SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

anti-pyretic. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Soap-pod tree. Country and Gujarat. LOC. throat diseases. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. erysipelas. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. M. long. :—E. psoriasis. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Phena.—in fascicled globose heads. M. " Vata ". ulcers. relaxation of the uvula. Tans. Fr. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Sige-balli or kai. LOC. Sd. Shikekai. acrid. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. boils. overlapping. In ulceration of the gums.-July. H. Yajnika. wrinkled when dry . leaflets 10-20 pairs. Pegu.. Fl. fleshy when green. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. sore-throat and tooth-ache. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. :—Rajastan. hypertrophy of tonsils. prurigo. Malay Islands. China. heaviness. urinary and vaginal discharges. Dyes. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Himalayas up to 1700 m. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Ritha.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Saptata. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Khadira. Kanara (often on laterite). given in elephantiasis.5X2-2. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). Kushthari.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Khair. cures itching. Manda-otte.—bipinnate. Bhuriphena.-t. Vidula. M. Burma. measles and other skindiseases. :—An extensive woody climber.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. inflammations. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. tonic. Lalkhair. Kath-bole. L. DISTR. :—Common throughout the Stale .. cooling. Chikakai. Saradruma.-6-10 . NS. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kanara forests. FAM. . CHAR. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Sk. See—Timbers. DISTR. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Deccan.-Mar. 7. leucorrhoea. linear-oblong. K. :—Common in the Konkan and N.—pod. Dantadhavan. aphrodisiac. mouth troubles. bronchitis. along the coasts of Konkan and N. Sikkim. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. strengthens teeth. Dipta. indigestion. It is given in diarrhœa. yellow. gums. Khandesh Akrani S. Western Peninsula. " Kapha ". COM. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Sk. Shige. piles. Kochi. Charmakusha. 5-10 cm. Fl. LOC.5-12. antidysenteric. leprosy.8 cm.

LOC. cures stomatitis. cardio-tonic. Sponge tree. LOC. leucoderma. anthelmintic. blood diseases. buboes. Stinking acacia. G. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Internally they are aperient. DISTR. Devababhul. expectorant and good emetic. HABITAT :—Moist situations. Cassia flower. erysipelas. improves appetite. not indigenous but naturalised. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Kankri. stomatitis. Arimeda. M. externally they are applied to leprous patches. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . Kari jali. leaves and gum. Jali. FAM. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). burning sensation. piles. In Philippines decoction. ascites. biliousness. cures " Kapha. ulcers. caries of teeth. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. itching. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Gandhelo khair . anti-diarrhoeal. digestible. K. Girimeda. Vilavati kikar. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. Sk. Sind. erysipelas. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Jheri baval. PARTS USED :—Bark. bronchitis. Sauna jali. anti-dysenteric. prurigo. COM.. leucoderma. NS. Pissibabul.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . deobstruent. H. :—E. tonic. eczema. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. causes " Vata". anthelmintic. detergent. often cultivated. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Gandhbabul. purgative. blood-diseases. See—Timbers. Marudruma. alexiteric. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. Gums and Resins. .pungent. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). often planted . cooling. LOC. Gum—sweetish. inflammations.

5 cm. perianth 4-5 segments.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. elliptic obovate. K. crenate-serrate. Fl. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. smooth. K. :—G.— ovoid. 30-75 cm. Vanchhikanto. Arittamanjaria. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. erect. Latjira . USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. G. DISTR. Chirchira. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. :—Common in the Deccan and S.—Euphorbiaceæ. ascending. Kantarika. branches long.9 m. softly hairy. Ceylon. axillary spikes .—utricle. Kuppi. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic.—greenish white. rounded at base. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Uttrane . long in fruit. males. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. H. :—E. tropical Africa. Chichra. branches terete or quadrangular striate. COM. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. Khokla. M. enclosed in perianth smooth. M. asthma. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Merkati.3-0.. about 50 cm.3 X 2.-Jany. in elongate terminal spikes. COM.—Nov. Fr. . Philippines.8-6. Apamarga.5 cm. FAM. Sd. scattered. hispid. Country. NS.5-4. high. pale-brown. small. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. LOC. NS. Fl. Sd.—capsule. t.—Amarantaceæ. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.—June-Sept.—opposite. :—An erect herb 0. clustered near the summit of spike. :—Annual. It is used in congestive headache. Kuppi-gida. Apang. L. brown. Vasira. females. Ksharamadhya.—monœcious.—truncate at apex. FAM. minute. pneumonia and rheumatism. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. L. Fl. Var. many. Khokali. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. The plant contains acalyphin. Utranigida. H. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. few. brown. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Sk. somewhat 3-nerved.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. CHAR. Aghada . Chalmari. Khajoti. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. oblong-cylindric. CHAR. elongate. t. angular. Sk. erect herb. Prickly chaff-flower.57. 2. LOC. Fl. :—Throughout India. and shining sepals with narrow white margins.. Fr. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. in lax. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain.5x2-4. Agheda-di. stem stiff. one-seeded. high. Kharamanjiri. M. 3.

brain-tonic. skin eruption etc. dysentery. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. Vekhand. Gandhilovaj. blood diseases (Ayurveda). flowers and seeds. Fr. heating. piles. leucoderma (Yunani). Tropical Asia. ascites. laxative. thirst. obtuse. Africa. spadix. anthelmintic.. Jatila. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). emetic. :—Throughout India. Gorbach . Bhutnashini. :—An aromatic herb . tumours. toothache. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. stomachic. improves appetite. . Sk. LOC.. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. dyspepsia. laxative. heating. kidney troubles. carminative. sepals scarious.9-1. bright-green. FAM. anthers yellow. 5-10 cm. America. and is considered useful in dropsy. Baja . rat-bite. M. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. laxative. spathe 15-75 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. voice. Europe and N. Throughout Asia. acute. stomatitis. Ceylon. 0. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. bronchitis. loss of memory. Bitter. green . Australia. throat. H. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints.8 X 1. inflammations. slightly curved. creeping and branching. diuretic. inflammations. Bach. PARTS USED : —Root. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. LOC. carminative. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in abdominal pains. :—E.8 cm. Baluchistan. hysteria. leaves. piles. useful in vomiting. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. G. CHAR. fevers. DISTR.7-3. carminative. good for mouth diseases. flatulence. COM.—Araceæ. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. expectorant. bitter. Godavaj. heart diseases. Sikkim. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. America. itching. thickened in the middle. boils. Vekhand . NS. Sweet flag . epilepsy.—turbinate. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. long. margins wavy. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. liver and chest pains. abdominal pains. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. LOC. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. useful in dyspepsia. dysentery. L. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Ugragandha. See—Sacred Plants. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. emmenagogue . useful in general weakness. improves appetite. alexiterie. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. pungent. top pyramidal. prismatic. long. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. K. bronchitis. "Vata". delirium. Vacha.

Monkey-bread tree.—Bombacaceæ. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. etc. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Gopali. Bukha. bark. fever.. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . vomiting. :—E. Haggodgimara. H. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Powder is very effective insecticide. Kanara evergreen forests. COM. :—K. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. K. colic. :—Grown in many places in India . In small doses it is carminative and nervine. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Deccan. anti-pyretic. M. Pisa. FAM. PARTS USED : —Root. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. LOC.—Lauraceæ. Panch-parnika. G. Brahmamlika. :—Western Peninsula. indigenous in tropical Africa. Gorakshi. Tudgensu . African calabash. FAM. It is a good remedy in asthma. HABITAT':—Cultivated. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. Goremlichora . Gujarat. Sk. Rukhdo . N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. COM. DISTR. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Gorakamali. leaf and fruit. useful in biliousness. LOC. Gorakhaamli. DISTR. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. Pichli.:—Planted here and there throughout the State .:—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. fevers and other maladies. LOC. Baobab. NS. dysentery. See—Timbers. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. in children. M. NS. Gorakhchinch. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . PROPERTIES AND LOC.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

Ankotha. often along banks of nalas in N. Akoly. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Ankota. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. aromatics or honey. Shyamala. spermatorrhoea. K. lumbago (Yunani). Juice—emetic. Karnapura. G. Sk. fish-poison. cures erysipelas. lumbago. dysentery. H. :—Throughout the State. Gudhapatra. Kanara. useful in inflammations. biliousness. :—E. Shankiniphala. Kaloshirish.—Leguminosæ. Ceylon. Ankola. poisonous bites. " Vata "-pain.) FAM. Uddanaka. Seeds—cooling. alexipharmic . Shirisha. carminative. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Chinchola. Vamaka. commonly planted along roadsides. blood diseases. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Ankoli. Sirai. Shirish. Tamraphala. . (Mimosaceæ). NS. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). NS. :—E. M. Ankola. Sirsul. H. M. Ankora. S. acute fever. Dridhakantaka. Ankoli. anthelmintic.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. stem. Kalshish. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Sk. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Philippines. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Garso. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root-bark.—Alangiaceæ. Dodda-Hombage.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Sirisa. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. it is said to stop after-pains. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). LOC. Kalashirish. Piloshirish. LOO. leaves (rarely). Sage-leaved alangium. blood diseases. Root-bark— used in piles. China. heating. Onkla. cures " Kapha". COM. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. hydrophobia. pungent. COM. Asroli. indigestible. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. Tantia. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. burning of body. Shirish. gleet. alterative. colic. inflammations. :—Throughout India. tonic. See—Timbers. Kathora. K. Anedhera. Ankol. useful in worms. wasting diseases. diarrhœa. rat-bite. See—Timbers. Malaya. Kullumavu. Ankola. Fruit—laxative. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. DISTR. G. LOC. Kalosadasado. inflammations. expectorant. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Krishnashirisha. Root-bark poisonous. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. anthelmintic. and fruit.

:—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. ear-ache. deafness. COM. The plant contains vitamins A. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. vomiting. NS. spleen diseases. dropsy. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani).:—E. given in piles. scabies. alexiteric. Flowers—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. usually planted. excessive perspiration. and chronic bronchitis . cultivated everywhere. tumours. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. cures "Vata". FAM. boils. cooling. and also in skin diseases . bleeding piles. Root—astringent. Oil is used in leprosy. scabies. occasionally used in fever. emollient. eruptions and swellings. Seeds—tonic to brain. weakness. Burma. skin-diseases. ophthalmia. stimulant and expectorant. Palandu. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Piyaz. Bengal. strengthens gums and teeth. Kanda. diarrhœa. enriches blood. inflammations. :—Native country probably Persia. Leaves—good in night blindness. leaves. epistaxis. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. Bark— anthelmintic. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. catarrh. DISTR. itching. paralysis. seeds. which acts as a diuretic. useful in vomiting. Ceylon. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root. . aphrodisiac. biliousness. Bulb—tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Bark-bitter. flowers. maturant. erysipelas. See—Vegetables. tonic. etc.—Liliaceæ. asthma. Sk.: —Throughout India. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). piles. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. body pains. used in leprosy. Dungari. LOC. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. blood diseases. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. LOC. It is an important garden crop. good in rat-bite. stomachic. G.. bark. their smell useful in hemicrania. useful in malaria.K. seeds. syphilis. leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. relieves tooth-ache. Seeds—fattening. H. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Bark and seeds are astringent. B & C. volatile oil. etc.. Rajapriya. Rochaka. bronchitis. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. improves taste. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. prescribed in ophthalmia. piles. Onion. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. Ulageddi. M.

Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. asthma. chronic fevers. body and joint pains. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. voice. In cases of diphtheria. lumbago. fattening. Country. Lahsan. FAM. inflammation. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. digestive. Kuvarpatha. K. Ikshurmallika. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. Diuretic. paraplegia and convulsive affections. good for lumbago. Sk. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. carminative. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. G. COM. clears voice. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Kattali. useful in inflammations. NS. H. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Sk. Kumari. Garlic. COM. ear-ache (Ayurveda). :—E. low fevers. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. thins the blood (Yunani). It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. heating. aphrodisiac. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. " Vata ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. paralysis. coughs and other debilitating conditions. oleaginous . garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Bellulli. Kanya. useful in diseases of eye and heart. leucoderma. anthelmintic. M. H. thirst. K. :—E. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Lasan. It is an important garden crop. piles.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. . Kapila. alexipharmic. In Cambodia. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. NS. LOC. Korkand. caries of teeth. troubles of spleen. ALŒ VERA Linn. Lolisara. Lashuna. improves appetite. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Ugragandha. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. liver and lungs . G. Lasan. Lasun. FAM. Kumari. The plant contains vitamin C. Rasonaka. epileptic fits.—Liliaceæ. sciatica. M. complexion. M. tonic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. See—Vegetables. hemiplegia. Indian aloe. bronchitis. Korphad. thirst. In pulmonary phthisis. LOC. leucoderma. tumours.—Liliaceæ. Ghi-kumari. aphrodisiac.

tonic. Barbados.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. fattening. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. jaundice. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Leaves. liver complaints. ulcers (Ayurveda). USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. It also acts as a mild purgative. pale-green. alterative. bark. biliousness (Yunani). K. pendulous. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Br. LOC. tumours. somewhat divided. asthma. ophthalmia. Satian. Satwin. Sk. The plant contains aloin. purgative. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. LOC. simple or branched. Hale. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. planted in Indian gardens . Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. Jamaica. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. piles. inflammations. Kadusale. DISTR. gonorrhœa. Saptachhada. LOC.—in dense racemes . Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. :—Throughout India. M. stem short thick. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. E. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Native of S. skin diseases. Bitter . useful in eye-diseases. COM. Ceylon. lanceolate. carminative. biliousness. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. :—E. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. common in the rain-forests of N. used in fevers. Mediterranean. yellow. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. lumbago. Java. Fl. digestive. NS. Australia. crowded. L. C. isobarbaloin and emodin. pain in muscles. strangury. anthelmintic. Saptaparna. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. margins spiny. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. :—A perennial herb . India. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache.—Apocynaceæ. spleen enlargement. Kaduhale. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. alexiteric. Dita bark tree. wild along the coast. DISTR. aphrodisiac. FAM. milky juice. also cultivated. tropical Africa. emollient and demulcent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. scaly. :—Wild along the coast in S. cooling. PARTS USED :— . and it is largely imported into India. Satwin. liver troubles. Kanara. scape longer than the leaves. H. West Indian Islands. Root. useful in splean inflammation. purgative. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. tonic.—sessile. HABITAT :—Moist forests. perianth cylindric . leaves. methritis. Africa. Chatian. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. fleshy. vomiting.

biliousness. ovoid. CHAR. long. :—Throughout India. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. G. heating. hallucination. Kantanu-dant. useful in " Kapha ". Tandulibija. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. bronchitis. diseases of the blood. bitter. bristles pointed. tropical countries. rugose.—Amarantaceæ. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. sudorific and febrifuge. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. Cholai. also in fields. DISTR. Mulladantu. oleaginous. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. piles. Fl. L. thickened at the top. ovate.2—7. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). 30-60 cm. Mullarave-soppu.— 3.8 cm. LOC.. ulcers. unisexual. obtuse. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. apiculate. boils and burns. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. laxative. " tridosha " pain. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. laxative.). See—Vegetables.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. asthma. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). rat-bite. H. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stomachic. leucoderma. rubbish heaps and fields. leprosy. often reddish. Pathyashaka. :—E. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. Drug Com. Tandulja. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative .3—3. antiperiodic and febrifuge.— capsule. appetiser. K. Kantalo dambho. galactogogue. lanceolate. good in diseases of the heart. LOC. NS. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Fr. HABITAT :—In waste places. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. digestible. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. M. See—Timbers. Kante math. blood diseases. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. :—An erect glabrous herb.5 X 1. numerous. COM. . male calyx acute. Tandulaja. anthelmintic. alexiteric. Apamarisha. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. LOC. rubbish heaps .18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. diuretic. entire. improves appetite. Sk. high. Bark—acrid. leucorrhoea. Kantanatia. tumours. obtuse. Root—heating expectorant. antipyretic. FAM. female calyx oblong. also useful in catarrhal fever. Prickly amaranth. burning sensation.

FAM.—Nov. t. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. abdominal pains. Afghanistan. constipating. LOC. Grows wild on the banks of S. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. blood diseases. Sukaranda. laxative. bronchitis. Australia. Bharajambhul. G. used as an appetiser (Yunani). fresh or dried. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves. removes " Kapha ". Suran .—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. M. Jangli mehandi. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. sessile. Jalavgiyo. Fl. increases appetite and taste. asthma. LOC. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). FAM. :—E. Gujarat and Kanara. . Bitter and acrid . appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root. globose.—opposite. L. Sk. causes itching sensation. LOC. :—E. H. DISTR. the plant. vomiting. G. depressed. Kurendika. :—Cultivated widely in the State. Suran. K. Suran. NS. Kuranti. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). tumours. Vikata. stomachic. red. Elephant's foot. Kandala. elephantiasis . Arshaghna. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . H. 8-65 cm.—Lythraceæ. aphrodisiac. China. corm. In the Konkan. Kanthalla. " Vata. :—An annual. M. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Dadmari. Malaya. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Suran. erect or subscandent herb. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils.—Araceæ. high. :—Throughout India in moist places. Vatari. Deccan. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. Kandavardhan. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. COM. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Sk. LOC. It is also used as an emmenagogue. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sd. COM. strangury . Blistering ammania. DISTR.—capsule." blood troubles. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. Kuranda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . harmful in "Kapha".:— Konkan. CHAR. stomachic. Konkan rivers. much narrowed at the base. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. enlargement of the spleen. Tropical Africa. fevers etc. Fr. useful in piles. Ceylon. Fl. pungent. acrid. branches usually opposite.

Jermic. . FAM. M. Kajutaka. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid.— subcoriaceous. The seed contains vitamin A. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. 10-12 X 7. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. K. aphrodisiac. long. Kaju. which is nutritious and emollient. cordate or truncate. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". Oils. bark vertically furrowed . Corm is poisonous. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. Crow-Fish Killer. See—Timbers. and trace of C. M. many flowered. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Gova. Kakamari. Kakkisoppugida . Kakanashika.5 cm. Kanara. swollen peduncle of fruit. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications.. NS. & A. Kakaphal. Kaju. . Kakamari. Govamba. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Agni-krita. It is supposed to have restorative power. leucoderma. Fish-Louse Berry. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. leaves. CHAR. piles. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Fl. Kakamari. tumours.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. 5-nerved. also cultivated. The plant contains Vitamins A. See—Vegetables. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. corns and obstinate ulcers. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. anthelmintic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Sophara. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. Gerubi. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. USES :—Bark is alterative. :—E. ringworm. Cashew apple-nut.—in panicles 25-35 cm. COM. LOC. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. COM. sweet. Prithagbija. Sk. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. H. :—A native of tropical America. hot. broadly ovate. skin diseases. Kakamari. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. G. Sk. ulcers. equal to almond oil. FAM. digestible. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height.5-12. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Upapushpika. :—E. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. NS. fever. Garalaphala. B.—Menispermaceæ. L. K. flowers. H. Kaju . dysentery. G. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. ascites. Kakamari.—Anacardiaceæ. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn.

HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Bengal. petals absent. Mahatit. Bhuinimba. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). causes cough and biliousness. Creat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. It acts also as diuretic. . useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. Ananas. FAM.) LOC. Kiriyata. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. Olikiriyat. M.—Bromeliaceæ. to a certain extent in Gujarat. :—Khasia Hills. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. E. K. cultivated.—Acanthaceæ. K. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. :—Konkan. LOC. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases.—Sept.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular.-Oct. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. G. Kantak sanjika. from Orissa to Ceylon. Ananas. native of Brazil (tropical America). USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . black . it is useful in jaundice. Olen kirayat. t. DISTR. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. Sk. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . See—Fruit Trees. NS. smooth. Pine-apple . also acts as a purgative. H. removes gases from the intestines . Ananas . Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). N. COM. FAM. Ananas . Assam. :—E. diaphoretic and refrigerant. fruits. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. H. COM. Fl. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. M. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. PARTS USED :—Roots. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Ananas hannu. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Nelabevu gida. LOC. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Ama. Kirata. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. dioecious. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. Parvati. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. Kanara. Sk. Kiryat. leaves and fruits. a poison to fish (Yunani). good expectorant. Ananasa. :—E. Mahateet. NS. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. G.

sometimes cultivated. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. extensively used in Bengal. Gojivana.3-0. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. Chodhara.. smooth.—Ghats. t. Oshthaphala. thickly woolly. lower 3lobed. :—Throughout India. Fl. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels.—small. Karitumbe. Fr. made into an electuary. :—An erect branched annual 0. Alamoda. and anthelmintic. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. K. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. and certain forms of dyspepsia. high.—very thick. 1.9 m. solitary. 6. :—Deccan.— capsule. Malay Peninsula. Plant is useful in general debility.-Oct. and N. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. t. CHAR. pale beneath.—nutlets. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. M. linear-oblong. acute at both ends . Green leaves. ellipsoid. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. lower lip very large and broad . bracts lanceolate. purple. yellowish brown. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. C—2-lipped. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. forming a spicate inflorescence. white below.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. rugosely pitted. polished brown. Fl. dyspepsia and fever from teething. :—An erect shrub. Kanara. G. Karnatak.2-1. :—S. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. stomachic. Sd. HABITAT. alterative. Fl. approximate above. PROPERTIES AND LOC.8 m. LOC. Sk. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. rose coloured.3-10 X 2-4. dysentery. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. C—2-lipped. DISTR. COM.5 cm. Sundraphul. Fl. crenate-serrate. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles.—many. . :—Konkan and Kanara.—Dec. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. oblong-lanceolate. DISTR. tonic. distant. upper lip 2-toothed. distant. undulate.—lanceolate. Sundara. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. Vaikunth. lateral lobes small. L. Ceylon. Malabar Catmint. high.—Labiatæ. FAM. stem quadrangular. very small. NS. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—E. Br. clothed with woolly hairs . LOC. Fr. acute. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.-Nov. pale above.—in dense whorls . Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo .

Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Sitaphala. Anuram. sedative to heart. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. K. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. improves taste and appetite .MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. erysipelas. Root—cathartic. :—E. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. flavoury. K. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. applied to skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. H. tasty. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Sk. Pitaphala. Bejjalu. chronic diarrhœa. Ata. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the greater part of India. COM. good tonic. leaves. Dhavala. Bahubijika. NS. :—E. Anan. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. useful in liver complaints. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Durangi. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . M. Sk. Bark is bitter. Seeds—difficult to digest. produce ulcers in the eye. Button Tree. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Fruit—sweet. and eyesores. LOC. increases muscular strength. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Custard apple. increases biliousness . useful in anaemia. Sitaphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Dyes. enriches blood . Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Sitaphal. Dhava. Dhamora. Dohu. DISTR. Ceylon. NS. Dhavada. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . COM. Bark is a powerful astringent. G. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Sitaphala. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. leaves and fruits. Bakla. DISTR. expectorant.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. LOC. fruit and seeds. Sugar apple. cooling . Sweet-sop. (Yunani). HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Amritphala. now cultivated throughout India. Dindala. bark. Damora. Dhava.—Anonaceæ. Krishnabija. Dindiga. H. FAM. G. stimulant. enriches blood. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Shushkanga. discharges. M.—Combretaceæ. abortifacient. LOC. LOC. bark. astringent to the bowels. causes fever and furunculosis . Sharipha. :—A native of West Indies . cooling. Dhavada. FAM. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. See—Timbers. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". Sitaphala. Dabria. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Kanara border.

Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. COM. cooling. Nadija. strangury. Kadamba. LOC. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. :—G. Fruit—heating. LOC. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. vulnerary. good in uterine complaints. Upas Tree. Chandkuda. Malayan Peninsula. sap of the tree. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. galactagogue. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). DISTR. FAM. Karnapuraka. PARTS USED :—Seeds. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. H. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. See—Timbers. Jajpugri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. sweet. DISTR. Kadamb. In eye inflammations. bitter. :—E. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. :—Throughout India. They are detergent and their powder. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. K. mixed with gram-flour. LOC. indigestible. Ajjanpatte. astringent to bowels. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. " Vata". common near Yellapur. . USES:—In the Konkan. Kadamb . Fodder Plants. aphrodisiac. Kadam. often cultivated. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch.—Rubiaceæ. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Chandala. Kaduve. Kadubale. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Chandkuda. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. saline. See—Fruit Trees. wild or cultivated. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Nipa. H. Bairi. Kanara . Seeds yield an oil and resin. Sacred Plants.—Moraceæ. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. " Kapha". aphrodisiac. alexiteric. Sk. Burma. Peninsula. Sk. Kadamb. Valkala. It is generally considered tonic. PARTS USED:—Bark. Tennaserim. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. M. blood diseases. COM NS. Malay Islands. FAM. Surabhi. Ashokari. :—W. Sprouts—acrid. biliousness. sprouts and fruits. M. is a good hairwash. NS. Ceylon. burning sensation. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. stomachic. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. causes biliousness when ripe. Kadamb . K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. acrid. Pegu. Niv.

traces of B and C. fever with cough. Sk. appetiser. Bhuimug. good in ophthalmia. NS. H. amenorrhœa. Fl. abdominal pain. abortifacient. Nelkadle. Wild celery. improve appetite . tooth-ache. W. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. laxative. K. DISTR. COM. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. used in anasarca and colic. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Ajmoda . G. ridges narrow. Bhuimug-chana. Abyssinia. Afghanistan. vomiting. Fibres. COM NS. apex toothed . W. bronchitis. Bori ajmud. Karafs. See—Vegetables. M. L. anthelmintic. segments once or twice trifid. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. astringent to bowels . Ajmud. :—E. N. scabies. urinary discharges. Bhuchanak. cauline 3-partite. Moda. Africa. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. See—Timbers. Ground-Pea-nut. Markati. CHAR. pedicels 6-16 . specially near large cities.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. high. vittae broad.— radial. vomiting. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). ascites. good for heart. :—A biennial plant. Brahmakoshi. Glucoside apiin is present. cure " Kapha ". tonic. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. H. Asia. :—E. Snehabijaka.— in umbels. scorpion and other stings.—1. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. chest-pains. Celery. Monkey-nut. hiccup. . :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State.4 m. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. aphrodisiac. heart and spleen diseases. rheumatism. LOC. Sk. Fr. cure asthma. LOC. Ajamoda. 0. Seeds—carminative. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. Bodi ajomoda. inflammations.5-2 mm. Europe. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. Bhuimug.3-2. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. G. rectal troubles. FAM. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. nasal catarrh (Yunani). Ugragandha. Shimbika. Mandapi. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. M. β-antiarin. and γ-antiarin. The plant contains vitamins A. erect.:—Foot of the N. Chinimung. " Vata " . Mungphali. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. Java and Malaya.—Umbelliferæ. branching.. rays 5-10. useful in ophthalmia.

Country. LOC. Poga. Burma. Betel-nut palm. Nut astringent. Kanara. Seed cooling. removes pus (Yunani). it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia.:—Extensively grown in N. Pophal. Pugiphal. G. leaves (rarely). Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. Suppiyari. emmenagogue. Adki. :—E. indigestible. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. LOC. Akota. USES. Chhataphala. cooling. Indo-Malaya. In French Guinea.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bengal. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Sopari. LOC. gum. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. removes foul breath. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. DISTR. cardiotonic. used for eye-inflammations. :—Madras. Assam. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Deccan. bleeding gums. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. NS. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Supari. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Supari. Siam. Mysore.. Gum pungent. DISTR. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Sk.—Palmæ. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. seeds. digestive. Areca palm. Gujarat and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. gleet. improves appetite and taste. COM. Oils. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. fairly largely in the Konkan. Malabar. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. giddiness. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. See—Food Plants. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Tantusara. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Hopari. K. FAM. useful in urinary disorders. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. . diuretic. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Chikka. H. Areca-nut palm. Betta. Kaungu. M. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Chikkan. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. aphrodisiac. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency.

:—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Fruit Trees. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). veins white. globose. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.— terminal. and guvacine. K. antidote to various poisons. Indigenous in tropical America. stem clasping. G. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Fl. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. brownish black. L. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Sk. H. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Datturi. :—A glabrous. NS. sinuately pinnatifid. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Darudi. Mexican prickly poppy . arecaidine. Bila dhatura. high. purgative. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. relieves blisters. netted. glaucous herb . Balurakkisa. Fl. DISTR. FAM. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda).—capsule. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India.).—Papaveraceæ. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Juice—used as a collyrium. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N.8 cm. Brahma dandi.—thistlelike. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. Daruri. 2. juice yellow. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. opening by 4-6 valves. Pirangi datturi. Ind. yellow.5-5 cm. oblong-ovoid 2.—all the year. Srigalkanta. Pita-pushpa. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. 7. Seeds—purgative. CHAR.3-0. emetic. Seeds are laxative. useful is strangury. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. diam. Bharbhand. It is also diuretic. arecoline. stem 0.5-18 cm. This is said to bring the worm out at once. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. Svarnakshiri. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. LOC. oblong. prickly. branching. Plant enriches blood. . COM. prickly. expectorant and demulcent. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. jaundice and cutaneous affections. nauseant. t. Sd. cures leprosy. Fr. various skin-diseases. USES :—Root is an alterative. Root anthelmintic. India.5-3. M.12 m. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. spinous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. seeds and yellow juice. Shialkanta. inflammations and bilious fevers. and in pertussis and asthma.—numerous. See—Timbers. sedative. destroys worms .

Gandali. LOC. infundibuliform. Sk.. Vridhadaraka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. t. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. M. L. H. Dridhadaru. Fl. CHAR.-Nov. stems. Samardar sokh. used in gleet. Samudrapatrashoh. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). In synovitis.—Aug. Sk. COM.—Convolvulaceæ. white-tomentose L.5-30 x 6. perhaps a native of Bengal.—capsule. DISTR. white-tomentose beneath. K. DISTR. G. painful joints. gonorrhœa. Bracteated Birth-wort.5-4. strangury. HABITAT.—solitary. Kidamar. perianth 2.— globose apiculate. tube inflated. 12-ribbed . long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter .— 3. Kitamari. Gujarat and S. Kiramar.— 7. (sometimes even larger). Fl. long and as broad as long. Country. :—A very large climber. pubescent outside. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. NS. . Fl. tubular. base cordate with wide sinus . Kidamari. Leaves are maturative. Fr. long. powdered root is given with milk. bracts large . cultivated.5 cm. Ganda. with revolute margins. Arabia.:—Konkan.—deltoid with cordate base .8-7. NS. tropical Africa. prostrate. glabrous inside. useful in " Vata". Ajantri. Deccan and S. aphrodisiac.3 cm. white-tomentose. the bands silky pubescent outside. reniform or broadly ovate. diuretic . chronic ulcers (Yunani). Country. oblongellipsoid. Dhuma-patra.5 cm. Fr. H. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. Elephant Creeper. :—A slender perennial. Sd. Ceylon.3-2 cm. ovate glabrous above. :—Throughout India. Varghoro. stems stout. :—E. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. FAM. rose purple. absorptive.—Aristolochiaceæ. :—E. base cordate. " Kapha" fevers. Java. LOC. K.-Sept. G. Soge. Konkan. M. Hastivalli. See—Ornamental Plants. M.— Aug. Fl. :—Bengal. long. CHAR. Shyambhuna. Kitakaba. base subglobose. t.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Peninsula. Krimighni. Samudraballi. Samudrashok. Adumuttadagida. FAM. COM. Samudrashosh.—in sub-capitate cymes. peduncles stout. Samandarka phal. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. weak. anthelmintic. pedicel with a large bract at the base. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. W. C—5-6.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. tip linear dark purple. 1. M. LOC. striate.3-25 cm.

6-valved. purgative (Yunani).—Compositæ. Ceylon. . Seeds useful in inflammation. winged. emmenagogue. biliousness. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip.—variable linear oblong. 3. Saraparni. Sk. useful in " Tridosha.5 cm. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. CHAR. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Arkamula. :—A twining shrub. grooved. tonic. Mastaru. COM. woody at the base. Plant is used as an abortifacient.—Nov. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). NS. Ishvari. Dona. Arkamula.—Aristolochiaceæ. Sugandha. Nilpushpa. base vaiable. H. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. Fl. LOC. Sapsan. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Nagduna. Mother or Mugwort. also useful in dropsy. alexiteric. LOC. Fl. M. Nakuli. Isharmula. M. Dovana. bitter.—in few flowered axillary racemes. COM. perianth greenishwhite. Majtari. globose-oblong. Sd. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. obovate oblong 10-12. bract opposite the pedicel. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. NS. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. t. The plant contains an alkaloid. M.5 cm.5 cm. Ruhimula. Nagdamani. G. Indian wormwood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC.—flat. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Fr.. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. FAM. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Manjipatri. Gathona. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Isvara balli beru . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Nepal.8-10 X 1. PARTS USED :—Roots. dry cough.:—Konkan and S. slender. entire with undulate margins. — capsule. Country. reaching 4. dyspnoea of children. :—Western Peninsula. Dhor-davana.5x7. :—E. DISTR. joint-pains.) FAM. Stem long. K. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. The plant contains an alkaloid. K. L. leaves and seeds. Bengal. long with globose inflated base. Indian Birth-wort. Sk." pains in the joints. :—E.. H.3-2. Flea-bane.

lobes entire. " Vata". cures "Kapha". " Kapha". deeply pinnatisect. Sk. petioled. white tomentose beneath. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. H. K.-Hilly districts. Panos. Seeds sweet. temperate Asia. 3-fid or entire. toothed or again pinnatisect. oblong ellipsoid.—Jany. fattening. Panesa. appetiser. Kujja. grown in gardens also. high. often planted along roadsides in N. constipating (Ayurveda). Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Leaves. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. LOC. Ghats.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. DISTR. Tage. tonic. Fr. t. ripe fruit laxative. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Chakki.6-2. fruit and seeds. LOC. Jack-fruit tree. "Vata". The young leaves are used in skin diseases. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. useful in biliousness. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. Phanasa. Kanara. alexiteric. :—Widely cultivated. 0. LOC. ulcers. Phanas. fertile. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility.5-5 em. ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. COM. Fruit Trees and Dyes.4 m. See—Timbers. base lobed. outer flowers female. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. aphrodisiac. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stems leafy. Java. aphrodisiac. An infusion is given as a tonic.—Urticaceæ. Vanas. tonic. oleaginous. diuretic.—heads ovoid or subglobose. Ceylon. minute. HABITAT. :—Konkan. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. hairy. LOC. involucral bracts villous. The unripe fruit is astringent. solitary or 2. but rather difficult to digest. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Fl. lanceolate. itching (Ayurveda). It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. leprosy. asthma. Panas. Kanthal. . ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. The plant contains an essential oil. DISTR.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. Thailand (Siam). cooling. aromatic. upper leaves smaller. M. FAM. Halasina.10x2. pubescent above. asthma and brain diseases. inner hermaphrodite. Skandaphala. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache.— achene. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. L— lower leaves 5. Kantakaphala. Jack-Orange wood. enriches blood. :—E. Fl. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. NS. Externally it is used in fomentations. although very nutritious. G.:—A perennial shrub.

Kuraki. DISTR. Tropical Africa. :—E. and moist monsoon forests. globose. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. Satavari. :—Deccan.—opposite 7. Fl. Satavari. Fl. lanceolate. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. thorn. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. CHAR. tapering at both ends. LOC.—in simple raceme. undershrub. aphrodisiac. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. erect. M. stomachic. leaves and flowers.5-10 X 1. long. C. LOC.—Liliaceæ. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. L. up to 1. useful in dysentery. fragrant. COM. Siprimuli. COM. Fr.—berry. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. dark brown. L.ovoid. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. in the Himalayas. Indies. galactogogue. 0. Fr. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . inflammation. . oleaginous. appetiser. Satavari.2 m. :—An erect undershrub. H. t. Sd. Svetmuli. Svadurasa. Fl.—lobes reflexed in flower. straight. astringent to bowels. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. spinous. M.000 m.. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. DISTR. narrowed at both ends.—June-Sept. tonic. :—Introduced from the W.5 cm. NS. Sk. cladodes in tufts. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. curved. Flower is a good styptic. Kaktundi. indigestible. 7. JAVANICA Baker. FAM.3-2.5 cm. tumours. oblong. blood and eye diseases. from Kashmir eastwards. PARTS USED:—Root. high. Asual Shatavari. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. linear. Java and Australia. Var.-Dec. spines recurved. abundant round about Poona. 2. FAM. biliousness. cultivated as ornamental plant. throat complaints. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. alterative. solitary.—linear with a stout spinous spur. naturalised in many parts of India. S. common in the Deccan. cooling. :—G. thin. valvate in bud. red when ripe. t. white. CHAR. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.—Asclepiadaceæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC.5-5 cm. Fl.— follicles. K. :—Extremely scandent.9-1. segments. NS. root-stock tuberous. PARTS USED:—Root.-Feb. A fibre is extracted from the plants. See—Ornamental Plants. with coma. Satamulika.—orange in axillary umbels. Shatavari.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. Country.

erect. subquadrangular. And. thirst. tube. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. Ekharo. . HABITAT:—Swampy places. aphrodisiac . K. 2 outer large. leprosy. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. constipation. :—A stout herb. tonic. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. C. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. hypnotic. hairy. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. Talamkhana. LOC. lower deeply 3-lobed.— purple blue. thickened at the nodes.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser.8 cm. pointed. tonic. useful in diarrhœa. Konkan and Deccan. 4-8 seeded. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita.) LOC. M. t. high. Talamkhan. USES :—The root is refrigerant. gleet. Used in diarrhœa.) FAM. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. 18 X 3-3. widely 2-lipped. CHAR. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine.—June-Jany. DISTR. 0. improve blood (Yunani). Fl. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. diuretic. Fl. 3. LOC.— Acanthaceæ. and alterative tonic. long. Gokshura. Ceylon. and dysentery. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. antispasmodic.5 cm. tonic. Kak-Kokilaksha. Talim-khana. eyediseases. USES. hispid with long hairs. COM. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. inflammations. Kolavalike. Sk. bracts. Phalaghrita. Vajrakantaka. stems fasciculate. Vikhara. abruptly swollen at the top. Leaves good for cough.—sessile. ascites. expectorant. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. Narayana Taila. upper 2-fid. tropical and S. aphrodisiac.:—Common throughout the State. H. scalding of urine. like leaves. (Yunani. abdominal troubles. The root is sweet. :—G. sedative to gravid uterus . lanceolate. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). Gokhalkanta. night-blindness (Ayurveda).6-1. Vishnu Taila. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. 4 inner small. linear oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. :—Throughout India. useful in jaundice and anasarca. anæmia. Seeds cooling. gonorrhoea. Fr.2 cm. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. aphrodisiac . Kalavankabija. urinary calculi and discharges. Africa. laxative. Gokhran. tonic.. Shrigalghant. colic. anuria. leaves and seeds. ciliate . dysentery. lips sub-equal. galactogogue. Ikshura. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. aphrodisiac.—capsule. Seeds fattening. L.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . demulcent.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . Jany-May. Brahmi. Thyme-leaved graticula . FAM. ovoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. perhaps a native of Malaya. astringent to bowels. rarely wild. Mudgara. CHAR. M. M. useful in bad ulcers. Jalneam. Darehuli. pungent. HABITAT :—Damp places. indigestion. enlargement of spleen. tumours. H. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics.:—E. Shiral. oblong. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. causes biliousness (Yunani). pale blue or white.) FAM. black dotted : entire. sour. with shining dots. acute. ascites. found wild near N.:—Konkan and Deccan. . solitary. decussate. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . L. tonic. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. LOC. K. t. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. K. branches many ascending.5-10 mm. Brahmi. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sk. Kamarakh. Karmal. DISTR. fruits. digestible. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay.. H. :—A glabrous. 6-25 X 2. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. Coromandel gooseberry. heating. lobes equal spangled. DISTR. NS. :—E. Fr. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation.:—Throughout India in wet places. Sd. when fresh. Karmare . striate. obovate-oblong or spatulate. Ceylon and all warm countries. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. causes biliousness.—Oxalidaceæ. leprosy. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. "Vata". See—Fruit Trees. capsule. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. allays thirst. sessile. stems rooting at the nodes. Root is given in cases of poisoning. anæmia. Soumyalata. creeping herb. Safed-Kammi. LOC. Kamarakha. laxative. Carambola apple. Karmar. Fruits are used in pickles. 2-lipped. Barambhi. Brahmi. Karuka. axillary. fleshy. Bama. G. COM. Kanara villages. inflammations. LOC. heats the body (Ayurveda). dried fruit is given in fevers. Kamrang. Tamarak. Kamaranga. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. also used in diarrhœa. C. pale. Sk. Fruit sour. Kirihuli.—Scrophulariaceæ. Manduki. emetic. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Fl. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. astringent to bowels . succulent. Nirbrahmi.

often palmately 3-5 lobed. M. :—Bihar. NS. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. of three 2-valved cocci.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. They are used in dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Dantimul. Fl. COM. W. is used as a local application in rheumatism. leaves and seeds. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. Dec. Bengal. K. diseases of skin and abdomen. hairy. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. anaemia. :—A stout undershrub. Vishodhini. Chota Nagpur. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative.—Euphorbiaceæ. 0. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. purifies blood. It is a direct cardiac tonic. piles. Sk. itching. smooth. H. H. :—G. Danti. Mukul. sinuate. Burma. G. ellipsoid. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic.—Burseraceæ. purgative. jaundice (Ayurveda). FAM. leucoderma. t. Peninsula. COM. branching from the roots. K. anthelmintic. Gugul. Seeds are poisonous. :—E. Rechani. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia.9-1. PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. Danti. Gum gugul. Guggula. conjoined with petroleum. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. FAM. Guggula. yellowish. Devdhup. Sk. all male or with a few females below. L. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. mottled. or in monsoon forests. useful in insanity. . Fr. the upper small. Assam. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. in monsoon forests of N. wounds. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. good in scabies. toothed. DISTR. epilepsy and hoarseness.8 m. leucoderma. Danti. useful in pains. NS. enlarged spleen. 2-glandular. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Kaduharalu. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Guggul. diuretic. Root and leaves are cathartic. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. high. Guggula. capsule. Sd. Jatala. N. obovoid. Jamalgota. Uddipta. Hakum. alexiteric. Malaya. syphilis . anasarca and jaundice. Dantika. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Danti. Fl. CHAR. :—Dry open Deccan plains. the lower large. M. Kanara. LOC. aphrodisiac .. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. epilepsy and hoarseness. LOC. Leaf-juice.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

biliousness. blood diseases .-Apl. enriches blood. used in dry cough. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. FAM. "Kapha". bark and flowers triturated in rice-water.-Feb. t. Fr. in dyspepsia and flatulence. Shikhivardhaka. eye diseases. anal troubles. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. used as gargle in stomatitis. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. menorrhagia. leprosy. dehiscent. Kondha. astringent. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). LOC. dysmenorrhoea. wounds and ulcers. removes foul taste from mouth. it is also anti-fat remedy. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. tonic. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. bark and flowers. Kohala. Kushmanda. diuretic. fever. PARTS USED :—Root. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). leucoderma. biliousness. given' to corpulent persons. leprosy. :—E. urinary discharges and calculi. appetising. Burma. cardiac and general tonic. Dorokaru. USES :—Root-decoction is given. DISTR. Fruit—antiperiodic. cures biliousness. thirst. Timisha. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. used in strangury. Kumaon. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. Fl. Root. thirst. COM.8-2. K. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Karkutika. used in piles. Sikkim. asthma. flat. tuberculous glands. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. Koholu. Golkaddu. LOC. H. Buds—indigestible. aphrodisiac. Tallow-White gourd. not indigenous. seeds. Bhuru-koholu. burning sensation.—pod.—Cucurbitaceæ. cures strangury. See—Ornamental Plants. asthma. M.5 cm. 15-20 X 1. . Seeds— cooling. cough. oil from the seeds. Sd. cough. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. Budekumbalkai. heart tonic (Ayurveda). " Tridosha". HABITAT :—Cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. :—Cultivated throughout the State. urethral discharges. There are two varieties. tonic. China. vaginal discharges. tonic to liver. red and white. tuberculous glands. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. anthelmintic.10-15. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Sk. blood impurities. ulcers. Ash pumpkin. Bark—astringent to bowels. cures biliousness. Kudimah. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. G. LOC. blood diseases.

BLUMEA LACERA DC.:—In plains south of Bombay. 0. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. cures bronchitis. Tropical Africa. Tamrachuda. pubescent. pappus white. LOC. fevers. COM. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. burning sensation. Sk. :—Throughout plains of India. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. anti-pyretic. Pilokapurio. it is also useful in insanity.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. oblong. densely glandular. Fl. it is given in bleeding piles.-achene. Mriduchhada.—Jany. good for the brain and liver. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. ash colored. not ribbed. Jangali-muli. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. haemoptysis. mixed with black pepper. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. . good in syphilis (Yunani). L. Kanara. bitter. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. with a strong odour of turpentine. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. Ceylon. etc. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. and nutritious tonic. sharply serrate-dentate. CHAR. base tapered. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Deccan. Bhamurdi. LOC. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. inner bracts with green midrib. See—Vegetables. Malaya. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Kukurbanda. blood diseases. :—G.—Compositæ.—heads many. Oil—is soporific. :—Annual herb. NS. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. astringent. high. Australia. DISTR. heart diseases.—the lower ones petioled. Konkan. and diuretic. t. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. Fruit is made into confections. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. M. elliptic-oblong.3—0. pungent. sweetish. upper subsessile. Fl. Country. catarrh. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Kalhar. Kukkurdru. phthisis. thirst. often incised or lyrate. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. LOC. stem erect. febrifuge. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. S. cooling. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. laxative. Fr. finely silky pubescent on both sides.-Apl. China. asthma. H. M. Kakaronda. Kakarunda.9 m. FAM.

leucorrhoea. generally found in poorer soils. gonorrhœa. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. alexiteric. Punarnava. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. Dholia-saturdo. whitish beneath. FAM. M. NS. Asavardu. LOC. expectorant. useful in lumbago.—in unequal pairs at each node. Fl. anæmia. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. G. blood impurities. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ceylon. Desert Palm. carminative. K. L. Persian Gulf. Tad. Varshabhu. Fl. Sk. Brab tree. Burma. Talimara. Sk. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. . FAM. Celyon. —Nyctaginaceæ. cooling . alterative. Hogweed. Bitter. leaves and seeds.—in corymbose umbels. India. :—Tropical India. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. LOC. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . native of tropical Africa. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). COM. Fr. and dropsy. Moto-satodo. green above. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. G. "Kapha" heating. Madhurasa. margins undulate. "Vata". BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. Ghetuli. very glandular . inflammations. abdominal pains.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. root large. P.—Palmæ. It produces a very marked and persistent. Africa and America. H. pinkish. Palmyra Palm. common in S. cultivated. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. t. CHAR. Plant contains large quantities of pot. Santhikari. M. Kommegida. heart diseases.3—2 cm. :—A diffuse herb. asthma. :—E. bluntly 5-ribbed. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED :—Root. Shothaghni. NS. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. useful in biliousness. Kolaba and Thana districts. useful in ophthalmia. COM. Tala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). in pain of joints. Dhvajadruma. DISTR. very small. Tad. (Ayurveda). Fan Palm. Leaves— appetiser. spleen enlargement. Vasu. K.—clavate. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Lekhyapatra. LOC. 1. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. HABITAT :—A weed. stem prostrate or ascending. cultivated and self-sown. Tad. sub-orbicular. Baluchistan.. fusiform.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. tumours. Uttar Pradesh. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Raktakanda. Indian Archipelago. Seeds—tonic. H. It is used in jaundice. :—E. scabies.— Nov.

Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Fermented juice—tonic. . may cause vomiting. intoxicating. juice. allays. Salpe. Mukulsalai. Gum is of five kinds . very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Dhup. bronchitis. removes "Kapha". antipyretic. blood complaints . with a good flavour. Indian olibanum tree. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. FAM. Sugars. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Liquors. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Moddi. cooling. Salai. cough. binding. Salphali. K. " Vata". Flower— good for spleen enlargement. diaphoresis. DISTR. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. allays asthma. Sambrani. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. Dup. M. astringent to bowels. Guggula. allays thirst. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. Kundur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. :—E. antibilious . Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. Bark-decoction. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. invigorating.—Burseraceæ. flowers. fatigue. Guggali. useful in intestinal troubles. COM. fevers. tonic. useful in skin and blood diseases. with a little salt added.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. expectorant. leaves. convulsions. Salashi. fattening. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. intoxicating. improves taste. purifies blood. used for boils. Vishesha-dhupa. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . alexiteric. strengthens teeth. expectorant. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Luban. if taken regularly acts as laxative. purifies blood (Yunani). Salgond. antidysenteric. Loban. vaginal discharges. antiglycosuretic. aphrodisiac. NS. thirst. skin diseases. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. fruits. bad throat. also found in Belgaum District. diuretic . causes flatulence (Ayurveda). ulcers . Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. helps delivery. LOC. Gums and Resins. tonic. laxative. G. cures dysentery. hot. PARTS USED :—Bark.. also used as antiperiodic. See—Timbers. Dhupam. H. causes headache. fattening. thirst and scalding of urine. LOC. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . Gum—hot. asthma. causes " Kapha ". Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. flowers. bitter. Fruit—cooling. heals wounds . "Vata". scabies. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. fruit and gum. dry. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. biliousness. mouth-sores. burning sensation. useful in biliousness. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. aphrodisiac.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. Surat. ear. appetiser. LOC. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. See—Condiments and Spices. Gums and Resins. Taramira . Seeds act as digestive condiment . Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. Khandesh. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. cause burning . Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. good for throat complaints. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LOC. biles. G. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. Asuri. chiefly in Nasik. spleen. dispel fever . BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Dharwar and Belgaum. increase appetite . used with butter in syphilis . being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Kaira. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. M. DISTR. kill external parasites. anthelmintic . Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Black-True mustard. cure nose. Kali-rai. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. increase bile. spasmodic. lessen oedema of body. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). rheumatism. cure enlargement of spleen. " Vata". cure skin-dissases. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). FAM. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Mohori. Rajika. K. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. stomachic. Broach. bechic. COM. Rai. if swallowed whole they are laxative.—Cruciferae. good in cough and for inflammations. and toothache. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . :—E. eye-troubles. Jwalanti. Kari Sasive . :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. vermicide. . Sarshapa. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. internal congestions. NS. H. India. Sk. Seeds-laxative. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. See—Timbers. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. :—Cultivated in India.

LOC. Garige. hot. bark. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit.. subsessile. bluish green. Gauli. of Shivaling shape . NS. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. southward to Ceylon. Fl. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties.—Cucurbitaceæ. K. Sk. female flowers solitary. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Lingaja. LOC. Asana. margins sinuate denticulate. DISTR. Australia. Sd. long. Manj. Shivalingi. Tans. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. FAM. or few or many. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Mauritius. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. smooth. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). hemiplegia. Asana. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. 1 . globose. Suviraka. 3—2 .— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. Asana. Khaja. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Asana. Kaj. pungent. COM.. alterative. Chandra. NS. :—G. Kavodi. Sk.—yellowish brown. useful in "Vata". lumbago. deeply cordate base.— Aug-Sept. and in fevers with flatulence. t. Lingini. heating. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. corolla companulate. Fr. FAM.—baccate. Shivlingi. Patharphoda. Shivavalli. tropical Africa. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. ovate-oblong. S. LOC. 10-15 cm. H. Country.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. M. glabrous . Gunjan. corolla as in the male . Ekalkanto.:—Throughout India. bitter. diam. streaked with broad vertical lines . 5 cm. Gargumaru. :—G. COM. Mullu-siru Honne. Malaya. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon.—Euphorbiaceæ.— membranous. DISTR. Philippines. See—Timbers. Ishawara-Shivalingi. It is used in bilious attacks. tendrils 2-fid : L. CHAR. paler and smooth beneath. M. 5-lobed. Mahavira. M. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). green and scabrid above. . Ekadivi. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism.. Kassi. lobes oblong lanceolate. Apastambhini. H. stem grooved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. :—An annual scandent herb. :—Deccan. Goge. 5-partite.

Parnabija. when punctured. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). M. decussate. cooling. Paira. Stems obtusely 4-angled. Thailand (Siam). purifies blood. younger reddish. in large panicles. C. COM. K. leaves. Cochin-China. DISTR. :—Konkan. tonic. Panphui. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha".3-1. :—H.. Fl. Burma. :—G. carminative.—Crassulaceæ.—Jany. allays . boils and bites of venomous insects. Char. Charoli. Charoli. speckled with white. the Dangs. useful in diarrhœa. ulcers. crenate or serrate. cardio-tonic. Priyal. Murukali. leaflets ovate. LOC. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. Lalana. Cambodia. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Fl. Tapaspriya. Sd. Panphuti. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). upper 3-5-7 foliate. expectorant. NS. FAM. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . Country. Country. lower usually simple. binding. aphrodisiac. :—Native of tropical Africa. Gujarat. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. PARTS USED :—Roots. gum (rarely). Lonnahadakana gida. DISTR.—Anacardiaceæ. smooth. :—Hot and drier parts of India.) FAM. Zakhi-haiyat. Rajadana. deciduous open forests. LOC. It is a disinfectant. Char.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). cures blooddiseases.2 m. CHAR. M. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings.—swollen and octagonal at the base. H. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. LOC. constricted in the middle. seeds. burning sensation on body. lobes triangular. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. t. Pyalchar. fevers. the older light-coloured. Sk. Deccan. Asthibhakshya. thirst. Kolegeru. purgative. M. Leaf-juice digestive. astringent to bowels. inflammations. M. with opposite branches . also wild. vomiting. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. K. elliptic. reddish purple. "Vata" and biliousness. Deccan. alexipharmic. high. occasionally compound. L. Char. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant.—pendant. The bark is bitter and poisonous. Dhanu. bruises. COM. buds with root. analgesic. aphrodisiac. S. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. :—Konkan.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. fruit. Piyal. Charpoppu.—variable. HABITAT :—Dry. laxative. Snehabija. Sk.—small. Fr. fattening. See—Ornamental Plants. S.

Seeds tonic to body and brain. Palash. Khakda. Bark—appetiser. useful in piles. Leaves—good for eye diseases. stomatitis. carminative. Gum—acrid. aphrodisiac. piles. DISTR. lessens biliousness. tonic to liver. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. prickly heat and itch. gum. seeds. tumours. flowers. good in dysentery. Yajnika. relieves abnormal thirst. used in liver disorders. diseases of anus. dysentery. skindiseases. Fruit and seeds—oily. LOC. cause headache (Yunani). aperient used in urinary discharges. cold and cough.) FAM. anthelmintic. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. good in biliousness. if chewed. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. anthelmintic. emmenagogue. Bark—appetiser. Khakera. Muttuga. hydrocele. aphrodisiac. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. Gum—astringent to bowels. pterygium. Flowers—cure " Kapha". HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. bark. used in diseases of chest and lungs. cough. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. topically in piles and hydrocele. Oils. gonorrhoea. stomachic. inflammations. Bastard teak. LOC. India. gout. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. :—E. Khakhrao. anthelmintic. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. buboes. biliousness. burning sensation. cures excessive perspiration. Tripatrak. good in fevers. Chichra. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. Dyes. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. eye diseases. Fruit and seed—hot. purifies blood. strangury. Flower—aphrodisiac. astringent. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). remove bad humours. H. useful in elephantiasis. lessens lumbago.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. dysmenorrhoea. in the Khandesh Akrani. K. Dhak. ascends to 1200 m. Leaf—very astringent. See—Timbers. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. burning urine. Gums and Resins.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in gleet and urinary concretions . diuretic . worms and piles. Muttala. colic. leaves. leprosy. NS. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. lessens inflammations. aphrodisiac. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. COM. anthelmintic. Sk. cure tumours. fractures. M. LOC. piles. Ceylon. useful in syphilis. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). pimples. digestible. corneal opacities. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. gonorrhœa. expectorant. G. dry. tonic. Kakria. Kshatadru. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. tonic. Kuntz. useful in bone fractures. cures ulcers and tumours. Palas. thirst. Palas. Kinshuk.

They are applied to orchitis. cures inflammation . elliptic-oblong. long. Katkaranj. Fever nut. NS. Sk. Katkaleja. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. prevents contagious diseases . petioles prickly. Fr. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. very common near the sea-coast. aphrodisiac. useful in colic.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. strongly mucronate. act as rubefacient. lead-colored 1. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. asthma and colic. Fl. leprosy (Yunani).—1-2 oblong. Tapasi. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. oblong 5-7. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Flowers are astringent. Sagargota. M. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. the tropics generally.—yellow. fevers.5 X 4. cures urinary discharges. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Gum solution is applied to bruises. H. long . Gajjige. astringent to bowels. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . Sd. Sind. leaflets 6-9 pairs. densely armed on the faces with prickles. flowers and fruit.—pod. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. DISTR. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. anthelmintic. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious.5 cm. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). leaves. heating. LOC.—abruptly pinnate. :—An extensive climber. t.) COM. Kuberakshi. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. CHAR. skin-diseases. sprouts useful in tumours. FAM. malaria. wounds. Physic nut. hydrocele. etc. Kakechika. Leaves contain a glucoside.5 cm. Fruit—acrid. K. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Dyes. piles. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. :—E. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. anthelmintic . good in small-pox and elephantiasis. :—Throughout India. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. antiperiodic. leucorrhcea. 30-60 cm. L. Gajga. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic.3 cm. ringworm. aphrodisiac and diuretic. shortly stalked. Gajaga.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. LOC. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Fl. See—Timbers. . 5-7. Karanja.—JulySept. G. Deccan hills. Seed—styptic. Gums and Resins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . PARTS USED :—Root-bark. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ.

covered with cottony pubescence. gum. Ceylon. Surpan. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. K. Alexandrian laurel. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Mandara. Undi. Sk. NS. DISTR. Ekke. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Arka. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. used in chronic fevers. high. and oil. Shuka-phala. Ponne. Ark.8-10 cm. often gregarious. FAM. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. 2. Surhonne. elliptic or ovate oblong. Rui. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Sk. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. COM. sessile. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). M. base cordate. :—Cultivated throughout India. Purasakeshera. LOC. COM. :—E. Gigantic swallow-wort. Madar. sometimes amplexicaul. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Akdo. The gum from wounded branches. Ak. branches stout. lessens appetite. Malaya.— opposite. Vuma..4-3 m. :—A large shrub. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. thick. very common in N. Oils. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Sultanchampa.—Guttiferæ. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Polynesia. Mandara. PARTS USED :—Bark. much branched. astringent. :—E. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Undi. . Surangi. H. Kshiranga. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Madar. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies.. Kanara associated with littoral species. 10-20 X3. L. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Punnaga. Br. K. both surfaces tomentose. Punnag. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. FAM. See—Timbers. NS. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Tungakeshera. LOC. CHAR. Kshirparni. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. M.—Asclepiadaceæ. and for its oil. Arka. East African Islands. G. Dholaakdo.. Akand.H.. Australia.. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata".

Sk. cures leucoderma. acrid . apex with two auricles. China. PARTS USED :—Root. flattened tomentose. C. Sd:—many. back much curved.—lobes deltoid-ovate. leaves and flowers. broad. tonic and stomachic in action. Madar. :—An erect shrub usually 1.. ulcers. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin.—subsessile. buds ovoid. M.2 cm. oleaginous. Sd. . astringent.. good for liver (Yunani). very common. tumours. Milk— caustic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.4 m. cures inflammations. depilatory. alterative and purgative properties. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). coughs. heal wounds. Mandara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl.—follicles. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . eruption on body. Flowers—digestive. bark. painful joints . See—Fibres. catarrh and loss of appetite. LOC. LOC. buds globose. ascites. L. across. usually 5.5 cm. asthma. Ceylon. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. dropsy. Rajarka.—about 2. Milk— heating. tumours. scabies. rat-bite. bark corky.— purplish in umbellate cymes. India. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.:—H. C. lobes usually erect. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache.—in umbellate cymes. ascites and anasarca. t. Ak. young parts white.—broadly ovate. Mandara. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. elliptic or obovate. Fr. cures asthma and syphilis. Safedak. expectorant and anthelmintic. COM. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. used in cough.5-10 X 5-7. liver and spleen enlargement. ringworm of scalp. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. purplish or white. CHAR. Flower—analgesic.-July. laxative. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha.7—15 X 4. long. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . green. Flowers—stomachic.— Feb. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. Fl.5 cm. Br. Fr. high. ellipsoid or ovoid. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. NS. Fl. comose. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. DISTR. comose . 9-10 cm. cures leprosy. asthma. FAM. diaphoretic. elephantiasis. very common is S. Root-bark is diaphoretic. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. Ark. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera.—7. useful in leprosy. cures piles and "Kapha". spleen and liver diseases. spongy.8-2. subglobose.. cottony. Malay Islands and S. piles. ovate oblong. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. leaves applied to paralysed parts. corona shorter than the column. purgative. Juice—anthelmintic.5-8. also useful in intestinal worms.—Asclepiadaceæ. swellings.

5 cm. H. useful in burning sensations. Iran.—Scitaminaceae. high . M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Flowers used as detergent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. CHAR.2 m. M. (Chopra). There is an alkaloid present in the pods. P. but doubtfully wild. NS. LOC. Akalabera. narrow. oval or orbicular. :—E. Gigantea. Tarvardi.. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Warm leaves used as poultice. erect. See—Fibres. Kalehu. long. Khadsambal. Shitarambha. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. hernia and colic. Abai. cooling. Nilashimbika. Broad—Sword bean. L. Egypt. COM. ulcers (Ayurveda). K. Fl. Indian shot. LOC. veins arching. indigestible. See—Vegetables. Gavria.:—Perennial herb . CANNA INDICA Linn. Kadavare.3 cm. DISTR.9-1. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. abundant in Sind.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. spatulate.. biliousness. :—E. COM. Devakeli. H. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. Sarvajaya. G. PARTS USED :—Pods. FAM.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. root-stock tuberous. staminodial segments. FAM. Gavara. Afghanistan. Kamakshi.—segments 2. tonic. flowers and milky juice. membranous. 3 sub-erect. Sema. Arabia. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. 1 linear . acrid. Sk. bracts oblong. K. lanceolate to ovate. G. Asishimbi. Hudingana. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Sk. Waziristan. DISTR. on trees and hedges . In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Koshaphala. LOC. Kardali. appetiser. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. green. tropical Africa. greenish or colored. Paraholiya. Kadsambu. The pods contain vitamin A.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Sabbajaya. Sarvajaya. stem 0. they are given in cholera. Sambe. Tamateballi. Shimbi.

PARTS USED :—Roots. Unmattini. Seeds—carminative. Bhang.5 m. M. DISTR. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. Fr. Leaves—bitter. Fr. Harshini. :—Throughout India. sepals 5. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. male fascicled. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. LOC. shining. PARTS USED :—Bark. Bhangi. flowers and seeds. excessive use causes indigestion. oil-good for earache. leaves. Sk. hallucinations. Siddhapatri. tonic. astringent to bowels.—many. :—E. antidiarrhoeic. t. soporific. L. Vijaya. Not indigenous. alterative . In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. Mohini. lower 3-8 foliate.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. H. stomachic. See—Ornamental Plants. causes biliousness. male flowers. check vomiting. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. causes thirst.—sub-globose or oblong . They are broken in small pieces. COM.—achene. black. good for hydrocele. soporific. serrate. globose. LOC. Central Asia. seeds and resin. also wild. flowers. :—Widely cultivated in India. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. 3-lobed. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. dropsy. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. Wild in the Himalayas. Ganja. dioecious. tonic. hot. Hemp. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. Fl. CHAR. useful in " Kapha". inflammations. restlessness. Shivapriya. G. impotence. Sd. insanity. PROPERTIES AND LOC. upper 1-3. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. K. cough.—Urticaceæ. lessen inflammation. leprosy. female perianth hyaline. Ganja.—alternate or the lower opposite. piles. intoxicating. water extract anthelmintic. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. female crowded under convolute bracts.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . melancholia. intoxication (Ayurveda). cause headache. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . Bhang. aphrodisiac. Ganja. intoxication. aphrodisiac. Female inflorescence is stomachic. Bark—tonic. (2) Bhang. LOC. DISTR. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). useful in convulsions. heating. astringent.—more or less throughout the year.—small axillary. abortifacient. imbricate.9-1. (3) Charas. leaves. usually 0. Fl. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. high in its feral state. NS. echinulate . causes thirst and biliousness. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani).

acute mania. in the form of electuary.—Solanaceæ. The plant contains cannabinin. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. Mirchi. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Madana modak used in cough. Tikshna. Capsaicin and Solanin. See—Condiments and Spices. See—Gums and Resins. cholera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. NS. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. LOC. Sk.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Narcotics. increases biliousness. Lanka mirchi. Raktamaricha. Fibres. Tivrashakti. Fruit—pungent. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). and dropsy. H. muscular pains. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. The fruit contains Capsisin. Lalmirchi. also in gout. chronic ulcers. erysipelas. expectorant. often found as an escape. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). K. Country in Deccan. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. Menshinkai. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. loss of consciousness. . their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. increases appetite. spermatorrhoea. Marchu . and is employed by Indian physicians. Mirchi. Cayenne-pepper. M. and flatulence. whooping cough. delirium (Ayurveda). Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. useful in indigestion. :—E. DISTR. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. dysuria. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. :—Extensively cultivated in S. weakness of body. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. FAM. It is stomachic. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. Vegetables. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. LOC. COM. Ujjvala. Chillies. M. :—Cultivated all over India. dyspepsia. G. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Marichiphala. asthma. useful in brain complaints. diarrhœa.

common in S. Blister creeper. Kapalphodi.—Myrtaceæ. it is mucilaginous. Vakambi. when moistened. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. Shaundi. epileptic fits. Ceylon. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. bladdery . :—E. aphrodisiac. useful in tumours. alexiteric. abscesses and ulcers. Kumbha. rounded at the apex. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. flowers and fruits. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.—Sapindaceæ. Fibres. introduced.:—Common in hedges throughout the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. leaves. urinary discharges. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Agni-erum. Deccan. Kumbhi. dry. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. See—Timbers. G. K. LOC. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. leucoderma.—white. NS. Kangu. G. piles. petals 4. Daddala. 2-ternate. colic. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. K. M. Kanphuti. Sk. Fruit—acrid. winged at the angles. L. dyspepsia. :—E. trigonous. Karnasphota. Root.—globose. Maniju balli. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. DISTR. Sakralata. skin-diseases. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. Konkan and W. HABITAT :—In hedges . bark. CHAR. Thailand (Siam). Wild guava . PARTS USED :—Root. ultimate segments lanceolate. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. Kalindi. stem wiry. The plant contains saponin. black. Ghats. anthelmintic.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. diuretic and aperient. Kumbhi. M. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. COM. Girikarnika.— alternate. Malay Peninsula. LOC. FAM. DISTR. Jyotish-mati. H. bark. Root is considered diaphoretic. leaves and seeds. NS. Fr. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Kumbi. subglobose. FAM. :—Most warm countries. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . Sk. smooth. LOC. Gavvahannu. C. Balloon vine. . Hennumatti. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. :—Throughout India. hot. Karolio. Sind. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . very acute apex. and is administered in fevers. " Vata ". deltoid. inciso-serrate. Fl. Sd. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. bronchitis.

Guppe. aphrodisiac. in haemoptysis. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. ringworm. bronchitis. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). .54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. cause biliousness. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. removes biliousness . Barre. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. leucoderma. Kusumbha. M. piles. relieves obesity. Karada. H. Agnishikha.—Compositæ. DISTR. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. COM. cures inflammation. Nalikadala. Flower—tonic to liver. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mexico and Brazil. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. laxative. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. M. NS. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). Fruits contain vitamins A and C. Leaves—hot. wounds of urinary track. H. leprosy. carminative. strangury. "Kapha". White thin latex contains Papain. depilatory. Pangi. Popayi. diuretic. seeds and oil.—Caricaceæ. digestive. K. Kusumba. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. causes burning sensation . Indies. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. :— E. LOC. cure urinary discharges. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Oil—indigestible. appetiser. cures inflammations. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. used. made into curries. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Dyer's saffron. good for eyes. Seeds—oleaginous. bleeding piles. bile. Kamalottama. fruit and seeds. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. hypnotic. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated. enlargement of spleen. cooling. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Papaya. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Sk. :—E. Papaya. "Tridosh". cure "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Safflower. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. PARTS USED :—Leaves. scabies. NS. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. See—Fruit Trees. LOC. it is used to procure abortion. diuretic. Fruit—stomachic. Papaw. :—Grown extensively in Poona. expectorant. Papita. FAM. Kardai. of W. appetiser . :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Karrak. Pappayi. G. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. astringent to bowels. diuretic. :—Native throughout India. cures insanity (Ayurveda). K. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Kusumba. Sk. Chirbhita. removes urinary concretions . COM. FAM. DISTR. Papaya. heating. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Kusumba. aphrodisiac. Chibda. Kusumbo. Papayi. LOC. flowers. unripe fruit.

K. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). Tivragandha. M. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. atonic dyspepsia. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. hiccup. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. COM. :—Cultivated extensively in India. CASSIA ALATA Linn. inflammation (Yunani). Leaves contain vitamin A. pinnate. 30-60 cm. Oma. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Oil—good in all diseases. paralysis. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. good for heart and tooth-ache. rachis . Elgra. Ajwain. Ringworm shrub. spleen. give lustre to eyes. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. H. pungent. Dadmardan. Owa. emmenagogue and sedative. Sk. cure ascites. M. myrabolans and rock salt. Bishops' weed . cure catarrh. LOC. leaflets 10-12 pairs. Egypt. LOC. DISTR. enlargement of spleen. oblique at the base. subsessile. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. oblong-obtuse. bitter. NS :— E. vomiting. G. liver. enrich blood. appetiser. strengthening. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. Ajamo . Iran. Sk. chest pains.—Umbelliferæ. tonic. aphrodisiac . abdominal tumours. long. Baluchistan. carminative. The seeds bitter and hot. carminative. Ajowan. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. chest and throat pains. kidney troubles. improve speech and eyesight.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. Dwipagasti. tonic and carminative properties. good for ear boils. Dodda sagate. Dadamardana.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Winged senna. Omu . diuretic. Europe. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. L. piles. Dadrughna. H. laxative. vomiting. FAM. See—Condiments and Spices. good in weakness of limbs. stomachic. good for old people. Dipyaka. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. stimulant. K. and diarrhœa. CHAR. stimulate intestines. they are used in jaundice . and even in cholera. abdominal pain. aphrodisiac. mucronate. anthelmintic. Seeds—purgative. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. dyspepsia. bechic. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). NS. purgative. FAM. :—E. Simyatase. Dyes. See—Vegetables. carminative. Ajamoda. Oils. They are administered in flatulence. downy beneath. Datka pat. Afghanistan.

Peninsula. membranous. oblong-obovate.—7. pedunculate racemes ..) COM. Sd. LOC. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. ringworm. Mukerji). NS. t. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. FAM. obliquely septate. itching.—Jany. reddish brown. 28-4-88).6 cm.-50 or more. Charmaranga.. very likely a native of the W. :—Introduced into India. long. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . Sd. pale beneath. buds in yellow bracts. asthma . in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). useful in thirst. H. cough. Fr. G. Tarwad. stipules very large.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. Fr. causes flatulence . USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. t. mucronate. LOC. leaflets 8-12 pairs. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. straight. slightly overlapping. rhombohedral.—bright yellow with darker veins.—pod long.-Oct. " In eczema. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. skin-diseases. skin diseases. N. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. PARTS USED :—Root. The whole plant. LOC. Sk. rachis densely pubescent. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. reniform. DISTR. Ahmed. L. LOC. across. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. flowers. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. Avartki. vermicide (Ayurveda). yellow with orange veins. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. rotundate. . Fl..—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. nocturnal emissions. dull green above. cm.-July.3-1. DISTR. useful in vomiting. M. Madhya Pradesh and W. Ceylon. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). CHAR. urinary discharges . diabetes. Taroda. Avarike. bark smooth. fruits and seeds. cures tumours. Sakusina.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.—pod. Mayahari. :—E. anthelmintic. Indies. along the sea coast in laterite region. Tanner's cassia. good for ulcers. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Country. Pitakilaka. alexipharmic . Gujarat and S. Fl.—30-35. Bark has the same properties.5 X 10 cm.—in spiciform. Awal. thirst. asthma. Fl. 20-25. Ph. Fl. 10-20 X 1. K.—large. Burma. J. leprosy. Tarwad. cure " Vata ". 5 cm. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. Tangadi. C. M. HABITAT :—Planted. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). leaves. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. and throat troubles.

. Hema-puspha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Arimarda.—in few flowered racemes. Vyadivata. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Kasondi. ovate-lanceolate. Sd. astringent. Negro coffee. Indian laburnum. NS. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. 15-20 cm. Bandartauri. Arogyashimbi. long. useful in chest and liver complaints.5 cm. fruit and seeds. Kasari. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. safe for children and pregnant women. Burma.) COM. G. Leaves lessen inflammation. Sk. Bahava. Flowers—purgative. Tans. transversely septate. biliousness . cooling. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. FAM. abortifacient. rheumatism. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. See—Dyes. Kasmarda. tuberculous glands. :—E. Flowers—improve taste. C. Aragina. yellow. (Ayurveda). cooling. throat-troubles. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). leaves. 10—12.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. heal ulcers . recurved. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. :—Throughout India.—20-30. leprosy. leaflets 3-5 pairs. DISTR. :—E. H. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Ceylon.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Pudding-pipe or stick. In Konkan. Dodda-tagase. Chimkani. Suvarnaka. Golden shower. Fl. branches furrowed. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. G. M. Kasonda. base somewhat oblique. CHAR. Kacodari. Ornamental Plants. improve appetite. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. shining dark olive-green. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Rajataru. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Fruit—antipyretic.) COM. juice given in erysipelas. H. antipyretic. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. corymbose. Fl. Kasundari. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. LOC. LOC. Seeds— oily. apex acute. t. Ane sogate. purgative. Stinking weed. cures burning sensation. laxative. purgative. It is a mild laxative. smooth. Sk. hard. syphilis. FAM. cure " Kapha ". Balla. long. NS. Kasoda.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. faintly veined with orange . Kakka. Garmala. Chakinda. Fruit—digestible. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. also planted. See—Timbers.—very foetid when bruised. M. eye-diseases. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Rankasvinda. demulcent. PARTS USED :—Root.— Jany-March.—petals 5. K. Rechana. Amaltas. carminative. Leaves—anti-periodic . often purplish. . and Famine Plants. used in rheumatism. L. Konde. griping.—pods. flowers. Fr. distinctly torulose. K. cause flatulence.

leaflets 6-10 pairs. DISTR. L. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . stomachic.4-3 m. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. elephantiasis. M. with a solitary conical gland near the base . Leaves—aphrodisiac. turgid. Kasamarda. Sd. H. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. Kasamarda. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process.. are given in diabetes.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages.— Nov. DISTR. cough. leaves. :—G. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. The bark. K. LOC. Fl. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). . In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. Seeds used in heat of the blood. in Kutch. tonic and febrifuge. asthma. slightly recurved. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. Kasondi. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani.510 cm. Banar.Jany. rachis grooved . :—A shrub 2. COM. " Vata ". alexiteric. septate between the seeds . leaves and seeds. C. mixed with honey. and seeds are cathartic.—pod. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. Ran tankala. In many countries root is considered diuretic. See—Famine Plants. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. CHAR. cure " Kapha". Fl. Fr. Kasundari. fevers. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. petals 5. dark brown . :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. heals wounds. long . FAM. LOC. lanceolate. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. annual or perennial. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. The plant contains glucoside emodin. high. base rounded. USES :—The whole plant is purgative.—18-23 cm. 7. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases.. PARTS USED :—Bark. yellow. few flowered corymbose racemes. Talapota. PARTS USED :—Root. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Sk. hiccup. leaves and seeds. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. " tridosha " . Baskikasondi. t. See—Famine Plants. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). CASSIA SOPHERA Linn.—in axillary. opposite.—30-40 broadly ovoid. ovate. cures ascites. At Kotra. obtuse.

Svarnalata. branches rough. Kangodi. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. . K.5-10 cm. shining above. COM. small yellowish-green. 7. crenate.) COM. Kangli. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.— petals 5. :—Large deciduous climber. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. reddish brown. Tagache. in drooping panicles. leaves and seeds. pale yellow. Kangani. K. Seeds— acrid. high. emetic.. Fl.—after the rains. 18 m. oblong. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. X 4. bitter. NS. long.3-10 X 3. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CHAR.. cause burning sensation. Madras State. Taragosi. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. in diam.—pinnate. Pamad. Malkakni. obliquely septate.5-20 cm. unarmed. opposite (lowest smaller). FAM. powerful brain tonic. Chakramarda. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. H. Dadamari. Fr. upper petal 2-lobed .—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". 12. Jyotishmati. C. PARTS USED :— Root. Malkangoni.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. alternate. Panevar. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. rachis grooved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Taga. Climbing-staff plant. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. LOC. H. stem upto 23 cm. leaflets 3 pairs.—Celastraceæ. aphrodisiac. 30-90 cm. laxative. Fl. Tarota. :—A very common weed all over the State. fleshy arillus. obovate. Kanguni. NS. much curved when young. usually unisexual. The plant contains glucoside emodin. covered with lenticels. high. Malkamni. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). base oblique. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. capsule. L. cure joint-pains. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. DISTR. Black-oil tree. Intellect tree. Sphutabandhani. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. expectorant. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. appetiser. :—E. L. hot.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . ovate or obovate. Sd. bright yellow.—pod. 6. Fr. M. brain and liver tonic. :—An annual foetid herb. Sd.. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. G. t. M. Malhangana.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Foetid cassia. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Ceylon. 1-6 completely covered with red. Sk. DISTR. Velo . Seeds—bitter.8-7. :—E. FAM.5 mm.5 cm. LOC. globose. Sk. Takala. CHAR. Dadrughna. Chagoche. Chakunda.

Mahaushadhi.—capsule. :—G. high. reniform. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. rooting at the nodes. good for cough and asthma.-Apl. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). M. tonic. K. Lahanchirayat. H. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. radical leaves revolute. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. :— E. pink. COM. Jhinkun-kariatum. minute.—opposite. NS. Fl. G. persistent. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. CHAR.—May-Nov. ovoid. Vallari . aphrodisiac and stimulant. elliptic. spreading star-like .—in fascicled umbels. Oil stomachic.). gout. Barmi. Brahmamanduki. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G.—4 mm. they are also sudorific. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fr. CHAR. L. Fl. FAM. NS. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Sk. C. long. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. Fl. LOC.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. :—A slender herbaceous plant. Brahmi. used in leprosy. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. Deccan and S. Country. cauline smaller.). Vondelaga.—Umbelliferæ. narrowly oblong . :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. LOC.—tubular lobes 5. :—Konkan. base deeply cordate stipulate. Mandukparni. FAM. cloves. t. M. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. L. . H. stem creeping with long internodes. orbicular. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. obovate or oblong. linear-oblong. pink. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Brahmamanduki. DISTR. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Ekpani.—3 from each node. paralysis and leprosy. COM. Fr.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness.—Gentianaceæ. especially in Bengal. Fl. Jangli-karayatu. and is employed for external application. Don. Seeds are hot. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. t. hard-rugose. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri.—Feb. :—Throughout India.

LOC. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. improves appetite. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. cures leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. alterative. Australia Pacific Islands. carminative. USES :—Bark is purgative. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. China. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. :—Throughout India near the coast. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. :—In moist situations (streams. laxative. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. Sukanu. small-pox. blood diseases. urinary discharges. :—South Konkan and N. bechic. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . plaster or bath are used. PARTS USED :—Bark. FAM. M. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. Malay Archipelago. asthma. Plant—bitter. abundant on the Malabar Coast. voice. memory. asthma. headache . fevers. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". :—K. For external use powder. LOC. improves appetite (Yunani). Leaves are also diuretic. thirst. nut is narcotic and poisonous . water courses throughout the State. NS. fruit. COM. Leaf-powder. nallas.—Apocynaceæ. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. cardio-tonic. antipyretic. cures hiccup. anæmia. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. and a bitter substance odollin. . Tande. Kanara. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. diuretic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves and seeds). used in insanity (Ayurveda). ointment. tonic. Honde. soporific. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. clears voice and brain. Chanda.) DISTR. bitter. digestible. stomachic. sedative to nerves. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. tonic. biliousness. See—Timbers. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. bronchitis. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. " Kapha ". alexiteric. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. scalding of urine. LOC. twigs. milky juice. spleen enlargement. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. cooling.

Kanchuki. :—E. DISTR. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. NS. COM. M. Lavali. Chick pea. biliousness. biliousness. Chakwat. . heart. improves appetite.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). :—Widely distributed. Wild-spinach. tonic. Vajibhakshya. Rayara nelli. Country. Cheel. Bengal—Common-gram. HABITAT :—Cultivated. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. CICCA ACIDA Merr. G. K. LOC. throattroubles. Country gooseberry. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. H. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Harparauri K. Harparrevdi. Chakravati. Goose-foot. sour . USES :— Root is purgative. fruit and seeds. acrid. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. LOC. Chillika. useful in biliousness. :—Cultivated in India. Harbara.—Chenopodiaceæ. Tanko. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Sk. Fruit is very sour . Chunna. root and the seed are cathartic. Chandanbedu. M. constipation. Bathusag. H. Chanaka. FAM . fragrant.—Euphorbiaceæ. M. Kari-Kempukadale. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). LOC. Chania. oleaginous. NS. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Sk. aphrodisiac. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. abdominal pains. See—Fruit Trees. :—E. Deccan and S. "Vata". LOC. diseases of blood. urinary concretions. piles. K. useful in bronchitis. laxative. COM. anthelmintic. Rai-avala. FAM. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Ksharadala. :— E.) FAM. Chana. G. Kadale. PARTS USED :—Root. vomiting. useful in thirst. piles . Agralohita. eye-diseases. diuretic. NS. :—Very common in the Deccan. Skandhaphala. spleen (Ayurveda).62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Balabhojya. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. "Kapha". Laveni. Pandu. COM. H. M. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). LOC. But. Chana. The plant yields an essential oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. DISTR. also cultivated as a pot herb.. Chakravarti. tonic to liver. Chalmeri. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.

:—G. PARTS USED :—Leaves. etc. throat troubles.—Lauraceæ. tonic . LOC. aphrodisiac. Dalchini. Dalchini. LOC. headache. tonic. abdominal pains. Nisane. cures skin diseases. Ceylon. . Lavange-hakke. diarrhœa. Kash. biliousness. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. vomiting. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. throat troubles. Bark—tonic. :— Bark and oil. vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. useful in hydrocele. leprosy. blood troubles. abortifacient. causes flatulence. Sk. Leaves contain vitamin A. useful in inflammations. :—W. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. thirst. M. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. DISTR. See—Condiments and Spices. carminative. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. tonic. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. Dalchini. It possesses carminative. Duk. indigestion. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Kanara district. useful in loss of appetite. flatulence. Gudatwaka. piles. causes salivation. Oil—carminative. K. pungent. FAM. toothache. aphrodisiac. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. enriches blood. very common in the N. tonic to hair. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. anthelmintic. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. LOC. Malay Peninsula. useful in bronchitis. cold in head. headache. chest complaints. heart. heated brain. liver-tonic . It checks nausea and vomiting. pains . See—Food Plants. useful in " Vata ". carminative. aphrodisiac. H. bronchitis. improve taste and appetite. bronchitis (Yunani). useful in cold. anthelmintic . PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. Dalchini. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. NS. appetiser. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. cure bronchitis. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. Seed—indigestible. toothache (Ayurveda). COM. rectum and urinary diseases. Oil—styptic. expectorant. astringent to bowels . Oils. diarrhœa and dysentery. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Valkala. Darchini. refrigerant. indigenous and cultivated. parched mouth. cures thirst and burning. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Peninsula. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. hiccup. emmenagogue. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). Burma. itching. flatulence. Seed—stimulant. Leaves—purgative. foul mouth and fever. causes flatulence. biliousness. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. seed and acid exudation. strengthens liver. PARTS USED.

piles. Indrayana. dysentery. Chitraphala. diam. asthma . Sk. (Ind. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. Pavamekke Kayi. lobes obovateoblong. orbicular or reniform. Bitter apple. DISTR.—large. cordate at the base. H. The active constituent of the drug. F. Makal. CHAR. skin eruptions. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Indrayan. Paharmul. 5-nerved. M. Uthika. alleviates vomiting. Kaduvrindavan. dropsy and cough. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. Indrayan. FAM. 3.—Menispermaceæ. yellow within. axillary racemes .. uterine complaints. Fr. warm parts of Asia. Tumtikayi. K. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT. mucronate. stem thick. margins ciliate.. R. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Annual Report. removes intestinal worms. Colocynth. Nirbisi. monœcious. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . NS. :—An extensively climbing annual.—July-Sept.-Jany. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. an alkaloid. i. subcampanulate. COM. 1949). young shoots woolly. smooth. Fl. Sk. t.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. has been isolated. diam. compressed. waxy coated. :—E. which possibly has a cholinergic action. fever. Fl. CHAR. Pahadvel. long.—Cucurbitaceæ. L. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. 7. male flowers in axillary cymes. Sd. branches more or less pubescent. upto 25 cm. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch.e. Mahendravaruni. greenish outside. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. H. Patha. tendrils bifid. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. burning. Katurasa. M.— usually margined. subglobose. FL t.—A climbing shrub. G. 5-partite. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". peltate. female flowers in elongate. removes pain. itching . leaves. heart troubles. also for prolapsus uteri. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. yellowish. or twin. Africa and America. Velvet-leaf. greenish. red. LOC. :—Deccan. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. C. Kanara. Asso. NS. E. flesh juicy. Venivel. Ghorumba. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). in conjunction with aromatics. LOC. solitary. red or yellowish white. useful in hemicrania. hairy. Venivalli. Indruk. G. helps parturition. L. .5-20 cm. somewhat hairy. drupe. sub-globose. minute. Indraphal. FAM. :— E. Fr. Fl. Trapusi. diarrhœa. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. angular . COM.8-10 cm. solitary.—Nov. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. :—In hills.

is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. DISTR. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. Fruit—sour. leuco-derma. Tvakasugandha. useful in biliousness. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. Sunthura. Sukkare-kanji. (Poona. Gujarat. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. asthma. astringent. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Ceylon. cooling.—Rutaceæ. M. LOC. constipation. LOC. LOC. enlargement of spleen. epilepsy. Santra. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. aphrodisiac . urinary discharges. sea-shores. In the Konkan fruit and root. Doddile. anthelmintic. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). G. Nagaranga. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. antipyretic. good in fevers. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. enlargement of spleen. " Kapha". elephantiasis . and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. diuretic. Narenj. ulcers. chest troubles. tonic. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Narangi. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. DISTR. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. laxative. fever and worms. Deccan. :—Widely cultivated in India. bowel complaints. sweet and has agreeable flavour. anthelmintic . K. Sk. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Also indigenous in Arabia. carminative. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). bronchitis. NS. removes fatigue . :— E. ascites. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. good in vomiting and skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. throat diseases. Narange. N. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . constipation. removes biliousness. Naringa. purgative. FAM. relieves vomiting and retching. fortifies chest. W. anæmia. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. :—Konkan. Naringi. relieves colds. COM. cures tumours. jaundice. pain in joints. aphrodisiac. Asia. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. removes " Vata ". Cardiotonic. Flower— stimulant. with or without nux-vomica. tuberculous glands of neck. Rind— anthelmintic. and lumbago. Root and fruit cooling. Kittale. Kirmirtvaka. tonic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). dyspepsia.

tonic and astringent properties. said to be wild in W. The fruits contain vitamins A. Ruchaka. relieves sore-throat. USES. Jambira. Kutla. LOC. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Bijaura. According to Theophrastus. Fruit—sweet and sour. NS. VAR. Paharinimbu . HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—Cultivated. asthma. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. LOC. DoddaGaja-nimba. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Bijapurna. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Mahaphala. relieve vomiting. K. :—Citron rind is hot. Mahanimbu. gastric irritability in general and general debility. B and C. M. Mahaphala. FAM. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Seeds—indigestible. PARTS USED. digestible. with a sharp taste. juice refrigerant and astringent. though there are no regular plantations. Matunga. Motalimbu . cures leprosy. rind of the fruit is bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. its preserve is used for dysentery. thirst. Adam's apple. Harale. LOC. Idalimbu. Madala. NS. astringent to bowels . fruits and seeds. Rusaki. Mahalunga.—Rutaceæ. hiccup. G. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). the juice allays ear-ache.:—Grown in gardens in the State. useful in vomiting. H. Amlakeshara. heating. Mavalunga. Devamadala. Turanj. Ghats. leaves and flowers hot and dry. useful in abdominal complaints. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. flatulence. Limonum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Citron . anasarca and chronic fever. used in constipation and tumours. flowers. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Flowers—stimulant. anæmia. :— E. asthma. Turanj. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. bark and fruit. :—Roots. intoxication.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. :—E. removes colic. . Bijoru. COM. G. also corrects foetid breath. the pulp cold and dry. K. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). sharp. PARTS USED :—Root. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. dry and tonic . stimulant. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. oily. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Thora-limbu. Sk. cough. COM. Bera nimbu. H. seeds. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. Lemon . M. Matalunga. Balank. Matulunga. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. cough. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . jaundice. Sk. increase appetite. tonic. See—Fruit Trees.

Devashreni.. Limbe. Dhantiate. stomachic. it helps digestion. Morvel.—Ranunculaceæ. improves liver. petioles twinning. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Morata. Nimbu. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Limpaka. cures abodominal complaints. Rochana. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. with long feathery tails . FAM. G. appetiser. hairy outside. blades 2-2. sharp taste. white. Nebu. Lebu. Shodhana. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. scarletina. Nimbe. stimulant . weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. silky villous. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. Churhar.—achenes. Madhulika. Acida. burning in the chest. :—An extensive climber.—petals O. Morhari. loss of appetite. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Acid-Sour lime . Nimbu. Oil from rind. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. CHAR. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. throat trouble. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. hemicrania. brain disorders. :—G. See—Fruit Trees. constipation. Murva. leaves (rarely).—in axillary corymbose panicles. COM. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . NS. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . M. ovoid. LOC. plethora. Fl. Khatalimbu.—simple or once ternate. not good in old age. H. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. M. L. Ranjai. bronchitis . PARTS USED :—Fruit. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). COM. Murhari. Snuva. Amlasara. Nimbuka. H. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". lobes mucronate. fatigue . Fr. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne.5 cm. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Sk. Lebu. :—E.—Sept. long ovate or orbicular. C. vomiting. eyes . anthelmintic. relieves vomiting . Fl. but often found trailing amongst grass. Sk.Nov. Limbu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. where there is dry skin and much thirst. t. with flavour. Kagadi limbu. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. . whole plant tomentose. K. measles. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. relieves biliousness. Moravel. sepals 4-6. it cures and prevents scurvy. NS. heart. also useful in rheumatism. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. VAR. Fruit—sour. both as a prophylactic and as a curative.

enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. obliquely striate. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. t. tapering towards both ends . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. high. very common in the Deccan. mixed with oil. Fl. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. COM. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Karnasphota. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. useful in leprosy. stimulant. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. :—Annual erect herb. NS. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Kiritekki. K. Jangali-harhar. NS. Bharangi.—3-5 foliate. hot. and fevers. Tinmani. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. stomachic. Sauri. LOC. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). Konkan. oblong-obovate. erect. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. used internally in thirst. transversely striate. good in malaria. stems grooved and glandular.—Verbenaceæ. COM. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Talvari. :—Common in grass lands. bitter. Leaves—favour digestion. FAM. subglobose. :—G. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. reduces tumours and inflammations . laxative. removes " Kapha". CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. :—G. veined. dryness and urethral discharges. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. M. Adityabhakta. CHAR. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). H. petioles of lower leaves longer. astringent.—axillary. and dispel intestinal fermentation. Sk. Tilparni. Phanjika. LOC. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). Barbara.—brownish black. Bharangi. Sk. externally applied to boils. terminal the largest. Brahmani. M.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. anthelmintic. HABIT :—A common weed. Bharangi. leaflets elliptic-oblong. H.—petals 4. Fr. DISTR. yellow. Fl. Gantubarangi. Kasaghni. L. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. LOC. hairy. Ghats. C. Kanphodi. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. hairy.—capsule. in lax racemes. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Sd. bitter taste and a strong odour. Bharang. Nayibela. cooling. blood diseases. Hulhul. DISTR. diuretic. 30-90 cm. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. causes excessive biliousness.—Sept-June. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Tilwan. . stimulates secretion of bile. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.—Capparidaceæ. FAM. Vatari. laxative. Juice— cures ear-ache. Kanphutia. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. K. Harhuria. :—W.

LOC. anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). tonic to the brain. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling.—6-10 yellowish brown. black. stems terete. 12. solitary. Fl. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . L. fevers (Yunani). and blue flowered. epilepsy. Fl. There are two varieties :—white flowered. Ceylon. diuretic. showy. sharply serrate. tubercular glands. useful in ascites (Yunani). :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. obovoid. useful in bronchitis. with an orange centre.—many. leucoderma. FAM. Root is purgative and diuretic. .8-5 cm.. leaves and seeds. bronchitis. Garani. alexiteric. :—A perennial twining herb.9-2. biliousness. The plant contains an alkaloid. spreading. 0. sometimes opposite.. Wowatheti. ulcers of the cornea. C. COM. Aparajita.-Oct. flat. Fl. headache. consumption. beaked.—Shrub. L. Kalina. Sk.—much exerted. tuberculous glands. Sd. acrid. also found throughout the State. Kajli.3 cm. LOC. burning sensation. DISTR. stems bluntly quadrangular. tube hairy within.— drupe.5-15 X 5. 4 lobes flat.—axillary. DISTR. nearly straight. in lax dichotomous cymes. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. Koyala. long . Gokarni. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. high. hiccup. M. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. lower one deflexed. good for eye-diseases.—imparipinnate. PARTS USED :—Root. C. 2-2. hairy.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. H.—ternately whorled.—pale blue. fevers. HABITAT :—In hedges. Girikarnika.7-6. Root increases appetite. Girikarniballi. anthelmintic. Malay Peninsula.5 X 2-3. pubescent. asthma. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations.2 m. blood diseases. collectively forming a terminal panicle. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. Gokarnika. Vishnukranta. ozœna. burning sensation. smooth. t. tumours. pains. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. LOC. elephantiasis.:—More or less throughout India. CHAR.. oblong or elliptic. stomachic. elliptic oblong.— Aug. NS. leaves and seeds. useful in inflammation. K. Fl. asthma. cures "Tridosha". lessens expectoration..2 cm. Kowa. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. the larger lower lobe dark purple. laxative. Fr. Fr. inflammations. wounds (Ayurveda). USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. ulcers (Ayurveda). leaflets 5-7. fleshy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. standard bright blue or white. heating. :—G. t— June-Jany. Aparajita.

PARTS USED :—Root. allays thirst. tropical Africa. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. a hormone and an alkaloid.—E. Kambhoja. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Tondali. Faridburti. cures leprosy. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. & A. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. cause flatulence. Hunder. LOC. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). galactagogue. astringent to bowels. leaves. Fruit— indigestible. Fruit is aphrodisiac. stops vomiting. Ceylon. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Sk. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Broom-creeper. Bimbika. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. See—Vegetables. The plant contains an enzyme. Parvel. Bimb. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). H. Country. Tondeballi. Ink-berry. Ghobe.) FAM. Glum. K.—Menispermaceæ. urinary losses. COM. " Vata". wild in hedges. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Vasanvel. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. USES:—In the Konkan. Vevati. COCCINIA INDICA W. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta".:—Cultivated in gardens. flowers. biliousness. useful in ascites and fevers. Vasantitikta. M. Bimba. Malaya. H. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. consumption. LOC. Deccan.:—Root cooling. Root bark. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Vasandi. Sk. Gujarat. Tundika. . fruit. Tana. Tundi. HABITAT. and jaundice. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Garudi. DISTR :—Throughout India. S. PROPERTIES AND USES. Flowers cure itching. K. G. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. :—G. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Jamtikibel. M. Oshthi. asthma. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). dried and powdered. Galedu. FAM. Seeds are purgative and aperient. M. antipyretic . given for uterine discharges. Kanduri. Bimbi.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Konkan. burning of hands and feet. COM. NS. Vevdi. Leaves—acrid. Chireta. diseases of blood. Dirghvalli. aphrodisiac.

Malabar and Coromandel coasts.8 cm. NS. Tenginmara. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains .3-3. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. Naral. laxative and sudorific. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. S. Nariyal. lessens bile and burning sensation. dysentery. In the Konkan. Gujarat. keeled.—Palmæ. Sk. Common in Konkan and N. male in small axillary cymose panicles. female in axillary clusters. COM. DISTR. Fl. H. aphrodisiac. FAM. also in many places in the interior. Deccan. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). seed. fattening. fermented juice.—drupe. Toyagarbha. Mad. useful in diabetes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Narial. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. Mangalya. laxative. LOC. biliousness. tumours. aphrodisiac. . Antipyretic. enriches blood. Konkan. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. it is heating. Arabia. smells sweetish and pungent. ovate-oblong..3 X 1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic.8-6. Flower-cooling . Kanara.—Dec. and put on to sore-eyelids. Nalivar. LOC. indigestible. flowers. It is also used as a refrigerant. Pegu. Mahaphala. with a few heads of pepper. tonic. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). rugose . constipation. ovate. tropical Africa. L.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. bark. mixed with water.:— A straggling scandent shrub. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ".—dioecious. useful in biliousness. as a cure for gonorrhœa. Fr. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. S. :—E. China. tonic. Narikel. Leaf-juice. it is used for coughs. which is taken internally with sugar. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. 3-5 nerved. thirst. urinary discharges.—3. India and Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. lessens thirst. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. 2-8 together. cardiotonic. DISTR. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. oleaginous. India. blood diseases. M. alexipharmic . G. "Kapha" and "Vata". young parts densely Villous. Tengu. size of a small pea. fattening. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. aphrodisiac. villous . Fl. Jataphala.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. K. Cocoanut palm. laxative. causes "Kapha". good in fractures. oil. t. Seed-cooling. Milk—cooling. tuberculosis. useful in leprosy. HABITAT :—In hedges. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. subdeltoid or subhastate. appetiser. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children.

base cordate. Japan. t. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. Gojivha. asthma. S.—10-15 x 2. China. piles and scabies (Yunani. spinously serrate margins. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. Fl. fermented juice is intoxicating. rachis within the bract slender. :—E. abundant in standing water. diuretic .—Gramineæ COM. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. B and C.5-6. long. It is refreshing and laxative.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. promotes hairgrowth. useful in urinary complaints. 6. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. :—Himalayas. tonic. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. America. long. piles . LOC. HABITAT :—Gregarious. stem 90-150 cm.6-10 mm. rooting at the lower nodes. Malaya.—broadly ovoid to globose. polished. LOC. paralysis. liver complaints. internodes smooth. NS. DISTR. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A.—Oct. FAM. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. L. Oil—indigestible. Dabha. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. Bengal. smooth. incipient phthisis and cachexia. M. CHAR. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. consumption. LOC. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Madhya Bharat. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. G. midrib stout. Rajputana. above the bract stout. strengthening and agreeable vegetable.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. :—A tall leafy grass. bluish grey.3 cm. sheaths long. Kasai. Fl. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).—monœcious racemes 2. Oil—sweet.. Ran-jondhala. smooth. Polynesia. high or more. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. See—Fruit Trees. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. useful in lumbar-pain. India. Gurlu . Madhya Pradesh. stout. It is also used for burns. tropical Asia-Africa. Job's tears. Assam. ulcers (Ayurveda). Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. diuretic. notched at the nodes . polished. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. increases body weight. enriches blood. lessens inflammations . it also purifies blood. Gavedhu. Fibres. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Jargadi.5-5 cm. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. it promotes growth of hair. Sk. Oils. fattening. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . bronchitis. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. useful in fever. H.

12 mm. In jutegrowing districts. It is also used as a bitter tonic. brown.—in short cymes. wedgeshaped.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . :—Konkan. Fl. G. buds obovoid. NS. The plant contains leucin. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—An annual herb. M. Pistan. Sk. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet.—Boraginaceæ. t. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. ridged and muricated.—petals 4-5. Bhuselu. lysin. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. yellow. Sd. C. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Mannadike. Fl. FAM. Challa. . fever. Bargund. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. NS. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Lassora. Bhukerbudara. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. H. Resalla. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. :—E. Bhokar. subglobose. Jute .2 cm.:—E. lanceolate. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. acute or acuminate. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. COM. not beaked. carminative. M. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties.—7.—few in each cell. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. COM. Fr. G. CHAR. and intestinal antiseptic. also efficacious in skin-diseases. diam. Hadige.5-10 X 2-3. Col. astringent. Sebesten plum. cultivated in most tropical countries. Chhunchh . K. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. arginine and coicin. histidin. Chaunchan .—Tiliaceæ. L. Kalasaka. smooth. tyrosin. serrate. See—Fodder Plants. stomachic. anthelmintic. also as antiperiodic. See—Fibres. Gondan. Gujarat. LOC. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . DISTR.— Sept. Bhokar. growing very tall under cultivation. leaves and fruit. laxative. Sk. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. 5-valved. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver.— capsule. Rayagundo. Patta. and dyspepsia.

often planted. pains in joints. vulnerary. COM. gives appetite. bronchitis.:—E. used as an expectorant and astringent. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. M. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Kothimbir. stimulant. Fruit—diuretic. eye-pains. diuretic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. expectorant. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). thirst. Kothambri. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn.—Umbelliferæ. maturant. cures thirst. uterus and urethra. widely known from Palestine. anthelmintic. laxative. Vitunnaka. Coriander. Cochin-China. vomiting. headache. bleeding gums. tooth-ache. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Fruit is aromatic. causes suppuration. biliousness. See—Timbers. Fibres. jaundice. Allaka. Kustumburi. . used in dry cough. indigestion. Leaves—hypnotic. also cultivated. chronic fevers. tonic to brain. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent.:—Throughout the State in W. K. :—Cultivated throughout India. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Satpudas. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. purgative. Egypt. scabies. biliousness. Bark is used as a mild tonic. stomachic. carminative and antispasmodic. LOC. useful in hiccup. burning of throat. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Dharika. inflammations. :—Throughout India. dyspepsia. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Hivija. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. used in syphilis. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). LOC. Mesapotamia and Greece. DISTR. diseases of chest. gleet. antipyretic. Fruits are used as spice. FAM. LOC. G. tropical Australia. analgesic. stomatitis. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. The plant and fruit— acrid. H. Konphir. biliousness. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. Kanara. tuberculous glands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Ghats. NS. stimulant. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Dhania. HABITAT :—Cultivated. prevents coryza and bronchitis. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. anthelmintic. cooling.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. highly esteemed in coughs. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. piles. heart and liver. leaves (rarely) and fruit. bechic. Sk. Ceylon. Syria. anthelmintic. diseases of chest and urethra. removes bad humours. DISTR. wild and cultivated. Kothamir.

concave.—capsule. C. Pinga. M. subequal. Vayavarna.7-7.— in very dense spikes. DISTR. . CHAR. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. NS. Malay Islands. subsessile. crisped. bright red. S. Kushtha. China.—Capparidaceæ. Country. Kumaraka. Pushkarmula. globosely 3-gonous. Sk.—15-30 X 5. COM. high. S. FAM. lip white with yellow centre.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. dyspepsia. It is also astringent and digestive. :—Almost all over India (Assam. :—G.7 m. :—An erect plant 1. Biliana. H. Varuna. Ceylon. Fl. Vayavarno.5 cm. Sd. LOC. many. M. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C.— tube short.:—Konkan ghats. :—G. Nervele. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. Changalkashta. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. bracts ovate. nalas.—Aug. NS. Castle Rock. Chikke. a tonic is prepared from it. anæmia. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Madhya Bharat. L. " Kapha". useful in catarrhal fevers. Ajapa. stem sub-woody at the base . fever. lumbago. LOC. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. FAM. red. Barna. Kust. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Pushkarmula. lobes ovate-oblong. in moist and shady places. inflammations. Hadawarna. Var. depurative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kemuka. hiccup (Ayurveda).— black with white aril. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. spirally arranged. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). also planted near Muslim tombs. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. Var. and aphrodisiac. Bitusi. K. Shura. H. Mahakapittha. Varvunna. rheumatism. PARTS USED:—Root. coughs and skin diseases. DISTR. USES:—Root is anthelmintic.-Oct. silky-pubescent beneath. sheaths coriaceous . COM. root-stock tuberous. Kashmira. Pakarmula. mucronate. M. India. and " Vata". COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Penva. Fr. The plant yields an essential oil. Bilpatri. useful in bronchitis.—Scitamineæ. Varno. Karikuttu. Khandala. oblong. K. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. By the earliest writers. :—More or less throughout India. Keu. t. Sk. Fl. Varuna.2-2.

leaves. Nag-damani. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. it promotes appetite. flowers and fruits. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). detergent. aphrodisiac. CHAR.5-10 cm. L. carminative. emmenagogue.5 cm. M. Bark promotes appetite. K. good in strangury. DISTR. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. night-blindness. FAM. bitter. Fl. bracts 7. bulb 5-10 cm. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. Visha-Mandalamardini.9-1. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. expectorant.—15-50 in an umbel. gonorrhœa. laxative. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. Vishamungalli. antipyretic. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Pindar. Chindar. Nagadown. USES:—Root is alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. Kanda-shalini. Kanmu. leaves. defective vision.—1 (rarely 2). scape 45-90 cm. toothache. vulnerary. Nag-damani. beaked.—subglobose.. thin. as long as the tube. X 12.:—G. tumours. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. urinary concretions. bright green. vesicant. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . long. Tonic. heating. COM. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda).. LOC. urinary discharges. linear lanceolate. chest. perianth tube greenish-white. . laxative. Patra-pushpi. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Nagdavana. then sweet. expectorant. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). Ceylon. also wild. cylindric. digestive. See—Timbers. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. bark. removes "Vata". useful in biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. lobes 6. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. bechic. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. The plant contains saponin. "Pitta" and "Kapha". Kanwal. diuretic. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. chest and blood diseases. anuria. fragrant at night. white. linear. diam. Seeds—purgative. H. lung and spleen diseases. act as rubefacient and vesicant. found wild in North and South Konkan. LOC. antilithic.—Amaryllidaceæ. anthelmintic. flat. with a sheathing base. strangury. increases secretion of bile. lumbago. useful in bronchitis. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. Sd. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. :—Throughout tropical India. 0.5-18 cm.—20-30. Fr. tuberculous glands. Wild or cultivated. laxative. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. anthelmintic. diseases of vagina. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. and seeds. Sk. vomiting.

Sk. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Madhya Pradesh. LOC. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. it is in great request. COM. etc. See—Timbers. expectorant. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Oil from the seed is purgative. leaves and seeds.. Assam to Malacca. PARTS USED :—Root. Nepala . carminative.—Euphorbiaceæ. Purging croton . Bengal. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Jamalgota. bruises and rheumatic swellings. :—Rare in the State. :—H. Nepal. Oil cathartic. Jamalgota . Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Danti. FAM. Burma. As an application to sprains. :—Bengal. Burma. China. fever.—Euphorbiaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants. :—E. naturalised or cultivated. Kanara. Ceylon . Sk. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. bark. Danti. Ceylon. in small doses. Bhutankusam. Nepala. convulsions. COM. nauseant and diaphoretic. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). good in sore eyes. . inflammations. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Jayapala. Japala. useful in mental troubles. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. K. G. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Chota-Natpur. Chucka . FAM. :—Sylhet. tonic. NS. cathartic. LOC. excessive phlegm. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. H. Ieucoderma. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Western Peninsula. DISTR. The plant contains lycorin. Konkan. abdominal diseases. DISTR. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. bronchitis (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. Seeds cause burning sensation. :—Naturalised in S. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Malay Islands. M. Jepal. emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. NS. insanity. Ganasur.

MELO Var. Said to be truly wild in India. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. ascites. Mutrala. diuretic. Tarkakadi. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Sk. convulsions. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. They are edible. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. wholesome. K. fruit and seeds. Pathira . chronic fever. Chibdu Shakarteti. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Rind—vulnerary. ascites. in ascites and anasarca. :—G. Valungi. Kakri. thirst (Yunani). oily. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Kakadi. Kharbuja. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. Lomashi. brain and body. cures " Vata ". COM. may cause indigestion. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. Karkali. nutritive and diuretic. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. FAM. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Kharbuja. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. cures ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. aphrodisiac. Sweet melon . colic. :—In Deccan. Ripe fruit—sweet. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. LOC. &c. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Kachra. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). . Mahanaracha Rasa. insanity. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Kankadi. galactagogue. H. C. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. See—Timbers. It is given internally with great caution. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. laxative. tonic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. H. Shantanu. bronchitis. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. allays fatigue. Kalangida. DISTR. used in liver and kidney troubles.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is useful in apoplexy. LOC. LOC. strengthens heart. Kharbuja. Valaka. M. DISTR. synovitis. Shadrekha. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. gives headache. Kakni. fattening. diaphoretic. obstinate constipation. Vrittervaru. Chibuda.:—E. Fruit—tonic. cooling. COM. Seeds—lachrymatory. diuretic. Sk. G. insanity. and lock-jaw. NS. NS. Karkati. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. dropsy. Melon.

tendrils simple. Hislambhi.— suborbicular.—monœcious . The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. pale yellow when ripe. H. Khira. they are also used as diuretic. K. Cucumber. and C. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). strangury. . Seeds possess cooling properties. C. good for brain and body. FAM. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. NS. "Kapha" and flatulence. cordate at the base. lobes obovate. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb.—subglobose or ellipsoid. G. indigestible. Fr. Kothiban. Karit. astringent. Trapusha. India is considered to be the original home. L. LOC.:—N. Cultivated in all parts of India. CHAR.—June-Sept. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—white. female peduncle longer than male. hairy. diuretic. :—G. Seed oil used in fever.—Cucurbitaceæ. purgative. male in clusters. biliousness. :—A perennial climber. improve complexion. fever. COM. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Kumbhakshi. Chitravalli. COM. Tansali. seeds. Sudhavsa. Kakdi. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). enrich blood. Takamaki.—yellow segments elliptic. stomachic. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Sk. Santekayi. margined . Sushitala. H. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. Fl. antipyretic. rigid. Kankdi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty.:—E. Tavasa. See—Vegetables. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). Vishala. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. M. stem slender. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. angled. See-Fruit Trees. Fl. Sd. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. cures thirst. with 10 green longitudinal stripes.—Cucurbitaceæ. lobulate or dentate . t. They are nutritive. Mrigadani. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves. melo var. FAM. cures biliousness. fruits. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Khira. Kakari. M. pulp bitter. Yunani). DISTR. utilissimus (Ayurveda. NS. causes "Vata". are administered in throat affections. used in thirst. Fruit—fattening . LOC. B. roasted and powdered. Ripe one tonic. fatigue. dry. cooling. LOC. Seeds—diuretic. allay thirst.

cures " Kapha " and biliousness .80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Australia. cures cough. Bhopala. Vegetable marrow. Kashiphala. Fruit contains vitamins A. Kushmand. COM. Kadimah. Sk. K. COM. Karkarn. increases " Vata" . etc. Kaddu. See—Vegetables. Ceylon. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Seeds are used as taeniacide. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds.—Cucurbitaceæ. DISTR. LOC. DISTR. Punyalata. FAM. NS. The plant contains glucoside saponin. fruit is used to prevent insanity. :—Cultivated. Afghanistan. : — E. Dangari. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Red squash gourd. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM . to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Sk. Malaya. :—E. cultivated in many parts of India. LOC. Pumpkin. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. unhealthy ulcers. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. improves taste (Ayurveda). Mithakaddu.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kumbala. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. :—Throughout the greater part of India. H.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. N. Dried fruit indigestible . H. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Safedkaddu . NS. fruits and seeds. Dudia. Melon pumpkin. HABITAT. Pitakushmand. tonic. Tambda bhopala. allays thirst. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. stomachic. . M. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. LOC. Kumra. G. LOC. In Malabar. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. on hedges.:—Considered to be a native of America. increases " Vata ". LOC.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. K. indigestible. Kushmand. USES. DISTR. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). B and C. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Kumbala. carbuncles. Koron. Iran. G.

They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Fruit—very cooling.—Umbelliferæ. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). antidysenteric. H. allays thirst. purifies blood (Ayurveda). LOC. Kalimusali. fever. fever. See—Condiments and Spices. Fruit astringent. haematinic. Kalimusali. Zira. . increases appetite . K. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). good for kidney and brain (Yunani). LOC. astringent. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. See—Vegetables. stomachic. NS. good for teeth. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. emmenagogue. gonorrhœa. Talamulika. Ajjika. belching .—Amaryllidaceæ. :—G. DISTR. fruit and seeds. sweet. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. scabies. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. eye-diseases. Mushalikand . biliousness. antipyretic. also a lactagogue. appetiser. ulcers. carminative. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. Jire. tonic. carminative. throat and eyes. astringent to bowels. Gaurajerka. Girautmi. aphrodisiac. Seeds are taeniacide. carminative. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. Cures " Vata " tumours. Kapha " and " Vata ". stops epistaxis . astringent to bowels. bronchitis. FAM. LOC. beneficial in consumption. ft contains vitamins A and C. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. Neladati. PARTS USED :—Fruit. :—E. Cumin. Seeds—diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. leprosy. Dirghaka. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. cures leprosy. M. enlargment of the spleen. diuretic and demulcent. uterine stimulant. cooling. vulnerary. Kalimusali. Seeds anthelmintic. tonic to intestine. Sk. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. H. Jira. thirst. asthma. abortifacient. and the root for making these more potent. M. remove biliousness. fattening. leucoderma. relieves hiccup. Sk. NS. fatigue. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. analgesic. FAM. anthelmintic. Leaves—digestible. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. COM. cures haemoptysis. laxative. cure haemoptysis. Neltati gadde. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. Musali. Jirige. inflammations. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. G. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. tonic. Fruit yields an essential oil. alexipharmic. heals corneal opacities. Dipaka. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. K. Jiru.

HABITAT :—Often cultivated. Amhaladi.— May-June. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. appetiser. scabies. oblong. " Vata". flowering bract greenish-white. NS. Bitter. yellow. common at the beginning of rains. 1545 X 1. DISTR. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. oblong lanceolate. Mango-ginger. :—A small herb. :—Konkan and N. Root—carminative. Fl. bitter. aphrodisiac. Fr. Peninsula. W.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. :—Konkan and Gujarat. gleet. clavate .— in racemes. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. biliousness. C—white or very pale-yellow.5-15 X 3. gonorrhœa. maturant. Ambahaldi.:—Sweet. useful in bronchitis. pale yellow inside . USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . appetiser. aphrodisiac. shining . PARTS USED :—Root and tubers.5 cm. Karpuraharidra. diuretic. troubles in the mouth and ear. fatigue. gonorrhœa. useful in biliousness. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). black. stomatitis (Yunani). CHAR. Malay Archipelago. alterative and tonic. K. jaundice. with a beak . alexiteric.—grooved. Fl. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. linear or linear-lanceolate . root stock large. tubers thick. ophthalmia.-Sept. Ambahaladara. fattening. Sk. M. alterative. distichous. DISTR. laxative. 30-45x7. tonic. t. very short. diarrhœa. antipyretic. vomiting. L. hairy on the back. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. t. often cultivated. hiccup. tips sometimes rooting. indigestion. Fl. Ambehalad. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. asthma. :—E. L.—sessile or petiolate. emollient.5 cm. Assam. colic. :—Stemless herb. during convalescence after acute illness. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in piles. Java. pains in joints (Yunani). diarrhœa. gleet. all skin-diseases. Kapurahaldi. Fl.—long petioled in tufts.:—W.— in autumnal spikes 7. cooling. causes "Vata". sessile. debility and impotence.8-5 cm. antipyretic. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating.—capsule. expectorant. rhizome. oblong. useful in inflammations. cylindric or ellipsoid. piles. . antipyretic. hydrophobia. Peninsula. scape. ulcers on penis. lumbago. LOC. appetising. G.5-12. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. perianth segments elliptic. Bengal. lumbago. COM. FAM. Amragandha. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . inflammations (Ayurveda).. Kanara.—Scitamineæ. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sd. LOC. H.3-2. :—Bengal.

sometimes cultivated. pale green. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. flowering bracts cymbiform. used as an application for skin-diseases. Jayanti. COM. Fl. Sometimes cultivated. DISTR. CHAR. Harita. Sholi. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Also cultivated in Konkan. C. long. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. G. also stomachic. Mangalya. biennial. upper half funnel-shaped. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Ran-halad. :—Stemless herb. forming pouches for the flowers. Varnadatri. 3lobed. LOC.—Scitamineæ. appearing before leafing stem. NS. root-stock large. See—Condiments and Spices. LOC. palmately branched. Banharidra. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. sessile. FAM. lateral lobes oblong. Indian saffron. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox.—tube 2. G. Aranyaharidra. long.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Halad. Haridra. :—E. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises.5 cm.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. DISTR. :—Western Peninsula. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. H. Halada. Turmeric. Cochin-Wild turmeric. FAM. Kapur-kachali.-May. K. H. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. M. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. M. rounded at the tips. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. appetiser . useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda).—Scitamineæ. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. Sk. annulate. Vanhaldara. Arishina. lip yellow. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. It is considered tonic and carminative.. L. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . :—E. Bengal. in spikes 15-30 cm. flowers fragrant. base deltoid. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Banhaladi. lobes pale-rose. Vanarishta. Sholika. Halad. t. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. variegated above. The plant tubers yield an essential oil.— flowering stem sheathed. LOC. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Yellow Zedoary. the dorsal longer. NS. Sk. COM. green. it is seldom used alone .

used in prurigo. In coryza. taste bitterish spicy. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. flowering bract green tinged with red . an ointment prepared from the rhizome. G. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. leucoderma. Jatala. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. M. externally applied to leech-bites. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa.—capsule.—funnel shaped. emollient. clouded with purple down the middle. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tuber is used as a stimulant. H. appetiser. bitter. . In small-pox and chicken-pox. bitter. lobed . Karechura. improves complexion. Zedoary. boils. L. Kachora. It contains vitamin A.—4-6 with long petioles. :—Cultivated in the State. urinary discharges. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. maturant. anthelmintic. DISTR. coma-bract crimson or purple . bruises (Yunani). :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. useful in " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. small-pox. See—Condiments and Spices. Fr. :—Stemless herb.:—E. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. clothed with sheaths. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. Kachora. Sk. Shathi. lip 3-lobed. CHAR. Gandhamulaka sara. said to be Wild in E. piles. Himalayas and Chittagong. heating. Fl. LOC. Bitter. scabies. root-stock of palmately branched. bronchitis. blood diseases. asthma. Kachari. cylindric. laxative. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. pale-yellow inside. tonic. Narakachora. oblong-lanceolate. urinary discharges. swellings. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. internally administered in blood disorders. anthelmintic. sprains (Ayurveda). 3-gonous. fragrant. jaundice. boils and urticaria. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. Hakhir. 30-60 cm. heating. fumes are used during hysteric fits . annulate tubers. "Vata ". COM.— flowering stem 20-25cm.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. flowers yellow in spikes. useful in leucoderma. alexiteric. odour like camphor. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. deepyellow. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . long. oblong. vulnerary. bruises. long. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. The plant contains curcumin. carminative. appearing before the leaves. inflammations. itches etc. good for liver affections. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. diuretic. antipyretic. and yields an essential oil. an alkaloid. LOC. scabies. NS. FAM . destroys foulness of breath. vulnerary. alexiteric. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. Kachuri. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. K. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . C. bruises.—Scitamineæ.

toothache (Yunani). stimulant and carminative. LOC. carminative. aphrodisiac. culm stout. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. sheaths of the culm tight. tonic to brain and heart. enlargement of spleen.:—E. it is stimulant. It is also aromatic. laxative. FAM. Bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. velvety at the nodes. chronic rheumatism. up to over 1. Sk. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. midrib whitish on the upper side. anthelmintic. epileptic fits. high. good odour. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. useful in bronchitis. sharp hot taste. inflammations. long. pains. G. M. also used as a tonic and depurative. emmenagogue. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. Lemon grass. and is of great value in cholera. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. upto over 90 cm. Majjige hullu. :—A tall perennial. COM. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. NS. gastric irritability. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. Purhati hullu. others narrow and separating. H. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. applied to bruises and sprains. furunculosis. neuralgia.—Gramineæ. Externally it is rubefacient. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. emetic. L. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. It is an excellent stomachic to children.. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. nodding. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. Takratrina. LOC. it is also a good application for ringworm. tuberculous glands of neck. sharp. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. Gavati-chaha. .—linear tapering upwards to a point. long. LOC. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins.8 m. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda).:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Ligule very short. Lilicha. laxative. and other painful affections. glaucous green. K. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Gandhatrina. alexipharmic. Tubers yield an essential oil. expectorant. sprains. sheaths terete . useful in griping of children. bitter. of much use in typhoid fevers. carminative.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. Bhustrina. appetiser. Putigandha. erect. hot. probably of Indian origin. leprosy. CHAR. alexipharmic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels.

finely acute. scabies. X 1 cm. hallucinations. bitter. stem. :—Sourashtra. carminative. FAM.4 m.:—Grows all over the State.—throughout the year. Garikehallu. S. :—Punjab. M.5-30 cm. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. leprosy. bad taste in the mouth. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. cooling. Mirchiagand. Rhusghas. Durva. M. throughout India. usually broad. W. DISTR.t. heart diseases. Mangala. Rohisha. LOC. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. long. Afghanistan. long. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). Harali. :—E. in the Himalayas. Deccan. narrowly linear. COM. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. green or purplish. widely creeping. soft. Durba. :—E. Roshagavat. G. subcordate or rounded at the base. FAM. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. Vasanchullu. skin . long. NS. L.—grain. Durva. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. M. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Sk. Dhro. G.—flat. vomiting.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Baluchistan. LOC. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. leafy. NS. through N. with erect flowering branches 7. Country. t. Shatamula. Bhutika. useful in biliousness. straw coloured. Rohisha.—Gramineæ. :—Cosmopolitan .5-5 cm. Shatagranthi. Sind. Fl. sweet. Roshdo.. Saugandhika. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. Gharo. stem. useful in fevers. glaucous beneath. Burma. 1 mm. prostrate . 1. Fr. sheaths tight. LOC. L. high. margins scabrid. Fl. See-Oils. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. most warm countries. Gujarat. Shyamaka. slender. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. high. thirst. H. DISTR. wide below. Africa to Morocco.—2-10 cm. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. pains. particularly the Deccan trap areas.5-2. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Fl. H.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. fatigue. Kobbar. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. K. and Ceylon ascending to 3. oblique or divaricate. upto 2. Geramium grass. smooth. Bujina. Konkan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—spikes 2-nate. CHAR. epileptic fits. leprosy.3 cm. long.-Nov.—Oct. COM. Ghats.—Gramineæ. K.000 m. Bahuvirya. :—A perennial grass . Dhoboghas. burning sensation. pungent. bronchitis. 12-18 mm. forming matted tufts. Fl. throat troubles.

fever. dysentery. Motha. anthelmintic. LOC. pruritis. Mutha. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. it is diuretic. FAM.—shorter or longer than the stem.. thirst. NS. biliousness. biliousness. Root— diuretic. very troublesome weed. M. appetiser. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. vomiting. H. stomachic.. In Ceylon. fever. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. difficult to eradicate. Motha. vulnerary. USES :—Roots are commonly. erysipelas. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. expectorant. DISTR. most hot countries.5 cm. Nut—broadly ovoid. L. They are also diuretic and stimulant. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. :—Glabrous herb. greyish black.82. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. Bimbal. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. PARTS USED :—Tubers. t. cooling. Sk Bhadramusta. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. useful in leprosy. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. Ceylon. stomatitis. epilepsy. :—Throughout India. epistaxis. blood diseases. burning sensation. :—G. epilepsy and insanity. diarrhœa. Tubers yield an essential oil. Granthi. useful in vomiting. narrowly linear. emmenagogue. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.—Cyperaceæ. COM. CHAR. useful for ulcers and sores. bruises. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. K. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . vulnerary. ophthalmia. spikelets 10-50 flowered. Sugandhi-granthila. See—Fodder Plants. anthelmintic. juice is used in hysteria. erysipelas (Ayurveda). 0. Nagarmotha. Tungegaddo. Fl.—Sept-Nov. hiccup (Yunani). LOC. pain. Koranarigadde. dysentery. Kachhola. astringent. stolons elongate. trigonous. diarrhœa. Bitterish. Motha. epistaxis (Ayurveda). used as a diaphoretic and astringent. urinary concretions (Yunani). LOC. . Mustaka. fevers. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. dyspepsia. diaphoretic. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. Fl. acrid.— in simple or compound umbel.

Sk. divaricately branched. Gujarat. :—Deccan. Fl. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. funnel-shapped.5 cm. reflexed. double. entire or with large teeth or lobes. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. S. Administered after the third stage of labour. CHAR. greenish-yellow or dull-white. Sd. corona outer and inner. NS. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. COM. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". across.5-15 X 3. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. tubular. Kanaka. C. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. LOC. subglobose. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. long. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . outer truncate. Ceylon. ovate. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. usually pubescent. solitary..—Sept-Dec.2-7. Unmatta. Kaladhatura. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L.—many. Ns. Kanaka. paralytic ileus. acute. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. 18 cm. packed. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. :—A perennial twining herb.—Aug. lobes spreading. M. yellowish brown. 30-60 cm. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State.—thin. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. DISTR. :—H. Sk. Phalakantak. t. glabrous above. diam. L. soft spiny. covered with straight sharp prickles.—purple outside.—7. Fr. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. Fr. FAM. CHAR. green. G. on curved stalk 3. high. . spur acute. COM. M. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. M.— tubular. Utran. H. velvety pubescent beneath. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions.:—E. long 10-20.g. Sd.—Solanaceæ. and sub-involution of the uterus.—Asclepiadaceæ. e. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. :—Annual shrub. somewhat zigzag.—capsule. inner curved high over the staminal column. stem hairy. nodding.5 cm.2 cm. K: Dhattura. very unequal at the base. Bhranta. Fl. Fl.—follicle. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. Utarni. Kariyu-Um-Matta. broadly ovate or suborbicular. white inside. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Fl. Kala-dhotara. afterwards racemose. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Rajdhattura. Country. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. FAM. ciliate.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. a glucoside. Kaladhatura.-Jany. Black-Purple datura. t. beak long.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding).

enlargement of testicles and boils. LOC. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. toddy. jaundice. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. digestive and heating. equal in effect to atropine. (Ayurveda). nodes. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. Leaf poultice. Gajar. :—E. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. anthelminitic . painful tumours. Gajar. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. biliousness. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. useful in leucoderma. alexiteric. Seeds—narcotic. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. HABITAT :—Cultivated. nosetrouble. Garjara. LOC. piles. chronic coughs. Shikkikanda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. heating. black variety is considered to be more powerful. Gajar. headache. leaves and seeds. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. . G. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. febrifuge. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. The whole plant is narcotic.. PARTS USED :—Roots. FAM. febrifuge. NS. ulcers. Sk. emetic. anthelmintic. and antispasmodic properties. M. Gajjari. majum. to increase their stupefying effect. in combination with subja. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. ganja. DISTR. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. with curdled milk. relieves pain. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. anodyne. toxic. The plant as a whole has narcotic. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. K. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. H. in gonorrhœa. mumps etc. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. emetic. USES :—Out of the two varieties. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. bronchitis. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. cause headache (Yunani). skin-diseases. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. Leaf-juice is given internally.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Gajra. GranthiPinda-Mula. :—Throughout the tropics. Europe.—Umbelliferæ COM. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. aphrodisiac. bitter. leaves and seeds. black (Kala) and white (Safed). It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. Carrot. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Cultivated in many parts of India.

CHAR. green and glabrous above. :—Konkan and N. pains. COM. Vidarigandha.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. paler and hairy beneath. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. tropical Africa. astringent to bowels. Salpani. hiccup. " Vata". L. ovate-oblong. tonic. aphrodisiac. chronic affections of chest and lungs. Salparni. vomiting. biliousness. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC.—in terminal or axillary racemes. removes " Kapha". USES :—Externally. cough. carminative. cures typhoid. Fl. alexipharmic. bronchitis.—onefoliate. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. " Tridosha ". Tonic. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . DISTR. thirst. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. high. piles. good for inflammation. See—Vegetables. boiled with honey and fermented. antidysenteric. Malay Peninsula and Islands . useful in chronic fevers. standard cuneate at the base . t. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda).2 m.. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. margins wavy.—pod.—May-July. It is used in fevers. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. LOC. Ceylon. Murele-honne. urinary discharges. other fevers. alterative. vomiting and asthma. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. Philippines. joints 6-8. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Salpan. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. Salwan. anthelmintic. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. Fl. dysentery . Kitavinashini.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sk. Deccan and S. upper edge straight. stomachic. prevents death of fœtus in womb . cardiotonic. sub-falcate. vomiting. cures leprosy. throughout India. NS. membranous. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. good for liver. aphrodisiac. hooked hairy. asthma. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). Burma. inflammations. Root marmalade is refrigerant. astringent to bowels. M. asthma. Darh. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. C—violet or white. expectorant. Roots contain vitamins A. B and C. urinary complaints. LOC. LOC. hairy. :— G. Salwan. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. . fattening. Fr. :—A woody undershrub. H. K. biliousness. piles. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. they are also diuretic. burning sensation. 0. Salwan. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani).6-1. China. FAM. diuretic. used in bronchitis. chest troubles. M. PARTS USED :—Root. nausea (Yunani). Country. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. Ranbhal. indigestible. Shaliparni. thirst. they produce a spirituous liquor. Kanara . stems and branches angled. cures biliousness. tumours. Dirghamula.

branched from the base. bark. stems 30-90 cm. rootstock stout. Tumaki Mara. Dabha. Malay Archipelago. the basal fascicled. flowers.3-3. CHAR.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Wild mangosteen. stout. Banda. Gavandu. rigid. Sk. M. erect pyramidal or columnar. tufted. margins hispid. Darbha. G.—Ebenaceæ. H. :—Throughout India. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Syria. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. jaundice. PARTS USED :—Wood. vaginal discharges. Durva.—many. cures ulcers and " Vata". Sphurjaka. useful in blood diseases. LOC. strangury. Thailand (Siam). diuretic. Dab. See—Fodder Plants. creeping. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Tinduka. NS. Nubia. vesical calculi. Riber ebony. interrupted. :—E. Anilsara. L. LOC. Darbha. sheaths glabrous. astringent to bowels. Kalaskandh. Tumari. K. Sk. good for lumbago. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. DISTR. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. COM. sedative to pregnant uterus. NS. t. M. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Kanara and the Konkan. diseases of blood. ligule a hairy line . erect.—G. DISTR. Tendu. fruit and seeds. stolon very stout. H. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. covered with shining sheaths. reaching 50 cm. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Pavitra. Kalatendu. clothed with sessile spikelets. Fl. smooth. Egypt. high. Zeeberwo. in the beds of rivers and streams. branches short crowded. long. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). :—Along the coasts of N.8 cm. asthma. Gale. heating. Fruit—oleaginous. Sacred Plants.—Dec. Timbwini. Konkan. Gujarat. Ceylon.. . used in biliousness and blood diseases. aphrodisiac. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. -panicle 15-45 X 1. biliousness.:—Saurashtra. COM. Kusha. Temburni. cooling. oleaginous. Davoli. Makurkendi. Fl. skin eruptions. thirst. Wood cures biliousness.—Gramineæ. FAM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. :—Perennial tall grass. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. LOC. diseases of bladder.

Kulit. ozoena.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. generally on trees and rocks. . piles. Hurali. ovate. Sori two in each primary areole. stout. fattening. hot. variously lobed. eye troubles. PARTS USED :—Seeds. hiccup. anthelmintic. Kulith. leucoderma. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. fertile ones long stalked. dry. abdominal complaints. Texture membranaceous to leathery. :—M. Kulthi. K. H. Kulthi. urinary discharges. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. tumours. improves complexion. Kulathi. Kalvrinta. Kulithaka. LOC. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. See—Timbers. See-Food Plants. liver troubles. NS. astringent to bowels. enlargement of spleen. cordate. DISTR. Sitetara. COM. base decurrent on the stipe. Kulitha. Diuretic. antipyretic. "Vata". COM. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. It is demulcent in calculus affection. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. Surfaces naked. cures hiccup. Grains contain vitamin A. Konkan— Ratnagiri. LOC. cures " Kapha". :—Tropics of the old world. pain in liver. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. :—Rhizome creeping. coughs etc. densely clothed with red-brown scales. CHAR. asthma. diseases of the brain and eyes. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. Nasik. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. appetiser. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. bronchitis. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Sk. Country—Belgaum. M. Tans. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). M. Jurali. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. :—E. intestinal colic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). piles. Ashvakatri. grown to a certain extent in S. strangury. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. inflammation. FAM. Bijapur and Dharwar. emmenagogue.—Polypodiaceæ. short. Wandar bashing. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. acrid. heart-troubles. Sk. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. Horse-Gram. FAM.Gahat. removes stone from kidney. Basingh. causes biliousness (Yunani). G. green when very young but soon turning dark brown.

Balari. Sk. LOC. Konkan. bitter. H. Utkanta. glabrous above. gleet. cottony pubescent.:—Throughout India. dyspepsia and cough. CHAR. Country. Pitripriya. astringent to bowels . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. deeply pinnatifid. branches widely spreading from the base.-Jany. wooly beneath. DISTR. Sunilaka. globose. thirst. sinuate and spinescent. It is used in hoarse cough. Mochand. high. usually oblong-lanceolate. K. :—Konkan. spiny.—Compositæ.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Utakatara. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). stimulates liver. Ajagara. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. inflammations. subentire. NS. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. Deccan. bracts 3seriate. Utanti.—sessile. stems and branches strigose and hairy. Bhangro. C. hysteria. chronic fever. sessile.5 cm. Shulio. intermediate produced in sharp spine. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. densely villous. COM. increases appetite. CHAR. diseases of heart. Plant stomachic. COM. Seeds—wholesome. hectic fever. M. Utkantaka. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Utkanto. also cultivated to a certain extent. strigose and hairy. used in strangury. useful in brain-diseases.—Compositæ. used in ophthalmia. Afghanistan. Kalobhangro . Kantalu. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. Kadechubak. Bhangra. causes " Kapha". FAM. cottony. pain in joints. hot. Kadigga-garaga. tonic. spines 2. oblong.—limb linear. Markara. DISTR. often rooting at the nodes. :—A much branched rigid annual. t. long. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. the lobes triangular and oblong. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). L. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. antipyretic. :—G. :—More or less throughout India. Kantaphala. biliousness.—heads white. Maka.—achene obconic. NS. Bhangra.3—0. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. involucre. yellowish. surrounded by strong white bristles. M. . S. M. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis.— opposite. urinary discharges. LOC. Bhringraj. " Vata".— Nov. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Fr. Utkatara. Sk. :—G. Dadhal. pappus short. Fl. dyspepsia. H. Garagadasoppu. improves taste. :—Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. 0.9 m. L. FAM. Root— abortifacient. Fl. cooling. Keshrangana. analgesic.

Choti-Elachi. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. good for spleen diseases.—in heads. antipyretic. Fl. Veldoda. Burma. It is given internally in scalding of urine. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). teeth. Madhya Bharat. it is powdered and applied externally. Ilaji. syphilis. eyes. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. leucoderma. liver pain. M. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. Velchi. Kanara (Siddapur.—Scitaminaceæ.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers.. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). hernia. Elachi. Triputa. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Sk. Panjab. DISTR. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. FAM. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . G. anthelmintic. hot. heart and skin diseases.—achene. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. "Kapha". alterative. Malaya. cuneate with a narrow wing. t. a reputed and popular liver tonic. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Chandrabala. Ela. stomachic. fevers. Yalakki. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. asthma. eye diseases. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. There are two forms erect and prostrate. good for complexion. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. H. expectorant. axillary. toothache. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle.— Oct. involucral bracts about 8 . night blindness. disk ones tubular . There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Bitter . HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. cultivated. LOC. hair. and for strengthening gums. solitary or 2 together.-Dec. Karangi. internal diseases. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. K. C—often 4-toothed . Ceylon. Peninsula). Gandhkuti. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. tonic. stomatitis. "Vata". Bahula. bronchitis. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. Gourangi. anæmia. improves colour of hair. W. cures vertigo (Yunani). fattening. hemi-crania. ray flowers ligulate. LOC. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. lustre of eyes. alexipharmic. :—Western valleys of N. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. cures inflammations. :—E.:—India (Bengal. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. It relieves headache when applied with oil. . See—Sacred Plants. pappus 0. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. prevents abortion and miscarriage. COM. Fr. Sind. NS.

. Varding. FAM. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. most suitable to hard-working classes. Rotka. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. cultivated. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. kidney. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. fruit and seeds. COM. piles. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. bitter. brain and mouth. Makra. Wavrung. LOC. causes thirst. Vavading. Ragi.:—G. strangury. Pavaka. bronchitis. See-Food Plants. pungent. It is said to be astringent. Marua. DISTR. K. Boberang. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate.—Myrsinaceæ. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). EMBELIA RIBES Burm. :— G. Vavoding. NS. diseases of bladder. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. bad humours of liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. cooling.. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. pruritus. diuretic. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. Sk. tonic. useful in asthma. carminative. Bidanga. fruit is tonic. stimulant and emmenagogue. K. Kanisha. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. useful in biliousness. root is laxative and tonic. Jantughna. diuretic. LOC. consumption. rich or poor. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. rectum and throat (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. In S. H. Narttaka. CUM. stomachic. Navalo-nagali. FAM. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Vayuvitang. scabies. Seed—fragrant. PARTS USED :—Grain. Nachani. chest and throat (Yunani).:—Western and S. tonic to heart. Bhasmaka. lessens inflammation. H. ear and tooth ache.—Gramineæ. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. M. NS. Rajika. LOC. clear head. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. fragrant. useful in head. cooling. India. alexiteric . abortifacient. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Sk. Grains contain vitamin B. Nagali. Bavato. stomachic. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. cause biliousness . Vidariga. M. See—Condiments and Spices. It is stomachic.

greenish yellow. Avala. LOC. laxative. alexiteric. H. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. urinary discharges. S. cures bronchitis . anuria. S. NS. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). branches long. jaundice. erysipelas. :— E. alterative. nearly globose. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. Paranjpe and G. Amalaka. useful in burning sensation. t. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. thirst. Gokhale. black when ripe. Amlika. purgative.—Euphorbiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. :—A large scandent shrub. PARTS USED :—Fruit. mental diseases. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. biliousness. elliptic-lanceolate. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. racemes minute.—in lax panicles. Nellika . DISTR. Pharm. often planted in Konkan. COM. Seed— acrid.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. ascites. Daula . diseases of heart. sour. alexiteric. dry. leaves. anthelminitic. urinary discharges. China. piles. flexible. Anward. dries wound discharges . Fr. hemicrania. Konkan and N. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. slender.—Feb. Dadi. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. (Dymock). carminative. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. flowers. useful in asthma. Malay Islands. laxative. coriaceous. vomiting. K. alterative. Amlika. wild or planted. Adiphala. Sk. bronchitis.) FAM. bronchitis. analgesic. tonic. leprosy. carminative. DISTR. Anola. Int. smooth. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. removes bad humours from body (Yunani).—alternate. :—Throughout India. reddens urine. Dhatriphala. Ambala. dyspnoea. China. Fl. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). HABITAT :—Rain forests. " Tridosha ". Bhoza . with a sharp bitter taste.—berry. strangury. anæmia. internodes long. Fl. et. cures tumours. Arch. L. Amla. constipation. fruit and seeds. LOC. Bitter. K. good for plethoric constitution. Malaya. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. bark studded with lenticels . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. antipyretic. good appetiser. anthelmintic . Ceylon. bark. M. many. " Kapha'. Ceylon. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. LOC. Triphala. :—Hilly parts of the State. Embelic myrobalan. 42-II-1932). a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. . succulent. Western Ghats. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. poisoning. cooling. shining above. sweats. Ther. vulnerary. paler and silvery beneath. like a pepper corn when dried. inflammations. G. Dhatri. Kanara.

astringent. Dyes. biliousness. Mabhipaka.—Gentianaceæ. West Indies. Kadvinayi. Hallekayiballi. Tiktapatra. LOC. tropical Africa. liver complaints. COM. C—infundibuliform. cooling. LOC. CHAR. :—Throughout the greater part of India. M.—sessile. :—Konkan. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Madvinashi. piles. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. :—E. improves appetite. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. R. Dried fruits. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. M. NS. Lady nut.— capsule. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Fruit—acrid. diuretic and laxative. Malaya. thirst. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). rounded apex. Tans. eye troubles. Mamejavo . vulnerary. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Celyon. FAM. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. H. 10—50 cm. stems erect or procumbent. Grey). K. high. Tanavadi. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. Nagajivha. Fl.-Nov. purifies body humours (Yunani). Fl. anthelmintic. useful in heart-diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Gujarat. DISTR. sour. Ind. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). sub-quadrangular or terete. Unripe fruit is cooling. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. expectorant. Fr. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Garambi. tonic. lobes 5. variable.—Aug. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Nahu. M. S. branched from the base. COM. . Sind. mid-nerve strong. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. :—A perennial glabrous herb. LOC. Garbe. stops nasal hæmorrhage. Sk. t. Giant's rattle. Chhotakirayat. NS. Saurashtra. used as laxative and astringent. See—Timbers. narrowed at the base. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. aperient. cold in the nose. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Doddakampi. ellipsoid.) FAM.—sessile. 3-nerved. in axillary clusters all along the stem. white. opposite.). Fruit Trees. USES :—Root. L. :—G. bark and fruit are astringent. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". Mackary bean.

L.5-10 cm. Indian coral-tree.-May. LOC.5-5-7 cm. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Mochi-wood. Leaves—bitter. wide and 3-8 cm. Mandara. leaflets 7-5 x 2. G. LOC. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Pangara. Hongara. Kanara. Ceylon.—2pinnate. C.—yellow. along sea-coast above high-water. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . K. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Halivan. anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). inflammations. DISTR. indented between the seeds. orbicular. Panarvo. W. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Paribhadra. Fr. bark. t. they are given internally as an emetic.—6-15. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.7-5x7. slightly curved. the tropics generally. Tennaserim. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. long. cure urinary discharges. Fl. Kantakinshuka. thick. leaves.) FAM. bark used in dysentery. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Panderavo. pinnae 2—3 pairs. woody. rigidly coriaceous.3-2 cm. Pegu. . hot. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. oblong or obovate. branches terete. 4. smooth. diam. Pangara. glabrous. stalked. stomachic. H. Arakan. in debility and glandular swellings . Peninsula. USES :—Powdered kernel.. shining and brown. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Raktapushpa. Andamans and Nicobar. 3. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. improve appetite. flowers.. Mandara. Nepal. Planted as support for pepper vines. Sd. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. dark green. Var. long.—pod. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Fl. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. mixed with spices. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. compressed. often along river banks. M. Sk. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. Planted as ornament. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Coast forests of Malabar. Bangaro.. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara.— Mar. DISTR.S. Sundribans. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. :—E. for grapevines in Nasik district. Dadap. Mullumurige. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". PARTS USED :—Seeds. COM. 30-90 cm. Phandra . PARTS USED :—Root. Salaki. :—Konkan and N. Panjira. ORIENTALIS Merr. N.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.

Achchegida. Dandalio thora. reddish brown. Dudanali. Sk. Sd. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Sahud. appressedly hairy. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache.—opposite. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Sher.—Euphorbiaceæ. K. Milk hedge. branches often 4-angled. Sk. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. t. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa.) FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. L. Fr. 15-50 cm. Fl. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. K. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. NS. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Dandasruha. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. —throughout the year. COM. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Pill-bearing spurge. Pusitoa. Ceylon. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Nagpur 1931).—involucres numerous. Sendh. NS. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. base unequal-sided. . erect or ascending. :—E. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. H. bowel complaints and cough in children. globose. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Mondukalli. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Paradeshi thora . Cong. gland minute. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. rugose. it is anthelmintic. FAM.—capsule. Vajradruma. serrulate or dentate. Dudhi. FL. Dudhi. LOC. Shirthahar. Kodukalli. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Nevli. CHAR. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sc. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. dark green above. :—Annual herb.—ovoid-trigonous. M. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. :— E. Bottugalli. M. G. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. G. Dudhi. and to relieve pain of the joints. The plant contains an alkaloid. high. Milk bush. See—Timbers. Govardhan. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Duddi. COM. pale beneath. 18th Ind. Indian tree spurge. Australian asthma herb. with or without a limb. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. H. Bahukshira.—Euphorbiaceæ.

LOC. tonic.-light blue. linear. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. epilepsy. Fl. elliptic-oblong. spreading. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. cocci velvety. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Sd— glabrous. Sk. branches erect. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). more than 5 cm. pungent. long (appearing in rainy season) . stems many. Shyamakranta . globose. LOC. H. M. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains.—small.— capsule. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. COM. CHAR. Vishnukranta. carminative. wiry. leprosy and leucorrhoea. teething of infants . Juice is purgative. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Sd.-Sep. :—A perennial herb. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—A small tree. tumours. naturalised in India. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. thick like quill. LOC. dropsy. Vishnugandhi. leucoderma. whooping cough. biliousness. K. FAM. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. branchlets whorled. silky hairy. dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. high. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. :—G. DISTR. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. about 6 m. carminative. L. and with oil to promote growth of hair. mostly female. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. useful in abdominal troubles.-Aug. axillary. 4valved. NS. :—Throughout the State. anthelmintic. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). polished. useful in biliousness.—ovoid. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. Konkan and Gujarat. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Ceylon. alterative. useful in bronchitis. alexiteric. base acute. colic. stone in bladder (Yunani). milk is alexiteric. prostrate. long. DISTR. peduncles very long. usually clothed with long hairs . tropical and sub-tropical countries. LOC. almost leafless. L. Fr. leprosy. :—Native of East Africa. 6-13 mm. employed to raise blisters. jaundice. Jhinkiphudardi. Vishnukranti. asthma. campanulate. smooth. t. enlargement of spleen. t.-July-Nov. Kalisankhavali. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. Fr. thin. :—Sind. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . useful in gonorrhœa.—capsule. smooth.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fl. rootstock woody . solitary or sometimes 2.—many.—Convolvulaceæ. Vishnukranta. Fl. terete. . brightens intellect. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. also as an alterative. Nilpushpi.

Sk. Rajasthan. M.-Nov. Iran. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns.-Aug. CHAR. quadrangular. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. high. the upper blue. Dhamaso . arising from between the stipules . 5-nerved. Ustarkhar. :— H. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). more or less glandular. Coimbatore. reaching 60 cm. stomatitis. the middle the largest. spitting of blood. Baluchistan.—very variable in size and form sessile. FL. :—An erect annual.—opposite. smooth. toothache.—Gentianaceæ. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Fr. :— Sind. purifies blood (Ayurveda). DISTR. long. :—G. good for liver troubles. in copious terminal cymes . stem. . Fl. LOC. emmenagogue. Gujarat. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. Bark is used in scabies. about 1. alexipharmic. glandular hairy. FAM. Mysore.—solitary. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. 1-3 foliate.-Oct. shining.—Zygophyllaceæ. Deccan hills and S. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. leaflets linear. 1-seeded cocci. asthma. removes "Vata. L. ophthalmia. it has got cooling properties. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. small. L. Sd. sessile. Upper Gangetic plains.-Dec.— showy. LOC. Prabhodhini. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. in chronic bronchitis.2 cm. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. erysipelas. NS. Dhamasa. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . typhoid. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. ovate. obliquely obovate. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Konkan. Barachirayat." asthma. M. thirst. LOC. pyramidal to the apex. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. Fr. Hinguna. elliptic or lanceolate. of 5. DISTR. Atmamuli. Maval. petioles deeply striate.— ovoid. Kashaya. Dusparsha. reduces tumours. deeply 5-partite. COM. flattened. yellowish brown. Cooling. CHAR. Waziristan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). :—Madras State. scarcely branched. vomiting. smooth. H. Arabia. W. Fl. Udichirayat. t. Ind.—capsule. root fibrous. acute. M.). Dhanavi. Mediterranean. removes "Vata". C—lobes 4-5. Fl. cooling. Punjab. pale rose-coloured. ellipsoid. N. Country. also used in chronic fevers. lower half white. Circars. FAM. t. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. NS. fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. Ghats. cures dysentery. westwards to Afghanistan.

Jatala. Ala. Fr. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. liver and lungs . good for throat. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kapipriya. Ghats. refrigerant . Dadhiphala. M. :—Indigenous in S. difficult to digest. Sk. often planted. consumption. LOC. H. COM. Kathinyaphala. " Vata ". Vad. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Kavitha. heart diseases. L. Vad. Kothun. strengthening to gums . Avaroha. aphrodisiac. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Banian tree. Fruit Trees. Belada. Goli. Bargat. refrigerant. vomiting . Bargad. Fruit—sour . NS. high. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. India. Bahupada. acrid. Kotha. Grahiphala. Bar. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Self-sown. fruit and seeds. useful in biliousness. :—Cultivated all over the State. Elephant or wood apple. ovate to elliptic. K. S. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. :— E. :—E.—Rutaceæ. NS. Leaves—very astringent. Bhringi. cures cough. Java. with male. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. LOC. Kavit. alexipharmic. shining above. M. Seeds—antidote to poison. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. 10-20 X 5-12. COM. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. See—Timbers. H. cordate or rounded base. K. dysentery. common in the Tapi Valley. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. removes biliousness. Byala. with spreading branches. M. tonic to heart. hiccup. fatigue. often cultivated. Kathel. about 2 cm. ophthalmia. " Tridosha". astringent. tumours. Nyagrodha. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Vata. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Alada. FAM. Kanara. diam. sending down to the ground many aerial roots.5 cm.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. HABITAT :—Dry open situation .—Moraceæ. country and N.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Malura. Sk.—coriaceous. blood impurities. leucorrhoea. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. Kavath. CHAR. . Vat. LOC. Monkey fruit. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. G. Manmadha. DISTR. Kapitha.. Balin.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. thirst. female. asthma. Kait. Vadlo . Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. Ceylon. binding diuretic. G.— globose.

It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Simeyatu . Milky Juice—expectorant. Asia and Mediterranean. DISTR. fever. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Sk. FICUS CARICA Linn. in rheumatism and lumbago. leaves. See—Famine Plants. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. biliousness. aphrodisiac. bruises. useful in syphilis. biliousness. useful in "Vata". A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Anjura. lithotriptic. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. Aerial root is styptic. Kakodumbar. diseases of head and blood. NS. ringworm. vulnerary. paralysis. :—Baluchistan. India. W. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. Anjir. hill ranges of S.—Moraceæ. Bijapur. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. nose-diseases. leprosy (Ayurveda). M. Anjir. . leprosy. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. vomiting. boils and carbuncles. useful in piles. Seeds are cooling and tonic. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. COM. diuretic. Grown scattered elsewhere. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). Anjir. vaginal complaints. nutritive. inflammation of liver (Yunani). H. USES :—Fruit is emollient. root-fibres. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. LOC. thirst. India. PARTS USED :—Bark. Anjir. useful in inflammation . Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. Root—tonic. dysentery. Fig. ulcers. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). useful in "Kapha". lessens inflammations. useful in leucoderma. demulcent. LOC. inflammations. Sacred Plants. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Fibres. erysipelas. laxative. FAM. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. weakness. gonorrhœa. tonic. Dharwar. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. alexiteric. liver and spleen diseases. pain in chest cures piles. Cultivated in N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. K. Afghanistan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. maturant. LOC. :— E. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. stimulates hair-growth. G. seeds and milky juice. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. W.

useful. burning sensation. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. useful in "Kapha". nose bleedings. Pavitraka. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Bark. Bark useful in asthma and piles. LOC. latex.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Arani.—Moraceæ. in diseases of blood. LOC. (Yunani). cummin. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Lalka.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. vagina. allays thirst. Milk—aphrodisiac. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. menorrhagia. NS. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Sk. leaves and fruits. uterus . Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. FAM. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Bark infusion is given in diabetes. leaves. diseases of kidney and spleen. tonic. Bark is cooling. Pipli. Atti. PARTS USED :—Root. Umbro. COM. Fruit— useful in dry cough. urinary discharges. Vriksharaj. vulnerary. DISTR. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Pipal. COM. Peepal tree . K. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Sacred Plants. Gular-Country fig. Bodhidruma. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders.—Moraceæ. bark. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. See—Timbers. DISTR. K. styptic. fruit. burning sensation. good for bronchitis. Pippala. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. loss of voice. Pimpal. ground with onions. Pipal. good for gravid uterus. Umar. Rumadi. ulcers. fatigue. Ashwatha mara. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Hemadugdha. Sk. Udumbara. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. G. H. acrid. Shuchidruma. Pippala. Pipers. NS. HABITAT :—Planted. Yajnika. Fruit—astringent to bowels. bark. Umbar. H. planted all over. :—Throughout the State near villages. biliousness. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. . is given to cattle in rinderpest. :—E. LOC. good for foul taste. leprosy. G. :—Widely spread throughout India. blood diseases. galactagogue. M. Umar. M. leucorrhoea. given in leucorrhoea. Ragi. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Ashvatha. :—E. Gular. FAM. biliousness. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Demera. Jari.

Root good for gout. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). seeds. Country and N. PARTS USED :—Root. Fennel. FAM. Root-bark good in stomatitis. and produces sterility in women. Soupa. Fruits are sweet. The juice is employed in hiccup. See—Timber. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Variali. aphrodisiac. Young bark useful in bone fractures. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Handi Kandai. Bhuripushpa. Kanara Jungles. SAPIDA Roxb. Tapaspriya. H. FAM. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. . Sacred Plants. common in the Peninsula. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Swadukantaka. Potika. Bilangra . M. M. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan.—Umbelliferæ. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. HABITAT :—Hills. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). cleans ulcers. checks vomiting (Yunani). :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. N. astringent in leucorrhoea. S. K. good for lumbago. Katar. Hettarimullu. heart diseases. Kankod . Sk. Badisoppu. Shalina. appetising and digestive. Bhanber. Khandesh. DISTR. LOC. H. Paker. Bhakal. Circars. promotes granulations. W. bark. Gajale. Satpura. Badishep. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. fruit. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. K. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. LOC. Akrani. upper Gangetic plain. :—E. :— G. Variari. Shateya. See—Timbers. NS. Finkel. Ghats. M. G. Fruit—purgative. Mullutari. Sk. COM NS. Hunmunki. Burma.—Flacourtiaceæ. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. Tambat. gum. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Fodder Plants.

leaves (rarely). USES :—used as stimulant.—Guttiferæ. LOC. Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. dysentery. thirst.—ellipsoid. aromatic and carminative. LOC. ridges prominent. tumours. leaves and seeds. See—Condiments and Spices. PARTS USED :—Roots. Fr. Murjinhalli. :—W. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. DISTR. Atyamla. L. anthelmintic. alexiteric. furrows vittate. Amlabija.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. stomachic. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. :—Endemic in W. LOC. FAM. See—Timbers. USES :—Bark is astringent. Kokam . seeds-carminative. Tintidika. useful in bleeding piles. :—A tall glabrous. kidney. wounds. often cultivated. Oils. lessen inflammations. :—Apparently a native of S. PARTS USED :—Bark. cough and asthma. :—E.—in large umbels . pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). Leaves—improve eyesight. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. annual. dysentery. fruit and seeds. anthelmintic. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. improves appetite and allays thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". aphrodisiac. laxative. Ghats. Ghats south of Bombay. H. high. diuretic. in headache. leprosy (Ayurveda). causing constipation . appetiser.— decompound. cures "Tridosh". biliousness. LOC. difficult to digest. common in S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. 0. wounds etc. NS. dark green. useful in diseases of chest. stimulant. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. FL. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. galactagogue. fever. eye-diseases. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world.6-0. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. spleen. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. " Vata ". cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. COM. ultimate segments linear. . Wynaad.9 m. strengthen eyes (Yunani). fissures of lips. K. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. G. Tittidika . bracts and bracteoles absent. demulcent and emollient. Wild mangosteen. Coorg. Mulgala. Kokam. cardiotonic. Kanara. (Mhaskar and Caius). Sk. carpophore 2-partite. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is much used as a nutritive. Ratambi. Kokam . yellow. DISTR. amenorrhœa. M. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments.

PARTS USED :—Gum. LOC. Fl. Dekamari. Suvirya. DISTR. :—India. Cambi resin tree. opaque. first white then changing to yellow. Dikkamalli.5-3. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. K. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. Peninsula). LOC. Burma. COM. . The plant yields a gum Dikemali.-tubular. COM. long. G. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. Bikke. As sold in the bazar it is hard.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. common on laterite in southern parts of N. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition..-sessile. 1-3 together. same as for G. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . FAM. M.—Rubiaceæ. LOC. Dikamali. :—Common from Konkan southwards. :—A deciduous shrub. Hingu. Jantuka. FAM. Fl. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. buds resinous. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. lucida (Ayurveda). Western Peninsula. oblong. Pinda. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G.8 cm. unarmed. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED:-Gum. NS.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite.—Feb. Dakamali. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . LOC. See—Timbers. :—India (W. H. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence.8 m. high.—Rubiaceæ. Kanara. L. 4. C. about 1.5x22. Dikemali. HABITAT :—Open situations. Fr. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. CHAR. :—E. See—Gums and Resins. shining. Sk. -June. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. NS. Dikamari. not fragrant. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. DISTR. elliptic-obovate. lucida.-subsessile. oblong or ellipsoid. relieves pain of bronchitis. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb.—2. Northern ghats of Madras State. all dry districts of Madras State. Gums and Resins. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms.

USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. Linn. CHAR.—sessile. :—Herbaceous. Garbhapatani. linear oblong. LOC. FL.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. solid. M.3 cm. piles. t. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. L. PARTS USED :—Tuber. tall. There are two varieties of the plant. Akkitang hall. Tropical Africa. :—Throughout tropical India. ovate lanceolate. Ceylon.. Kathari. inflammations. K. Indai. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. sometimes whorled. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. leaves and flowers. and crimson from blooming to fading. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour.—Liliaceæ. axillary . changing colours from greenish yellow. bitter. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Kalihari. acrid. branching climber . Huliyuguru. useful in chronic ulcers. scarlet. DISTR. Tuber— astringent. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. Fr. Fl. Malay Peninsula. stems annual. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). perianth segments reaching 6. . Khadyanag. linear-lanceolate. In Guinea. margins wavy. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2.-July-Oct. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. LOC. Kalikari. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. filaments long spreading. The former is supposed to be male. thirst. Sivasaktibalb .5-3.—large. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia.2 cm. Cochin-China. leprosy. :—G. alexiteric. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. solitary. root-stock of arched. FAM. In case of retained placenta. COM. used to remove placenta from uterus. Languli. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine.. scattered or opposite. itching. 7. Agnimukhi. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Kulhari. abortifacient. abdominal pains. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. laxative. anthelmintic. heating.5 cm. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. expectorant. Dudhio vachhonag.. given off from young tubers . Nangulika. H. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent.—capsule. orange. Sk. NS. Karianag.5 X 15 X 2-4.

Karibatti. strangury. LOC. Shiwan. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. NS. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. . cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. K. gleet. Oils. H. Gambhari. G. useful in hallucinations. Deokapas. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. stomachic. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. piles. promotes hair-growth. thirst. Coomb teak. Shiwan. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. common on Satpuda. M. :—Throughout the State. Fruit— diuretic. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Sk. Shivan . flowers and fruit. consumption. Savan. Rajasthan and N. leprosy. FAM. COM.—Verbenaceæ. Madhya Bharat. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. ulcers. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Flowers—astringent. Sind. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. K. fevers. aphrodisiac. G. anæmia. DISTR. LOC. COM. useful in indigestion. PARTS USED :—Root. burning sensation. abdominal pains. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Kashmari. White teak. :—Throughout India. improves appetite . See—Fibres. the root. Root taken with liquorice. useful in fevers . Shripani. Tree cotton. alterative. Gandhari. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians.—Malvaceæ. DISTR. leaves. Philippines. catarrh of the bladder etc. H. made into paste. chronic cystitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. anasarca. Gupsi.:—E. leaves. Malaya. Gambari. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Karpasam. tonic. W. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Gumbhar. See—Timbers. Hanji. urinary discharges. Kumbudi. Nurma . Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. NS. Mahabhadra. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Bachanige. thirst. scalds etc. root is also stomachic and laxative. Var. scattered in monsoon forests. :— E. Cashmere tree. laxative. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. :— Bengal. In the Konkan. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Khandesh. M. Provinces. FAM. anthelmintic . indigestible. useful in "Vata". Shivani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. flowers and seeds. Sk. Devkapas. Devakapus. " Tridosha ".

expectorant. Kapus. DISTR. scabies . W. In India they are used to procure abortion.. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). good for throat . Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. Ripe fruit—sweet. aphrodisiac. Phalsi. F. Leaves remove " Vata " . Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. in hypochondria. heart and blood disorders. Mediterranean. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Karihariyale.Phalse. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Sk. Pharuah. M. Arali. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. Syria. Seeds— ' galactagogue. U. extensively in Gujarat. Roshana. K. See—Fibres. digestible. LOC. COM. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. leaves. laxative . :—G. H. Parusha. Mesapotamia. S. Buttiyu-dippa. restore consciousness. M.—Tiliaceæ. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. LOC. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Jana. Dhamin. Arabia and Asia Minor. expectorant and aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. bark. leaf-juice good in dysentery. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. tonic. Sk. M. Seeds are laxative. Country. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Anagnika. wild in Deccan. A. probably in N. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. Kapas . Phalsa.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. :— Cultivated in N. Egypt. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. allay thirst. Cotton . Afghanistan. sour. COM. enrich blood. increase flow of urine. fomentation for burning eyes . FAM. Hatti. :—Sind. fevers and consumption. Oils. fruit. Rui. in hills near Poona. Gujarat and S. PARTS USED :—Root. Rui. preventing their access to wounds etc. NS. used in orchitis. Seeds—aphrodisiac. good for all kinds of inflammations. poultice applied to burns' scalds. extensively cultivated. acrid. Kupas. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. demulcent. removes " Vata ". Iran. Tadasala.—Malvaceæ. Tula. (Yunani). tonic. fruits and seeds. G. Baluchistan. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Karpas. Parapera. DISTR. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. cure all ear-troubles. :—E. removes " Vata" and biliousness. East Tropical Africa. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . :—Cultivated in the State. Badari. H. cures inflammations. Sutrapuspha.. analgesic. Province (Pakistan). K. FAM.

In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. NS. cooling. biliousness. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fr. DISTR. FAM. Sanngera. Kavali. LOC. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). base rounded or cordate . piles. Caravella. sweet. Kanphodi. ulcers. — Asclepiadaceæ. asthma. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". corona of 5 processes . inflammations. cornea.-May. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Karnasphota. relieves thirst and hiccup. ovate. Ceylon. bronchitis.— Apl. K. Merasingi. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. LOC. yellow . FL. lanceolate. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). India. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. stomachic. Meshavalli. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). good in heart-diseases. acrid. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. tonic. Meshashingi. G. Mardashingi. :—Throughout the State. M. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Adiyakharan. LOC. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria.— companulate . Bedki. young stems densely pubescent. Kabari. Ugragandha. . COM. :—Western Peninsula. Arkapuspika. See—Fruit Trees. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. :— E. Fruit—sour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Tropical Africa.—Capparidaceæ. the stomachic stimulant. Fl. COM. Br. K. Karalia . H. anthelmintic. Hulhul. M. common in hedges in Dharwar district.— opposite. The ease of administration. NS. Mahabaleshwar and N. Gurmar. Sk. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Bastagandha. Sannagerse. Churota. much branched. t. H. alterative. usually single.—in cymes . GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Vishani. C. useful in diarrhœa and fevers.— with thin marginal wing. Pandhari tilwan. should not be eaten raw. Sd. Tanmani. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. Periploca of the woods. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Root and bark used in strangury. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. leucoderma.—follicle. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. helps removal of dead fetus. alexiteric. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. strengthens chest and heart. FAM. Tilparni. Vakundi. Sati talvani. vitreous body) burning sensation. :—A large woody climber. CHAR. Shrikala. L. elliptic. :E. Hulhul. SK. S. Kanara coast. Mabli.

opposite. tumours. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root.8-9 cm.5-20 X 3. DISTR. FAM.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . (Kirtikar and Basu). LOC. :—A small deciduous shrub. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. :—Deccan. COM.—June. stomachic . HABITAT:—Hills. China. Murudi. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. Gujarat. gynophore 2-2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. ulcers. sessile. :—G.—in dense bracteate racemes. good in ascites. Sinhgad hills.—rather rigid. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. ellipsoid . pubescent. margins crenate-dentate. Fr. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. acute. earache. Avartant. LOC.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. Katraj Ghat. Mrigashringa.—capsule.—3-5 foliate.—petals 4 with long slender claws. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. long. long . spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. glabrous or pubescent above. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant.—many. producing copious exudation. elliptic-obovate.2 m. hills in Supa Taluka. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. leaflets subsessile. 5-9 cm. hairy. Murdasing. high. pain. tapering at both ends. M. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. hairy. Fl. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Kanara.-Feb. Marosi. Fr. :—M.. Sk. Kewan. S. COM. NS. M. hills near Nagothana. K. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Kavargi. Country.—muricate. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. with divaricate herbaceous branches . Jonkaphal Maraphali. C. FAM. NS. Fl. Fl. stipules triangular. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge.—capsule. H. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. vesicant. Gidesa Jitasai. L. Sd. stem and branches hairy.5 cm. dark-brown . .. hairy on the nerves beneath. L. Edamuri.6—1. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. leaves and seeds. viscid.—Rubiaceæ. removes "Vata". :—An annual erect herb 0. pink .12. t. pedicels viscid hairy. white or blue. . elliptic-lanceolate.—Sterculiaceæ. t. Fl. Murudseng. Sd.—Oct. CHAR.

L. DISTR.-biferous. :—Upper Gangetie plain. beaked. Hindisalse. Sugandhi-balli. Malaya. H. Fl. asthma. Deccan and S. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. useful in piles. “tridosh". tapering . uterine complaints. dark-green. FL. often variegated with white above. mildly astringent. Sd. astringent to bowels . good for brain. Indian sarsaparilla . scabrous above.—throughout the greater part of the year. bronchitis. bark and fruit. poisoning. Ceylon. Upalsali. DISTR. LOC. They are demulcent. CHAR. "Vata' dysentery. thirst. NS. Root and stem—laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. t — Aug. . long. Anantmula. purplish inside. eye troubles. irregularly crowded.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR.-Dec. Fl.—numerous. common in hedges. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. L. Country. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. low appetite. :—Throughout the State. LOC.—follicle of 5-6. Kapurimathuri. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. FAM.3 cm. Fr. Sk. asthma. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs.— with silvery white coma . obliquely cordate.—follicle cylindric. cures all skin-diseases. root-Stock woody .Sd. joint-pains. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. G. Fr. Kanara ghat forests. diuretic. M. Hamadaberu . Dhaval kashtha. paralysis. Magrabu. angular . 7. stems thickened at the nodes . lessens griping. Upalsari. Fl. India. fevers. ovate orbicular. anti-galactagogue. HABITAT :—In hedges. greenish outside. Durivel. cough. Utpalashariva. useful in gleet. K. Australia and West Indies. antidiarrhœal. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. Br. :—Large shrub or small tree. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). liver and kidney diseases . epileptic fits. burning sensation. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. leucorrhoea. bilabiate. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). Root useful in hemicrania. alexiteric. stem. useful in syphilis and leucoderma.— in cymes in opposite axils. diaphoretic. spirally coiled. See—Fibres. urinary discharges.5 X 5-10 cm. diarrhœa.—tubular. gargle good for toothache (Yunani).512.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. 5-6. syphilis. t. red at first fading to lead colour. Anantmula. C. foul body odour.—Asclepiadaceæ. Stem lessens inflammation. :— E. rat-bites.— very variable. COM. Konkan. astringent to bowels. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. and leaves. blood diseases.. demulcent. "Kapha". Burma.

HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. petals thrice as long as the calyx. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. Fl. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Root roasted in plantain leaves. L. crimson. C. Fr. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Shoe flower. Kempupundrika. demulcent. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . FAM.—short petioled.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. cooling. cm. :— E. Dasavala. etc. Jasuva. It is also diuretic.5. K. leaves. piles. urinary discharges. seminal weakness. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. :—A perennial shrub. and mixed with ghee. tonic. astringent. red. glabrous. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. skindiseases. NS. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa.—7. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. Native country probably China.—during most of the year. . Raktapushpi. Aruna. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. irregularly serrate towards the top. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. H. bright red.—axillary. Japapushpa. Root is valuable in coughs. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in loss of appetite. Jasavand. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. DISTR. syphilis and leucorrhoea. LOC. diam. Fl. CHAR. entire near the base. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia.. PARTS USED :—Root. G. Sk. M. magenta. Harivallaba.—Malvaceæ. yellow. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. bark and petals are demulcent. It is said to purify blood. In the Konkan. Dasanihu. flowers. Rudrapushpa. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Jasum. ovate or ovate lanceolate. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. tubular below. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. pedicel jointed above the middle. remove burning of body. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). LOC. and as early as 1864. fevers. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. solitary. uterine and vaginal discharges.—no fruits produced in India. involucral bracts 5-7. Jasut. and the powdered root for menorrhagia.

See—Vegetables. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. orbicular. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.—Malvaceæ. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. globose. Fibres. Lal ambadi. :—Cultivated. sedative and refrigerant. Fr. often blotched with purple with darker centre.—Malpighiaceæ. DISTR. LOC.— Jany. Vasanti. Kamuka. Ragotpiti.—purple with darker centres. base cuneate. H.—1-3. acuminate. entire glabrous. 10-18 X 4. 3-winged. asafoetida and molasses. :—An annual.—capsule. Madhavi. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Fl. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. COM.—coriaceous.—5-7. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. K. and adding a little salt. long. G.—petals 5. Kampti. purple. serrate. Madhavi. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. across. covered with minute hairs . (lower leaves sometimes entire).) FAM. . Lal ambari. Vasantduti. on the margins. Ceylon. NS.5 cm. CHAR. ovoid. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 1. Madhalata. LOC. M. Adimurtte Adirganti. Madhavi. hairy.—large. H.-Dec. stem and branches purple. t. Sk. mid-lobe the longest. flowers.—in erect racemes. FAM. Lal ambadi. Kanara. Atimukta. Chandravalli. white. COM. Kempupundrike. K. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Haladvel. Rozelle. glabrous. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Fl. 5th petal yellow at the base. tropics of the old world. elliptic-oblong. C. pepper. Fl.. beaked. C.3-7.5 cm. fragrant. CHAR. Fr. Sd. Pundi-bija or soppu. 3-5 lobed. Ghats. Madhumalati. Grows abundantly on the W. Konkan. Malati. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. uppermost petal broader. Red sorrel. L. HABITAT. involucral bracts 10.2-2 cm.-Mar. t. Sd. calyx fleshy. fruits and seeds. :—G. :—Throughout the State. Madmalati. erect.—axillary. much used in curries. Patwa. Madhavi. black-brown. :—E. L. Vasantduti. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Atimukta.— solitary. long. purple. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. Deccan. clawed. M. young parts silky.lobes oblong. Fl. petioles silky. fringed. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.—Oct.

good in headache. diarrhœa. wounds. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. smoke good for piles. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. acrid. given in chest affections. strengthens gums. excessive menstrual flow.—Apocynaceæ. Siwalik. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. ulcers. biliousness.—10-20 X 5-11. Kodasige. See—Ornamental Plants. Thailand (Siam). G. LOC. boils. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). broadly ovate or elliptic.—Feb. lessens inflammations. NS. K. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. Seeds—carminative.. DISTR. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. acrid. styptic. Pandhara Kuda. Veppale. Sd. tonic. Burma. vulnerary. urinary discharges. Assam. Madras State. Kurchi tree. Kuda. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham).-June. burning sensation. skin diseases. China. astringent to bowels cure pains. FL. skin and spleen diseases.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. often dotted with white spots. LOC. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Andamans. main nerves conspicuous . thirst and inflammation. leprosy. Kutaja. Karuindrayan. Seeds—appetiser. colic. Dudhi. :—E. Ceylon. LOC. Circars. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Kudsalu. heating. Kaduoindrajav. insecticidal. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Bark—bitter. M. Flowers— acrid. COM. " Kapha". vulnerary. burning sensation. good in chronic bronchitis. tonic. leaves. diuresis (Yunani). Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. lumbago. :—Throughout the State. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. bitter. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. branchlets drooping. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. Kumaon. anthelmintic. cause "Vata". thirst. cooling.. cylindric.5 cm. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. PROPERTIES. leprosy. inodorous. Leavesastringent. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Nepal. fatigue. Indrayana. Fl. aphrodisiac. throat hairy inside. good in erysipelas. piles. galactagogue. Karnatak. Kuda. leucoderma .— in terminal corymbose cymes .—follicles 20-48 cm. Mt. H. flowers and seeds. L. Malay Peninsula.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . t. FAM. Hale. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Conessi bark tree. fevers. asthma. remove "Tridosh". Kaling. Fr. cures dysentery. white. Sk. appetiser cure blood diseases. hallucinations (Ayurveda). USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Karohi. bleeding piles. C—tubular. CHAR. Hath. cool the brain. N. cough. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kura. biliousness. remove muscular pains . Abu. long.

They are also used after delivery. inflamed gums. Hayapriya. Ymvah. febrifuge. bronchitis. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. nor styptic. anæmia. malt sugar and diastase. G. good for ulcers. —Cultivated chiefly in N. Barley. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Tasteless. Yava. Germinated barley. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. useful in fevers. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. appetiser. acrid. burns. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. kurchine. Knowles. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Sk. Med. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. K. Jawa. H. improves voice. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Jav. . Divya. :—E. asthma. 1928). Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. especially cod-liver oil. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. demulcent and expectorant. widely cultivated in temperate regions. Suj.—Gramineæ. LOC. FAM. LOC. Java. allays thirst. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. sweetish. aphrodisiac. Shaktu. Gaz. Jav. COM. pains in chest. useful in bronchitis. lowers the pulse. dysentery and intestinal worms. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. and kurchicine. M. They are astringent. Javegodhi. Aug. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. stomachic. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. DISTR. India. See—Food Plants. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. biliousness. nor astringent. (R. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. Ind. The grains contain vitamin B. Satu. fattening.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. headache. PARTS USED :—Seeds. causes constipation. with radicle attached to it. fevers (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. NS. useful in biliousness.

:—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. :—K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. sulphur. Peninsula. more or less coriaceous. Bihar. :—W. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses.5-23 X 3. high. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Apl. Betaga.—Bixaceæ. FAM. Madhya Pradesh. CHAR. young parts brown pubescent. Bhrijatuaka. L. M. t.) FAM. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Kastel. Bhanina.. Common in N. FL. bitter. Fr. Kanara evergreen forests. Dondra. Phaldu. sometimes along river banks. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Bandaru. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. Sk. DISTR. NS. camphor and lime-juice. Country and Kanara. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. C. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. flat. Bhorsal.5 cm. :—G. Ghats. LOC. dioecious .—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Fl. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. S. white. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Bharnarasalya. Panch Mahals in Gujarat.—Rubiaceæ. Sd. pungent. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Kowti. Gandele. Niradivittulu. broadly ovate. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Bhutabi.—Jany. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. M. . See—Oils. COM. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Ugragandha. Doti. tomentose.8-7. Kshiradru. Garudphala. LOC. Malabar. For scald-head. Southern and Western India. size of small apple. Sk. increases taste and appetite. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Bhringamallika.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. Dondru. globose or ovoid. common in Travancore.—numerous. M. H. DISTR. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bhoswar. Amarachala. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Kadukavata. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Garudphala. NS. 12. good for the throat.—petals fringed with soft white hairs .—solitary or in racemes. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. K. acuminate.—berry. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. COM.

LOC. :—G. black with white scanty coma. Fr. thirst. FL. Nalichibhaji. the powdered wood is used for herpes. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. :—More or less throughout India. Ceylon. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). fever. acute.—1-5 flowered peduncles . stalks and leaves.—Apocynaceæ. cordate or hastate.—Convolvulaceæ. :—A large twining shrub . USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. C. Kalaka.—linear. K. See—Timbers. Sk. In Indo-China. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Fr. L. thick. Kanara. Fl. Karihambu. Shradhashaka. trichotomous cymes. FAM. COM. rusty pubescent. aphrodisiac. Br. M.2 -7.-Dec. middle portion much inflated.—4-5-7 X 2-3. . very slender. Nadika.5 cm. Chandangopa. CHAR. Sd.—tube with narrow portion below. Kalidudhi.—Nov.—in axillary and terminal. lobes obscure . Bhadra. glabrous above. Fl. CHAR. Potuasaga. prostrate. Sk. ovoid . Kanara. straight or slightly curved. 10-15 cm. M. base rounded. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. cooling. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. Gopini. trailing on mud or floating. Common in the evergreen forests of N. elliptic oblong. S. blood diseases. Kantebhovari. very common in Gujarat.—capsule. C. pubescent. Karmi. throat and tube dull purple . Gorwiballi. Sd. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. cures " Kapha ". Pechuli. upper constricted. H. hollow. Fodder Plants. stems long. rooting at the nodes . X 4 cm. Java. Fl. FAM. :—Konkan. The outer layer is tasteless.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. NS.8 cm.. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. Kalambika. NS. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Kalmisag.—5-12. vomiting. cylindric . t.— Nov. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places.—follicle. DISTR. Kalaghantika. M. :—Throughout the State. greenish white. Nalanibhaji. Siamalata. " Vata ". Country.5x 3.—4 or 2. t. :—H. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. biliousness. numerous . Krishnasariva. :—Annual or biennial herb. Sariva. LOC. Australia.-Apl. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions.

(Yunani). also useful in liver complaints. aphrodisiac. tropical Asia. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. M. liver complaints. (Yunani). alterative. See—Gums and Resins. to children in case of emaciation. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia.—Convolvulaceæ. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . Sk. Giant potato . . biliousness.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. Bilaikand . :—Perennial.—10-15 cm. root large. :— E. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. lobes 5-7. dry. stimulant. galactagogue. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. purple. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Root—heating. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. biliousness and fevers. Leaves enrich blood. deeply palmately divided. entire. CHAR. alterative. L. thick. long. FAM. cures biliousness. demulcent and lactagogue. 4-celled. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. Fl. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. America. long. DISTR. anthelmintic. ovate-lanceolate. Bhuikohala. NS.—in. flowers (rarely). t. carminative. LOC. Africa. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. being regarded as tonic. :—Throughout India. near sea coast. lessens inflammation. indigestible. improves voice and complexion. COM. debility and want of digestive power. jaundice. (Ayurveda). burning sensation. vomiting. " Kapha " . Flower causes " Vata ".3 cm. useful in leucoderma. tonic. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. blood diseases. tropical Asia. LOC. Bhunichahragadde. expectorant. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Fr. Fl. stem long. often broader than long. leprosy. twining.-July-Sept. leaves. 4-valved. pale. Ceylon.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. useful in leprosy. useful in syphilis. H. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. Carminative. bronchitis.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. peduncle solitary axillary. Australia in moist climate. Kanara sea coast. appetiser. ovoid. glabrous. enclosed in fleshy sepals. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. Swadu Vidarikand. Nila-kumbala. galactagogue.8—6. K. In Burma. stomachic. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. useful in fever. Africa and Australia. LOC. 3. Bhumikushmanda. diuretic. anthelmintic . gonorrhœa and inflammation.

cures inflammations. Fl. LOC. Sd. tropical Africa. removes bad humours from body (Yunani).) FAM. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle.5 cm.-Oct.—3.—Convolvulaceæ. DISTR. crenate. Sd.—capsule. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. Ceylon. filiform. Sk. abdominal diseases. H. S. C. creeping and rooting at the nodes. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians.3-2. LOC. COM. leucoderma. H. Krishna—Shyama-bija. E. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. stems many. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Musekani.—Convolvulaceæ. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. Mirchai. L. DISTR. deeply three-Iobed. :—Western Peninsula. ovate-cordate.—dark chestnut coloured . lobes ovate. surrounded by ciliate sepals. in the Himalayas. bronchitis (Ayurveda). bechic. scabies and biliousness. :—Konkan. G. broad. CHAR.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . L. Deccan. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. axillary. useful in liver and spleen diseases. diseases of head. S. petioles hairy. Nilvel. Fl. :—G. . M. reniform or ovate-cordate. clothed with long hairs. See—Ornamental Plants.—1. Morning glory. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). subglobose or ovoid. stems twining.8-5 cm. COM. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). dries the phlegm. long tubular funnel-shaped. headache. glabrous . :—E. Africa. blue tinged with pink. subglobose. anthelmintic. Fl. Kaladana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. bracts linear. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.—capsule. 3-celled.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Indian jalap. :—An annual herb. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. Kaladanah. M. LOC.— yellow. diam. CHAR.— 4-6. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Purgative. K. NS. Fr. M. Nilpushpa.. Vrishchikparni. sparsely hairy. carminative. Undirkani. t. The plant contains a glucoside.—Sept. :—A herb . Undirkani. Sk. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. believed to be of American origin. fevers. Shyamala-bijak. Kalokumpo. K. pains in joints. Country.-5-12.:—Throughout India. Fr. Ganribij. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. FAM.

useful in loss of consciousness. Common in southern Gujarat. fevers. rarely slightly lobed. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Malay Islands. twining and twisted together. lungs. base cordate or truncate . Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. leucoderma. useful in spleen enlargement. Ceylon.—capsule. False-Indian jalap. . carminative. inflammations and abdominal diseases . useful in bilious tremors of body. stems very long. 3. useful in diseases of kidney. :—Throughout India. bechic. white variety is a mild cathartic. good in pain. Mauritius. inflammations. Pithori. expectorant. Philippines. tropical Africa and America. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real.. Kanaka. It is also alterative. mucronate. LOC. LOC. like others of the genus . ovate or oblong. Indian rhubarb. paralysis. cooling. Triputi. Sk. acrid. removes bad humours. laxative. G.—5-10 X 1. burning sensation and intoxication. Nishoth. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. L. NS. purgative. HABITAT :—Wild . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. FAM. Kalaparni. M. PARTS USED :—Root. much branched. enclosed in enlarged sepals . :—Common in the dry Deccan districts.3-7 cm. Fl.-Jany. Nahatara. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. paralysis. LOC. heart and abdomen. Nandi.8-5 cm. Trivrit. Root— bitter. t. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. anæmia. COM. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). C. H. Fl. useful in bilious fevers. CHAR.—white. bronchitis. often pinkish. pains of chest and joints.—Convolvulaceæ. uterus. fistula. Fr. wounds. angled and winged. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. bladder. :— E.—in few flowered cymes. brain diseases.—Oct. strangury. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. long. good for weakness. Rechani. Root with bark should be used. fleshy. pungent. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Turbith root. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). urethral discharges. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. Nashotar. anthelmintic. used in rheumatism and neuralgia.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. root long. applied in diseases of eye and gums. globose. pedicels thickened upwards. muscular pains. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. bracts large. sometimes cultivated. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. also in the Konkan and N. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). laxative. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Nishottara. Br. when used alone . reduces tumours (Ayurveda). K. DISTR.

. :—Western Peninsula. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. Parali. G. sessile. 5-10 X 3. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. Fl.—opposite. Chambali. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State.— Rubiaceæ. :—E.3 coriaceous. LOC. DISTR. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Raktaka. Pankul.. very common in Konkan and N. proximal petiolulate. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Chambeli. Flame of the woods . imparipinnate. COM.2-6. COM NS. across. wild. Ajjige. stipules . The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Anemallige. oblong. obtuse. Chambeli. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Fr. FAM. K. CHAR. very slender . TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. :—A large subscandent shrub. leaflets 7-11.—ripe carpels 2.—throughout the year. FAM. 3. Fl. coriaceous. pale when dry. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. lobes 4 (rarely). Kisukare.5 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated . sessile. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. Kepala.2-6. Bandhuka.—opposite.—July-Sept. distal pair confluent with the terminal. See—Ornamental Plants. terminal rather larger. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. obtuse . :—E. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. intermediate sessile . petiole and rachis margined. K. of stems and roots. C. fleshy. Jai. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. oblong. Ceylon. LOC. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. L. high.—globose. Bakali. t. L. . stipules with a long rigid point. Surabhigandha. also along river banks. Sk.—tubular. t. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. :—Cultivated throughout India. 5-12. smooth. purple when ripe.9 m. Priyanvada. FL—numerous. CHAR. white. Fr. Pendgul. Fl. size of a pea. Jati. H. tube long.—3.—Oleaceæ. NS. IXORA COCCINEA Linn.8 cm.3 cm. DISTR. M. Jajimalle. Sk. pale when dry. :—Bombay southwards . Guddedasal. often tinged with pink outside.

given in blood diseases. headache and weak eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Fl. Plant—deobstruent. variable in shape. Leaves are also used in toothache.—white. Oil—lessens inflammations. paralysis. CHAR.—more or less throughout the year . Sambac. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Mallige. scarcely climbing. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. it is used in cases of insanity. Flower has bitter taste . Banmallika. ear. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. Mogara. vulnerary. Navamallika. Mogra. biliousness. . ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid.—ripe-carpels 1-2. Fl. anthelmintic. base rounded or subcordate. Tuscan jasmine. K. otorrhoea. useful in stomatitis. diuretic. aphrodisiac. The plant contains an alkaloid.—opposite. softens skin. expectorant. See—Ornamental Plants. Motia. surrounded by calyx-teeth. emetic. useful in diseases of eye. Iravantige. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. In Goa. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. allays fevers . leprosy. alexiteric. head. COM NS. rheumatism. :—Cultivated throughout India. emmenagogue. Ananga-mallika. G. LOC. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Flowers—tonic. biliousness (Ayurveda).—Oleaceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. subglobose. and for scabies (Yunani). membranous. very fragrant. LOC. heating. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. stomatitis. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. L. DISTR. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. good in asthma. tonic to brain. mouth and skin. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. teeth. Chamba. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. t. eyes and ear. alexiteric. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. abundant in April-May. M. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. good for pains in joints and ear. LOC. caries of teeth. Pramodini. H. cures headache. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Vanchandrika. suppurative. Root—purgative. intoxicating. brain tonic . usually broadly ovate or elliptic. Arabian Lily. alexiteric. flowers and oil. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. soporific. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). :—A sub-erect shrub. Mogro. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda).124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. black. :—E. diseases of mouth. aphthae. entire. Fr.

H.— alternate.— ovoid. Simeavadala. Seeds contain active principle curcin. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. Vilayati haralu. subfleshy. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Coral plant. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. L. Sd. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. when applied to boils.—capsule. " Tridosha". If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. urinary discharges.5-12. Fr.5 cm. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. LOC. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. L. Fl. PARTS USED :—Wood. NS. NS. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Native of tropical America. Fr. male flowers. The seeds act as drastic purgative. Kananerand. Jangali erandi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. :—E. Mogali—Ran-erand. anaemia.—Euphorbiaceæ. biliousness. have suppurative effect. The acrid. stipules capillary. across. Sk. disk of female flower urceolate. broadly ovate. M. Sutashreni. . G. Bhadradanti. villous within. large. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. abdominal complaints.8 cm. corolla lobes 5. LOC. COM. herpes.—Euphorbiaceæ. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases.—orbicular. garden shrub . Fl. CHAR:—A handsome. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). Ratanjot.5 cm. FAM.. CHAR.5-12. dull brownish black. cordate. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. yellow. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. 10-15 X 7. juice sticky opalescent. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. Virechani. diam. black. Sk.5 mm.—E. thirst. COM. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). leaves. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. multifid.—monœcious. fistula. French or Small physic nut. 1. long. fruits and seeds. long-petioled. longer than calyx. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. DISTR. Jangali—Pahari erand. 7. useful in chronic dysentery. Jyotishka. Barbados Physic nut. 3-lobed. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. Dundigu. FAM. coral-red.—ovoid oblong. K.—in flat-topped cymes. Akhuparnika. K. and also promotes healing. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. 7.

DISTR. purple within. Shindhuka. pains. COM. wounds.6-1. FAM. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. Kalmashi. inflammations. Krishna-nirgundi. In Cambodia. useful in bronchitis. wild in Tenasserim. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction.—capsule. :—H. L. Fl. all over the State. Nilmanjari. vaginal discharges. LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. aphrodisiac. Sk. tympanitis. M. rheumatism and dysentery. FAM. hot. DISTR. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. LOC. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. dry . :—A native of China.—Ghati pitpapda. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. high . heating. causes " Kapha ". JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. Nachukaddi. Nilinirgandi. CHAR. bitter.5 cm. native of N. Fr. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. K. fattening tonic . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. America. leaves. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . in interrupted spikes. fevers. :—Bomb. M. 7.5 cm. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. COM. " Vata ' and "Pitta". JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. Karambal.—Acanthaceæ. purgative. Kala adulsa.—Acanthaceæ.—white spotted.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. HABITAT :—Shady positions. Bhutakeshi. . 5-12.2 m. Leaves are used in scabies. Seed— oleaginous. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). enlarged spleen. NS. branches subterete with raised lines. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. LOC. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. eye diseases (Ayurveda). skin-diseases. long. often met with in Bengal. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. useful in piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. dyspepsia. Karinchki. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. LOC.5-12. clavate glabrous.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. Bakas.

Australia. Fr. lying flat on the ground. strengthens lungs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Kachri. Fl. Fl.— June-July. (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. Deccan. gives lustre to eyes. LOC. Tubers yield an essential oil. . bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins .—lobes lanceolate. LOC.—2-lipped. :—N. L.—Scitaminaceæ. CHAR. Malaya. biliousness. fugacious. Sd.5-9 cm. Cultivated in gardens. Fl. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. vomiting. thirst. constipating .—finely tuberculate. Plant diuretic. burning of body.—Oct. :—Western Peninsula. Chandramala. diuretic. oval. Malay Islands. petioles channelled.—2. upper lip notched.3-12.. good in spleen diseases. aromatic. urinary discharges. Chandramulika. teeth. ovate or lanceolate. expectorant. lower 3-lobed . FAM. LOC. Kachchura . Maval in the Deccan. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. thin. COM. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). :— H. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague.. tired feeling. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). DISTR. enriches blood. Konkan. round. Sk.—variable. intoxication. fragrant. Western Ghats . t. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.5 X 4. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. Madras State.-Mar. obtuse at both ends.:—Stemless herb. stops vomiting. elliptic. constricted between the seeds . Panchgani. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. pure-white. softly pubescent. Kapurkachri. root-stock tuberous. C. DISTR. Travancore.—capsule. removes indigestion. PROPERTIES AND LOC. South Konkan.—612 from the centre of the plant. M. K. Fl. stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. :—Konkan. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. :—More or less throughout India.—in cylindric terminal spikes. NS. Ceylon. deep green. t. wandering of mind. Sugandhavachai. fever. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. purifies blood in skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Tubers. L. increases " Vata ". P. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. tube funnel-shaped . 6. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). oblong shortly pointed. pale violet pink. diaphoretic. spreading horizontally.

Kadu—Mithi tumbi. Danta-bija. Labuka. COM. H. Kadu bhopala. oblong. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. rootstock reaching 5 cm. G. COM. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Fl. LOC.— inflorescence. elliptic-oblong. M. COM. Fr. Malay Islands. NS. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. margins undulate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Dudio Tumbada.-Apl. Katutumbi. Cochin. :—Konkan.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl..5 X 5-12. Fl. Tubers yield an essential oil. midrib very stout.8-5 cm. thick.-Mar. Country. Kanara. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . CHAR. Alkaddu. simple.. LOC.5-23 cm.—Scitaminaceæ. promotes suppuration. annulate . The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. :—An aquatic herb. S. DISTR. FAM. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. in many cycles. N. tubular below. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. remedy for itch. Bhuichapha.. Bhuchampaka. female cylindric. Ceylon. Kaddu. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. Bottle-gourd. NS. NS. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. FAM. Sk. M. Halagumbala. Vatsanabhi. Sk. long. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. coriaceous. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. DISTR. very poisonous . —Feb.—15-37. Bhuichampa . .5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The whole plant. spathe 7. furrowed.—30X7. semicylindric.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. anthers crowded.—globose 3. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Nelasampige . :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. diam. creeping. K. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz.—narrowly oblong. L. :— G. Dudhi. Tumbaka. CHAR. t.5 cm. H. yellow. M.. :—M. :—Mysore. entire. Calabash. crowded in a globose bead . used in the form of poultice. petiole as long as blade. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. t. of various shades of purple and white. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Travancore. inflorescence of many ovaries. FAM. :—E. :—Stemless plant. Lauka. Bhuichampo . K.— sweetly fragrant.—Aroideæ. L. Coorg. Dudhya bhopala.. Fl.

pains (Ayurveda). Ceylon. antipyretic. There are two varieties. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. laxative. vulnerary. Malaya. increases "Vata". :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. bark. See—Timbers. piles. "Vata". fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. leaves. :—Western Peninsula. ulcers. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. brain-tonic. Arjuna. sweet. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. in many cases only cultivated. wild (rarely). refrigerant and anti-bilious. cures blood diseases. wholesome to fœtus. :—H. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. aphrodisiac. emetic. flatulence. PARTS-USED :—Root. Holematti. Sk. anti-periodic. bitter. cooling. DISTR. cures leucorrhoea. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. USES :— Leaves are purgative. LOC. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. causes bronchitis. styptic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. NS. flowers. See—Vegetables. dry cough. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world.) FAM. Taman. Fruit good in bronchitis. alexiteric. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. LOC:—North Kanara and S. cardiac and general tonic. diuretic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. In the Andamans. Seeds—good for hot constitution. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. . anti-bilious. Ornamental Plants. oleaginous. Arjuna. Challa. Bark and leaves are purgative. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. cures asthma. Konkan Ghats. earache. K. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. scalding of urine. Bandhara. earache. Assam. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. DISTR. Flowers cooling. leaves. fattening. fruits and seeds. seeds are narcotic. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . lessens inflammations. bronchitis. China. cause haemoptysis. Nirbendeka: M. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. bitter variety is diuretic. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. inflammations.—Lythraceæ. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. improves taste. muscular pains. Seeds emetic (Yunani). Tarul. fever. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. LOC.

5 X 2-2. FAM. common at Mahabaleshwar. Grains contain vitamin A. Fr. Madaranga. :—E. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. Rametha. Medi. Nakharanjaka. lobes 4. :—A much branched large shrub.. Deccan hills. glabrous above. Chickling—White vetch. D. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Peninsula—Ceylon. CHAR. subsessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. Fl. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. Latri. S. Kassar.—in erect. oblong lanceolate. lameness.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. removes "Kapha" and biliousness.—ellipsoid-oblong. causes much flatulence. oblong flat. Fl. Tree mignonette.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS. COM. M. L. Medika. K. NS. :—Konkan southwards. . The oil from the seeds is a powerful. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. 5-7.—Dec-May. Triputi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. N. but dangerous cathartic. (Ayurveda). inflammation. enclosed in the perianth . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. piles and wandering of the mind. Country. perianth-tube densely silky villous . Mehndi. Sk. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district.—Thymelaeaceæ. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. :—E. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Sk. Rami. Mukute. bark mottled. Belgaum hills . tonic. t. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. pain. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. H. G. COM. Gorantha. Lakh. M. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Lang. improves taste. Yavaneshta. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Henna plant. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam..5-3. yellow. burning. Kukurgal. heart-troubles. common on the Supa Ghats. M. DISTR. Ragangi. Basu). silky beneath. swellings etc. FAM. DISTR.—opposite or scattered.8 cm. Kanara. Mendi. The bark is used to poison fish. M. Sandika.5 cm. diam. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. dense terminal heads 2. :—W.—Lythraceæ. :—E. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. (B. Wooly-headed gnidia. LOC. COM. LOC. pointed. cooling. See—Food Plants. G. NS. Khesari.

E. & Gib. veined outside. boils. vulnerary. LOC.—opposite. Leaves—bitter. stomatitis. syphilitic sores. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Flowers are refrigerant. diuretic. G. supported by persistent calyx. Fr. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. planted as hedge. allay burning sensation. globose. indigenous in S. Fl. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". favours hair-growth. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. Asia. The oil and essence keep the body cool. dysentery. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. expectorant. Europe and in temperate W. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. wild in Arabia. H. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. in diseases of heart and of . often ending in spinous point. amenorrhœa.—in terminal.—Apl-July. white or rose coloured . ophthalmia. t. NS. Massur. cure leucoderma. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . seeds. enriches blood. diuretic. Gabholika. Gurubija. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. pyramidal and panicled cymes. diseases of spleen. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. See—Dyes. Sura. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. DISTR. The plant contains a glucoside. COM. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. HABITAT:—Cultivated. useful in headache. :—E. Lentil. Ragadali. LOC. :—Grown in Nasik.). PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. cure strangury tumours. Masur. Belgaum and Poona districts. truncate. FAM. Chanangi. Ceylon. Sd. flowers. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands.—capsule. cure insanity (Ayurveda). mucronate. M. DISTR. PROPERTIES. L. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. fragrant. bronchitis. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. Masuridal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. Masur. many. finger nails and hair. skin diseases . Fl. Iran and Baluchistan. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. lateral branches 4-gonous. Sk. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. lumbago. Masura. improve appetite. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). K. ulcers. scabies. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast .—angular. useful. remove " Kapha" and biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).

Seeds—indigestible. Suvasura. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox.—small. useful in diseases of chest. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. See—Vegetables. LOC. chest complaints. the lower petiolate. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. They contain vitamin B. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. LOC. . enrich blood. Grains contain vitamins A and B. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). upper sessile. cures dysentery . tumours and injuries. aphrodisiac . The covering is styptic and astringent. often with linear segments . M. laxative. Chavnsar. Asahio. Leaves are used as pot-herb. eye diseases (Ayurveda). aperient. tonic. K.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. bechic. bronchitis. Fl. Ashalika. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. Ahaliva. CHAR. See-Food Plants. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. L. Hot and dry. Allibija. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. white. rheumatism. and muscular pains. :—Cultivated throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves and seeds. COM. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. very likely indigenous in W. Fr.—Cruciferæ. G. Asia. bronchitis.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). good in inflammations. Halim . USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. Kurutige. FAM. blood and skin diseases. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Raktabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). bitter. diuretic. galactagogue. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). H. good for pain in abdomen. constipating. C—petals 2-4 or 0. tonic. :—An erect glabrous annual. LOC. NS. Chandrika. Chandrashura. :—E. Halim. stomatitis . aphrodisiac. affections of spleen. Sk. Hurfi. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Garden cress . serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Seeds contain fatty oil. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. They are mucilaginous and laxative.

tonic. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. NS. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Fibres. LOC. bark somewhat corky. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Fl. COM. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. bad for eyesight. good for cough and kidney troubles. branchlets densely tomentose. Seeds contain vitamin A. Sk. Alashi. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda).—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. COM. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. flowers. Common tallow laurel. Javas . In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. aphrodisiac. remove biliousness. M. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Maidelakri. dysentery. Haimwati. galactagogue. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. L. :—E. Madagandha. Alsi. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. glossy dark-green above. See—Oils.—crowded at the ends of branches. Alsi. "Pitta". H. Jivanika. diuretic. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. gouty and rheumatic swellings. seeds and oil.—Linaceæ.:—A small evergreen tree. FAM. Alasi. NS. leaves. G. remove "Vata". Sk. Alshi. lead to impotency. burnt bark styptic and healing. Common flax. back-ache. heal ulcers. Tailottama. native country probably Egypt.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S.—Lauraceæ. hard to digest. Maidalakadi. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. pale beneath. M.. Seeds—mucilaginous. causes loss of appetite. hot. boils. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Fr. Kanara. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. bronchitis. urinary complaints.:—E. DISTR. Garbijaur. lenticellate. colds and throat complaints. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. CHAR.— globose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Sedhavi. emmenagogue. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. black. Malina. perianth lobes wanting. supported by the thickened pedicel. Alashi. t. Linseed. 7. inflammations. Medini. Country.5 mm. usually alternate. FAM. cure leprosy. diam. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. LOC. Tisi. Roasted seeds are astringent. urinary discharges . with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. M. 8-12 together in heads. base narrowed. yellowish. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. :—Cultivated throughout India. K. used in consumption. aphrodisiac . Fl. . H. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. "Kapha".—May-July..

aphrodisiac. biliousness. Bibhishana. high. leaves. G. stem stout. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . aphrodisiac. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. uterus. useful in inflammations. Leaves are mucilaginous. Dhaval. Kahire. acrid. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. :—E. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. :—E. K. LOC. many. opening by 2 valves. expectorant. COM. Kalahogesoppu. NS. Ghontali. Wild tobacco. Katukoshataki. Fr. C—2-lipped. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". heating. NS. subglobose. Jalini. much curved. HABITAT :—Western Ghats.—Lobeliaceæ. all oblong.-Mar. midrib white. H. Ceylon. COM. M. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. leprosy (Ayurveda).100 m. 3 usually connate throughout . fever. hollow. 1. white. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. vagina. Deccan and S. Karvituri. CHAR. aphrodisiac. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Mrityupushpa. paralysis. Ridge gourd. Dhamana. cure cough. yellowish brown . See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons.—Cucurbitaceæ. "vata". pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts .134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. useful in biliousness. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. t. It acts as anodyne. Sd. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. tonic.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. bitter. fruits and seeds. finely serrulate. Jhinga. overheated brains. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Divali. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. bronchitis. Fl. diuretic. DISTR. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . lobes linear. galactagogue. Australia. Nali. . LOC. Fl. Malay Islands.2-3 m. pains in joints.—capsule. lanceolate. Nal. Narttaka. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. AMARA Clarke.9 cm. Devanala. L. H. LOC. long. FAM. SK. K.—Nov. lower much longer. Sthulanala. 2. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.5-3. thirst. consumption. branched upwards. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. M. burning sensation. strangury. Country. throat troubles. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. nearly sessile. very small. diseases of blood. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Narsala. Root—astringent.—numerous. PARTS USED :—Root. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Kandele. long. Kadudodka. :—Konkan. Sk. Ranturai. M. stomachic. bark. FAM. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts.—alternate. burning sensation. light green. heart. Devnal. spleen diseases.

) FAM. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. thrives in Deccan trap. Mahua tree. Kanara (rare) . females. acrid.—monœcious. H. Mahuda. . pale green. Madhuka. useful in rat-bite.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. inflammations. Madhusrava. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. piles. bronchitis. recommended in splenic enlargement. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. t. C. Fr. cathartic. LOC. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mahura.—Sept. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. M. also in Konkan and N. flowers and fruits. :—Throughout India. USES. :—E. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Fl. stems 5-angled. G. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. laxative. thick. piles. W. DISTR. leucoderma. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. 10-ribbed. tonic to intestines. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. tumours. ascites. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. PARTS USED :—Leaves. diuretic. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Butter tree. hydrogogue.8 cm. palmate. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). digestible. Root-bark is abortifacient. Mahua. Mahula. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Pokka. fruit and seeds. tendrils usually 3-fid. especially in western Peninsula. obtusely conical at both ends. base cordate.—obovoid. asthma. cures "Vata".—Sapotaceæ. "Kapha". 5-10 cm. biliousness.—petals yellow with green veins . COM. jaundice. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). Mhowra. 5-7 lobed. L. cures urinary discharges. liver complaints. :—Plant is bitter. Sk. Bengal to the W. anæmia. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. Burma. Ceylon. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Doddippa.—small. Fruit cures fever. Mowa. Hunage. Mowda. cough. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). Madhya Pradesh.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. at first whitish and softly villous. bitter. bitter. Moha. tonic and diuretic. leaves. uterine and vaginal tumours . long and about 2. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. asthma. Fl. tuberculous glands. K. LOC.53. solitary in the same axil as males. at length scabrid..:—A large climber. Gudapushpa. NS. carminative. alexiteric. DISTR.

yields two important products. COM. often planted. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Mohache jhad. See—Timbers. India . cooling. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. M. Kapilo. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Ceylon. M. Monkey-face tree. H. Mahuva of S. astringent. Mohwa. tonic. flowers act as a mild purgative. :—E. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Liquors. Flower—sweet. fattening. Ippe. Sk. G. LOC. Mysore. H. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Kesarimavu. :—Konkan. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. . Oil is good for skin-diseases. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Sk. Mehua. bronchitis. Honey tree. Moha. tonic and nutritive. Oils. Oils. Huli. burning sensation. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Madhuka. LOC. carminative. Kamala.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Hullichillu. anthelmintic. leprosy. Kampillaka. Flowers—oleaginous. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. Karnatic. :—-E. NS. cures biliousness. Mahuda. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. causes "Kapha". USES :—Astringent and emollient. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Kambhal Raini. There is a trace of alkaloid. flowers and oil. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. and appetiser (Sushruta).—Sapotaceæ. aphrodisiac. G. NS. and also a remedy for itch.—Euphorbiaceæ. fatigue . used in fractures. K. See—Timbers.) FAM. K. aphrodisiac. Movanuhjad. Shendri. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Movaro. good in heart diseases. Famine Plants. DISTR. FAM. consumption. Kapila. Oil—emollient (Yunani). and Kanara. fixed oil and a spirit. heals wounds . expectorant. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. :—Western peninsula. thirst. cures blood diseases. Kapila. Fruit-tonic . PROPERTIES AND LOC. ulcers. and Upper Burma. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin.. galactagogue.

biliousness. aphrodisiac. cooling. Mango tree. DISTR. :—-Throughout the State. Cuckoo's Joy. "Kapha". Burma. COM. tonic to body. enriches blood. vomiting. tumours. aphrodisiac. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Sahakara. thirst. sour. urinary discharges. LOC. Australia. Amra. M. Mavu. Astringent. styptic. a good collyrium (Yunani). improves cough. stomachic. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. anthelmintic. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). removes bad smell from mouth. flowers. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). Gum . leaves. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). Bhutan. :—Tropical Himalayas. Kamarasa. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. China. heals ulcers. good in dysentery. Bihar. "Pitta". See—Timbers. Malay Islands. astringent to bowels. Amba. diseases of abdomen. NS. Amri.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. Dyes. PARTS USED :—Root. lessen intestinal pains. anthelmintic. tonic. vulnerary. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. liver pain. H. leaves. throat troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. appetiser. K. it exudes a pink coloured gum. beautifies complexion. Khasia Hills. in "Tridosh". It is also said to possess cathartic properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. improve taste and appetite. Rasala. bad blood. Sk. Ceylon. cooling. cultivated throughout the State. carminative. fruits and seeds. :—Throughout tropical India. Sind. good in heart trouble. cure "Vata". clears brain. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. purgative. Sikkim. DISTR. sweet. wild and cultivated. chronic dysentery and gleet. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). spleen. purgative. useful in bronchitis. Ambo. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. cause flatulence and constipation. dispels langour and burning of body. diuretic. hiccup. Ghats and the Satpudas. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. wounds. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. vaginal troubles. bronchitis. Am. FAM. alexiteric. useful in skin-diseases. maturant. styptic. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. ulcers. detergent. Introduced. Fruit—heating. :—E. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. Chuta. dysentery. Kanara.—Anacardiaceæ. improves complexion. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. LOC. G. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. LOC. fruits and seeds. laxative. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. Mavin-mara. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). good in cough. cure leucorrhoea. piles. used in chronic diarrhœa. stone in bladder. vermifuge and. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. liver.

Hari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Paribhadraka.—Apl. green or yellowish green. few glands above the petiole cordate . Suparnika. K. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Dugdhike . L.—6. :—Bengal. tumours.—many. piles. rugosely striate. M. Fr. Sd. Nakchhikni. Kharkhodi. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Juss. NS. :—A large twining shrub. :—Deccan and S. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Hemajyoti-valli. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Ambri. Fl. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. fleshy.5 cm. USES. Limbada. leucoderma. aphrodisiac. biliousness. Confection made from ripe mango juice. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Balant nimba. stops nasal bleeding. pale yellowish brown. Nim or Margosa tree. Sk.) FAM. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Bevu. rat-bite (Ayurveda). H. Dodi. with lenticels and black dots. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Nimba. corona lobes large. LOC. useful in bleeding piles. Assam.5-10 cm. astringent to bowels. Juice of kernel. :—-E. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Nim. useful in diseases of eye. Madhumalati. good for dyspepsia. H. It is also anthelmintic.3-15 X 4. all plains districts of Madras State. Ceylon. G. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. antipyretic.—follicles. t. Sk. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. K. cooling. overlapping to the right. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. margined. broadly ovate or suborbicular. . older branches ash coloured. Nimbaka. Nimla.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. M. if snuffed. CHAR. Harandori. See—Timbers. M. DISTR. cures "Vata". Java.—rotate with broad lobes. coma copious . Country. flattened. COM. long. asthma.—Asclepiadaceæ.—broadly ovate. inflammations.5-11. burning sensation. Kadulimb. :—G. alexiteric.. COM. Ripe fruit is laxative.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Limbra.) FAM. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. 7. Khandodi. urinary discharges.—Meliaceæ. C.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. Fruit Trees. Fl. Nimba. NS. LOC. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke.

USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. The flowers are stimulant. skin diseases. convalescence. fatigue. leaves. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. flowers." vomiting. tumours. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. :—E. earache. leprosy. Vanmethika. toothache. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). M. anthelmintic. piles. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. insecticidal. rheumatism . Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. LOC. resolvant. swollen glands. relieves "Kapha". urinary discharges. See—Timbers. Burma. piles. valuable in consumption. tonic and antiperiodic. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . and loss of appetite. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . cures ulcers and inflammations . sprains. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. Sk. antiperiodic. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. COM. Banmethi. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. for unhealthy ulcers. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. cough. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. leucoderma. Ranmethi. maturant. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. NS. tonic. stomachic. H. DISTR. useful in syphilitic sores. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. good in ophthalmia. anthelmintic. chronic leprosy. Small melilot.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). asthma. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). blood complaints. carminative. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. FAM. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. stimulant and stomachic. maturant. astringent. refrigerant. burning sensation near heart. boils. lumbago. LOC. aphrodisiac. thirst. fruits and seeds. bark. good for leprosy. pectoral. fever. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. it is a general vermifuge. bruises. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. general debility. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. bad taste in the mouth. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers.. alexiteric. Oils. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. expectorant. Tonic. lessens inflammation. "pittadosh.

Europe. high. Pudina. Pudinah. male fascicled on short peduncles. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Agamaki. Malaya and Africa.—Labiatæ. :—Common in Deccan. at first green and variegated with yellow.—pale yellow. HABITAT :—In hedges. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. oblanceolate. L. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. Pudina.—variable in size. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Ceylon. Afghanistan.—monœcious . tendrils simple. K. young parts white-hairy.—small.—3-foliate. especially in strained back. Fl. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. NS. Chatinmaragu. also in S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. L. in spicate close racemes. Fl. Bilari. :—India (tropical zone). petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. Country and Gujarat. very hispid . H. rounded. females sessile. brown. 30-45 cm.—Cucurbitaceæ. scabrid. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. ellipsoid. Externally used as a fomentation. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Fr. base cordate. stem angular. Sd. Assam. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. M. truncate at the apex.—pod. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). finally red. COM. "Sikkim. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. glabrous or slightly hairy. :—H. . lobes dentate or serrate . It has expectorant properties to some extent. tapering at both ends. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. Fr. leaflets toothed. LOC.. Corn-March mint. LOC. DISTR. Iran. slightly echinulate. north Bengal. Khasia. standard exceeding the wings and keel. :—Western Peninsula. given as a gruel (Murray). COM. of terminal rather long. :—E.— Jany. S. G. CHAR. deltoid-ovate entire.—one. t. :—An erect annual herb. Ghugri. leaves and seeds.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. glabrous.—size of a pea. FAM. M. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. FAM. NS. Fl. poultice or plaster for swellings. M. DISTR. oblong-ellipsoid. introduced into many other regions.

digestive. flowers and fruits. sweats. Country. In N. Travancore. good for fevers. China. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. DISTR. Ceylon Iron-wood. dry. stem short. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. tonic to kidneys . Nagakeshara.—Guttiferæ. pains in joints (Ayurveda). L. FAM. ovate.—nutlets dry. :—Western Himalayas. PARTS USED :—Bark. M. Carminative. Gums and Resins. Assam Iron-wood. :—A perennial erect herb . infusion is given in fevers. useful in liver and spleen diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. Naghas. USES :—Root. foul breath. H. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). expectorant. LOC. vomiting. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. Kanara. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Europe. binding. Nagsampige. oblong. . hiccup. Andamans. sorethroat. Nagkesara. LOC. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. Kashmir. alexipharmic.—in axillary distant whorls. headache. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. lanceolate. NS. Fl. Bengal. COM. Ceylon. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). LOC. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Nagkesara. used for cough. smooth. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Burma Tenasserim. MESUA FERREA Linn. Himalayas. stalked. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. Nagchapha. lilac. toothed.—sub-equally 4-lobed. skin diseases. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. :—E. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. the upper similar and large. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. cardiotonic. hairy. emmenagogue. Nagkinjalka. See—Timbers. none at the top. leaves. cough. Suvarna. DISTR. K. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. and stimulant. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. biliousness. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. blood and heart troubles. good in asthma and sweats. North and West Asia. Konkan and N. diuretic.-narrowed below. lined with hairs and hairy outside. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. LOC. C. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. indigestion and cephalagia. thirst. The plant is used in chutneys. E. Fr. Sk. S. small tumours. :—E. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Oils. Assam.

Risemani. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. H. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. IndoChina. Suvarna champaka.—Sept. rheumatism. Dyes. Sk. rheumatism.—Magnoliaceæ. Raktamula. Sonchampo. bark. Ghats. Sk. :—Cultivated all over the State. Assam. ophthalmia. leaflets 15-20 pairs. FAM. diaphoretic. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. W. Fl. M. Yellow champa . PARTS USED :—Root. K. India. Champa. G. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. in vertigo. Sampige. Champo. long. NS. bile. Pivala chapha. COM. K. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. pinnae 1-2 pairs. See—Timbers. .. Lajjavati. 45-90 cm.—bipin-nate. Hem-pushpa. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. blood affections. also used as purgative. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas .—4-merous. pink. hairy beneath. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. DISTR. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). cultivated. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. leaves. acrid.. removes worms. Humble plant. evergreen rain-forest of N. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. sensative. Lajja. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Champaka. Yunnan. Lajari. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. LOC. S. petioles hairy. good in leprosy. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Surabhi. FAM. slightly recurved. remove biliousness. in globose heads. gout. clothed with glandular hairs . :—E.-Oct. Kanara. Lajalu. rachis bristly. glabrous above. Sankochini. nausea and fevers . "Vata". Vanamallika. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Burma. Sparshalajja. useful in cough. flowers and fruits. NS. t. G. Fruit. Sensitive plant.5 cm. :—A diffuse under-shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. COM. Golden champa. it is given with honey to relieve colic. facilitates micturition. near temples and in gardens. Lajalu. Lajjika. diuretic. aphrodisiac. Fr. high. Champaka. H. stems and branches sparingly prickly. Muthmurika.-pod flat. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Flowers— expectorant. L. Sone-chapha. destroys poisons. LOC.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Pilochampo. Lajalu. 57. M. stimulant. Nachike-gidda. Fl. diuretic. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. CHAR. "Kapha". Flowers-stomachic. Champaka. digitate.

PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. flowers and fruits acrid. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. biliousness. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Bolsari. Baphuli. Seeds fix loose teeth. useful in blood and bile diseases. cooling. Flowers—expectorant. often planted in gardens. Bakul. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Kanara. Varsuli. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). vulnerary. cultivated in gardens in pots. H. anthelmintic. Mukul. liver complaints. Borsalli. oleaginous. acrid. DISTR. In Brazil root is used as emetic. inflammations. Sk. cure biliousness. Root is resolvent. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Sharadika. Mulsari. :—Naturalised throughout India. good for gonorrhœa. fruits and seeds. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions.:—Western Peninsula. cooling. flowers. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. leprosy. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. alexipharmic. See—Ornamental Plants. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. dysentery. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Fruit causes flatulence. M. cures biliousness. leprosy. LOC. also used in discharges from mucous membranes .—Sapotaceæ. Bakul. cure blood diseases. leucoderma. cultivated in the tropics. asthma. in piles and fistula. fatigue. headache. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). bilious fevers. alterative. Flowers give taste. Juice is applied externally. Bakula. DISTR. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. ulcers. cures "Kapha". jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. LOC. bark. probably a native of tropical America. blood diseases (Ayurveda). teeth and gum diseases. smallpox (Yunani). NS. vaginal and uterine complaints. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). piles. sweet. alexipharmic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—G. Anangaka. Ceylon. Bakul. Kanara and Konkan. Malaya. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Ranjal. Bark cardiotonic. Vovali. LOC. nose diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. stomachic. It is also resolvent and alterative. K. COM. Kalhala. Mugule. Root.

high with large perennial tuberous roots. Sk. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. :—Grown throughout India. Fr. yellow. Fl. Gulbasa . :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Karela. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Karavalli.—Nyctaginaceæ. :—A herbaceous plant. good for syphilitic sores. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. NS. Sk. L. DISTR. M. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. 30-75 cm. M. native of tropical America. Guleaabbas . Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. lessen inflammations (Yunani). cordate. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Leaves are maturant. Oils. blackish.—continually in bloom. Krishnakali. brightly coloured (dark crimson. K. COM. It is also tonic and febrifuge. Hagala. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Fl. each one surrounded by an involucre. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands.—E. Fruit Trees. Karelo. often ribbed or rugose. See—Timbers. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. FAM. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. . Kareli. FAM.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. it is applied to relieve headache. K. white or crimson striped with white yellow) .—Cucurbitaceæ. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. Hagalkai. Marvel of Peru. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery.—large.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Karala.—membranous. H. COM. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. :—E. G. t. LOC. H. Karli. HABITAT -Cultivated. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Carella fruit. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. Karela. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. Four o'clock plant. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Kandura. and rather fleshy stems . CHAR. NS.

anæmia. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. stomachic. K. digestible. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. Ceylon. urinary calculi. Kartoli. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. It is useful in gout. Beksa. Kanta. Malaya. piles. anthelmintic. used in syphilis. also in Malaya. laxative. longpepper. :—Cultivated throughout India. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. Fruit— bitter. sparingly in Konkan. Golkandra. fever consumption. Fruits contain vitamins A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. cure "Tridosh". erysipelas (Ayurveda). laxative. See—Vegetables. cure "Vata". lessens expectoration . and externally in ague as an absorbent. China. Fruit—bitter. "Kapha". leaves and fruit. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. boils. blood diseases. leaves and fruit. Sk. excessive salivation. piles. DISTR. Plant cures diseases of blood. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fruit—very bitter. tumours. . rheumatism. DISTR. tropical Africa. H. :—G. COM. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. Vandhya. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. etc. LOC. :—Throughout India. Country and Gujarat. antibilious. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Nagarali.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS. Leaves act as galactagogue. burns. M. Gid-hagalu. asthma. ulcers. carminative. leprosy. anthelmintic. cures biliousness. Fruit is tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. tonic. urinary discharges. cooling. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. rheumatism. bronchitis. M. FAM. stomachic. LOC. Kantoli. and America. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). S. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root. asthma. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. Karehiballi. B and C. Leaves—aphrodisiac. hearttroubles. anthelmintic. antipyretic. all kinds of poisoning. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. bronchitis.'. hot alexiteric. aphrodisiac. stomachic. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. urinary discharges. diseases of spleen and liver. Vishakankini. eye and heart. Karkotaki. hiccup. appetiser. jaundice etc.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. laxative and authelmintic. Kantolan.

—Moringaceæ. Sajina. ulcers. See—Dyes. stuttering. DISTR. Tikshnamula. Al. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Formosa. . digestible. HABITAT :—Cultivated . also in the Oudh forests. causes burning sensation. also wild. Achchuka. Shevaga. Indian mulberry. emmenagogue. H. flowers. Rochana. LOC. COM. all "tridosha" fevers. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. See—Vegetables. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Nuggi. useful in heart-complaints. "Kapha". cultivated throughout India and Burma. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. bark. :—E. Mochaka. Introduced var. COM. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. astringent to bowels. Indian horse radish . PROPERTIES AND LOC. "Vata". Root-tonic to body and lungs.—Rubiaceæ. tuberculous glands in neck. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Seglo. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Tagase . alexiteric. anthelmintic. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. LOC. improves appetite. Famine Plants. Ashyuka. Achi. removes all kinds of pains. :—E. Murangi. leaves. inflammations. China. Guggala. earache. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Sk. tumours. FAM. Mulgule. Drum-stick Tree. Aal. DISTR. makes blood impure . biliousness .146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Burma. spleen enlargement. Ugra. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. FAM. M. Ak. fattening. leaves and fruits. Sargavo. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. NS. Haladipavate. Bartondi. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). NS. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Saraoji. M. fruits and seeds. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Ab. Mochaka. aphrodisiac. G. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. dyspepsia. Munigha. H. Ainshi. K. PARTS USED :—Root. G. Sk. Segua. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. eye diseases. analgesic. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . internally they are tonic and febrifuge. K.

leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. enriches blood. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. NS. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Tutri. diarrhœa. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Peninsula. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). heart. salt and pepper. it is cooling laxative. sweetish. piles. Shetur. M. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. aromatic and acid flavour. lumbago. See—Fruit Trees. Madhu pippali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. Karihannu. cooling. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. turmeric. diuretic. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. enriches blood. . increases biliousness. See—Vegetables. with garlic. loss of appetite. spleen. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. B and C. Fibres. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . anthelmintic. Tut. good for brain. rheumatism. Leaf paste. obstinate asthma. FAM. Root is purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. Oils. wounds. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. stomatitis. Tuda. H. carminative. Kambali. White mulberry. urinary discharges. Sk. diuretic. LOC. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. aphrodisiac. Fruit—tonic. appetiser. internal inflammations and calculous affections. useful in small-pox. good for inflammations of throat and chest. MORUS INDICA Linn. expectorant. DISTR. epilepsy and hysteria. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. burning sensation (Ayurveda). useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". The plant contains an alkaloid. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. Ambat. cures gleet.—Moraceæ. expectorant. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. ulcerated intestines. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. bark. laxative. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. sour. leaves and fruit. Tuta. bronchitis. Gums and Resins. lumbago. fattening. Siahtut. :—E. gout. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. K. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. Tut. biliousness. common about villages in N. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). Kanara. COM. enlarged spleen or liver. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. LOC. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. PARTS USED :—Root. G. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. Fruits contain vitamins A. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma.

useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani).—Scitaminaceæ. Root useful for delirium in fevers. HABITAT :—Humid areas . pods and seeds. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Root—emmenagogue. Fl. Bale. turgid-shaped. Hasaguni. Havanch.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). CHAR. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Kavatch. terminal smaller. :—E. 5-7. dark-purple. juice given for headache.5x1. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. Sk. DISTR.—in drooping racemes.—3-foliate. HABITAT :—In hedges. Sd. grey-silky beneath.. Kivanch. Kuhili. Kadali. Banana. Kela. Var. Adam's Fig. L. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . COM. leaflets membranous. Kapikachu. Tikshna. Cowhage. Maoz kela. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Kunth. Fr.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. leaves. tonic. G. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). M. Dirghapatra. Rambha. consumption. Seeds— alexipharmic. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Strong root infusion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. :—Punjab plains.. DISTR. Plantain. :—An annual twiner. Kela. Himalaya up to 1200 m. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant.3 cm.) FAM. NS. . silky. Atmagupta. biliousness . stem. K. cures blood diseases. Goncha. H. petioles 6. K.—Oct-Nov. tonic. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . Ceylon. They are used as anthelmintic. COM. Fl. which produce intensa irritation of skin. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. common in hedges. Kivanchha. MUSA PARADISIACA L. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated.2 cm. NS. with honey is given in cholera. Turashi. G. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. cultivated. flowers and fruit. lateral very unequal sided. Vanari. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. SAPIENTUM O. PARTS USED :—Root. M. 6-30 flowered. improves blood. H. long.—5-6 small. spermatorrhoea etc. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. " Vata ". LOC. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Kavach. LOC. t. Urustambha. LOC.3-11. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. :—E. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Kela. laxative. Sk.—pod. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Kadvare. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Nayi songuballi. sometimes cultivated.

Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. stipules twin. kidney troubles (Yunani). strangury. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Tropical Himalayas. Fl. Sk. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Ipparati. buds densely hairy. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. broad at base. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhutakes. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. linear. diseases of uterus and vagina. Kanara. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. tonic. leaves. pubescent. Fibres. COM. tube slender. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. C. leprosy. Root-juice. useful in "Kapha". causes bronchitis . :—H. tonic. K. t. and are used in acidity. sore-throat. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. flowers and fruit. good for dry bronchitis. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. Fr. Nagavalli. FAM. anthelmintic. Fruit—sweet. :—A rambling shrub. Fl. consumption and bronchitis. improves complexion (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. L. NS. CHAR. . Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. DISTR.. astringent to bowels. hairy. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. increases appetite. Bedina.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. subglobose. See—Fruit Trees.—Rubiaceæ. in " Vata". Andamans. Bellotti. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Hastygida. deep golden yellow. biliousness. indigestible . diabetes. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. M. PARTS USES :—Root. lobes broadly ovate. broadly elliptic. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. appetiser. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces.—tubular. :—S. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. Burnt stem is vulnerary. LOC. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. ear-pain. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. heart-burn and colic. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. antidysenteric. dyspepsia. Serwadh.--in terminal cymes. Shrivalli. urinary discharges. menstrual disorders.— July-Oct. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . in thirst. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. thickens blood. Root-juice is anthelmintic. very hairy outside. :—Konkan and N.— berry. astringent to bowels. LOC.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Assam. Lawsat. B and C.

:—Often grown in gardens throughout India. Galen and the Arabian writers. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. DISTR. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. diuretic. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . It is credited with opposite qualities. Ram-patri. as . Kanage. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. axillary on slender peduncles. PARTS USED :—Leaves. L. M. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil.—berry. DISTR. :—Western Peninsula. See—Timbers. LOC. Pliny. smoke beneficial to piles. W. Fl. cures headache. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. Murad. emmenagogue. applied locally to relieve pain. Dioscorides. COM. False nutmeg.—small. Vilayantimendhi. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. LOC. Habules. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. :—Konkan and N. :—A shrub. Kanara Ghats . white. intermittent fevers and dropsy. Fr. PARTS USED:—Seeds. CHAR. Sk. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Malati. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. Myrtle. Kamuka. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. fruits and oil. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. FAM. NS. Condiments and Spices. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. common in the Kumta taluka.— Myristicaceæ. NS. allaying pain. :—E. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). small. Kaiphal. promotes growth of hair. A decoction is employed. Himalayas. M. :— E.—Myrtaceæ. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. It is used as a substitute for true mace. They are given in asthma. enriches blood. very sweet smelling. K. especially epilepsy.— solitary. ellipsoid. ovate to lanceolate. all over the State. black when ripe. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. H. is regarded as. FAM. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. Malabar. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. Malati. used in stopping vomiting. LOC.

in diam. Ripe carpels. 10-25 cm.3-0. L. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. top flat. biliousness. t. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. C.—solitary. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. DISTR. Sd. Fl. orbicular. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa.) FAM. Padam. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. Papra-vel. M. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Fr. anthers with clavate appendages. ovoidglobose.—Meliaceæ. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Pitmari. Timpani. LOC. Sk.—white.. white or rosy. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. long. cures asthma. Suriyakamal. :—W. H. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. from Iran eastwards to Australia. Tavari-bija or gadde. linear spathulate. L. high. vulnerary. COM. stem. Pundarika.-Nov. Sk.. K. petals 5.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State.—membranous. glabrous.6 m.5 cm. Kandalu. PARTS USED :—Root. petioles very long. Ambuja. See—Ornamental Plants. Kanara. rough with distant prickles . Sarasija. Kamal. Kapurbhendi.—Nymphæaceæ. Fl. Goanese ipecacuanha.—capsule. muricate. leaves. Chinese water-lily. dysentery. COM. NS. radiately nerved. alexiteric. :—Konkan. Ambuj. Kamal. NS. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Kamala. Indian sacred lotus.—July. hæmorrhage.—pendulous. :—E. LOC. diam. disk annular. :—E. Aravinda. FAM. Kandabahula.—alternate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. 0. K. torus 18 mm. Fl. elliptic. CHAR. & A. petiole winged. Nelanaringa . t. 3-foliate. .-Dec. Pankaja. 3-valved. with slender. M. axillary. elongate. spongy. DISTR. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Padma. solitary or 2 together.—petals many 5-12. :—A large aquatic herb. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. CHAR. Fl. :—A small branching undershrub. peltate. cells 2-seeded. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Amlavalli. erect. curved. free. ovoid. Kamal. Belakanji. fleshy. entire. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. concave or cupped. bronchitis. creeping stem rooting at the nodes.

:—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. LOC. Kanher. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Waziristan. :—E. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. useful in piles. In China and Malaya dried red petals. FAM. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. seeds. spermatorrhoea. DISTR. astringent to taste . good in throat-troubles. K. planted in gardens throughout the State. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. good in blood-complaints. diuretic. COM. also cholera. Sk. also as a hedge plant. rigid. strangury. allays thirst. ulcers and sores of mouth. NS. M. t. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. at length separating. Upper Gangetic Plains.—Apocynaceæ. G.—funnel-shaped. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Cool. aphrodisiac. small-pox. fragrant. heart and brain tonic . Baluchistan.—red.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. also recommended as cardiac tonic. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Madhya Bharat. Kaner. leaves. stem.—flowers more or less throughout the year. flowers. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . long. allays thirst. Fl. fruit. rose or white. useful in fevers . The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa.—follicles. India. Karvira. Kaner. Filaments are astringent and cooling. 10-15 cm. . Ashwa-marak. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. Karber. flowers. Sd. Fl. fever. Fr. gives tone to breast. LOC. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. Paddali.—in threes. coriaceous. Salt Range. leucoderma. L. diseases of skin and eye . slightly bitter. menorrhagia. in fever and liverdiseases. lobes rounded. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". improves watery eyes (Yunani). throat scaly. leaves. long. 15-23 cm. useful in burning sensation of the body. Sind. Kanel. Vishavrikshanka. H. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. Cool. dark green and shining above. Pratihasa. cures cough. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. C. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. vomiting. S. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . Karvira. tapering into short petiole. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . chest-pains. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). linear-lanceolate. Sweet scented oleander. inflammations and poisoning. Kanagile. removes worms. honey. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. biliousness.

C. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. inflammations. Root—aphrodisiac. USES :—All parts of plant. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. asthma. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). wounds. Flowers— aphrodisiac. headache. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. M. sores. useful in caries of teeth. cultivated in all tropical countries. Tamaku. lobes spreading. COM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. skin diseases. LOC. The plant contains a glucoside. anthelmintic. large (especially lower ones). a mental stimulant. across.—Solanaceæ. bronchitis. good for lumbago. H. tubercular glands of neck. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. PARTS USED :—Leaves. nervous depression and sleeplessness. Fl. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. disinfectant. L. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. :—Native of America. Tambakhu.—capsule. tonic. Tambak. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. G. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. Poisonous to fish. K. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. funnel-shaped. especially root. caries of teeth. Hoge soppu.—pink or white. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. inflammations.8 cm. CHAR. Bujjarbhang. Krimighni. Dhumrapatrika. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. scabies (Yunani). foul nose. smoke constipating. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). :—E. useful in bronchitis. very poisonous. dimness of sight. also applied in leprosy. oblong or elliptic. Kalanja. carminative. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. Sk. emetic. are poisonous and are used externally. Tamakhu. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Fr.—in open corymbose panicles . the surface is plain or bullate. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). FAM. An ointment made . base wedgeshaped . conical. Tamarakuthika. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. Tobacco. about 1. NS. water from hookha is diuretic. LOC.—alternate. tonic. DISTR. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. laxative. Tabak. sedative and emetic. scabies. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S.

CHAR.. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant.— more or less throughout the year. NS. Har-singhar. Lotus. obcordate or merely orbicular. stomachic.) FAM. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . K. Sephalika. Kumuda. C.—Oleaceæ. useful in bilious fevers. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Kharapatraka. 2-celled. It is used with honey in chronic fever. flowers and seeds. :—E. Lalkamal. FAM.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. t.—lobes white. bark. L. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. COM. Kanwal. :—E. M. rough above with bulbous hairs. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Madhya Bharat. tube orange-coloured.—opposite 5-10x2. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . axillary. H. Chotakanwal. COM. Jayaparvati. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Nilophhal. southwards to the Godavari. :—A large shrub or a small tree. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Fr. Burma.—capsule. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. NS. Prajakta. Bengal. Prajakta. Fl. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. G. Assam. densely pubescent beneath. LOC. Kanval. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. H. Parijataka. young branches quadrangular. M. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Har. Sephali.—Nymphæaceæ. Shonapadma. compressed. Bark cures bronchitis. Nalkumkuma. ovate acute. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Sk. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Fl. Aravind. Alipriya. scalp affections etc. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. leaves. HABITAT :-Cultivated.3 cm. peduncles 4angled. Indian Mourner : G. bark. Nyadale huvu . tonic to hair. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. See—Ornamental Plants. hairy. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. carminative. abundant July-Sept. Parijata. cures fevers. Parijata . astringent-to bowels. lessen inflammation. . leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Cultivated in many parts of India. Sk. (Ayurveda). DISTR.— fragrant. a decoction of root. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Harsing. K. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. solitary. Buds are tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. Bilitavarai. LOC.5-6.

LOC. removes impurities from blood . fleshy. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . white. t. K. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. G. Sabja. diuretic. entire. 15-25 cm. Barbar. Fl. roundish. bitter. "Kapha". :—Cultivated in many places in the State. :—Large aquatic herb . :—Var. allays thirst. peduncles very long . 7. Fr. Hungary. NS. Var. inflammations. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. leaves and flower. Bahari. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. stems and branches green or purplish. Manjarki. Tungi. across. LOC. M. Plant has a sharp. 8-13 mm. rough. aphrodisiac . PARTS USED :—Roots. Fl. asthma.—peltate. Fl. juice gives lustre to . orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate).. green.5-20 cm. alexipharmic. leucoderma. Sd. "Vata". Ramkasturi. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. improves taste . petioles very long. cylindric.— ovoid. Surabhi. long.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. " Kapha". lessens bile. Ajagandhika. acute. itch. Sajjebija. deeply cordate at the base. ripening beneath the water. DISTR. long. Africa. "Vata". COM. FAM. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). cultivated throughout the greater part of India. leaves. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. Sk. Philippines. globose. diam. enlarged spleen.— in whorled racemes . Ceylon. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR.—all the year. and nigropunctate above. :—E. emmenagogue. Burma. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. bracts stalked.6-0. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). oblong. short. diarrhœa and piles .—ovate. flowers and seeds. anthelmintic. filaments dilated at the base .—Labiatæ. biliousness. Common sweet basil. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. Barbar. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. submerged . Nasabo. useful in diseases of heart and brain. open in the morning only. toothed or lobed. diameter. chronic pain in joints. febrifuge. C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Sabja. black and pitted. irregularly sinuate-dentate.—petals about 12. purple stem. erect. Surasa.—solitary. C. stomachic. CHAR. :—An erect herb 0. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. Tukhamariya . thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. red. stamens about 40. glabrous. bitter taste. DISTR. pink or purplish. pale rose or white. thyrsiflora. root stock tuberous. antipyretic .9 m. H. hot taste.—nutlets about 2 mm. Damaro.—2-lipped. obtuse. causes burning sensation. Java.—3 cm. Sabzah. L. useful in diseases of heart and blood. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. Rihan. Fr. high. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. ellipsoid. glabrous or pubescent. cooling .

high. diuretic and stimulant.2—1. Rantulasi. BanMal tulasi. DISTR. NS. Lemon—shrubby basil. in close whorls .— in simple or branched racemes. liver and spleen. Large basil. FAM. fits. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. diuretic and demulcent properties. M. Ajaka. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. Sk. lower lip longer. During fever when the extremities are cold. often cultivated : Ceylon. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Fl.—2-lipped. elliptic-lanceolate. brown. carminative. G. COM. It is also styptic. M. " Vata". aphrodisiac . Country. strengthens gums. useful in diseases of brain. pale greenish yellow. earache. Plant has bitter. good for griping and piles (Yunani). Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. H. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. Java. :—Konkan. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). LOC. young ones pubescent.5 X 3. Sumukha.-July-Oct. Fl. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. Ram Tulasi. Fr. C. t. strangury . coarsely crenate-serrate.7 cm. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. gland-dotted. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. woody below . useful in vomiting.—6. Gujarat. rugose. they are also aphrodisiac. CHAR. heart. Avachi-bavachi. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. headache. " Kapha". causes insomnia (Ayurveda). . inflammations. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. skin diseases. LOC.—nutlets subglobose. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. sharp taste . good for toothache. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Rama-Ran tulasi. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. branched. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. S. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia.8 m.—Labiatæ. Deccan. removes foul breath. :—A perennial shrub. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. LOC. pubescent.8—5. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. rachis quadrangular . mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. alexiteric. L. :—Throughout India.3—12. 1.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. The flowers possess. stems and branches subquadrangular . stimulant. heating. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition.

6— 3. C. Krishna tulasi. clothed with soft hairs . stems numerous. Fr. Fr. Malay Archipelago. lobes acute. M. vomiting. upper lip pubescent on the back. bitter. pubescent. strangury. NS. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. elliptic-oblong. COM. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. long in close whorls . CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Papli. hiccup. linear or linear-lanceolate. H. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases .2 cm. used in catarrh and bronchitis . antipyretic. obtuse or acute. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). smooth. stomachic.—subsessile. Tulasi. bronchitis.5-5 X 1. CHAR. Fl. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. Parpat. L. high. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. NS. yellow with black marking. entire or serrate. Vrinda. FAM. :—Throughout India. See—Sacred Plants. Vishnuvallabha. purplish. LOC. Fl. Damanpaper. stipules with bristles . Sk.—2-lipped. L. Phapti. t. DISTR. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. H.:—E. leucoderma. Tulasi. FAM. HABIT :—A common weed. globose or pyriform .. varying from 7.—2. especially in children. K. COM. leaves and seeds. :—An annual plant. G. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. Kala tulasi. usually 2-3 cm. anthelmintic. Suravallari. Tulasa. Ceylon. :—Konkan. asthma. lumbago pains.5—38 cm. minutely gland-dotted. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. 30-60 cm.—on filiform pedicels. M. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. :—G. M. Tulasi. Asia to Java and the Philippines.— in racemes 15-20 cm. alexiteric. West Asia. long. of children and in hepatic affections . heating. LOC. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Manjari.— capsule. high. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State.—Sept-Nov. Deccan and S. :—An annual herb. painful eye. Fl. " Kapha". HABITAT :—Cultivated. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. .—Labiatæ. " Vata". foul smells. DISTR. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. stems and branches subquadrangular. margins recurved and scabrous. Tropical E. angular. Parapate. useful in heart and blood diseases. Pavitra. purplish.— nutlets. and are given with honey. purulent discharge of ear. Arabia.—pale brown. Australia. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Sk. Vranda. Country. cholagogue. :—Throughout India (cultivated) .

pyriform. Sk. yellow at the edges. Nagaphani. FAM. Fr. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. yellow or orange. LOC. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. reddish purple when ripe. spleen enlargement.—7. perianth rotate. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. across. Zhoratheylo. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. dull bluish-green. Nagaphana. Grown as hedge. lumbago.—Cactaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Mullugalli. LOC. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . antipyretic. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . 3 m. rusty brown. used in ophthalmia. DISTR. Joints variable in size. carminative. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. G. long. laxative. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Prickly pear. ulcers. Slipper thorn. ascites. digestive. rather thin. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Phadyanivdung. H. COM. reddish at the tips. inner spathulate. Hathathoria. carminative. alexiteric. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico.5 cm. Plant juice—heating. Chorhothalo. CHAR. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. juice cures earache (Yunani). diuretic. it is also used in liver complaints. tumours.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. cures inflammations. long. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. flowers and fruits. liver complaints. inflammations. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. loss of consciousness. Nagaphana. spleen enlargement. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). stomachic. urinary complaints. piles. purgative. cures bronchitis in children. good for leucoderma. K. xerophyte. or more high.— berry. recurved. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. NS. Nagdali. anæmia. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. subulate. " Vata".—5 cm. largest 3. burning. :—E. Plant bitter. vesicular calculi. Vajrakantaka.5 mm. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. angular or warty. Fl. . obovate or elliptic. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. leucoderma. cures biliousness. M. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. introduced into India. Nagadru. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. Snuka. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. Sher.

M. :—E. Pharri. DISTR. Bhat. useful in biliousness . Ghats. dysentery. Tetu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Tetu. Fruit—expectorant. Shali. M. astringent to bowels . The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Dirghavrinta. Tetu. H. good in heart and throat diseases. cooling. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Malaya. K. COM. Akki. Tans. LOC. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Sk. leucoderma. anal troubles. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. aphrodisiac. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. LOC. G. Nivara.). anthelmintic. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). Rice. K. Mayarjangha. LOC. :—Widely cultivated. bronchitis. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. aphrodisiac. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. stomachic. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. H. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. NS. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. :—The Konkan and the N. Dyes. HABITAT :—In moist-forests.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. asthma. Ceylon. sweet.—Bignoniaceæ. fattening. FAM. See—Timbers. G.S.—Gramineæ. Bagi. HABITAT :—Aquatic. oleaginous. bronchitis (Ayurveda). piles. Tandula. improves appetite. Mokka. diuretic. M. intestinal worms. Rice . ORYZA SATIVA Linn. tonic. Cochin-China. Fruit—acrid. PARTS USED :—Grain. NS. R. Chaval. biliousness. vomiting. It is astringent and tonic. Tandula. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. inflammations. tonic. Arlu. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. FAM. improves taste. Araluka. Podval. Ullu. Indian trumpet flower. DISTR. Shyonaka. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). useful in " Vata". Ava. Kanara ghats . Seeds are purgative. Chokha. :—E. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. fevers. K. appetiser. COM. Vrihi. Tuntaka. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Sk. Alangi.

In chronic bronchitis and coughs.— many. " Vata " and piles. :—Throughout the State. 5-angled. COM. stems rooting. DISTR. Jaladudhi. easy to digest. Changeri. also in burns and scalds. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. FAM.— capsule. Chukrita. inflamed piles. leaflets 1. H. ulcers. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. Amrul. ovoid.— Oct-May. K. COM. See—Food Plants. rounded at the apex. Dudhatani. long. bowels or kidneys. Dugdhike. Dudhari. scarlet fever. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. H. Shuklika. measles. t. It is an excellent application to abscesses. obcordate. beaked. K. Kshiravi.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . bruised. diarrhœa. base cuneate subsessile. Amlalonika. Fr. astringent. to which a little lemon juice is added. brown. transversely striate.—Oxalidaceæ. small-pox. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn.2—2. Br.—axillary. M. gives great relief. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). margins ciliate. if applied to chest. Sk. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. Indian Sorrel. M.—palmately 3-foliate. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. Kyirin . LOC. buboes. . used externally. yellow. Dugdhika. In dysentery.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. Rice water. Dudhani. Fl. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Sk. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. Sd. Fl. CHAR. :—E. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). L. Ceylon. removes " Kapha ". taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. The grains contain vitamin C. good appetiser .—petals 5. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. pubescent. NS. Dudhialata. NS. Ambastha. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m.5 cm. cures dysentery. boils. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . C. Marudbhava. FAM. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . LOC. sub-umbellate . Dugdhica. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . :—G. petioles very slender. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. dysentery and scurvy. It is a pleasant. Dudhialata. oblong. PARTS USED :—Leaves. linear-oblong. Ambuti. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice.

Ketaka. anthelmintic. Kedige. milky juice. Ceylon. leucoderma. leaves. Giripriya. Leaves are useful in leprosy. gonorrhœa. Fr. fruit and oil from bracts. Sundarbans. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. CHAR. black. C. coriaceous ensiform.—Dec. alexiteric. Fr. 0. lobes ciliate. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. coma present. . HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. 3. G. L. X 3. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". Fl. pale rose or white. thin.—Pandanaceæ. M. tonic. Mundige. H. margins and midrib spiny. Anthers useful in pruritus. fruit. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. Keora. Country— Belgaum.8 mm. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. stem supported by aerial roots . PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn.3 cm. diuretic. Ketgi. DISTR. PARTS USED :-Root. LOC. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. HABITAT :—Usually near water. syphilis. pain in the muscles. K.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. dry. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. :—Konkan. heat of body. yellow or red. mouth with pubescent ring. root. Gandha-pushpa. Burma.5-9 cm. much branched. bitter. high. linear or linear-lanceolate. Dhulipushpika. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. cough. diseases of heart and brain. purple veined. Fl. NS. Kanara. DISTR.. 4. Kevada. somniferous. long. Fl. Flowers improve complexion. M.—dioecious. Poona Sangam. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. :—Konkan and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. palegreen. Umbrella Tree. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. LOC. t. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. female flower spadix solitary. Andamans. small-pox. :—E. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).5 m. Chama-pushpa. pain.—follicles. useful in strangury and tumours. Fruit—tonic. often planted. juice is used in gleet. :—A shrub up to 6 m. causes flatulence. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). strikingly handsome. Screw pine. Kewoda. Deccan. Sk.8-6. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. laxative. S. anthers. " Kapha ". L. rarely erect. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. stems many. expectorant. Gogandhul. FAM. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . PARTS USED :—Plant. Ketaki. LOC. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Java.—very numerous. Kanara. Sd. anthelmintic. COM. with flavour.— large.—deciduous.9—1. long. aphrodisiac. corona staminal.—glaucous green. indigestible. scabies. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent.—oblong or globose.

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

light and astringent.—3-foliate. wild date palm. NS.5 cm. NS. glabrous or hairy. Adavada. Khaji. Sk. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Malay Islands. PARTS USED :—Seeds. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. M. laxative. 2. good for eyes.:—Very common throughout the State. aphrodisiac. Mugani.—6-12. FAM. Boichand. Koshila. COM. Kidney diseases. Shindi. Sd. Khandesh. throat inflammations. Fl. M. cures consumption. astringent to bowels.3—2. LOC. Swadi. long.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Belgaum. broadly spathulate. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. H. Afghanistan. Magavala. Fl. Sendhi. digestible. Ranmug. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Sk. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. gout. Kolaba and Kanara. Fr. mugawana. K. cough. :—Annual or perennial. petioles grooved. LOC. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. headache. t. CHAR. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Satara. Kherk. enrich blood. DISTR. good for the eyes . piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. LOC. biliousness. straight subcylindric. burning sensation. astringent.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Ahmednagar. FAM. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Kurangika. Indian wine palm. Sind. L. Konkan. dry. " Kapha". few flowered racemes. LOC. slightly recurved. styptic.5—5 cm. long. nose complaints. H. Adabanmagi. good in fevers. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. yellow. The grains contain vitamins A and B.—in sub-capitate. Siyindu. Kalli-chalu. peduncles 10-23 cm. . Khajuri. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. Date sugar palm. Dharwar. :—E. COM. G. leaflets 1. Kohesaru. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. layer. as a kharif crop. Kajuri. Shimbiparni. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. :—Largely grown in. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Vanmudga. Tadi. K. and southwards to Ceylon. Kharjurika. inflammations. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Kashayi. Abyssinia. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). long. Ranmath. See—Food Plants. Kallu. Ichela-mara. Kharjuri.— pod. Trianguli. :—G. Deccan and Gujarat. membranous. dysentery. blood diseases. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Kapila. thirst. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Seeds— tonic. wiry. Burma. Ahmedabad. antipyretic. prostrate. cure biliousness. " Tridosh". cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). eye troubles. DISTR.—Palmæ.—Oct.

:—Tolerably common throughout India. See. t. cooling. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. clothed with appressed white hairs . Fl. fruit and juice of the tree. LOC. Ratoliya. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions.—sessile. densely fascicled. rounded at the apex. subsessile. Ceylon. Bhuiokra. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. large and thick.—opposite. rigid. Sholapur. sharply serrate in upper part. spadix 60-90 cm. usually along banks. L.—white or pale-pink. erect. deeply grooved on one side. M.—pinnate. Sd. stems rooting at the nodes. . :—G.5 m. female spadix and spathe as in the male. Ratoliya. Fl. Siwalik. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. L.—more or less all the year. NS. Vashira. Okra. Bihar.—Jan-Feb. Poona and Belgaum districts. oblong. long. :—A creeping perennial herb. Baluchistan. Africa.—rounded at the ends. H. spinous. upper 2-lobed. wild or more often cultivated. triangular. long.—globose. Fr.—Fibres. Toyavallari. blood and eye. pinnules many. outer Himalayas. wandering of mind. fattening. DISTR. long. aphrodisiac. :—A tall graceful palm. LOC. much branched. crown hemispherical. constipating. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. lower 3-lobed. alexiteric. :—Throughout India. Famine Plants. Mysore. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Fl. and in beds of streams and water courses. pointed.—Verbenaceæ. useful in diseases of heart. COM.—2. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. Bengal. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. This is called neera. flowers distant. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. Jalpippali. Fr. petioles compressed towards the apex.— dioecious. CHAR. Coromandel Coast. spatulate. :—Found fairly in Surat. Sharadi. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). Langali. ensiform. scented. cardiotonic. C. DISTR. LOC. good in heart and abdominal complaints. spiny at the base..5 m. roundish. Agnijwala. oleaginous.) FAM. cooling. t. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. 15-45x2-2. angular. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. fevers. male white. orange-yellow. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. 9-15 m. aphrodisiac. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Rohilkhand. oblique. vomiting. 3-4. Jalapipali.5—3. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. oblong-ellipsoid. 2-lipped. flowers very many. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Sk.2 cm. greyish-green. Jalapimpli. Fl. Ratuliyo. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads .

bronchitis. useful in thirst. Ajata. Bhumyamali. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. . Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. globose. leaves. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. Leaves are stomachic. Stomachic. burning sensation. urinary discharges. hiccup. females solitary. monœcious. H. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Vituntika. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. stem branched at the base. K. biliousness. Bhuiavli. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Ceylon. Fl. The whole plant. leprosy. lobed.useful in fevers. CHAR :—An annual herb. very small. NS. axillary. Infusion is a good tonic. Bhumyamalaki. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . wounds. good for ulcers. distichous. except Australia. Amala. Fl. Bhumyamali. anæmia. cooling. diuretic. maturant.. :—G. ringworm (Yunani).—yellowish. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. of female. Bhuianvalah. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn.—Euphorbiaceæ. DISTR. high . LOC. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. :—Throughout India. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. Sk. LOC. 30-60 cm. alexipharmic . longitudinally ribbed on the back. bronchitis. Sukshmadala. asthma. milky-juice.—capsule. disk of the male of minute glands.— numerous. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. fruit. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. smooth. Jaramla. scabies. L. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). t. dry. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. very numerous. and without salt may be applied to bruises. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. FAM.—3-gonous. LOC. M. wounds. sores. asthma.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. It is valuable in scurvy. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. annular. anuria. scarcely lobed. angular.— July-Aug. Kiranelligida. Sd. males 1-3. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. Sadahazurmani. elliptic-oblong. thirst. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. :—Konkan and Deccan. COM. Tropics generally. Plant—hot. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger).

Pan. FAM. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. It increases saliva. Kalamiri. throat diseases. PARTS USED :—Fruits. spleen diseases. ozoena. smeared with oil. Vata". DISTR. tonic to brain. ozœna. :—E. DISTR. See—Condiments and Spices. Satara. Sk. improves appetite (Ayurveda). COM. Saptashira. styptic (Yunani). :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. :—E. acrid. pains. Betelleaf. alexipharmic. Tikshna. NS. useful in "Kapha".—Piperaceæ. LOC. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. generally in Konkan. M. Malimirich . bechic. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. LOC. stomachic. . Kanara forests. strengthens teeth . K. urinary discharges. Vidyache-pan. It sweetens breath. and fruits (rarely). carminative. asthma. It contains an aromatic essential oil. laxative. Menasin-kallu . purgative. Bhakshyapatra. bronchitis. carminative. tonic. Marich. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. M. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. FAM. Eleballi. K. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Tambulavalli. Warm leaves. anthelmintic. Poona. Sholapur. Golmirch .MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. liver and muscular pains. given with milk in hysteria. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. Panu. :—Wild in the N. improves voice. aphrodisiac. Mensinballi. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. tonic and digestive. NS. night blindness. Linn. Kaphavirodhi. removes all foulness from mouth. Black-pepper. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. Kalaka. G. Menasu. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. heart and liver. satyriasis and to allay thirst. " Kapha ". Leaf—improves taste and appetite. elephantiasis . heating. alterative. aphrodisiac. foul smell in the mouth. clears throat. leavs. Nagavalli. Fresh leaves. Pan. LOC. Kalamirich. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. cultivated in Konkan and N. piles. COM. hot. Kalimiri. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Betel leaf vine. H. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. G. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. useful in "Vata". leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. carminative and astringent. Kanara.—Piperaceæ. H. Betel pepper. Vileyad-ele. vulnerary. Pan. increases biliousness. inflammations. useful in toothache. Tambola.

See—Condiments and Spices. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. :—E. used as febrifuge. NS. and possesses narcotic properties . piles and some skin-diseases . Bark contains a glucoside. entire or toothed. base tapering into petiole. LOC. radial 2. In physiological action. lanceolate or greenish .— alternate. L. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. facilitates menstruation. sprains. vertigo. Tammata. PROPERTIES AND LOC. ophthalmia and phthisis.—Plantaginaceæ. lumbago. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Konkan. Lahuriya. DISTR. Burma. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. H. Arcot and Salem. tonic and a local stimulant. See—Timbers. chest affections. various forms of cutaneous diseases. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. Greater plantain . LOC.—capsule. M. weakness following fevers. chronic fevers. dries body humours (Yunani). C. ovate or oblong.—Pittosporaceæ. N.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. piperidine and an essential oil. NS. :—K. COM. leprosy. Fl. FAM. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. long. Deccan. Vehkali. Bartang. Khasia Hills. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. coma. bruises. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. used in chronic bronchitis. variable in width. the oil is alterative. Khandala (pretty common). as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. Externally it is rubefacient. paralysis . as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. W. It is a good expectorant. Kanara in ghat forests.5-12. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. sciatica. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. Fr. hills of S. FAM.—lobes 4. It yields an essential oil. petiole longer than leaf-blade. CHAR.5 cm. & A. COM. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . ovoid. Vikhari.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . .

attenuate. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts.—throughout the year. LOC. Fl. Ghats. Lalchitrak. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. LOC.Sept. Raktachitraka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. PARTS USED :—Roots. zeylanica. H. Palni hills.. long in long terminal axillary. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. CHAR. COM. K. Nilgiris. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores.—large. t. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. G. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. alterative. LOC. striate .—tube slender. oblong. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. DISTR. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. t. angled. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Assam. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . lax spikes. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. NS. erect. stems herbaceous. Sk. Fattening. alterative and diuretic. leaves. exauriculate petiole. :—Cultivated throughout India. Lalchitrak. DISTR. Chitra. Ratochatro. Lead-wort. obtuse. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Ceylon. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Lalchita. dull-black. Fl. afford relief. L. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. W. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. :— E. Agnishikha. Burma. C. Chitraka. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. HABITAT :—Along river banks. limb wide. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. rosy scarlet. LOC. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. Fire plant.-Feb. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). Baluchistan.. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Roots. Fl. Lalachitraka. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. and seeds. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. top coming off as a conical lid. Rosy-coloured leadwort. Malaya. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). They are used in diarrhœa and piles. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers.—Plumbaginaceæ. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery.—3-5 cm. Mahang. M.Kempuchitramula. base passing into amplexicaul. :—Temperate Himalayas. :—Konkan : Deccan.-4-8.

Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Tropics of the old world.6-1. leaves are caustic.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. Jyotishka. Medi. FAM. attenuated into a short petiole. See—Ornamental Plants. skin disease. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . bechic. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. leucoderma. :—E. G. Bile-Chitra-mula. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. See—Ornamental Plants. wild in Western Peninsula. LOC. dysentery. diarrhœa. stomachic. Fr. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. tonic. ring-worm. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. Chitaro Chitrak. aborti-facient. diseases of liver. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. It is used in procuring abortion. Journ. L. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. laxative. Agnishikha. hot. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. Res.5 m. anasarca. rachis glandular . Bengal. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. stems 0. leaves. ascites.—capsule. itching. useful in laryngitis. " Tridosha" . Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). consumption. terete.—thin. juice. woody. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Vallari. NS. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. C. DISTR. a paste is made with milk. H. In S. :—Throughout India. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Fl. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. appetiser. stomachic. Chitranga. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. Malay Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. and in leucoderma.—Aug. Ceylon. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. Fl. carminative. striate. a favourite medicine for flatulence.—white. scabies. . LOC.-Sept. " Vata" and " Kapha". COM. pointed. long. it is useful in dyspepsia. piles. astringent to bowels. Chitramula. January 1933). spreading. Root—bitter. vesicant. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. The use of Pl. cure intestinal troubles. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). rheumatism. t. diseases of spleen. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Chitrak. Sk. alterative . Ind.—Plumbaginaceæ. Vahni. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. oblong. cultivated . PARTS USED :—Root. alexipharmic. expectorant. Chitra . PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Chitraka. lobes 5. Chitra. root-bark. M. K. entire. Chitra . leprosy. ovate. leucoderma. inflammations. piles.—in elongate spikes.

ghee and rice in diarrhœa. Pagoda tree. common. L. DISTR. Root-bark is purgative. M. LOC. broadly ovate. Pangli. L. See—Ornamental Plants.8-9 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. smooth. G. Belchampaka. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Radha-champo. Sk. COM. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. NS. Golainchi. itching. COM. Kadu-sampige. purple. Fr. long. CHAR. with an intra-marginal vein. stems and branches quadrangular. shining. 4-lobed.—Apocynaceæ. Fl. Champakam. C. C. spirally arranged. Kanara. very fragrant. Fr. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. 15-30 cm. DISTR.—Labiatæ. Phangla.-Feb. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. Mahabaleshwar. FAM. acrid. useful in leprosy. Fl. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. :—E. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. shining black.2—1.-May. rarely maturing.—2-lipped. leaves and milky juice. :—M. NS. Goleurchampa. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. heating. :—Native of tropical America. high. carminative. M. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough.:—More or less throughout India. divaricate. :—Konkan. Frangipani. laxative . t. CHAR. Khairchapha.-nutlets ellipsoid. oblong-lanceolate.—practically throughout the year. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. Fl. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. Deccan. ulcers. whorls close. cylindrical. 12 cm.— large. :—All throughout the State.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. Rhuruchapha. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores.—follicles. 7.8 m. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in gleet. abundant. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. FAM. ascites (Ayurveda).—Dec. bark. acute at both ends. inner face angular. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. long. S. upper lip white shot with purple. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. lower lip white. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. LOC. Devagangile. abundant from Mar. venereal sores. rounded. urinary discharges.. t. irregularly doubly toothed. pungent. entire. . pains.—salver-shaped. :—A small shrub 1. 3-lobed. Country. Fl. many flowered. white with a pale yellow centre.5-18x3. HABITAT :—Hilly parts.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. K. cultivated.

purify and enrich blood. good in scabies. Aran. USES :—The fresh leaves. rheumatic pains. Arand. Karanjmara. Naktamala. F. lumbago. leaves. Sk. anthelmintic. Seeds—acrid . USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Timbers. NS. :—G. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. itching. Gaura. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. chronic fever and hydrocele. urinary discharges . H. LOC. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. piles.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Indian beech. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). J. Kanaji. Oil—anthelmintic. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). enlargement of spleen and abdomen. piles. Agnimandha. cure earache. skin diseases. wounds (Ayurveda). M. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Agnibijaka. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Oil—styptic. Chamari. lumbago. fruits and seeds. ascites. cures eye diseases. leprosy. . COM. COM. M. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. flowers. cures biliousness. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. head and brain diseases. Arni. vagina.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). juice is given in colic and fever. K. ulcers. Jayanti. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. skin and in keratitis . Kanja. Karanja. good for tumour. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. G. wounds. Kirmal. liver pain. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. Karanja. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. leucoderma. Agetha. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. " Kapha ". PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. along Deccan rivers . Karanj. K. Karanj. bruised.) FAM. useful in diseases of eye. :—E. Huligili. Oils. relieves inflammation. Ichu. also planted. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Gracie). Pavaka. NS. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands.—Verbenaceæ. Ustabunda . Honge. alexipharmic . DISTR. LOC. In Satara. chest complaints. Arni. H. chronic fever. bark. " Vata ". Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. carminative. FAM. Kanika.

common about Karwar. stomachic. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda).— globose.— June-July. Sd. See—Famine Plants. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Young leaves are tonic in the . Guava tree. Peruka. C. Peru. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. cooling. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. lobes 4. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. LOC. Gum is tonic. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. good for liver complaints (Yunani). bark yellowish. constipation. piles. stomachic.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). NS. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Safedsafari. Fruit—tonic. laxative. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Jamb. .—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Kanara. Jamphal. K. Ash—caustic (Yunani). DISTR. inflammations. seated on the calyx . as an astringent to bowels. good in colic and for bleeding gums.. bronchitis. applied to sore eyes. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Flowers cool body.—5-9 X 3. G. Anthers—dry wound. Vastula.2-6. L. smooth. COM. LOC. Andamans. broadly elliptic. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. pungent. heating. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. laxative after food. diabetes.3 cm. Gova. DISTR. fever. t. It is given in the form of decoction. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. chyluria. sour. rough-tubercled . :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Fl. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. fruits and gum. Piyara. dyspepsia. H. for unhealthy ulcers."Vata". preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Root is laxative. Perala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. causes "Kapha". It is also employed in scurvy. LOC. used in bronchitis. Perala. M. cylindric. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Dridhabija. Ceylon. flowers. Jamud-rukh. cool heated brain. :—Cultivated all over the State. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. greenish yellow. small. entire or upper part dentate. Fr. Fl. cooling. Nicobars and Malaya. hairy in the throat. Sk. blue-black. aphrodisiac . :—E. high. FAM.—tubular. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Peru . USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children.—hard.—Myrtaceæ. Amrut. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). useful in anaemia.

closely-pitted.—one. Fl. difficulty in micturition. improves hair and complexion. 3. scabies. .5—5 cm.6-1. Sd. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. rounded and mucronate at the apex. nephrites and cachexia. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. See—Fruit Trees. smooth. t. PARTS USED :—Root. " Rakta-pitta". antipyretic. M. Chandralekha. NS. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". heals ulcers. L. diuretic.—in dense axillary. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. standard orbicular. causes biliousness. piles. 0. G. Konkan and S. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. leaves. HABITAT :—Waste places. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. M.8 X 2. fruit and seeds. :—An erect annual. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. urinary dis charges. Babachi. nigro-punctate. stimulant. DISTR.—Aug-Dec. Bukchi. stem and branches grooved. anthelmintic. studded with glands and white hairs. Sk. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. anæmia. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. Bowach-chi. cures blood diseases . Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Kalameshi. Vanguji. LOC. inflammation. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). COM. Babachi. FAM. vulnerary. good for leucoderma. Bavachi. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. Fruit—diuretic. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. white hairy. Seeds— refrigerant. alexiteric. vomiting. Country. leprosy. bitter taste. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. solitary. C. CHAR. aphrodisiac. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. clawed.2 m. Seed—purgative. bronchitis. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. Kushtaghni. alterative. raw one is used in diarrhœa. anthelmintic. Bavachi. Bhavanj. biliousness. improves appetite. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. Bakuchi. stomachic. ovoidoblong. black. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Fr. LOC.—simple. skin diseases. H.—pod. laxative. 10-30 flowered racemes . Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). K. good for heart troubles. high. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. mucronate. cures "Vata".—bluish purple . Fl.

from the Balkans to the Himalayas. alterative . urinary discharges. G. scattered but not gregarious . PARTS USED:—Root. Indian kino-tree. Flowers—check vomiting. COM. ophthalmia. Bio. H. styptic. laxative. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. used in sore throat. M. good for biliousness. K. Valka-phala. flowers and fruits. :—E. earache. tonic. enriches blood. . ulcers. Sk. Dadimba. Dadima. sore eyes brain diseases. prolapsus ani. Flowers— improve appetite. boils. DISTR. Dalimb . Dadima. griping. useful in eye troubles. colic. in Akrani. PARTS USED. antipyretic. vulnerary. Bark—astringent. bark. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. blood diseases.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Hirdokhi. scabies. Raktabija-pushpa. NS. anal troubles. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Kabul and Baluchistan. used in piles. " Kapha ". Honi. Bibla. Sk. DISTR. strengthens gums. burning sensation. See—Timbers. spleen complaints. Dalimba. Honne. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Malabar kino-tree.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. also in Konkan. urinary discharges (Yunani). anthelmintic. useful in vomiting. " Tridosh". Dadam. Bibla. laxative. Gum—bitter. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. allays thirst. Khandesh and Dangs. sore-throat. tonic. gleet. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). biliousness. Bia. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. G. Pitasar. K. Sunila. useful in all body diseases. applied to hydrocele. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Pomegranate tree. Dharimb . called kino. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Bijak. leucoderma. LOC.—Punicaceæ. liver tonic. fattening. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Hulidalimb . Kanara. useful in biliousness. Ceylon. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Benga. :—Western Peninsula and S. cultivated in many parts of India. FAM. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Common in N. flowers and gum. LOC. COM. NS. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). Dhalim. somewhat milder in action than catechu. Mahakutaj. thirst. Bigsah. Gum. M. ascends to 1100 m. erysipelas. anthelmintic. stomatitis. :—Wild in Iran. Gums and Resins. body eruptions. India. FAM. Fruit-appetiser. Anar. diuretic. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). cause flatulence (Ayurveda). chest troubles. :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Bibla. Bija. cures " Vata ". :—E. heart-disease. elephantiasis. fever.

acutely 5-angled. NS. widely cultivated all over India. Emetic nut. S. long. base rounded.-Aug. K.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally.—opposite. :—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. H.5 cm. Karhar Mainphal. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. C—petals 5. Dharaphal. Madana. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. Pinditak. numerous. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Country and Kanara. FAM. :—A strong climber. See—Ornamental Plants. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. :—E. The rind of the fruit. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Midhola. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . glabrous above. Rangoonkibel. Annam. Malaya. hairy beneath. M. USES :—In Amboyana. M. LOC. Minkare. H. Barmasinivel. . COM. Gelphal. Fruit contains vitamin C. Karigidda. It is given in the form of decoction.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. acuminate. CHAR. elliptic. 7. jasmine . Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. at first white then deep red . Mangari-kai. L. Fl. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. t.—Combretaceæ. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. lanceolate .—in axillary and terminal spikes. LOC. Rangoon creeper. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. M. calyx tube long. Fl. Mindhola. Lalchameli. nearly 6 cm.—Rubiaceæ. Konkan. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. G. Sk. pendant.— ellipsoid. COM. NS. In China. G. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. Rangoonchavel. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Gela.—Mar. dark green. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Fr. Chinese honeysuckle. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. DISTR. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . LOC. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever.

produce alopecia (Yunani). sweet. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. good for spleen and in paralysis. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. piles (Ayurveda). Sk. carminative. Ceylon. useful in diseases of heart. M. Muri. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. carminative. Hastidanta. fruit and seeds. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. S. DISTR. Mula.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. stomachic. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. Java. amenorrhœa. emetic. It is also used to poison fish. inflammations. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. " Vata" and " Kapha". boils. good in tumours. E. PARTS USED :—Root. its action is very safe. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Mulak. skin-diseases. tonic. emmenagogue. LOC. DISTR. hiccup. and all inflammations . used in diarrhœa and dysentery. anthelmintic. carminative. :—Throughout India. Bitter. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. Tropical Africa. muscular pains. it is equal to it in every respect. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. purgative. useful in chronic bronchitis. :—E. leaves. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Bili Mulangi. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. binding. Muro. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Ksharmula. FAM. LOC. bitter. inflammations. tumours. eruptions. Juice of . laxative. leprosy. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . H. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . K. certain and regular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Mali. piles. used in diseases of the brain. heating. juice relieves earache. flowers. bad taste. leucoderma (Yunani). G. NS. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Radish. cures abscesses. leprosy. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. emetic. Seeds-sharp. See—Timber.—Cruciferæ. Ruchira. Sumatra. destroys "Vata". ulcers. paralysis. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. alexiteric. cholera. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). COM. asthma. Mura. Mula. It also contains an essential oil. China. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries.

sedative. seeds are considered peptic. COM. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. HABITAT :—Moist forests. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Group B — Serpentine. Fl. Root contains vitamins A. ginger. sharp. Mungusavel. Sivanabhi.5-18 X 2.—Apocynaceæ. leaves (rarely). . Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. FAM. Sk.-May. LOC.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. t. Harki. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. :—H. cures " Tridosha ". PARTS USED :—Root. shady open places near rain-forests. Kanara. diuretic. Chandrika.9 m. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. serpentinine. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea.—in irregular corymbose cymes. acute. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. and black salt. :—H. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. Gaja-karni. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Sk. acrid.5-6. NS. Nai. L. specific for insanity. See—Vegetables. thin. white. Sarpagandha. Chandrika. bright red .—tubular. corrective and emmenagogue. carminative. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions.3 cm. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline.) FAM. ulcers (Ayurveda). Harkaichand. NS. single or didymous. nodular. expectorant. In the Konkan. Java. Juipani. K. LOC. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. Palakjuhi. swollen a little above the middle.-in whorls of 3. M. yellowish root stock. pale beneath. lanceolate. M. DISTR. 7. CHAR. pungent. ajmalicine. ajamalinine. anthelminitic . with a long.. Andamans. Fl. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. bright green above. irregularly. often tinged with violet.. B and C. Doddapatike. Yuthikaparni. Chhotachand.—drupe. Western Peninsula. black shining. K. Garudpatala. Nakulikand. Fr. COM.. laxative. used in hyperpiesis . RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Sarpakshi. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. :—An erect perennial shrub. heating.— Mar. C.—Acanthaceæ. Ceylon. It is hypnotic.

PARTS USED :—Root. convulsions. Country (Dharwar. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. Tirki. eructations. Divald. glands. Eranda. Khandala. good for burns. LOC. Fl. useful in skin-disease. elliptic lanceolate. liver and spleen diseases. DISTR. leprosy. lumbago. Sk. flowers and seeds. Belgaum. elephantiasis. fevers. pubescent: C.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Deccan. Erand. H. Ceylon (wild) . Palma christi. LOC. Cattle are fed with leaves for . Madagascar (cultivated). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. bronchitis. some fevers. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. increase biliousness. Castor oil plant. DISTR. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Haralu. useful in heart diseases. ascites. rheumatism. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". alterative. COM. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Leaves—galactagogue.9—1. hairy outside . bracts ovate lanceolate. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Straits-Settlements. typhoid. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. boils. dropsy. lumbago. amenorrhœa (Yunani).—nearly sessile. LOC. L. Very little in other districts of the State. leaves. increases "Kapha". useful in inflammations. piles. leprosy. Vardhamana. stems obscurely angled. S.—Oct. :—E. oil—anthelmintic.-Jany. earache. Fruit— appetiser.5 m. upper lip bifid . white. M. diseases of rectum and head.—5-10 X2-5 cm. tropical Africa. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Country. ring-worm. useful in pains. NS. Divaligo. pointed. alterative. carminative . pain in back.—capsule. tumours. piles. generally cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. intestinal worms. glandular. anal troubles. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. ascites. strangury. ascites. asthma. hills near Belgaum. Erand. Sholapur). Seed and oil—cathartic. Mahabaleshwar. G. inflammations. leaves and seeds. Erand. body pains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. M. narrow. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Triputiphala. black. inflammations. widely cultivated in tropical countries. M. pains. Fr. t. high. solitary.— tuberculate. aphrodisiac. Fl. Root-bark—purgative.—lipped. vaginal pains. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. asthma. K. FAM. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. :—Throughout India. purgative. LOC. HABITAT :—Hills. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Vardhaman. night-blindness. 0. :—Probably of African origin. :—Undershrub. Arand. useful in liver troubles. Chitrabija. cultivated. entire. paralysis.. Java. velvety hairy Sd.

Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . used in heat of body. In constipation it is used as an enema. petioles prickly. France. Tarana. long. cures leprosy. t. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin.— all the year. NS. DISTR. sometimes glandular.5-6. serrate. sweetish. aphrodisiac. Ati-manjula. :—E.3 cm. Flower—bitter. good for eyes. :—Origin unknown. M. stipules scarcely dilated. Punjab and U. intestinal affections. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. K. tonic. chronic fevers. G. cooling. attaining 1. cardiotonic. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. benefits lungs. Gulab. adults.—Rosaceæ. improves appetite (Ayurveda). . stomatitis. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). Ghazipur is a chief centre. pink or white. removes bad odour from mouth. CHAR. dry. red. laxative. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Gulab. liver. Soumyagandha. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . etc. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. ovate oblong. Pannira. sometimes striped . Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. double. See—Ornamental Plants. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. See—Oils. Sudburj. inflammations.—obovate . It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. cephalic. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. Shatadala. laxative. L. hairy. Italy. tooth-ache. antipyretic. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. PARTS USED :—Flowers. cultivated all over India. Gulab . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. with a good odour. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Fl. P. cardiotonic. H. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. acrid. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. much used in lotions and collyria . which is a powerful poison. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. They are also applied to painful joints. 2. they are cold. Fr. FAM. head-ache.. kidneys.— usually corymbose. Lakshmipushpa. seldom griping or causing flatulency. Fl. Sk. astringent when dry (Yunani). expectorant. :—A perennial shrub. biliousness. stems with stout and hooked prickles.5 m. aperient removing bile and cold humours.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. Greece and Germany. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. COM. burning sensation.—pinnate. LOC. " Vata". LOC. mild and safe purgative. excessive perspiration.

5 cm. smooth. used in eye-sores. alexiteric. purplish black when ripe. Leaves-sweet. erect glabrous herb. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. Sorrel. orbicular . NS. Decoction tinges blood. Aruna. Gulmketu. grooved. Dock. LOC. obtuse. and was much used in dropsy. K. pains in joints. acrid.—didymous or globose. Tamravalli. Fr. laxative. stems very long. 15-30 cm. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation.—white or pink. Fl. spleen-enlargement.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . rheumatism. ulcers. ulcers and skin-diseases. it powerfully affects the nervous system. Majit. cordate or hastate. emmenagogue. Manjishha. lethargy. CHAR. PARTS USED. eye. inflammations. cures " Kapha ". H. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. Manjit. Raktasara. branched from the root. the Konkan and S. ovate. branches quadrangular . piles. diseases of uterus. erysipelas. t-Oct. tropical Africa. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. . inner perianth-segments membranous.—in whorls of 4. ear. Fl. heating. Root—bitter. increase appetite. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. cylindric. leucoderma. Ceylon. blood. antidysenteric. greenish. :—Annual. FAM. L. anthelmintic. lower leaves larger.—Polygonaceæ. one pair with longer petioles ovate. L. shining. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. vagina. The plant contains glucoside manjistin.—Rubiaceæ. Fr. Chukra. Rohini. paralysis. valves hyaline. paralysis. DISTR. Java. Chitralata. H. Manjishtha.5—7. M. :—E. M. with a thin red bark. M. roots very long. urinary discharges. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. jaundice. bitter. COM. antipyretic. high. Manjishtha. leucorrhoea. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. liver complaints. all scabrous with white prickles. uterine pains (Yunani). Chuka.. Malay Peninsula. Amlavetasa. base cuneate. five-nerved.—2. analgestic. LOC. NS. Japan. improves voice and complexion .—in terminal panicled cymes. :—Root. FAM. Sk. CHAR. COM. Bladder. oleaginous . lactagogue. urine and even bones red. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. jaundice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Indian Madder. Sk. leucoderma. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions.-Jany. leaves and fruit. elliptic. prickly. diuretic. petioles triangular. Fl. :—Perennial climbing herb. Ambat Chuka. analgesic. dysentery. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Country. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations.

CHAR. lower shortly 3-lobed. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. oblong lanceolate. then erect. :—E. acute . in dysentery. Sk. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. Country. generally in the Deccan. LOC. FAM. Trans-Indus Hills. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. vomiting. The seeds have the same properties .—suborbicular. leucoderma. Common—Garden-rue . with scarious faces and hard ridges. t. bronchitis.—white. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. H. analgesic. bracts elliptic. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. NS. Vishapaha. laxative. Persia. :—Western Punjab. roasted.—Nov. piles. also considered as a vermifuge. Havananju. DISTR. checks nausea and promotes appetite. hiccup. Satapa . Nagadali. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. constipation. tumours. stems usually decumbent. diseases of the spleen. USES :—Leaves are cooling. useful in heart troubles. stomachic. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Kanara.—Acanthaceæ. 2-lipped. See—Vegetables. :—G. LOC. with darker spots.—capsule. K. C. COM. Parpatha.— subsessile. Afghanistan. often rooting near the base. :—Common throughout the State. dyspepsia.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. upper emarginate.-Jany. G. rugose with furrow. FAM. pains. pale brown. S. Pismarum Sadab. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. acute. Kharmor. Fl. The juice allays tooth-pain. asthma. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). Khatselio . toothache. M. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. aperient and diuretic. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. Sk. NS. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Konkan. blue or pink. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. N.—Rutaceæ. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. ovoid oblong. they are prescribed. while fresh they are bruised. flatulence. . H. Fl. LOC. Ceylon. Satri. Africa. Sadapaha. bites and stings of poisonous animals. L. tonic. Fr. Satap. Cooling. Sd. ciliate. M. Deccan. :—A herb . Sadabu. M. alcoholism. Ghati pittapapada . useful in scabies.

Madhuyashti. particularly Deccan. Us . Sk. spathulate or linear-oblong . anti-aphrodisiac . K. Naisakar.—Gramineæ.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. Ganna. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . garden. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. cultivated throughout India. Gudatrina. and externally used as a rubefacient. Rasala. Powdered and combined with aromatics. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. increases mental activity. :—Egypt and Algeria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. aphrodisiac. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. .—capsule. useful in fatigue. G. DISTR. Fl. The oil is the best form for administration. LOC. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation.-alternate. L.—petals 4. Sugarcane. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. thirst. Tanigarbu . flatulence. abortifacient. :—Grown everywhere in India. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. Ikshu. Poona. diuretic. heats body. forest and mountain. segments cuneate. Kumad. S. tonic. petioled. grown in gardens. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). it may be given internally in hysteria. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. LOC. epilepsy. Kabbu. amenorrhœa. decompound. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. Ingotu. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Sd. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. The herb and the oil act as stimulant.. leprosy. Sherdi. etc. yellowish. digestive. HABIT :—Cultivated. glandulose punctate. colic. NS :—E. DISTR. emmenagogue. obtuse . :—A strong smelling herb . diuretic. H.—angled. C. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. The plant contains glucoside glutin. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. Rikhu. oleaginous. Fr. laxative. cooling. FAM. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Gudakastha. Satara. Ukh . There are three varieties . Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. in pots. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. M. oblong-obovate. M. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. S. heating to body . indigestible. flawed. LOC. The plant is tonic. all over the State. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR.

Sind. Pilu. Fl. It is good in calculous complaints. stomachic . branches numerous. red when ripe. Abyssinia. diuretic. drooping. often mucronate at the apex. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). Goni. causes " Kapha.—Nov. opposite. sometimes it raises blisters. G. C. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. NS.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. LOC. The juice contains vitamins A and B. sugar is considered heavy. LOC. Asia. tonic and aperient. Fruits are deobstruent. disorders and wind. leucoderma. corrective. strengthen teeth. H. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism.. useful in biliousness. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. ulcers. often planted near Muslim tombs. aphrodisiac . lessen inflammation . leaf-juice is given in scurvy. useful in biliousness. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. . elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. :—E. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. lobes much reflexed. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Mahaphala. near the coasts of Gujarat . In cases of poisoning by copper. inflammations. deobstruent.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. anæmia. :—Drier parts of India. Kanara in littoral forests. deeply cleft. tonic to liver. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. delirium. the Konkan and N. Sugar causes " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. greenish-yellow. K. oil is digestible. :—Dry districts of the State.". COM. Egypt. shining. purifies blood . alexiteric.—Salvadoraceæ. Cane—sweet. LOC. Khakan Mirjoli. numerous. bad for liver (Yunani). Piludi. PARTS USED :—Bark. erysipelas. fleshy. globose. carminative and diuretic. Sk. Kharijal. improve diuresis (Yunani). Leaves—bitter. improves appetite. fattening. Pilu. Fl. DISTR. scabies. Fr. Seeds—purgative. finely striate. L. Ceylon. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . laxative. dry regions of W. carminative. Pilu. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. M. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. leaves. good for lungs .-Feb. See—Food Plants. fruits seeds and oil. In the Punjab.—very thin. Pilu. FAM.—drupe. diam. Tooth-brush tree. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. Fruit—aphrodisiac. smooth. useful in heat. Jal. bile. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. 3 mm. diuretic. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. piles. pectoral and aphrodisiac. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). analgesic. white. Brihat madhu pilu. useful in nosetroubles. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. t. astringent to bowels.

COM. thirst. in skin-diseases. alexipharmic. FAM. paralysis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. G. :—Indian Peninsula. Burugukayi. Soap-Nut tree. Chandan. LOC. hemicrania. Phenila. Arishtaka. Ringni. abortifacient. K. NS. Aritha. NS. Antharalo. Mysore and parts of Madras State. ground. :—E. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. gleet. useful in diseases of heart. See—Timbers. S. M. . Cultivated elsewhere. Suket. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. Oils. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). M. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Sk. fruit and seed. LOC.. aphrodisiac. H. tubercular glands. G. :—E. Sukhad . antipyretic. :—Western Peninsula. Kumblabijaka. Bhogivallabha. cholera. biliousness. diarrhœa. head-ache (Yunani). SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Kanara. Chandal. Phenilu. USES :—Wood. burning sensation. much cultivated. epileptic fits of children. is applied to local inflammations. Arithan . Sandal-wood Tree. to temples in fever.—Santalaceæ. allays uterine pains. Rishta.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. lumbago. useful in chronic dysentery. up with water into a paste. M. bronchitis. Ceylon. DISTR. tonic. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Kugale. Sandal. India. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). H. Chandan. cold in head. Shrigandhalmara. stomachic. gonorrhœa. FAM. alexiteric. Oil. LOC. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Bhadrasri. " Kapha ". Ritha . emetic. Mangalya. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. chiefly in S. Malayaja. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. strangury. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . alexiteric. DISTR. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED :—Root. cures "Tridosha".—Sapindaceæ. often planted. Ritha. acts as diaphoretic. Anthuvala. useful in inflammations. vaginal discharges. exhilarating. Sk. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Chandan. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. Country and N. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. PARTS USED:—Wood. Bhadrasara. K. Fruit—bitter. Root—expectorant. Agarugandha. to allay heat and pruritus. laxative. small-pox (Ayurveda).

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

M. strengthening. tonic. Waziristan. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. alterative. strangury. and as an oildressing for ulcers. Seed-oil—fattening. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. Shewari. white and red. Black variety is common. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. Jayat. cooling. They have been used to procure abortion. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. Jaya. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. branches striate. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. C. Raysingani. :—Cultivated all over India. Sk. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. long. inflammations. COM. asthma. scabies. seeds. obscurely angled . etc. useful in dry cough. astringent to bowels. leaves. leaflets 914 pairs. :—G. NS. Fl. oleaginous. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. galactagogue. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. oil. linear-oblong. bleeding piles. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . Jayanti. cures . K. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. yellow. aphrodisiac.—standard as broad as long. removes "Kapha". syphilitic ulcers. applied to ulcers and piles. opposite. cure menorrhagia. applied to gouty joints. mottled with purple on the outside. H. promote hair growth. an emollient poultice is also made from them. gouty joints. LOC. suppurating wounds. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. urinary concretions. such as dysentery etc. Jayantika. See—Oils.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. L. into claw. They are nourishing. Sd. pendulous. 15-23 cm. biliousness. FAM. enrich blood. tonic. Fr.—pod.— abruptly pinnate. bark. diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. probably a native of tropical Africa. They are also emmenagogue. Rasin. of eye and ear.5-15 cm. indigestible . beaked. eye diseases .—20-30. carminative. few flowered axillary racemes. anthelmintic. CHAR. Janjhan. useful in sorethroat. slightly torulose. HABITAT :—Cultivated. in height. diuretic and lactagogue. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. Seeds contain vitamin A. small-pox. hair-tonic. LOC. Nadeyi. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. burning sensation. lung diseases. Jayanti. Jinangi. There are three varieties of seeds : black. DISTR. 4-5 m. inflammations.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). seeds. spleen troubles. diuretic. Jayanti. PARTS USED :—Root. long. inflammations (Yunani). septate between the seeds. :—A soft-wooded shrub. useful in diarrhœa. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. Baluchistan.. 7.—in lax. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil.

diabetes. Flowers—cooling.—7. Leaves—purgative. Fr. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. :—G. See—Fodder Plants. PARTS USED :—Root.— pinnate. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. Leaves—indigestible. fruits. Munidruma. Fl. . L. The plant contains vitamin A. C. Basna.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). leaves. Indigenous from Malaya to N. 15-30-cm. anthelmintic. rubbed into a paste with water. Agusta. cure itching. Fl. relieves throat-troubles. maturant. anthelmintic. Bak. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. "Kapha" and inflammation. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Seeds—emmenagogue. fevers. NS. Agathio. Bark— astringent. useful In diseases of spleen. M. improve appetite . See—Vegetables. HABITAT :—Cultivated. long. leaflets 16-30 pairs. useful in ophthalmia. 2-4 white or red. gout. H. alexiteric. FAM. LOC. Kempagase. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Sk.8 cm. LOC. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. ulcers. cures " Tridosh " pains. improves taste. anaemia. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). stimulant.— flowers at various times. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Fruit—laxative . Australia. astringent. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. is applied in painful swellings. Agati.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. 6-9 m. long. t. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. linear oblong. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. An infusion is given in small-pox. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. epilepsy.5-8. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). LOC.— pod. high. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. biliousness. demulcent. gout . COM. leucoderma. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . bronchitis. night-blindness. diarrhœa. long. 50 cm. allays thirst. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. Agasti. Agase. useful in ozœna. Vranari. very showy. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. cure quartan fever.—in racemes . :—A soft wooded tree . DISTR. dysentery and paludism. Bark—astringent. is applied in rheumatism. Ornamental Plants. CHAR. leprosy. flowers. Agasta. Hatiya . brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). Dirghashimbi. K. tumours . SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. Kanali.

strongly reticulated . ovate-oblong. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. Kherati. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Hotter parts of India. cooling. carpels 7-10. LOC. t. dorsal scabrid. " Kapha " . crenate. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. linear. diam. Bariara.—smooth. digestive.—2. removes " Vata ". PARTS USED :—Root. Country. M. DISTR. long. black. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. bleeding piles. Sd.5-6. DISTR. Bala. aphrodisiac . awns 2. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. " Pitta ". softly hairy all over. Kareta. K. Prahasa.. minutely hairy. COM. useful in blood and throat diseases. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Batyalaka. with ginger. obtuse. Hettutti-gida. NS. Fr. LOC. pedicel jointed about the middle. Country Mallow. awns 2. decoction.—Malvaceæ. LOC. astringent. branches slender. Deccan and S. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. Kisangi.— yellow. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. G.-Nov. linear . yellow. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). bark. :—Konkan (common). Country. M. long. CHAR. leaves and seeds. Bala. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres.—Nov. CHAR. :—A shrub. cordate. H. Chikna. dorsal margins toothed. H. emollient. Fl. Pata. glabrous.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. Tukti. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. astringent. useful in fever. Chikna. NS. Pata. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Baladana. a weed. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. Barial.3 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. COM. Sk. lanceolate.. Rajbala. Jayanti.—Malvaceæ. Vatyapushpi. Kharanti. Chittuharatu. is given . :—G. carpels 5-9. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Fl. K. Fl. upper margins ciliate. scabrid-hairy. FAM. base rounded. t. puberulous. Bala. sharply serrate. M. C. :—Konkan. diuretic. Fr. M. L. pedicel jointed much above the middle. Samanga. LOC.—1-2 in each axil.—6-8 mm. diam. :—E. HABITAT :—Moist places .-Oct. Khareti. L. Kumghi. strongly reticulated.5-5 cm.Dec. Sk.—solitary or few together. stomachic and tonic. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda).. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Root—cooling.—2. FAM. Gujarat and S.—5-6 mm.

INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. Fl. M. Katampu. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. :—Deccan. also in colic and tenesmus. t. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa.—yellow. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. It is also used to favour menstruation. all running down wing-like into petiole. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. Bala—Sida cordifolia. 0.—heads small in leafy panicles .—Nov. involucral bracts 2 rows. Fl. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. NS. 5 inner boat-shaped. Pilibadkadi. erect. LOC. CHAR. . and head-ache. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. :—G. juice is used for healing wounds. administered in hemiplegia. Ceylon. tinged with purple. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. black. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. rhomboides Roxb.2 m. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. Country. pappus 0. those of the ray red beneath. COM. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. high. L. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. triangular-ovate. stem stiff.6—1. 5 outer clavate. DISTR. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. :—A large annual herb. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. diaphoretic. stiff-neck. slightly rough. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Externally.—opposite. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Throughout India.-Dec. noise in ears. Linn. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. FAM.—Compositæ. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. facial paralysis. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. cystitis. common. Fl. deeply and irregularly toothed. Fr. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases.—achene. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. M. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn.

useful in leucoderma. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Hinguli. Kadusonde. high. :—Throughout tropical India. digestive. LOC. Kattarta. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". aphrodisiac. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. LOC. anthelmintic. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Sk.—Solanaceæ. Vayase. DISTR. Vartaki. Malpya. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache.. PARTS USED :—Root. pain. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. prickles large. Fl. clothed outside with purple hairs . Rigana. Fruit—cardiotonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. ovate.. enriches blood. K. Brihati. H.5 m. diam. Vadikadheri. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. " Kapha". Barhanta. loss of appetite. Bhantaki. prickly. Philippines. G. 8 mm. base unequal-sided. FAM. L. sharp. :—E.—minutely pitted: Fl. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. PARTS USED :—Root. Ceylon. leaves (rarely) and fruits.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. Egg Plant. NS. maturant. bronchitis. dark-yellow when ripe. G.. laxative. Vengni. COM. China. Bhantaki. COM. M. Ranringni. globose. covered with stellate hairs. lobed. K. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. LOC. stem stout. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. t. FAM. Fr. recurved. Sd. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. Ubhi-bhuringni. Root is applied to lessen pain. Nilaphala. analgesic.—pale-purple. causes biliousness.— berry. Indian Nightshade. DISTR. or triangular-ovate. petiole prickly. Brinjal. It is seldom used alone.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. NS. cardiotonic. very. C. subentire. Mahotika. beneficial in cardiac troubles . leaves. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). H. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Vrittaphala. rarely wild. vomiting. Habba-Kirigulla. Baingan.5 cm.5—7.-Oct. Bhanta. Mhotiringni. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. lessens inflammations. fruit and seeds. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. bad for piles if taken internally. . improves appetite. Hinguli. Dorli. " Vata".—5—15 X 2. Vange. :—Widely cultivated in India. Vantak. 0. fever. astringent to bowels. pruritus ani.—Solanaceæ. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine.3—1. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. M. Sk. removes foulness of the mouth. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. :—E. Badanikai.-Aug.

PARTS USED :—Root.—discoid. CHAR. smooth. useful in diseases of eye. Gurkamai. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. LOC. taste. dysuria and asthma. The seeds are used as a stimulant. B and C. chronic fever. improves appetite. alterative. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. not to be given to pregnant women. bitter. bark. useful in heart and eye-diseases.-Jany. minutely pitted . .—small. Seeds—laxative. :—E. 6 mm. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. shining. piles. Fl. M. tonic. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. Hound's Berry. gonorrhœa (Yunani). urinary discharges. Root-bark—laxative . useful in giddiness. It acts as a hydrogogue. Tiktika.—many. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. diuretic. Vayasi. G. vomiting. in pains. H. Kamoni. ear and nose . bronchitis.— berry.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . bronchitis. t. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. 3-8 flowered cymes . USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. and used with success in psoriasis. stem erect. improves voice . etc. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. :—Throughout India. Makoi. much divaricately-branched . aphrodisiac. Fl. diam. Kakamunchi. :—A variable annual herb . Katuphala. inflammation. liver inflammation. Sd. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). laxative. yellow. ovatelanceolate. tapering into petioles. cathartic and diuretic. Morellel. FAM. LOC. Fruit contains vitamins A. subumbellate. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. See—Vegetables. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. " Tridosha". DISTR. Kakamachi. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. griping. leaves and fruit. throat burning. Sk. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. Fr. eye-diseases hydrophobia. leucoderma. fever. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous.—Sept. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. entire or sinuate toothed. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. L. asthma. dysentery.. In S. diarrhœa. heating. C. Kabaiya. Kakamachi. inflammation. Black Night-shade. NS. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. good for neck ulcers. worms in ear. favours conception and facilitates delivery . fever. in extra-axillary.—Solanaceæ. K. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). itch. Piludi. hiccup. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. COM.

CHAR. Great Indian millet. flowers. stem zig-zag. Fl. Ikshupatraka. hairy outside. piles. fever.3 cm. Bhui-Kate-ringni. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative.—Solanaceæ. Kateli. Jondhala. Sundia . Seeds—anthelmintic. pains. Katai. pruritus . causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fl. hairy on both sides. Africa. K. expectorant and febrifuge. urinary concretions. COM. C. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. stomachic. ovate or elliptic. Bhoyaringni. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. chronic bronchitis. Sholapur. LOC. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. Konkan. tropical Australia. DISTR.— June. heating. dysuria. Jonera. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. straight. Nidigdhika. sterility in women.-5-10 X 2. Sorgho.5-5. Sk. D. stems. Fr. Jolah. base unequal-sided. Kantakini. Sind. Basu).7 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Gramineæ. leaves. Fruit—laxative. lumbago.. Jowar. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. catarrhal fever and chest pain. yellow and shining.—purple. S. LOC. thirst.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Shalu. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Yuvanala. Jundri. :—G. NS. Chikka-sonde. long. heart disease.—berry. 3-2 cm. Brihati. sinuate or subpinnatifid. :—E. Vrittatandula. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. G. asthma. Leaves—good application for piles. often exceeding 1. Malaya. aphrodisiac. Ringni. & Wendl. laxative. :—A very prickly diffuse. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. muscular pains. Root—aphrodisiac. H. L. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. they are used in the burning of feet. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. bright green perennial herb . armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. stone in bladder. It is used in asthma. appetiser. diam. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Nele-Rama-gulla . Kantakari. asthma. :—Throughout India. Sk.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Jowari. K. yellow or white with green veins. FAM. Bijapur and E. ozoena. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . prickles compressed. Dhavani. Ceylon.. Nirgol. t. fevers. Kenjal. surrounded by enlarged calyx . H. petiole prickly. anthelmintic . :—Common in the Deccan . good in inflammation. NS. lobes deltoid. COM. M. Yengara . FAM. M. biliousness. LOC. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . useful in bronchitis. Durrah. E. Dirghashara. "Vata" and " Kapha".

See—Timbers.—Meliaceæ. Juss. Gorakmundi. COM. G. Bodiakalara. . COM. useful in " Kapha". FAM. leprosy and dysentery . Rohina. Ahmedabad. introduced into America and Australia. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. :—Bark. M. cures " Tridosha ". USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Rohun. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Rawtarohan. Asia and Africa. aphrodisiac. Sk. hence used in intermittent fevers. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. good for sore-throat. LOC. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. :—Widely cultivated in India. laxative. Bijapur and E. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. tonic and antiperiodic . POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. M. DISTR. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). PARTS USED. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ruhin. :—The grain is cooling. ulcers. on dry stony hills. Rohini. Pravrajita. Mahamundi. Country. ulcers. Agniruha. Fibres. :—Seeds. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Rohani. stem and branches cylindric. common in Gujarat. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Some. Gums and Resins. L. H. refrigerant. HABITAT :—Open situations. CHAR. FAM: —Compositæ. vaginal injections and enemas. Vritta. Karanda-gida. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Dry forests of W. Khandesh and S.—sessile. Gorakhmundi. constipating. K. :—Bark-acrid. Grains contain vitamin B. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. fevers. indigestible. Tans. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Munditika. anthelmintic. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. DISTR. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). bladder and kidney complaints. :—G. Poona. Aruna. biliousness. NS. tumours (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. diseases of blood. PARTS USED. Bastard Cedar. H. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . hairy. Ceylon. Kumbhala. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. with toothed wings. general debility. high. NS. M. while Belgaum. See—Food Plants. Indian Red-Wood. K. glandular. Dharwar. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. :— E. improves appetite and taste. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Sk. piles. Gorakhamundi. Swami-mara. Sumbi.

urinary discharges. :—Root. enriches blood . spleen diseases. in cases of worms and indigestion. ovate-oblong. Pellitary . Akara-karava. useful in skin diseases. all warm countries. scalding of urine. Akarakara . HABITAT. chest diseases. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. Celyon. FAM. emmenagogue. hemicrania (Ayurveda). digestible. CHAR. bark. jaundice. epileptic convulsions. peduncles reaching 10 cm. :—Throughout India. boils. Fl.—Achene. Ceylon. dysentery. compressed . They are chewed to relieve toothache. indigestion. peduncles with toothed wings. LOC. urethral discharges and jaundice. strangury. pain in uterus and vagina. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. flowers and seeds. sometimes grown in gardens. It is also used as fish and crab poison. alterative. leaves. irregularly crenateserrate. M. long. vomiting. glaborous. Fl. laxative. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). globose ovoid. NS. :—Common in rice-fields. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. USES. Sk. HABITAT. stalked. increases appetite. Fr. COM.— achene. Africa. piles. Malay Islands. gives lustre to eyes . C. scabies. tuberculous glands. :—E. :—Hot. Akkalkara . LOC. They are given in powder form. with honey they are given in cough. M. LOC.—compound heads. t. and tonic (Stewart) . PROPERTIES AND USES. L. DISTR. Australia. Tonic. gleet.—Nov. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative.. . oblong. glandular hairy. :—Root. fattening. :—Deccan. Fl. anæmia. Pappuso. :—Annual herb. the latter when present minute.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. H. Powdered root is given as tonic. ring-worm of waist. elephantiasis.. looseness of breasts. cooling. ovate. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. biliousness. Country and Kanara. cools brain. bronchitis.—opposite. lessens inflammations . PARTS USED. t. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. leucoderma. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. Fr. ciliate near the ends . leaves and flower-heads. solitary or subpanicled. :—Wild and cultivated. serrate or dentate. involucre bracts linear. tonic.—in heads ovoid. rectal pain.—Compositæ. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. biliousness. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. used in insanity. good for eyesore. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic.—Nov-Jany. PARTS USED. :—Common in the Konkan. stem and branches hairy. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. asthma. DISTR. base usually acute. S. depurative.—purple. used also for local application. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. truncate. :—Throughout India. alexipharmic. laxative.

high. Dr. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism.8-7. ash-coloured . Kanara.— petals 4-5. CHAR. Sk. Hude. K. trunk straight. L. :—Often planted throughout the State. Patala.-Apl. COM. . enriches blood . and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Amrataka. aphrodisiac. Fruit—indigestible. NS. Ambodha. :—Bark. leaves and fruit.5 m. cures rheumatism. Country. Kumbhi. Fl. Amate. Ran-amba . branches nearly horizontal. Andamans. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Kapichuta. Western Peninsula. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Ambada. yellow. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Pahad. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. Padiala. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. t. Burma. ulcers. Gujarat. Tungi. :—Cultivated. Pitana. Toyadhivasini.—drupe. Giri Hadari. hard. :—A tree 9-10..MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Kalavrinta. burning sensation. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. refrigerant. tonic. entire. Kariguddada. widely planted. W.Feb.8 cm. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. See—Gums and Resins. astringent. ovoid. DISTR.—Anacardiaceæ. appetising. Amra. Ceylon. blood complaints . :—E. :—Leaves-tasty. C.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. phthisis. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic.. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. biliousness. Wild Mango.5-18 x 3. bark smooth. Parur.—Bignoniaceæ. S. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Indian Hog-Plum.5 cm. Fl. ovate oblong. Ali-vallabha. NS. long. Pandri. Konkan. Bile Tree. destroys " Vata ". K. pinkish green. M.-usually 1. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Hongkong. long. Patala. round with furrows and cavities. It has been found useful in dysentery. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. FAM. LOC. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Indian Archipelago. Marahunise. 3. H. HABITAT. oblong. COM. stone woody. good for sore-throat. LOC. Padal. Gum is demulcent. Salt Range. Sd. :—H. PARTS USED. Kamduti. Avatekayi.. oblique. Hulave. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. M. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. Padal. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Sk. Fr.

N. aphrodisiac. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . LOC. emmenagogue . Kajavara. itching. :—E. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Travancore . antipyretic. Kelakutaka. :—Root-bitter. :—Very common in Konkan and N. NS. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . LOC.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Nirmal. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. from Kashmir to Sikkim . pungent. Kajra. Karnatak. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). sub-Himalaya. K.—Loganiaceæ. :—Root. :—More or less throughout tropical India. cures pains in joints. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. :—In forests south of Bombay. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. eructations. seeds. DISTR. :—Wood (rarely). piles. Kangira. diuretic. Visha-druma. Kanara. Kanara. Burma. thirst. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. Planted in Ceylon. fevers. Kuchla. LOC. Laos. tonic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kachita. useful in bilious diarrhœa. inflammation. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Indo-China. appetiser. heating. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Kuchala. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. Vishamushti. H. west coast of Madras State. cures leucoderma. tonic. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. blood diseases. Poison Nut. fruit. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Flowers— acrid . Kupaka. vomiting. asthma. astringent to bowels. blood diseases. ulcers. jaundice. M. bitter. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Karaskara. Kakatinduka. "Vata". burning sensation. Ceylon. flowers. poisonous. heating. :—Monsoon-forests. anæmia. diuretic. ring-worm. FAM. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). See—Timbers. Crow Fig. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. "Kapha". COM. Kajra. Circars. :—Fruit-acrid. lumbago. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. heating. G. tonic.. fruit. Hemushti. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Ittangi. Kuchla. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. PARTS USED. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. DISTR. It is regarded as cooling. piles . Sk. loss of taste. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit—bitter. leaves. Travancore.

It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. See—Timbers. jaundice. :—E. Country. increases "Vata". Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. See—Timbers. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. Seeds—acrid. M. Ambuprasadini. head-diseases (Ayurveda). anæmia. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. gonorrhœa.. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. Nivali. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. emetic. hallucinations. DISTR. :—Deciduous dry forests. also in Konkan. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. The demand for strychnine is increasing. alexiteric. lithotriptic. Shodhanatmaka. good for liver. M. FAM. . LOC. H. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. alexipharmic. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. tonic. :—Sand-stone hills of S. :—Root cures leucoderma. Sk. :—Western Peninsula. :—Root (rarely). Nelmal. poisoning. Seeds—bitter. Kanara and Khandesh. Burma. cure strangury. diuretic. PARTS USED. Aduguchali-bija. K. fruit and seeds. urinary discharges. Kataka. diaphoretic. astringent to bowels. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. kidney complaints. Fruit useful in eye diseases. cures inflammations. COM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Madhya Bharat. improve eye-sight. aphrodisiac. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Clearing Nut Tree. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Chittu bija. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. HABITAT. causes biliousness. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. relieve colic (Yunani). Nirmali. Ceylon.—Loganiaceæ. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. NS. thirst.

—Gentianaceæ. Lodhraka. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. :—Root.3-0. S. HABITAT. :—Konkan and N. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". 0. C. Chota Nagpur. China Nora. Lodhra . :—Bark-acrid.— Oct. H. 2-valved. Kadu. NS. high. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . LOC. quadrangular. PROPERTIES AND USES. throughout N. Deccan . it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Californian Cinchona. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Peninsula).—capsule. vaginal discharges. digestible. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . dysentery. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter. COM. eye-diseases and ulcers . astringent and useful in bowel complaints. Bose). Fl. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. 4-winged. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. bleeding gums . Deccan. :—The whole plant is bitter. . 5-nerved . white with blue veins. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. Lodh. E. inflammations.. See—Timbers. PARTS USED. Balaloddujinamara. useful in abortions . :—Hilly parts. flowers (rarely).— lobes 4-5. K. LOC. C.9 m. broadly ovate. Tillaka. :—W.—many. Sk.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. Peninsula. Torna fort. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin.-Jany.. t. NS. colloturine and loturiaine. biliousness. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. Lodh is used in raw condition. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. useful in eye-diseases. DISTR. LOC. Mahabaleshwar. FAM. cures cough. DISTR. :—Bark.— sessile. Broughton).—very many in dense corymbose cymes . winged . Burma. :—India (W. acrid. COM. C. etc. FAM. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). in powder or in fresh decoction. :— E. :—An erect herb. PARTS USED. M. diseases of blood. stem densely leafy. decussate. :—M. cooling. Fl. CHAR. Sd. Fr. Bhilli. Lodh Tree.—Symplocaceæ. L. leprosy. Dyes. Country. Shavaraka. astringent to bowels. Loder. Lodhra. ovoid or oblong. M. Tiritaka. alexiteric. :—Western Ghats . Lodh . The plant contains alkaloids loturine.

NS. :—Bark-acrid. very often planted. cooling. common at Mahabaleshwar. H. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. :—Throughout the State. Gulabjaman. Jamen. gargles and washes .) FAM. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. COM. See—Timbers. :—Bark. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Gulab-Jamb. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. H. carminative and diuretic. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. etc. K. also wild.—Myrtaceæ. Jambul. Surabhipriya. NS. :—E. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Jambula. Jambu. anthelmintic. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. biliousness. Jamburaj.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Jambu-Nayinerale. M. Nenda. Jambu. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. PROPERTIES AND USES. digestive. good gargle for sore-throat. Pharenda. good for sore-throat. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. Malaya.—Myrtaceæ. astringent. Nilphala. fruits and seeds. Jam. LOC. Kokileshta. :—Throughout India. Jambul. Malay—Rose apple. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. Sk. increases "Vata". removes bad smell from mouth. Jambu. Shukapriya. Fruit—acrid. Jambudi. asthma. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). blood impurities. Pannerali. M. DISTR. :-Black-Java Plum. Sk. PARTS USED. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent.) FAM. Shukapriya. dry. enriches blood. sprouts. ulcers. fruit vinegar is tonic. bronchitis. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. astringent to bowels. Jambu. common along river banks. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. both wild and cultivated. . sweet. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. Nerate. COM. dysentery. also used in spongy and painful gums. LOC. Australia. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. G. Fruit Trees. Ceylon. strengthens gums and teeth. K. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. Seeds—diuretic. astringent to bowels. good lotion for ring-worm in head. thirst. Neralu. LOC. Jambura. carminative . useful in spleen diseases. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa.

5-15 X 2. Cultivated in many places. 7. Nandi. bitter. astringent to bowels. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. Kottuhale.— opposite. tonic to brain. Seeds are astringent to bowels. cultivated in many parts. Burma. Fruit—sweet and tasty. Chandani. Br. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). used in liver complaints. emmenagogue. See—Timbers. used in asthma. acrid. astringent to bowels. tonic to brain. Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES. tonic. LOC. strangury. liver and spleen . HABITAT. Fr. Root—bitter . NS. heavy speech. :—Root is acrid. pale beneath. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. :—Root. Hills of Visakhapatanam. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. . K. glossy green above. orange within. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. cures epilepsy. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. :—E.5-5 cm.—snow-white. fruit and seeds. Yunnan to Australia. Tagar . removes bad humours. :—Bark. C—lobes overlapping to the left. salver-shaped. heating. used in syphilis (Yunani). elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. M. PARTS USED.—Apocynaceæ. margins wavy. indigestible. COM. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. Root chewed relieves toothache . Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. dysentery. lobes 5 in single. 1-3 ribbed. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in "Kapha. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. :—Cultivated in gardens. with milky juice . and an essential oil. G. LOC. across. Sk. useful in paralysis. indigestible. Maddarasa gida . divaricate. . lessens pains in limbs and joints . thirst. Khasia Hills. Ashvathabheda. E. Ananta. wood and oil. inodorous during the day. Tagara. Fl. aphrodisiac. weakness of limbs..206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.) FAM. Tagar. t.5-5 cm.—rainy season. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. astringent to bowels. Wax flower. purgative. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. Garhwal. H. hot. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). L. fatigue. The plant contains an alkaloid. alexipharmic. fragrant at night." biliousness. PARTS USED. CHAR. improves voice. LOC. Taggar. DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Fl. double. digestible. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Sikkim Terai. bronchitis. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Bark is sweet. Trinidad . It is very cooling in ophthalmia.—follicles.

NS. Sandu. :—Root. Amli. Chinchika. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. Nuli. H. :—Rain-forests. Kanara. HABITAT. FAM. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). belching. kidney troubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. across in pedunculate cymes .. Pandarakuda. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. DISTR.. throughout the Konkan and N. Fl. Nagakuda. COM. French Marigold. HABITAT. Tamarind. Guljharo. Amli. Amla.— Mar-Apl. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. 2. NS. common in rain-forests.—follicle. PARTS USED.5 cm. Flower—bitter.5 m. DISTR. stomachic. lessens inflammation . Maddarssa. Sk. coriaceous. :—E. :—Same as T.. Kalaga. H. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). Sd. Leaves—good for piles. high. M. Sk. Tintrani.2-7. their juice is given in ear-ache.—surrounded by red pulp. 7. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM.. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Teter. M. yellow when ripe. Travancore up to 7.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). good for teeth . Amala. :—Native of Mexico. internally they are said to purify blood. muscular pains. G.—opposite. Genda. Tintidika. :—Cultivated. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. grown in gardens all over India. G. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. M. Chinch. :—Flower-pungent.000 m. CHAR. FAM. Gultora. C.4-4.—Apocynaceæ. Imli.— tube inflated near the top. Zendu. LOC. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.5-20 X 3. HABITAT. rough. L. somewhat boat-shaped. LOC. oil. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . See—Ornamental Plants. carminative. PARTS USED. Amlike. Amlika. bark grey. Makhamala. . :—Malabar. Fl. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. acrid. Zanduga. bitter. Halmeti. Fr. :—Leaves and flowers. LOC. oblong lanceolate . :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards .—white. Makhamal. Makhamali. Sthulapushpa. NS. Nagaskuda.5 cm. COM. :—E.—Compositæ. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. : K. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent. useful in scabies. Chinch. COM. K. wood. divaricata. t.

biliousness. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Sagun. G. useful in liver-complaints.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. bark.—Verbenaceæ. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. such as body-burning. urinary discharges. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Sk. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Bark—astringent. Sagwan. DISTR. heating. NS. heals wounds and fractures. aphrodisiac. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Fruit—sour. vomiting. COM. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. fruit and seeds. laxative. flowers. small-pox. Teka.. wood. eye-diseases. thirst. sweetish. abundant all along the slopes of W. Arna. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). laxative. tasty. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Tegu. PARTS USED. Flowers— appetising . Kanara. DISTR. Anil. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. digestive. earache. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Kanara. Tropics generally. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Madhya Bharat. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. boiled they are used as a poultice. Seeds astringent. anthelmintic. Seeds are good astringent. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. and laxative. Circars. See—Timbers. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Malay Peninsula. :—E. indigestible. Sagwan. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. . Cultivated also. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. LOC. flowers and seeds. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. H. tonic.. Condiments and Spices. tumours. Teak. Sumatra and Java. sore-throat. carminative. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. :—Bark. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Sag. Mahapatra. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. Burma. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. heals ulcers. scabies. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. leaves. intoxication &c. costiveness. Fruit-sour. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Sag. causes cough. and for sizing materials. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. tonic to heart. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. K. astringent to bowels. stomatitis. Tega. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. :—Throughout India. Sagach.

—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sarphonka. anthelmintic. fresh root-bark. urinary discharges. glabrous above. dry. cures diarrhœa . USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. COM. alexiteric. 2—2. asthma. DISTR. Fl.—5-6 . alterative. LOC. HABITAT:—Open situations. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . increase "Vata". allays thirst. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . root. pubescent on the back. Kogge. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. bitter. Flowers—acrid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. useful in piles. Kalika. syphilis. oblanceolate. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. Plihari. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. leaves and seeds.-June. Sarpankho. H.—Oct. boils and pimples. gonorrhœa (Yunani). useful in bronchitis. antipyretic. ulcers. Wood good for head ache. improve appetite. ground and made into a pill. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. PROPERTIES AND USES. linear. heart. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. expectorant. Unhali. long. Udhadi. useful in scabies. Sharapunkha. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. :—All over India. Sk. PARTS USED.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes.8 X 0. long. asthma. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). standard. "Root—diuretic. biliousness. blood. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. C. :—A perennial herb. :—The whole plant. Empali. mucronate. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. enriches Blood . LOC. . Leaves—tonic to intestines . :—Plant-digestible. See—Timbers. inflammations. burning pain over the region of liver. poisoning. anthelmintic. Sarphoka. M. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. biliousness.8—1. tumours.—pod 3—4. Wood—acrid. Jhila. spleen. 30—60 cm. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. laxative. FAM. S. leaflets 11—21.. suborbicular. K. liver.. M. CHAR. slightly curved. Sd. Phanike. LOC. L. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). Gujarat. cooling. :-G. Ghodakan. Konkan. silkyhairy beneath. high. spleen diseases. mucronate. useful in lung and chest diseases. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. red. NS. Sharapunkha. Country. t.2 cm.—petals clawed. useful in bronchitis. Fr. cures diseases of liver. branches spreading. good in piles. Deccan. sedative to gravid uterus.5 cm. cultivated lands and roadsides. leprosy. Fl. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. Bark is an astringent. it acts also as a vermifuge. along forest borders. allays thirst. Malay Peninsula.

sore-throat. Chota-Nagpur. tumours. Bera. leucoderma. Beheduk. DISTR. LOC. biliousness. NS. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Bastard Myrobalan. PARTS USED. diuretic. ulcers. Karshaphala. H. Rajastan and Sind. :—Konkan and Deccan. Sadura. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. asthma. Behedo. Ceylon. urinary discharges. Bahaza. K. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. Vibhata. :—E. intoxication. Tara. Madhya-Pradesh. :—Throughout the greater parts of India.. heart disease. See—Timbers. COM. H. Burma. :—E. COM. :—Throughout the forests of India. Indradruma. Sk. biliousness. " Kapha". Sk. Madhya-Bharat. false presentation of fœtus. :—Bark. fruit and seed. Arjuna. except in dry arid regions. M. Arjun Sadada. useful in biliousness. excessive perspiration. acrid. G. aphrodisiac. Madras State. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. in Khandesh Akrani. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease.—Combretaceæ. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. useful in fractures. Voting. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). styptic. :—Alexiteric. tonic. strangury. externally in wounds and fractures. LOC. anthelmintic . Belleric Myrobalan. Bahara. Behada. Bedda Nut. Vibhitika. Sagona. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). The plant contains the glucoside rutin. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Arjuna. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. NS. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. very common in South Konkan. strangury. tonic.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. in the sub-Himalayan tract. . M. Sadado. laxative. anæmia. Expectorant. Koha. Buhura. Dhanvi. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. leaves. FAM. Shantimara. Hela. Kalidrum. Karvirak. anthelmintic. Arjun-Sadada. Kushika. K. LOC. :—Bark. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. PARTS USED. White Marudah. fruit (rarely). with milk. Aksha. blood-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. digestible. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. PROPERTIES AND USES. Baire. & A.. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Arjuna. inflammation. Fruit-pungent.. Kakubha. FAM. Arjan. Bibhitiki. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti.—Combretaceæ. Kahu. Tari. G. useful in bronchitis.

antidysenteric. tonic. Jivanti. anaemia. K. Gums and Resins. Ripe fruit—purgative. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. piles. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. Haria. corneal ulcers. bilious headache. tonic. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Black myrobalan. is used as an application in ophthalmia. diarrhœa. Ceylon. Fruit-astringent. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. useful in dyspepsia. delirium (Ayurveda). aperient.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. thirst. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. :—Fruit-dry. Abhaya. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. hiccup. Sk. carminative. diseases of eye. hoarseness. heart and bladder. LOC. tonic. Alate. cold in head. Hirda. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. heating. Chebulic myrobalan. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma.—Combretaceæ. FAM. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. COM. diseases of spleen. DISTR. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. gout. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. which is considered a good digestive. useful in thirst. intoxicating. :—Bark and fruit. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. in Travancore. H. anthelmintic. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. the fully ripe or dried fruit. vomiting. urinary discharges. diseases of eye. stomachic. PARTS USED. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. M. typhoid fever. Haritaki. leucoderma. Har. bleeding and ulceration of gums. constipation. applied to eyes. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . dyspepsia. LOC. good in ophthalmia. LOC. elephantiasis. Harade. itching pain. tumours. piles. brain tonic (Yunani). Kanara. ascites. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. —E. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. vesicular calculi. strangury. used in paralysis (Yunani). Seed—acrid. enriches blood. USES. useful in asthma. alterative . bleeding piles. piles and diarrhœa. heart and bladder. attenuant. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kernel has narcotic properties. carminative. eyes. Jivantika. inflammations. Dyes. Harara. useful in caries of teeth. mixed with honey. vomiting. common in Khandesh Akrani. strengthens brain. antipyretic. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Hirdo . Haritaki. Burma. NS. biliousness. sore-throat. expectorant. nose. G. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. eye diseases etc. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. gums.

Jogiyarale. Sacred Plants. See—Timbers. Tans. Fibres.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Portia Tree. Paras-piper. Ranbhendi. Bhindi. which forms a valuable local application in scabies.—Malvaceæ. aphrodisiac . also planted as roadside tree. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. LOC. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Parisha. leaves. Parasipu. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Gajadanta. :—Bark. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). LOC. Gandarati. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Dyes. Mhaskar and Issac). . Suparshuakan. Hucerasi. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. difficult to digest. See—Timbers. Bhandi. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Tulip Tree. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Kanara. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). M. NS. K. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. :—Fruit-sour. G. Arasi. DISTR. Bengal. produces worms in intestines . removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Eastern and Western Peninsula. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Paraspipal. PARTS USED. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. COM. FAM. Bugari. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kandarala. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. especially centipedes. :—E. flowers and fruit. Kuberaksha. acrid . Phalisha. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. burning of body . Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. :—Coast forests of India.. increases " Kapha " . profuse discharge. Burma. Bhend. Paraspiplo. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Sk. H. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. It is also used in chronic dysentery. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema.

bladder. crowded . 1—3. with milky juice. Ashvaghna. Shatakumbha.—drupes. CHAR. often planted in India.. hot. Fl. Amrita-Valli. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Uganiballi. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. exocarp fleshy. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . bronchitis . The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.—broadly obovate. Pittaghni. Heart-leaved moonseed. Amarvel. Indies . Fr. bark corky.—in terminal cymes. :—Bark. DISTR. piles. astringent to bowels. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Native of S.5—12. K. Fl. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. CHAR. Karvira. :—Stem.—Apl. LOC. H. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. it has no action on digestive enzymes . Fl. pungent. Gulo. yellow. Pila kaner. America and W. red. DISTR. very poisonous (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. wounds. endocarp corky. across. COM. ventrally flat. NS. bright green and shining above. Andamans and Ceylon. L. See—Ornamental Plants. 7. frequently planted.. COM. Vatsadani. virgin uterus. Sk. but its use is attended with considerable danger. yellow. mesocarp bony. Gulhel. M. Gulvel. elliptic.—in axillary and terminal racemes. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. NS. Jwaranashini. and blood vessels . throat campanulate. M.-spirally arranged. acrid. 7—9 nerved. worms. root.—generally 4. Exile or yellow Oleander. 5 cm.5 cm. Sd. H. G. lobes 5. FAM.—Apocynaceæ. corona in the throat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. useful in urethral discharges. size of a pea . C. Zard kunel. long. L. G. Gulvel. growing on mango and other trees. Gulancha. cures " Vata " . Fr. PARTS USED. Gado. HABIT :—In thickets. leucoderma. linear. male fascicled. FAM.—Menispermaceæ. Gurch. tubular. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). 5—10 cm. Burma. grooved . eye-troubles. Amritvalli. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. :—E. females solitary. t.. :—Throughout tropical India. Pivali kanher. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. dorsally convex. seeds and milky juice.—membranous. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Sk. LOC. :—An extensive climber. . roundish cordate with a broad sinus. :—Often planted. fevers. LOC. Pila kanir. HABITAT. skin diseases. Haripriya.

Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. LOC.—Rutaceæ. :—Root. leaflets sessile. dark shining green above. male flower bud globose. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. stomachic . K. pitted on the rind.— alternate. Kumaon to Bhutan.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. CHAR. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Forest Pepper. causes constipation. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). vomiting.—Aug.8. 5-7 lobed. DISTR. crenulate. good in cough. juice useful in diabetes. NS. armed with small hooked prickles . :—E. intermittent fever and dyspepsia.—Dehan. :—Rain-forests. especially acid. PARTS USED. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. Root-bark is aromatic. oblong. Java. Jangali-Mirchi. Philippines. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. piles. digitately trifoliate. China. Macimullu. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. female flower buds oblong. Kadu-menasu. enriches blood. diuretic. 5-10 X 1. ovary rudimentary. L. fruits. FAM. 15 m. tonic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Konkan and Kanara. allays thirst. FT. stomachic. Sk. expectorant. Ceylon.-Jany. Khasia Hills. tonic appetiser. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. anæmia. vaginal and urethral discharges. cures jaundice. renews blood. Dahan. Stem-bitter. Kaduhakukare.. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. also in the Deccan hills. useful in skin diseases. high. Fl.—globose. H. USES. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. stimulant and anti-periodic. Gangalaki. leaves. Fl. chronic fever. giddiness. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. stigma sessile. HABITAT. Mirchi. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. fever. orange coloured.8-3. t. 3-5 grooved. Sumatra. :—All over the Madras State . vomiting. diarrhœa. (Kirtikar).—in axillary cymes. stimulates bile secretion. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. common in S. Manger. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. tropical Africa. jaundice. white. Limri. burning sensation. unisexual. bark. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. coriaceous. Root and stem are bitter. antipyretic. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. . COM. :—Stem-bitter. Lopezroot Tree. size of a large pea. LOC. M.

tropical Africa. astringent to bowels. Waitz). Garige. :—Cooling . good for scabies and gleet. COM. removes " Kapha ". indigestible. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. Dyes. fatigue. antipyretic . Shingada. K. Mahalimbu. anthelmintic. Assam. astringent to bowels. Kanara. :—Aquatic (in tanks). The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. leprosy. biliousness. Lud. useful in ulcers. fattening. :—Bark and flowers. Toon. Kaechaka. Shingoda. inflammation. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kalingi. HABIT. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat.. "Tridosha". cooling. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. itching. LOC. expectorant. Gandhagarige. aphrodisiac. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). digestible. DISTR. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. removes " Tridosha". NS. useful in . The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Sk. COM. aphrodisiac. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. burning sensation. Tundu. See—Timbers.) FAM. Chota-Nagpur. FAM. Trikota. Tuni. M. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Bark—bitter. Malaya. Nand-vriksha. Ceylon. PARTS USED. causes " Vata " . burning sensation. Shringa-kanda-taka. Sk. tonic. Deodari.—Meliaceæ. Chittagong. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State in tanks. :—E. Water-chestnut. PARTS USED. :—E. Sandal Neem. often cultivated. Burma.—Onagraceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Jalakantaka-valli. Indian Mahogany. DISTR. NS. Singhara. :—Throughout India. Singodi. cures leprosy. of India). USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Gums and Resins. H. :—Bark-acrid. Mandurike. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. G. Kuberaka. Trikone-phala. H. M. strangury. blood diseases. headache. biliousness. cardio-tonic. Lim. Apina. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. Tunika. Kuruk. LOC. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. cures fevers. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Fruit. LOC. urinary discharges. Tun.

a common weed of the drier parts. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Sd. Sk. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. :—The whole plant. one of each pair smaller than the other. Sarata. Seeds abound in starch. useful in chronic fevers. Gokhru. LOC. Pindara. mucronate.—several in each coccus . M. hairy. Trikantaka. Fr. Sumatra. The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. :—H. They are also used in the form of poultice.:—Saurashtra. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. K. K. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. LOC. Chhota gokhru. one pair longer than the other . TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Malay Peninsula. Tumri. Gujarat.. oblong.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. G. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. of 5 woody cocci. sharp spines. Ceylon. pain. Negalu . Gamhar. Country. :—Plant is cooling tonic. antipyretic. bronchitis. young parts silky. COM. used as food. appetiser. PARTS USED. Kurangaha. each with 2 pairs of hard. FAM. Assam. Kantaphala. Ceylon.. abruptly pinnate. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous.—globose. upto 3300 m. improves taste . base oblique. t. yellow.—throughout the year. LOC. Deccan and S. FAM. Karahate. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Beta-Nahan Gokhru. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Kanara. solitary. COM. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. See—Food Plants. alexiteric. :—E. stems and branches pilose. Calthrope. :—Throughout India. H. DISTR. bad-teeth (Yunani).—opposite. LOC. L. Java. sore-throat. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fibres. Gokshura. lumbago. Fl. See—Timbers. Petari . Kadu Kange Kumbala. Sk. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Pindara.—Euphorbiaceæ. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. NS. M. PROPERTIES AND USES.. Gokharu. thirst. Gokhura. Hussuk. considered cool and sweet.—Zygophyllaceæ. Shadanga. in Kashmir. bile and phlegm. CHAR. DISTR. along nalas and in swampy localities. Gokhru. M. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Gokshri. Kere Padye. NS. Aphrodisiac. biliousness. . :—A procumbent herb.

Abu. yellowish brown. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. lumbago . reduces inflammation . stem erect. tonic. asthma. Country. FAM. stomachic. :—Western Peninsula. :—Hot. urinary disorders and impotence. PARTS USED. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). Central India. linear-oblong or lanceolate. ciliate. purifies blood . reduces inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. pruritus ani.—Compositæ. Talakanto. Brahmadandi. Mota-Motachor. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. leaves. faintly ribbed. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . alterative . Fl. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—A glabrous herb. gleet. bitter. removes " Tridosha ". Kantapatraphala. C. S. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. CHAR. K. slender. LOC. "Vata". HABITAT. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. alleviating burning sensation. :—The whole plant. the Deccan. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). . L. : — G. S. fruits. t. —achene. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). spinous toothed or serrate. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). COM. diuretic. pappus shorter than the achenes. bloody urine. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. :—Wild in places. LOC. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . seeds. cures "Kapha". leprosy . suppression of urine. useful in strangury. DISTR. diuretic. :—Cooling . branches angled and ribbed. H. pain . Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. appetiser. Brahmadandi. Sk. improves appetite . Fr. which is taken in large quantities. vesicular calculi. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh).— Dec. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. emmenagogue (Yunani). long. Konkan. Aja-dandi. cures strangury. cures skin and heart diseases. Physiaran. LOC. M.—sessile. gonorrhœa. tonic. Brahmadandi. Brahma-dandi. cough. increases menstrual flow.— purple.—heads 6—8 mm. urinary discharges. S. West Rajastan. Kanara. fattening. ovoid. :—Root. inflammations. Fl. USES :—Fruits are cooling. Kanara. copious. aphrodisiac. tonic . and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. Diuretic. enriches blood . M. Mt. oblong. Brahmadandi.

ovoid-fusiform. COM. :—Throughout India. palmately 3-5 lobed.. Wild Snake-gourd. Kaundal. Malay Peninsula.-5-12. :—Root-cathartic . Sd. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex.—monœcious. :—Root. paler beneath. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. M. Jangali chichonda.—Cucurbitaceæ. Makal. lobes ovate-oblong. blood diseases. H. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. —G. slightly hairy. Sk. furrowed. Lal-indrayan. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. leaves. dentate or serrate. L. base deeply cordate. long. male in axillary racemes. reniform or broadly ovate. The seeds are good for stomach disorders .3 cm. burning sensation.-male in axillary .5 m. LOC. base cordate . long. dark-green above. chireta and honey. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Mahakala. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). oil. antipyretic. Kadvi-padyal or patola . tendrils 3-fid. Jyotsna. M. :—E.6—4. Avagude-hannu. bitter. CHAR. Perula.. L. leprosy. COM. cures itching. CHAR. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. tendrils 3 cleft. Mukal. stems 3. leaf-juice is emetic. white. FAM . — surrounded with red-pulp . slender. Ratan-indrayan. leucoderma. stem robust. N. the Deccan. headache and boils. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. useful for boils and intestinal worms. anasarca and ascites. Fruit—hot.. erysipelas. orbicular. Leaves—good for biliousness. G. Fl. Sk. Malaya. NS. Ceylon.-6. K. Root-juice is very purgative. HABITAT:-In hedges. ulcers. long as well as broad. H. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Panduka. distantly denticulate. eye diseases. woody below. antipyretic. females solitary. it is given in decoction with ginger. Patola. asthma. In Bombay.—July-Oct. laxative. deeply 5-lobed. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Jangli— Kadu padval. alexiteric. stomachic. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. variable.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. with a long sharp beak. pungent.—2. long. :—A scandent annual. Fl. Katuka. Indrayan. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. PARTS USED. scarlet when ripe. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. fruit.5 cm. Kiripodla. cures bronchitis.5—7. t.5 cm. Australia. K. LOC. FAM. alterative. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. Fr. allays thirst.—Cucurbitaceæ. axillary. green with white stripes when raw. Betlada padaval. DISTR. NS.3-12.

Juice of fruit or root-bark. all over the State. LOC. slender. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . sparsely white hairy. Fl. Fl. fringed. Australia. Fr. heat of brain.—globose 3-8. high. DISTR. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. 30-60 cm.—many . many years ago. female solitary. Country. Ceylon. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. :—Throughout India. HABITAT. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Abundant in the Deccan. glandular. white. . abortifacient. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. inner slightly longer than outer. limbweakness. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. N. :—Wild in hilly parts. leprosy. COM. 3-partite. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. axillary. peduncles very long. Ekdandi. LOC. Fr. C. t. hairy. LOC. Sd. purgative. outer involucral bracts ovate. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). Deccan and S. ovate-elliptic.-July. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. bracts large.5 cm.. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. very hairy. :—M. lessens inflammations .—throughout the year. L. gargle good for toothache. which is found abundantly all over the country. Kirkee. Fruit—carminative. :—Root and fruit. bruises and wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Leaves.— Apl. Ray flowers ligulate. stem and branches hairy.—1. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani)..MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. diam. PARTS USED. petioles densely hairy. ligules yellow. Fl. DISTR. rheumatism.—head solitary. on the Himalayas.75-1 in. :—A perennial straggling herb.75 X . M. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. PARTS USED. acute. Japan. cures hemicrania. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. used in epilepsy. Malaya. China. boiled with gingelly oil. CHAR. ophthalmia.—petals wedge-shaped. densely silky hairy.. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. FAM. black.— achene. :— Wild in Konkan. middle lobe smallest. NS. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. pappus of numerous feathery bristles.. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. t.—Compositæ. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant.

CHAR. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. diuretic. PARTS USED. LOC. much used in colic. Methi. NS. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. G. LOC. useful in dropsy. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Konkan. Jyoti. t. LOC. piles. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda).220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. base cordate. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. Janglipikvan. dysentery.—Aug. astringent to bowels.7 cm. narrowed at the apex to a free point. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. 5-10 x 2. purplish within. fleshy. Fenugreek . bronchitis.—follicles. Antamul. . Fl. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. :—E. COM. FAM. antipyretic. FN. :—H. M. See—Vegetables. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. emmenagogue. HABITAT.—Asclepiadaceæ. Pitakari (Pitamari). The leaves contain vitamins A and B. M. enlargement of spleen and liver. Muthi. PROPERTIES AND USES. large for the genus. long. M. :—Cultivated. Hot and dry. COM. enlargement of spleen and liver. "Vata".5—10 cm. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. :—A twining perennial. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. K. Fl. dropsy. Methini. corona gibbous below. vomiting.. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.—deeply lobed.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Leaves and seeds.— broadly ovate. Pitabija Vedhini. also in low and sandy localities. Methi.5-5. removes bad taste from mouth. long. cures leprosy. appetiser. Chandrika. Country. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). anthelmintic. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. and the seeds contain vitamin A. cultivated in many parts of India. H. Nepala . C. Methi. greenish-yellow outside. Sd. aperient. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Sk. they are also aphrodisiac. L. chronic cough.—opposite. Kashmir. suppurative. S. diarrhœa. tonic and carminative.—in umbellate cymes . Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. with coma . Menthe—palle. Methi .-Nov. NS. K.. :—Hot. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. :—Punjab. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. ovate or elliptic oblong. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. flatulence. 7. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. FAM. DISTR. Kanara. tonic. tapering to a fine point at the apex. :—South of Bombay. roots many.

L. stems downy with hooked hairs. ellipsoid.— flattened.— petals lanceolate. L. Jangli-Ran-khanda.-Sept. PARTS USED. PARTS USED. :—Western Himalayas. tapering to both ends . LOC. Ceylon. :—Throughout India. CHAR. Prishna-parni. DISTR. Ceylon. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. Sk. M. Jaglipiaz. light-brown . HABITAT. Malay Islands.—capsule. Rankanda. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.9-1. HABITAT. M.—purple. scape erect 30-45 cm. :—A herb. pale lead-colored. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. USES.. Fl. COM. drooping. LOC. Pitvan. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Fr. Fr. FAM. Dried leaves are emetic.. KolaPutakand. H. Dabra. NS. Chota-Nagpur. black.. white. 10-20 cm. :—A perennial shrub. Pitavan . :—Sandy places. Burma. :—Throughout the plains of India. Indian Squill. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. Sk. URARIA PICTA Desv. Ranganja . asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 5-7 (rarely 9).5 cm. perianth campanulate. C. :—E. linear-oblong. FAM.. Philippines. Malay Islands. hairy beneath. flat.— imparipinnate. linear. 15-45 x 1. Sd. :—Bulb. t. long. :—G. Fl. long. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. :—Roots and leaves. COM.—Aug. blotched with white above.— pod. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 20-30 cm. G. USES. tropical Africa..—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes.3-2.— Liliaceæ. :—Konkan. diaphoretic and expectorant.—appearing after the flowers. W. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. CHAR. high. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. tropical Africa.8 m. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. Thailand (Siam). Peninsula. glabrous. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Vanapalandu. polished. Borneo. Shankaraja . bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). found useful in dysentery. Bihar. DISTR.. Panjala. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. :—Wild. Fl. joints 3-6. C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. stalks long. long. :—Common on sandy shores.—in racemes 15-30 cm. folded on one another. Pithavan. . 0.

. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). asthma. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. :—G. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. hiccup. alexiteric.. scandent by simple or branching roots . column very short. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES. laxative. :—Epiphyte. lumbago. and U. diuretic. LOC. Root is bitter. LOC. Atiras. Rasna. Rasno. Rasna. 1931. Sk. H. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. renal calculi. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. The bulb is stomachic. Gujarat and Kanara. W.. bronchitis. diseases of nose. :—Root and leaves. The plant contains an alkaloid. purgative. K. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. stout. 15-20 X 1. emmenagogue. heating. diseases of the abdomen.— July. lessens inflammations . and was found useful (Koman). praemorse. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. FAM. anthelmintic. bronchitis. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. and an acute interposed one. DISTR. 2-lobed. Bandanike. stimulant and diuretic. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. Fl. Sarpagandha. A. heals fractures (Yunani). S. heating. Vriksharuha. (In Med. COM. useful in dyspepsia. tremors (Ayurveda). :—Konkan. toothache. . alexiteric. rheumatic pains. skin diseases. boils in the scalp. Vanda. L. bronchitis. pollinia ellipsoid. obtusely keeled. NS. tip. cardiac. Nakula. Madhya-Pradesh. complicate. rheumatism. :—Bengal. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. recurved. M. useful in paralysis. Br. PARTS USED. long. Fr. acute. Fl. maritima of U. alexiteric. internal pains (Yunani). Chota-Nagpur. Persara. good for piles.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. lip bluish dotted with purple. :—The bulb is pungent. LOC.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. antipyretic. CHAR. long. Ceylon. Peninsula. stem 30-60 cm. erect.5—9 cm. dropsy. inflammations. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. :—An epiphyte. tonic to brain and liver. USES :—Expectorant.—capsule. t. Rasna.—thickly coriaceous.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. Bihar.—Orchidaceæ. HABIT. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. long. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Travancore. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints.3-2 cm. Banda. scilla of Great Britain. :—Root is bitter. Gaz.

debility and slight cases of fever. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. Bilidhupa. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. itch (Ayurveda). detergent. also planted. Gums and Resins. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. :—E. tonic. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. Dhupa. PARTS USED.. DISTR. M. tuberculous glands. greenish.—Rhamnaceæ. G. M. See—Timbers. Kanara. :—Bark-hot. Madidhupa. Sk. LOC. (T. PARTS USED. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. K. boils and ringworm. Kundura. Sk. :—North Kanara. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . ulcers and wounds. alexipharmic.—in large drooping terminal panicles. entire or crenate. :—Bark. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Safed-damar. also in N. Sandras. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings.-Jany. COM. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Kubbila. C. M. Fr.—5-10 X 2. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. bechic. piles. CHAR. dysentery. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. Travancore. Tenasserim. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. cures cough. skin eruptions. fruit. Pitti. young branches and panicles pubescent. L. FAM. alexipharmic. :—Bark. expectorant. NS. in chronic bronchitis.—Dipterocarpaceæ. LOC. Red Creeper. useful in atonic dyspepsia. carminative. eardiseases. diam. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Coorg in Ghats. . resin. Kaharub. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. Fl. 1-nerved wing. Shandike. Ceylon.—Dec. Dhupa. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—petals 5. prolonged into a linear-oblong. :—E. Raktavalli. Lokhandi. :—Western India. Shala. whitish). acrid.8 cm. Haruge.. diarrhœa. H. urinary discharges. Oils. Country. Malamaitra. tonic and stimulant. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES. t.. useful in leprosy. rheumatism. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). abundant in S. Sarjaka. with an offensive odour. good for sore-throat. amenorrhœa. buds 5-angled. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). :—Madras State. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. Kanara and S. Fl. Sekalyel. Poppli. USES. :—A large much branched woody climber. anæmia. K. globular. COM. H. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S.-nut about 5 mm. NS. dark. Khandvel. Mysore. hemicrania. FAM. Ragatarshado. yellowish. LOC.5-3. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn.

ofter cultivated. NS. NS. Fr. Ceylon.—Dec. L. rounded. Sd.6-0. Fl.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Fl. high. PARTS USED.8 cm. on long petioles. lobes 5. Gadar-tambaku. Kalijiri.9 m. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. H. yellow. 10-ribbed. truncate. PROPERTIES AND USES. about 40-flowered. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. LOC. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. squeezed out by pounding. :—E. :—Annual. leafy herb . anthelmintic. Ceylon . with purple tips . (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall.) FAM. rachis glandular pubescent. hairy. G. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.2 cm. Kutki..-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Vapehi. FAM. lyrate. branched near the top. The juice of the whole plant. compound or pinnatisect. warted. DISTR. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). M. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). t— Jany. Fr. Country.Feb. Bhutakeshi. PARTS USED. Vishamushti. coarsely serrate.-rotate. :—Konkan . Somaraj. CHAR. lanceolate. :—Plant. COM. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. LOC. Sk. stem 0. in equal proportions. Kalejire. hairy. cure ulcers. sub-globose. :—Throughout India . Deccan . H.—alternate. L. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. Afghanistan. M. K. high . Kadvojiri. used in skin-diseases. Sundika. China. erect.—Scrophulariaceæ. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. Kalizhiri. CHAR. .-May. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. K. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. pappus reddish. LOC.—capsule. all coarsely dentate. robust.—oblong. Fl. Vanajiraka. hairy on both sides. M.—heads subcorymbose. :—Throughout India. Gujarat. COM. DISTR.. and leaves. C. Agnibija. hairy. "Vata" and "Kapha". Fl. The juice mixed with mustard oil. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES.-achene oblong cylindric. 5—9 x 2. innermost the longest. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. Kulhala. Somaraj. HABITAT:-Waste places.—Compositæ. Kalhara. :—Seeds-acrid.5—3. Sk. Java .. involucre bracts linear. stems 60—90 cm. often cultivated. Kulara. Purple Fleabane. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. :—G.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. :—An annual herb. Bakchi. t.. Seeds— anthelmintic.

Bala. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED. Sahadevi. t.— pinkish violet. consumption. plant is used in fever convulsions. Fr. flowers. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. K. alternate. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). H. Dandotpala. oblong. stomachic and diuretic. are used in destroying pediculi. H. M.—simple. tonic. Panni. CHAR. Sedardi.. kidney troubles. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). Ash-coloured Fleabane . Vecrnam. COM. striate. clothed with white hairs .—Jan. The expressed juice is given in piles. FAM. LOC. awned. M. Fl. COM. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Cuscus grass. NS. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil.-Feb. Khas. stomachic. Bena. They are also used as tonic. Valo . Australia. Lavancha. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). G. used for asthma. Sahadevi. :—Annual. remove blood from liver. pappus white. astringent. The plant with quinine. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. Ushira. :—A common weed throughout the State. pubescent. Ardhaprasadana. made into a bolus with lime-juice. good for sores and itching of eyes. applied in inflammatory swellings . L. K. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. FAM. cold. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. . seeds. LOC. Koosa. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. :—E. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. Sk. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. asthma. heads small. Africa .MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Fl. In Ceylon. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. NS. tropical Asia. Vala. Sadori. 15—75 cm. Sk. bronchitis . Sind. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Sahadevi.—Gramineæ. erect herb.—achene. Devika. G. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Mudivala. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. hiccup .—Compositæ. Kuruvelu. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. :—E. a depilatory (Yunani). cures "Tridosha". high. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. Osari. silky on the back. DISTR. LOC. with lime-juice. Sadodi. stem stiff. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). :—Plant. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle.

inflammations. useful in burning sensation. Sambhalu. :—Cooling. useful in eye diseases. Nirgundi. stomachic. COM. Afghanistan. inflammations and irritability of stomach. stimulant and tonic. LOC. Ceylon. Bilenekki. promotes hair-growth. Cooling to brain. bilious fevers. bitter. USES :—Root is tonic. Fl. The otto is used as a tonic. PARTS USED. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. refrigerant. FAM. cephalic. Sinduvara. expectorant and diuretic. thirst.—panicle up to 30 cm. Nirgud. bronchitis. foul breath. strangury. LOC. Nukki. racemes up to 5 cm. rachis stout. Sind. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. sweats. Nirgundi. slender. :—Roots. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. H. PARTS USED. up to over 1. tonic and vermifuge. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. bitter. lower ones keeled and fan-like. :—Throughout India. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. margin spinously rough. anthelmintic. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). DISTR. Nigod. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. colour varying from yellowish to black. NS. Nirgari. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. febrifuge. Nilpushpi. useful in spermatorrhoea. erect. K.. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Lakki. biliousness. :—Root.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—G. astringent. bitter. leaves. LOC. Leaves are aromatic.. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. West-Indies and Brazil. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. diuretic. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache.-leaf sheaths compressed. The roots contain an essential oil. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. stomachic. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Culms stout. Philippine Islands. Sessile spikelets.—Verbenaceæ. Indrani. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . M. Kanara in damp places. astringent. Sk.8 m. leucoderma. head-ache. throughout the Malayan regions. soporific. alexiteric. spleen enlargement. DISTR. L. blood diseases (Yunani). long. :—Throughout the State. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. long. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . Nirgundi. usually sheathed all along. high. Konkan and Deccan. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. consumption. also cultivated. :—Common in Gujarat and N. asthma. pale green.

The fruits contain vitamin A. difficult to digest. fever. Drakh . Seeds—aphrodisiac. expectorant. appetiser. sparingly in Poona. cough. leaves. LOC. India. purifies and enriches blood . Leaf-juice cures head-ache. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. a remedy for skin diseases. emmenagogue. seeds. Draksha. strangury. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. catarrh and jaundice. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". spleen inflammation. fever. causes gases in the stomach. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. liver and kidney. laxative. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. aphrodisiac. M. diuretic. cures thirst. :—Fruit-acrid. Fruit is nervine. Ahmednagar. fattening . H. and traces of vitamins B and C. Draksha. cooling . Draksha. aperient. DISTR. NS. G. . produces alopecia. :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Stem. stomachic. burning. fattening. There are numerous cultivated varieties. laxative. K. allays vomiting. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. good for eyes and throat. :—E. stops bleeding from mouth. tonic to liver. Country. LOC. Khandesh. Sk. HABITAT. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. good for lungs. fruits. sweet. bad effects of drinking.. :—Deccan. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Madhurasa. allays vomiting. cooling useful in thirst. produces constipation. heat of body. hoarseness and consumption.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. diarrhœa. Sap of young branches. Fruit— digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES. flowers. stones in bladder. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). syphilis. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. good in chronic bronchitis . piles. applied in scabies. Angura. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. and given in coughs. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. diuretic . astringent to bowels. testicle swellings and piles. W. Yakshmaghni. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. Draksha. FAM-—Vitaceæ. cooling. See—Timbers. useful in old fevers. jaundice. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. blood diseases. M. Angur. asthma. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. :—A native of western Asia. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). COM. emmenagogue. skin should not be eaten. Flowers—expectorant. Gujarat and S. The plant contains an alkaloid. Darakh. Guchaphala. Grape-vine.

) DISTR. M. scabies. Wagati. G.—3-4.—berry. Sd. Vajini. COM. leaves.—pod. main rachis armed with prickles. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. swollen above the seeds. red. :—E.3-1. . Kanchuki. PARTS USED :—Root. :—A branched erect undershrub. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests.. dark-orange. pinnae 4-6 pairs. NS.—Solanaceæ. Winter-cherry. COM. good in asthma. Asgundh.. 23-30 cm. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz.. Ghodasoda. 0.-Jany. useful in "Vata". :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. Deccan.—petals 5. Hirimaddina-gadde. favours constipation (Yunani). aphrosidiac. Wakeri. inflammations. FAM. bronchitis. Asgund. CHAR. anthritis. smooth. branches armed with recurved prickles . Ashvagandha. anthelmintic. Ceylon. Fr.—greenish or lurid yellow. (not common. base dentate. inserted on the top of. oblong. See—Fruit Trees. K. heating. Punir. coriaceous. constricted between them. bony Fl. branches terete. slightly 5-angled. 6 mm. Balada. rachis grooved with soft hairs.-Feb. :—In the drier regions of India . t. ovate. PARTS USED. Sk.5-12. leaflets 5-7 pairs. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). diam. pretty common in the ghats. insomnia. Gandhpatri. "Kapha".5-5 cm. Mediterranean regions. Canaries. emmenagogue .— Sept. :—Tubers-bitter. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . green berries. C. Sd. :—K. abundant in Sind . Wagati. Sogada-beru.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. spathulate. Drakshasava—used as tonic. L. L. hoary tomentose . Gujarat. obovate. aphrodisiac.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). FAM. :—A robust woody climber. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. LOC.5 m. Asoda. LOC. senile debility. Tuber—bitter. M. long. Amangura. asthma. calyx-tube. alexipharmic. Kanara. HABITAT. entire. DISTR. USES. t. Cape of Good Hope. psoriasis. Asan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. seeds. high. Fl. Fl.—yellow. armed with prickles . :—Drier regions. long. marasmus of children. 7.—2-pinnate. chest troubles etc. inflammations. :—Konkan jungles.—5-10 X 2. hard. tonic.5 cm. oblong. linear oblong. dark-green. bronchitis. Kamrupini. :—Deccan. ulcers. Fl. enclosed in inflated calyx. Fr. Hooliganji. consumption. somewhat scurfy. minutely hairy. NS. :—Root and bark. tonic. leucoderma. lumbago. CHAR. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . long. H. alterative.

lumbar pains. Indrajav. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Bela. Baluchistan. 1 cm. Dec. wedge-shaped. used in thirst. COM. Hale. debility from old age. PROPERTIES AND USES. blood diseases. long. NS. Hallunova. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . leprosy. Madhuindrayava. ovate-lanceolate. haemorrhoids. LOC. It is narcotic. common in the Konkan and N. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Fl. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). cooling. Hayamaraka. Dudhi. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. useful in leucorrhoea.3-2. uterine sedative. Kalikari. dysentery.) FAM. DISTR. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. USES. Indrajav. 5-9X 1. t. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. China. simple. LOC. Dhawai. Sd. Indrajav. alexiteric. :—Monsoon-forests. COM.—Lythraceæ. Japan. Br. alterative. Phulsatti. brown. H. Santha. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia.. tropical Africa. M.5 cm. branches long. Sk. . Kalakuda. :—Throughout India.—Apocynaceæ. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. :—G. :—G.-May. nigro-punctate beneath. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. See—Tans. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. FAM. PARTS USED. :—Pungent. K. Ornamental Plants. Dhawadina. Dhaiti. Madagascar. M. and in derangement of liver . irregularly dehiscent. Madhavasini. K. Dhavani.— numerous. Are. scarlet. rheumatism. H. Fl. Sk.—mostly opposite. leaf-infusion is given in fever. Dhaw. velvety above. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. erysipelas. Dhavani. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. ulcers and painful swellings . Java. anthelmintic . emaciation of children. Kodamurki. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Swetakutaj. Tamrapushpi. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption.—numerous. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. smooth. The plant contains an alkaloid. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. acrid. Dyes. L. toxic. Khirni. Vanhishikha. in 2-15 flowered cymes. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Kanara near the sea-coast. :—Bark and flowers. Dhateki. Kuda. diuretic and deobstruent. Ceylon. NS. Sumatra. on trap in the Akrani. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. HABITAT.—capsule.

tonic. LOC. Gadrian. digestive. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. :—The whole plant. Itara. involucre of fertile head. In S. Kambu-Vanamalini. cures leucoderma.1-6. :—Annual herb . salivation. oblong ovoid. Timor. biliousness. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. FAM. Ceylon. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. NS. 3-lobed. t.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES. fever. the bark is specially useful in piles. irregularly incisoserrate . PARTS USED. Sk. at the top. Fl. 1-3 cm. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. LOC. Dumundi. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria.—many. useful in cancer and strumous diseases.—Compositæ. complexion. G. ovoid in fruit. Fr. rough with short hairs . The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. compressed . West-Peninsula. :— Throughout India. with 2 erect beaks. barren heads many. alexiteric. antipyretic. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . laxative. hard and tough. memory. CHAR. PARTS USED. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. L. long and broad. stem short. Bur-Weed. COM.5 cm. especially root and fruit. See—Timbers. axillary.-E. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. DISTR. Fl.Feb. epilepsy. Aristha. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn.. long. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. poisonous bites of insects. Dutundi. voice. Khandesh at 1050 m. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Madhya Pradesh. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). USES :—Root is bitter. fertile heads few. Banokra. Sankeshwar. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. :—Rajastan. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Jany.. fattening. M. in W. :—Bark and seeds. Sarpakshi. stout. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. tonic. anthelmintic.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. :—Cooling. Clot-Cockle-bur.achene. hairy on both sides. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda).. 5-7. Shankhahuli. H. LOC. antidysenterica (Yunani). India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. LOC. all over the State. improves appetite. .

it is also given in the form of infusion. colic. Koli. Bore. Dridhabija. tonic. :—Rhizome-pungent. Sk. FAM. Anupama. pains. rheumatism. heating. dyspepsia. on poor soil and in rocky places. Chinese Date. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . .—Scitaminaceæ. Bor. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc.—Rhamnaceæ. Ajapriya. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. :—E. COM. "Kapha". lumbago. asthma. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Bordi. "Vata". laxative. Hasisunthi. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rhizome—pungent. DISTR. Sk. Boyedi. See—Condiments and Spices. gives lustre to eye. Alla Adrak. H. Alen. tongue and increases appetite. stomachic. :—Cultivated. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. :—E. G. stomachic. K. appetiser. Indian Cherry. aphrodisiac. G. carminative. aphrodisiac. alexiteric. Egasi. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. vomiting. it cleans throat. COM. to prevent nausea and griping. head-ache. K. useful in heart and throat diseases. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). :—Rhizome. piles. NS.. inflammations. FAM. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Ber. Ipanji. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. It is stimulant. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). removes pain due to cold. Adrate. carminative. Bogari. and dry situations. PARTS USED. Ada. Shringavera. Kandara. Ber. useful in elephantiasis. M. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. LOC. NS. HABITAT. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. eructations. Ginger. flatulence. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Bor. Beri. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. H. Kuvali. M. loss of appetite and piles. bronchitis. good in piles. Gulmmula. expectorant. pains (Yunani). abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. vomiting. LOC. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Alen. anthelmintic. Plum. Ardraka. Badari. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia.

:—Throughout the State in dry situations . burning sensation. leaves. See—Timbers. wounds and ulcers. Leaves form a plaster to boils. causes diarrhœa in large doses . Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Ceylon. abundant in the Deccan. Root and Bark tonic. biliousness. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). cure asthma. Africa. frequently planted as a fruit tree. cooling. good in consumption and blood-diseases. reduce obesity. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Fruit— cooling.. bark. Leaves—anthelmintic. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. head-ache. DISTR. Fruit Trees. laxative. thirst. PARTS USED. tonic. aphrodisiac. causes cough. vomiting. good in liver complaints. fruit. Fruit—sweet and sour. Burma. on the laterite near the coast in N. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. :—Root-bitter. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Seed—astringent. Leaves antipyretic. Australia. China. :—Root. Bark—causes boils . USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. Kanara. . Fruits contains vitamin A. tonic to heart and brain . :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . removes biliousness. useful in fevers. indigestible. LOC. allays thirst (Yunani).232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Afghanistan.

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