which acts as a diuretic. spleen diseases. leaves. usually planted. paralysis. stimulant and expectorant. G. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). itching. blood diseases. Bengal. Onion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. piles. maturant. given in piles. Bark-bitter. tumours. etc. prescribed in ophthalmia. Ulageddi. Flowers—aphrodisiac. deafness. It is an important garden crop. used in leprosy. seeds. M. Palandu. ophthalmia.:—E. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. bleeding piles. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Kanda. vomiting. enriches blood. improves taste. cooling. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. ear-ache. Dungari. stomachic. Root—astringent. H. useful in vomiting. useful in malaria. Leaves—good in night blindness. Oil is used in leprosy. LOC. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. body pains. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils.. dropsy. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). epistaxis. good in rat-bite. and chronic bronchitis . . B & C. Bark and seeds are astringent. tonic. catarrh. LOC. and also in skin diseases . scabies. The plant contains vitamins A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. their smell useful in hemicrania. :—Native country probably Persia. See—Vegetables. Sk. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. excessive perspiration. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). etc.: —Throughout India. Bulb—tonic. volatile oil. Seeds—tonic to brain. piles. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. NS. Rochaka. inflammations. diarrhœa.K. Burma. relieves tooth-ache.. cures "Vata".—Liliaceæ. bronchitis. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. seeds. occasionally used in fever. LOC. flowers. eruptions and swellings. biliousness. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. boils. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). syphilis. Seeds—fattening. cultivated everywhere.

Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. good for lumbago. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. sciatica. voice. K.—Liliaceæ. " Vata ". :—E. liver and lungs . caries of teeth. In pulmonary phthisis. tonic. Lasun. Country. Sk. M. leucoderma. low fevers. G. lumbago. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Lolisara. troubles of spleen. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Korphad. H. In cases of diphtheria. Ikshurmallika. LOC. thirst. bronchitis. Kuvarpatha. piles. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Indian aloe. Kumari. Rasonaka. aphrodisiac. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. improves appetite. tumours. Bellulli. epileptic fits. :—E. NS. M. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. . ALŒ VERA Linn. LOC. It is an important garden crop. M. digestive. Lasan. paralysis. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. coughs and other debilitating conditions. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. K. Sk. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. body and joint pains. carminative. aphrodisiac. hemiplegia. Garlic. complexion. thins the blood (Yunani).—Liliaceæ. ear-ache (Ayurveda). clears voice. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. FAM. oleaginous . Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. chronic fevers. In Cambodia. useful in inflammations. Diuretic. anthelmintic. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Lahsan. alexipharmic. Ghi-kumari. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Kumari. COM. G. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. See—Vegetables. Kattali. Ugragandha. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. leucoderma. The plant contains vitamin C. asthma. Kapila. fattening. Lasan. NS.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. inflammation. thirst. COM. heating. Lashuna. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Kanya. Korkand. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. FAM. useful in diseases of eye and heart.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. perianth cylindric . Kanara. NS. leaves. fleshy. inflammations. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. LOC. yellow. crowded. used in form of paste in pleurisy. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Satwin. carminative. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. Australia. tropical Africa. common in the rain-forests of N. bark. gonorrhœa. Saptachhada. :—Throughout India. stem short thick. Dita bark tree. margins spiny. Satian. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. purgative. digestive. tumours. pain in muscles. used in fevers. useful in splean inflammation. milky juice. piles. useful in eye-diseases. COM. alexiteric. LOC. bronchitis. It also acts as a mild purgative. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Ceylon. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. planted in Indian gardens . :—E. asthma. Africa. :—A perennial herb . Satwin. K. also cultivated. and it is largely imported into India. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. Saptaparna. C. lanceolate. emollient and demulcent. Sk. L. simple or branched. Chatian. Bitter . vomiting.—Apocynaceæ. Root. tonic. Kaduhale. anthelmintic. jaundice. West Indian Islands. Hale. India. wild along the coast. scape longer than the leaves. Java. cooling. DISTR. alterative. somewhat divided. M. scaly. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. pale-green. HABITAT :—Moist forests. :—Wild along the coast in S. The plant contains aloin. fattening. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. FAM. purgative. Fl. skin diseases. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. Br. tonic. Mediterranean. liver troubles. strangury. biliousness (Yunani). spleen enlargement. methritis. DISTR. lumbago. pendulous. isobarbaloin and emodin. biliousness. PARTS USED :— . aphrodisiac. Barbados. Native of S. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. liver complaints.—sessile.—in dense racemes . ophthalmia. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. Jamaica. Kadusale. E. ulcers (Ayurveda).

5 X 1. digestible. K. tumours. Fl. leprosy. hallucination.— capsule. COM.2—7. " tridosha " pain. diseases of the blood. burning sensation. Drug Com. Kantanatia. bristles pointed. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Amarantaceæ. entire. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. piles.8 cm. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Tandulaja. :—Throughout India. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . Kantanu-dant. thickened at the top. antipyretic. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). apiculate. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. DISTR. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Bark—acrid. LOC.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. blood diseases. high. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. See—Timbers. leucorrhoea. laxative. :—An erect glabrous herb. Kantalo dambho. alexiteric. H. appetiser. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Mulladantu.— 3. Sk. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. tropical countries. male calyx acute. also useful in catarrhal fever. rat-bite. . galactogogue. Kante math. L. CHAR. rugose. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. Tandulja. Cholai. female calyx oblong. ovoid. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. G. LOC. numerous. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. unisexual. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. also in fields. long. Prickly amaranth. oleaginous. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. See—Vegetables. :—E. bitter. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). Pathyashaka. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. ulcers. M. asthma. sudorific and febrifuge. Ceylon.. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. NS. lanceolate. antiperiodic and febrifuge. obtuse. good in diseases of the heart. rubbish heaps and fields. LOC. biliousness. Fr. diuretic. boils and burns. stomachic. useful in " Kapha ". anthelmintic. ovate. bronchitis. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. rubbish heaps .). Tandulibija. laxative. Apamarisha. Root—heating expectorant. Mullarave-soppu. HABITAT :—In waste places. improves appetite.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. obtuse. FAM. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. 30-60 cm.3—3. often reddish. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. leucoderma.

elephantiasis . " Vata. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. blood diseases. Dadmari. China. COM. LOC. Grows wild on the banks of S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. corm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Suran . causes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Bharajambhul. Jalavgiyo. K. increases appetite and taste. COM. Ceylon.—capsule. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). the plant. used as an appetiser (Yunani). high. :—Throughout India in moist places. Fl.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. branches usually opposite. acrid. enlargement of the spleen. Suran.—opposite.—Lythraceæ. :—Cultivated widely in the State. much narrowed at the base. Kuranti. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Fr. tumours. :—An annual. Jangli mehandi. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. strangury . Corm is irritant and also the seeds. CHAR. appetiser. stomachic. Sukaranda. laxative. erect or subscandent herb. H. irregularly circumsciss above the middle.—Araceæ. causes itching sensation. DISTR. DISTR. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. pungent. :—E. 8-65 cm. red. L. Gujarat and Kanara. Arshaghna. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Tropical Africa. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. . especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. Deccan. NS. depressed. fevers etc. Australia. Sk. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. harmful in "Kapha". leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). stomachic. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Suran. FAM. fresh or dried. Kuranda.:— Konkan. LOC. Vatari." blood troubles. Sd. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. Afghanistan. Kandala.—Nov. constipating. PARTS USED :—Root. Blistering ammania. Elephant's foot. Fl. globose. asthma. G. Kanthalla. t. Malaya. Sk. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Suran. Konkan rivers. Bitter and acrid . aphrodisiac. H. sessile. useful in piles. M. :—E. NS. LOC. Kurendika. G. FAM. abdominal pains. removes " Kapha ". Kandavardhan. bronchitis. In the Konkan. Vikata. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Leaves.

Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. Kakanashika.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. dysentery. Sophara. L. Kakamari. Agni-krita. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.5-12. Kanara. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. . Fish-Louse Berry. 10-12 X 7. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast.—in panicles 25-35 cm. Kakamari. The plant contains Vitamins A. & A. FAM. corns and obstinate ulcers. G. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. ringworm. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Kakamari. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. ulcers. Kajutaka. flowers. Kaju. Corm is poisonous. It is supposed to have restorative power. swollen peduncle of fruit.. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). leaves. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. M. Oils. . hot. It is a good application for cracks of the feet.5 cm. See—Timbers. COM. Sk. equal to almond oil. bark vertically furrowed . leucoderma. Upapushpika. Kakaphal. Sk. long. Cashew apple-nut. piles. 5-nerved. Garalaphala. fever.—Menispermaceæ. DISTR. skin diseases. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. broadly ovate. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. Gova. which is nutritious and emollient. USES :—Bark is alterative. M. LOC. ascites. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. CHAR. NS. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Govamba. The seed contains vitamin A. Kakamari. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". PARTS USED :—Bark. FAM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. B. See—Vegetables. Prithagbija. sweet. :—E. anthelmintic. Kaju .20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . K. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. H. cordate or truncate. many flowered. tumours. H. Kakamari. NS. Crow-Fish Killer. Jermic. Gerubi. LOC. Kaju. G. and trace of C. aphrodisiac. :—A native of tropical America. Fl. also cultivated. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. Kakkisoppugida . The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. K. digestible. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant.— subcoriaceous. :—E.

Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). Bhuinimba. Kantak sanjika. COM. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. It acts also as diuretic. Sk. causes cough and biliousness.-Oct. to a certain extent in Gujarat. H. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Parvati. also acts as a purgative. LOC. smooth. COM. :—E. good expectorant. Kiryat. :—Khasia Hills. FAM. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. M. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. K. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). . Creat. leaves and fruits. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Fl. K. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. Ananas . Bengal. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. Assam. Mahatit. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. petals absent. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Kanara. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. LOC. t. from Orissa to Ceylon. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). PARTS USED :—Roots. black . G. dioecious. removes gases from the intestines . H. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. FAM. cultivated. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. Sk. Ananas. Kirata. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ananas hannu. LOC. a poison to fish (Yunani). HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. M.—Bromeliaceæ. :—Konkan. DISTR. Kiriyata. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. Nelabevu gida.—Acanthaceæ. G. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . fruits. native of Brazil (tropical America). DISTR. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Olikiriyat. Ananas . Pine-apple . See—Fruit Trees. NS. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Mahateet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Ananas.) LOC. it is useful in jaundice. Ama. NS. E.—Sept. N. Olen kirayat. Ananasa.

pale beneath. Plant is useful in general debility. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. lateral lobes small. 6. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. 1. undulate. Malabar Catmint. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. :—Deccan. Chodhara.—Dec.5 cm. L. solitary. C—2-lipped. Alamoda. tonic. COM. extensively used in Bengal. Sundara. distant. L. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. Vaikunth. :—An erect branched annual 0. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. distant. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.2-1.9 m.-Nov. DISTR. . Fr. sometimes cultivated. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. Karnatak. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. white below. acute at both ends . purple. DISTR. Gojivana. pale above. and N. Kanara.—Labiatæ. made into an electuary. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease.8 m. C—2-lipped. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. stomachic. dysentery. HABITAT. forming a spicate inflorescence. G. very small. yellowish brown.—Ghats. Fl. ellipsoid. M. Oshthaphala. lower 3lobed. :—Throughout India. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. upper lip 2-toothed. FAM.3-10 X 2-4. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. high. t. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—An erect shrub.3-0. and anthelmintic. Fr. Ceylon. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo .—very thick. lower lip very large and broad . HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. CHAR. :—Konkan and Kanara. acute. smooth. Malay Peninsula. clothed with woolly hairs . polished brown. Sundraphul. Karitumbe. crenate-serrate. Br. and certain forms of dyspepsia. LOC. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. alterative. high. Green leaves. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. oblong-lanceolate. approximate above. dyspepsia and fever from teething.—in dense whorls . Sk.—small. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves.—nutlets. rugosely pitted.—many. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. linear-oblong. Fl.-Oct.. stem quadrangular. :—S. t. Fl. bracts lanceolate. thickly woolly. LOC. K. rose coloured. NS. Sd. :—E.— capsule.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—lanceolate.

Kanara border. Anan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. FAM. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. NS. Seeds—difficult to digest. applied to skin-diseases. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. FAM. LOC. bark. Bark is a powerful astringent. Dhava. Shushkanga. (Yunani). Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Dhavala. Sitaphala. Dohu. LOC. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. See—Timbers. bark. Dhavada. now cultivated throughout India. expectorant. useful in liver complaints. enriches blood . causes fever and furunculosis . Bark is bitter. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Damora. Dhamora. Dindala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Button Tree. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. leaves and fruits. LOC. K. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Sk. increases biliousness . and eyesores. DISTR. Sk. DISTR. Ceylon. COM. produce ulcers in the eye. good tonic. Bejjalu. stimulant. Pitaphala. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). tasty. :—E. Ata. G. cooling . useful in anaemia. discharges. Dhavada. Krishnabija. chronic diarrhœa. erysipelas. :—A native of West Indies . Durangi. Sharipha. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Dhava. improves taste and appetite . H. Bakla. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Bahubijika.—Anonaceæ. Dindiga. Fruit—sweet. M. sedative to heart. Sitaphala. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . fruit and seeds. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. abortifacient. enriches blood. flavoury. LOC. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Dyes. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". COM. Sitaphala. Dabria. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. Root—cathartic. G. Sitaphala. increases muscular strength. astringent to the bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet.—Combretaceæ. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. H. K. M. Sugar apple. Amritphala. cooling. Sitaphal. Anuram. Sweet-sop. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Custard apple.

:—E. Upas Tree. Karnapuraka. Fruit—heating. COM. Pegu. blood diseases. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. " Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. good in uterine complaints. Chandala. Malay Islands. strangury. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. M. Valkala. galactagogue. USES:—In the Konkan. alexiteric. :—Throughout India. Jajpugri. Kanara . Malayan Peninsula. FAM. See—Fruit Trees. In eye inflammations. burning sensation. Nadija. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Tennaserim. M. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. DISTR. common near Yellapur. acrid. saline. DISTR. LOC. H. vulnerary. See—Timbers. Niv. is a good hairwash. K. Ceylon. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. LOC. indigestible. Kadamba. Ashokari. Kadubale. Kadam. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. cooling. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. PARTS USED :—Seeds. causes biliousness when ripe. aphrodisiac. Kaduve. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM NS.—Rubiaceæ. Sprouts—acrid. Bairi. Kadamb . wild or cultivated. biliousness. Burma. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. aphrodisiac. Chandkuda. Kadamb. FAM. bitter. sweet. sap of the tree. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Sk. :—W. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. LOC. Sacred Plants. :—G. astringent to bowels. Nipa. " Kapha". H. stomachic. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. . Fodder Plants. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. K. They are detergent and their powder. Peninsula. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. Kadamb. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Sk. Kadamb . sprouts and fruits. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). It is generally considered tonic.—Moraceæ. Surabhi. NS. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. often cultivated. Chandkuda. PARTS USED:—Bark. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. mixed with gram-flour. Ajjanpatte.

rectal troubles. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. :—E. anthelmintic. Sk. Ajamoda. tonic. good for heart. Markati. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. FAM. G. rays 5-10. β-antiarin. Ajmud. vomiting. Mungphali. cure " Kapha ". Seeds—carminative. Asia. Glucoside apiin is present. erect. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. W.. hiccup. See—Timbers. Bhuimug-chana. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. ridges narrow. improve appetite . bronchitis. appetiser. Moda. G. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. and γ-antiarin. Fibres. DISTR. chest-pains. Bhuimug. CHAR. M. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. N. COM. good in ophthalmia. Afghanistan. H. Bhuimug. Bhuchanak.3-2. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. cure asthma. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments.—Umbelliferæ. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Ground-Pea-nut. Mandapi. branching. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. :—A biennial plant. traces of B and C. abdominal pain. Monkey-nut. L.—1. Java and Malaya. Bodi ajomoda.4 m. high. urinary discharges. inflammations. Nelkadle. vomiting. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Brahmakoshi. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. astringent to bowels .5-2 mm. nasal catarrh (Yunani). heart and spleen diseases. Ajmoda . W. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. K. ascites. fever with cough. M. See—Vegetables. The plant contains vitamins A. scorpion and other stings. LOC. Celery. Fr. Abyssinia. Fl. Chinimung. Europe. scabies. Snehabijaka. NS. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. abortifacient. amenorrhœa. Ugragandha.— in umbels. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. tooth-ache. Shimbika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. rheumatism. Bori ajmud. 0.— radial. COM NS. useful in ophthalmia. segments once or twice trifid.:—Foot of the N. cauline 3-partite. used in anasarca and colic. " Vata " . tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Sk. :—E. . LOC. pedicels 6-16 . laxative. Africa. specially near large cities. vittae broad. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. apex toothed . Wild celery. Karafs.

:—E. Nut astringent. H. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. See—Food Plants. Chhataphala. Seed cooling.—Palmæ. seeds. improves appetite and taste. cooling. DISTR.. Poga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. bleeding gums. Kanara. Bengal. Deccan. Kaungu. Areca palm. Gum pungent. Betta. LOC. Chikkan. USES. Burma. COM. removes foul breath. PARTS USED :—Root. Gujarat and S. LOC. Supari. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). fairly largely in the Konkan. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. emmenagogue. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Areca-nut palm. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Pugiphal. Assam. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. :—Madras. G. diuretic. Akota. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. In French Guinea. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. giddiness. Sk. Adki. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. DISTR.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Pophal. Tantusara. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. digestive. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. cardiotonic. removes pus (Yunani). NS. Indo-Malaya. useful in urinary disorders. Mysore. Hopari. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. indigestible. Chikka. LOC. . M. Siam. Betel-nut palm. used for eye-inflammations. Supari. M. gum. Country. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Malabar. gleet. K. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. leaves (rarely). laxative. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. Oils.:—Extensively grown in N. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. FAM. Suppiyari. aphrodisiac. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Sopari.

CHAR. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Sd. Darudi. expectorant and demulcent. arecaidine. oblong-ovoid 2. Fruit Trees. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. emetic. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. K. NS. Juice—used as a collyrium. relieves blisters. nauseant. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. glaucous herb .— terminal. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine.3-0. inflammations and bilious fevers. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. L. opening by 4-6 valves. M. Bila dhatura. brownish black. antidote to various poisons. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. PARTS USED :—Root. branching. Brahma dandi. diam. India. Datturi. stem clasping.—Papaveraceæ.5-5 cm. Pirangi datturi. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. Daruri. Seeds are laxative. destroys worms . Root anthelmintic.—numerous. Pita-pushpa. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Mexican prickly poppy . FAM. sedative. Ind. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). useful is strangury. oblong. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. USES :—Root is an alterative. purgative. stem 0. arecoline. prickly. yellow. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. prickly. Fr. It is also diuretic. seeds and yellow juice. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. H.8 cm.). Seeds—purgative. t. LOC. netted. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. sinuately pinnatifid. and in pertussis and asthma. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Shialkanta. :—A glabrous. high. This is said to bring the worm out at once.12 m. veins white. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). G. :—E. and guvacine. 7. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. . In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. various skin-diseases. cures leprosy.5-3. 2.—capsule. Plant enriches blood. Sk. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State .—all the year. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. Svarnakshiri. Srigalkanta. globose. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. LOC. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. spinous. Indigenous in tropical America. COM. Fl. Bharbhand. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.5-18 cm. Balurakkisa.—thistlelike. juice yellow. DISTR. Fl. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient.

" Kapha" fevers.—capsule. tubular. :—Throughout India. Kidamari. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. diuretic . Kitakaba. reniform or broadly ovate.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. M. Samandarka phal. Fr. painful joints. tip linear dark purple. Dridhadaru. glabrous inside. used in gleet.3-25 cm. t. (sometimes even larger).5-4. K. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. Samudrapatrashoh. COM. Gujarat and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . Adumuttadagida. useful in " Vata". Fl.3 cm. Kiramar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). H. anthelmintic. CHAR. pubescent outside. Konkan.—in sub-capitate cymes.—Aristolochiaceæ. Dhuma-patra. Hastivalli. infundibuliform. long. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. C—5-6. Kitamari. M. M. Country. G. white-tomentose L. Samardar sokh. stems.—solitary.:—Konkan.-Sept. weak. rose purple. Java. long. 12-ribbed . absorptive. striate. 1. Fr. COM. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. H. K. base cordate. Ganda. :—E. Soge. long and as broad as long.5 cm. Peninsula. base cordate with wide sinus . HABITAT. Sk. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. :—A very large climber.— 3. the bands silky pubescent outside. Fl. Bracteated Birth-wort. peduncles stout. cultivated. NS. chronic ulcers (Yunani). local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. CHAR. Krimighni. oblongellipsoid. In synovitis. Vridhadaraka. Kidamar. Samudraballi.3-2 cm. prostrate. perianth 2.5 cm. Sd. white-tomentose. Arabia. t.—Aug.— Aug. bracts large . ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. base subglobose. powdered root is given with milk. G. FAM.—Weed of cultivation in black soils.5-30 x 6. ovate glabrous above. perhaps a native of Bengal. LOC.—deltoid with cordate base . W. Deccan and S. :—Bengal. Fl.—Convolvulaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants. Samudrashosh. strangury. LOC. DISTR. LOC. Sk. Country. L.-Nov. :—A slender perennial. with revolute margins. gonorrhœa. . M. Leaves are maturative. Fl. white-tomentose beneath. stems stout. Shyambhuna. FAM. tropical Africa.8-7. :—E. Samudrashok. DISTR. Ajantri. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. pedicel with a large bract at the base.— 7. long. Gandali. Ceylon.— globose apiculate. Elephant Creeper.. tube inflated. Varghoro.

dry cough. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. obovate oblong 10-12. Manjipatri. :—E. grooved. FAM.—flat. Ishvari. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. bract opposite the pedicel. CHAR. K. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Flea-bane. Indian Birth-wort. Nakuli. DISTR.—variable linear oblong.:—Konkan and S. Seeds useful in inflammation. :—E. t. Ruhimula. slender. useful in " Tridosha. purgative (Yunani). reaching 4. Dovana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. leaves and seeds. bitter. G.5 cm. Nepal.—Aristolochiaceæ. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. woody at the base. globose-oblong. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Isharmula. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Ceylon. Stem long. NS.5x7.) FAM.3-2.. tonic. 6-valved. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dona. K. PARTS USED :—Roots.—in few flowered axillary racemes. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. M. Gathona.—Compositæ. COM. :—Western Peninsula. Sk. Saraparni. LOC. Bengal. Mother or Mugwort.—Nov. . in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. L. emmenagogue. entire with undulate margins. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Majtari. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sugandha. Nilpushpa. Arkamula. dyspnoea of children. Arkamula. Sapsan." pains in the joints. Indian wormwood.5 cm. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. Country. M.. Fr. LOC. Dhor-davana. Isvara balli beru . Sd. 3. base vaiable. COM.8-10 X 1. long with globose inflated base. alexiteric. winged. also useful in dropsy. — capsule. NS. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Nagduna. H. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. biliousness. M. Fl. Fl. Nagdamani.5 cm. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. perianth greenishwhite. joint-pains. H. Mastaru. Sk. :—A twining shrub. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties.

hairy. petioled. 0. Seeds sweet.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. deobstruent and antispasmodic. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. pubescent above.—Jany. Kanthal.— achene. outer flowers female. involucral bracts villous. Kanara. temperate Asia. aphrodisiac. often planted along roadsides in N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. aromatic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. deeply pinnatisect. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. . "Vata". alexiteric. G. Ceylon. :—Konkan. The young leaves are used in skin diseases.:—A perennial shrub. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. aphrodisiac. LOC.6-2. :—Widely cultivated. tonic. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. HABITAT.5-5 em. white tomentose beneath. asthma. See—Timbers. lanceolate. Java. L— lower leaves 5. t. constipating (Ayurveda). LOC. ulcers. fruit and seeds. grown in gardens also. Jack-Orange wood. tonic. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. minute. leprosy. :—E. enriches blood.-Hilly districts. fattening. M. Vanas. Chakki. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. high. oleaginous. Panesa. " Kapha". H. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. base lobed. Kantakaphala. toothed or again pinnatisect. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Tage. diuretic. Skandaphala. cooling. The plant contains an essential oil. DISTR. Panas. although very nutritious.—Urticaceæ. cures "Kapha". solitary or 2. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. K. Fr. Jack-fruit tree. Phanasa. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. oblong ellipsoid. lobes entire. 3-fid or entire.4 m. COM. An infusion is given as a tonic. Fruit Trees and Dyes. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. FAM. ovate. LOC. The unripe fruit is astringent. Thailand (Siam). The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. Kujja.—heads ovoid or subglobose. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. ripe fruit laxative. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. upper leaves smaller. aphrodisiac. Ghats. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. Sk. Fl. DISTR. Halasina. fertile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Panos. asthma and brain diseases. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. " Vata". useful in biliousness.10x2. appetiser. itching (Ayurveda). stems leafy. LOC. Externally it is used in fomentations. Fl. Phanas. inner hermaphrodite.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. but rather difficult to digest. NS.

tumours. CHAR. Kuraki. S. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent.9-1.. Satavari. 0. oblong. thin. biliousness. PARTS USED:—Root. lanceolate. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic.—Liliaceæ.5 cm. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. from Kashmir eastwards.5-5 cm. 2. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. globose. naturalised in many parts of India. astringent to bowels. Kaktundi. DISTR. dark brown. indigestible. COM. with coma.-Dec. :—Introduced from the W. JAVANICA Baker. leaves and flowers. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. aphrodisiac.3-2. red when ripe.-Feb. K. NS. valvate in bud. cladodes in tufts.— follicles.000 m. and moist monsoon forests. M. white. thorn. Fl.—linear with a stout spinous spur. curved. linear. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. cooling.—orange in axillary umbels. tonic. NS. C. stomachic.—berry. :—G. Flower is a good styptic. Fl. COM. Fr. PARTS USED:—Root. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. Asual Shatavari.—opposite 7. long.ovoid. Fl. CHAR.—June-Sept. M. oleaginous. Java and Australia. Svetmuli. t.5 cm. fragrant. Country. t. straight.2 m. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . Svadurasa. :—Extremely scandent. M. Tropical Africa. Satamulika. 7. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. root-stock tuberous. Satavari. common in the Deccan. cultivated as ornamental plant. Siprimuli. solitary. undershrub. Sk. inflammation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. spines recurved. FAM. narrowed at both ends. A fibre is extracted from the plants. . :—Deccan. erect. Fl. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. galactogogue.—in simple raceme. useful in dysentery. See—Ornamental Plants. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. Satavari. appetiser. alterative.—lobes reflexed in flower. abundant round about Poona. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. up to 1. throat complaints. DISTR. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. segments. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. Shatavari. :—An erect undershrub. LOC. Var. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. Sd. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. LOC. in the Himalayas. L.5-10 X 1. spinous. FAM. tapering at both ends. high. H. Indies.—Asclepiadaceæ. L. blood and eye diseases. Fr.

Kalavankabija. Seeds cooling. K. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. anuria. Prameha-Mihira-Taila.8 cm. anæmia. hypnotic. NS.2 cm. Ekharo. tropical and S. like leaves. bracts. biliousness.5 cm. useful in diarrhœa. Used in diarrhœa. subquadrangular.—June-Jany. 18 X 3-3. COM. 4-8 seeded. aphrodisiac . and dysentery. demulcent. laxative. improve blood (Yunani). all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. abruptly swollen at the top. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda).) FAM. Fr. USES :—The root is refrigerant. C.) LOC. CHAR. high. tonic. eyediseases. The root is sweet.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . Shrigalghant.— Acanthaceæ. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. lips sub-equal.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. Gokshura. Kak-Kokilaksha. LOC. aphrodisiac. upper 2-fid. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Phalaghrita. Fl. Gokhran. leprosy. LOC. HABITAT:—Swampy places. lanceolate. (Yunani. abdominal troubles. Fl. gonorrhoea. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. sedative to gravid uterus . antispasmodic. hairy. Talamkhana. tube. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. :—Throughout India. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. scalding of urine. 3. :—G. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves good for cough.6-1. long. Vajrakantaka. L. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. Talamkhan. tonic. USES. galactogogue. t. tonic. Africa. leaves and seeds. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. night-blindness (Ayurveda). colic. erect. hispid with long hairs.—capsule. thirst. aphrodisiac . Talim-khana. useful in jaundice and anasarca. thickened at the nodes.—sessile. 4 inner small. :—A stout herb. DISTR. linear oblong. dysentery. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Seeds fattening. ciliate .:—Common throughout the State. 0. urinary calculi and discharges. gleet. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. And. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Vikhara. Narayana Taila. 2 outer large. diuretic. inflammations. and alterative tonic. expectorant. Ceylon. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees.. Konkan and Deccan. Vishnu Taila. Gokhalkanta. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. pointed. M. ascites.— purple blue. constipation. widely 2-lipped. Ikshura. tonic. Kolavalike. . lower deeply 3-lobed. H. stems fasciculate.

allays thirst. astringent to bowels. heats the body (Ayurveda). ascites. heating. laxative. useful in bad ulcers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. with shining dots. Ceylon and all warm countries. DISTR. Fl. Sd. Brahmi. M. stems rooting at the nodes. inflammations. indigestion. C. solitary.—Oxalidaceæ. Shiral. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. FAM. when fresh. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). :—E. Mudgara. Fruit sour. obovate-oblong or spatulate. acute. "Vata". M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. :—A glabrous. enlargement of spleen. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. stops diarrhœa and vomiting.:—Konkan and Deccan. G. rarely wild. capsule. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . tumours. Nirbrahmi. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay.:—Throughout India in wet places. Tamarak. leprosy. pungent. Sk.—Scrophulariaceæ. See—Fruit Trees. Karuka. Fr. black dotted : entire. decussate. creeping herb. LOC. sessile. DISTR. Barambhi. Kamarakha. succulent. dried fruit is given in fevers. 6-25 X 2. Kamaranga. Jany-May. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. Darehuli. pale. Root is given in cases of poisoning. t. Kamarakh. Thyme-leaved graticula . HABITAT :—Damp places. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. tonic. sour. fruits. anæmia. striate. ovoid. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Karmare . Karmal. Fl. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . H. Kanara villages. Manduki. LOC. Jalneam. Sk.) FAM. NS. emetic. found wild near N. oblong. Carambola apple. branches many ascending. Safed-Kammi. causes biliousness (Yunani). also used in diarrhœa. pale blue or white.. perhaps a native of Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. NS.5-10 mm. L. Coromandel gooseberry. causes biliousness. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. lobes equal spangled. digestible. . LOC. astringent to bowels . COM. Fruits are used in pickles. 2-lipped. CHAR. fleshy. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Kirihuli. COM. Bama. Kamrang. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Brahmi. Karmar. axillary. H. K. Brahmi. Soumyalata.:—E. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth.

useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia.—Burseraceæ. LOC. good in scabies. FAM. leucoderma. obovoid. epilepsy and hoarseness. epilepsy and hoarseness. NS. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers.—Euphorbiaceæ. DISTR. K. Fr. Dantika. . Bengal. aphrodisiac . Dantimul. diseases of skin and abdomen. 0. branching from the roots. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. :—A stout undershrub. Danti. 2-glandular. jaundice (Ayurveda). often palmately 3-5 lobed. Mukul. Chota Nagpur. toothed. G. alexiteric. wounds. of three 2-valved cocci. Fl. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. anthelmintic. Devdhup.8 m. high. mottled. Root and leaves are cathartic. Seeds are poisonous. LOC. Burma. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. :—E. Danti. Kaduharalu. t. CHAR.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. N. enlarged spleen. COM. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). W. Hakum. smooth. purgative. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. is used as a local application in rheumatism. useful in pains. in monsoon forests of N. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. piles. :—Bihar. FAM.9-1. Danti. purifies blood. Uddipta. leaves and seeds. Guggula. Leaf-juice. the lower large. Sk. Malaya. inflammations.. or in monsoon forests. Guggula. Peninsula. yellowish. Fl. Sk. useful in insanity. all male or with a few females below. Guggula. Gum gugul. diuretic. H. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. syphilis . M. M. hairy. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Assam. COM. They are used in dropsy. H. :—Dry open Deccan plains. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sd. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Vishodhini. Kanara. Dec. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Jatala. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. conjoined with petroleum. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Jamalgota. anaemia. Danti. the upper small. leucoderma. Rechani. ellipsoid. LOC. NS. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. anasarca and jaundice. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Guggul. :—G. Gugul. itching. L. sinuate. capsule. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. urinary discharges and calculi. biliousness. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Fr. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. used in dry cough. cures strangury. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. flat. asthma. it is also anti-fat remedy. DISTR. used in piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. blood impurities. diuretic. . used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. leprosy. anthelmintic. cough. G. Tallow-White gourd. aphrodisiac. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. tonic. tonic to liver. aphrodisiac. thirst. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. heart tonic (Ayurveda). asthma. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. fever.—pod. NS. Kumaon. cardiac and general tonic. Sikkim. Fl. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. " Tridosha". BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. menorrhagia. Bark—astringent to bowels. styptic in haematuria (Yunani).5 cm. Golkaddu. t. appetising. Budekumbalkai. Shikhivardhaka. Dorokaru. 15-20 X 1. Bhuru-koholu.—Cucurbitaceæ. dehiscent. FAM. PARTS USED :—Fruit. oil from the seeds. M. :—Cultivated throughout the State. tuberculous glands. Root. China. LOC. K. astringent. cures biliousness. tuberculous glands. cures biliousness. blood diseases. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Karkutika. Kudimah. dysmenorrhoea. H. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. not indigenous. removes foul taste from mouth. Sk. Buds—indigestible. used in strangury. given' to corpulent persons. burning sensation. wounds and ulcers. Kondha. Burma.-Feb. USES :—Root-decoction is given. eye diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative.-Apl. Koholu.8-2. blood diseases . biliousness. Timisha. "Kapha". LOC. enriches blood. seeds. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR.10-15. :—E. bark and flowers. ulcers. Kushmanda. in dyspepsia and flatulence. cough. red and white. Ash pumpkin. urethral discharges. Kohala. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. There are two varieties. anal troubles. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. thirst. Sd. Fruit—antiperiodic. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. vaginal discharges. Seeds— cooling. COM. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. used as gargle in stomatitis. leucoderma.

finely silky pubescent on both sides.-achene. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. sharply serrate-dentate. pappus white.—Compositæ. Deccan. :—Annual herb. and diuretic. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. LOC.9 m. :—Throughout plains of India. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Fl. and nutritious tonic.-Apl. inner bracts with green midrib. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. COM. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. Sk. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Kukkurdru. LOC. Tropical Africa. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. bitter. anti-pyretic. Country. asthma. NS. Ceylon. blood diseases. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Jangali-muli. fevers. astringent. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Kalhar.—the lower ones petioled. ash colored. Tamrachuda. DISTR. it is also useful in insanity. M. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. pubescent. high. Bhamurdi. M. good in syphilis (Yunani). FAM. catarrh. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). Fl. elliptic-oblong. laxative. 0. BLUMEA LACERA DC. cooling. thirst. H. Pilokapurio. phthisis. L. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury.:—In plains south of Bombay. it is given in bleeding piles. Kakarunda. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. CHAR. Oil—is soporific. Fr. mixed with black pepper. etc. S. oblong. base tapered. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Kakaronda. . Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. See—Vegetables. good for the brain and liver. not ribbed.3—0. Malaya. LOC.—Jany. febrifuge. Mriduchhada. haemoptysis. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. with a strong odour of turpentine. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. heart diseases. densely glandular. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. pungent. Australia. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). sweetish. burning sensation. :—G. often incised or lyrate. upper subsessile. t.—heads many. cures bronchitis. Fruit is made into confections. China. Kanara. stem erect. Konkan. Kukurbanda.

NS. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. Ceylon. Raktakanda. gonorrhœa. "Vata". Madhurasa. in pain of joints. stem prostrate or ascending.—in unequal pairs at each node. K. root large. asthma. sub-orbicular. Talimara. 1. Vasu. M. heart diseases. M. expectorant. cultivated and self-sown. H. Bitter. cooling . Tad. Brab tree. India. scabies. Sk. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat.—in corymbose umbels. generally found in poorer soils. Moto-satodo. COM. It produces a very marked and persistent.— Nov. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. LOC. anæmia. Fan Palm. HABITAT :—A weed. pinkish. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . tropical and sub-tropical Asia. L. Celyon. Seeds—tonic. LOC. It is used in jaundice. G. useful in ophthalmia. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Leaves— appetiser.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. Tad. whitish beneath. K. :—E. bluntly 5-ribbed. alexiteric. Fr. "Kapha" heating. native of tropical Africa. common in S. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. :—Tropical India.—clavate. Uttar Pradesh. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. cultivated. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). DISTR. Tala.3—2 cm. t. Desert Palm. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. fusiform. and dropsy. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. green above. Baluchistan. COM. Varshabhu. useful in biliousness. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Dhvajadruma. carminative. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. Shothaghni. CHAR. Asavardu. Africa and America. Burma. Lekhyapatra. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. alterative. spleen enlargement. blood impurities. leucorrhoea. (Ayurveda). very small. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. LOC. very glandular . . DISTR. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). Ghetuli. Tad. inflammations. —Nyctaginaceæ. abdominal pains. Kommegida. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Palmyra Palm. Kolaba and Thana districts. astringent to bowels . Indian Archipelago. Fl. leaves and seeds. P. Plant contains large quantities of pot. Hogweed.—Palmæ. Santhikari. useful in lumbago. Fl. Persian Gulf. NS. FAM. Punarnava. FAM. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. margins undulate. :—E. G. Dholia-saturdo.. :—A diffuse herb.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white.

causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Guggula. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. hot. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. binding. bronchitis. scabies. COM. antidysenteric. Salpe. cough. Dup. Sugars. fruit and gum. also found in Belgaum District. Salai. intoxicating. G. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. Bark-decoction. Sk. . convulsions. Gum—hot. fevers. :—E. fattening. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Salashi. skin diseases. allays thirst. mouth-sores. M. astringent to bowels. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. with a good flavour. aphrodisiac. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. Loban. antiglycosuretic. Guggali. purifies blood. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . strengthens teeth. NS. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. asthma. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Mukulsalai. Indian olibanum tree. biliousness. cooling. Fermented juice—tonic. thirst. PARTS USED :—Bark. DISTR. fruits. fattening. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. heals wounds . antibilious . fatigue. Liquors. leaves. expectorant.—Burseraceæ. flowers. with a little salt added. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. removes "Kapha". See—Timbers. may cause vomiting. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Fruit—cooling. bad throat. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. aphrodisiac. causes " Kapha ". BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. Sambrani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. also used as antiperiodic. FAM. cures dysentery. purifies blood (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. intoxicating. tonic. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. dry. diuretic . Salphali. ulcers . useful in skin and blood diseases. K. bitter. blood complaints . laxative. improves taste. if taken regularly acts as laxative. used for boils. Gums and Resins. Moddi. LOC. Gum is of five kinds . Vishesha-dhupa.. Luban. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Dhupam. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Fruit—aphrodisiac. allays. "Vata". useful in biliousness. causes headache. expectorant. invigorating. " Vata". LOC. Salgond. allays asthma. antipyretic. thirst and scalding of urine. flowers. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Kundur. diaphoresis. burning sensation. helps delivery. H.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. Dhup. useful in intestinal troubles. alexiteric. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. juice. vaginal discharges.

Kali-rai. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). :—Cultivated in India. NS. DISTR. COM. Jwalanti. rheumatism. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. See—Condiments and Spices. vermicide. G. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons.—Cruciferae. Dharwar and Belgaum. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Rajika. dispel fever . spasmodic. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. " Vata". Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. cure nose. Sarshapa. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Rai. bechic. See—Timbers. Kari Sasive . The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Seeds-laxative. ear. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. LOC. lessen oedema of body. Mohori. Seeds act as digestive condiment . mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Asuri. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. appetiser. chiefly in Nasik. LOC. cause burning . Taramira . USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. Kaira. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. K. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. and toothache. Gums and Resins. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. good in cough and for inflammations. Khandesh. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). H. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Surat. :—E. cure enlargement of spleen. if swallowed whole they are laxative. stomachic. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). spleen. . increase bile. FAM. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. M. Broach. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. eye-troubles. kill external parasites. India. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. biles. anthelmintic .MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. good for throat complaints. internal congestions. increase appetite . scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. Seeds— remove cough tumours. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. used with butter in syphilis . Black-True mustard. Sk. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. cure skin-dissases.

M.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Mauritius. 5-partite. deeply cordate base. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. Kaj. :—G. Patharphoda. Ekalkanto. FAM. M.—yellowish brown. S. Asana. corolla companulate. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. LOC.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. green and scabrid above. stem grooved. NS. Shivalingi. Kassi. :—G. hemiplegia.. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. H. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. corolla as in the male . Asana. bark. Asana.—Cucurbitaceæ. lobes oblong lanceolate. Manj. globose. bluish green. Lingaja. and in fevers with flatulence. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. Philippines. NS. Chandra. glabrous . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. heating. It is used in bilious attacks. Gargumaru.:—Throughout India. Malaya.—Euphorbiaceæ. useful in "Vata". 1 . PARTS USED :—Root. Tans. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Garige. alterative. diam. smooth. Sk. Fr. Mahavira. :—An annual scandent herb. Country. Fl. LOC. Lingini. DISTR. Mullu-siru Honne. K. tropical Africa. hot. COM. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. t.— Aug-Sept. Goge. CHAR. M. lumbago. LOC. FAM. margins sinuate denticulate. Shivlingi.— membranous.. Ekadivi. DISTR. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. streaked with broad vertical lines . Australia. of Shivaling shape . or few or many. 10-15 cm. COM. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. See—Timbers. H. female flowers solitary. pungent.. subsessile. Apastambhini. 5-lobed. 3—2 . Suviraka. bitter. ovate-oblong. paler and smooth beneath. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda).—baccate. Asana. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Shivavalli. Ishawara-Shivalingi. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Gunjan. Gauli. Sk. southward to Ceylon. tendrils 2-fid : L. Kavodi. :—Deccan. Fl. . Khaja. Sd. 5 cm.

—Jany. buds with root. :—Konkan. LOC. K. Gujarat. :—Konkan..—swollen and octagonal at the base. Cochin-China. M. Panphuti. C. Zakhi-haiyat. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—Native of tropical Africa. Char. M. high. HABITAT :—Dry. smooth. See—Ornamental Plants. COM. NS. :—G. Sd. FAM. Fl. "Vata" and biliousness. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. H. useful in diarrhœa. K. inflammations. cardio-tonic. Kolegeru. It is a disinfectant. speckled with white. purifies blood. COM. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. cures blooddiseases. Parnabija. M. Fl. Char. deciduous open forests. thirst.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. Lonnahadakana gida. Country. Dhanu. Rajadana. laxative. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. crenate or serrate. Char. gum (rarely). Charoli. Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. Pyalchar.—Anacardiaceæ. cooling. burning sensation on body. analgesic. carminative. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. bruises. tonic. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. S. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Fr. also wild. the Dangs.—small. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). Charoli. allays . the older light-coloured. LOC. binding. Cambodia. elliptic. Asthibhakshya. fruit. Charpoppu. Lalana.) FAM.2 m. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". Stems obtusely 4-angled.—Crassulaceæ. reddish purple. seeds. leaves. fevers. Snehabija. ulcers. alexipharmic. Sk. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . constricted in the middle. Piyal. Panphui. Tapaspriya. occasionally compound. S. lower usually simple. Murukali. M.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. L. Thailand (Siam). boils and bites of venomous insects. DISTR. LOC. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. in large panicles. Paira. Priyal. DISTR. with opposite branches . :—H. vomiting.—variable. :—Hot and drier parts of India. Deccan. upper 3-5-7 foliate. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. younger reddish. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. aphrodisiac. Sk. expectorant. decussate. Leaf-juice digestive. leaflets ovate. The bark is bitter and poisonous. Deccan. lobes triangular. Country. t.3-1. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).—pendant. purgative. fattening. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. NS. when punctured.

Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. cure tumours. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). stomachic. DISTR. purifies blood. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Dyes. H. if chewed. aperient used in urinary discharges. diseases of anus. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. K. dysentery. emmenagogue. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). aphrodisiac. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. remove bad humours. Khakda. Dhak. COM. colic. carminative. leaves. Muttuga. cause headache (Yunani). tonic to liver. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. NS. corneal opacities. Yajnika. lessens biliousness. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. anthelmintic. Sk. aphrodisiac. pterygium. fractures. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. Flower—aphrodisiac. used in liver disorders. LOC. useful in elephantiasis. Kakria. burning urine. pimples. piles. India. gout. useful in bone fractures. gum. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. useful in piles. G. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. LOC. prickly heat and itch. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Bark—appetiser. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. cures ulcers and tumours. Bastard teak. hydrocele. laxative. Palas. tonic. eye diseases. Leaf—very astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. Kuntz. relieves abnormal thirst.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. digestible. in the Khandesh Akrani. gonorrhoea. bark. cough. good in fevers. worms and piles. astringent. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence.) FAM. Palas. buboes. seeds. Fruit and seeds—oily. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. dry. biliousness. anthelmintic. Palash. Kinshuk. anthelmintic. Gum—astringent to bowels. :—E. Chichra. Kshatadru. Muttala. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . cures excessive perspiration. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . leprosy. Khakhrao. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds tonic to body and brain. ascends to 1200 m. Tripatrak. good in biliousness. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. inflammations. topically in piles and hydrocele. M. tumours. stomatitis. good in dysentery. lessens inflammations. cold and cough. flowers. Oils.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Gum—acrid. gonorrhœa. anthelmintic. Gums and Resins. tonic. aphrodisiac. strangury. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Flowers—cure " Kapha". diuretic . thirst. expectorant. skindiseases. Bark—appetiser. LOC. lessens lumbago. dysmenorrhoea. burning sensation. Fruit and seed—hot. useful in syphilis. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Ceylon. Khakera. piles.

They are applied to orchitis. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). M. Fr. DISTR. pinnae 6-8 pairs. NS. cures inflammation . aphrodisiac and diuretic.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ.) COM. Gajga. fevers. Gajjige. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. Kuberakshi. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. anthelmintic . :—E. sprouts useful in tumours. Fever nut. Tapasi. Sk. L. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places.—abruptly pinnate. hydrocele. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. K. Kakechika. flowers and fruit. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Gajaga. prevents contagious diseases .5 X 4. cures urinary discharges. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. act as rubefacient. :—An extensive climber. astringent to bowels. 5-7. oblong 5-7. Karanja. Leaves contain a glucoside. wounds. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Dyes. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. LOC. Flowers are astringent. densely armed on the faces with prickles. very common near the sea-coast. Physic nut. aphrodisiac. Gum solution is applied to bruises. :—Throughout India. piles. leaves.—pod. Fl. t. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. 30-60 cm. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . PARTS USED :—Root-bark. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder.—JulySept. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. Katkaranj. malaria. Katkaleja. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Gums and Resins. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. antiperiodic.5 cm. Sind. lead-colored 1. FAM. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. G. heating. leaflets 6-9 pairs. strongly mucronate. Sd. asthma and colic. .5 cm.—yellow. long . skin-diseases. shortly stalked. etc. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. See—Timbers. ringworm.3 cm. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta .—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. Fl. CHAR. useful in colic. H. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". elliptic-oblong. Deccan hills. long. Seed—styptic. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. LOC. leprosy (Yunani). the tropics generally. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion.—1-2 oblong. Sagargota. leucorrhcea. Fruit—acrid. petioles prickly. anthelmintic.

Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. . H. sometimes amplexicaul. LOC. G. and oil. East African Islands. Malaya. LOC. :—E. Ceylon. lessens appetite.—Asclepiadaceæ. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. base cordate. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. Kshiranga. Ponne. :—E. Rui. much branched. also cultivated as an ornamental plant.H. NS. K. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Australia. often gregarious. Akdo. Vuma. 2. Punnaga.. sessile. Alexandrian laurel. Mandara. Ak.. Punnag. Arka.— opposite. NS. high. gum. astringent. Surhonne. Dholaakdo. Ark. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Oils. branches stout. Mandara. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Surangi. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Shuka-phala. Madar. Undi. Sultanchampa. elliptic or ovate oblong. Madar. Kanara associated with littoral species. :—Cultivated throughout India. Tungakeshera. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). See—Timbers. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. M. 10-20 X3.. FAM. both surfaces tomentose. very common in N. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Purasakeshera. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Sk. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Surpan. Sk. COM. and for its oil. PARTS USED :—Bark.. Undi. Akand. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. M. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. DISTR. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Gigantic swallow-wort. thick.4-3 m. Kshirparni. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. COM. K.—Guttiferæ. L. used in chronic fevers.. Ekke. Br. Polynesia. The gum from wounded branches. covered with cottony pubescence. CHAR.8-10 cm. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. :—A large shrub. Arka.

swellings. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. COM. flattened tomentose.—7. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. young parts white. CHAR. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. Flowers—stomachic. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . ovate oblong. high. across. liver and spleen enlargement.7—15 X 4.—in umbellate cymes.. buds ovoid. green. eruption on body.—subsessile. corona shorter than the column. long. usually 5. ellipsoid or ovoid. Fr. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. Fl.. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. laxative. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Sd:—many. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. elephantiasis. China.—lobes deltoid-ovate. :—An erect shrub usually 1. Br. purgative. Milk— heating. tonic and stomachic in action. broad. heal wounds.— purplish in umbellate cymes. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. astringent. Ak. Root-bark is diaphoretic.— Feb. L. also useful in intestinal worms.8-2. cottony. used in cough. spleen and liver diseases. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. lobes usually erect. asthma. C. ascites. ulcers. . Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. Madar. elliptic or obovate.—about 2. useful in leprosy.5-8. comose.:—H. Ark. Rajarka. scabies. oleaginous. acrid . HABITAT :—Dry waste places. Flowers—digestive. purplish or white. 9-10 cm.—broadly ovate. leaves and flowers. tumours. Juice—anthelmintic. subglobose. See—Fibres. LOC.. cures asthma and syphilis. very common is S. asthma. Safedak. coughs. leaves applied to paralysed parts. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. bark corky.5 cm. tumours. cures inflammations. buds globose. cures leucoderma. painful joints . catarrh and loss of appetite.4 m. diaphoretic. Malay Islands and S. back much curved. NS. Mandara. comose . Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. bark. LOC. M. ascites and anasarca. cures leprosy.—follicles. cures piles and "Kapha". dropsy. expectorant and anthelmintic. Milk— caustic. apex with two auricles. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. very common. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.5 cm. Mandara. Fr. Ceylon. alterative and purgative properties. rat-bite.5-10 X 5-7. good for liver (Yunani). Flower—analgesic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.2 cm.-July.—Asclepiadaceæ. C. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. piles. t. spongy. India. ringworm of scalp. DISTR. Fl. Sd. FAM. depilatory.

Kadsambu. lanceolate to ovate. CHAR. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Waziristan. Sarvajaya. erect. G. Fl. :—E. K. abundant in Sind. Sambe. Sk. membranous.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. COM. Shitarambha. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. (Chopra). Kardali. Kadavare. Tamateballi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. H. Shimbi. See—Fibres.. 3 sub-erect. acrid. P. high . Iran. See—Vegetables. LOC. Sabbajaya. M. The pods contain vitamin A. hernia and colic. Gavara.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). CANNA INDICA Linn. Kalehu. Hudingana. green. Broad—Sword bean. Kamakshi. DISTR. Gavria. tonic. COM. LOC. spatulate.—segments 2. veins arching. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan.2 m. useful in burning sensations. FAM. flowers and milky juice. NS. Paraholiya. Indian shot. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sarvajaya. LOC. Sema. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Tarvardi. NS. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. PARTS USED :—Pods.9-1. H. Devakeli. G. Flowers used as detergent. narrow.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. ulcers (Ayurveda). Egypt. greenish or colored.. long. Nilashimbika. oval or orbicular. :—E. appetiser.:—Perennial herb . Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. indigestible. Akalabera. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. staminodial segments.5 cm.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6.3 cm. Koshaphala. Abai. root-stock tuberous. biliousness. M. stem 0. bracts oblong. on trees and hedges . FAM. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. cooling. L. Gigantea. Afghanistan. Khadsambal.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Arabia. 1 linear . but doubtfully wild. Warm leaves used as poultice. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. they are given in cholera. Asishimbi. tropical Africa. K.—Scitaminaceae. DISTR.

restlessness. H. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated. astringent. flowers and seeds. PARTS USED :—Roots. oil-good for earache. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. usually 0.—many. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. alterative . Female inflorescence is stomachic. Fr. Central Asia. DISTR. Fr. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. dioecious. seeds and resin. 3-lobed. Vijaya. piles. male flowers. cough. soporific. sepals 5. stomachic. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. hallucinations. useful in " Kapha".—Urticaceæ. t. water extract anthelmintic. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. aphrodisiac. Bark—tonic. insanity. LOC. melancholia. Leaves—bitter. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy.—alternate or the lower opposite. Wild in the Himalayas. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). Unmattini. aphrodisiac. (3) Charas. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. female perianth hyaline. hot. K. also wild. check vomiting. LOC. COM. echinulate . Ganja. female crowded under convolute bracts. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . soporific. lower 3-8 foliate. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases.—more or less throughout the year. shining.—small axillary. imbricate. Fl. Sd.—achene. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. lessen inflammation.5 m. Siddhapatri. LOC. cause headache. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . intoxication (Ayurveda). See—Ornamental Plants. male fascicled. excessive use causes indigestion. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury).:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. serrate.9-1. black. PROPERTIES AND LOC. (2) Bhang. Mohini. Seeds—carminative. useful in convulsions. causes thirst and biliousness. Not indigenous. leaves. Shivapriya. Bhangi. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. good for hydrocele. Sk. tonic. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. tonic. astringent to bowels. Harshini. antidiarrhoeic. high in its feral state. Bhang. They are broken in small pieces. :—Widely cultivated in India. heating. Ganja. impotence. M. flowers. DISTR. causes thirst. globose. intoxicating. PARTS USED :—Bark. Hemp. upper 1-3. G. L. Ganja. abortifacient. leaves. CHAR. leprosy. Bhang. causes biliousness. dropsy. FAM. NS. intoxication. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. :—Throughout India.—sub-globose or oblong .

CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. COM. in the form of electuary. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. increases biliousness. Lalmirchi. asthma. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Marichiphala. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. :—E. The plant contains cannabinin. NS. and dropsy. M. loss of consciousness. Marchu . diarrhœa. . Tikshna. and flatulence. Narcotics. Cayenne-pepper.—Solanaceæ. M. dysuria. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. The fruit contains Capsisin. increases appetite. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). muscular pains. Madana modak used in cough. whooping cough. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Lanka mirchi. See—Gums and Resins. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. Mirchi. FAM. Capsaicin and Solanin. useful in brain complaints. Menshinkai. DISTR. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. H. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Country in Deccan. Fruit—pungent. delirium (Ayurveda). it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Vegetables. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). G. spermatorrhoea. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. erysipelas. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. weakness of body. often found as an escape. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. useful in indigestion.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). :—Extensively cultivated in S. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Fibres. acute mania. K. Ujjvala. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. chronic ulcers. :—Cultivated all over India. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Tivrashakti. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. dyspepsia. LOC. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. expectorant. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. See—Condiments and Spices. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. and is employed by Indian physicians. Mirchi. Raktamaricha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. also in gout. It is stomachic. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Chillies. cholera. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. LOC.

skin-diseases. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. and is administered in fevers. winged at the angles. when moistened. black. FAM.—globose. inciso-serrate. bladdery . . DISTR. Hennumatti. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. " Vata ". bronchitis. Thailand (Siam). C. petals 4. alexiteric. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . NS. leaves and seeds. Sd. very acute apex. anthelmintic. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Kumbhi. Fruit—acrid. smooth. ultimate segments lanceolate. Kumbha. FAM. M. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. 2-ternate. urinary discharges. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. common in S. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . Karnasphota. Shaundi. Kumbhi. useful in tumours. dyspepsia. L. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. Sk. Ghats. it is mucilaginous. subglobose. COM. Maniju balli. bark. Kangu. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. stem wiry. Fl. The plant contains saponin. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. K. piles. Karolio. :—Throughout India. leucoderma. Agni-erum. CHAR. Konkan and W. Blister creeper. :—E. epileptic fits.—white. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Kumbi. Root is considered diaphoretic. Balloon vine. Kapalphodi. :—Most warm countries. Ceylon. M. H. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. deltoid. Jyotish-mati. PROPERTIES AND LOC. leaves. colic. :—E. trigonous.—Sapindaceæ. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. introduced. abscesses and ulcers. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. G. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Fibres. COM. dry. LOC. hot. Daddala. K. Kanphuti. Kalindi. LOC. Wild guava . diuretic and aperient.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils.— alternate. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. DISTR. Sind. Root. flowers and fruits. Gavvahannu. Girikarnika. rounded at the apex.—capsule. Sk.—Myrtaceæ. bark. Fr. Malay Peninsula. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In hedges . Sakralata. LOC. G. Vakambi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. See—Timbers.

Chibda. :—Native throughout India. cooling. LOC.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn.—Caricaceæ. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. scabies. Nalikadala. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. of W. it is used to procure abortion. ringworm. diuretic. Sk. :— E. cures inflammations. Guppe. bile. HABITAT :—Cultivated. piles. Seeds—oleaginous. :—E. hypnotic. Fruit—stomachic. H. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. bronchitis. Pangi. Pappayi. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Karada. DISTR. Ahmednagar and Nasik. appetiser . green fruit is laxative and diuretic. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Leaves. leprosy. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. relieves obesity. M. unripe fruit. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . DISTR. Karrak. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. heating. cures insanity (Ayurveda). Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Papita. Popayi. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). fruit and seeds. Flower—tonic to liver. Leaves—hot. Mexico and Brazil. Papaya. Kusumbha. used. removes biliousness . is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. seeds and oil. :—Grown extensively in Poona. causes burning sensation . Kamalottama. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. expectorant. Kardai. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). K. NS. Oil—indigestible. wounds of urinary track. Dyer's saffron. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. appetiser. FAM. leucoderma. diuretic. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. "Kapha". carminative. "Tridosh". HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sk. bleeding piles. M. cause biliousness. aphrodisiac. in haemoptysis. strangury. Papaya. aphrodisiac. COM. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. NS. cures inflammation. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. depilatory. cure "Vata". good for eyes. Kusumba. See—Fruit Trees. cure urinary discharges. laxative. Papaw. Agnishikha. Kusumba. flowers. LOC. K. COM. Indies. G. Papayi. Chirbhita. enlargement of spleen. LOC. H. Safflower. Kusumba. White thin latex contains Papain. . Papaya. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. G. made into curries.—Compositæ. FAM. removes urinary concretions . Barre. Kusumbo.

they are used in jaundice . chest pains. vomiting. liver. atonic dyspepsia. Oma. bechic. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Ajamo . and even in cholera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. piles. enlargement of spleen. They are administered in flatulence. inflammation (Yunani). cure catarrh. CASSIA ALATA Linn. Dodda sagate. Dadrughna. Dyes. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. good in weakness of limbs. Oils. improve speech and eyesight. NS. aphrodisiac. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . M. FAM. carminative. laxative. 30-60 cm. give lustre to eyes. Afghanistan. Dadmardan. Ajamoda. Baluchistan.—Umbelliferæ. good for old people. Elgra. mucronate. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). myrabolans and rock salt. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. aphrodisiac . Europe. Owa. COM. rachis . K. strengthening. COM. tonic. carminative. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. H. LOC. Dwipagasti. :—Cultivated extensively in India. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. :—E. leaflets 10-12 pairs. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. abdominal pain. and diarrhœa. chest and throat pains. spleen. Ringworm shrub. kidney troubles. LOC. Winged senna. NS :— E. diuretic. subsessile. paralysis. long. Oil—good in all diseases. emmenagogue and sedative. Seeds—purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. oblong-obtuse. Ajwain. appetiser. G. The seeds bitter and hot. H. anthelmintic. Leaves contain vitamin A. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. Datka pat. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. CHAR. Omu . pinnate. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. good for ear boils.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). abdominal tumours. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). Bishops' weed . K. dyspepsia. stimulant. purgative. pungent. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. enrich blood. hiccup. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. See—Condiments and Spices. Sk. Simyatase. stimulate intestines. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. stomachic. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. good for heart and tooth-ache. Egypt. Iran. Dadamardana. Dipyaka. bitter. FAM. vomiting. cure ascites. Tivragandha. carminative. Sk. tonic and carminative properties. downy beneath. L. oblique at the base. See—Vegetables. M. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. Ajowan. DISTR.

Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Tanner's cassia. Country. thirst.—in spiciform. HABITAT :—Planted. Bark has the same properties. Madhya Pradesh and W. useful in thirst. pale beneath. 20-25. alexipharmic . membranous. Tarwad. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. leprosy. obliquely septate. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. cough. skin-diseases. Ahmed. pedunculate racemes .-Oct. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. very likely a native of the W. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. 5 cm. LOC. Fl.—pod. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . LOC. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. Sakusina. Mukerji). reddish brown. Taroda. rhombohedral.—bright yellow with darker veins. anthelmintic. " In eczema. Gujarat and S. rachis densely pubescent. and throat troubles. oblong-obovate.—pod long. DISTR. Pitakilaka.5 X 10 cm. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. CHAR. ringworm.—large. along the sea coast in laterite region. leaves. Avartki. yellow with orange veins. cures tumours. DISTR. straight. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). nocturnal emissions. rotundate. M. across.3-1. H. causes flatulence . M. Indies. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. 10-20 X 1. cm. flowers. C. L. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. The whole plant.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.) COM. itching. useful in vomiting.:—Dry regions of Rajputana.—30-35. NS. Sd. :—E. LOC. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Fl. Tangadi. Sd. vermicide (Ayurveda). skin diseases. J. N. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). slightly overlapping. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. dull green above. cure " Vata ". . poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). t. Burma. good for ulcers. :—Introduced into India. FAM.. Fl.—7. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases.. asthma . Avarike. Fr. K. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. Fl. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. stipules very large. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. Mayahari. t. long. G. bark smooth.-50 or more.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Charmaranga. buds in yellow bracts. urinary discharges . I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. mucronate. leaflets 8-12 pairs. fruits and seeds. Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). LOC.—Jany. Awal. Ceylon. reniform. Tarwad.6 cm. diabetes. Ph..-July. 28-4-88). Fr.

—20-30. fruit and seeds. transversely septate. FAM. tuberculous glands. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub.— Jany-March. cure " Kapha ". See—Dyes. cause flatulence. Kakka. Fruit—digestible. Kasondi. Sd. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. long. Seeds— oily. Kacodari. Dodda-tagase. demulcent. often purplish. Chimkani. ovate-lanceolate. See—Timbers. syphilis. Ane sogate. H. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Stinking weed. Flowers—improve taste.. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Ceylon. Negro coffee. DISTR. branches furrowed. NS. laxative. and Famine Plants. distinctly torulose. 10—12. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. juice given in erysipelas. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases.) COM. yellow. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Aragina. (Ayurveda). Ornamental Plants.—very foetid when bruised. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. rheumatism. Leaves lessen inflammation. LOC. Flowers—purgative.) COM. Chakinda.—in few flowered racemes. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. hard. H. leprosy. 15-20 cm. Bandartauri. throat-troubles. Kasonda. Konde. Kasoda. also planted. Fr. L. It is a mild laxative. abortifacient. used in rheumatism. Hema-puspha. K. Kasari. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. PARTS USED :—Root. faintly veined with orange . :—E. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. FAM. Vyadivata. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. apex acute. purgative. Arogyashimbi. G. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Amaltas. astringent. C. Fl. NS.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. cooling. In Konkan. useful in chest and liver complaints. Fruit—antipyretic. :—Throughout India. carminative. corymbose. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. recurved. cures burning sensation. antipyretic. G. M. Leaves—anti-periodic . K. Kasundari.5 cm. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. shining dark olive-green. Sk. M. purgative. Sk. Kasmarda. improve appetite. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge.—pods. Rajataru. Bahava. Pudding-pipe or stick. Tans. CHAR. LOC. Rechana. t. long. leaves. base somewhat oblique. Arimarda.—petals 5. :—E. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. heal ulcers . smooth. Balla. Garmala. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. safe for children and pregnant women. Suvarnaka. biliousness . griping. Burma. cooling. Indian laburnum. Fl. Rankasvinda. eye-diseases. flowers. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Golden shower.

Kasamarda.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. Sd. elephantiasis.. cures ascites. LOC.. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. obtuse.—18-23 cm. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. Kasamarda. LOC. leaves and seeds. Ran tankala. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. asthma. See—Famine Plants. At Kotra. See—Famine Plants.510 cm. leaves and seeds. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). DISTR. . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. The bark. :—G. dark brown . stomachic. " tridosha " .—in axillary. ovate. :—A shrub 2. H. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. long . :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis.Jany. LOC. Kasundari. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. 7. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Kasondi. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. In many countries root is considered diuretic. are given in diabetes. Fl.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). turgid. opposite. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. and seeds are cathartic. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. CHAR. tonic and febrifuge.—30-40 broadly ovoid. Sk.4-3 m. NS. DISTR. LOC. slightly recurved. yellow. cure " Kapha". Banar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. lanceolate. Seeds used in heat of the blood. leaves. annual or perennial. PARTS USED :—Bark. in Kutch. K. rachis grooved . septate between the seeds . Fl. petals 5. base rounded. with a solitary conical gland near the base . COM. cough. t. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller).—pod. Talapota. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). fevers. leaflets 6-10 pairs.— Nov. few flowered corymbose racemes. hiccup. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves—aphrodisiac. C. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . alexiteric. Baskikasondi. M. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. heals wounds. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. Fr. L. high. FAM. " Vata ". mixed with honey.

covered with lenticels. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". H. Climbing-staff plant. globose. rachis grooved..—pod. leaves and seeds. 18 m. Tarota.5 cm.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. capsule. ovate or obovate. 6. DISTR.—pinnate.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Malhangana.5 mm. long. The plant contains glucoside emodin. NS. Dadamari. stem upto 23 cm.—in pairs in the axils of leaves .—after the rains. Tagache. Chakramarda. CHAR. Malkangoni. Takala. COM. in drooping panicles. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. base oblique. Svarnalata.5-20 cm. leaflets 3 pairs. much curved when young. Intellect tree. PARTS USED :— Root. emetic.—Celastraceæ. obovate. laxative. 12. Sk. 30-90 cm. Velo .8-7. Jyotishmati. Kangani. unarmed. DISTR. Sk. crenate. small yellowish-green.5-10 cm. L. H. Kangodi. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. 7. LOC. alternate. Foetid cassia. Madras State. Taragosi. reddish brown. upper petal 2-lobed . USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. Malkakni.3-10 X 3. FAM. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Ceylon. M. high. branches rough. CHAR. Panevar. cure joint-pains. high. powerful brain tonic. Pamad. usually unisexual. Burma.. in diam. Sd. :—E. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. shining above. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Sphutabandhani.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Taga. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. :—E. aphrodisiac.) COM. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. FAM. Dadrughna. Seeds—bitter. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. 1-6 completely covered with red. oblong. t. K. appetiser. pale yellow. C. G. Black-oil tree. Fl.. Kangli. brain and liver tonic. opposite (lowest smaller). Malkamni. . :—A very common weed all over the State. Kanguni. Fr. :—An annual foetid herb. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. cause burning sensation. expectorant. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. K. NS. obliquely septate. Seeds— acrid. Chakunda. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. L. Chagoche. Fr. bright yellow. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Fl. bitter. Sd. fleshy arillus.— petals 5. :—Large deciduous climber. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. X 4. hot. LOC.

CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn.). t. Ekpani. Don. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). CHAR. Vondelaga. stem creeping with long internodes. Brahmi. :—A slender herbaceous plant. NS. FAM. CHAR. :— E.—Feb. Fr. Fl. Jangli-karayatu. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. used in leprosy. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. paralysis and leprosy. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. linear-oblong. Mahaushadhi. narrowly oblong . K. COM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Barmi. hard-rugose. especially in Bengal. cloves. aphrodisiac and stimulant. M. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. M.—3 from each node. H. M. spreading star-like .). pink. :—G. :—Konkan.—capsule.-Apl. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. minute. Vallari . Fl. t. Jhinkun-kariatum. Mandukparni. cauline smaller. Deccan and S. orbicular. DISTR. good for cough and asthma. tonic.—in fascicled umbels. Fr. rooting at the nodes. Fl. LOC. L. Seeds are hot. elliptic. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Lahanchirayat. COM.—4 mm. long. Brahmamanduki. Fl. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields.—May-Nov. they are also sudorific. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Country. C. high. radical leaves revolute.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. persistent.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). and is employed for external application. gout. NS. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. ovoid. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. :—Throughout India. Oil stomachic.—opposite. L. FAM. .—tubular lobes 5.—Gentianaceæ.—Umbelliferæ. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. pink. base deeply cordate stipulate. obovate or oblong. LOC. reniform. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Sk. H. Brahmamanduki.

and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. voice. carminative. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. digestible. :—In moist situations (streams. nut is narcotic and poisonous . Sukanu. water courses throughout the State. thirst. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. Chanda.—Apocynaceæ. Malay Archipelago. bronchitis. small-pox. FAM. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. spleen enlargement. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. :—South Konkan and N. DISTR. alterative. scalding of urine. twigs. inflammations. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. ointment. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. cooling. bitter. soporific. COM. diuretic. cures hiccup. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . :—Throughout India near the coast. used in insanity (Ayurveda). blood diseases. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. Kanara. urinary discharges. LOC. Leaves are also diuretic. PARTS USED :—Bark. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. NS. fruit. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. LOC. cures leucoderma. and a bitter substance odollin. . bechic. antipyretic. biliousness. LOC. improves appetite (Yunani). abundant on the Malabar Coast. sedative to nerves. asthma.) DISTR. milky juice. headache . Australia Pacific Islands. tonic. M. plaster or bath are used. USES :—Bark is purgative. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. leaves and seeds). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Honde. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. China. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. Tande. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. memory. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". nallas. See—Timbers. For external use powder. :—K. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. laxative. " Kapha ". bronchitis. cardio-tonic. anæmia. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. improves appetite. fevers. Plant—bitter. Leaf-powder. clears voice and brain. PROPERTIES AND LOC. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. tonic. alexiteric. stomachic.

piles . (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. "Kapha". Kadale. Chunna. K. Chick pea. also cultivated as a pot herb. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. LOC. Chakravati. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. FAM. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. Country gooseberry. USES :— Root is purgative. Fruit is very sour . The plant yields an essential oil. LOC. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Sk. Harbara. useful in thirst. M. Bengal—Common-gram. H. Bathusag. Rai-avala. .—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Harparauri K. NS. :—E. LOC. :—Cultivated in India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Agralohita. M. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. fragrant. NS. constipation. biliousness. Wild-spinach. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chania. Ksharadala.—Euphorbiaceæ. improves appetite. laxative. sour . root and the seed are cathartic. piles. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Rayara nelli. oleaginous. H. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Deccan and S. FAM . biliousness.—Chenopodiaceæ. But. COM. acrid. M. Kari-Kempukadale. throattroubles. Chana. Sk. NS. tonic to liver. Kanchuki. abdominal pains. :—E. spleen (Ayurveda). eye-diseases. Chalmeri. fruit and seeds. tonic. aphrodisiac. CICCA ACIDA Merr. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Chana. DISTR. :— E. Cheel. Pandu. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Balabhojya. "Vata". useful in biliousness.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. :—Widely distributed. Goose-foot. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Laveni. :—Very common in the Deccan. Chanaka. G. See—Fruit Trees.) FAM. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). heart. LOC. COM. G. Sk. diuretic. Lavali. Country.. Chillika. Chandanbedu. LOC. Vajibhakshya. diseases of blood. vomiting. DISTR. Skandhaphala. Chakwat. COM. K. anthelmintic. urinary concretions. Harparrevdi. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Tanko. Chakravarti. useful in bronchitis.

Seed—stimulant. cure bronchitis. flatulence. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. useful in bronchitis. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. chest complaints. FAM. tonic . rectum and urinary diseases. indigenous and cultivated. :—W. enriches blood. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. biliousness. M. tonic to hair. improve taste and appetite. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. parched mouth. Bark—tonic. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. biliousness. heart. causes flatulence. blood troubles. pungent. COM. useful in hydrocele. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Lavange-hakke. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Peninsula. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. DISTR. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. etc. Seed—indigestible. H. headache. Leaves contain vitamin A. Oil—styptic.—Lauraceæ. itching. LOC. anthelmintic . vomiting. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. astringent to bowels . carminative. See—Food Plants. tonic. :—G. anthelmintic. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. :— Bark and oil. piles. aphrodisiac. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. useful in " Vata ". LOC. alexiteric. throat troubles. Burma. foul mouth and fever. indigestion. Malay Peninsula. expectorant. causes salivation. Oil—carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Dalchini. emmenagogue. It checks nausea and vomiting. abdominal pains. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. cures thirst and burning. cures skin diseases. leprosy. toothache. very common in the N. flatulence. heated brain. useful in loss of appetite. K. carminative. See—Condiments and Spices. cold in head. seed and acid exudation. useful in cold. bronchitis (Yunani). Dalchini.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. hiccup. tonic. bronchitis. Nisane. aphrodisiac. appetiser. causes flatulence. Duk. liver-tonic . vomiting. Kanara district. Valkala. useful in inflammations. LOC. Oils. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). pains . Leaves—purgative. Dalchini. abortifacient. Dalchini. Darchini. throat troubles. refrigerant. strengthens liver. PARTS USED. NS. . It possesses carminative. Gudatwaka. Kash. toothache (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. headache. Ceylon. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). thirst. diarrhœa. diarrhœa and dysentery.

Sk. yellowish. 7. CHAR. :—In hills.—Menispermaceæ. minute. young shoots woolly. LOC. LOC. hairy. Indraphal. peltate. R.— usually margined. subcampanulate. lobes obovateoblong. red. :—Deccan. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Sk.—Nov. Venivalli. Annual Report. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. long. Trapusi. Pavamekke Kayi.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. which possibly has a cholinergic action. FAM. Kaduvrindavan. Tumtikayi. sub-globose. margins ciliate. diam. Colocynth. cordate at the base. diarrhœa. helps parturition. COM. itching . M. :—An extensively climbing annual. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Pahadvel. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). orbicular or reniform.. fever. Fr. solitary. stem thick. :— E. Indrayana. flesh juicy. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers.-Jany. solitary. 1949). L. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. :—E. alleviates vomiting. mucronate.—A climbing shrub. Sd. 5-partite. Fl. (Ind. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. Nirbisi. Patha. PARTS USED :—Root. Africa and America. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. C. piles. somewhat hairy.—Cucurbitaceæ. Indrayan. removes intestinal worms. FL t. K. useful in hemicrania. asthma . destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". F. The active constituent of the drug. Fl. COM. burning. an alkaloid. Indrayan. . Indruk. Uthika. diam. Paharmul. NS. dropsy and cough. Velvet-leaf. has been isolated. HABITAT. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. G. yellow within. L. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. monœcious. 3. NS. upto 25 cm. red or yellowish white. Fl. DISTR. uterine complaints. smooth. or twin. female flowers in elongate. skin eruptions. greenish outside. heart troubles. branches more or less pubescent. removes pain.5-20 cm.. Ghorumba. Mahendravaruni. Venivel. Kanara. H. also for prolapsus uteri. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. drupe. Chitraphala. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed.8-10 cm. Makal. Bitter apple. subglobose. greenish. FAM. 5-nerved. angular . E.—large.e. t. tendrils bifid. H. axillary racemes . dysentery. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. compressed.—July-Sept. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . male flowers in axillary cymes. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. M. i. in conjunction with aromatics. Asso. waxy coated. CHAR. Katurasa. G. warm parts of Asia. leaves.

NS. useful in biliousness. tonic. bronchitis. K. leuco-derma. FAM. sweet and has agreeable flavour.—Rutaceæ. DISTR. removes biliousness. laxative. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. epilepsy. good in vomiting and skin diseases. Narangi. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. H. carminative. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). removes fatigue . relieves vomiting and retching. enlargement of spleen. Naringa. tuberculous glands of neck. Fruit—sour. anthelmintic . Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. with or without nux-vomica. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. In the Konkan fruit and root. Also indigenous in Arabia. ulcers. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. useful in piles. throat diseases. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. bowel complaints. anæmia. removes " Vata ". purgative. constipation. urinary discharges. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. ascites. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Ahmednagar and Khandesh).MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. (Poona. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). and lumbago. fortifies chest. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. enlargement of spleen. asthma. Naringi. :—Konkan. aphrodisiac . :— E. cooling. chest troubles. Narenj. aphrodisiac. jaundice. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Kirmirtvaka. COM. Rind— anthelmintic. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). astringent. pain in joints. tonic. Deccan. anthelmintic. M. Tvakasugandha. Sunthura. Sukkare-kanji. :—Widely cultivated in India. LOC. fever and worms. Kittale. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. LOC. N. antipyretic. LOC. Narange. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Asia. Cardiotonic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Flower— stimulant. " Kapha". elephantiasis . HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Santra. Nagaranga. sea-shores. cures tumours. W. Doddile. constipation. good in fevers. Ceylon. dyspepsia. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. Gujarat. LOC. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). Root and fruit cooling. diuretic. G. Sk. relieves colds.

the pulp cold and dry. flatulence. Mahalunga. leaves and flowers hot and dry. .66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. intoxication. NS. anasarca and chronic fever. Ruchaka. Idalimbu. :— E. K. Jambira. DoddaGaja-nimba. Fruit—sweet and sour. Matalunga. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. LOC. :—Citron rind is hot. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Turanj. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Amlakeshara. See—Fruit Trees. USES. cough. astringent to bowels . rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . said to be wild in W. Madala. Balank. removes colic. heating. NS. bark and fruit. cures leprosy. gastric irritability in general and general debility. fruits and seeds. COM. hiccup. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Matulunga. HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. digestible. B and C. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. Mahaphala. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Citron . Flowers—stimulant.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. oily. relieve vomiting. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. Mavalunga. M. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. useful in vomiting. Lemon . dry and tonic . the juice allays ear-ache. Kutla. Ghats. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Mahaphala. flowers. PARTS USED. tonic. aphrodisiac. asthma. Limonum. Bera nimbu. Mahanimbu. useful in abdominal complaints. thirst. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. Adam's apple. cough. COM. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. The fruits contain vitamins A. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". anthelmintic. Harale. VAR. tonic and astringent properties. stimulant. also corrects foetid breath. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. Seeds—indigestible. LOC. :—E. LOC. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. sharp. Thora-limbu. its preserve is used for dysentery. Bijaura.—Rutaceæ. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. asthma. Bijoru. anæmia. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. M. increase appetite. Matunga. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). jaundice. though there are no regular plantations. used in constipation and tumours. Devamadala. According to Theophrastus. juice refrigerant and astringent. Motalimbu . Rusaki. relieves sore-throat. K. with a sharp taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. seeds. :—Roots. rind of the fruit is bitter. Sk. G. Turanj. Paharinimbu . Bijapurna. H.

appetiser. Nimbu.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Kagadi limbu. t. PARTS USED :—Fruit. NS. it cures and prevents scurvy. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . CHAR. LOC. Morata. :—E. bronchitis . removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Morhari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. where there is dry skin and much thirst. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed.—petals O. heart. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites.Nov. sharp taste. constipation. Madhulika. stomachic.—achenes. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Lebu. improves liver. hairy outside. Morvel. stimulant . cures abodominal complaints. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. See—Fruit Trees. Sk. Fl. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. FAM. Lebu. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). whole plant tomentose.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. Oil from rind. G. VAR. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. anthelmintic. burning in the chest. K. it helps digestion. Acid-Sour lime . :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. :—An extensive climber. fatigue . Acida. C. Rochana. petioles twinning. relieves biliousness. sepals 4-6. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. white. leaves (rarely). lobes mucronate. M. scarletina. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. H. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. loss of appetite. :—G. Sk. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Fr. Murva. Limbu. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. long ovate or orbicular. not good in old age. Dhantiate. Nimbuka. Khatalimbu. plethora. ovoid. measles. COM. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. silky villous. Nimbu. Limpaka. vomiting. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. NS. Devashreni. blades 2-2. hemicrania. L. Moravel. eyes .MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Limbe. Snuva. Shodhana. H. relieves vomiting . Nimbe. but often found trailing amongst grass. Murhari.. with flavour. brain disorders. Fruit—sour. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes.—simple or once ternate. Churhar. throat trouble. K. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative.—Ranunculaceæ. Nebu. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. COM. . Ranjai. with long feathery tails .—Sept. Amlasara. also useful in rheumatism.

mixed with oil. blood diseases. laxative. stomachic. removes " Kapha". Tilparni. Phanjika. M. :—G.—Sept-June. Sk. hairy. Hulhul. K. :—G. Sk. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. DISTR. Bharangi. stimulant. veined. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. Vatari. Ghats. externally applied to boils. good in malaria. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. anthelmintic. useful in leprosy. FAM. hairy. dryness and urethral discharges. LOC. . Harhuria. and dispel intestinal fermentation. petioles of lower leaves longer. L. terminal the largest. bitter taste and a strong odour. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. high. :—W. hot. Kasaghni. Fr. Karnasphota.—axillary. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. yellow. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Sd. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. LOC. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. subglobose. K. COM. gradually becoming shorter upwards. used internally in thirst. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). COM. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints.—capsule. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda).—Verbenaceæ. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. causes excessive biliousness. FAM. Talvari. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. Juice— cures ear-ache. M. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Adityabhakta. Bharangi. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. astringent. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. Konkan. NS. Bharangi. and fevers. diuretic. Leaves—favour digestion. Fl. LOC. Nayibela. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Bharang.—Capparidaceæ. Brahmani. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. NS. Kanphodi. very common in the Deccan. oblong-obovate. C. Tinmani. H.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT.—3-5 foliate. Gantubarangi. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. obliquely striate. Barbara. Kanphutia. Sauri. erect. in lax racemes. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. tapering towards both ends . transversely striate. bitter. reduces tumours and inflammations .—petals 4. HABIT :—A common weed. stimulates secretion of bile. leaflets elliptic-oblong. :—Common in grass lands. laxative. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. 30-90 cm. stems grooved and glandular. CHAR. DISTR. H. :—Annual erect herb. cooling. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. t.—brownish black. Tilwan. Jangali-harhar. Fl. Kiritekki.

anthelmintic.3 cm. Kajli.9-2. CHAR. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. Wowatheti. lessens expectoration. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. flat.:—More or less throughout India. leaves and seeds. fevers. "Vata". high. The plant contains an alkaloid. Koyala. heating. There are two varieties :—white flowered.. showy. 12. LOC. solitary. useful in bronchitis. epilepsy.—axillary. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). biliousness. and blue flowered.—Shrub.—imparipinnate. Gokarnika. stems terete.—6-10 yellowish brown. collectively forming a terminal panicle.2 m. burning sensation. LOC.2 cm. :—G. fevers (Yunani). anthelmintic. elliptic oblong. acrid. useful in ascites (Yunani). Garani. LOC. sharply serrate.—many. long . PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. tuberculous glands. smooth. hiccup. Aparajita. elephantiasis. H. tube hairy within. good for eye-diseases. sometimes opposite. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. Fl. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. leaflets 5-7. Fl. Fl. also found throughout the State. Gokarni. HABITAT :—In hedges. laxative. stems bluntly quadrangular. ulcers of the cornea. hairy. with an orange centre. black. lower one deflexed. 0. inflammations. Fr. . in lax dichotomous cymes. 4 lobes flat. t— June-Jany.—much exerted. C. beaked.—ternately whorled. blood diseases. leaves and seeds.. Root is purgative and diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root.5-15 X 5. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. nearly straight. Malay Peninsula. oblong or elliptic.7-6. asthma. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. NS.—pale blue. pains. M. alexiteric. bronchitis. leucoderma. fleshy.— drupe. COM. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . cures "Tridosha".— Aug. headache. Fr.5 X 2-3. tubercular glands. K. consumption. standard bright blue or white.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. Kalina. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. Aparajita. ulcers (Ayurveda). tonic to the brain. Sk. pubescent. 2-2. C. L. Sd. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR.-Oct. diuretic. FAM.. Root increases appetite. useful in inflammation. Kowa.8-5 cm. inflammations. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. Girikarniballi. burning sensation. Girikarnika. Fl. Vishnukranta. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. DISTR. spreading. obovoid. 3. ozœna. t. Ceylon. tumours. DISTR. the larger lower lobe dark purple. asthma. :—A perennial twining herb.. L. wounds (Ayurveda).

COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. cures leprosy. Vevati. Garudi. Tondali. Bimba. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Parvel. diseases of blood. aphrodisiac. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. K. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Oshthi. asthma. Broom-creeper. Konkan. Tondeballi.:—Root cooling. Kanduri. Malaya. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Fruit is aphrodisiac. biliousness. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". HABITAT. PARTS USED :—Root. a hormone and an alkaloid. Bimbi. Ceylon. Ghobe. The plant contains an enzyme. Glum. Ink-berry. COCCINIA INDICA W. astringent to bowels.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). H. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. NS. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). given for uterine discharges. LOC. cause flatulence. Vasanvel. leaves. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Bimb. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. PROPERTIES AND USES. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Jamtikibel. DISTR :—Throughout India.—Menispermaceæ. " Vata". & A. burning of hands and feet. Vasandi. and jaundice. :—G. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. flowers. Flowers cure itching. USES:—In the Konkan. Hunder. COM.:—Cultivated in gardens. antipyretic . consumption. H. M. urinary losses.—E. G. Chireta. stops vomiting. COM. fruit. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). NS. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Gujarat. Faridburti. Dirghvalli. Tundika. FAM. LOC. allays thirst.) FAM. Tundi.—Cucurbitaceæ. . Vevdi. Leaves—acrid. wild in hedges. dried and powdered. Root bark. Galedu. Fruit— indigestible. Tana. Sk. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Kambhoja. K. Country. Vasantitikta. M. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. M. useful in ascites and fevers. Bimbika. See—Vegetables. Seeds are purgative and aperient. galactagogue. S. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Sk. tropical Africa. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Deccan.

:—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. LOC. India and Ceylon. Antipyretic. Narial. tonic. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. bark. seed. NS.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. keeled.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR.3-3. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. L. H. useful in biliousness. S. It is also used as a refrigerant. lessens bile and burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. lessens thirst. Narikel. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. Cocoanut palm.—dioecious. 2-8 together. Flower-cooling . fattening. LOC.:— A straggling scandent shrub. bronchitis. cardiotonic. young parts densely Villous. useful in diabetes. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). female in axillary clusters. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. K. enriches blood. flowers. Seed-cooling. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". Jataphala. with a few heads of pepper. Tengu. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Mangalya. fattening. indigestible. aphrodisiac.—drupe. aphrodisiac. Mad. constipation. Konkan. urinary discharges. laxative and sudorific. China. dysentery. appetiser. tumours. size of a small pea. . fermented juice. Sk. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . biliousness.—Palmæ.—Dec.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. tuberculosis. burning sensation. In the Konkan. good in fractures. Fr.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. rugose . useful in leprosy. tonic. and put on to sore-eyelids.3 X 1. Kanara. Deccan. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Toyagarbha. Mahaphala. it is used for coughs. India. smells sweetish and pungent. laxative. Tenginmara. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. Nalivar. laxative. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. t. causes "Kapha". oil. Gujarat.8 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. ovate-oblong. subdeltoid or subhastate. alexipharmic . USES :—A decoction of fresh root. Milk—cooling. Fl. it is heating. 3-5 nerved. Common in Konkan and N. Fl.. Leaf-juice. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. oleaginous. S. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. also in many places in the interior. M. Naral. LOC. DISTR. thirst.8-6. ovate. Arabia. as a cure for gonorrhœa. FAM. DISTR. G. mixed with water. Pegu. COM. blood diseases. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). which is taken internally with sugar. "Kapha" and "Vata". tropical Africa.—3. villous . COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. HABITAT :—In hedges. Nariyal. aphrodisiac.

5-5 cm. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. Malaya. spinously serrate margins. Kasai. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. lessens inflammations . Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). fattening. Gurlu . Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. polished. B and C. HABITAT :—Gregarious. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. piles . Ran-jondhala.. Gojivha. See—Fruit Trees. Madhya Bharat. consumption. LOC. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . strengthening and agreeable vegetable. smooth.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. DISTR. rooting at the lower nodes. increases body weight. notched at the nodes . Fl. smooth. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. Sk. polished. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. It is also used for burns. H. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). It is refreshing and laxative. stout. promotes hairgrowth. fermented juice is intoxicating. tonic. Fr. Dabha.—monœcious racemes 2. diuretic . Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. useful in lumbar-pain. Japan. liver complaints. :—A tall leafy grass. useful in urinary complaints. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . high or more. bluish grey. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body.—Gramineæ COM. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Gavedhu. piles and scabies (Yunani. Rajputana. Madhya Pradesh. America. Fibres. India. long. sheaths long.—broadly ovoid to globose. incipient phthisis and cachexia. it also purifies blood. CHAR. LOC. bronchitis. Oils. asthma. paralysis. S. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. :—Himalayas. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. internodes smooth. FAM. diuretic.—10-15 x 2. Job's tears. long. Oil—indigestible. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds.—Oct. abundant in standing water. G. Assam. 6. L. above the bract stout. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. enriches blood. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. NS. stem 90-150 cm. tropical Asia-Africa. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Bark good for teeth and in scabies.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. useful in fever. :—E. ulcers (Ayurveda). China. Fl. it promotes growth of hair.5-6. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). LOC. Polynesia. M. Jargadi.3 cm. Bengal. rachis within the bract slender. midrib stout. base cordate. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm.6-10 mm. Oil—sweet.

Patta. COM. Bhuselu. Sebesten plum. laxative. M. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier.—in short cymes. Fl. G. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. Bhukerbudara. 12 mm. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice.—petals 4-5. lanceolate.2 cm. L. Challa. K. Chaunchan . cultivated in most tropical countries. C. carminative. anthelmintic. Pistan. acute or acuminate. The plant contains leucin. Rayagundo. t. M. :—E. Fr. H. and intestinal antiseptic. FAM. Gujarat. COM. NS. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. buds obovoid. G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. also as antiperiodic. Bargund. Sk. wedgeshaped. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. yellow. fever. NS. and dyspepsia. growing very tall under cultivation. lysin.—7. subglobose. 5-valved. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. Lassora.— capsule. Mannadike. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Bhokar. In jutegrowing districts. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion.—Boraginaceæ. Bhokar. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. :—Konkan. arginine and coicin. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. LOC.—few in each cell. ridged and muricated. serrate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . FAM. Fl. tyrosin. stomachic.— Sept. Sd. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Resalla. histidin. CHAR. Gondan. See—Fibres. Kalasaka.—Tiliaceæ. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. leaves and fruit.:—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. not beaked. smooth. Hadige. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. brown. :—An annual herb. PARTS USED :—Root. Jute . lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages .5-10 X 2-3. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Col. DISTR. Chhunchh . diam. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. astringent. It is also used as a bitter tonic. See—Fodder Plants. Sk. .

The plant and fruit— acrid. DISTR. diseases of chest. stomatitis. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Fruit is aromatic. indigestion. dyspepsia. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). :—Cultivated throughout India. diuretic. Fruit—diuretic. inflammations. Kustumburi. tonic to brain. gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. maturant. cures thirst. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. jaundice. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Ceylon. analgesic. vomiting. eye-pains. Konphir. Fibres. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache.:—Throughout the State in W. Mesapotamia and Greece. NS. burning of throat. tropical Australia. useful in hiccup. Fruits are used as spice. purgative. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. carminative and antispasmodic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. used in syphilis. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. removes bad humours. M. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. stimulant. Vitunnaka. antipyretic. laxative. PARTS USED :—Bark. scabies. Kothamir. bronchitis. Kothimbir. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. Kanara. Ghats. DISTR. Satpudas. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. . G. Sk. LOC. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stomachic. Dhania. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Coriander. uterus and urethra. Cochin-China. cooling. Seeds—aphrodisiac. vulnerary. Kothambri. bleeding gums. LOC. widely known from Palestine. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. diseases of chest and urethra. thirst. Egypt. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. pains in joints. gives appetite. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). See—Timbers. used in dry cough. tooth-ache. anthelmintic. bechic. biliousness. Allaka. wild and cultivated. stimulant. also cultivated. Hivija. anthelmintic. FAM. tuberculous glands. biliousness. headache. :—Throughout India.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Dharika. LOC. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. COM. Leaves—hypnotic. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Bark is used as a mild tonic. K.—Umbelliferæ. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. often planted. used as an expectorant and astringent. highly esteemed in coughs. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. chronic fevers. causes suppuration. aphrodisiac. expectorant. H. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. heart and liver.:—E. Syria. leaves (rarely) and fruit. LOC.

7 m. See—Condiments and Spices. coughs and skin diseases.— tube short. depurative. " Kapha". mucronate. LOC. C. Varuna. M. and aphrodisiac. Pushkarmula. Ceylon. Kushtha. crisped. Madhya Bharat. India. Changalkashta. hiccup (Ayurveda). Keu. DISTR. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. By the earliest writers. Sk.:—Konkan ghats. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. L. H. Malay Islands. Fl.—capsule. :—An erect plant 1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Fr. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. CHAR. NS. Hadawarna. globosely 3-gonous. FAM. Kumaraka. Kashmira. silky-pubescent beneath. lip white with yellow centre. Kemuka. inflammations. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Penva. :—More or less throughout India. Pinga. Varno. M. Pakarmula. Varuna. China. oblong. lumbago. and " Vata". It is also astringent and digestive. dyspepsia. Vayavarna. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. Bitusi. useful in catarrhal fevers. PARTS USED:—Root. a tonic is prepared from it. nalas. LOC. rheumatism. H. bright red. Varvunna.-Oct. Ajapa. NS. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Sd. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Country. FAM. Chikke. red. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Karikuttu. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Pushkarmula. lobes ovate-oblong. S. The plant yields an essential oil. K. subsessile. K. stem sub-woody at the base . . LOC. Bilpatri. Castle Rock. Var.7-7. COM. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Sk.—Aug.— black with white aril. M. Biliana. DISTR.—15-30 X 5. fever. Khandala. Shura. Kust.5 cm. in moist and shady places. Var.—Capparidaceæ. :—G. many. spirally arranged. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . high. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. :—Almost all over India (Assam. subequal. Vayavarno.— in very dense spikes. Barna.—Scitamineæ. COM. concave. anæmia. Fl. bracts ovate. :—G. also planted near Muslim tombs. useful in bronchitis.2-2. S. Mahakapittha. sheaths coriaceous . root-stock tuberous. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Nervele.

. Seeds—purgative. as long as the tube.5-10 cm. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. K. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Kanmu. Patra-pushpi. anuria. flat. scape 45-90 cm. laxative. linear. The plant contains saponin. linear lanceolate. Wild or cultivated. tuberculous glands. DISTR. emmenagogue. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). Chindar. useful in biliousness. urinary concretions.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. LOC.—20-30. act as rubefacient and vesicant. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). thin. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tumours. carminative. detergent. bitter. FAM. strangury. Fr. laxative. long. Nagdavana. antilithic. cylindric.. with a sheathing base.—Amaryllidaceæ. it promotes appetite. expectorant. also wild. Visha-Mandalamardini. Nag-damani. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. perianth tube greenish-white. leaves. Fl. good in strangury. Nag-damani. flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. found wild in North and South Konkan. diuretic. aphrodisiac. antipyretic. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. beaked.—15-50 in an umbel.. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Sd. L. diam.5-18 cm. chest. white. COM. Tonic. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. CHAR. 0. laxative. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. diseases of vagina. anthelmintic. lobes 6. Ceylon. urinary discharges. H. gonorrhœa. useful in bronchitis. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. leaves. Vishamungalli. heating. vomiting. NS. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. Nagadown. and seeds. Kanwal. lumbago. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). bark. Sk.—1 (rarely 2). Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. PARTS USED :—Root. bracts 7. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. then sweet. vesicant. increases secretion of bile.5 cm. :—Throughout tropical India. "Pitta" and "Kapha". night-blindness. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. :—A herb with tunicated bulb.—subglobose. M. USES:—Root is alterative. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs.9-1. bright green. bulb 5-10 cm. digestive. removes "Vata".:—G. Pindar. Kanda-shalini. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. Bark promotes appetite. expectorant. vulnerary. lung and spleen diseases. stomachic. defective vision. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . fragrant at night. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. toothache. bechic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. LOC. X 12. chest and blood diseases.

carminative. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. G. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Kanara. etc. Chota-Natpur. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. LOC. Nepala . Oil cathartic. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). excessive phlegm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Jepal. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. K. Western Peninsula. naturalised or cultivated.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ceylon. H. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. As an application to sprains. See—Timbers. Bhutankusam. Madhya Pradesh. :—Sylhet. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous.—Euphorbiaceæ. near Junnar (Poona Dist). in small doses. Ganasur. The plant contains lycorin. Jayapala. :—Naturalised in S. leaves and seeds. bronchitis (Ayurveda). In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. COM. :—E. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. Ieucoderma. bark. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. M. inflammations. :—Rare in the State. abdominal diseases. DISTR. Oil from the seed is purgative. nauseant and diaphoretic. emetic. China. Jamalgota . tonic. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. :—H. insanity. DISTR. Konkan. Danti. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. FAM. FAM. cathartic. See—Ornamental Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Bengal. Sk. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative.. Seeds cause burning sensation. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Danti. NS. :—Bengal. expectorant. Burma. COM. NS. Jamalgota. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Chucka . Japala. it is in great request. . CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. convulsions. fever. Ceylon . good in sore eyes. LOC. Burma. bruises and rheumatic swellings. PARTS USED :—Root. Purging croton . Sk. Nepala. Malay Islands. useful in mental troubles. Assam to Malacca. M. Nepal.

Tarkakadi. cooling. gives headache. COM. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. Seeds—lachrymatory. laxative. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Vrittervaru. H. They are edible. PARTS USED :—Root. Lomashi. FAM. Sk. galactagogue. nutritive and diuretic. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Said to be truly wild in India. Karkati. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Kakadi. insanity. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. NS. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. DISTR. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Shantanu. Kakri. fruit and seeds. biliousness. diuretic. M. ascites. thirst (Yunani). G. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ascites. may cause indigestion. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. COM. See—Timbers. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. in ascites and anasarca. urinary discharges. cures " Vata ". :—G. allays fatigue. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. used in liver and kidney troubles. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. insanity. Mutrala. convulsions. Kankadi. C. oily. dropsy. . Fruit—tonic. DISTR. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Chibdu Shakarteti. Kharbuja. bronchitis. wholesome. It is useful in apoplexy. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. K. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. obstinate constipation. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. brain and body.:—E. It is given internally with great caution. &c. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. LOC. Pathira . Kharbuja. Shadrekha. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. colic. aphrodisiac. H. tonic. Valungi. chronic fever. diuretic. cures ophthalmia. M. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Kakni. Sk. Melon. Karkali. strengthens heart. Mahanaracha Rasa. diaphoretic. Kharbuja. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. Ripe fruit—sweet. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Chibuda. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Kachra. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Kalangida. NS. synovitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Rind—vulnerary. laxative. and lock-jaw.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. LOC. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. :—In Deccan. Sweet melon .—Cucurbitaceæ. MELO Var. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. Valaka. fattening. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season.

used in thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stem slender. Karit. Cultivated in all parts of India. Chitravalli.—subglobose or ellipsoid. . The fruit contains traces of vitamins A.—monœcious . astringent. angled. India is considered to be the original home. Fl. Seed oil used in fever. Fl. t.—yellow segments elliptic. Sd.—June-Sept. Fr. margined .:—E. Seeds possess cooling properties. biliousness. are administered in throat affections. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Mrigadani. FAM. COM. Sk. Cucumber. See—Vegetables. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. Tansali. melo var. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. Sk. Fruit—fattening . roasted and powdered. Yunani). Kakdi. B. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. lobes obovate. Kothiban. PARTS USED :—Leaves. utilissimus (Ayurveda. purgative. See-Fruit Trees. M. C. DISTR. Takamaki. Seeds—diuretic. hairy. dry. Khira. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. strangury. H. LOC. K.—Cucurbitaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. :—G. Santekayi. and C. tendrils simple.— suborbicular. fatigue. Sushitala. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. allay thirst.—white. female peduncle longer than male. Sudhavsa. FAM. L. NS. male in clusters. LOC. Kumbhakshi. rigid. H. cures thirst. COM. G. Vishala. fever. improve complexion. They are nutritive. LOC. Trapusha. Khira. Hislambhi. CHAR. pulp bitter. with 10 green longitudinal stripes.:—N. causes "Vata". deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). antipyretic. Kankdi. cures biliousness. Ripe one tonic. cooling. enrich blood. fruits. NS. :—A perennial climber. Kakari.—Cucurbitaceæ. Tavasa. diuretic. lobulate or dentate . seeds. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. cordate at the base. they are also used as diuretic. M. pale yellow when ripe. indigestible. stomachic. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. good for brain and body. "Kapha" and flatulence. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda).

PARTS USED :—Root. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. LOC. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Kushmand. on hedges. H. Vegetable marrow. N. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. See—Vegetables. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. G. Afghanistan. COM. cultivated in many parts of India. Bhopala. USES. K. allays thirst. Dangari. K.:—Considered to be a native of America. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. increases " Vata ". Malaya. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Ceylon. DISTR. NS. Kumra. Koron. :—Throughout the greater part of India. cures cough. LOC. tonic. Pumpkin. Karkarn. Dried fruit indigestible . : — E. :—E. Sk. Kushmand. Safedkaddu . indigestible. Kumbala.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. Seeds are used as taeniacide. DISTR. B and C. Dudia. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. H. COM. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Pitakushmand. LOC. Iran. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. FAM. Kaddu. FAM . NS. M. Tambda bhopala. Kashiphala. Australia. improves taste (Ayurveda).—Cucurbitaceæ. etc. Melon pumpkin.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. fruits and seeds. :—Cultivated. In Malabar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. G. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. carbuncles. Mithakaddu. . in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Punyalata. The plant contains glucoside saponin. LOC. M.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. DISTR. Fruit contains vitamins A. increases " Vata" . CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. HABITAT. Sk. Red squash gourd. fruit is used to prevent insanity.—Cucurbitaceæ. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Kadimah. Kumbala. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. stomachic. unhealthy ulcers. astringent to bowels .

cures haemoptysis. See—Condiments and Spices. tonic. NS. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Kalimusali. Gaurajerka. thirst. M. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. fruit and seeds. Kalimusali. analgesic. haematinic. relieves hiccup. Sk. cure haemoptysis. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. astringent. Mushalikand . H. COM. Dirghaka. aphrodisiac. tonic. FAM. Musali. bronchitis. cures leprosy. LOC. Jirige. carminative. H. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. G. K. ft contains vitamins A and C. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Fruit—very cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. inflammations. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. cooling. Cures " Vata " tumours. FAM. astringent to bowels. scabies. antidysenteric. throat and eyes. Ajjika. eye-diseases. leucoderma. fever. LOC. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. Leaves—digestible. sweet. allays thirst. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. heals corneal opacities. fattening. Fruit astringent. Dipaka. good for teeth. . fever. asthma. Seeds anthelmintic. Neladati. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. :—E. Kapha " and " Vata ". Jira. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. carminative. K. gonorrhœa. remove biliousness. Zira. ulcers. Talamulika. Kalimusali. alexipharmic. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. Seeds are taeniacide. stops epistaxis . fatigue. Girautmi. Seeds—diuretic. COM. Sk. Jiru. M. :—G. abortifacient. also a lactagogue. DISTR.—Umbelliferæ. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. beneficial in consumption. emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. vulnerary. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). Cumin. NS. and the root for making these more potent. astringent to bowels. leprosy. appetiser. carminative. Jire. tonic to intestine. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. uterine stimulant. diuretic and demulcent. increases appetite .—Amaryllidaceæ. biliousness. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Fruit. See—Vegetables. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. belching . antipyretic. Fruit yields an essential oil. enlargment of the spleen. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). Neltati gadde. laxative. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. purifies blood (Ayurveda). In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox.

:—Bengal. scape. appetising. often cultivated. appetiser. Sk. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. Kapurahaldi. Kanara.:—W. Peninsula. Amragandha. CHAR. black. indigestion. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Malay Archipelago. expectorant. bronchitis. oblong. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . W. piles. :—Konkan and Gujarat. causes "Vata". Fr. troubles in the mouth and ear. during convalescence after acute illness. Ambahaldi.—capsule. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds.—long petioled in tufts. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. rhizome.— in racemes. aphrodisiac. asthma. fatigue. Fl. yellow. clavate . gonorrhœa. antipyretic. Bengal..—grooved. Fl.— in autumnal spikes 7. alterative and tonic. appetiser. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. " Vata". M. all skin-diseases. alexiteric. hydrophobia. diarrhœa. FAM. Karpuraharidra. fattening. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . bitter. colic. biliousness. Ambehalad. aphrodisiac. emollient.5-12. Mango-ginger. H. t. Java. oblong lanceolate. laxative. debility and impotence. tips sometimes rooting. inflammations (Ayurveda). gleet. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. pains in joints (Yunani).8-5 cm. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. scabies. L. cooling. root stock large. Fl. COM. Sd. DISTR. LOC. shining .—Scitamineæ. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. C—white or very pale-yellow. 30-45x7. 1545 X 1. flowering bract greenish-white.:—Sweet. t. DISTR. Root—carminative. gonorrhœa. :—E. diarrhœa. ulcers on penis. LOC. sessile. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. K. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. gleet. pale yellow inside . distichous. G. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. perianth segments elliptic. ophthalmia. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. LOC. jaundice. hairy on the back. Bitter. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. maturant. tubers thick.5 cm.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. hiccup. useful in biliousness. linear or linear-lanceolate . common at the beginning of rains. lumbago.5-15 X 3. Peninsula.-Sept. diuretic. vomiting.5 cm. stomatitis (Yunani). Amhaladi. with a beak . . :—A small herb.3-2. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Assam. cylindric or ellipsoid.—sessile or petiolate. Fl. NS. lumbago. antipyretic. useful in bronchitis. very short. oblong. :—Stemless herb. useful in piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. L. :—Konkan and N. useful in inflammations.— May-June. Ambahaladara. alterative.

DISTR. K. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Fl. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. in spikes 15-30 cm. L. Banhaladi. green. NS. Sholi. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. FAM. :—E. C. FAM. lobes pale-rose. M. Halada. variegated above. lateral lobes oblong. Bengal. Sholika. Mangalya. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Vanhaldara. LOC. LOC. Also cultivated in Konkan. NS. Sometimes cultivated. See—Condiments and Spices. flowering bracts cymbiform.—tube 2. COM. palmately branched. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. H. forming pouches for the flowers. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Fl. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. upper half funnel-shaped.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. sessile. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. long. the dorsal longer. Harita. Vanarishta. Yellow Zedoary. Arishina. base deltoid. it is seldom used alone . DISTR. appearing before leafing stem. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. biennial. flowers fragrant. G. 3lobed. Jayanti. COM. used as an application for skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Sk. root-stock large. oblong elliptic or lanceolate.—Scitamineæ. lip yellow. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. Banharidra. Ran-halad. sometimes cultivated. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. :—Stemless herb. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Aranyaharidra. :—Western Peninsula. Kapur-kachali. Sk. appetiser .. . Halad. long. Halad.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. :—E. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. G. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. rounded at the tips. Haridra. Varnadatri. pale green.—Scitamineæ. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest.— flowering stem sheathed.-May. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). CHAR. M. t. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. It is considered tonic and carminative. also stomachic. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Indian saffron. Turmeric. annulate.

blood diseases. H. fragrant. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . Shathi. bruises (Yunani). odour like camphor. Fr. oblong-lanceolate. annulate tubers. lobed . Fl. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. C. See—Condiments and Spices. . urinary discharges. clouded with purple down the middle. oblong. bitter. said to be Wild in E. cylindric. appearing before the leaves. :—Stemless herb. Kachuri. COM. lip 3-lobed. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. laxative.—capsule. clothed with sheaths. scabies. Sk. urinary discharges. Kachora. flowers yellow in spikes. emollient. M. deepyellow. CHAR. useful in " Kapha". externally applied to leech-bites. fumes are used during hysteric fits .—Scitamineæ. Bitter. anthelmintic. maturant. boils. Hakhir. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. alexiteric. :—Cultivated in the State. 30-60 cm. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. DISTR. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. vulnerary. Karechura. bruises. G. Kachari. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. "Vata ".:—E. Narakachora. Jatala. alexiteric. long. Tuber is used as a stimulant. antipyretic. Kachora. long. and yields an essential oil. pale-yellow inside. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. bruises. FAM . root-stock of palmately branched. LOC. bitter. carminative.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. It contains vitamin A. NS. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. leucoderma. K. 3-gonous. In small-pox and chicken-pox. LOC. appetiser. small-pox. piles. The plant contains curcumin. L. heating. Himalayas and Chittagong. bronchitis. coma-bract crimson or purple . good for liver affections.—4-6 with long petioles.—funnel shaped. an alkaloid. internally administered in blood disorders. scabies. Gandhamulaka sara. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. asthma. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. taste bitterish spicy. heating. swellings. useful in leucoderma. diuretic. vulnerary. inflammations. itches etc. tonic. destroys foulness of breath. Zedoary. sprains (Ayurveda). Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils.— flowering stem 20-25cm. In coryza. improves complexion. flowering bract green tinged with red . It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. used in prurigo. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. anthelmintic. jaundice. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. HABITAT :—Cultivated. boils and urticaria.

epileptic fits. midrib whitish on the upper side. gastric irritability. Gandhatrina. LOC. Majjige hullu. pains. also used as a tonic and depurative.—Gramineæ. K. :—A tall perennial. good odour. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. laxative. others narrow and separating. long. furunculosis. H. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. tuberculous glands of neck. aphrodisiac. It is also aromatic. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. glaucous green. carminative. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. chronic rheumatism. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. L. enlargement of spleen. Lilicha. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. sprains. bitter. FAM. emmenagogue. Lemon grass. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Leaves. M. nodding. Takratrina. sharp. G. leprosy. COM. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion.—linear tapering upwards to a point. NS. alexipharmic. . Putigandha. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. applied to bruises and sprains. of much use in typhoid fevers. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. LOC. sheaths terete . neuralgia. up to over 1. long. Tubers yield an essential oil. hot. carminative. sharp hot taste. culm stout. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. Ligule very short.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. tonic to brain and heart. erect. and other painful affections. high. It is an excellent stomachic to children. Bitter. Externally it is rubefacient. it is also a good application for ringworm. and is of great value in cholera. toothache (Yunani). CHAR. inflammations. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. velvety at the nodes. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. alexipharmic. useful in bronchitis. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. LOC. it is stimulant. DISTR. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. Bhustrina. probably of Indian origin. Purhati hullu. stimulant and carminative. Gavati-chaha.. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood.8 m. sheaths of the culm tight. Sk. upto over 90 cm.:—E. appetiser. useful in griping of children.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. emetic. laxative.

Roshagavat. widely creeping. leprosy. Mangala. NS. CHAR. stem. smooth.5-2. prostrate . Durva. Rhusghas. H. :—Sourashtra. sweet. margins scabrid. Dhro. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. M. upto 2. Shyamaka. Konkan. DISTR. Baluchistan. skin . M. H.—Oct. See-Oils. bitter.t. epileptic fits. Deccan. Ghats. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. Rohisha. long. Kobbar. t. hallucinations. W. Vasanchullu. green or purplish. Afghanistan. burning sensation. G. with erect flowering branches 7. DISTR. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. carminative. COM.—2-10 cm.—flat. S. Sind..000 m. vomiting. thirst. Durva. Mirchiagand. Dhoboghas. cooling. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. 12-18 mm. K. most warm countries. Bahuvirya. NS. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. through N. wide below. Gharo.—throughout the year. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. leafy. COM. slender. :—A perennial grass . pains. FAM.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf.—Gramineæ. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. high. Fr. fatigue. bad taste in the mouth. L. long.5-30 cm. 1. Durba.3 cm. particularly the Deccan trap areas. Africa to Morocco. long. straw coloured. Burma. oblique or divaricate.—Gramineæ.5-5 cm. Sk. Rohisha. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Garikehallu. leprosy. Fl. scabies. heart diseases. narrowly linear.:—Grows all over the State. useful in biliousness. CHAR. glaucous beneath. Bujina. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. :—E. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). stem. Harali.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. Sk. Bhutika. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. :—Punjab. M. LOC. long. Geramium grass. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. sheaths tight. 1 mm. Shatagranthi. throat troubles. :—Cosmopolitan . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Country. finely acute. FAM. useful in fevers. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. K.—spikes 2-nate. usually broad. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. G. Roshdo. high. soft. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Gujarat. Saugandhika. :—E. throughout India. LOC.4 m.-Nov. Fl. X 1 cm. L. subcordate or rounded at the base. forming matted tufts. Fl. in the Himalayas.—grain. Shatamula. bronchitis. pungent.

fevers.—Cyperaceæ. Bimbal. See—Fodder Plants. Root— diuretic. stomachic. biliousness. They are also diuretic and stimulant. fever. Ceylon. epilepsy and insanity. LOC. Bitterish. greyish black. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. vulnerary. K. expectorant. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. blood diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. dysentery. most hot countries. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.. anthelmintic. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. fever. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels.82. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. thirst. erysipelas. t. Motha. very troublesome weed. Fl. epistaxis. Mustaka. acrid. epilepsy. Kachhola. LOC. astringent. useful for ulcers and sores. Nagarmotha. :—G. difficult to eradicate.—Sept-Nov. NS. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. 0. CHAR. juice is used in hysteria. pain. Sk Bhadramusta. blood diseases. :—Glabrous herb. emmenagogue. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Mutha. burning sensation. vomiting. anthelmintic. L. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. dyspepsia. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. Motha. PARTS USED :—Tubers. diarrhœa. H. narrowly linear. spikelets 10-50 flowered. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. stomatitis. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. trigonous. Fl. In Ceylon. cooling. Sugandhi-granthila. Nut—broadly ovoid.— in simple or compound umbel. FAM. DISTR. LOC. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. erysipelas (Ayurveda). it is diuretic. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever.5 cm. ophthalmia. Granthi. appetiser. Motha. stolons elongate. M. COM. vulnerary. bruises. pruritis. Koranarigadde. diaphoretic. USES :—Roots are commonly. epistaxis (Ayurveda). Tubers yield an essential oil. urinary concretions (Yunani). diarrhœa. .. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. dysentery. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. hiccup (Yunani). :—Throughout India. biliousness. useful in leprosy. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. useful in vomiting. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm.—shorter or longer than the stem. Tungegaddo.

H. Fr. M.g. Fr. . It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. velvety pubescent beneath. Kaladhatura. glabrous above.5 cm. soft spiny. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued.—7.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. M. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. Black-Purple datura. M.-Jany. Fl. Ceylon. on curved stalk 3. and sub-involution of the uterus.—Asclepiadaceæ. a glucoside. Phalakantak. CHAR. Gujarat. subglobose. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. has been isolated and its mode of action studied.—purple outside. Sd. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. Fl. covered with straight sharp prickles. NS. somewhat zigzag. double. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. Fl. L.5-15 X 3.5 cm.. corona outer and inner. Sk. t. divaricately branched. LOC. t. COM. CHAR. FAM. K: Dhattura. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. usually pubescent. Rajdhattura. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . e. DISTR.2-7.—Sept-Dec.—follicle. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. long. :—H. diam. yellowish brown. paralytic ileus. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. solitary.—Aug. Country. :—A perennial twining herb. entire or with large teeth or lobes. HABIT :—A common weed. afterwards racemose. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. FAM. beak long. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". stem hairy. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. high. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. Sd. Utarni.—Solanaceæ. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. acute. Kala-dhotara. Bhranta. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. inner curved high over the staminal column. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). lobes spreading. packed. Administered after the third stage of labour. PROPERTIES AND LOC. S. Utran. very unequal at the base.:—E. Kanaka.—thin. C. across. reflexed. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. LOC. 30-60 cm. greenish-yellow or dull-white. G. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Kariyu-Um-Matta.—capsule. outer truncate. COM. spur acute. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain).2 cm. white inside. :—Deccan. ciliate.— tubular. Kanaka. Sk. Ns. Fl. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. nodding. ovate. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. long 10-20. 18 cm. tubular. green. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Kaladhatura. L. Unmatta. :—Annual shrub.—many. funnel-shapped.

Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. relieves pain. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. alexiteric. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. :—E. Seeds—narcotic. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Leaf-juice is given internally. ulcers. Sk. and antispasmodic properties. PARTS USED :—Roots. GranthiPinda-Mula. LOC. DISTR. febrifuge. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. USES :—Out of the two varieties. piles. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. PARTS USED :—Root. nosetrouble. nodes. heating. black variety is considered to be more powerful. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. in gonorrhœa. anthelminitic . Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. Gajar. enlargement of testicles and boils. bitter.—Umbelliferæ COM. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. The whole plant is narcotic. jaundice. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. digestive and heating. headache. Gajjari. LOC. chronic coughs. black (Kala) and white (Safed). HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. equal in effect to atropine. ganja.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Cultivated in many parts of India. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. mumps etc. Shikkikanda. anodyne. Europe.. The plant as a whole has narcotic. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. . Gajar. emetic. bronchitis. toxic. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. cause headache (Yunani). emetic. leaves and seeds. G. painful tumours. with curdled milk. febrifuge. anthelmintic. Carrot. biliousness. Garjara. Gajar. tonic. NS. toddy. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. K. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. to increase their stupefying effect. useful in leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. in combination with subja. FAM. M. (Ayurveda). :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. aphrodisiac. Leaf poultice. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. leaves and seeds. majum. :—Throughout the tropics. Gajra. skin-diseases.

Salwan. stems and branches angled. cough. cures leprosy. urinary discharges. Kanara . inflammations. Salparni. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. chest troubles. It is used in fevers. Dirghamula.—in terminal or axillary racemes.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite.—May-July. DISTR. astringent to bowels. piles. asthma. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. astringent to bowels. indigestible. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. other fevers. they produce a spirituous liquor. tonic. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda).6-1. CHAR. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. good for inflammation. Root marmalade is refrigerant. used in bronchitis. Tonic. pains. LOC. green and glabrous above. Salpan. :—Konkan and N. cures typhoid. thirst. See—Vegetables. vomiting. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). carminative. " Vata". China. thirst. tumours. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. :— G. Salpani. throughout India. K. 0. boiled with honey and fermented. tropical Africa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. nausea (Yunani). hooked hairy. removes " Kapha". Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. sub-falcate.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). alterative. Roots contain vitamins A. margins wavy. good for liver. hairy.2 m. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. fattening. expectorant. paler and hairy beneath. LOC. vomiting. M. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . stomachic. C—violet or white. anthelmintic. NS. alexipharmic. Fr. Darh. aphrodisiac. membranous. . upper edge straight. FAM. piles.. t. joints 6-8. Malay Peninsula and Islands . Fl. urinary complaints. hiccup. Salwan. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. B and C. asthma.—pod. cures biliousness. L. Fl. standard cuneate at the base . USES :—Externally. biliousness. useful in chronic fevers. antidysenteric. Country. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). diuretic. high. biliousness. Vidarigandha. Deccan and S. PARTS USED :—Root. :—A woody undershrub. prevents death of fœtus in womb . Murele-honne. ovate-oblong. burning sensation. LOC. Ranbhal. M. Burma. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. chronic affections of chest and lungs. Ceylon. vomiting and asthma. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. COM. they are also diuretic. Sk. aphrodisiac. Philippines.—onefoliate. cardiotonic. H. bronchitis. Salwan. Shaliparni. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. " Tridosha ". lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Kitavinashini. dysentery .

skin eruptions. covered with shining sheaths. t. Konkan. LOC. diseases of blood. strangury.:—Saurashtra. Wood cures biliousness. H. Temburni. M. Fl. Dab. rootstock stout. COM. :—Throughout India. creeping. cooling. interrupted. stout. Zeeberwo. Riber ebony. astringent to bowels. Makurkendi. Dabha. Banda. asthma. Tumari. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. margins hispid. useful in blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Wood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Flowers—aphrodisiac. LOC. Kalaskandh. Davoli. the basal fascicled. oleaginous. :—Along the coasts of N. LOC. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Tendu. H. stems 30-90 cm. Fruit—oleaginous. Ceylon. Gale. NS. M. biliousness.8 cm. sheaths glabrous. long.. diseases of bladder. Nubia. vomiting. diuretic. Gujarat. Anilsara. Egypt. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Tumaki Mara. :—E. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). vaginal discharges.) FAM. fruit and seeds. DISTR. reaching 50 cm. branches short crowded. See—Fodder Plants. vesical calculi. in the beds of rivers and streams. clothed with sessile spikelets. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. Sk. sedative to pregnant uterus. NS. Sphurjaka. G. erect pyramidal or columnar. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. erect. Wild mangosteen. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. jaundice.—Gramineæ. Darbha. Darbha.—G. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. high. Timbwini. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. stolon very stout. rigid. Sacred Plants. Durva. flowers. aphrodisiac. CHAR. heating. cures ulcers and " Vata". thirst. Thailand (Siam). Pavitra. tufted.—Ebenaceæ. COM. ligule a hairy line . K. . Malay Archipelago. -panicle 15-45 X 1. FAM. Kalatendu. Gavandu.—Dec.3-3. :—Perennial tall grass. L. smooth. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Kusha. branched from the base. Tinduka. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. Syria. Kanara and the Konkan.—many. bark. good for lumbago. Fl. DISTR.

FAM. ovate. enlargement of spleen.Gahat. antipyretic. G. Kulathi.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. variously lobed. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). causes biliousness (Yunani). stout. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. cures " Kapha". base decurrent on the stipe. inflammation. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. strangury. :—Rhizome creeping. :—Tropics of the old world. hot. piles. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. removes stone from kidney. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. ozoena. tumours. Nasik. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. Sk. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Konkan— Ratnagiri. short. emmenagogue. Basingh. Kulit. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. grown to a certain extent in S. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Sk. cures hiccup. Ashvakatri. M. Kalvrinta. . Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. NS. DISTR. Horse-Gram. Country—Belgaum. acrid. LOC. generally on trees and rocks. fattening.—Polypodiaceæ. piles. Diuretic. Kulthi. Kulitha. M. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. PARTS USED :—Seeds. "Vata". intestinal colic. Grains contain vitamin A. coughs etc. hiccup. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. K. Tans. Kulith. Surfaces naked. abdominal complaints. urinary discharges. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). green when very young but soon turning dark brown. liver troubles. Texture membranaceous to leathery. NS. astringent to bowels. dry. Sori two in each primary areole. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. leucoderma. anthelmintic. Kulithaka. heart-troubles. COM. FAM. improves complexion. It is demulcent in calculus affection. :—M. H. fertile ones long stalked. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. appetiser. diseases of the brain and eyes. See-Food Plants. Wandar bashing. pain in liver. See—Timbers. LOC. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. asthma. Hurali. cordate. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. Kulthi. Sitetara. eye troubles. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. Bijapur and Dharwar. Jurali. :—E. CHAR. bronchitis.

. pain in joints. improves taste.3—0. Utakatara. Bhangro. M.5 cm. increases appetite. CHAR. Sk. useful in brain-diseases. tonic. M. dyspepsia and cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. COM. subentire. branches widely spreading from the base. Root— abortifacient. Kantaphala. Fl. CHAR. Utkantaka. NS. spiny. the lobes triangular and oblong. :—More or less throughout India. Plant stomachic. used in ophthalmia. Bhangra. Mochand. Bhangra. NS. Maka. " Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. Utkanto. COM. bitter. Kadechubak. glabrous above. cooling. pappus short. Garagadasoppu. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. chronic fever. Pitripriya. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. densely villous.—Compositæ. urinary discharges. intermediate produced in sharp spine. gleet. high. Kantalu. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. sinuate and spinescent. FAM.—limb linear. 0. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Konkan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. hysteria. Utanti. LOC.-Jany. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). H.9 m. DISTR. long. :—G. wooly beneath. Afghanistan. globose. causes " Kapha". Bhringraj. strigose and hairy. S. K. M. Country. Utkatara. Deccan. DISTR. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. inflammations. sessile. :—G.—heads white. used in strangury. Kalobhangro . Ajagara. bracts 3seriate.—sessile. cottony. also cultivated to a certain extent. Fl. cottony pubescent. Seeds—wholesome. Dadhal. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. surrounded by strong white bristles. Kadigga-garaga.— Nov. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. Markara. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). biliousness. Sk. spines 2. yellowish. stems and branches strigose and hairy. Shulio. analgesic. antipyretic. hot. thirst. Sunilaka. L.— opposite. LOC. C. LOC.:—Throughout India. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). stimulates liver.—achene obconic. Balari. oblong. t. usually oblong-lanceolate. often rooting at the nodes. involucre.—Compositæ. FAM. astringent to bowels . hectic fever. Utkanta. :—Konkan. deeply pinnatifid. dyspepsia. It is used in hoarse cough. diseases of heart. Fr. L. :—A much branched rigid annual.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. H. :—Kanara.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Keshrangana.

Karangi. :—Western valleys of N. C—often 4-toothed . and for strengthening gums. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis.. prevents abortion and miscarriage. Sk. stomachic. Madhya Bharat. K. disk ones tubular . Gourangi. expectorant. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Velchi. tonic. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. stomatitis. Veldoda. FAM. LOC.:—India (Bengal. teeth. antipyretic. heart and skin diseases. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Elachi. Ilaji.-Dec. It relieves headache when applied with oil.—in heads. W. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. it is powdered and applied externally. It is given internally in scalding of urine. Triputa. liver pain. See—Sacred Plants.—Scitaminaceæ. Sind. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. t. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. M. Chandrabala. bronchitis. Ceylon. hemi-crania. G. H. pappus 0. "Kapha". alterative. fattening. Kanara (Siddapur. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. a reputed and popular liver tonic. Yalakki. solitary or 2 together. Peninsula). NS. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Bahula. internal diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. eye diseases. toothache. . hair. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. good for spleen diseases. Panjab. :—E. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. alexipharmic. anthelmintic. night blindness. cures inflammations. improves colour of hair.—achene. cultivated. DISTR. Gandhkuti. Malaya. Fl. hot. Fr. Burma. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. hernia. syphilis. axillary. cuneate with a narrow wing. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . fevers. Ela. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. There are two forms erect and prostrate. COM. involucral bracts about 8 . LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. cures vertigo (Yunani). It is also used as an emetic and purgative. leucoderma. lustre of eyes. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. ray flowers ligulate. anæmia.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . eyes. LOC. Choti-Elachi. Bitter . The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. "Vata". asthma.— Oct. good for complexion.

Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. ear and tooth ache. cultivated. useful in biliousness. fruit and seeds. diseases of bladder. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. diuretic. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. rich or poor. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. Sk. kidney. H. Bavato. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. FAM. NS. PARTS USED :—Grain. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. Navalo-nagali. stomachic. tonic. :— G. Vidariga. piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. scabies. Sk. Seed—fragrant. abortifacient. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. useful in head. pungent. Ragi. Rotka. M.. most suitable to hard-working classes. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Bhasmaka.—Myrsinaceæ. K. useful in asthma. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. bronchitis. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. Vayuvitang. DISTR. NS. COM. LOC. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. In S. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. stimulant and emmenagogue. M. See-Food Plants. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats).:—G. causes thirst. Nagali. PARTS USED :—Root. It is said to be astringent. Narttaka. clear head. bitter. diuretic. consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Vavoding. H. See—Condiments and Spices. Varding. alexiteric . Pavaka. Vavading. cooling. Marua. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). fragrant. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. stomachic. root is laxative and tonic. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. cause biliousness . Makra. tonic to heart. fruit is tonic. LOC. carminative. . Kanisha.—Gramineæ.:—Western and S. chest and throat (Yunani). Nachani. Grains contain vitamin B. LOC. FAM. Rajika. K. bad humours of liver. strangury. brain and mouth. Bidanga. India. Boberang. lessens inflammation. It is stomachic. laxative. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. CUM. cooling. Wavrung. pruritus. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Jantughna.

:—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Anola. anæmia. Nellika . removes bad humours from body (Yunani). China. laxative. NS. (Dymock). Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. elliptic-lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. greenish yellow. K. Ther. :—Throughout India. jaundice. DISTR. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. flowers. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. Amla. coriaceous. alexiteric. Ceylon. S. urinary discharges. shining above. biliousness. bark studded with lenticels . often planted in Konkan. Western Ghats.) FAM. constipation. black when ripe. Anward. thirst. Int. dries wound discharges . internodes long. Bhoza . alterative. M. Fr. purgative. with a sharp bitter taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. like a pepper corn when dried. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. poisoning. smooth. Fl. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. . slender. cures bronchitis . useful in asthma. H. LOC. mental diseases.—alternate. alterative. vomiting. Dhatriphala. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). Malay Islands. anthelmintic . Seed— acrid. Ceylon. erysipelas. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Daula . COM. Malaya. " Tridosha ". Dadi.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. hemicrania. HABITAT :—Rain forests. Deccan. succulent. cooling. " Kapha'. ascites.—Euphorbiaceæ. inflammations. Amlika. :—Hilly parts of the State.—berry. diseases of heart. strangury. leprosy.—in lax panicles. Sk. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. Gokhale. carminative. dry. Bitter. t. bronchitis. Embelic myrobalan. LOC. antipyretic. vulnerary. alexiteric. tonic. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Konkan and N. K. useful in burning sensation. sour. aphrodisiac. fruit and seeds. Paranjpe and G. anthelminitic. Arch. Kanara. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. S. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. 42-II-1932). LOC. paler and silvery beneath. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. many. piles. good for plethoric constitution. flexible. :— E. Ambala. Dhatri. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. bark. Triphala. leaves. nearly globose. anuria. Amlika. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Adiphala. Amalaka. racemes minute. DISTR. China. et. PARTS USED :—Root. G. analgesic. sweats. laxative. reddens urine. dyspnoea. wild or planted. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). good appetiser. Avala.—Feb. L. bronchitis. urinary discharges. cures tumours. Pharm. carminative. branches long. Fl. :—A large scandent shrub.

3-nerved. variable. Garbe.— capsule. Tiktapatra. LOC. :—G. COM. :—Throughout the greater part of India. anthelmintic.-Nov. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. Celyon. 10—50 cm. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Gujarat. FAM. Chhotakirayat.—sessile. thirst. M.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). lobes 5. Lady nut. Fr. stops nasal hæmorrhage. narrowed at the base. Kadvinayi. Nahu. expectorant. diuretic and laxative. high. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. NS. Dyes. .). HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. Saurashtra. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". liver complaints. eye troubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Hallekayiballi. Ind. L. t.—Aug. useful in heart-diseases. Fruit—acrid. improves appetite. K. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). mid-nerve strong. purifies body humours (Yunani). piles. Tans. Mamejavo . LOC. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Garambi. Fruit Trees. sour. cold in the nose. West Indies. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. H. CHAR. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. sub-quadrangular or terete. bark and fruit are astringent. R. Doddakampi. tropical Africa. cooling. astringent. :—A perennial glabrous herb. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Madvinashi. See—Timbers. M. Dried fruits. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. tonic. stems erect or procumbent. :—Konkan. Grey). biliousness. M. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. C—infundibuliform. NS. opposite. :—E. in axillary clusters all along the stem. S. branched from the base. Mabhipaka. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Unripe fruit is cooling. Malaya. Nagajivha. vulnerary. Tanavadi. Fl. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. white. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume.—sessile. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. USES :—Root.—Gentianaceæ. Country. Sind. used as laxative and astringent. Sk. ellipsoid. aperient. Fl. Flowers refrigerant and aperient.) FAM. LOC. Mackary bean. rounded apex. COM. Giant's rattle. DISTR.

Leaves—bitter. Panjira. Kantakinshuka. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. pinnae 2—3 pairs. :—Coast forests of Malabar. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. bark. hot. Planted as ornament. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. glabrous. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Fl. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Kanara. stalked. 30-90 cm. :—Konkan and N. Mochi-wood. they are given internally as an emetic. anthelmintic. orbicular. USES :—Powdered kernel. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. flowers. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. oblong or obovate. leaves. cure urinary discharges. Andamans and Nicobar. Mullumurige. PARTS USED :—Root.—2pinnate. Sd. leaflets 7-5 x 2. DISTR. Dadap.—pod. Var. Planted as support for pepper vines. bark used in dysentery. K.. DISTR. Panderavo.5-10 cm. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. branches terete.5-5-7 cm. rigidly coriaceous. diam. long. L. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. Mandara.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. W. Fl. H.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Indian coral-tree. Phandra . shining and brown.—6-15. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. C.-May. M. Bangaro. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. for grapevines in Nasik district. wide and 3-8 cm. woody. dark green. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. slightly curved. Tennaserim. COM. Panarvo. improve appetite. LOC. N. in debility and glandular swellings . long. 3. Pangara. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. ORIENTALIS Merr. Sk. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Raktapushpa.— Mar. along sea-coast above high-water. Paribhadra. Mandara. the tropics generally. Arakan. :—E. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. compressed. Hongara. Salaki. 4. . HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.S.3-2 cm. Fr. smooth. G. LOC. cures " Kapha" and " Vata".. indented between the seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue.) FAM. stomachic. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. often along river banks. Nepal.7-5x7.—yellow. Peninsula. Pegu. Halivan. mixed with spices.. thick. inflammations. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Sundribans. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Pangara. Ceylon.

reddish brown. Govardhan. COM. 18th Ind. FL. high. See—Timbers. G. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. K. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Mondukalli. H. Bahukshira. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. gland minute. :—E. Nevli. Australian asthma herb. .—ovoid-trigonous. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. M. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. 15-50 cm.—capsule. Sc. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Sd. Milk bush. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. bowel complaints and cough in children. crowded in small axillary globose cymes.—opposite. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Pill-bearing spurge. Ceylon. erect or ascending. H. globose. Kodukalli. Dudhi.—involucres numerous.) FAM. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Duddi. LOC. Dudhi. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Sk. :—Annual herb. Fl. Vajradruma. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Dandalio thora. M. serrulate or dentate.—Euphorbiaceæ. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Nagpur 1931). with or without a limb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. it is anthelmintic. Dudanali. and to relieve pain of the joints. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. branches often 4-angled. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores.—Euphorbiaceæ. dark green above. COM. Dudhi. :— E. rugose. Sher. Sk. Indian tree spurge. Cong. FAM. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Sendh. Pusitoa. —throughout the year. NS. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Shirthahar. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Dandasruha. Paradeshi thora . Milk hedge. The plant contains an alkaloid. Achchegida. pale beneath. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. G. K. appressedly hairy. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. L. Fr. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Sahud. base unequal-sided. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. t. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . CHAR. Bottugalli.

Vishnukranti. t. CHAR. thin. rootstock woody . Ceylon. about 6 m. . carminative. enlargement of spleen. DISTR. pungent. 4valved. leprosy and leucorrhoea. Sd— glabrous. wiry. M. high. useful in biliousness. Juice is purgative. :—Sind. Fl. thick like quill. Nilpushpi. H. usually clothed with long hairs . dyspepsia. Sk.—capsule. stone in bladder (Yunani). prostrate. COM. elliptic-oblong. anthelmintic. linear. almost leafless. also as an alterative. LOC. Vishnugandhi. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism .—ovoid. more than 5 cm. :—A perennial herb. campanulate. Shyamakranta . K. polished. The plant contains an alkaloid. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. LOC. branches erect. terete. :—Native of East Africa. FAM. Fl. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. epilepsy. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Jhinkiphudardi. employed to raise blisters. :—G. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). axillary. smooth.—many. useful in gonorrhœa. solitary or sometimes 2. alexiteric. asthma. L. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. Kalisankhavali. long. silky hairy.-Sep. whooping cough. Fr. mostly female. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. smooth. alterative. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. :—A small tree. and with oil to promote growth of hair. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. biliousness. 6-13 mm. carminative. useful in bronchitis. leucoderma. Konkan and Gujarat.-Aug. Sd. teething of infants . tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). peduncles very long.-light blue. cocci velvety. branchlets whorled. Vishnukranta. base acute. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. tumours. naturalised in India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.— capsule. stems many. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. LOC. NS. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. Fr. Vishnukranta. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. :—Throughout the State. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. spreading.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. tonic.—Convolvulaceæ. globose. useful in abdominal troubles. dropsy. Fl. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. t. brightens intellect. DISTR. milk is alexiteric.-July-Nov. tropical and sub-tropical countries.—small. LOC. long (appearing in rainy season) . colic. jaundice.

spitting of blood. Country. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. Dhamaso . cures dysentery. the middle the largest. FAM. CHAR. LOC. ellipsoid. in copious terminal cymes . Iran. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Kashaya. scarcely branched. the upper blue. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. t. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. t. Mysore. Fl. C—lobes 4-5. Sd. FL. smooth. sessile. Ind. alexipharmic.-Aug. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Ghats. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. leaflets linear. stomatitis.— showy. Fr. :— H. toothache. acute. westwards to Afghanistan.—very variable in size and form sessile. deeply 5-partite. reaching 60 cm. M. emmenagogue. cooling. high. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. removes "Vata". L. Ustarkhar. NS. Waziristan. Maval. Rajasthan. fever. reduces tumours. 1-3 foliate. Atmamuli. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . about 1. :—Konkan. . Cooling. CHAR. COM. W. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. long.—capsule. M. lower half white. 5-nerved. good for liver troubles.-Dec. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). quadrangular. Gujarat. Dhamasa. :—An erect annual. removes "Vata. smooth. NS. ovate. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr.—Gentianaceæ. Fl. Fl. Upper Gangetic plains.2 cm. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. :—G. FAM. petioles deeply striate. Hinguna. Punjab. shining. arising from between the stipules . Bark is used in scabies. erysipelas. Arabia. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Mediterranean. urinary discharges.—Zygophyllaceæ. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. Dhanavi. asthma. Coimbatore.—opposite. LOC. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers.-Oct. purifies blood (Ayurveda). it has got cooling properties. yellowish brown. Fr. Udichirayat. small. N. root fibrous. H. of 5. in chronic bronchitis. 1-seeded cocci. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. Baluchistan.—solitary." asthma. :—A small spiny erect undershrub.— ovoid. flattened. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. typhoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. COM.). L. ophthalmia. Deccan hills and S. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. obliquely obovate. LOC. Sk.-Nov. thirst. elliptic or lanceolate. Prabhodhini. pale rose-coloured. glandular hairy. vomiting. pyramidal to the apex. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. Dusparsha. :—Madras State. DISTR. Circars.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. also used in chronic fevers. :— Sind. DISTR. stem. more or less glandular. Barachirayat.

G. ovate to elliptic. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Leaves.— globose. LOC. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). good for throat. Ceylon. Malura. fruit and seeds. Fruit—sour . Nyagrodha. refrigerant. Kanara. alexipharmic. acrid. Vat. Vata. country and N. H. shining above. Seeds—antidote to poison. ophthalmia. COM. Kavit. Ghats. Vadlo . common in the Tapi Valley. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. M. H.—coriaceous. Leaves—very astringent. Elephant or wood apple. binding diuretic. Kotha. often planted. G. Grahiphala. Kathel. NS. often cultivated. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . high. FAM. " Tridosha". refrigerant . NS. M. LOC. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. K. fatigue. Kavitha. Ala. useful in biliousness. Bar. difficult to digest.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). diam. K. . strengthening to gums . Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—Indigenous in S. Goli. Kavath.. " Vata ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Belada. M. Self-sown. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Alada. S. Vad. Bargad. Monkey fruit. heart diseases. consumption.5 cm. Sk. removes biliousness. leucorrhoea. Kothun.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Bhringi.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Fruit Trees.—Rutaceæ. tonic to heart. Vad. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Bahupada. COM. Avaroha. Sk. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. :—E. Kapitha. with male. dysentery. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. 10-20 X 5-12. about 2 cm. Kathinyaphala. Kait. asthma. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Dadhiphala. DISTR. astringent. L. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Bargat. :—Cultivated all over the State. female. Banian tree. Byala. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. India. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. which afterwards develop into separate trunks.—Moraceæ. Jatala. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. aphrodisiac. tumours. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Manmadha. cures cough. Java. thirst. blood impurities. cordate or rounded base. hiccup. liver and lungs . vomiting . with spreading branches. CHAR. LOC. Balin. Fr. Kapipriya. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . :— E.

Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Cultivated in N. gonorrhœa. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. LOC. seeds and milky juice. Asia and Mediterranean. Simeyatu . pain in chest cures piles. lessens inflammations. Anjir. nutritive. nose-diseases. useful in inflammation . Anjir. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. inflammations. useful in "Kapha". Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Afghanistan. dysentery. vulnerary. hill ranges of S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. leprosy. inflammation of liver (Yunani). useful in leucoderma. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). stimulates hair-growth. tonic. Milky Juice—expectorant. Aerial root is styptic. alexiteric. bruises. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. erysipelas. weakness.—Moraceæ. useful in "Vata". the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. lithotriptic. in rheumatism and lumbago. LOC. :—Baluchistan. biliousness. Dharwar. useful in piles. NS. maturant. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). Seeds are cooling and tonic. Grown scattered elsewhere. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. See—Famine Plants. fever. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. W. :— E. Anjir. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. thirst. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. aphrodisiac. boils and carbuncles. COM. India. LOC. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. demulcent. ringworm. Kakodumbar. vomiting. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Bijapur. ulcers. biliousness. Anjir. Fibres. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. root-fibres. Sk. G. H. leaves. . Fig. W. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. M. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. useful in syphilis. Anjura. FICUS CARICA Linn. laxative. diseases of head and blood. K. liver and spleen diseases. Root—tonic. India. Sacred Plants. paralysis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. vaginal complaints. diuretic. leprosy (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Bark. FAM.

useful. Shuchidruma. biliousness. Hemadugdha. :—E. Peepal tree . COM. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Gular. Arani. LOC. Lalka. Udumbara. uterus . allays thirst. Sacred Plants. fruit. vagina. H. is given to cattle in rinderpest. planted all over. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. See—Timbers. (Yunani). K. leaves. LOC. Pipers. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. urinary discharges. Pipal. COM. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. nose bleedings. Umar. bark. H. burning sensation. NS. K. galactagogue. Pavitraka. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Yajnika. :—E. leaves and fruits. Bark. leucorrhoea.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. .—Moraceæ. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Milk—aphrodisiac. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. HABITAT :—Planted. :—Throughout the State near villages. PARTS USED :—Root. G. Pipli. PARTS USED :—Root. Ashvatha. Atti. Umbro. acrid. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. ground with onions. good for bronchitis. biliousness. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. latex. blood diseases. fatigue. FAM. G. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). diseases of kidney and spleen. menorrhagia. useful in "Kapha". Sk. Rumadi. Gular-Country fig. DISTR. leprosy. Vriksharaj.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. good for foul taste. Leaves—astringent to bowels . :—Widely spread throughout India. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Pippala. Ashwatha mara. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Umar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. tonic. Bodhidruma. bark. Jari. Bark is cooling. Demera. M. Pipal. Umbar. Pippala. good for gravid uterus. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. LOC. in diseases of blood. M. DISTR. Ragi. given in leucorrhoea. burning sensation. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. loss of voice. ulcers.—Moraceæ. vulnerary. FAM. Pimpal. cummin. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. styptic. NS. Fruit—astringent to bowels.

FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. K. Satpura. bark. Kanara Jungles. Mullutari. H. PARTS USED :—Root. SAPIDA Roxb. N. Variari. LOC. aphrodisiac. Shateya. Kankod . M. LOC. Katar. Finkel. Country and N. astringent in leucorrhoea. Fennel. Burma. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Akrani. seeds. Tambat. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Variali. Circars. Badisoppu. cleans ulcers. Hettarimullu. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. NS. Sacred Plants. Root-bark good in stomatitis. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Fruit—purgative. Potika. W. M. common in the Peninsula. appetising and digestive. G. Ghats. Fruits are sweet. Paker. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. H. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. good for lumbago. . M. Tapaspriya. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. and produces sterility in women. :—E. DISTR. Swadukantaka. See—Timbers. COM. HABITAT :—Hills. Badishep. Bhakal. Sk. heart diseases. Hunmunki. Soupa. fruit. Root good for gout. Handi Kandai. upper Gangetic plain. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Shalina. Bilangra . :— G. Bhuripushpa. Sk. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. gum. Khandesh. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. COM NS. promotes granulations. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K.—Flacourtiaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. checks vomiting (Yunani). Root-bark—aphrodisiac. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Fodder Plants. FAM. Bhanber. The juice is employed in hiccup. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards.—Umbelliferæ. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). S. See—Timber. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Gajale. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell).

FAM. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. Ratambi.6-0. H. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. It is much used as a nutritive. amenorrhœa.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. common in S. alexiteric. M. :—Endemic in W. yellow.— decompound. :—A tall glabrous. appetiser. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. furrows vittate. . wounds etc. galactagogue. fever. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. Mulgala. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". thirst. stomachic.—ellipsoid. :—Apparently a native of S. in headache. wounds. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. FL. burning sensation. aromatic and carminative. LOC. high. lessen inflammations. cardiotonic. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. cures "Tridosh". leaves (rarely). It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Kanara. Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Cultivated. (Mhaskar and Caius). The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. fruit and seeds. seeds-carminative. Amlabija. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". LOC. Ghats. demulcent and emollient. PARTS USED :—Roots. Kokam . diuretic. L. Sk. often cultivated. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. Coorg. bracts and bracteoles absent. DISTR. Kokam . :—E. Kokam. improves appetite and allays thirst. Wynaad. Oils. USES :—Bark is astringent. useful in bleeding piles. ridges prominent. causing constipation . GARCINIA INDICA Chois. LOC. G. spleen. Leaves—improve eyesight.—in large umbels . anthelmintic. leaves and seeds. difficult to digest. COM. Fr. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Murjinhalli. carpophore 2-partite. 0. laxative. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. Atyamla. :—W. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Bark. See—Timbers. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. dark green.—Guttiferæ. biliousness. See—Condiments and Spices. cough and asthma. " Vata ".9 m. fissures of lips. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. stimulant. Ghats south of Bombay. Tittidika . dysentery. dysentery. useful in diseases of chest. ultimate segments linear. leprosy (Ayurveda). it relieves griping of bowels in infants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. tumours. LOC. NS. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). strengthen eyes (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Wild mangosteen. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. USES :—used as stimulant. K. annual. eye-diseases. kidney. Tintidika.

C. Dikamari. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . H. LOC.-subsessile. Cambi resin tree. opaque. G. Dakamali. :—E. See—Timbers. FAM. HABITAT :—Open situations. Hingu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. 4. Sk. Fr.—Feb. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. Western Peninsula. Bikke. :—Common from Konkan southwards. first white then changing to yellow. LOC. shining.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn.5x22. Dikkamalli. :—India. Pinda. Dikamali. elliptic-obovate. buds resinous. 1-3 together.-sessile. :—A deciduous shrub. all dry districts of Madras State. long.—Rubiaceæ. unarmed. t.5-3.. K. Kanara. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). -June.5 cm. DISTR. oblong. PARTS USED:-Gum. COM.-tubular. NS. LOC. :—India (W.8 cm. common on laterite in southern parts of N. not fragrant. L. Burma. Jantuka. Gums and Resins. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Dikemali. same as for G. Peninsula). The plant yields a gum Dikemali.—Rubiaceæ. FAM. . PARTS USED :—Gum. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . LOC. relieves pain of bronchitis. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. Dekamari. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. astringent to bowels. oblong or ellipsoid. Fl. See—Gums and Resins. Northern ghats of Madras State. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. high. lucida. Suvirya. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. As sold in the bazar it is hard. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. CHAR. Fl. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. lucida (Ayurveda). used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. DISTR. NS. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. about 1. M.8 m.—2.

108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. LOC. 7.5 X 15 X 2-4. margins wavy. Garbhapatani.. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Akkitang hall. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa.2 cm. itching. Kalihari. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. Sk.-July-Oct. thirst. bitter. abdominal pains. piles. Indai. linear-lanceolate. abortifacient. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. Karianag. Huliyuguru. Ceylon. There are two varieties of the plant. In Guinea. COM. NS. Cochin-China. leprosy. given off from young tubers . filaments long spreading. The former is supposed to be male. root-stock of arched. solid. Languli. perianth segments reaching 6.5 cm. tall. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. acrid. solitary. ovate lanceolate. Sivasaktibalb . axillary .3 cm. useful in chronic ulcers. . L. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).. K. Kulhari. M. scarlet. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2.. linear oblong. alexiteric. :—Throughout tropical India. Fr. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. t. Agnimukhi. Tropical Africa. stems annual. FL. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. expectorant. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. CHAR. used to remove placenta from uterus. Kalikari. Kathari. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. Fl. orange. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. FAM. Linn. DISTR. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. Nangulika. anthelmintic. sometimes whorled. inflammations. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant.—capsule.—Liliaceæ. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani).—sessile. H. In case of retained placenta. and crimson from blooming to fading.5-3. :—Herbaceous. leaves and flowers. Dudhio vachhonag.—large. changing colours from greenish yellow. laxative. branching climber . Tuber— astringent. Khadyanag. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. heating. Malay Peninsula. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. scattered or opposite. PARTS USED :—Tuber. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. LOC. :—G. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine.

fevers. :— E. improves appetite . flowers and fruit. scalds etc. root is also stomachic and laxative. Shiwan. See—Fibres. LOC. G. PARTS USED :—Root. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Savan. stomachic. Oils. Root taken with liquorice. Philippines. H. LOC. M. See—Timbers. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. anæmia. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants.—Malvaceæ. Sk. Gambhari. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Madhya Bharat. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Mahabhadra. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. urinary discharges. Bachanige. Gambari. DISTR. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. chronic cystitis. PARTS USED :—Root. Devkapas. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. " Tridosha ". :—Throughout India. Karpasam. piles. common on Satpuda. G. Deokapas. NS. K. Sk. consumption and some catarrhal affections .—Verbenaceæ. scattered in monsoon forests. anthelmintic . leaves. . Sind. catarrh of the bladder etc. M. Tree cotton. Coomb teak. FAM. Gandhari. :—Throughout the State. flowers and seeds. Rajasthan and N. anasarca. burning sensation. Kumbudi. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Shivan . useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Cashmere tree. W. Karibatti. useful in fevers . Shripani. gleet. Shiwan. Hanji. tonic. FAM. COM. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. strangury. alterative. the root. thirst. aphrodisiac. abdominal pains. Fruit— diuretic. Devakapus. White teak. useful in hallucinations. leprosy. consumption. Malaya. Root extract is bitter and tonic. promotes hair-growth. useful in "Vata". :— Bengal. Gumbhar. Shivani. Kashmari. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. COM.:—E. Khandesh. useful in indigestion. leaves. H. DISTR. ulcers. Gupsi. laxative. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. indigestible. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Var. :—Throughout the State and about temples. LOC. Nurma . NS. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. thirst. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. In the Konkan. Flowers—astringent. made into paste. Provinces. Ceylon.

tonic. in hypochondria. DISTR. (Yunani). cure all ear-troubles. FAM. G. Seeds—aphrodisiac. good for all kinds of inflammations. M. fruits and seeds. allay thirst. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Syria. S. In India they are used to procure abortion.. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. NS. Mediterranean. cooling. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Afghanistan. fevers and consumption. enrich blood. Phalsa. Sk. removes " Vata ". extensively in Gujarat. Ripe fruit—sweet. Country. Jana. PARTS USED :—Root. Badari. :—Sind. leaf-juice good in dysentery. probably in N. DISTR. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Rui. Oils. Pharuah. Phalsi. removes " Vata" and biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root.. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Parusha. in hills near Poona. H. fomentation for burning eyes . F. Baluchistan. increase flow of urine. Hatti. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . expectorant. restore consciousness. aphrodisiac. bark. A. sour. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. used in orchitis. Kupas. Province (Pakistan). FAM. digestible. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. tonic. K. U. Seeds are laxative. heart and blood disorders. COM. Seeds— ' galactagogue. cures inflammations. Roshana. extensively cultivated. Egypt. wild in Deccan. Arabia and Asia Minor. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Buttiyu-dippa. laxative . Sk. :—G.—Malvaceæ. Dhamin. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. preventing their access to wounds etc. NS. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling.Phalse. demulcent. See—Fibres. Tadasala. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . COM. Sutrapuspha. scabies . aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. fruit. :—Cultivated in the State. Cotton . LOC.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. acrid. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Kapus. expectorant and aphrodisiac. leaves. Tula. Leaves remove " Vata " . M. Mesapotamia. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. H. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Kapas . Karpas. LOC. Parapera. Rui. M. :—E. East Tropical Africa. LOC. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. Anagnika. good for throat . Iran. Karihariyale. K. Gujarat and S. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. analgesic. W. Arali. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus.—Tiliaceæ. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. :— Cultivated in N.

tonic. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. NS. alterative. L. Br. LOC.— Apl. M. — Asclepiadaceæ. Meshavalli. LOC. Kanara coast. Fruit—sour. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens.— opposite. FL. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Hulhul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. cornea. base rounded or cordate . diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). . Ceylon. strengthens chest and heart. M. asthma. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. :E. biliousness. S. ulcers. the stomachic stimulant. Gurmar. Fl. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. See—Fruit Trees. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Churota. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Root and bark used in strangury. acrid.— with thin marginal wing. t. K. Meshashingi. yellow . Fr. H. Sati talvani. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). common in hedges in Dharwar district. Bedki. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions.— companulate . stomachic. NS. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Kabari. Mahabaleshwar and N. corona of 5 processes . helps removal of dead fetus. Kavali. Bastagandha. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). India. Hulhul. inflammations. Sanngera. K. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. ovate. leucoderma. should not be eaten raw. H. Tilparni. G. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Mabli. Adiyakharan. Sd. good in heart-diseases. COM. Arkapuspika. elliptic. Kanphodi. :—Throughout the State. Periploca of the woods. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Merasingi. :—Western Peninsula. The ease of administration. Mardashingi. Karnasphota.-May. cooling. young stems densely pubescent. G. anthelmintic. piles. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Ugragandha. vitreous body) burning sensation. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). alexiteric. COM. LOC. Tropical Africa. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. :— E. usually single. Caravella. Sk. CHAR. bronchitis. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia.—in cymes . sweet. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". lanceolate. Vishani. SK. C. Tanmani.—follicle. DISTR. relieves thirst and hiccup.—Capparidaceæ. FAM. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. much branched. Karalia . FAM. :—A large woody climber. Shrikala. Sannagerse. Vakundi. Pandhari tilwan.

pubescent. good in ascites. :—Konkan—Karanja Island.—Oct. Mrigashringa. FAM. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. leaves and seeds. long. Avartant. L. t. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. sessile. Sd.—3-5 foliate.5 cm. . acute.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. tapering at both ends. Kavargi. hills near Nagothana. PARTS USED :—Root.—petals 4 with long slender claws. :—Deccan. high. Fl. Murdasing. Country. with divaricate herbaceous branches . HELICTERES ISORA Linn. Murudseng.—rather rigid. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. (Kirtikar and Basu).—June. glabrous or pubescent above.—capsule. DISTR. Sinhgad hills. M. elliptic-obovate. Fl. DISTR. Marosi. Fl. stomachic . the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda).—muricate. LOC. dark-brown . hairy. Jonkaphal Maraphali. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Gidesa Jitasai. white or blue. removes "Vata".112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Gujarat. C. China. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. long . ellipsoid . margins crenate-dentate. Murudi. CHAR. NS.6—1.12. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge.5-20 X 3. Fl. LOC. leaflets subsessile.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. earache. LOC. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles .—Sterculiaceæ. viscid. stipules triangular.-Feb. Sk. HABITAT:—Hills. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. COM. :—M.—many. 5-9 cm. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. stem and branches hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. M. S. Kewan.. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. Sd. Kanara. K. pedicels viscid hairy. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. H. COM.—in dense bracteate racemes.—capsule. Edamuri. hairy on the nerves beneath. tumours. Katraj Ghat. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. hairy. PARTS USED :—Root.2 m. vesicant. NS. gynophore 2-2. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. :—An annual erect herb 0. elliptic-lanceolate.. pain. Fr. t.8-9 cm. hills in Supa Taluka. :—G. .—Rubiaceæ. :—A small deciduous shrub. L. opposite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. ulcers. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. Fr. FAM. producing copious exudation. pink .

-biferous. NS. Root useful in hemicrania. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. and leaves. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. obliquely cordate. foul body odour. bilabiate. Australia and West Indies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. Sd. Sugandhi-balli. diaphoretic. Kapurimathuri. Durivel. ovate orbicular. Fl. syphilis. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. common in hedges. "Vata' dysentery. Fr. fevers. Fl. Upalsali. cures all skin-diseases. blood diseases. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. astringent to bowels . “tridosh". liver and kidney diseases . Utpalashariva. t. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. spirally coiled. diuretic.—throughout the greater part of the year. Fl. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. :—Throughout the State. Fr. "Kapha". joint-pains. Hindisalse. demulcent. astringent to bowels. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. M. t — Aug. Kanara ghat forests. mildly astringent. stem. See—Fibres. Anantmula.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together.—numerous. :—Large shrub or small tree. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Dhaval kashtha. PARTS USED :—Root.—follicle of 5-6. Hamadaberu .—tubular. Country. diarrhœa. good for brain. long.Sd. Malaya. They are demulcent.—follicle cylindric.— in cymes in opposite axils. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). LOC. M. CHAR. root-Stock woody . useful in gleet. burning sensation.—Asclepiadaceæ. :— E. Magrabu.3 cm. Root and stem—laxative. lessens griping. H. G. anti-galactagogue. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). dark-green. thirst. HABITAT :—In hedges. stems thickened at the nodes . C. epileptic fits. eye troubles. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. beaked. red at first fading to lead colour. PARTS USED :—Root. rat-bites.-Dec. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). DISTR. cough. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. Upalsari. Burma. COM.. FL. . alexiteric. urinary discharges. useful in piles. DISTR. Stem lessens inflammation. Deccan and S. 5-6. asthma.— very variable. bronchitis. tapering . antidiarrhœal. scabrous above. Konkan. often variegated with white above. uterine complaints.5 X 5-10 cm. leucorrhoea. greenish outside. Anantmula. bark and fruit. purplish inside. India. poisoning. Ceylon. irregularly crowded. low appetite. LOC. Br.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. FAM. :—Upper Gangetie plain. Sk. 7. L. L. paralysis.512. angular . Indian sarsaparilla .— with silvery white coma . :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. K. asthma.

The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. See—Ornamental Plants. Harivallaba. bark and petals are demulcent. irregularly serrate towards the top. COM. glabrous. tubular below. Fl. Jasut. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. fevers. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. entire near the base. Native country probably China. and as early as 1864.—axillary. syphilis and leucorrhoea. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). Flowers are emollient and demulcent. solitary. skindiseases. . ovate or ovate lanceolate.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. piles. Jasavand. Dasanihu. Sk. It is also diuretic.—no fruits produced in India. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). etc. uterine and vaginal discharges.—short petioled. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . crimson. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. Root roasted in plantain leaves. bright red. pedicel jointed above the middle. :—A perennial shrub.. Fr. M. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. LOC. DISTR. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms.5. t. tonic. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. flowers. cm. Rudrapushpa. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). K. :— E. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. demulcent. Jasuva. seminal weakness. remove burning of body. magenta. CHAR. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. H. involucral bracts 5-7. C. Root is valuable in coughs. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Shoe flower. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Kempupundrika. FAM. LOC. cooling.—during most of the year. G. Raktapushpi. L. It is said to purify blood. Aruna. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. yellow. urinary discharges. petals thrice as long as the calyx. Jasum. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. diam. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root.—7. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. In the Konkan. useful in loss of appetite.—Malvaceæ. red. Japapushpa. Fl. NS. astringent. Dasavala. and mixed with ghee.

Kempupundrike. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—G. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. flowers. DISTR.—axillary. CHAR. Chandravalli. See—Vegetables.) FAM. Malati. Madhavi. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. purple.—Oct. CHAR. involucral bracts 10. :—E. Grows abundantly on the W. Kanara. HABITAT.—Malpighiaceæ. Deccan. across. covered with minute hairs . 2-lateral wings 2-cm. glabrous. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—coriaceous. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Atimukta. 10-18 X 4. NS. on the margins. Kamuka. Fr. Madhalata. asafoetida and molasses. NS. Adimurtte Adirganti.—purple with darker centres.5 cm. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. :—An annual. Vasantduti. Vasanti.—1-3.. t.—Malvaceæ. pepper. young parts silky. base cuneate. globose. Kampti.—petals 5. stem and branches purple. 3-5 lobed. Madhavi. fruits and seeds. Patwa. much used in curries. L. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. Madhavi. Fl. Ghats. C.3-7.-Dec.2-2 cm. COM. FAM. L. Lal ambadi. Haladvel. COM. long. Atimukta. Lal ambadi. mid-lobe the longest. sedative and refrigerant.— solitary. Fibres. Sk. :—Cultivated. fragrant. Sd. Vasantduti. white.—in erect racemes. purple. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties.—large. K.— Jany. M. long. Fr. Ceylon. hairy. (lower leaves sometimes entire). elliptic-oblong. G.—capsule. H. beaked.-Mar. LOC. . :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. Fl. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. calyx fleshy. H. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient.lobes oblong. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. orbicular. erect. tropics of the old world. and adding a little salt. serrate.—5-7. t. ovoid.5 cm. clawed. petioles silky. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Red sorrel. Rozelle. uppermost petal broader. 1. often blotched with purple with darker centre. fringed. C. LOC. Fl. acuminate. Lal ambari. Madmalati. black-brown. :—Throughout the State. Ragotpiti. K. Madhumalati. Madhavi. Pundi-bija or soppu. Konkan. 3-winged. Sd. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. M. 5th petal yellow at the base. entire glabrous. Fl.

-June. galactagogue. Leavesastringent. strengthens gums. tonic. N. good in chronic bronchitis. Karuindrayan. C—tubular.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Fr. PROPERTIES. main nerves conspicuous . smoke good for piles. aphrodisiac. H. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. LOC. NS. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Fl. Kaduoindrajav. Bark—bitter. given in chest affections. leaves. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. diuresis (Yunani). burning sensation. China. astringent to bowels cure pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Circars. bitter. biliousness. leprosy. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. Dudhi.—Feb. good in headache. acrid. excessive menstrual flow. heating. acrid. cooling. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. remove muscular pains . wounds. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. Malay Peninsula. Conessi bark tree. Hale. leucoderma . used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. Assam. fevers. Kodasige. Seeds—carminative. CHAR.. broadly ovate or elliptic. FAM. Nepal. Kuda.—Apocynaceæ. Kaling. Seeds—appetiser. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. cough.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . FL. Sk. remove "Tridosh". colic. Ceylon. asthma. cool the brain. Madras State. fatigue. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. anthelmintic. throat hairy inside. branchlets drooping. LOC. white.—follicles 20-48 cm. LOC. Siwalik. ulcers. often dotted with white spots. Abu. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). appetiser cure blood diseases. thirst and inflammation. cause "Vata". Indrayana. PARTS USED :—Bark.—10-20 X 5-11. Karohi. diarrhœa. K. flowers and seeds. burning sensation. " Kapha". skin diseases. G.— in terminal corymbose cymes . piles. Sd. t. thirst. bleeding piles. COM. inodorous. lumbago. Thailand (Siam). Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. :—Throughout the State. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. long. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Karnatak. leprosy. hallucinations (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. tonic. styptic. vulnerary.5 cm. Pandhara Kuda. Kurchi tree. Kura. :—E. Flowers— acrid.. Mt. insecticidal. See—Ornamental Plants. Andamans. good in erysipelas. M. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Veppale. Burma. cures dysentery. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). biliousness. Kuda. Kutaja. Hath. cylindric. DISTR. lessens inflammations. boils. vulnerary. skin and spleen diseases. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Kumaon. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Kudsalu. L.

G. India. widely cultivated in temperate regions. bronchitis. nor astringent. They are also used after delivery. Knowles. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. useful in biliousness. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. lowers the pulse. and kurchicine. —Cultivated chiefly in N. stomachic. demulcent and expectorant. inflamed gums. K. Jav. appetiser. FAM. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. kurchine. Jawa. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. headache. Satu. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. M. Jav. nor styptic. COM. NS. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. causes constipation. Aug. febrifuge. anæmia. PARTS USED :—Seeds. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. 1928). fevers (Yunani). Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. pains in chest. Germinated barley. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. useful in fevers. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Java. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. asthma. Divya. LOC. allays thirst. burns.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Barley. The grains contain vitamin B. Tasteless. DISTR. biliousness. aphrodisiac. improves voice. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. sweetish. with radicle attached to it. :—E. (R. Hayapriya. . Ind. Javegodhi. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. especially cod-liver oil. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. H. acrid. malt sugar and diastase. See—Food Plants. Sk. Yava. Med. Gaz. dysentery and intestinal worms. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. Suj. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. fattening. They are astringent. LOC. Shaktu.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in bronchitis. Ymvah. good for ulcers. diarrhœa.

:—G. For scald-head. Kshiradru. Madhya Pradesh. CHAR.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. good for the throat. NS. size of small apple. DISTR. Garudphala. DISTR. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. . pungent. See—Oils. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Sd.) FAM.. :—K. Fr. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Ghats.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. K. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). :—W. Malabar. LOC. FAM. t. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.—Bixaceæ. bitter. common in Travancore. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. Bharnarasalya. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. 12. globose or ovoid. dioecious . L. Ugragandha. Niradivittulu. Betaga. LOC. Phaldu. COM.—solitary or in racemes. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Doti. Sk. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. camphor and lime-juice. Garudphala. increases taste and appetite.5-23 X 3. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. NS.—numerous. C. Kadukavata. Bhoswar. Peninsula.—Rubiaceæ. FL. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Amarachala. more or less coriaceous. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. flat. Dondra. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Kastel.8-7. Dondru. Sk.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.—Jany. high. acuminate. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. S.—berry. young parts brown pubescent.—Apl. Kanara evergreen forests. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. M. Bhorsal.5 cm. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. Bandaru. broadly ovate. Bhringamallika. Bhanina. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Country and Kanara. Kowti. H. Southern and Western India. COM. Fl. Bhutabi. sulphur. sometimes along river banks. Bhrijatuaka. M. Gandele. Bihar. tomentose. white. Common in N.

middle portion much inflated. Sd. :—More or less throughout India. throat and tube dull purple .— Nov. FAM. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. prostrate.2 -7. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). Fodder Plants. DISTR. trichotomous cymes. Kalambika. greenish white.—4 or 2. Nalanibhaji. Fl. " Vata ". Br.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. stems long.—Nov. 10-15 cm. Sd. M. rusty pubescent. M. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. K. :—Throughout the State. black with white scanty coma.—1-5 flowered peduncles . . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish.-Apl. :—Konkan. Kalaka. :—A large twining shrub .—tube with narrow portion below. blood diseases. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. S. FL. Kanara. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Kantebhovari. pubescent. CHAR. rooting at the nodes . Sk. LOC. straight or slightly curved. lobes obscure . Fl. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. cures " Kapha ". Fl. cordate or hastate. Gopini. Java. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places.—4-5-7 X 2-3. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. L.—Apocynaceæ. Australia. t. Shradhashaka. H. Kalaghantika. C. LOC. Karihambu. fever. biliousness. Karmi. very slender. COM. Siamalata. elliptic oblong. very common in Gujarat.—in axillary and terminal. M. t. numerous . Sariva. Ceylon. Pechuli. hollow.—follicle. thick. C. Fr. The outer layer is tasteless. acute. Nadika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. COM. :—H. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. Bhadra. stalks and leaves. In Indo-China. thirst. vomiting. Sk. Chandangopa. L. X 4 cm. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. LOC. Nalichibhaji. Potuasaga. CHAR.—Convolvulaceæ. FAM. Country. upper constricted. :—G. young branches finely fulvous tomentose .8 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. aphrodisiac. Krishnasariva. See—Timbers.. Common in the evergreen forests of N. Gorwiballi.-Dec.—linear. NS. cylindric .5x 3. ovoid .—5-12. trailing on mud or floating. Kalidudhi. Fr. base rounded. :—Annual or biennial herb. cooling. Kalmisag. glabrous above. NS. slightly pubescent and pale beneath.—capsule. Kanara. the powdered wood is used for herpes.5 cm.

near sea coast. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. Giant potato . to children in case of emaciation. anthelmintic . tropical Asia. biliousness. appetiser.—capsule. galactagogue. See—Gums and Resins. useful in syphilis. long. being regarded as tonic.—Convolvulaceæ. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. useful in leucoderma. galactagogue. 3. LOC. blood diseases. Sk. flowers (rarely). anthelmintic. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. peduncle solitary axillary. Kanara sea coast. stimulant. Bilaikand .-July-Sept. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). K. aphrodisiac. (Yunani). Nila-kumbala. deeply palmately divided. alterative. bronchitis. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. demulcent and lactagogue. t. burning sensation. alterative. Africa and Australia. liver complaints. (Ayurveda).8—6. improves voice and complexion. entire. NS. ovoid. H. . many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. 4-valved. root large. purple. long. Swadu Vidarikand. indigestible. In Burma. M. carminative. useful in fever. America. L. Fl. biliousness and fevers. LOC. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. tonic. thick. LOC. jaundice. cures biliousness. Carminative. DISTR. Bhuikohala. Ceylon. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. stem long. lessens inflammation. FAM. Sd. lobes 5-7. :— E. Root—heating. :—Perennial. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. glabrous. ovate-lanceolate. twining. leprosy. useful in leprosy. COM. expectorant. Australia in moist climate.3 cm. CHAR.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. tropical Asia. dry.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. :—Throughout India. " Kapha " . PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. stomachic. vomiting. debility and want of digestive power. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—10-15 cm. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. diuretic. Fl. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. pale. aphrodisiac. Bhumikushmanda. Africa. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. (Yunani). enclosed in fleshy sepals. 4-celled.—in. Bhunichahragadde. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. Flower causes " Vata ". often broader than long. leaves. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . Leaves enrich blood. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. gonorrhœa and inflammation. also useful in liver complaints. Fr.

Fl. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). C. Undirkani.—capsule. subglobose or ovoid.—capsule. bechic. Kaladanah. Fr. LOC. Deccan. crenate. L.-Oct. t. COM. Sd. L. NS. K. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. LOC. cures inflammations. H.. M. surrounded by ciliate sepals. Krishna—Shyama-bija.—Convolvulaceæ. dries the phlegm.—Convolvulaceæ. The plant contains a glucoside. axillary. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. Indian jalap. in the Himalayas. useful in liver and spleen diseases. tropical Africa. :—A herb . Undirkani. Purgative. reniform or ovate-cordate. subglobose. pains in joints. anthelmintic. Musekani. bracts linear. 3-celled. bronchitis (Ayurveda).—Sept. DISTR. G. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. Shyamala-bijak.) FAM. Sk. abdominal diseases. stems twining. long tubular funnel-shaped.— 4-6.—3. leucoderma. :—Western Peninsula. sparsely hairy. S. :—An annual herb. Country. :—G. Mirchai. lobes ovate.—dark chestnut coloured . HABITAT :—Water-logged places. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. ovate-cordate. Sd. believed to be of American origin. creeping and rooting at the nodes. blue tinged with pink.5 cm. K.—1. FAM. Nilvel. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). . Nilpushpa. scabies and biliousness. COM.3-2. filiform.5 cm. See—Ornamental Plants. Ceylon. deeply three-Iobed. diam.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. LOC. petioles hairy. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. carminative. M.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . Vrishchikparni. NS. DISTR. Africa. Ganribij. broad. clothed with long hairs. :—E. CHAR.8-5 cm. stems many. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. PARTS USED :—Seeds.— yellow. M. Fl. Kalokumpo. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. H. Fl. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). E. fevers. Morning glory. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. headache. :—Konkan. glabrous . Sk.:—Throughout India. diseases of head. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Kaladana. Fr. S. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m.-5-12.

brain diseases. enclosed in enlarged sepals . FAM.—in few flowered cymes. fleshy. ovate or oblong. tropical Africa and America. Indian rhubarb.. fevers. pungent. Nahatara. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). uterus. Kanaka. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). False-Indian jalap. antipyretic. anæmia. urethral discharges. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). like others of the genus . IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. inflammations and abdominal diseases . Nishottara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. bracts large. bechic. G. Malay Islands. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. M. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. stems very long. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. lungs. often pinkish. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. globose. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. useful in spleen enlargement. muscular pains. acrid. :—Throughout India. Sk. CHAR.8-5 cm. Nandi. useful in bilious tremors of body. heart and abdomen. anthelmintic. Br. purgative. 3. . Root— bitter. pains of chest and joints. much branched. useful in diseases of kidney. bladder. good for weakness.—5-10 X 1. :— E. removes bad humours. H. Rechani. useful in loss of consciousness. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. pedicels thickened upwards. Kalaparni. L. Common in southern Gujarat. Fl.—Convolvulaceæ. mucronate. LOC. Trivrit. white variety is a mild cathartic.—capsule. Fr. paralysis. expectorant.—Oct. also in the Konkan and N. laxative. wounds. HABITAT :—Wild . Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. NS. paralysis. K. Turbith root. rarely slightly lobed. t. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. cooling. Mauritius. leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). reduces tumours (Ayurveda). Nashotar. Ceylon. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. It is also alterative. Root with bark should be used. applied in diseases of eye and gums. COM. Philippines. Nishoth.-Jany. laxative. twining and twisted together. Pithori. inflammations. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. root long. long. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. C.—white.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. burning sensation and intoxication. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. fistula. when used alone . carminative. good in pain. LOC. sometimes cultivated. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. angled and winged. DISTR. useful in bilious fevers. base cordate or truncate . strangury. Triputi. Fl. LOC. Black variety should not be used (Yunani).3-7 cm.

. Chambali. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. LOC. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Kisukare. L.— Rubiaceæ. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. 5-10 X 3. Fl. often tinged with pink outside.—Oleaceæ. DISTR. also along river banks. Ajjige. K. H.—opposite. G. intermediate sessile . 5-12.8 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. Pankul. Surabhigandha. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. t. smooth. t. oblong. .—globose. Fr. very slender . Parali. Bandhuka.3 cm. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. C. See—Ornamental Plants. stipules with a long rigid point. HABITAT :—Cultivated . COM.2-6. Guddedasal. Kepala. CHAR. size of a pea.. Priyanvada. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. NS. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Fr. Anemallige. Sk. Chambeli. Sk. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. purple when ripe. :—E. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. COM NS. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. pale when dry. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. imparipinnate. CHAR. :—Bombay southwards . Fl. proximal petiolulate.—3.—throughout the year. :—Western Peninsula. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. sessile. Jai. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea.2-6. lobes 4 (rarely). Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. :—A large subscandent shrub. Raktaka. FAM. Flame of the woods . Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. :—E. fleshy. Jajimalle. obtuse . oblong. FL—numerous. Pendgul. Bakali.5 cm. Chambeli. white. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. coriaceous. Jati.3 coriaceous. leaflets 7-11. stipules . of stems and roots. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery.—ripe carpels 2. petiole and rachis margined.—tubular. FAM. M. M. Fl. LOC. terminal rather larger. sessile. obtuse.9 m. high. wild. DISTR.—July-Sept.—opposite. distal pair confluent with the terminal. L. very common in Konkan and N. :—Cultivated throughout India. Ceylon. across. K. tube long. pale when dry.

Mogara. Navamallika. allays fevers . abundant in April-May. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. :—E. cures headache. alexiteric. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. membranous. given in blood diseases. emmenagogue. brain tonic . fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. paralysis. Mogro. black. Iravantige. good for pains in joints and ear. surrounded by calyx-teeth. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. G. mouth and skin. Ananga-mallika. vulnerary. very fragrant. FAM. leprosy. H. alexiteric. Mogra. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. t. softens skin. teeth. emetic. Sambac. Flowers—tonic.—white. Oil—lessens inflammations. caries of teeth. head. Fl. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. . The plant contains an alkaloid. variable in shape. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. :—Cultivated throughout India. it is used in cases of insanity. and for scabies (Yunani). otorrhoea. Pramodini. flowers and oil. LOC. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. tonic to brain. COM NS. LOC. Root—purgative. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. biliousness (Ayurveda). Mallige. Tuscan jasmine. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. scarcely climbing. Vanchandrika. Banmallika. Arabian Lily. K. Fr.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. Leaves are also used in toothache. ulcers. good in asthma.—opposite. headache and weak eyes. aphrodisiac. In Goa. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. subglobose. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Sk. anthelmintic. L. ear. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes .—Oleaceæ. base rounded or subcordate. suppurative. soporific. See—Ornamental Plants. Plant—deobstruent. useful in stomatitis. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. eyes and ear. diseases of mouth. diuretic. stomatitis.—ripe-carpels 1-2. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. :—A sub-erect shrub. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. entire. M.—more or less throughout the year . expectorant. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. biliousness. Motia. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. Chamba. HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphthae. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. intoxicating. rheumatism. alexiteric. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). Flower has bitter taste . useful in diseases of eye. LOC.

Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. disk of female flower urceolate. The seeds act as drastic purgative. L. Fl. DISTR. diam. :—Native of tropical America. The acrid. Kananerand. Fr.5 mm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. urinary discharges. black. Sutashreni. and also promotes healing. fistula. Jangali erandi.— ovoid. fruits and seeds. CHAR:—A handsome. 10-15 X 7. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). PARTS USED :—Wood. 1. coral-red. stipules capillary. subfleshy. broadly ovate.—orbicular.5-12. multifid. juice sticky opalescent. LOC. corolla lobes 5. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic.5 cm. French or Small physic nut. large. . L. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. male flowers. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. LOC. Dundigu. long-petioled. biliousness.5 cm.—Euphorbiaceæ. leaves. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. G. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch.—monœcious.—ovoid oblong. H. Bhadradanti. Jyotishka. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Mogali—Ran-erand. 7. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. herpes. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. when applied to boils. COM.—capsule. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. 7. garden shrub . Barbados Physic nut. have suppurative effect. Coral plant. K.—in flat-topped cymes.—Euphorbiaceæ. yellow. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. anaemia. dull brownish black. Fl.. 3-lobed. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. Sk. Ratanjot. CHAR. Jangali—Pahari erand. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. cordate.5-12. NS.8 cm. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). breaking up into 3-valved cocci. useful in chronic dysentery. Vilayati haralu. villous within. Virechani. :—E. Simeavadala. abdominal complaints. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases.— alternate. Sd. M. across. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. COM. K. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. FAM. FAM. " Tridosha". Sk. Fr. thirst. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. Seeds contain active principle curcin. longer than calyx. long. Akhuparnika.—E. NS.

LOC. Kalmashi.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. branches subterete with raised lines. LOC. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. heating. pains. clavate glabrous. inflammations. Bhutakeshi.2 m. LOC. leaves. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed.5-12.—Ghati pitpapda. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. dry . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.6-1. America. Nachukaddi. 7. in interrupted spikes. NS. purple within. FAM. :—H. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. fattening tonic .—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. dyspepsia. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. vaginal discharges. useful in bronchitis. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). :—Bomb. bitter. native of N. Seed— oleaginous. rheumatism and dysentery. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. Sk. purgative. L. wounds. :—A native of China.5 cm. causes " Kapha ". tympanitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. Leaves are used in scabies. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. Karinchki. Karambal. Nilmanjari. fevers.5 cm. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. often met with in Bengal. HABITAT :—Shady positions. enlarged spleen. Nilinirgandi. LOC. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. Fl. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Fr. hot. " Vata ' and "Pitta". long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . Krishna-nirgundi. CHAR. skin-diseases. wild in Tenasserim. NS. COM. K. M. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. M.—Acanthaceæ. aphrodisiac. all over the State. Shindhuka. FAM. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. Bakas.—Acanthaceæ.—capsule. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. long. In Cambodia.—white spotted. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. . high . The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. Kala adulsa. COM. 5-12.

:—Stemless herb. HABITAT :—In hilly parts.—2-lipped. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. :—Western Peninsula. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . expectorant. wandering of mind. round. vomiting. deep green.—612 from the centre of the plant. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. ovate or lanceolate. K. lower 3-lobed . :—More or less throughout India. Fr. obtuse at both ends. CHAR. (Yunani). Kachchura . LOC. enriches blood. good in spleen diseases.. intoxication.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. L. NS.—variable. FAM. softly pubescent.—lobes lanceolate. fragrant. P. aromatic. DISTR. L. increases " Vata ". KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn.. Panchgani. Konkan. DISTR.5-9 cm. M. 6. t. stomachic. Ceylon. pure-white. LOC. biliousness. fever. Sugandhavachai. elliptic. Australia. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. lying flat on the ground. Kapurkachri.—finely tuberculate. oval. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). constricted between the seeds . connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. :— H. upper lip notched. Madras State. thin. South Konkan. removes indigestion. Fl.— June-July. Tubers yield an essential oil. thirst. diuretic. strengthens lungs. tired feeling.5 X 4.-Mar. stops vomiting. Kachri. t. . Sd. Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Plant diuretic. Chandramulika. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. LOC. petioles channelled. gives lustre to eyes. tube funnel-shaped . :—N. urinary discharges. spreading horizontally. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malaya. diaphoretic. Deccan. Travancore. fugacious. root-stock tuberous. PARTS USED :—Tubers. COM. Malay Islands. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). purifies blood in skin diseases.—capsule. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. :—Konkan.—2. teeth. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. C. constipating . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. HABITAT :—Cultivated. pale violet pink.—Scitaminaceæ. Chandramala.—in cylindric terminal spikes.3-12.—Oct. burning of body. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). Sk. Maval in the Deccan. oblong shortly pointed. Cultivated in gardens. Fl. Western Ghats . Fl.

—globose 3. in many cycles.—Aroideæ. K. Bhuchampaka. Tubers yield an essential oil. Fl. of various shades of purple and white. H. tubular below. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. HABITAT :—Marshy places. crowded in a globose bead . mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . Bhuichampo . M. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. Lauka. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. :—Mysore. Labuka. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. Fr. LOC.8-5 cm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. anthers crowded. G. only 1 or 2 opening at a time .—Scitaminaceæ. M. K. Dudhi. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. margins undulate. coriaceous. S. annulate . rootstock reaching 5 cm. simple. CHAR. Coorg. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. COM. Fl. NS. carpels partially dehiscent Sd.-Mar. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. NS.5-23 cm.—Cucurbitaceæ. Bhuichapha. —Feb. Fl. t. Sk. Travancore. Country. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers.-Apl. Bottle-gourd. :—Konkan. elliptic-oblong. thick. entire. DISTR. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. :— G. N. Katutumbi. Kadu bhopala.5-10 cm. The whole plant. :—Stemless plant. yellow. Vatsanabhi. LOC. Bhuichampa . spathe 7. DISTR.. Kanara. COM. L. FAM. Alkaddu. Sk. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—15-37.5 cm. M. Kaddu. FAM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. furrowed. t. CHAR. :—M. L. diam. long.— sweetly fragrant.. Danta-bija. Fl. Tumbaka.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. very poisonous . Kadu—Mithi tumbi. Ceylon. semicylindric. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. creeping. midrib very stout. COM. H. Nelasampige . HABITAT :—Cultivated. oblong. Malay Islands. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. used in the form of poultice.. FAM. Calabash.— inflorescence. . female cylindric. Halagumbala. remedy for itch. promotes suppuration. inflorescence of many ovaries.. Dudio Tumbada. Cochin.—narrowly oblong.5 X 5-12.—30X7. petiole as long as blade. :—E. :—An aquatic herb.. Dudhya bhopala.

DISTR. cooling. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. Arjuna. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. scalding of urine. aphrodisiac. PARTS-USED :—Root. alexiteric. Challa. bitter variety is diuretic. anti-bilious. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. K. lessens inflammations. wholesome to fœtus. Malaya. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . in many cases only cultivated. Tarul. Assam. fruits and seeds. oleaginous. diuretic. LOC. Taman. cardiac and general tonic. brain-tonic. Holematti. USES :— Leaves are purgative. DISTR. cures leucorrhoea. improves taste. cause haemoptysis. COM. wild (rarely). Flesh of fruit is diuretic. leaves. Sk. Seeds emetic (Yunani). earache. vulnerary. Fruit good in bronchitis. bark. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. styptic. . Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. Ceylon. earache. :—H. refrigerant and anti-bilious. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. fattening. Flowers cooling.) FAM. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. pains (Ayurveda). In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. emetic. Arjuna. In the Andamans. Bark and leaves are purgative. fruits and seeds. dry cough. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . bitter. See—Timbers. seeds are narcotic. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. LOC. China. See—Vegetables. antipyretic. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. leaves. Konkan Ghats. increases "Vata". LOC. causes bronchitis. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness.—Lythraceæ. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. There are two varieties. ulcers. Nirbendeka: M. LOC:—North Kanara and S. sweet. flatulence. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. cures blood diseases. muscular pains. Seeds—good for hot constitution. :—Western Peninsula. laxative. inflammations. anti-periodic. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. bronchitis. piles. cures asthma. fever. flowers. "Vata". Ornamental Plants. Bandhara.

NS. NS. silky beneath. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. FAM. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. glabrous above. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels.. :—W.—Thymelaeaceæ. M.5 X 2-2. Mehndi. G. DISTR. NS. Henna plant. causes much flatulence. subsessile. Chickling—White vetch. Lakh. Yavaneshta. common on the Supa Ghats. pain. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Tree mignonette. cooling.—ellipsoid-oblong. Rametha. yellow. Gorantha. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Medika. Country. pointed. diam. inflammation. bark mottled. Fl. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—opposite or scattered. Triputi. Basu). heart-troubles. M. :—E. FAM. COM. removes "Kapha" and biliousness.5 cm. N. Grains contain vitamin A. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. The bark is used to poison fish. :—E. Ragangi. D. G. Nakharanjaka. Medi. t. Fl. common at Mahabaleshwar. S. See—Food Plants. swellings etc. Latri. K. COM. :—E. but dangerous cathartic. Rami. Lang. COM. Peninsula—Ceylon. Belgaum hills . Madaranga. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. LOC.. lameness. Sandika. DISTR. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. perianth-tube densely silky villous . . CHAR. Khesari. oblong lanceolate. Sk. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. Mukute. L.—Dec-May. Mendi. improves taste.—Lythraceæ.5-3. LOC. Kanara. oblong flat. FAM. lobes 4. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Deccan hills. Fr. burning.8 cm. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . :—A much branched large shrub. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. Sk. enclosed in the perianth . :—Konkan southwards.—in erect. (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. dense terminal heads 2. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Kassar. (B. Wooly-headed gnidia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). M. Kukurgal. tonic. piles and wandering of the mind. 5-7. K.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene.

—angular. Masur. useful in headache. Ragadali. H. useful. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . lateral branches 4-gonous. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. many. lumbago. ophthalmia. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. planted as hedge. Leaves—bitter. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast.—Apl-July. ulcers. often ending in spinous point. COM. cure insanity (Ayurveda). The oil and essence keep the body cool. FAM. Masur. boils. NS. Flowers are refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic.—capsule. cure leucoderma. Belgaum and Poona districts. bronchitis.). enriches blood. LOC. scabies. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". LENS ESCULENTA Moen. L. favours hair-growth. finger nails and hair. PROPERTIES. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. :—E. Sura. diseases of spleen. Chanangi. globose. LOC. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . LOC. :—Grown in Nasik. DISTR. supported by persistent calyx. HABITAT:—Cultivated. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. fragrant. wild in Arabia. improve appetite. Masuridal. in diseases of heart and of . Asia. Ceylon. dysentery. Gabholika. stomatitis. syphilitic sores.—in terminal. expectorant. E. M. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. skin diseases . Massur. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. Fr. Gurubija. seeds. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. veined outside. diuretic. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. flowers.—opposite. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). white or rose coloured . cure strangury tumours. indigenous in S. pyramidal and panicled cymes. K. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). amenorrhœa. Sk. allay burning sensation. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. The plant contains a glucoside. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. Fl. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. See—Dyes. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. Lentil. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. Masura. diuretic. Iran and Baluchistan. Europe and in temperate W. t. G. Fl. truncate. mucronate. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. & Gib. vulnerary.

Asia. LOC. They contain vitamin B. bitter. chest complaints. affections of spleen. Allibija. often with linear segments . the lower petiolate. Grains contain vitamins A and B. L. :—Cultivated throughout India. Chandrika.—Cruciferæ.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). bronchitis. Asahio. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Hot and dry. See-Food Plants. bechic. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. stomatitis . leaves and seeds. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). PARTS USED :—Root. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Hurfi. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. Ashalika. upper sessile. K. tonic. Kurutige. laxative. DISTR. tumours and injuries. galactagogue. enrich blood. aphrodisiac. eye diseases (Ayurveda). H. Halim. :—An erect glabrous annual. NS. FAM. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. LOC.—small. :—E. Seeds—indigestible. aphrodisiac . bronchitis. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). very likely indigenous in W. Suvasura. good for pain in abdomen. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. constipating. Ahaliva. and muscular pains. rheumatism. white. The covering is styptic and astringent. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. Leaves are used as pot-herb. M. . Garden cress . Fr. Chandrashura. Sk. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. cures dysentery . cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. aperient. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chavnsar. good in inflammations. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Raktabija. Seeds contain fatty oil. Halim . C—petals 2-4 or 0. G. useful in diseases of chest. COM. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. diuretic. See—Vegetables. They are mucilaginous and laxative. tonic. LOC. blood and skin diseases. Fl. CHAR. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn.

Fr.— globose. M.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. PARTS USED :—Bark. L. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). 7. dysentery. Medini. LOC. cure leprosy.:—E. Sk. Haimwati. COM. Seeds—mucilaginous. bark somewhat corky. Maidelakri. . lenticellate. flowers. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. Tisi.. Sedhavi. seeds and oil. "Pitta". common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. Madagandha. lead to impotency. yellowish. hot. used in consumption. boils. t. tonic. Jivanika. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. hard to digest. Garbijaur. leaves. Alshi. glossy dark-green above.—Lauraceæ. Fl. Sk.:—A small evergreen tree. Alasi. supported by the thickened pedicel. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria.5 mm. H. Fl. H. black. good for cough and kidney troubles. colds and throat complaints. bad for eyesight. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. diuretic. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. Maidalakadi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Alsi. aphrodisiac . LOC. heal ulcers. urinary discharges . perianth lobes wanting. LOC. Alashi. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Common flax. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. M. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. base narrowed. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. emmenagogue. FAM. Linseed. bronchitis. Javas . remove "Vata". :—Cultivated throughout India. CHAR. usually alternate. K. Tailottama. inflammations. DISTR. burnt bark styptic and healing. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. G. Kanara. Common tallow laurel. Roasted seeds are astringent. Alashi. 8-12 together in heads. "Kapha".:—Throughout the Konkan and N.—Linaceæ.—crowded at the ends of branches.—May-July. NS. COM. native country probably Egypt. Fibres. causes loss of appetite. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. See—Oils. NS. galactagogue. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. FAM. remove biliousness. branchlets densely tomentose. Alsi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. aphrodisiac. gouty and rheumatic swellings. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Seeds contain vitamin A. M. urinary complaints. pale beneath. :—E. diam. Country. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient.. back-ache. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Malina. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda).

Sthulanala. Ghontali. leaves. aphrodisiac. Nali. Australia. Deccan and S. bitter. acrid. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. long. diseases of blood. M. Kahire. H. fever. burning sensation. G. nearly sessile. Kalahogesoppu. Ceylon. Sk. Devanala.9 cm. LOC. Country. bark. midrib white. G. hollow. Kadudodka. many. Dhaval. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. AMARA Clarke. heating. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. FAM. paralysis. 3 usually connate throughout . thirst.-Mar. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in inflammations. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . Katukoshataki. biliousness. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. lanceolate. L. expectorant. DISTR. Ridge gourd. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.—Cucurbitaceæ. Karvituri. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. diuretic. Mrityupushpa. very small. 2. lobes linear. Sd. COM.2-3 m. K. Ranturai. C—2-lipped. much curved. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. Jhinga. . opening by 2 valves.—. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Devnal. Dhamana. Wild tobacco. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.—alternate. Kandele.100 m.—capsule. useful in biliousness. Malay Islands. throat troubles. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. t. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. :—E. It acts as anodyne. leprosy (Ayurveda). Bibhishana. cure cough. 1. branched upwards.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. CHAR. strangury. aphrodisiac. LOC. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. consumption. tonic. finely serrulate. Leaves are mucilaginous. galactagogue. Fl. NS. overheated brains.—Lobeliaceæ. stem stout. fruits and seeds. long. vagina. uterus. Narttaka. erysipelas (Ayurveda). burning sensation. :—E.—numerous. aphrodisiac. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Fl. lower much longer. stomachic. light green. COM. Root—astringent. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. :—Konkan. Fr. NS. M. Narsala. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. "vata". heart. all oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. subglobose. Nal. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. yellowish brown .in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. SK. H. spleen diseases. Jalini. pains in joints. K.5-3.—Nov. high. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". FAM. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . M. Divali. bronchitis. white. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice.

base cordate. 5-7 lobed.. piles. liver complaints. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. piles. C. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). tonic to intestines. 10-ribbed. Madhya Pradesh. COM. Hunage. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). solitary in the same axil as males. jaundice. flowers and fruits. NS. Kanara (rare) . biliousness. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Leaves. thick. Fruit cures fever. LOC. recommended in splenic enlargement. Mowda. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. "Kapha". Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). Mahua. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. cough. Pokka. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. diuretic. obtusely conical at both ends. inflammations. cathartic. asthma. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. bronchitis.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Butter tree. hydrogogue.—monœcious. Mahula. thrives in Deccan trap. LOC. leaves. Madhuka. fruit and seeds. . H. t. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. tonic and diuretic. Fl. Fr. useful in rat-bite. long and about 2. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. cures urinary discharges. also in Konkan and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. tuberculous glands. females. Mahura. uterine and vaginal tumours . Sk. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. ascites. W. acrid. carminative. Mahua tree. Moha. G. pale green. at first whitish and softly villous. palmate. Fl. DISTR. stems 5-angled. Mowa. PARTS USED :—Bark.—Sapotaceæ. Madhusrava. DISTR. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). haemorrhoids and leprosy. tumours. laxative. leucoderma. bitter.—Sept. USES. Mhowra. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. tendrils usually 3-fid.—petals yellow with green veins . cures "Vata". Gudapushpa. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel.—small. especially in western Peninsula. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. M. 5-10 cm. anæmia. at length scabrid.—obovoid. K.53.) FAM. Doddippa. Bengal to the W. :—Plant is bitter. asthma.8 cm. digestible. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Root-bark is abortifacient. bitter. Ceylon. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. Mahuda. :—Throughout India.:—A large climber. Burma. LOC. :—E.

Honey tree. often planted. Movanuhjad. bronchitis.—Sapotaceæ. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. :—Konkan. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Kapilo. Mohwa. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Kamala. Kapila. LOC. cures blood diseases. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Karnatic. tonic and nutritive. Oils. There is a trace of alkaloid. heals wounds . M. Ippe. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. India . MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. and Upper Burma. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. Mehua. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kapila. Movaro. . honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. and Kanara. expectorant. H. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. flowers act as a mild purgative. Hullichillu. used in fractures. Monkey-face tree. anthelmintic. Mysore. Mahuva of S. Sk. Flowers are regarded as cooling. astringent. Moha. K. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. consumption. leprosy. LOC. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. Flower—sweet. carminative. flowers and oil. burning sensation. Kesarimavu.) FAM. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. fatigue . :—Western peninsula. good in heart diseases. H. causes "Kapha". rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Kambhal Raini. fixed oil and a spirit. Madhuka. yields two important products. cures biliousness. M. G. Liquors.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Ceylon. Fruit-tonic . K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. thirst.—Euphorbiaceæ. FAM. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections.. :—E. fattening. DISTR. NS. Oils. ulcers. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Huli. Famine Plants. COM. COM. cooling. and appetiser (Sushruta). tonic. :—-E. Kampillaka. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Mohache jhad. See—Timbers. Oil—emollient (Yunani). USES :—Astringent and emollient. aphrodisiac. G. NS. Flowers—oleaginous. Shendri. Sk. and also a remedy for itch. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. galactagogue. Mahuda.

biliousness. Bihar. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. Kamarasa. chronic dysentery and gleet. astringent to bowels. Mavin-mara. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. spleen. bad blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. removes bad smell from mouth. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. China. Sahakara. useful in skin-diseases. Fruit—heating. Introduced. "Kapha". dysentery. heals ulcers. "Pitta". maturant. tonic. Amri. vermifuge and. leaves. wild and cultivated. DISTR. Amba. stone in bladder. Sikkim. good in dysentery. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. See—Timbers. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. aphrodisiac. Dyes. good in heart trouble. it exudes a pink coloured gum. Ceylon. LOC.—Anacardiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. vomiting. Mango tree. Mavu. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). laxative. throat troubles. K. NS. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. leaves. Kanara. LOC. Ghats and the Satpudas. enriches blood. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. useful in bronchitis. Cuckoo's Joy. improves cough. purgative. clears brain. cure "Vata". Amra. COM. H. :—Tropical Himalayas. lessen intestinal pains. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Khasia Hills. cultivated throughout the State. Burma. Chuta. Ambo. G. flowers. Australia. detergent. cause flatulence and constipation. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). in "Tridosh". liver pain. vulnerary. diseases of abdomen. a good collyrium (Yunani). fruits and seeds. DISTR. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. dispels langour and burning of body. cure leucorrhoea. tonic to body. ulcers. Malay Islands. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). used in chronic diarrhœa. improve taste and appetite. Bhutan. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. Gum . :—Throughout tropical India. Am. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). piles. improves complexion. appetiser. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. beautifies complexion. thirst. urinary discharges. fruits and seeds. cooling. purgative. sweet. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. M. Astringent. cooling. :—E. stomachic. Sind. FAM. hiccup. alexiteric. anthelmintic. diuretic. anthelmintic. tumours. Seeds-astringent to bowels. :—-Throughout the State. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. sour. good in cough. styptic. carminative. Rasala. wounds. liver. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Sk. styptic. vaginal troubles. LOC.

CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. burning sensation. pale yellowish brown. cooling. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. tumours. t. See—Timbers.) FAM. Khandodi. useful in diseases of eye. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Nimba. :—Bengal. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Hari. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Nakchhikni.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. LOC. Limbada. astringent to bowels. Nimla. Nim or Margosa tree. G. margined. NS. biliousness. flattened. It is also anthelmintic. NS. Nimbaka. :—-E. LOC. cures "Vata". Sk. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark.—rotate with broad lobes.—Asclepiadaceæ. leucoderma. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. inflammations. Ripe fruit is laxative.3-15 X 4. older branches ash coloured. all plains districts of Madras State.5-11. rat-bite (Ayurveda).—many. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. fleshy. Fr.. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. antipyretic. piles.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. Kadulimb. Nimba. good for dyspepsia. stops nasal bleeding. alexiteric. asthma. Limbra. if snuffed. C. COM. Kharkhodi. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Bevu. long. with lenticels and black dots. 7. USES. Fruit Trees. useful in bleeding piles. Dugdhike . coma copious . Ambri. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. few glands above the petiole cordate .138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. Ceylon. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Country. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses.—broadly ovate.5-10 cm. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Nim. COM. Sd. H. Madhumalati. Hemajyoti-valli. DISTR.—Meliaceæ. rugosely striate. Dodi. Harandori. L. M. urinary discharges. :—Deccan and S. Balant nimba. aphrodisiac. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic.—6. Juss. K. Assam. M. H. Sk. green or yellowish green. :—G. :—A large twining shrub. Paribhadraka.—follicles. Confection made from ripe mango juice. overlapping to the right.) FAM. M. Suparnika. K. corona lobes large. Fl. . Java.—Apl. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.5 cm. Fl. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Juice of kernel.

anthelmintic. anthelmintic. maturant. expectorant. Ranmethi. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . See—Timbers. carminative. asthma. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. rheumatism . Tonic. cures ulcers and inflammations . MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. skin diseases. good in ophthalmia. convalescence." vomiting. Vanmethika. and loss of appetite. lessens inflammation. piles. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. Small melilot. chronic leprosy. good for leprosy. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. leucoderma. . cough. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. DISTR. Oils. The flowers are stimulant. insecticidal. LOC. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. maturant. Banmethi. fever. aphrodisiac. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . leprosy. pectoral. relieves "Kapha". it is a general vermifuge. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. leaves. H. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). it is also used internally as anthelmintic. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. for unhealthy ulcers. resolvant. astringent. FAM. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. PARTS USED :—Root. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. tonic. "pittadosh. urinary discharges. thirst. bruises. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. burning sensation near heart. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. COM. flowers. lumbago. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. bark. tumours. stimulant and stomachic. toothache. blood complaints. M. Burma. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. general debility. fatigue. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. sprains. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature.. valuable in consumption. bad taste in the mouth. useful in syphilitic sores. Sk. :—E. swollen glands. refrigerant. boils. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . biliousness. stomachic. earache. tonic and antiperiodic. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). NS. piles. fruits and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). antiperiodic. alexiteric. like a weak solution of carbolic acid.

MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. 30-45 cm. t. LOC.—one. Khasia.. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. . PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. deltoid-ovate entire. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda).—Labiatæ. young parts white-hairy. base cordate.—3-foliate. Fr. FAM. Fl. tendrils simple. brown. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. standard exceeding the wings and keel. given as a gruel (Murray). Malaya and Africa. DISTR.—variable in size. poultice or plaster for swellings. finally red. Fl. "Sikkim. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . Bilari.—pod. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. glabrous or slightly hairy. oblanceolate. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. slightly echinulate. at first green and variegated with yellow. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. FAM. :—Western Peninsula. LOC.—size of a pea. Fl. introduced into many other regions. females sessile.—small. H. Sd. Afghanistan. Ghugri. very hispid . :—H. leaflets toothed. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. :—An erect annual herb. DISTR. rounded. COM. Pudinah. NS. Pudina. :—India (tropical zone). Externally used as a fomentation. tapering at both ends. NS. especially in strained back. K. HABITAT :—In hedges. Iran. north Bengal.—pale yellow. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. stem angular. male fascicled on short peduncles. :—E. M.— Jany. scabrid. Europe. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Ceylon. also in S. lobes dentate or serrate . ellipsoid. Country and Gujarat. :—Common in Deccan. M.—Cucurbitaceæ. Corn-March mint. CHAR. high. G. leaves and seeds. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Pudina. in spicate close racemes. L. Fr. oblong-ellipsoid.—monœcious . truncate at the apex. Agamaki. COM. of terminal rather long. glabrous. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. M. Chatinmaragu. Assam.

Fr. stem short. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. expectorant. Kanara. Europe. Ceylon. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. used for cough. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. Assam Iron-wood. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. tonic to kidneys . C. Fl. hiccup. vomiting. Nagchapha. LOC. :—Western Himalayas. E. sorethroat. the upper similar and large. cardiotonic. Carminative. leaves. China.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR.—nutlets dry. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. Nagsampige. foul breath.—sub-equally 4-lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Nagakeshara. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Assam. cough.—in axillary distant whorls. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Kashmir. ovate.—Guttiferæ. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. LOC. North and West Asia. S. MESUA FERREA Linn. H. :—E. biliousness. oblong. indigestion and cephalagia. Nagkesara. lilac. stalked. Suvarna. skin diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. toothed. LOC. and stimulant. Himalayas. sweats. DISTR. lined with hairs and hairy outside. LOC. The plant is used in chutneys. Burma Tenasserim. flowers and fruits. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). binding. Sk. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. M. NS. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). :—A perennial erect herb . headache. good in asthma and sweats. dry. alexipharmic. lanceolate. Nagkesara. asthma. Ceylon Iron-wood. good for fevers. Naghas. Andamans. none at the top. . digestive. Oils. Country. emmenagogue. In N. FAM. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. Travancore. DISTR. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. L. Nagkinjalka. thirst. smooth. infusion is given in fevers. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. K. blood and heart troubles. See—Timbers.-narrowed below. Konkan and N. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. :—E. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Bengal. Gums and Resins. USES :—Root. pains in joints (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Bark. small tumours. hairy. diuretic.

useful in cough. sensative. Ghats. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). acrid. Risemani. H. diuretic. rheumatism. petioles hairy. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. remove biliousness. rheumatism. NS. clothed with glandular hairs . flowers and fruits. NS. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa.—bipin-nate. See—Timbers. Fruit.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. Sensitive plant. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. blood affections. India. Sone-chapha. pink. Champaka. :—A diffuse under-shrub. G. removes worms. good in leprosy. in globose heads.. K. Hem-pushpa. M. Fl. . Muthmurika. also used as purgative. Burma. pinnae 1-2 pairs. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Lajjavati. FAM. stems and branches sparingly prickly. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Humble plant. Fl. aphrodisiac. Yunnan. FAM. destroys poisons. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose.—Magnoliaceæ. K.5 cm. IndoChina. "Kapha". Sampige. digitate. cultivated. "Vata". DISTR. bark. slightly recurved. ophthalmia..—4-merous. L. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Champa.—Sept. hairy beneath. gout. W. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. 45-90 cm. Champaka. leaflets 15-20 pairs.-pod flat. bile. Flowers-stomachic. COM. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). evergreen rain-forest of N. Champo. diaphoretic. stimulant. Lajjika. Yellow champa . Surabhi. Pilochampo. t. leaves. Lajari. 57. Assam. Lajalu. Fr. nausea and fevers . LOC. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Suvarna champaka. Sankochini. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. CHAR. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Golden champa. Champaka. H. Dyes. facilitates micturition. LOC. :—E. :—Cultivated all over the State. S. Vanamallika. Sparshalajja. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. near temples and in gardens. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. high. Sk. Sonchampo. G. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Pivala chapha. Lajja. in vertigo. long. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Nachike-gidda. Flowers— expectorant. Lajalu. M.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). COM. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Kanara. glabrous above. diuretic. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Raktamula. Lajalu. Sk. :—E.-Oct. rachis bristly.

acrid. Fruit causes flatulence. smallpox (Yunani). Bakul. leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. headache. Root. fruits and seeds. Ceylon. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. cures biliousness. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. piles. Ranjal. nose diseases. leprosy. cultivated in the tropics. Bakula. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). liver complaints. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Seeds fix loose teeth. LOC. Bakul. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . It is also resolvent and alterative. Varsuli. stomachic. cures "Kapha". Juice is applied externally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. vulnerary. :—G. often planted in gardens. Baphuli. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. alexipharmic. biliousness. cultivated in gardens in pots. dysentery. DISTR. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. ulcers. Malaya. astringent to bowels. :—Naturalised throughout India. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. PARTS USED :—Root. Mukul. in piles and fistula. Anangaka. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. bark. cure blood diseases. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. K. Bolsari.—Sapotaceæ. M. Flowers—expectorant. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. teeth and gum diseases. In Brazil root is used as emetic. NS. asthma. inflammations. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Bark cardiotonic. Kanara and Konkan. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in blood and bile diseases. jaundice. COM. cure biliousness. vaginal and uterine complaints. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Vovali. good for gonorrhœa. Sharadika. alterative. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. fatigue. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. anthelmintic. alexipharmic.:—Western Peninsula. Root is resolvent. bilious fevers. blood diseases (Ayurveda). leucoderma. FAM. Sk. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. burning sensation. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. DISTR. Flowers give taste. H. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. LOC. Mugule. oleaginous. cooling. Kalhala. cooling. flowers and fruits acrid. flowers. Kanara. probably a native of tropical America. LOC. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Bakul. sweet. Mulsari. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). Borsalli.

Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Leaves are maturant. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Marvel of Peru. . Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. Fl. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Karala. K. DISTR. yellow. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. CHAR.—large. Karelo. Karavalli. COM. Karli. Hagalkai. M. and rather fleshy stems . Four o'clock plant. Fruit Trees. Karela. Krishnakali.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. NS. good for syphilitic sores. FAM. Hagala. COM. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. blackish. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. :—E. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. LOC. Fr.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Sk. :—A herbaceous plant.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. HABITAT -Cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. G. FAM. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Guleaabbas . H. Sk. often ribbed or rugose. See—Timbers. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery.—E. Sandhya-kali or Raga. L. it is applied to relieve headache.—Nyctaginaceæ. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. cordate. 30-75 cm. native of tropical America.—continually in bloom. NS. Karela. Kandura. Fl. t. H. Oils. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. M. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . It is also tonic and febrifuge. LOC. Carella fruit. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape.—membranous. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Gulbasa . MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. K. each one surrounded by an involucre. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. Kareli. Chandra—Sanjimallige. lessen inflammations (Yunani). :—Grown throughout India.

ulcers. Gid-hagalu. etc. anthelmintic. "Kapha". asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. Fruit—bitter. FAM. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. anthelmintic. eye and heart. Karehiballi. tonic. appetiser. M. and externally in ague as an absorbent. carminative. urinary discharges. Country and Gujarat. antibilious. piles. digestible. anthelmintic. Nagarali. NS. hearttroubles. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. rheumatism. :—Cultivated throughout India. blood diseases. hiccup. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). lessens expectoration . used in syphilis. boils. :—Throughout India. Kantolan. leaves and fruit. diseases of spleen and liver. cures biliousness. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. B and C. Fruits contain vitamins A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. Leaves—aphrodisiac. laxative. and America. urinary calculi. longpepper. urinary discharges. Plant cures diseases of blood. also in Malaya. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. Fruit is tonic. Golkandra. tumours. See—Vegetables. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. Malaya. leprosy. Kanta.'. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. . Karkotaki. HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is useful in gout. stomachic. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . COM. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. Kartoli. cure "Vata". Beksa. :—G. hot alexiteric. S. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. LOC. burns. antipyretic. China. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. H. cure "Tridosh". Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. DISTR. sparingly in Konkan. Leaves act as galactagogue. tropical Africa. leaves and fruit. Fruit— bitter. rheumatism. Vishakankini. LOC. jaundice etc. K. erysipelas (Ayurveda). bronchitis. Kantoli. excessive salivation. PARTS USED :—Root. cooling. M. bronchitis. DISTR. stomachic. piles. all kinds of poisoning. Sk. laxative. aphrodisiac. Fruit—very bitter. asthma. fever consumption. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. anæmia. Vandhya. laxative and authelmintic. stomachic.

ulcers. useful in heart-complaints. Tagase . The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Burma. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Al. fattening. makes blood impure . PARTS USED :—Root. all "tridosha" fevers. HABITAT :—Cultivated . alexiteric. Formosa. DISTR. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. See—Vegetables. Haladipavate. Ugra. :—E. NS. Mulgule. "Kapha". Achi. also wild. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. Ak. FAM. Achchuka. M. Mochaka. eye diseases. tumours. Introduced var. See—Dyes. PARTS USED :—Root. fruits and seeds. H. tuberculous glands in neck. biliousness . K.—Rubiaceæ. Segua. Ainshi.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. flowers. :—E. Guggala. removes all kinds of pains. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . K. spleen enlargement. digestible. Saraoji. Nuggi. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. China. Shevaga. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. "Vata". LOC. dyspepsia. Ab. emmenagogue. causes burning sensation.—Moringaceæ. cultivated throughout India and Burma. DISTR. also in the Oudh forests. Munigha. Ashyuka. inflammations. Aal. Drum-stick Tree. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. analgesic. Indian horse radish . Famine Plants. LOC. Indian mulberry. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Sargavo. Rochana. G. Sajina. Mochaka. aphrodisiac. Murangi. NS. . improves appetite. COM. FAM. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. anthelmintic. COM. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Bartondi. Sk. H. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. G. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stuttering. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Seglo. astringent to bowels. M. leaves and fruits. Tikshnamula. bark. earache. Sk.

. cooling. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. salt and pepper. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. bronchitis. appetiser. See—Fruit Trees. gout. anthelmintic. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. obstinate asthma. carminative. Gums and Resins. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. Peninsula. MORUS INDICA Linn. expectorant. sweetish. spleen. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Madhu pippali. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. laxative. :—E. Tut. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. White mulberry. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. The plant contains an alkaloid. Kanara. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. lumbago. diuretic. heart. wounds. burning sensation (Ayurveda). Tuta. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. good for brain. K. fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Tut. DISTR. LOC. FAM. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. enriches blood. good for inflammations of throat and chest. expectorant. COM. useful in small-pox. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). rheumatism. enlarged spleen or liver. diuretic. M. enriches blood. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. epilepsy and hysteria. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. Seeds yield a fixed oil. it is cooling laxative. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. common about villages in N. Tuda. Ambat. with garlic. Siahtut.—Moraceæ. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. biliousness. loss of appetite. cures gleet. Oils. urinary discharges. aromatic and acid flavour. ulcerated intestines. bark. Kambali. NS. H. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. Shetur. PARTS USED :—Root. increases biliousness. turmeric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. Fruits contain vitamins A. aphrodisiac. See—Vegetables. Karihannu. Leaf paste. sour. diarrhœa. Tutri. leaves and fruit. G. stomatitis. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). lumbago. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . piles. Fibres. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Sk. Fruit—tonic. B and C. Root is purgative. LOC. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies.

Sk. Sk. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. LOC. Kela. biliousness . Fr. COM. spermatorrhoea etc. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. t. flowers and fruit.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. tonic. lateral very unequal sided. DISTR. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Root—emmenagogue. cultivated. tonic. Turashi. DISTR. H. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. NS. dark-purple. HABITAT :—In hedges. Havanch. long. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda).3-11. Kela. Kunth. Strong root infusion. Kadali. cures blood diseases.—Scitaminaceæ. Banana. Himalaya up to 1200 m. Fl. FAM.—Oct-Nov. :—E. petioles 6. K. . Kavach. Kivanch. Maoz kela. sometimes cultivated. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. covered with tawny stinging hairs. laxative. Kadvare. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Kivanchha. Dirghapatra. Atmagupta.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sd.—in drooping racemes. Goncha. NS. grey-silky beneath. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. silky. Root useful for delirium in fevers.—pod. :—An annual twiner. Kavatch. L. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. which produce intensa irritation of skin.—5-6 small. LOC. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. leaflets membranous. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. juice given for headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Fl. :—Punjab plains. turgid-shaped. M.—3-foliate. stem. Nayi songuballi. K.3 cm. M.. Kela. terminal smaller. MUSA PARADISIACA L. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds— alexipharmic. Hasaguni. Plantain. HABITAT :—Humid areas . (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. pods and seeds. Adam's Fig. " Vata ".. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root. Var. Ceylon. SAPIENTUM O. Cowhage. G. LOC. Kuhili. COM.2 cm. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . Tikshna. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. improves blood. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Pods are covered with stiff hairs. H. leaves. with honey is given in cholera. Bale. 6-30 flowered. consumption. Kapikachu. Vanari. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Urustambha. They are used as anthelmintic.) FAM. Rambha. common in hedges. 5-7. :—E. G. CHAR.5x1.

Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. anthelmintic. :—H. causes bronchitis . See—Fruit Trees.. broad at base. indigestible . stipules twin. M. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Andamans. tonic. lobes broadly ovate. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. Assam. thickens blood. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. useful in "Kapha". Bedina. LOC. hairy. L. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Fruit—sweet. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. Fl. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. Kanara. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. heart-burn and colic. Ipparati. aphrodisiac. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . :—Konkan and N. tonic. Bellotti. leaves. Shrivalli. K. biliousness. increases appetite. in " Vata". FAM. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. appetiser. Fl. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. urinary discharges. Tropical Himalayas. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning.— July-Oct. Serwadh. Root-juice. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. C. Lawsat. COM. t. good for dry bronchitis.—Rubiaceæ. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. antidysenteric.—tubular.— berry. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Fibres. LOC. ear-pain. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. improves complexion (Ayurveda). :—A rambling shrub. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. blood diseases. B and C. menstrual disorders. tube slender. Fr. strangury. broadly elliptic. PARTS USES :—Root. diseases of uterus and vagina. CHAR.--in terminal cymes. Sk. astringent to bowels. Hastygida. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. in thirst. :—S. linear. deep golden yellow. very hairy outside. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. buds densely hairy. leprosy. diabetes. flowers and fruit. Burnt stem is vulnerary. astringent to bowels. pubescent. consumption and bronchitis. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. kidney troubles (Yunani). Nagavalli. subglobose.—opposite or 8nately whorled. sore-throat. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. and are used in acidity. Root-juice is anthelmintic. dyspepsia. NS. Bhutakes. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. . Kanara where there is heavy rainfall.

Habules. as . when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. NS. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. They are given in asthma. Condiments and Spices. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. :—Western Peninsula. :—E. FAM. Kaiphal.—berry.— Myristicaceæ. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. CHAR.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. small. ovate to lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Leaves. diuretic. DISTR. LOC. Malati. COM. Galen and the Arabian writers. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. allaying pain. applied locally to relieve pain. NS. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. LOC. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. L. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. Kamuka. emmenagogue. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malati. intermittent fevers and dropsy. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. H. COM. Kanara Ghats . :—A shrub. K.— solitary. See—Timbers. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). False nutmeg. It is credited with opposite qualities. Himalayas. black when ripe. smoke beneficial to piles. common in the Kumta taluka. W. white. A decoction is employed. enriches blood. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers.—small. Sk. Murad. promotes growth of hair. Ram-patri. Pliny. :—Konkan and N. It is used as a substitute for true mace. all over the State. especially epilepsy. Vilayantimendhi. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. is regarded as. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. M. Myrtle. ellipsoid. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. LOC. very sweet smelling. Fr. used in stopping vomiting. Dioscorides. DISTR. cures headache. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. axillary on slender peduncles. PARTS USED:—Seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. M. :— E. FAM. Malabar. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism.—Myrtaceæ. fruits and oil. Kanage. Fl. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver.

H. with slender. top flat.-Dec. erect. G. cells 2-seeded.-Nov. long. curved. petiole winged. elliptic. solitary or 2 together.. rough with distant prickles . Timpani. 0.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Papra-vel. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. LOC. COM. Ambuj. Sd. Sk. biliousness. Goanese ipecacuanha. axillary. petioles very long. ovoid. white or rosy. free. entire. Pankaja. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. L. K. radiately nerved. :—Konkan. L.—solitary. Suriyakamal. Kamal.3-0. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. t. dysentery. Padma. Aravinda. Belakanji. from Iran eastwards to Australia. :—E.. Nelanaringa .—membranous. diam. Padam. orbicular.—alternate. Tavari-bija or gadde. CHAR. Pitmari. petals 5. :—A small branching undershrub. torus 18 mm.—Meliaceæ. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin.—July. DISTR. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. alexiteric. Fl. NS. t. high. linear spathulate. M. Amlavalli.—Nymphæaceæ. Kamal. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. concave or cupped.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. Pundarika. :—A large aquatic herb. 3-foliate. ovoidglobose. . & A. Ripe carpels. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Fl. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Sarasija. anthers with clavate appendages. vulnerary. ulcers (Ayurveda). Kanara.) FAM. spongy. K. CHAR.—white. Chinese water-lily. Indian sacred lotus. glabrous. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. fleshy. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Sk. Fl. Kamal. bronchitis.6 m. peltate. M.—petals many 5-12. cures asthma. in diam.—pendulous. DISTR. leaves. Kamala. hæmorrhage.5 cm. Kandalu. stem. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Fr. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. :—E. COM. disk annular. elongate. C. See—Ornamental Plants. 10-25 cm.—capsule. NS. Kapurbhendi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. FAM. Ambuja. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. 3-valved. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. :—W. LOC. Kandabahula. Fl. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. muricate.

152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. 15-23 cm. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. Sind. at length separating. aphrodisiac. seeds. in fever and liverdiseases. useful in burning sensation of the body. honey. M. S. fever. leucoderma. Fl.—follicles. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). heart and brain tonic . Ashwa-marak. cures cough. PARTS USED :—Root. improves watery eyes (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Cool. leaves. Kanagile. Paddali. removes worms. linear-lanceolate. flowers. LOC. fragrant. strangury. COM. :—E. Kanel. ulcers and sores of mouth. Fr. Upper Gangetic Plains. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ".—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. See—Ornamental Plants. Waziristan. small-pox. also as a hedge plant. also recommended as cardiac tonic. diuretic. Filaments are astringent and cooling. tapering into short petiole. In China and Malaya dried red petals.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Karber. H. 10-15 cm. FAM. Kaner. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Sk. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . chest-pains. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. throat scaly. Sd. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. K. useful in piles. India. leaves. Salt Range. t. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts .—Apocynaceæ.—funnel-shaped. C. biliousness. Kanher. L. :—Madhya Bharat. astringent to taste . . lobes rounded. good in blood-complaints. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. NS. vomiting. slightly bitter. G. dark green and shining above. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . inflammations and poisoning. rigid. coriaceous. long. diseases of skin and eye . Pratihasa. LOC. DISTR. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. useful in fevers . used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . gives tone to breast. rose or white. allays thirst. Karvira. fruit. long. menorrhagia. allays thirst. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Fl. Cool. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. Sweet scented oleander. spermatorrhoea. stem. Karvira. good in throat-troubles. Baluchistan. planted in gardens throughout the State. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. also cholera. bleeding piles and menorrhagia.—in threes. CHAR. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . Vishavrikshanka.—red. Kaner. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. flowers.

Tobacco.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. tonic. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. disinfectant. lobes spreading. a mental stimulant. C. See—Ornamental Plants. USES :—All parts of plant. Tambak. K. laxative. Kalanja. dimness of sight. bronchitis. Bujjarbhang. good for lumbago. Sk. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. COM. Dhumrapatrika. inflammations. wounds. Tamakhu. also applied in leprosy.—alternate. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). sores. tubercular glands of neck. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. smoke constipating. M. DISTR. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. useful in bronchitis. sedative and emetic. water from hookha is diuretic. carminative. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). scabies. scabies (Yunani). LOC. CHAR. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). LOC. The plant contains a glucoside. :—E. inflammations. Root—aphrodisiac. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). Poisonous to fish.—Solanaceæ. about 1. PARTS USED :—Leaves. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Tamaku. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. very poisonous. useful in caries of teeth. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tabak. Fr.—capsule. are poisonous and are used externally.8 cm. foul nose. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. base wedgeshaped . across. Tamarakuthika. Fl. Tambakhu. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. An ointment made . anthelmintic. conical.—in open corymbose panicles . It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. NS. :—Native of America. emetic. cultivated in all tropical countries. M.—pink or white. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. Flowers— aphrodisiac. tonic. the surface is plain or bullate. large (especially lower ones). FAM. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. headache. H. LOC. caries of teeth. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. L. asthma. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. funnel-shaped. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Hoge soppu. especially root. skin diseases. nervous depression and sleeplessness. Krimighni. oblong or elliptic.

Nilophhal. a decoction of root. Indian Mourner : G. Parijataka. K. H. :—A large shrub or a small tree. LOC. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. obcordate or merely orbicular. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Aravind. G. K. Bengal. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. scalp affections etc. L. tonic to hair. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Burma. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. bark. Fl. Bilitavarai. Bark cures bronchitis. Madhya Bharat. Nyadale huvu . COM. Sk. useful in bilious fevers. Flowers have a bitter bad taste.—Oleaceæ. t.5-6. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. 2-celled. Nalkumkuma. C. Harsing. lessen inflammation. astringent-to bowels. FAM. Lotus. leaves. Parijata . in terminal trichotomous cymes. Alipriya. tube orange-coloured. M. axillary. Sephali. abundant July-Sept. bark.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours.—Nymphæaceæ. It is used with honey in chronic fever.. cures fevers.—capsule. Assam. PARTS USED :—Root. Har-singhar. Sephalika. rough above with bulbous hairs.— fragrant. young branches quadrangular. southwards to the Godavari. H. HABITAT :-Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . compressed. ovate acute. Shonapadma.—opposite 5-10x2. hairy. Chotakanwal. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine.) FAM. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. DISTR. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. M. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement.3 cm. NS. Cultivated in many parts of India. carminative. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Har. Kanwal. Fr. :—E. densely pubescent beneath. Kumuda. Lalkamal. Buds are tonic. COM. NS. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. solitary. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Jayaparvati. LOC.— more or less throughout the year. peduncles 4angled.—lobes white. Parijata. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. . Fl. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. stomachic. Prajakta. Sk. (Ayurveda). Kanval. flowers and seeds. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. :—E. Kharapatraka. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Prajakta.

Plant has a sharp. L. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Tukhamariya . bracts stalked.—peltate. FAM. :—Large aquatic herb . PARTS USED :—Roots.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. purple stem. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. Fr.— in whorled racemes . " Kapha". open in the morning only. Fl. and nigropunctate above. C. ripening beneath the water. long. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. Ramkasturi. rough. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn.—ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). Damaro. Sabja. deeply cordate at the base. Sd. diuretic. pink or purplish. LOC. diam.—petals about 12. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. Barbar. high.—all the year. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. Java. flowers and seeds. febrifuge. glabrous or pubescent. 8-13 mm. Sajjebija. Surasa. bitter. stomachic.. root stock tuberous. biliousness. emmenagogue. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. acute. fleshy. antipyretic . red. leaves. L. asthma. globose. cooling . petioles very long. Tungi. Sabja. peduncles very long . hot taste. leaves and flower.—Labiatæ. COM.5-20 cm. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. Africa. oblong. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Ceylon. C. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. submerged . toothed or lobed. Ajagandhika. NS. green. allays thirst. :—E. leucoderma. Philippines. Surabhi. enlarged spleen. Fr. anthelmintic. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. DISTR. alexipharmic. Bahari. diarrhœa and piles . entire. Sk. itch. useful in diseases of heart and blood. LOC. glabrous. stems and branches green or purplish. 7. Manjarki. Nasabo. roundish. aphrodisiac . Common sweet basil. white. improves taste . "Kapha". cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). filaments dilated at the base . M. Hungary.— ovoid. Burma. useful in diseases of heart and brain. LOC. removes impurities from blood . irregularly sinuate-dentate.6-0. "Vata". Fl. chronic pain in joints. thyrsiflora. G. Fl. H.9 m. diameter. 15-25 cm. short. erect. obtuse. Rihan. pale rose or white. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. lessens bile. cylindric. causes burning sensation. t.—3 cm. Var. ellipsoid.—2-lipped. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. DISTR. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . K. Sabzah. inflammations. Barbar. across. juice gives lustre to .—nutlets about 2 mm. black and pitted.—solitary. bitter taste. :—Var. stamens about 40. long. :—An erect herb 0. "Vata".

156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. heart.—Labiatæ.— in simple or branched racemes. aphrodisiac . Sk. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. liver and spleen. L. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. brown. During fever when the extremities are cold. stems and branches subquadrangular . On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. Rama-Ran tulasi. Country.8—5. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. :—Konkan.—6. elliptic-lanceolate. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. skin diseases.2—1. The flowers possess. LOC.—2-lipped. they are also aphrodisiac. rugose. gland-dotted. C.7 cm. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. " Vata".-July-Oct. Fr. :—E. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition.—nutlets subglobose. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. COM. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. removes foul breath. Ajaka. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. LOC. Fl. earache. diuretic and stimulant. pale greenish yellow. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. strengthens gums. It is also styptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. Rantulasi. lower lip longer.3—12. heating. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. " Kapha". :—Throughout India. Avachi-bavachi. woody below . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. diuretic and demulcent properties. M. branched. H. alexiteric. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). high. stimulant. strangury . good for toothache. useful in diseases of brain. often cultivated : Ceylon. FAM. CHAR. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. NS. S. fits. BanMal tulasi. Lemon—shrubby basil. rachis quadrangular . aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. Sumukha. DISTR. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. carminative. sharp taste . coarsely crenate-serrate. G. inflammations. M. good for griping and piles (Yunani). for which the juice warmed with honey is given. LOC. young ones pubescent. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor.. 1. :—A perennial shrub. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. headache. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. . useful in vomiting. Plant has bitter.8 m. Gujarat. Large basil.5 X 3. pubescent. Java. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. in close whorls . t. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Ram Tulasi. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). Deccan.

and are given with honey. lumbago pains. COM. globose or pyriform . usually 2-3 cm. alexiteric. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Manjari. bronchitis.—pale brown. t.2 cm. FAM. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. vomiting. CHAR. Australia. Vishnuvallabha. lobes acute. Papli. entire or serrate. especially in children.—Labiatæ.— nutlets. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. LOC.—subsessile. stems and branches subquadrangular. Parapate. cholagogue. of children and in hepatic affections . Tulasi. antipyretic. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Fl. C. " Vata". yellow with black marking. Sk. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Fl. Tulasi. Country. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. Ceylon. stipules with bristles . " Kapha". :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Sk.—Rubiaceæ. West Asia. L. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. high. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Damanpaper. leucoderma. linear or linear-lanceolate. varying from 7. Arabia. obtuse or acute. pubescent. Kala tulasi. COM. clothed with soft hairs . Malay Archipelago. DISTR. useful in heart and blood diseases.—2-lipped.6— 3. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. LOC. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. high. Fl. :—An annual herb. :—G.—on filiform pedicels. Parpat. :—Konkan. bitter. FAM. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . :—An annual plant. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Krishna tulasi.:—E. elliptic-oblong.—Sept-Nov. H. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. Tropical E. long. HABIT :—A common weed. purulent discharge of ear. Suravallari. LOC. See—Sacred Plants.— capsule. G. upper lip pubescent on the back. Tulasa. Pavitra. Tulasi. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. :—Throughout India.—2.— in racemes 15-20 cm. purplish. hiccup. long in close whorls . painful eye. Fr. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. HABITAT :—Cultivated. smooth. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. H. angular. Vrinda. anthelmintic. . margins recurved and scabrous. 30-60 cm. stems numerous. heating. strangury. foul smells. M. M. M. purplish.5—38 cm. Deccan and S. NS. Phapti. PARTS USED :—Root. Asia to Java and the Philippines.5-5 X 1. DISTR. K. CHAR. stomachic. asthma. leaves and seeds. Fr. NS.. used in catarrh and bronchitis . minutely gland-dotted. Vranda.

Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma.5 mm. introduced into India.—Cactaceæ. reddish purple when ripe. cures bronchitis in children. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. FAM. Nagdali.—7. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. lumbago. M. NS. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. tumours. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. LOC. . when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). cures biliousness. Sher. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. loss of consciousness. K. " Vata". Sk. leucoderma. COM. urinary complaints. Plant bitter. across. Mullugalli. it is also used in liver complaints. subulate. LOC. rusty brown. Hathathoria. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. Snuka. pyriform. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. used in ophthalmia. 3 m. diuretic. Joints variable in size. rather thin. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . juice cures earache (Yunani). good for leucoderma. Fr. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Nagaphana. inner spathulate. Nagaphana. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. or more high. burning. yellow at the edges. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. carminative. Chorhothalo. largest 3. alexiteric. purgative. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. Zhoratheylo. inflammations. laxative. H. cures inflammations. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. obovate or elliptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . liver complaints. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). antipyretic. spleen enlargement. angular or warty. dull bluish-green. flowers and fruits. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. digestive. anæmia. reddish at the tips. stomachic. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. :—E. ascites. Nagaphani. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm.— berry. DISTR. spleen enlargement. perianth rotate. Slipper thorn. long. Vajrakantaka. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. yellow or orange. long.5 cm. vesicular calculi. Nagadru. G. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. carminative. CHAR.—5 cm. Plant juice—heating. ulcers.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Phadyanivdung. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. Fl. L. xerophyte. recurved. piles. Prickly pear. Grown as hedge.

R. appetiser. improves appetite. Seeds are purgative. M. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. dysentery. M. tonic. :—E.). Tetu. :—The Konkan and the N. G. M. Malaya. bronchitis. useful in " Vata". Chaval. COM. biliousness. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Shali. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Araluka. It is astringent and tonic. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). PARTS USED :—Grain. Tetu. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Mokka. Ceylon. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. FAM. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. improves taste.S. HABITAT :—Aquatic. inflammations. G. LOC. Chokha. DISTR. vomiting. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. FAM. anal troubles. Rice . Nivara. Tuntaka. aphrodisiac. NS. See—Timbers. Dirghavrinta. Fruit—acrid. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. sweet. Tandula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Sk. Ava. LOC. LOC. Indian trumpet flower. tonic. :—Widely cultivated. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels . The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. piles. H. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Fruit—expectorant. Alangi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Kanara ghats . fevers. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. intestinal worms. leucoderma. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Tetu.—Gramineæ. stomachic. cooling. useful in biliousness . DISTR. Ghats. Bhat. fattening. H.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Dyes. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Ullu. diuretic. Pharri. Cochin-China. Tans.—Bignoniaceæ. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. K. oleaginous. bronchitis (Ayurveda). good in heart and throat diseases. Vrihi. Mayarjangha. Tandula. Akki. Bagi. K. LOC. COM. anthelmintic. Podval. Shyonaka. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. asthma. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Arlu. K. NS. :—E. Rice.

In dysentery. Dugdhika. linear-oblong.—Oxalidaceæ. It is an excellent application to abscesses. stems rooting. M. See—Food Plants. Dudhialata. t. FAM. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. Dudhialata. LOC. :—Throughout the State. bruised.— many. long. Sd. Fl. buboes. Dudhani. leaflets 1. H. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). COM. pubescent. yellow. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). ovoid. K. Dudhari. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. good appetiser . USES :—Leaves have been used in fever.— Oct-May. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. Fl. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. transversely striate. LOC. boils. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Ambuti. dysentery and scurvy. ulcers. Amrul. C. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. PARTS USED :—Leaves. base cuneate subsessile. DISTR. bowels or kidneys. :—G. easy to digest. M. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R.—axillary. to which a little lemon juice is added. Br. FAM. K. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. obcordate. Ambastha. H. Kshiravi. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. COM. margins ciliate. diarrhœa. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. small-pox. Indian Sorrel. Ceylon. Rice water. astringent. Amlalonika.5 cm.—Asclepiadaceæ. L. " Vata " and piles. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts .—palmately 3-foliate. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. beaked. It is a pleasant. inflamed piles. brown. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. Sk. Shuklika. CHAR. 5-angled. cures dysentery. removes " Kapha ". Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases.— capsule. :—E. Marudbhava. scarlet fever. Fr. rounded at the apex. also in burns and scalds. NS. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Dugdhica. gives great relief. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . The grains contain vitamin C. sub-umbellate . Dudhatani. . Kyirin . curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. oblong. Chukrita. Dugdhike. used externally. Sk.—petals 5. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . measles. if applied to chest.2—2. Jaladudhi. Changeri. NS.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. petioles very slender.

—deciduous. expectorant. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. DISTR. Sundarbans.3 cm. scabies.5 m. :—E. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. lobes ciliate. Ketgi. milky juice. somniferous. Leaves are useful in leprosy. heat of body. diseases of heart and brain. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). fruit and oil from bracts. Fr.8 mm. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Burma.—dioecious. Fl.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. L. corona staminal. long. tonic. :—Konkan. female flower spadix solitary. often planted. bitter. anthers. long. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn.8-6. strikingly handsome. LOC. yellow or red. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . Ketaki. cough. CHAR.9—1. syphilis. HABITAT :—Usually near water. Deccan. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. . rarely erect. leaves. anthelmintic. Java. indigestible. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). Fr. black. small-pox. stem supported by aerial roots . S. stems many. coma present. t. Flowers improve complexion.5-9 cm. PARTS USED :-Root. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. thin. gonorrhœa. Kevada. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. pain.—very numerous. aphrodisiac. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Gandha-pushpa.—glaucous green. high. Anthers useful in pruritus. L. M. causes flatulence. X 3. Fruit—tonic. M. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. K. aphrodisiac. Kanara. pain in the muscles. laxative.— large. dry. useful in strangury and tumours. " Kapha ".—follicles. purple veined. Kanara. Fl.—Pandanaceæ. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. G. pale rose or white. with flavour. H. 3. juice is used in gleet. Sd. Mundige. root. Keora. diuretic. Country— Belgaum. LOC. Kewoda. Ceylon. COM. Kedige. much branched.—oblong or globose. Ketaka. 4. Gogandhul. NS. Chama-pushpa. Giripriya.. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). palegreen. :—Konkan and N. linear or linear-lanceolate. Andamans. Umbrella Tree.—Dec. Sk. fruit. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. anthelmintic. coriaceous ensiform. margins and midrib spiny. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. 0. FAM. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". PARTS USED :—Plant. LOC. Poona Sangam. :—A shrub up to 6 m. Fl. alexiteric. DISTR. mouth with pubescent ring. Dhulipushpika. C. Screw pine.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. leucoderma.

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Fl. glabrous or hairy.—6-12. aphrodisiac. petioles grooved. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. LOC. long. Kapila. Siyindu. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. broadly spathulate. Kharjuri. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. :—Largely grown in. Kalli-chalu.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. H. . :—Annual or perennial. Ahmedabad. COM. headache. Tadi.:—Very common throughout the State. Kurangika. Ahmednagar. Shimbiparni. NS. 2. Ranmug. Kohesaru. blood diseases. Ichela-mara. Sk. DISTR. " Tridosh". lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. thirst. Kashayi. Khaji. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. few flowered racemes.—Palmæ. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. bronchitis.— pod. Kidney diseases. styptic. Sind. LOC. Adavada. M. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. Sk. throat inflammations. Sd. biliousness. t. astringent. LOC.5—5 cm.3—2. See—Food Plants. eye troubles. Koshila. Kherk. Satara. The grains contain vitamins A and B. Trianguli. Sendhi. good for eyes. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). long. Kharjurika. peduncles 10-23 cm. nose complaints. dry. " Kapha". Kallu. LOC. Afghanistan.—in sub-capitate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. FAM. DISTR. leaflets 1. Khandesh. astringent to bowels. :—G. L. G. bitter. yellow. wiry. K. anthelmintic. Kajuri. Kolaba and Kanara. burning sensation. gout. Burma. good in fevers. Khajuri. Malay Islands. layer. Indian wine palm. Ranmath.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). straight subcylindric. good for the eyes . Deccan and Gujarat. laxative. antipyretic. M.—Oct. slightly recurved. enrich blood. K. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Seeds. light and astringent. mugawana. H. digestible. Magavala. Konkan. and southwards to Ceylon. wild date palm.—3-foliate. dysentery. prostrate. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). FAM. Fr. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. Swadi. Vanmudga. long. cures consumption. Boichand. inflammations. CHAR. Date sugar palm.5 cm. Seeds— tonic. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Fl. membranous. cough. Shindi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. :—E. Dharwar. NS. cure biliousness. Belgaum. piles. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. Mugani. as a kharif crop. Adabanmagi.

. ensiform. pointed. crown hemispherical. wild or more often cultivated. cooling. spatulate. L. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. alexiteric. Famine Plants. Jalapimpli. :—G. vomiting. oleaginous. Langali. male white.—pinnate. spinous. Ratuliyo. DISTR.) FAM. Ratoliya. long. 3-4. Sharadi. anthelmintic. COM.—rounded at the ends. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. usually along banks. Jalapipali. rigid. Fl. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. long. useful in diseases of heart. Africa.2 cm. upper 2-lobed.. LOC. wandering of mind. aphrodisiac. good in heart and abdominal complaints. petioles compressed towards the apex. spadix 60-90 cm. large and thick. triangular. spiny at the base. angular. erect. Fr. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. See. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. Siwalik. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Baluchistan. Fr. LOC. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Agnijwala. aphrodisiac. subsessile.—Fibres. Fl.—more or less all the year. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Jalpippali. oblong-ellipsoid. rounded at the apex. t. Fl. Poona and Belgaum districts. scented. oblique. Bengal. Ratoliya. L. :—A tall graceful palm. Bhuiokra. Fl.5 m. Vashira.5 m.—Jan-Feb. much branched. deeply grooved on one side. oblong. stems rooting at the nodes. blood and eye. flowers very many.—Verbenaceæ.—opposite.—sessile. high. constipating. Toyavallari. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. NS.—white or pale-pink. fevers. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. :—Tolerably common throughout India. t.5—3. Sholapur. M.— dioecious. 15-45x2-2. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. cardiotonic. This is called neera. Sk.—2. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Okra. :—Throughout India. roundish. :—Found fairly in Surat. Ceylon. cooling. Coromandel Coast. long. CHAR. H. orange-yellow. C. 2-lipped. greyish-green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. :—A creeping perennial herb. pinnules many. fattening. fruit and juice of the tree. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. LOC. Rohilkhand. clothed with appressed white hairs . DISTR. Mysore. and in beds of streams and water courses.—globose. flowers distant. Sd. densely fascicled. lower 3-lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. Bihar. 9-15 m. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. female spadix and spathe as in the male. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). outer Himalayas. sharply serrate in upper part.

. Ceylon. angular. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). Amala. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Leaves are stomachic. maturant. Fr. Jaramla. hiccup.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. The whole plant. longitudinally ribbed on the back. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. annular. globose. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. L. bronchitis. DISTR. cooling. wounds. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Plant—hot. scabies. LOC. Bhumyamalaki. sores. wounds. COM. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. :—G.useful in fevers. Sadahazurmani. distichous. Kiranelligida. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . PARTS USED :—Root. Tropics generally. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. LOC. elliptic-oblong. Bhuianvalah. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. asthma. Infusion is a good tonic. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. t. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). very small.— numerous. scarcely lobed. of female. stem branched at the base. biliousness. smooth. useful in thirst. Vituntika. FAM. It is valuable in scurvy.— July-Aug. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. lobed. burning sensation. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. disk of the male of minute glands. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. CHAR :—An annual herb. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. Bhumyamali. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. high . In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. M. and without salt may be applied to bruises. thirst. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. anuria. alexipharmic . bronchitis. NS. urinary discharges. Fl. diuretic. asthma. females solitary. Bhumyamali. .—yellowish. Stomachic. Ajata. males 1-3. fruit. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. axillary. :—Throughout India. K. dry. H.—Euphorbiaceæ. Bhuiavli. leprosy. Fl. Sukshmadala. except Australia. Sk. good for ulcers.—3-gonous. LOC. ringworm (Yunani). loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). 30-60 cm. :—Konkan and Deccan. milky-juice. very numerous. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. monœcious. leaves. Sd.—capsule.

Vata". Satara. Pan. It sweetens breath. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. G. heating. cultivated in Konkan and N. Black-pepper. H. Sholapur. urinary discharges. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. Nagavalli. elephantiasis . Panu. LOC. FAM. Pan. tonic. :—E. foul smell in the mouth. LOC. bronchitis. K. acrid. Saptashira. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. Tambulavalli. K. increases biliousness. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Marich. Mensinballi. Malimirich . inflammations. COM. Kanara forests. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. improves voice. Kalimiri. Sk. :—Wild in the N. styptic (Yunani). Tambola. It contains an aromatic essential oil. alterative. Kaphavirodhi. tonic and digestive. M. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE.—Piperaceæ. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Betel leaf vine. Kanara. Pan. PARTS USED :—Fruits. Menasu. purgative. night blindness. Golmirch . FAM. liver and muscular pains. M. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Fresh leaves. See—Condiments and Spices. tonic to brain. DISTR. carminative and astringent.—Piperaceæ. Sk. strengthens teeth . vulnerary. Vidyache-pan. spleen diseases. Betel pepper. It increases saliva. aphrodisiac. piles. carminative. hot. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. given with milk in hysteria. alexipharmic. Tikshna. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. DISTR. satyriasis and to allay thirst. asthma. useful in toothache. Kalamiri. and fruits (rarely). Poona. COM. pains. Vileyad-ele. clears throat. " Kapha ". Menasin-kallu . Betelleaf. carminative. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. improves appetite (Ayurveda). ozoena. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Warm leaves. throat diseases. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. . laxative. Bhakshyapatra. useful in "Kapha". anthelmintic. Linn. generally in Konkan. G. Kalaka. Eleballi. stomachic. leavs. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. bechic. Kalamirich. NS. H. smeared with oil. ozœna. NS. removes all foulness from mouth. :—E. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. heart and liver. useful in "Vata".

LOC. LOC. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . See—Timbers. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. Khandala (pretty common). piles and some skin-diseases .—Pittosporaceæ. DISTR. Arcot and Salem. piperidine and an essential oil. long. N. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Deccan. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. COM. . Vehkali. Tammata. coma. NS. dries body humours (Yunani). USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. hills of S. Greater plantain . HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. chest affections. various forms of cutaneous diseases. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. H. Bark contains a glucoside. :—K. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. leprosy. used in chronic bronchitis. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Konkan. Kanara in ghat forests. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases.—lobes 4. See—Condiments and Spices. C. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. tonic and a local stimulant.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . and possesses narcotic properties . Fr. the oil is alterative. FAM. bruises. sprains. vertigo.—Plantaginaceæ. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. facilitates menstruation. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. It yields an essential oil. weakness following fevers.5 cm. base tapering into petiole. Lahuriya. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. entire or toothed. Khasia Hills. NS.— alternate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. W. Vikhari. paralysis . L.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. radial 2. COM. Burma. FAM. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. ovate or oblong. M.5-12. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. CHAR. It is a good expectorant. chronic fevers. petiole longer than leaf-blade. lanceolate or greenish . used as febrifuge. :—E. variable in width. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. lumbago. ovoid. ophthalmia and phthisis. Bartang.—capsule. Fl. & A. In physiological action. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. sciatica. Externally it is rubefacient.

M. Chitra. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Fattening. afford relief. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Palni hills. :—Temperate Himalayas. angled. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Malaya. W.—3-5 cm. t. attenuate. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . :—Cultivated throughout India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. L. leaves. Lalchita. Fire plant. H. PARTS USED :—Roots. Baluchistan. LOC. Raktachitraka. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. PARTS USED :—Roots. cures leprosy (Ayurveda).. exauriculate petiole. Mahang. Lalchitrak. Fl. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Sd. rosy scarlet. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. top coming off as a conical lid. high. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . stems herbaceous. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Lalchitrak. Nilgiris. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Chitraka. striate . NS. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Lead-wort. HABITAT :—Along river banks. base passing into amplexicaul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers.Kempuchitramula. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. K. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. zeylanica. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). and seeds. Lalachitraka. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant.-4-8. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Ceylon. LOC. Agnishikha.—Plumbaginaceæ.-Feb. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. Assam. erect. G. oblong. Fl. DISTR.—large. limb wide. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Ratochatro. Fl. :— E. dull-black.Sept. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. alterative. obtuse. alterative and diuretic. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. DISTR. :—Konkan : Deccan. CHAR. Sk. Burma. C. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. LOC. Rosy-coloured leadwort. COM. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. long in long terminal axillary. lax spikes. t. Ghats. FAM. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn..—tube slender.—throughout the year.

leaves are caustic. PARTS USED :—Root.-Sept.—Aug. " Vata" and " Kapha". ascites.—capsule. The use of Pl. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. dysentery. Root—bitter. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. L. bronchitis. FAM. rheumatism. alterative . striate. " Tridosha" . Tropics of the old world. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. stomachic. piles. anthelmintic. Bengal. t. January 1933). K. alexipharmic. See—Ornamental Plants. Jyotishka. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. spreading. it is useful in dyspepsia. Chitrak. Sk. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. stomachic. Fl. C. It is used in procuring abortion. expectorant. DISTR. scabies. Vahni. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. cure intestinal troubles. leprosy. vesicant. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). wild in Western Peninsula. See—Ornamental Plants. pointed. Chitra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. H. G. LOC. woody. skin disease. Journ. ring-worm. COM. leucoderma. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). and in leucoderma. attenuated into a short petiole. stems 0. Medi. NS. Chitramula. hot. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies.—white. Vallari. carminative. :—E. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. Bile-Chitra-mula. laxative. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. Chitraka. oblong. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. Res. Malay Peninsula. Chitaro Chitrak. Chitra . itching. :—Throughout India.6-1. anasarca. entire. juice. cultivated . terete. piles. Fr. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. Chitranga. ovate. aborti-facient.—thin. a favourite medicine for flatulence. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. Ceylon. Fl.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. consumption. long. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient.—in elongate spikes. lobes 5. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. diseases of spleen. appetiser. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). In S. diseases of liver. astringent to bowels. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. diarrhœa. Agnishikha. . leaves. leucoderma. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. useful in laryngitis. Ind. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles .5 m. Chitra . bechic. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. rachis glandular .—Plumbaginaceæ. inflammations. a paste is made with milk. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. M. root-bark. tonic. LOC.

with an intra-marginal vein. CHAR. C. L. :—E. COM. ulcers. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. shining black. DISTR. whorls close. cylindrical. 7. carminative.8 m. cultivated. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. t.—Apocynaceæ. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. Fl. Kanara. Fl. Phangla.:—More or less throughout India. leaves and milky juice. useful in leprosy. Frangipani. irregularly doubly toothed.2—1. high. white with a pale yellow centre. acute at both ends. Devagangile. C. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. entire.—salver-shaped. :—All throughout the State. long. Kadu-sampige. NS. H. 4-lobed.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. See—Ornamental Plants. Country. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. L.8-9 cm. acrid. Belchampaka. Deccan. rarely maturing. itching. abundant. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. rounded.-Feb.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. lower lip white. . The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough.—2-lipped. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Mahabaleshwar. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. shining. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Fl. ascites (Ayurveda). 3-lobed. t. Khairchapha. pains. smooth.. M. Fr. Pangli. :—M. G. DISTR. :—Native of tropical America. Root-bark is purgative. spirally arranged. venereal sores. FAM. 15-30 cm. pungent. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. M.—practically throughout the year. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. long. Pagoda tree. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. broadly ovate. Goleurchampa. LOC. useful in gleet. purple.-May. Champakam.-nutlets ellipsoid. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. 12 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. oblong-lanceolate. :—Konkan. heating. Golainchi. CHAR. very fragrant. urinary discharges. upper lip white shot with purple. Radha-champo. COM.—Dec. common.—Labiatæ. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative . S. :—A small shrub 1. LOC.—follicles. bark. FAM.— large.5-18x3. divaricate. many flowered. Fr. LOC. NS. K. abundant from Mar. inner face angular. Rhuruchapha. stems and branches quadrangular.

Gaura. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. NS. DISTR. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. alexipharmic . herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Agnimandha. Seeds—acrid . leucoderma. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). skin and in keratitis . anthelmintic. Arni. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. chest complaints. piles. NS. Honge. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. useful in diseases of eye. Agnibijaka.—Verbenaceæ. Sk. carminative. USES :—The fresh leaves. G. Kanja. liver pain. Karanj. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. skin diseases. Karanjmara. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. Arni. H. LOC. along Deccan rivers . good in scabies. juice is given in colic and fever. lumbago. cures eye diseases. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Naktamala. Ichu. " Kapha ". throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. cures biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). M. chronic fever and hydrocele. F. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. In Satara. K. leaves. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. good for tumour. fruits and seeds. cure earache. :—E. Jayanti. ulcers. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. vagina. piles. Karanj. FAM. K. H. J. See—Timbers. chronic fever. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. COM. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Gracie). Kanika. Oils. . Pavaka. itching. Aran. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Kanaji. Sk. head and brain diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. ascites. Huligili. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. wounds (Ayurveda). Oil—styptic.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC.) FAM. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Ustabunda . rheumatic pains. Indian beech. bark. LOC. Kirmal. Oil—anthelmintic. " Vata ". lumbago. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Karanja. also planted. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. flowers. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. Karanja. urinary discharges . leprosy. purify and enrich blood. COM. wounds. relieves inflammation. bruised. Agetha. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Chamari. Arand. M.

2-6.—Myrtaceæ. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn.—tubular. stomachic.3 cm. Andamans. bark yellowish. Sd. as an astringent to bowels. Safedsafari. Perala. FAM. Amrut. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. small.—hard. It is also employed in scurvy. Kanara. LOC. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. causes "Kapha". Fl. Fr. Sk. blue-black. Gova. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. laxative. bronchitis. good in colic and for bleeding gums. Root is laxative. Ash—caustic (Yunani). M. chyluria. LOC. useful in anaemia. :—E. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Perala. Guava tree. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. sour. fruits and gum. Anthers—dry wound. cylindric. for unhealthy ulcers. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. aphrodisiac . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. t. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Jamud-rukh. H. good for liver complaints (Yunani). HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. DISTR. COM. Nicobars and Malaya. Flowers cool body.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. inflammations. used in bronchitis.— globose. NS. Young leaves are tonic in the . applied to sore eyes. Peru .. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. LOC. piles. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. :—Cultivated all over the State. lobes 4. Fruit—tonic. Ceylon. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). Peruka. fever. cooling. greenish yellow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. diabetes. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. G. entire or upper part dentate.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). Vastula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. common about Karwar. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. cooling. flowers. L. Fl. C. laxative after food. Jamb. Dridhabija. It is given in the form of decoction. K. rough-tubercled . hairy in the throat. stomachic. high.—5-9 X 3. Jamphal. Gum is tonic. . DISTR. broadly elliptic. constipation. pungent. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). cool heated brain. LOC.— June-July. seated on the calyx . Peru. heating. Piyara. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. dyspepsia. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. See—Famine Plants. smooth."Vata". chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.

Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. smooth.—bluish purple . solitary. urinary dis charges. scabies. standard orbicular. good for heart troubles. bitter taste. Ripe fruit is a good aperient.6-1. Fruit—diuretic. LOC. white hairy. " Rakta-pitta". biliousness. Country. Babachi.8 X 2. leprosy. 3. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. Fr. Vanguji. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Kalameshi. stimulant. C.2 m. Fl. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. CHAR. t. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Bowach-chi. inflammation. heals ulcers. laxative. leaves. vulnerary.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Fl. Chandralekha.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. cures blood diseases . HABITAT :—Waste places. See—Fruit Trees. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. stomachic. improves hair and complexion. studded with glands and white hairs.5—5 cm. :—An erect annual. closely-pitted. LOC. Bukchi. Konkan and S. nephrites and cachexia.—simple. NS. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. L. mucronate. . Sd. 0. M. skin diseases. H. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. alterative. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. anthelmintic. cures "Vata". Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). vomiting. G. piles. black. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. :—E. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Seed—purgative. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth.—one. anæmia.—in dense axillary. M. Bavachi. good for leucoderma. antipyretic. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. anthelmintic. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". Seeds— refrigerant. 10-30 flowered racemes . clawed. Kushtaghni.—pod. Bakuchi. Bavachi. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. aphrodisiac. Sk. difficulty in micturition. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. causes biliousness. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. alexiteric. DISTR. raw one is used in diarrhœa. high. fruit and seeds. K. Bhavanj. ovoidoblong. bronchitis. nigro-punctate. rounded and mucronate at the apex. diuretic. stem and branches grooved.—Aug-Dec. FAM. Babachi. improves appetite.

also in Konkan. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. " Kapha ". ulcers. Gums and Resins. Mahakutaj. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. ascends to 1100 m. Pitasar. tonic. erysipelas. leucoderma. Raktabija-pushpa. :—Western Peninsula and S. FAM. LOC. G. NS. LOC. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. M. :—Leaves. laxative. cures " Vata ". COM. Bija. biliousness. FAM. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). body eruptions. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. vulnerary. Gum. burning sensation. gleet. Sk. fattening. stomatitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. somewhat milder in action than catechu. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. strengthens gums. tonic. ophthalmia. useful in eye troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. flowers and gum. Dadima. used in sore throat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. Bijak. Honi. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. styptic. antipyretic. heart-disease. chest troubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. urinary discharges (Yunani). See—Timbers. good for biliousness. elephantiasis. anthelmintic. applied to hydrocele. Dhalim. flowers and fruits. Bibla. Hirdokhi. Common in N. anthelmintic.—Punicaceæ. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Bio. Dharimb . Anar. Bia. griping. bark. DISTR. :—E. prolapsus ani. DISTR. Khandesh and Dangs. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. used in piles. Dalimba. Hulidalimb . Valka-phala. Gum—bitter. Kabul and Baluchistan. boils. scabies. Dadimba. Bibla. useful in all body diseases. Indian kino-tree. leprosy. spleen complaints. Bibla. sore-throat. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. sore eyes brain diseases. urinary discharges. laxative. K. useful in vomiting.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in biliousness. Dadam. liver tonic. PARTS USED. :—Wild in Iran. India. cultivated in many parts of India. . fever. PARTS USED:—Root. scattered but not gregarious . " Tridosh". enriches blood. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. LOC. Honne. Benga. called kino. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Flowers— improve appetite. Ceylon. Pomegranate tree. earache. diuretic. blood diseases. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. thirst. colic. Flowers—check vomiting. Kanara. anal troubles. COM. in Akrani. :—E. Malabar kino-tree. Bark—astringent. alterative . K. Dadima. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). M. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. G. NS. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Sk. allays thirst. Fruit-appetiser. Dalimb . H. Sunila. Bigsah. H.

Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Emetic nut. :—E. elliptic. Konkan. Pinditak. COM.—Rubiaceæ. hairy beneath. base rounded. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. acuminate. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. Minkare.— ellipsoid. Barmasinivel. G. M.—Combretaceæ. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Gela. Madana. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. glabrous above. The rind of the fruit. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn.—in axillary and terminal spikes. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. Mindhola. Karhar Mainphal. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LOC. Fr. jasmine . DISTR. Rangoonkibel. Fruit contains vitamin C. :—E. USES :—In Amboyana. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic.—opposite. Midhola. FAM. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Gelphal. lanceolate . Karigidda. nearly 6 cm. L. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Rangoon creeper. In China. FAM. H. . LOC. widely cultivated all over India. G. K. at first white then deep red . HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Mangari-kai. H. M. C—petals 5. numerous. dark green. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Dharaphal. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. S. Fl. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. LOC. acutely 5-angled. Lalchameli. pendant. :—A strong climber. Annam. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. NS. It is given in the form of decoction. See—Ornamental Plants.5 cm. Country and Kanara. COM. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. 7. M. Malaya. Rangoonchavel. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . NS. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. CHAR. long. t. Sk. Chinese honeysuckle. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. calyx tube long.-Aug.—Mar. Fl.

sweet.—Cruciferæ. piles (Ayurveda). antipyretic. it is equal to it in every respect. good for spleen and in paralysis. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). E. aphrodisiac. its action is very safe. amenorrhœa. DISTR. eruptions. Ruchira. Ceylon. paralysis. inflammations. Juice of .) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. carminative. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. produce alopecia (Yunani). LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. bitter. Muro. leaves. good in tumours. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . juice relieves earache. China. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is also used to poison fish. " Vata" and " Kapha". leprosy. ulcers. useful in chronic bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. K. NS. It also contains an essential oil. emetic. FAM. leprosy. LOC. emetic. COM. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Bili Mulangi. Muri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. skin-diseases. See—Timber. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Sk. Seeds-sharp. Mulak. Tropical Africa. cures abscesses. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. used in diseases of the brain. G. piles. binding.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. purgative. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. muscular pains. :—Throughout India. Ksharmula. carminative. Sumatra. Java. stomachic. destroys "Vata". USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. useful in diseases of heart. emmenagogue. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. hiccup. Hastidanta. PARTS USED :—Root. Mula. Mali. tonic. fruit and seeds. carminative. The plant contains glucoside saponin. alexiteric. heating. :—E. Mula. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. certain and regular. cholera. bad taste. S. H. and all inflammations . flowers. M. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . leucoderma (Yunani). it is a sedative and nervine calmative. anthelmintic. inflammations. Mura. asthma. Radish. boils. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Bitter. tumours. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. DISTR.

thin.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. heating. carminative. :—H. shady open places near rain-forests. seeds are considered peptic. Sivanabhi. diuretic. ulcers (Ayurveda). Sk. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions.—Apocynaceæ. :—An erect perennial shrub.-in whorls of 3. 7. irregularly. with a long. Sk.. Fl. nodular. corrective and emmenagogue. Ceylon. LOC. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Sarpagandha. In the Konkan.—Acanthaceæ. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. Harki. Juipani. HABITAT :—Moist forests. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Fl. acute. B and C. and black salt. yellowish root stock. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. lanceolate. sharp.—tubular. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. LOC. anthelminitic . L. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. Kanara. single or didymous. bright green above. Mungusavel. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. white. serpentinine. Nakulikand. COM. Harkaichand. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Chandrika. NS. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. pungent. acrid. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. Nai.5-18 X 2. K. CHAR.5-6. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. NS. COM. pale beneath. leaves (rarely). swollen a little above the middle.—drupe. Yuthikaparni. ajmalicine.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. used in hyperpiesis . It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. black shining. Group B — Serpentine. Garudpatala. PARTS USED :—Root.— Mar. :—H. Palakjuhi. Andamans.—in irregular corymbose cymes.-May. Chhotachand.. often tinged with violet.. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. M. Gaja-karni. Fr. bright red . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter.9 m. ajamalinine. cures " Tridosha ". FAM. K. It is hypnotic. Sarpakshi. Chandrika. ginger.) FAM. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. specific for insanity. Doddapatike. DISTR. See—Vegetables. . Java. t.3 cm. expectorant. Western Peninsula. sedative. M. laxative. Root contains vitamins A. C.

:—Probably of African origin. :—E. K. strangury. pains. useful in skin-disease. Java. LOC. Mahabaleshwar. FAM. alterative. :—Throughout India. Haralu.. diseases of rectum and head. tropical Africa. paralysis. piles. leprosy. L. good for burns. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. glandular. LOC. earache. increase biliousness. Khandala. asthma. LOC. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Very little in other districts of the State. leaves and seeds. useful in pains. intestinal worms. Divald. Sholapur). Seed and oil—cathartic. entire. amenorrhœa (Yunani).—capsule. ascites. ascites. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. useful in heart diseases. carminative .—Euphorbiaceæ. anal troubles. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Leaves—galactagogue. liver and spleen diseases.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. lumbago. HABITAT :—Hills. M. alterative. Eranda. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Palma christi. Divaligo. Root-bark—purgative. COM. Arand.9—1. useful in liver troubles.-Jany. black. body pains. Vardhamana. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. inflammations. Erand. typhoid. Erand. lumbago. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. glands. H. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). stems obscurely angled. Fl. Erand. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). t. fevers. G.— tuberculate. Chitrabija. bracts ovate lanceolate. Tirki. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. widely cultivated in tropical countries. pointed. :—Deccan. useful in inflammations. M. asthma. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. oil—anthelmintic. night-blindness. Castor oil plant. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. rheumatism. Cattle are fed with leaves for . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root.—Oct. elephantiasis. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. piles. velvety hairy Sd. Ceylon (wild) . elliptic lanceolate. Triputiphala.5 m. pubescent: C. tumours. vaginal pains. Sk. eructations. Fr. leprosy. LOC. boils. DISTR. pain in back. some fevers.—nearly sessile. Fruit— appetiser. dropsy. hairy outside . Country. Belgaum. solitary. :—Undershrub. narrow. hills near Belgaum. bronchitis. NS. ring-worm. high. cultivated. ascites. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. Country (Dharwar. purgative. inflammations. increases "Kapha". Vardhaman. 0. generally cultivated. DISTR. Fl. flowers and seeds.—lipped. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. aphrodisiac. S. convulsions. upper lip bifid . Madagascar (cultivated). causes biliousness (Ayurveda). leaves. white. Straits-Settlements.

antipyretic. burning sensation. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. aphrodisiac. double. used in heat of body. They are also applied to painful joints. PARTS USED :—Flowers. stipules scarcely dilated. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. sometimes striped . tooth-ache.— all the year. Ghazipur is a chief centre. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Sk. 2. Fl. Gulab. FAM. with a good odour. NS. cooling. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. P. head-ache. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. In constipation it is used as an enema. L. cardiotonic. Fr. t. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. LOC. COM. tonic. :—E. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. .5-6. Gulab. removes bad odour from mouth. ovate oblong. Greece and Germany.3 cm. :—A perennial shrub. improves appetite (Ayurveda).—obovate . Pannira.—pinnate. seldom griping or causing flatulency. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain.— usually corymbose. Tarana. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. attaining 1. Soumyagandha. Ati-manjula. stems with stout and hooked prickles. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). red. liver. " Vata". H. pink or white. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. petioles prickly. cephalic. chronic fevers. etc.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. CHAR. they are cold. astringent when dry (Yunani). much used in lotions and collyria . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. Flower—bitter. M. kidneys. Lakshmipushpa. hairy. Italy. inflammations. cultivated all over India. acrid. G. France. :—Origin unknown. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose .. Fl. good for eyes. aperient removing bile and cold humours. excessive perspiration. K. adults. See—Ornamental Plants. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. stomatitis. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . See—Oils. intestinal affections. benefits lungs. sometimes glandular.5 m. biliousness. serrate. laxative. long. which is a powerful poison. dry. Shatadala. cures leprosy. LOC. mild and safe purgative. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. Sudburj. Gulab . expectorant. Punjab and U. sweetish. laxative. cardiotonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—Rosaceæ. DISTR.

valves hyaline. dysentery.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . ulcers. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). roots very long. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. paralysis. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. lactagogue. increase appetite. inflammations. leaves and fruit. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. all scabrous with white prickles. PARTS USED. lower leaves larger. rheumatism. Dock. ear. Ambat Chuka. grooved. spleen-enlargement. branches quadrangular . Chitralata.—Rubiaceæ. antidysenteric. Rohini. uterine pains (Yunani). Sk.5 cm. orbicular . Japan. H. 15-30 cm. leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. Amlavetasa. Leaves-sweet. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. bitter. erysipelas. LOC. Manjishha. DISTR. M. liver complaints. cures " Kapha ". Chuka. blood. lethargy. NS. Java. oleaginous . base cuneate. pains in joints. COM. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. Decoction tinges blood. . urinary discharges. Ceylon. cylindric. with a thin red bark. paralysis. FAM. Tamravalli. Manjishtha. smooth.—Polygonaceæ. :—E. Bladder. L. FAM. eye. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. H. stems very long. five-nerved. Fl. Fl. one pair with longer petioles ovate. ovate. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. analgestic. Fr. Country. M. K. acrid. L. alexiteric. M. CHAR. emmenagogue. diseases of uterus. obtuse. Majit. urine and even bones red.—in whorls of 4. high. elliptic.—in terminal panicled cymes. t-Oct. leucoderma. COM. Malay Peninsula. Manjishtha.—2. Gulmketu. NS.-Jany. ulcers and skin-diseases. Raktasara. purplish black when ripe. jaundice. inner perianth-segments membranous. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. diuretic. and was much used in dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. it powerfully affects the nervous system. :—E. analgesic. :—Annual.. jaundice. Chukra.—didymous or globose. :—Perennial climbing herb. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. laxative. tropical Africa. used in eye-sores.5—7. :—Root. Manjit. Fr. Sorrel. Aruna. vagina. CHAR. Root—bitter. shining.—white or pink. cordate or hastate. piles. anthelmintic. prickly. greenish. LOC. improves voice and complexion . erect glabrous herb. Sk. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. leucoderma. antipyretic. heating. Indian Madder. branched from the root. petioles triangular. the Konkan and S.

—suborbicular. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. COM. Fr. Afghanistan. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Africa. NS. The juice allays tooth-pain.—Acanthaceæ. tonic. Nagadali. Fl. leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. alcoholism. NS. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Sd. bites and stings of poisonous animals. toothache. constipation.—Rutaceæ. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. checks nausea and promotes appetite. Satri. M. FAM. stems usually decumbent. Pismarum Sadab. ciliate. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. ovoid oblong.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. M. Sadapaha. Country. analgesic. hiccup.—Nov. Ceylon. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. :—G. oblong lanceolate. FAM. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. laxative. 2-lipped. t. C. Cooling. in dysentery. USES :—Leaves are cooling. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. useful in scabies. piles. Satapa . Sk. DISTR. acute. they are prescribed.—capsule. LOC. Kharmor. Vishapaha. rugose with furrow.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. N.-Jany. with scarious faces and hard ridges. The seeds have the same properties . checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). aperient and diuretic. Common—Garden-rue . diseases of the spleen. LOC. Konkan. bracts elliptic. tumours. CHAR. vomiting. while fresh they are bruised. Persia. then erect. asthma. Parpatha. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. L.— subsessile. roasted. S.—white. blue or pink. pale brown. Deccan. often rooting near the base. See—Vegetables. . acute . bronchitis. lower shortly 3-lobed. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stomachic. also considered as a vermifuge. useful in heart troubles. Sadabu. K. H. Satap. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. generally in the Deccan. pains. Khatselio . with darker spots. Kanara. :—Common throughout the State. H. DISTR. M. upper emarginate. Ghati pittapapada . dyspepsia. G. COM. LOC. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. :—A herb . flatulence. Havananju. Trans-Indus Hills. :—E. :—Western Punjab.

Sd. H.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. diuretic.—Gramineæ. :—A strong smelling herb . Rikhu. There are three varieties . Fr. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . diuretic. . FAM. Kumad. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. epilepsy. Rasala. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic.—petals 4. all over the State. indigestible. Sherdi. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. The plant contains glucoside glutin. LOC.. yellowish. forest and mountain. Sk. abortifacient. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Kabbu. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. segments cuneate. obtuse . and externally used as a rubefacient. etc. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). leprosy. cultivated throughout India. digestive. aphrodisiac. colic. spathulate or linear-oblong . but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. The plant is tonic. LOC. Madhuyashti. in pots. DISTR. laxative. Sugarcane. decompound. NS :—E. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). S. useful in fatigue. it may be given internally in hysteria. Ganna. particularly Deccan. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. amenorrhœa. C.—angled. tonic. heats body. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. Ingotu. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. oleaginous. K. oblong-obovate. Fl. Gudatrina. HABIT :—Cultivated. Satara. Poona. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh.-alternate. Us . flatulence. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. anti-aphrodisiac . M. flawed.—capsule. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Powdered and combined with aromatics. heating to body . Asia is very likely the original home of the species. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. L. petioled. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. garden. DISTR. Naisakar. increases mental activity. grown in gardens. :—Egypt and Algeria. Ikshu. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Gudakastha. S. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Ukh . Tanigarbu . G. See—Ornamental Plants. The oil is the best form for administration. M. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. :—Grown everywhere in India. thirst. LOC. glandulose punctate. emmenagogue. COM.

arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Khakan Mirjoli. leaves. 3 mm. sugar is considered heavy. bad for liver (Yunani). disorders and wind. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Pilu. red when ripe. laxative. t.—very thin. Leaves—bitter. :—Drier parts of India. In cases of poisoning by copper. pectoral and aphrodisiac. improves appetite. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. often planted near Muslim tombs. DISTR.". The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. Jal. :—E. globose. inflammations.—Salvadoraceæ. L. sometimes it raises blisters. greenish-yellow.—drupe. Goni. Brihat madhu pilu. M. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. the Konkan and N.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. purifies blood . bile. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. drooping. anthelmintic. carminative and diuretic. erysipelas. In the Punjab. deeply cleft. finely striate. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. fattening. K. useful in biliousness. tonic and aperient. numerous. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). Pilu.—Nov. often mucronate at the apex. Mahaphala. oil is digestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. C. fleshy. anæmia. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Dry districts of the State. Fr.-Feb. Piludi. Seeds—purgative.. tonic to liver. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. NS. useful in biliousness. deobstruent. piles. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. LOC. Asia. improve diuresis (Yunani). fruits seeds and oil. aphrodisiac . stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. COM. Ceylon. lessen inflammation . HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. Fruit—aphrodisiac. smooth. Fl. Sugar causes " Kapha". Fruits are deobstruent. delirium. white. Kharijal. astringent to bowels. Abyssinia. corrective. Egypt. branches numerous. LOC. analgesic. lobes much reflexed. scabies. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. useful in nosetroubles. .186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. It is good in calculous complaints. FAM. Fl. Pilu. shining. dry regions of W. stomachic . Cane—sweet. causes " Kapha. useful in heat. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. near the coasts of Gujarat . ulcers. strengthen teeth. Sk. See—Food Plants. G. good for lungs . Kanara in littoral forests. LOC. carminative. alexiteric. Pilu. Tooth-brush tree. diuretic. Sind. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. diam. diuretic. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). opposite. H. leucoderma.

burning sensation. cholera. emetic. much cultivated. LOC. useful in inflammations. LOC. . acts as diaphoretic. NS. FAM. Rishta. :—Indian Peninsula. alexiteric. COM. Shrigandhalmara. strangury. tubercular glands. H. often planted. Antharalo. gleet. Fruit—bitter. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . M. stomachic. PARTS USED:—Wood. :—E. Sk. Chandan. G. allays uterine pains.—Sapindaceæ. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. vaginal discharges. LOC. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. lumbago. Phenila. Sandal-wood Tree.. Aritha. alexiteric. M. :—Western Peninsula. tonic. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. chiefly in S. cures "Tridosha". Kumblabijaka. S. Mysore and parts of Madras State. bronchitis. Cultivated elsewhere. thirst. small-pox (Ayurveda). Ritha. is applied to local inflammations. epileptic fits of children. Burugukayi. up with water into a paste. astringent to bowels . in skin-diseases. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Oil. diarrhœa. NS. useful in chronic dysentery. to allay heat and pruritus. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Bhadrasri. Malayaja. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. Oils. India. FAM. to temples in fever. Bhadrasara. antipyretic. Ritha . H. K. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Arithan . COM. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. abortifacient. gonorrhœa. Agarugandha. ground. useful in diseases of heart. Chandan. laxative. Arishtaka. biliousness. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. See—Timbers. Chandal. K. Mangalya. Soap-Nut tree. Suket. G. cold in head. alexipharmic. fruit and seed. Kugale. head-ache (Yunani). paralysis. M. :—E. exhilarating. Ceylon. Phenilu. Anthuvala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Bhogivallabha. Sk.—Santalaceæ. DISTR. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). USES :—Wood. Kanara. Country and N. Ringni. Chandan. aphrodisiac. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. aphrodisiac. " Kapha ". Sukhad . Root—expectorant. hemicrania. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Sandal. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda).

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

Janjhan.. Jayanti. C. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. leaflets 914 pairs. inflammations (Yunani). urinary concretions. removes "Kapha". leaves. Sd. 15-23 cm. into claw. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. K. Shewari. biliousness. cooling. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. white and red. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. applied to ulcers and piles. bark. bleeding piles. H. such as dysentery etc. Raysingani. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. asthma. linear-oblong. LOC. Rasin. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. They have been used to procure abortion.—pod. NS.5-15 cm. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. Sk. obscurely angled . 7. :—Cultivated all over India. L. scabies. useful in dry cough. of eye and ear. galactagogue. Nadeyi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). eye diseases . tonic. :—G. anthelmintic. M. Jayanti. long. They are nourishing. etc. Black variety is common. See—Oils. slightly torulose. diseases. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. hair-tonic. strangury. enrich blood. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. Jaya. oil. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. alterative. oleaginous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. small-pox.— abruptly pinnate. PARTS USED :—Root.—20-30.—in lax.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. strengthening. suppurating wounds. seeds. lung diseases. inflammations. CHAR. cures . in height. Jayat. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. applied to gouty joints. :—A soft-wooded shrub. cure menorrhagia. pendulous. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. There are three varieties of seeds : black. Fr. branches striate. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. opposite. Seeds contain vitamin A. few flowered axillary racemes. seeds. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. diuretic. Baluchistan. mottled with purple on the outside. an emollient poultice is also made from them. tonic. gouty joints. 4-5 m.—standard as broad as long. diuretic and lactagogue. COM. long. aphrodisiac. and as an oildressing for ulcers. Seed-oil—fattening. syphilitic ulcers. They are also emmenagogue. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. promote hair growth. Waziristan. inflammations. septate between the seeds. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. indigestible . Jinangi. useful in sorethroat. spleen troubles. carminative. beaked. useful in diarrhœa. leaves. Jayanti. astringent to bowels. yellow. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. probably a native of tropical Africa. burning sensation. Jayantika. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections.

useful In diseases of spleen. H. Australia. cure itching. Hatiya . Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Fr. biliousness. An infusion is given in small-pox. Indigenous from Malaya to N. DISTR. useful in ozœna. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). linear oblong. Agase. "Kapha" and inflammation. Agati. C. Kempagase. Leaves—indigestible. is applied in rheumatism. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. rubbed into a paste with water. high. gout . gout. Bark— astringent. See—Fodder Plants.8 cm.— pod. night-blindness. improve appetite . Agasta. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. fruits. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Munidruma. 6-9 m. NS.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). anaemia. PARTS USED :—Root. astringent. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. leprosy. Bak. tumours . 50 cm. FAM. demulcent. diabetes. Agasti. M. maturant. :—G.—7. The plant contains vitamin A. See—Vegetables. 2-4 white or red. Agusta. Agathio. LOC. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. fevers. :—A soft wooded tree . long. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. allays thirst. bronchitis. leaves. stimulant. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . ulcers. . leaflets 16-30 pairs. t. HABITAT :—Cultivated. 15-30-cm. Flowers—cooling. anthelmintic. Basna. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). LOC. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. K. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). flowers. long. cure quartan fever. Ornamental Plants. Fruit—laxative .5-8. dysentery and paludism. Kanali. very showy. Dirghashimbi. L. anthelmintic. long. LOC. is applied in painful swellings. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache.— pinnate. Leaves—purgative. improves taste.— flowers at various times. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. COM. Sk. Fl. diarrhœa. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. CHAR. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. leucoderma. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. Vranari. epilepsy.—in racemes . Seeds—emmenagogue. Bark—astringent. relieves throat-troubles. useful in ophthalmia. cures " Tridosh " pains. alexiteric.

-Oct.— yellow. softly hairy all over.—2. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. K. NS. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Hettutti-gida. astringent.—Malvaceæ. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. CHAR. Prahasa. puberulous. strongly reticulated . COM. awns 2. Chittuharatu. bark. scabrid-hairy. LOC. glabrous. Bala. L. linear. PARTS USED :—Root. upper margins ciliate. Fr. Country.—2. M. DISTR. useful in blood and throat diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. :—E. Kumghi.5-6. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). long. Sk.—Nov. obtuse.—1-2 in each axil. awns 2. :—Konkan. astringent. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Fl. :—A shrub. Chikna. a weed. M.-Nov. t.—6-8 mm. pedicel jointed much above the middle. emollient. dorsal scabrid. Fl. LOC. linear . :—G. Barial. cordate. Khareti. PARTS USED :—Root. diam. black. Fl. diuretic. H.Dec. carpels 7-10.—5-6 mm..194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. G. digestive. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. Country. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub .3 cm. C. Bala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.—solitary or few together. M. Fl. H. Jayanti. Tukti. NS. FAM. Baladana. yellow. LOC. removes " Vata ". M. carpels 5-9. useful in fever. leaves and seeds. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. decoction. DISTR. branches slender. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Vatyapushpi. COM. :—Konkan (common). infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Kherati. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. base rounded. K. Pata. ovate-oblong.—Malvaceæ. " Pitta ". USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. lanceolate.5-5 cm. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. pedicel jointed about the middle. minutely hairy. Pata. long.. with ginger. Chikna. Rajbala. Fr. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. LOC. Sk. Kisangi. sharply serrate. diam. crenate. is given . Root—cooling.—smooth. cooling. strongly reticulated. Sd. dorsal margins toothed. :—Hotter parts of India. " Kapha " . Country Mallow. t. Kharanti. L.. Samanga. Bala. FAM. Gujarat and S. Batyalaka. stomachic and tonic. bleeding piles. Deccan and S. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. aphrodisiac . Kareta. Bariara. HABITAT :—Moist places . CHAR.

2 m. t. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Fl.—yellow. It is also used to favour menstruation. FAM. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. 5 outer clavate. slightly rough. 5 inner boat-shaped.—heads small in leafy panicles . :—G. facial paralysis. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". diaphoretic. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. M. COM. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. :—A large annual herb. Ceylon. L. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. common. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. DISTR. deeply and irregularly toothed. triangular-ovate. 0. those of the ray red beneath. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". pappus 0.6—1. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Linn. also in colic and tenesmus. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. CHAR. cystitis.—Compositæ. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. . high. involucral bracts 2 rows. administered in hemiplegia. :—Throughout India. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. juice is used for healing wounds. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Externally.—Nov. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn.—opposite. and head-ache.—achene. Fl. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. all running down wing-like into petiole.-Dec. noise in ears. tinged with purple. stem stiff. rhomboides Roxb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. Katampu. black. NS. Pilibadkadi. Country. S. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. M. erect. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fr. stiff-neck. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. :—Deccan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. LOC. Fl. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres.

Vange..196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. Egg Plant. improves appetite. M. high. lobed. cardiotonic. G.-Aug. astringent to bowels. dark-yellow when ripe. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. Dorli. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—Widely cultivated in India.—minutely pitted: Fl. analgesic. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. Ranringni. Barhanta. Baingan. fever.—Solanaceæ. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. prickly. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. . sharp. globose. Kattarta. Hinguli. or triangular-ovate. Mhotiringni. t. Philippines. Hinguli. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Kadusonde. removes foulness of the mouth. Bhanta. K. subentire. Nilaphala. H.— berry. maturant. Vantak. Root is applied to lessen pain. pain. " Kapha". 0. Rigana. useful in leucoderma. vomiting. Malpya.5 m. G. NS. FAM. eye diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Hilly parts. petiole prickly.5—7. NS. LOC. :—E. Badanikai. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Bhantaki. Ubhi-bhuringni. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. Sd. K.. It is seldom used alone. LOC. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Vadikadheri. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". China. Habba-Kirigulla. asthma. Sk. causes biliousness. clothed outside with purple hairs . digestive. Mahotika. base unequal-sided. Fruit—cardiotonic.. PARTS USED :—Root. very.—Solanaceæ. Ceylon.-Oct. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. stem stout. Fr. Bhantaki. COM. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. lessens inflammations. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. covered with stellate hairs. bronchitis.—pale-purple. beneficial in cardiac troubles . loss of appetite. C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. bad for piles if taken internally. Vengni. 8 mm.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. leaves. fruit and seeds. Fl. enriches blood. rarely wild. Vayase. laxative. diam. recurved. DISTR. Vrittaphala.3—1. Brihati. leaves (rarely) and fruits. prickles large. Indian Nightshade. M. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. ovate. DISTR.5 cm. COM. Vartaki. FAM. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Throughout tropical India. H. L.—5—15 X 2. Brinjal. " Vata". pruritus ani. Sk.

It acts as a hydrogogue. taste. worms in ear. useful in giddiness. M.— berry. Piludi. Kamoni. griping. Hound's Berry. useful in diseases of eye. fever. chronic fever. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. Sd. and used with success in psoriasis. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. LOC. Fl. Ceylon. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. shining. NS. dysentery. " Tridosha". tonic. ear and nose . Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. Sk. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic.-Jany. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. bronchitis. smooth. bitter. leaves and fruit. fever. In S. Gurkamai. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. COM.—small. H. Root-bark—laxative . good for neck ulcers. Kakamachi. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. Vayasi. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Seeds—laxative.—Solanaceæ. not to be given to pregnant women. cathartic and diuretic. itch. throat burning. See—Vegetables. The seeds are used as a stimulant. laxative. . diam. Kakamachi. C. stem erect. bark. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. much divaricately-branched . DISTR. improves voice . :—Throughout India. useful in heart and eye-diseases.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . inflammation.—many. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. L. bronchitis. yellow. dysuria and asthma. asthma. gonorrhœa (Yunani). leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. subumbellate. Kabaiya. improves appetite. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). diarrhœa. tapering into petioles. 3-8 flowered cymes . aphrodisiac. Kakamunchi. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. t. alterative. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases.—discoid.. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. CHAR. ovatelanceolate. Katuphala. Tiktika. liver inflammation. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). etc. Morellel. in extra-axillary.—Sept. :—E. Makoi. Fl. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. minutely pitted . The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. in pains. FAM. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. inflammation. K. urinary discharges. vomiting. Black Night-shade. LOC. entire or sinuate toothed. diuretic. hiccup. heating. PARTS USED :—Root. B and C. :—A variable annual herb . Fr. 6 mm. Fruit contains vitamins A. piles. eye-diseases hydrophobia. G.

Ceylon. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. & Wendl. muscular pains. often exceeding 1. Sk. Africa. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . yellow and shining. heating. t. Seeds—anthelmintic. Ringni. piles.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. yellow or white with green veins. Vrittatandula. Yengara . SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. 3-2 cm. thirst. Nele-Rama-gulla . DISTR. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). :—A very prickly diffuse. stomachic. Sk. Bhoyaringni. G. COM. Fruit—laxative. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . fevers. Jolah. Kateli.. Kantakini. they are used in the burning of feet. urinary concretions. S. stem zig-zag. fever.—Gramineæ. Fl. biliousness. Bhui-Kate-ringni. Basu). L. Ikshupatraka. Fl. Fr.-5-10 X 2.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. M. Malaya. FAM. ozoena. LOC. appetiser. H. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Bijapur and E. Kantakari. :—Throughout India. NS. heart disease. Kenjal. Great Indian millet.. Chikka-sonde. leaves.— June.7 cm. Dhavani.—berry. asthma. Leaves—good application for piles. H. LOC. lumbago. Katai. pains. "Vata" and " Kapha". anthelmintic . :—Common in the Deccan . strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. CHAR. flowers. COM. Brihati. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. hairy outside. base unequal-sided. NS. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. lobes deltoid. chronic bronchitis. Sind. Durrah. FAM. dysuria. ovate or elliptic. M.—Solanaceæ. straight. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Sundia . aphrodisiac. Nirgol. expectorant and febrifuge.5-5. Root—aphrodisiac. It is used in asthma. E. petiole prickly. laxative. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. surrounded by enlarged calyx . stone in bladder. sinuate or subpinnatifid. catarrhal fever and chest pain. C. Sorgho. Jowar. Sholapur. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. good in inflammation. Jondhala. useful in bronchitis. fruits and seeds. stems. pruritus .3 cm. Konkan. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. Yuvanala.—purple. asthma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sterility in women. D. Shalu. prickles compressed. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. Dirghashara. :—E. Jonera. bright green perennial herb . diam. Jundri. Nidigdhika. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Jowari. LOC. long. K. hairy on both sides. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. :—G. tropical Australia.

Karanda-gida. LOC. LOC. See—Food Plants. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Sumbi. Grains contain vitamin B. laxative. leprosy and dysentery . with toothed wings. cough and asthma (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. glandular. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Bijapur and E. Country. CHAR.—Meliaceæ. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. DISTR. tumours (Ayurveda). Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. :—Bark. :—G. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. anthelmintic. Gums and Resins. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. diseases of blood. aphrodisiac. biliousness. COM. :—The grain is cooling. Rohina. :—Seeds. Tans. :—Bark-acrid. hence used in intermittent fevers. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. HABITAT :—Open situations. piles. Pravrajita. K. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Bodiakalara. :— E. Poona. Asia and Africa. K. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . M. fevers. Aruna. PARTS USED. NS. ulcers. Rawtarohan. . Bastard Cedar. Mahamundi. vaginal injections and enemas. hairy. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles.—sessile. good for sore-throat. Ruhin. introduced into America and Australia. high. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. useful in " Kapha". Agniruha. Khandesh and S. Kumbhala. Indian Red-Wood. DISTR. :—Widely cultivated in India. Ahmedabad. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Rohani. Vritta. on dry stony hills. ulcers. Gorakhmundi. Rohun. Gorakhamundi. cures " Tridosha ". Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). common in Gujarat. Munditika. PARTS USED. bladder and kidney complaints. :—Dry forests of W. improves appetite and taste. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. Rohini. Sk. FAM: —Compositæ. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Ceylon. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Sk. G. Some. Juss. H. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. See—Timbers. indigestible. Fibres. H. constipating. Swami-mara. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Dharwar. M. M. refrigerant. L. general debility. while Belgaum. aphrodisiac. stem and branches cylindric. Gorakmundi. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. tonic and antiperiodic . FAM.

chest diseases. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . DISTR. C. dysentery. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. laxative. truncate. vomiting. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. LOC. serrate or dentate. epileptic convulsions. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. They are chewed to relieve toothache. biliousness. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. depurative. enriches blood .—Achene. irregularly crenateserrate. USES. long. peduncles with toothed wings. :—Wild and cultivated. with honey they are given in cough. gleet. globose ovoid. compressed . used also for local application. :—Hot. t.— achene. LOC. L. :—Annual herb. Fl. all warm countries.—compound heads. Africa. indigestion. solitary or subpanicled. good for eyesore. leucoderma. NS. H. :—E. increases appetite. flowers and seeds. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. COM. glaborous.—opposite. urinary discharges. Celyon. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. alexipharmic.—Nov. PARTS USED. :—Throughout India. cools brain. Akarakara . :—Common in the Konkan.. in cases of worms and indigestion. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. digestible. They are given in powder form. leaves. sometimes grown in gardens. Australia. DISTR. stem and branches hairy. Fl. Fl. fattening. Pellitary . Country and Kanara. used in insanity. :—Common in rice-fields.—Compositæ. looseness of breasts. HABITAT. bark. useful in skin diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. and tonic (Stewart) . bronchitis. Sk.—purple. the latter when present minute. HABITAT. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Nov-Jany. glandular hairy. :—Throughout India. tuberculous glands. tonic. CHAR. ovate-oblong. :—Root. oblong. jaundice. Fr. ciliate near the ends . gives lustre to eyes . Pappuso. laxative. stalked. t. piles. M. base usually acute. Fr. hemicrania (Ayurveda). :—Deccan. scabies. alterative. Ceylon. spleen diseases. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. anthelmintic. elephantiasis. cooling. Akara-karava. peduncles reaching 10 cm. PARTS USED. Plant is also used in glandular swellings.—in heads ovoid. pain in uterus and vagina. asthma. lessens inflammations . Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. FAM.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. Malay Islands. rectal pain.. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. ring-worm of waist. Fl. urethral discharges and jaundice. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. S. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. . ovate. Akkalkara . anæmia. Tonic. Powdered root is given as tonic. involucre bracts linear. strangury. leaves and flower-heads. :—Root. It is also used as fish and crab poison. biliousness. emmenagogue. boils. M. scalding of urine.

—alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Indian Hog-Plum. Giri Hadari. bark smooth. LOC. :—Often planted throughout the State. Pitana. Fr.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. burning sensation. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Amate. PARTS USED. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. C. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. Fruit—indigestible. Parur. good for sore-throat. DISTR. :—Bark. M. COM. It has been found useful in dysentery. yellow. Kalavrinta.5-18 x 3. Fl.8-7. W.-usually 1. Konkan. Avatekayi. Pahad. Gum is demulcent. cures rheumatism. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. :—H. Hude. entire. Patala. hard. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM.Feb. Sd. S. destroys " Vata ". Ali-vallabha. Ceylon. oblong. Andamans. Amra. Ambada. USES :—Bark is refrigerant.. blood complaints . Hongkong. Sk. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Kariguddada. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws.5 m.—Anacardiaceæ. See—Gums and Resins. Dr. CHAR. biliousness. L. widely planted. Kumbhi. Tungi. Padal. Burma. leaves and fruit. aphrodisiac. H. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. K. high. COM. Amrataka. long. Western Peninsula. :—Leaves-tasty. K. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. ulcers. NS. Marahunise.— petals 4-5. :—A tree 9-10. Padal. ovoid. . LOC. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). pinkish green. Sk. ovate oblong. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. 3. Kanara. M. refrigerant.. Wild Mango. long. trunk straight.-Apl. HABITAT. Pandri. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache.8 cm. Country. Ran-amba .MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. enriches blood . tonic. Indian Archipelago. appetising. Kamduti. ash-coloured . Kapichuta. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. branches nearly horizontal. NS.5 cm. Fl. Bile Tree. t. stone woody.—Bignoniaceæ.—drupe. phthisis. oblique. M. Gujarat. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. Ambodha. Salt Range. FAM. :—Cultivated. :—E. Patala. PROPERTIES AND USES. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji.. Toyadhivasini. round with furrows and cavities. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Padiala. Hulave. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. astringent.

:—E. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . Kachita. NS. Sk. bitter. :—Fruit-acrid. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Root. :—More or less throughout tropical India. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Vishamushti. appetiser. Kakatinduka. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. cures pains in joints. PARTS USED. blood diseases. ring-worm. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Kanara. Circars. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. itching. flowers. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. :—Root-bitter. burning sensation. Travancore. ulcers. tonic. Planted in Ceylon. K. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . tonic. N. diuretic. DISTR. sub-Himalaya. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. Poison Nut. Kelakutaka. Burma. DISTR.—Loganiaceæ. Laos. Travancore . asthma.. Kajavara. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . west coast of Madras State. :—Monsoon-forests. Fruit—bitter. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. H. loss of taste. Crow Fig. fruit. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. seeds. heating. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Fruit—useful in hiccup. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. FAM. Kuchla. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ceylon. jaundice. inflammation. Ittangi. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. piles. G. Kanara. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani).202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. It is regarded as cooling. useful in bilious diarrhœa. Kajra. Kupaka. COM. blood diseases. heating. Hemushti. Indo-China. aphrodisiac. Kuchala. leaves. anæmia. lumbago. astringent to bowels. poisonous. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. Nirmal. Kajra. fruit. PARTS USED. vomiting. antipyretic. Kangira. "Vata". :—In forests south of Bombay. pungent. emmenagogue . eructations. Kuchla. PROPERTIES AND USES. diuretic. thirst. :—Wood (rarely). Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. fevers. Karaskara. M. tonic. heating. See—Timbers. LOC. piles . Visha-druma. LOC. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". LOC. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Karnatak. cures leucoderma. "Kapha". LOC. Flowers— acrid .

cures inflammations. H. urinary discharges. Seeds—acrid. good for liver. diuretic. diaphoretic. Chittu bija. Kanara and Khandesh. also in Konkan. Nivali. . Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. :—Root cures leucoderma. :—Deciduous dry forests. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. hallucinations. Ambuprasadini. kidney complaints. causes biliousness. NS. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. cure strangury. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. relieve colic (Yunani). Shodhanatmaka. alexipharmic. :—Sand-stone hills of S. :—Western Peninsula. Sk. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. tonic. K. alexiteric. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. head-diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. Madhya Bharat. Kataka. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. improve eye-sight. PROPERTIES AND USES. Country. Nirmali. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. LOC. astringent to bowels. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. COM. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. :—Root (rarely). Seeds—bitter. jaundice. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. M. Burma. See—Timbers. gonorrhœa. Fruit useful in eye diseases. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. LOC. :—E. lithotriptic. aphrodisiac.. emetic. increases "Vata". thirst. poisoning. anæmia. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Ceylon. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. DISTR. Nelmal. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Clearing Nut Tree. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. See—Timbers. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. M. fruit and seeds.—Loganiaceæ. HABITAT. Aduguchali-bija.

cooling.9 m. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. :—Hilly parts.— Oct. quadrangular. :—India (W. :—W.— sessile.-Jany. Sk. Bhilli. Dyes. C. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. CHAR. white with blue veins. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. FAM. throughout N. :—Western Ghats . cures cough. Lodhra . HABITAT. Kadu. Bose). "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Californian Cinchona. K. Country. etc. See—Timbers.— lobes 4-5. Torna fort. dysentery. Loder. Lodhraka. S.—capsule. :—An erect herb. Deccan ..—Gentianaceæ. inflammations. Mahabaleshwar. emmenagogue. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Chota Nagpur. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas.. colloturine and loturiaine. Lodh Tree. Balaloddujinamara. flowers (rarely). common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. :—The whole plant is bitter. bleeding gums . E. digestible. COM. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. 2-valved. Tillaka. acrid. NS. M. Lodhra. Fr. :—Root. LOC. PARTS USED. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . 5-nerved . Broughton). PROPERTIES AND USES. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). winged . it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. C.—Symplocaceæ. M. Bark—bitter. Deccan. C. vaginal discharges. China Nora. decussate.3-0. Burma. LOC. diseases of blood. :—Bark-acrid. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. LOC. Lodh is used in raw condition. stem densely leafy. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Shavaraka. eye-diseases and ulcers .—many. useful in abortions . :— E. 4-winged. in powder or in fresh decoction. Fl.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. 0. Peninsula. FAM. PARTS USED. :—Bark. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). astringent to bowels. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. Fl. Sd. biliousness. H. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . useful in eye-diseases. :—Konkan and N. L. Tiritaka. Lodh. . high. DISTR. :—M. broadly ovate. Lodh . The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. leprosy. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. ovoid or oblong. COM. NS. DISTR. Peninsula). t.—very many in dense corymbose cymes .

dysentery. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. astringent to bowels. :—Bark-acrid. LOC. Jambura. Jambu. Kokileshta. Pannerali. Fruit Trees. :-Black-Java Plum. COM. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Australia. COM. carminative . very often planted.) FAM. :—E. Jambu. M. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. also used in spongy and painful gums.—Myrtaceæ. blood impurities. also wild. NS. increases "Vata". Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. . digestive. H. M. biliousness. Pharenda. carminative and diuretic. Jambula. PARTS USED. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. fruits and seeds. both wild and cultivated. Jambul. thirst. Jamen. dry.—Myrtaceæ. :—Throughout India. Jambu. LOC. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. sweet. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Sk. cooling. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Shukapriya. Sk. LOC. Jamburaj. Nerate. Shukapriya. Gulabjaman. good lotion for ring-worm in head. H. :—Throughout the State. astringent. anthelmintic. gargles and washes . Malaya. strengthens gums and teeth. sprouts. common along river banks. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Jambu. Surabhipriya. Jam. good for sore-throat. K.) FAM. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. Neralu. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. DISTR. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. Jambul. removes bad smell from mouth. K. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Gulab-Jamb. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Nenda. Seeds—diuretic. enriches blood. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. asthma. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Malay—Rose apple. Ceylon. etc. good gargle for sore-throat. Jambudi. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. NS. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). common at Mahabaleshwar. G. See—Timbers. Fruit—acrid. Jambu-Nayinerale. useful in spleen diseases. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Nilphala. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. bronchitis. fruit vinegar is tonic. astringent to bowels. :—Bark.

with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. K. Root—bitter . Kottuhale. useful in "Kapha. fragrant at night. . purgative. inodorous during the day. Garhwal. Tagar .—rainy season. Sk.—snow-white. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. tonic to brain. tonic. H. :—Sikkim Terai. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. digestible. The plant contains an alkaloid. emmenagogue. Tagara. Chandani. . fatigue. thirst. tonic to brain. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. astringent to bowels. Wax flower. :—Bark. cures epilepsy. See—Ornamental Plants." biliousness. and an essential oil. Trinidad . Bengal. :—Root is acrid. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). :—E. NS. L. Fl. Assam. :—Cultivated in gardens. improves voice. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. removes bad humours. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. pale beneath. weakness of limbs. indigestible. Ananta. bronchitis. salver-shaped. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. useful in paralysis. Yunnan to Australia. C—lobes overlapping to the left. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). Taggar. E. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. used in asthma. Khasia Hills. :—Root.) FAM.—follicles. PROPERTIES AND USES. margins wavy. aphrodisiac. Seeds are astringent to bowels. with milky juice . across. strangury. alexipharmic. fruit and seeds. Hills of Visakhapatanam. liver and spleen . acrid. Fl. PARTS USED.5-5 cm. Ashvathabheda.. Maddarasa gida . HABITAT. 1-3 ribbed. heavy speech.—Apocynaceæ. Fr. PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. Cultivated in many places. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. lobes 5 in single. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. Burma.5-15 X 2. used in syphilis (Yunani). lessens pains in limbs and joints . indigestible. astringent to bowels. LOC. Root chewed relieves toothache . 7. :—Bark is sweet. t. Tagar. M. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. orange within. G. double. See—Timbers. divaricate. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. LOC. wood and oil. hot.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. Br. bitter. heating. Nandi. dysentery.5-5 cm. CHAR. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Fruit—sweet and tasty. DISTR. The fruit is sweet with a flavour.— opposite. cultivated in many parts. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. glossy green above. LOC. used in liver complaints.

HABITAT. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Imli. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. PARTS USED. HABITAT. G. Flower—bitter. Fl. Pandarakuda. stomachic. CHAR.—white. high. L. FAM. :—Flower-pungent.2-7. NS. Fr. :—Same as T. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. G. C.— Mar-Apl. Amlika. :—Malabar. Zendu. NS. Amla.— tube inflated near the top.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. wood.5 m. acrid. 2. LOC.5 cm. :—E. K. :—Rain-forests. Tintrani. rough. Amli. DISTR. LOC. Makhamala. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. good for teeth . lessens inflammation . bitter. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . NS. LOC. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. somewhat boat-shaped. muscular pains. Nagakuda. Genda. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Maddarssa. bark grey. Sd.. COM. Halmeti. FAM. 7. Chinch.5 cm. divaricata. :—Leaves and flowers. Amala. French Marigold.4-4. PARTS USED. kidney troubles.. Makhamal. HABITAT. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. Guljharo. grown in gardens all over India. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. internally they are said to purify blood. carminative. Sandu. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani).5-20 X 3. COM. Chinch. oblong lanceolate . COM. Amli. . :—Native of Mexico. See—Ornamental Plants. : K. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. H. Tamarind. Sk. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Sthulapushpa. DISTR. Fl. Sk. M. Nagaskuda. useful in scabies. belching. :—Cultivated. Tintidika.. throughout the Konkan and N. :—E. common in rain-forests. oil. Zanduga. Teter.—follicle. yellow when ripe. Gultora. Travancore up to 7. M. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. t.—Apocynaceæ.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). :—Shady parts of rain-forests.000 m.—Compositæ.. Kanara.—opposite. their juice is given in ear-ache. Amlike. astringent. Kalaga.—surrounded by red pulp. :—Root. across in pedunculate cymes . Chinchika. Nuli. coriaceous. Leaves—good for piles. Makhamali.

heals wounds and fractures. scabies. Sagach. small-pox. Kanara. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. K. Flowers— appetising . Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. intoxication &c. digestive. tonic. thirst. and laxative. flowers. heating. sore-throat. Sk. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. stomatitis. PARTS USED. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. and for sizing materials. Condiments and Spices. flowers and seeds.. costiveness. Sag. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Bark—astringent. FAM. tonic to heart. Sag. Fruit-sour. useful in giddiness and vertigo. LOC. Anil. M. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Sagun. tasty. fruit and seeds.—Verbenaceæ. :—Throughout India. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. DISTR. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Seeds astringent. such as body-burning. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Mahapatra. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Circars. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Teka. biliousness. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. aphrodisiac. Fruit—sour. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. eye-diseases. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Sumatra and Java. bark. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. causes cough. Arna. :—Bark. wood. PROPERTIES AND USES. Cultivated also. Madhya Bharat. earache. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. sweetish. anthelmintic. indigestible. boiled they are used as a poultice. Tega. Sagwan. abundant all along the slopes of W. tumours. urinary discharges. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Kanara. LOC. vomiting. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. :—E. DISTR. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Tropics generally. Tegu. Teak. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. . NS. Sagwan. heals ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. astringent to bowels. leaves. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. useful in liver-complaints. G. laxative. laxative. carminative. Malay Peninsula.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Seeds are good astringent. See—Timbers. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. COM. Burma.. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. H.

DISTR. Kogge. laxative. Malay Peninsula. Kalika. biliousness. NS. M. 2—2. long. ground and made into a pill. leprosy. allays thirst. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. COM. H. Empali. :-G. . ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). t. slightly curved.8—1. Sarpankho. cultivated lands and roadsides. alterative. allays thirst.. good in piles. K. cooling. "Root—diuretic. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . mucronate. cures diarrhœa . enriches Blood . mucronate. Sarphonka. leaves and seeds. Plihari. spleen. Leaves—tonic to intestines . burning pain over the region of liver. Wood—acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sarphoka. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. LOC. suborbicular.. 30—60 cm. See—Timbers. syphilis. PARTS USED. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. M. Udhadi. asthma.—Oct. useful in lung and chest diseases. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Wood good for head ache. useful in bronchitis.5 cm. Jhila. Ghodakan. dry. :—The whole plant. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. bitter. useful in scabies. poisoning. Phanike. oblanceolate. linear. heart. :—Plant-digestible. alexiteric. Fr. long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. increase "Vata". blood. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). biliousness. expectorant. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. glabrous above. anthelmintic.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes.—petals clawed. useful in bronchitis.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). liver.-June. ulcers. Sharapunkha. FAM. LOC. CHAR. pubescent on the back. Fl. high. urinary discharges. antipyretic. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. anthelmintic. sedative to gravid uterus. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. leaflets 11—21. :—All over India.8 X 0. Sharapunkha. useful in piles. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. cures diseases of liver. silkyhairy beneath. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. Gujarat. Sd. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. Flowers—acrid. :—A perennial herb. fresh root-bark. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . S.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). tumours. inflammations. asthma.—pod 3—4. Fl. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Deccan. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. standard. red. L. root.—5-6 . Flowers and seeds are diuretic.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. Country. along forest borders. spleen diseases. improve appetite. boils and pimples. Unhali. branches spreading. HABITAT:—Open situations. Konkan.2 cm. Bark is an astringent. it acts also as a vermifuge. C. Sk. LOC.

:—E. Karvirak. . useful in biliousness. Bastard Myrobalan. FAM. Bahara. tonic. Vibhitika.—Combretaceæ. M. leucoderma. Bahaza. :—Konkan and Deccan. DISTR. PARTS USED. acrid. Kahu. Rajastan and Sind. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Arjan.. Indradruma. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Sadado. PROPERTIES AND USES. digestible. NS. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. blood-diseases. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). except in dry arid regions. Voting. asthma. Arjuna. Tari. PARTS USED. strangury. Buhura. with milk. K. urinary discharges. heart disease. Arjun-Sadada. Madhya-Pradesh. Sk. in Khandesh Akrani. COM. strangury. Arjuna. :—Alexiteric. Behada. Shantimara. Belleric Myrobalan. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Beheduk. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Koha. anæmia. M. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kalidrum. NS.. externally in wounds and fractures. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Aksha. Fruit-pungent. Madhya-Bharat. anthelmintic . styptic. Hela. " Kapha".210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Chota-Nagpur.. very common in South Konkan. :—Bark. useful in bronchitis. G. H. Bibhitiki. Karshaphala. Sadura. false presentation of fœtus. aphrodisiac. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. laxative. sore-throat. & A. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. H. Dhanvi. in the sub-Himalayan tract. FAM. Sk. excessive perspiration. anthelmintic. fruit (rarely). both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). fruit and seed. White Marudah. biliousness. COM. diuretic. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. LOC. Vibhata. Baire. Behedo. Kakubha. :—E. :—Bark. See—Timbers. leaves. Sagona. biliousness. DISTR. Arjuna. ulcers. Expectorant. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. LOC. G. K. inflammation. intoxication. Kushika. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Bera. Burma. Bedda Nut. Arjun Sadada. Ceylon. tonic. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. LOC. Madras State. useful in fractures. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease.—Combretaceæ. :—Throughout the forests of India. Tara.

piles. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Ripe fruit—purgative. delirium (Ayurveda). applied to eyes. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". LOC. Alate. tonic. Kanara. M. expectorant. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. heating. good in ophthalmia. Harara. PARTS USED. DISTR. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. useful in asthma. Burma. vesicular calculi. alterative . a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. stomachic. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. cold in head. G. typhoid fever. heart and bladder. hoarseness. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. itching pain. used in paralysis (Yunani). LOC. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. piles. Sk. the fully ripe or dried fruit. mixed with honey. USES. carminative.—Combretaceæ. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. corneal ulcers. nose. constipation. :—Bark and fruit. diseases of eye. Gums and Resins. Fruit-astringent. bleeding piles. gout. Jivantika. bilious headache. diarrhœa. useful in thirst. Harade. anaemia. ascites. :—Fruit-dry. Har. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. thirst. useful in dyspepsia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. in Travancore. dyspepsia. Haria. inflammations. —E. FAM. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). gums. is used as an application in ophthalmia. Black myrobalan. Ceylon. attenuant. antipyretic. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. tonic. useful in caries of teeth. H. diseases of eye. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. Haritaki. common in Khandesh Akrani. elephantiasis. enriches blood. leucoderma. strangury. biliousness. hiccup. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. piles and diarrhœa. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. tumours. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. Jivanti. sore-throat. Abhaya. which is considered a good digestive. K. tonic. Seed—acrid. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. eye diseases etc. antidysenteric. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. Chebulic myrobalan. eyes. urinary discharges. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . heart and bladder. intoxicating. NS. vomiting. Haritaki. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. carminative. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. vomiting. anthelmintic. diseases of spleen. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. strengthens brain. Kernel has narcotic properties. Hirdo . LOC. See—Timbers. aperient. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dyes. brain tonic (Yunani). COM. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. Hirda. bleeding and ulceration of gums.

212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Bhend. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. also planted as roadside tree. Bengal. profuse discharge. FAM. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. See—Timbers. burning of body . :—Districts of Konkan and N.—Malvaceæ. Sacred Plants. Parasipu. Tans. Dyes. Gajadanta. Tulip Tree. COM. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. LOC. increases " Kapha " . produces worms in intestines . Mhaskar and Issac). largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. :—Bark. especially centipedes. . Bhindi. Bhandi. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. NS. Fibres. difficult to digest. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Ranbhendi. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. M. aphrodisiac . Arasi. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Bugari. :—Coast forests of India. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Burma. Kuberaksha. Kandarala. PARTS USED. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. :—E. DISTR. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. G. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Portia Tree. Paraspiplo. Parisha. Suparshuakan. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Phalisha. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. LOC. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. :—Fruit-sour. See—Timbers. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Paras-piper. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Kanara. Sk. acrid . Gandarati.. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jogiyarale. leaves. Paraspipal. flowers and fruit. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Hucerasi. K.

LOC. throat campanulate. Burma. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. yellow. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. useful in urethral discharges. NS. dorsally convex. bronchitis . M. tubular. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. Fl. hot. :—E. ventrally flat. Zard kunel. CHAR. Sk. bladder. NS. . The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Gulvel. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. L. lobes 5. Amritvalli. LOC. corona in the throat. endocarp corky. PARTS USED. frequently planted. Pila kanir. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. L. Andamans and Ceylon. Gurch. it has no action on digestive enzymes . FAM. Sd.—broadly obovate. DISTR. acrid. H. DISTR. across. root. :—Throughout tropical India. and blood vessels . grooved . Sk.—membranous. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . worms. COM. virgin uterus. Heart-leaved moonseed. fevers. crowded . females solitary. but its use is attended with considerable danger. Indies . C. Gulancha. :—Often planted.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. piles. very poisonous (Ayurveda). Gulvel. 5—10 cm. :—An extensive climber. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine.. wounds. Fr.—generally 4.—in axillary and terminal racemes. Amarvel. bright green and shining above. Pittaghni. :—E. K. eye-troubles. pungent. leucoderma. Vatsadani. Gulo. H. exocarp fleshy. Jwaranashini. Karvira. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. bark corky. Uganiballi. Haripriya. mesocarp bony. with milky juice. :—Native of S.. t. Exile or yellow Oleander. FAM. LOC. 7—9 nerved. Fr.—drupes.—Apl. size of a pea . Gado. HABITAT. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). G. PARTS USED. elliptic. Gulhel. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. 5 cm. Shatakumbha. linear. 7.—Menispermaceæ. Ashvaghna.-spirally arranged. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. yellow. Fl. America and W. male fascicled. skin diseases. :—Bark. Amrita-Valli. 1—3. Pila kaner. cures " Vata " . G. COM. growing on mango and other trees. astringent to bowels. HABIT :—In thickets. often planted in India. Pivali kanher. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. long.5—12. :—Stem. red.—Apocynaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants.5 cm. seeds and milky juice. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in terminal cymes.. Fl. M.

L. vomiting. stomachic. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. (Kirtikar). FAM. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. especially acid. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. LOC. :—Stem-bitter. leaves. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. crenulate. K. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. bark. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. :—Rain-forests. PROPERTIES AND LOC. good in cough.8-3. t. HABITAT. Sk. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Ceylon. stigma sessile. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. 15 m. diuretic. tonic. white. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. ovary rudimentary. size of a large pea. fever. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. cures jaundice. piles. :—Root. DISTR. antipyretic. dark shining green above. USES. PARTS USED. vomiting. Java. causes constipation. :—All over the Madras State . Stem-bitter. expectorant. digitately trifoliate. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. 5-7 lobed. giddiness. allays thirst. stimulant and anti-periodic.—Dehan. enriches blood. Sumatra. oblong. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. Gangalaki. orange coloured. Konkan and Kanara. China. common in S. vaginal and urethral discharges. 5-10 X 1. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. burning sensation. armed with small hooked prickles . anæmia. Jangali-Mirchi. Philippines. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). renews blood. male flower bud globose.—Aug. Forest Pepper.—in axillary cymes. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani).— alternate. jaundice. leaflets sessile. H. Kaduhakukare. FT. Fl. unisexual. high. coriaceous. Manger. Limri. Kadu-menasu. CHAR. tropical Africa. Root-bark is aromatic. Khasia Hills.8. fruits. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. COM. stimulates bile secretion.. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Kumaon to Bhutan. female flower buds oblong.-Jany. juice useful in diabetes. Mirchi. 3-5 grooved. useful in skin diseases.—Rutaceæ. M. also in the Deccan hills. Root and stem are bitter. Fl. tonic appetiser. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. :—E. diarrhœa. stomachic .214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. Macimullu. NS. LOC. Dahan. chronic fever. Lopezroot Tree. . pitted on the rind.—globose.

urinary discharges. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. antipyretic . PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. Sk. expectorant. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. :—E. Chota-Nagpur. LOC. Waitz). tropical Africa. Mahalimbu. Kuruk. Toon. removes " Tridosha". PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. strangury. fattening. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Tundu. Indian Mahogany. aphrodisiac. COM. HABIT. digestible. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Mandurike. DISTR. often cultivated. leprosy. aphrodisiac. Kaechaka. causes " Vata " . H. :—Throughout the State in tanks. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Sandal Neem. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Shingoda. Trikone-phala. Kanara. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Chittagong. NS. Apina. Shringa-kanda-taka. H. useful in . itching. Sk. blood diseases. indigestible. NS. headache. Kalingi. Trikota. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. good for scabies and gleet. :—Throughout India. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Burma. burning sensation. M. See—Timbers. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Water-chestnut. cooling. cures fevers. Ceylon. LOC. Singodi. Kuberaka. Tun. Dyes. :—E. K. Gums and Resins. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. DISTR. Deodari. inflammation. Malaya. Lim. Shingada. burning sensation.—Onagraceæ. Garige. Tuni. of India).) FAM. aphrodisiac. removes " Kapha ". fatigue. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. tonic. Bark—bitter. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. cures leprosy.. :—Aquatic (in tanks). PROPERTIES AND USES. G. :—Fruit. Tunika. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Gandhagarige. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. cardio-tonic. COM.—Meliaceæ. Nand-vriksha. LOC. Jalakantaka-valli. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. FAM. :—Cooling . Assam. Singhara. biliousness. M. :—Bark-acrid. anthelmintic. :—Bark and flowers. useful in ulcers. biliousness. "Tridosha". Lud.

:—E. lumbago. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Kadu Kange Kumbala. base oblique. sore-throat. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Gokshura. Gokhru. M. DISTR. Sd. solitary. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. removes biliousness (Ayurveda).—Zygophyllaceæ. used as food. hairy. Beta-Nahan Gokhru.—several in each coccus . along nalas and in swampy localities. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. alexiteric.—opposite.. Sk.. bad-teeth (Yunani). DISTR. Gokhru. considered cool and sweet. G. t. LOC.—throughout the year. :—Throughout India. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. Ceylon. one pair longer than the other . upto 3300 m. Kantaphala. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Food Plants. bronchitis. COM. H. LOC.. K. Fibres. :—The whole plant. Gokshri. :—Plant is cooling tonic. biliousness. LOC. Sarata. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. thirst. useful in chronic fevers. . of 5 woody cocci. each with 2 pairs of hard. Hussuk. Kanara. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. a common weed of the drier parts. Sumatra. Aphrodisiac. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. one of each pair smaller than the other. abruptly pinnate. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. :—H. Chhota gokhru. Kurangaha. FAM. COM. Gokhura. in Kashmir. pain. Sk. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. The plant contains an alkaloid. Gamhar. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Assam. LOC. See—Timbers. NS. Deccan and S. M. appetiser. Negalu . Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. M. Seeds abound in starch. They are also used in the form of poultice. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . oblong. Gokharu. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. FAM. Tumri. K. Petari .:—Saurashtra.—Euphorbiaceæ. Calthrope. Fl. L. Shadanga. NS. Trikantaka.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). stems and branches pilose.—globose. Pindara. Country. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. antipyretic. mucronate. PARTS USED. :—A procumbent herb. Karahate. Fr. sharp spines. Gujarat. Kere Padye. CHAR. Pindara. yellow. Ceylon. young parts silky. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. Java. improves taste . Malay Peninsula. bile and phlegm.

: — G. stem erect.—sessile. Brahmadandi. urinary discharges. :—Western Peninsula. :—The whole plant. Konkan. lumbago . Kanara. :—Root. bitter. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. appetiser. spinous toothed or serrate. t. Brahmadandi. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes " Tridosha ". :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. Sk. cures skin and heart diseases. LOC. Fl. ciliate. leprosy . Brahmadandi. COM. pruritus ani. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. inflammations. Physiaran. vesicular calculi. C. cures strangury. improves appetite . involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Mt. yellowish brown. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. diuretic. K. urinary disorders and impotence. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). the Deccan. LOC. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. .—Compositæ. West Rajastan. tonic . Brahmadandi. cough. NS. branches angled and ribbed. PARTS USED. :—Hot. gleet. Fl. enriches blood . linear-oblong or lanceolate. slender. asthma. H. ovoid. :—A glabrous herb. copious. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. cures "Kapha". Mota-Motachor. emmenagogue (Yunani). oblong. increases menstrual flow. faintly ribbed. which is taken in large quantities. bloody urine. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). PROPERTIES AND USES. Aja-dandi. leaves.—heads 6—8 mm. FAM. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. gonorrhœa. Diuretic. S. useful in strangury. tonic. S. reduces inflammation. alleviating burning sensation.— Dec. :—Cooling . aphrodisiac. USES :—Fruits are cooling. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. S. seeds. HABITAT. Kantapatraphala. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. CHAR. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). purifies blood . alterative . pappus shorter than the achenes. DISTR. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. L. stomachic. fattening. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). :—Wild in places. tonic. Central India. M. fruits. Talakanto. piles.— purple. Abu. Brahma-dandi. long. Kanara. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). —achene. suppression of urine. LOC. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. Fr. pain . diuretic. reduces inflammation . base of the cauline leaves not auricled . M. "Vata". Country.

USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Kadvi-padyal or patola . Avagude-hannu. Jangali chichonda. :—A scandent annual. headache and boils. COM. long. laxative. long as well as broad. Malay Peninsula. CHAR. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.—monœcious.-male in axillary . Fruit—hot.5 cm. woody below. stems 3. allays thirst. white. antipyretic. N. deeply 5-lobed. :—Throughout India. t. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. burning sensation. Sk.3-12.5—7. oil. tendrils 3 cleft. asthma. Mahakala. Indrayan. H. Sd. Ratan-indrayan. COM. base cordate . alterative. slightly hairy. palmately 3-5 lobed.—2. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. Kiripodla. long. Perula. tendrils 3-fid. Jangli— Kadu padval. bitter. cures bronchitis. Sk. reniform or broadly ovate. Malaya. with a long sharp beak. FAM. Mukal. Australia. Fl. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. eye diseases. axillary. variable. H. Lal-indrayan. In Bombay.5 cm. leprosy. leaves.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Root. FAM . :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. anasarca and ascites. furrowed. — surrounded with red-pulp . Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic.3 cm. blood diseases. Patola. cures itching. lobes ovate-oblong.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. chireta and honey.. Kaundal. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Root-juice is very purgative. orbicular. scarlet when ripe. ovoid-fusiform.5 m.—Cucurbitaceæ. M. leaf-juice is emetic. Leaves—good for biliousness. Fr. L.-5-12. stem robust. Betlada padaval. The seeds are good for stomach disorders .—July-Oct. —G. DISTR. NS. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. L. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Jyotsna. Makal. base deeply cordate. stomachic. erysipelas. leucoderma. slender. females solitary. the Deccan. CHAR. paler beneath. Fl. NS. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. K. :—E. green with white stripes when raw. Ceylon. dark-green above. pungent. Panduka. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). useful for boils and intestinal worms. Wild Snake-gourd.6—4. it is given in decoction with ginger. fruit. male in axillary racemes. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. G. LOC. HABITAT:-In hedges.-6. ulcers.. dentate or serrate. LOC. distantly denticulate. PROPERTIES AND USES.. K. :—Root-cathartic . Katuka. antipyretic. long. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Fl. alexiteric.

5 cm. high. acute. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. :—Wild in hilly parts. inner slightly longer than outer. L. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. Ekdandi.—many . Ray flowers ligulate. :—A perennial straggling herb. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. CHAR. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. Fl. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . fringed. axillary. heat of brain. :—Abundant in the Deccan. Deccan and S. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. densely silky hairy. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. DISTR. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. M. lessens inflammations .. middle lobe smallest. leprosy. outer involucral bracts ovate. PARTS USED. LOC. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric.— achene. t. purgative. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. ophthalmia. :— Wild in Konkan. abortifacient.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. China. Sd. :—Throughout India.—Compositæ. :—Leaves. C. diam. Fl. limbweakness. LOC. . :—Root and fruit..75 X . hairy. slender. all over the State. Kirkee. t. stem and branches hairy. used in epilepsy. petioles densely hairy. black. rheumatism.75-1 in.—petals wedge-shaped. many years ago. Ceylon.—globose 3-8. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. gargle good for toothache. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fr.—1. :—M. Country. sparsely white hairy.— Apl. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. HABITAT. white. boiled with gingelly oil. on the Himalayas. Fl.—throughout the year. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. 3-partite. COM. female solitary.-July. Japan. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. ligules yellow. cures hemicrania. LOC. peduncles very long.. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect.. bracts large. bruises and wounds. Fruit—carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. DISTR. very hairy. NS. ovate-elliptic. glandular. Fr. Malaya. Australia. FAM. N. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. which is found abundantly all over the country. Juice of fruit or root-bark. 30-60 cm.—head solitary.

:—South of Bombay. long. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. K. long. Methi. Fenugreek . FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. corona gibbous below. Methi. S. Kashmir. useful in dropsy. appetiser. fleshy. aperient. with coma . Chandrika. NS. much used in colic. HABITAT. :—E.— broadly ovate. LOC.-Nov. Methini.—follicles. . diuretic. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A.—Asclepiadaceæ. C. 5-10 x 2. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. Konkan. M. large for the genus. Muthi. suppurative. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. NS. Janglipikvan. CHAR. Nepala . vomiting.5—10 cm. :—Punjab.—Aug. Fl. :—H. purplish within. Hot and dry. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. L. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. astringent to bowels. dysentery. and the seeds contain vitamin A. tonic. Sk. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. LOC. Kanara. Pitabija Vedhini.—in umbellate cymes . useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). greenish-yellow outside. M. Pitakari (Pitamari). COM.. G. "Vata". See—Vegetables.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. K. chronic cough. Fl. Jyoti. :—Cultivated. removes bad taste from mouth. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Sd.. piles. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. :—Leaves and seeds. LOC.—deeply lobed. flatulence. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). tonic and carminative. DISTR. also in low and sandy localities.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).7 cm. emmenagogue.5-5. Menthe—palle. Methi. enlargement of spleen and liver. anthelmintic. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. bronchitis. base cordate. M. antipyretic. narrowed at the apex to a free point. :—Hot. t. diarrhœa. tapering to a fine point at the apex. ovate or elliptic oblong.—opposite. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. PARTS USED. roots many. Methi . applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. enlargement of spleen and liver. Antamul. :—A twining perennial. FN. cures leprosy. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. 7. FAM. dropsy. they are also aphrodisiac. cultivated in many parts of India. COM. Country.

black..—Aug. Peninsula. M..—appearing after the flowers. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Philippines. URGINEA INDICA Kunth.— petals lanceolate. joints 3-6. LOC. Sk. Prishna-parni. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. Burma. :—Konkan. Sk. COM. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. flat. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED. L. glabrous. NS. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). PARTS USED. 0. pale lead-colored. hairy beneath. COM. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. HABITAT. USES. FAM. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. Jaglipiaz.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). DISTR. :—A perennial shrub. :—Bulb. :—Western Himalayas.. Chota-Nagpur.. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. Fr. light-brown . Thailand (Siam). :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Sd.-Sept. W. Vanapalandu. tropical Africa.5 cm. Ranganja . H. Ceylon. URARIA PICTA Desv. found useful in dysentery. blotched with white above. USES. polished. CHAR.8 m. CHAR. Ceylon.— imparipinnate.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. stems downy with hooked hairs. Pitvan. t. 20-30 cm. high. :—Sandy places.— Liliaceæ.— pod.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. C. diaphoretic and expectorant. :—Throughout India. :—G. Jangli-Ran-khanda. Panjala. :—A herb.9-1. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. linear. H. Fl. FAM. Rankanda.. 15-45 x 1. perianth campanulate. stalks long.3-2. Malay Islands. Dried leaves are emetic.—capsule. tropical Africa. scape erect 30-45 cm. HABITAT. Malay Islands.—in racemes 15-30 cm. 10-20 cm. Fl. Fl. Shankaraja . M. :—Common on sandy shores. Pitavan . :—Throughout the plains of India. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tapering to both ends .. C. white. Pithavan.— flattened. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). LOC. L. ellipsoid. folded on one another. Bihar. :—Wild. Dabra. Fr. DISTR.—purple. KolaPutakand. . G. linear-oblong. Indian Squill. long. NS. Borneo. long. :—E. drooping. long. :—Roots and leaves. 5-7 (rarely 9).

PROPERTIES AND USES. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. long. erect. anthelmintic. renal calculi. 1931. LOC. t. boils in the scalp. obtusely keeled. M. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Rasna. acute. Banda. tonic to brain and liver. stimulant and diuretic. Vanda. diuretic. rheumatic pains. heating. 15-20 X 1. Persara. stout. CHAR.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914.—capsule. tip.3-2 cm. rheumatism. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. Gujarat and Kanara. Chota-Nagpur. Vriksharuha. scandent by simple or branching roots . (In Med. Fr. bronchitis. The plant contains an alkaloid. inflammations. :—G. scilla of Great Britain. purgative. FAM. LOC. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. good for piles. tremors (Ayurveda). Root is bitter.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. NS. long. bronchitis. Sk. praemorse. pollinia ellipsoid. maritima of U. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy.. alexiteric. dropsy. laxative. W. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. Ceylon. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. :—Konkan. cardiac. and was found useful (Koman). useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). HABIT. diseases of the abdomen. :—The bulb is pungent. DISTR. S. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. :—Bengal. diseases of nose. Br. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . internal pains (Yunani). . USES :—Expectorant. emmenagogue.— July. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. A. :—An epiphyte. lessens inflammations . alexiteric. and U. PARTS USED. Nakula. The bulb is stomachic. Bihar. Atiras.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. H. complicate. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. Madhya-Pradesh. column very short. alexiteric. 2-lobed. recurved. anthelmintic.. useful in paralysis. L. Gaz. bronchitis. antipyretic. :—Root and leaves. useful in dyspepsia. Travancore.5—9 cm. Rasna. Peninsula. hiccup.. Rasno. heals fractures (Yunani). The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. stem 30-60 cm. Fl. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. COM.—Orchidaceæ. Sarpagandha. lip bluish dotted with purple. asthma. Bandanike. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. lumbago.—thickly coriaceous. toothache. LOC. long. skin diseases. Fl. Rasna. heating. :—Epiphyte. and an acute interposed one. :—Root is bitter. K.

USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. Country. amenorrhœa. Raktavalli. young branches and panicles pubescent. Sk. Kanara and S. FAM. Sk. DISTR. FAM. M..—Rhamnaceæ. DISTR. LOC. :—Bark. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. rheumatism. t. K. Poppli. also in N. prolonged into a linear-oblong. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. LOC. Kubbila. Gums and Resins. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Coorg in Ghats. Shala. NS. See—Timbers. Kaharub. eardiseases. globular. Shandike. in chronic bronchitis. Bilidhupa.—petals 5. Ceylon. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. :—Bark-hot. M. Malamaitra. Safed-damar. Fl.-Jany. dark. PARTS USED. Kanara. alexipharmic. M. Kundura. debility and slight cases of fever. CHAR. USES. anæmia. LOC. C. :—A large much branched woody climber. expectorant. Tenasserim.—Dec. boils and ringworm. stomachic. :—Bark. Mysore. deciduous and monsoon-forests. H. also planted. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). Khandvel. urinary discharges. Dhupa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. Lokhandi. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. COM.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Pitti. hemicrania. useful in atonic dyspepsia. diarrhœa. resin. :—North Kanara.—in large drooping terminal panicles. (T. tonic. COM. Fr. fruit. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. ulcers and wounds. Travancore. :—Madras State. greenish. . NS. Sandras. detergent.8 cm. skin eruptions. tuberculous glands. Sekalyel. bechic. itch (Ayurveda). :—E. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. L. cures cough. buds 5-angled. useful in leprosy. dysentery. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora).5-3. 1-nerved wing. carminative. Ragatarshado. Fl. tonic and stimulant. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. PARTS USED. Dhupa. G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. whitish). diam. K. piles. entire or crenate. good for sore-throat. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Madidhupa. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. Red Creeper.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. acrid. Sarjaka.. abundant in S. with an offensive odour. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. :—E. H. Oils. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . yellowish.-nut about 5 mm. alexipharmic. Haruge. :—Western India.—5-10 X 2.

PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. used in skin-diseases. :—Annual. Bhutakeshi. Deccan . all coarsely dentate. lyrate. Fl.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. K. :—Konkan . H. Gujarat. hairy.-achene oblong cylindric. yellow. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Kulara. Vishamushti. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S.—oblong. :—Plant. pappus reddish.. G. Kalejire. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). H. hairy on both sides. with purple tips . Sk. and leaves. lobes 5. HABITAT:-Waste places. :—Throughout India. hairy. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.—heads subcorymbose. Fl. CHAR. Sk. Fr. on long petioles. M. erect. . The juice mixed with mustard oil. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. often cultivated.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Sd.) FAM.. Fl.8 cm. in equal proportions. :—E. involucre bracts linear. NS. rachis glandular pubescent. Kulhala.—Dec. robust. Ceylon. Vanajiraka. Country. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. "Vata" and "Kapha". Java . PARTS USED.9 m. cure ulcers. Bakchi. hairy. FAM. Ceylon . Kadu-Kala Jiriga. t— Jany. K. Somaraj. Agnibija. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. Gadar-tambaku. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. LOC. about 40-flowered. leafy herb . rounded. Sundika. compound or pinnatisect.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Fl.Feb. stem 0.—Compositæ. The juice of the whole plant.—Scrophulariaceæ. astringent to bowels. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. China. stems 60—90 cm. Vapehi.5—3. :—Seeds-acrid.6-0. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Kutki.2 cm.-May.—capsule. NS. Kalizhiri. coarsely serrate. DISTR. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. LOC. Kalijiri.. branched near the top. 5—9 x 2. Purple Fleabane. ofter cultivated. sub-globose. :—An annual herb. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions.—alternate. lanceolate. CHAR. t. L.. Kalhara. warted. C. COM. Fr. Kadvojiri. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. Seeds— anthelmintic. LOC. M. Somaraj. high. :—Throughout India . Afghanistan. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd.-rotate. M. 10-ribbed. high . :—G. squeezed out by pounding. truncate. L. innermost the longest.

Ushira. Lavancha. LOC. plant is used in fever convulsions. with lime-juice. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Sedardi. hiccup . L. :—Plant. remove blood from liver. Osari. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Ardhaprasadana. used for asthma. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. tonic. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. . involucre bracts linear-lanceolate.. Sadori. bronchitis . COM. pubescent. Devika. Australia. kidney troubles. K. high. The plant with quinine. H. Sahadevi.—simple. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. :—E. Panni. Fr. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). Fl. Sind. astringent.— pinkish violet. Sahadevi. tropical Asia. :—Annual. Africa . Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. applied in inflammatory swellings . made into a bolus with lime-juice. striate. Kuruvelu. Vecrnam. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. H. oblong. NS. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. M. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. asthma. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. :—E. a depilatory (Yunani). t. good for sores and itching of eyes. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms.—achene. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). cures "Tridosha". consumption. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). LOC. :—A common weed throughout the State.—Gramineæ.-Feb. NS. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). PARTS USED. CHAR. Mudivala. alternate. Cuscus grass. Koosa. Fl. COM.—Compositæ. pappus white. Ash-coloured Fleabane . heads small. cold. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. awned. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. In Ceylon. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. erect herb. silky on the back. Vala. bruised seeds ground up in paste. are used in destroying pediculi. Sk. M. 15—75 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. Dandotpala. The expressed juice is given in piles. FAM. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. Bena. Valo . DISTR. stomachic. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. stem stiff. G. seeds. Sahadevi. K. LOC. :—Throughout India. They are also used as tonic. flowers.—Jan. Bala. Sadodi. stomachic and diuretic. G. Khas. clothed with white hairs . Sk.

rachis stout. blood diseases (Yunani). asthma. stomachic. usually sheathed all along. margin spinously rough. pale green. Culms stout. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. consumption.-leaf sheaths compressed. :—Cooling. FAM. leaves. stomachic. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. Nilpushpi. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. useful in spermatorrhoea. The otto is used as a tonic. NS. febrifuge.. bilious fevers. inflammations. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. astringent. Nirgari. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. colour varying from yellowish to black. USES :—Root is tonic. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. :—Throughout the State. diuretic. Leaves are aromatic.. useful in burning sensation. erect. DISTR. :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. Sinduvara. Sk. spleen enlargement. COM. Kanara in damp places. thirst. Sind. Indrani. astringent. strangury. Nukki. promotes hair-growth. foul breath. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. LOC. slender. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. Sessile spikelets.—Verbenaceæ. LOC. head-ache. LOC. long. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . painful teething of children (Ayurveda). L. also cultivated. bronchitis.8 m. :—Common in Gujarat and N. expectorant and diuretic. PARTS USED. Nirgundi. bitter. Nirgundi. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in eye diseases. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. H. inflammations and irritability of stomach. Cooling to brain. bitter. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. throughout the Malayan regions. Konkan and Deccan. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. PARTS USED. M. refrigerant. anthelmintic. Nirgundi. heating. Sambhalu. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . up to over 1. K. stimulant and tonic. DISTR. leucoderma. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Nirgud. Lakki. Afghanistan. biliousness. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. Fl. racemes up to 5 cm. Ceylon. The roots contain an essential oil. long. sweats. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. Philippine Islands. soporific. Nigod. alexiteric. :—Roots. Bilenekki.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—panicle up to 30 cm. bitter. :—G. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . :—Throughout India. tonic and vermifuge. high. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. lower ones keeled and fan-like. West-Indies and Brazil. cephalic.

good in chronic bronchitis . sweet. Angura. testicle swellings and piles. fattening. piles. cooling useful in thirst. Angur. Sk. Khandesh. Draksha. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. aphrodisiac. FAM-—Vitaceæ. Gujarat and S. :—Cultivated. :—A native of western Asia. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). NS. applied in scabies. strangury. emmenagogue.. COM. Fruit is nervine. Fruit— digestive. flowers. M. Guchaphala. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. blood diseases. skin should not be eaten. Sap of young branches. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. DISTR. There are numerous cultivated varieties. laxative. leaves. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. LOC. heat of body. Country. Draksha. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. :—Fruit-acrid. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. allays vomiting. diarrhœa. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. sparingly in Poona. K. burning. catarrh and jaundice. W. Draksha. diuretic . allays vomiting. Yakshmaghni. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. astringent to bowels. Darakh. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). expectorant. causes gases in the stomach. purifies and enriches blood . Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. bad effects of drinking. cures thirst. :—Deccan. laxative. tonic to liver. G. Madhurasa. cough. appetiser. fruits. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. good for lungs. syphilis. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. See—Timbers. stones in bladder. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. :—E. Ahmednagar. produces constipation. difficult to digest. diuretic. emmenagogue. asthma. Flowers—expectorant. fever. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. useful in old fevers. aperient. Draksha. and given in coughs. good for eyes and throat. jaundice. Grape-vine. Drakh . HABITAT.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. The plant contains an alkaloid. a remedy for skin diseases. produces alopecia. stops bleeding from mouth. seeds. and traces of vitamins B and C. spleen inflammation. cooling. The fruits contain vitamin A. LOC. PARTS USED :—Stem. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. cooling . liver and kidney. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. fever. H. stomachic. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. India. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. fattening . hoarseness and consumption. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". .

) DISTR. Winter-cherry. HABITAT. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. :—A robust woody climber. Cape of Good Hope.—Solanaceæ.—greenish or lurid yellow. Sk. pinnae 4-6 pairs. Canaries. long. bony Fl. somewhat scurfy. Kanchuki. H.5-12. aphrodisiac. :—Drier regions.-Jany. anthritis. obovate. bronchitis. COM. tonic. M. marasmus of children. linear oblong. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. :—Tubers-bitter. armed with prickles . branches terete. NS. 6 mm. spathulate. useful in "Vata". Kanara. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. LOC. acrid. leaflets 5-7 pairs. tonic. Gandhpatri. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). PARTS USED :—Root. :—Root and bark. Vajini. swollen above the seeds. :—The roots are given in pneumonia .—petals 5. :—E. inflammations. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . Balada. Hooliganji. seeds.—3-4. :—Konkan jungles. "Kapha". inserted on the top of. hard. PARTS USED. ulcers. Fr. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. rachis grooved with soft hairs. oblong. bronchitis. M. 7.—5-10 X 2. ovate. CHAR. Wakeri.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. USES. alterative. slightly 5-angled. :—K. PROPERTIES AND USES. insomnia. Fl. FAM. Asoda. emmenagogue . main rachis armed with prickles. heating. good in asthma. lumbago..—yellow. long. constricted between them. Drakshasava—used as tonic. branches armed with recurved prickles . dark-green. psoriasis. red.—pod. Wagati. alexipharmic. COM.— Sept.5-5 cm. Ashvagandha. Asgundh. :—A branched erect undershrub. Asan. hoary tomentose . consumption. leaves. Fr. anthelmintic. enclosed in inflated calyx. Fl. 23-30 cm. calyx-tube. Ghodasoda. entire. Hirimaddina-gadde. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. :—In the drier regions of India . minutely hairy. aphrosidiac.5 cm. C. leucoderma. 0. . scabies. green berries. NS. Mediterranean regions.. oblong. Gujarat. Deccan. smooth. L. base dentate. chest troubles etc. Fl. CHAR. Asgund. Kamrupini. diam. Wagati. See—Fruit Trees. abundant in Sind . G. LOC.—berry. Ceylon. Tuber—bitter. (not common. coriaceous. PROPERTIES AND LOC.3-1. pretty common in the ghats. Amangura. Sd. L.-Feb. senile debility. long. asthma. t.5 m.. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). FAM. Sd. Sogada-beru. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz.—2-pinnate. dark-orange. high. inflammations. K. t. :—Deccan. Punir. favours constipation (Yunani).228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption.

PROPERTIES AND USES. leprosy. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. blood diseases. brown. The plant contains an alkaloid. Hallunova. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. uterine sedative. Dhavani. diuretic and deobstruent. 5-9X 1.5 cm. dysentery. Br.-May. Indrajav. long. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Phulsatti. Indrajav. Dhateki. USES. H. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Fl. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Sk.3-2. H. Dudhi. wedge-shaped. Ornamental Plants. ulcers and painful swellings . 1 cm. Madhavasini. used in thirst. Madagascar. Hayamaraka. Kalikari. Japan. and in derangement of liver . haemorrhoids. Fl. alterative. NS. irregularly dehiscent.—Apocynaceæ. Sd. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. acrid. debility from old age. Kodamurki. anthelmintic . Vanhishikha. M. Kuda. Java. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Santha.—mostly opposite. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Kalakuda. Sumatra.—capsule. China. :—G.—numerous. Madhuindrayava. Dhawai. PARTS USED. Dhaiti. LOC. tropical Africa. K. simple. on trap in the Akrani. Indrajav. Dec. in 2-15 flowered cymes. useful in leucorrhoea. rheumatism. COM. lumbar pains. velvety above. :—Throughout India. Fr.—Lythraceæ. Tamrapushpi. :—G. COM. alexiteric. ovate-lanceolate. smooth. DISTR. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Dyes..— numerous. :—Bark and flowers. :—Pungent. NS. cooling. HABITAT. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Dhaw.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Dhavani. Dhawadina. emaciation of children. It is narcotic. FAM. Kanara near the sea-coast. :—Monsoon-forests. Baluchistan. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. LOC. toxic. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. K. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. See—Tans. Bela. L. M.) FAM. leaf-infusion is given in fever. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . erysipelas. branches long. common in the Konkan and N. Khirni. Ceylon. Hale. scarlet. nigro-punctate beneath. t. Sk. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Swetakutaj. Are. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. . :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests.

hairy on both sides. Bur-Weed. Dumundi. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. involucre of fertile head. 1-3 cm. voice. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world.achene. complexion. fever. Itara. with 2 erect beaks. Shankhahuli. anthelmintic. Gadrian. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. In S.. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. tonic.5 cm. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. the bark is specially useful in piles. See—Timbers. memory. long and broad. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin.—Compositæ. tonic. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. L. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. FAM. PARTS USED. fattening. Dutundi. :—The whole plant. poisonous bites of insects. fertile heads few. t. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Banokra. cures leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES. improves appetite. long. salivation. Fl. 5-7. ovoid in fruit. West-Peninsula. CHAR.. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . epilepsy. Khandesh at 1050 m. DISTR. USES :—Root is bitter. antipyretic. Fr. Madhya Pradesh. :—Cooling. hard and tough. :— Throughout India. stout. barren heads many. LOC. axillary. oblong ovoid. Aristha. Sk. all over the State. 3-lobed. especially root and fruit.Feb. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . useful in cancer and strumous diseases. compressed . LOC.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. digestive. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. . LOC. laxative. LOC. G. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. in W. DISTR.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. irregularly incisoserrate . It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. :—Rajastan. Sarpakshi.1-6. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Annual herb . stem short. antidysenterica (Yunani). Timor. alexiteric.—Jany.—many. at the top. biliousness. M. H. Ceylon. Sankeshwar. NS. rough with short hairs . Clot-Cockle-bur. Kambu-Vanamalini.-E. COM.. :—Bark and seeds. Fl. PARTS USED. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes.

lumbago. . Ginger. piles. stomachic. tonic. Chinese Date. Bordi. HABITAT. colic. It is stimulant. Koli. and dry situations. LOC. to prevent nausea and griping. Alen. tongue and increases appetite. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. carminative. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Rhizome—pungent. NS. "Kapha". expectorant. "Vata". carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Beri. aphrodisiac. useful in heart and throat diseases. K. M. :—Rhizome-pungent. Shringavera. good in piles. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. M. alexiteric. Badari. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Bor. Hasisunthi. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia.—Rhamnaceæ. appetiser. Adrate. head-ache. Gulmmula. on poor soil and in rocky places. Plum. NS. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). heating. G. carminative..—Scitaminaceæ. pains (Yunani). Sk. Ajapriya. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). HABITAT :—Open dry forests. useful in elephantiasis. bronchitis. Egasi. Ber. anthelmintic. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . Bogari. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. FAM. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. gives lustre to eye. vomiting. Ber. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. :—Cultivated. it is also given in the form of infusion. Boyedi. Sk. Alen. Indian Cherry. DISTR. aphrodisiac. loss of appetite and piles. COM. flatulence.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. K. FAM. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. rheumatism. H. inflammations. vomiting. stomachic. H. Kandara. Anupama. Dridhabija. PARTS USED. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. dyspepsia. See—Condiments and Spices. laxative. LOC. pains. eructations. Ipanji. Bor. :—E. removes pain due to cold. Alla Adrak. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. it cleans throat. :—E. COM. :—Rhizome. Ada. Kuvali. Bore. Ardraka. G. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps.

good in liver complaints. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). China. . :—Root-bitter. tonic to heart and brain . LOC. head-ache. tonic. seeds. Afghanistan. Leaves antipyretic.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Africa. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. Fruits contains vitamin A. :—Root. burning sensation. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. good in consumption and blood-diseases. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. PARTS USED. Root and Bark tonic. indigestible. leaves. cooling. thirst. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Seed—astringent. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. Burma. vomiting. causes cough. useful in fevers. Fruit Trees. biliousness. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Fruit—sweet and sour. causes diarrhœa in large doses . See—Timbers. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . good in dysentery and diarrhœa. Bark—causes boils . reduce obesity. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Leaves form a plaster to boils. DISTR. cure asthma. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Australia. allays thirst (Yunani). fruit. on the laterite near the coast in N. Leaves—anthelmintic. Ceylon. removes biliousness. Fruit— cooling. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. bark. abundant in the Deccan. Kanara. laxative. wounds and ulcers. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the State in dry situations .

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