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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
Sk. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Dipta.-July. CHAR. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. throat diseases. anthelmintic. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. inflammations. M. Western Peninsula. DISTR. long. Vidula. astringent to bowels. Kushthari. Malay Islands. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Saradruma. Himalayas up to 1700 m. Fl. Lalkhair. strengthens teeth. K. sore-throat and tooth-ache. Tans. FAM. L. Phena.5-12. Dyes.-6-10 . measles and other skindiseases.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis.5X2-2.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. cures itching. :—Rajastan. aphrodisiac. Shige. relaxation of the uvula. 5-10 cm. Sige-balli or kai. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). indigestion. " Vata ". :—Throughout India. Khair. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. psoriasis. Burma. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful.. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). " Kapha ". It is given in diarrhœa. LOC. Kath-bole. mouth troubles. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. G. prurigo. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Fl. acrid. COM. Kanara forests. leaflets 10-20 pairs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. M. leprosy. Soap-pod tree. Fr. Kanara (often on laterite). Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract).—bipinnate. Shikekai.—in fascicled globose heads. tonic. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. hypertrophy of tonsils. Ritha. heaviness. :—An extensive woody climber. boils. wrinkled when dry . bronchitis. erysipelas. linear-oblong.-Mar. Chikakai. given in elephantiasis. Sikkim. piles. China. Bhuriphena. yellow. DISTR. See—Timbers.. Sd. along the coasts of Konkan and N. Manda-otte. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Khadira. :—E. Dantadhavan. ulcers. NS. In ulceration of the gums. Country and Gujarat. fleshy when green. overlapping. anti-pyretic. LOC. Pegu.—pod. Charmakusha. Yajnika. Khandesh Akrani S. Deccan. LOC. antidysenteric.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. . Saptata. :—Common throughout the Stale .8 cm.-t. gums. urinary and vaginal discharges. Sk. M. leucorrhoea. H. cooling. 7. Kochi. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests.
leucoderma. H. COM. leucoderma. Gums and Resins. Arimeda. G. anthelmintic.pungent. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. burning sensation. cardio-tonic. Sauna jali. LOC. Cassia flower. Devababhul. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). cures stomatitis. cooling. Gum—sweetish. anti-diarrhoeal. Stinking acacia. . Sponge tree. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. K. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. anthelmintic. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. anti-dysenteric. prurigo. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . blood diseases. stomatitis.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). digestible. PARTS USED :—Bark. NS. itching. Sk. erysipelas. alexiteric. Vilavati kikar. M. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. eczema. piles. causes " Vata". purgative. Marudruma. Kankri. deobstruent. improves appetite. blood-diseases. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. biliousness. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Gandhelo khair . ulcers. LOC. erysipelas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. Girimeda. DISTR. often planted . often cultivated. Sind. caries of teeth. cures " Kapha. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. inflammations. HABITAT :—Moist situations. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . Kari jali. buboes. Jheri baval.. FAM. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Pissibabul.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Internally they are aperient. tonic. leaves and gum. bronchitis. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Gandhbabul. In Philippines decoction. Jali. ascites. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). LOC. :—E. detergent. expectorant and good emetic. not indigenous but naturalised. See—Timbers. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent.
Khajoti. Sk. high. somewhat 3-nerved. Var. :—E. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. Fl. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. rounded at base. NS. axillary spikes . HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. scattered. G. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. FAM.—greenish white. CHAR. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. stem stiff. asthma. branches terete or quadrangular striate. Vasira.3-0. :—G. K.5 cm. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. Fr. Arittamanjaria.3 X 2. :—Common in the Deccan and S. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM.—Amarantaceæ. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. small. LOC. t. COM. softly hairy.—monœcious. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative.5-4.. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Sk. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. perianth 4-5 segments. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. H.8-6.— ovoid.-Jany.—June-Sept. K. Utranigida. erect herb. high. L. hispid. :—Throughout India. pneumonia and rheumatism. Khokla.—opposite. erect. Latjira . and shining sepals with narrow white margins. many. 3. Chirchira. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. M. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. Kantarika. Fr.5x2-4. M. L.5 cm. one-seeded. The plant contains acalyphin.—capsule. elongate.9 m. Prickly chaff-flower. crenate-serrate. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Chichra. Philippines. Kuppi-gida. Ksharamadhya. Country. Fl. angular. Fl. 30-75 cm. DISTR. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. Fl. long in fruit. Kharamanjiri. Agheda-di. Sd. Apang.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. clustered near the summit of spike. Aghada . :—An erect herb 0.. Khokali. Merkati.57. oblong-cylindric. branches long. H. about 50 cm. M.—Euphorbiaceæ. Sd. in lax. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. Chalmari. Vanchhikanto.—utricle. smooth. 2. NS. COM.—Nov. brown.—truncate at apex. :—Annual. LOC. females. minute. tropical Africa. few. t. brown. in elongate terminal spikes. Apamarga. Ceylon. elliptic obovate. ascending. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. enclosed in perianth smooth. pale-brown. males. It is used in congestive headache. Uttrane . or orbicular rounded at the-apex. CHAR. . Kuppi.
—Araceæ. G. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. heart diseases. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. Ceylon.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. prismatic. 5-10 cm. kidney troubles. America. inflammations. CHAR. DISTR. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. "Vata".8 X 1. anthelmintic. epilepsy. L. Jatila. America. etc. long. K. Sikkim. bronchitis. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Ugragandha. useful in vomiting. blood diseases (Ayurveda). H. laxative. Fr. long. 0. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). carminative. Godavaj. acute. laxative. Bitter. NS. diuretic. itching. loss of memory. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. fevers. and is considered useful in dropsy. FAM. abdominal pains. good for mouth diseases. improves appetite. Bach.7-3. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. :—Throughout India. M.—turbinate. spathe 15-75 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. brain-tonic. bright-green. Vacha. heating. toothache. voice.8 cm. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. Vekhand . Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery... PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. flowers and seeds. useful in dyspepsia. dysentery. piles. Gandhilovaj. Baja . Bhutnashini. LOC. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. thirst. green . HABITAT :—Marshy places. emmenagogue . stomachic. liver and chest pains. Australia. :—An aromatic herb . Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. spadix. obtuse. throat. expectorant. dysentery. See—Sacred Plants. PARTS USED : —Root. sepals scarious. Gorbach . laxative. margins wavy. alexiterie. . top pyramidal. stomatitis. Africa. :—E. improves appetite. thickened in the middle. bitter. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. slightly curved. Throughout Asia. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. Tropical Asia. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. hysteria. bronchitis. carminative. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. COM. Vekhand. ascites. boils. Sweet flag . Europe and N. LOC. emetic. useful in general weakness. anthers yellow. useful in abdominal pains. pungent. tumours. leucoderma (Yunani).9-1. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. LOC. piles. Baluchistan. heating. Sk. inflammations. dyspepsia. creeping and branching. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. leaves. flatulence. rat-bite. delirium. skin eruption etc. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. carminative.
:—K. :—E. Gopali. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. :—Western Peninsula.—Lauraceæ. Powder is very effective insecticide. FAM. LOC. bark. :—Grown in many places in India . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND LOC. colic. fever. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Gorakshi. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. in children. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . NS. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Goremlichora . Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. dysentery. indigenous in tropical Africa.—Bombacaceæ. Gujarat. FAM. Gorakhchinch. etc. Pisa. Haggodgimara. COM. PARTS USED : —Root. Gorakamali. Kanara evergreen forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . DISTR. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Baobab. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. In small doses it is carminative and nervine.. Gorakhaamli. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. Panch-parnika. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. H. Deccan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. useful in biliousness. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. G. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Pichli. leaf and fruit. NS. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. K. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. N. M. HABITAT':—Cultivated. vomiting. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. LOC. African calabash. LOC. M. COM. It is a good remedy in asthma. Bukha. anti-pyretic. See—Timbers. Rukhdo . Tudgensu . Sk. fevers and other maladies. Brahmamlika. aerial parts yield a volatile oil.:—Konkan. DISTR. Monkey-bread tree. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Ankora. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Sk. Garso. :—Throughout India. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Sk. burning of body. Fruit—laxative. Gudhapatra. Kalosadasado. it is said to stop after-pains. Kathora. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Ankola. Shirish. Akoly. Dodda-Hombage. Piloshirish. cures erysipelas. Philippines. . Karnapura. G. Shankiniphala. Kalshish. leaves (rarely). Tantia. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. cures " Kapha". Ankol. DISTR. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. blood diseases. inflammations. Tamraphala. LOO. Vamaka. lumbago. Ankotha. S. Juice—emetic.—Alangiaceæ. K. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Dridhakantaka. useful in inflammations. alexiteric. :—E. hydrophobia. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. alterative. Kaloshirish. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. Uddanaka. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. inflammations. FAM. H. spermatorrhoea. Root-bark— used in piles. Ankola. tonic. Chinchola. (Mimosaceæ). anthelmintic. acute fever. NS. H. Sage-leaved alangium. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sirsul. dysentery. rat-bite. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. COM. Ankoli. blood diseases. Ankota. Malaya. often along banks of nalas in N.) FAM. Sirisa. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. expectorant. fish-poison. Kanara. See—Timbers. biliousness. Shirish. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. alexipharmic . Ceylon. LOC. :—Throughout the State. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Shirisha. lumbago (Yunani). M. Ankoli. Krishnashirisha. :—E. Onkla. aphrodisiac. Seeds—cooling. Sirai. Root-bark poisonous. Shyamala. Kalashirish. " Vata "-pain. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. G. useful in worms. COM. Ankola.—Leguminosæ. stem. wasting diseases. LOC. diarrhœa. indigestible. K. See—Timbers. poisonous bites. China. carminative. Anedhera. Kullumavu. gleet. heating. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. and fruit. pungent.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. NS. aromatics or honey. colic. Asroli. anthelmintic. commonly planted along roadsides. M.
DISTR.: —Throughout India. etc. skin-diseases. Seeds—fattening. relieves tooth-ache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. occasionally used in fever. leucoderma. See—Timbers. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. scabies. cooling. deafness. Bengal. their smell useful in hemicrania. Piyaz. piles. strengthens gums and teeth. scabies.. spleen diseases. excessive perspiration. Seeds—tonic to brain. G.—Liliaceæ. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. catarrh. itching. flowers. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. leaves. LOC. Leaves—good in night blindness. NS. ear-ache. useful in vomiting. useful in malaria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. boils. paralysis. LOC. Dungari. improves taste. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. Burma. Ceylon. usually planted. blood diseases. COM. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). ophthalmia. used in leprosy. FAM. etc. volatile oil. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Bulb—tonic. and chronic bronchitis . bark. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. which acts as a diuretic. weakness. Palandu. body pains. Root—astringent. Rochaka. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. piles. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. asthma. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. Sk. stimulant and expectorant. The plant contains vitamins A. bleeding piles. erysipelas. maturant. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. good in rat-bite. enriches blood. epistaxis. syphilis.K. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. Onion. stomachic. cures "Vata". inflammations. tumours. Rajapriya. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. LOC. vomiting.:—E. Flowers—aphrodisiac. B & C. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Vegetables. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). anthelmintic. Ulageddi. appetiser. prescribed in ophthalmia. M. Kanda. Bark-bitter. diarrhœa. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. dropsy. eruptions and swellings. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. given in piles. alexiteric. seeds. seeds. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). and also in skin diseases . cultivated everywhere.. It is an important garden crop. emollient. aphrodisiac. Bark— anthelmintic. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. . used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. H. :—Native country probably Persia. tonic. biliousness. Bark and seeds are astringent. bronchitis. Oil is used in leprosy.
digestive. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. LOC. FAM. " Vata ". leucoderma. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. See—Vegetables. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. body and joint pains. leucoderma. Sk. thirst. Kuvarpatha. Ghi-kumari.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Country. COM. Lashuna. G. Ugragandha. Korphad. aphrodisiac. carminative. caries of teeth. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. Sk. chronic fevers. K. Indian aloe. ear-ache (Ayurveda). It is an important garden crop. liver and lungs . sciatica. alexipharmic. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. oleaginous . Lasan. Lasan. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. G. clears voice. :—E. hemiplegia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields.—Liliaceæ. Kattali. In Cambodia. Lolisara. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Kumari. H. Kumari. Lasun. coughs and other debilitating conditions. low fevers. :—E. LOC. epileptic fits. tumours. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. COM. Lahsan. Kanya. inflammation. paraplegia and convulsive affections. bronchitis. H. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. NS. voice. Ikshurmallika. good for lumbago. ALŒ VERA Linn. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Garlic. useful in inflammations. asthma. The plant contains vitamin C. aphrodisiac. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. PARTS USED :—Bulb. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Kapila. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. NS. FAM. M. lumbago. complexion. Korkand. Rasonaka. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever.—Liliaceæ. M. K. tonic. paralysis. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. anthelmintic. heating. fattening. Diuretic. thirst. improves appetite. troubles of spleen. M. Bellulli. piles. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. In cases of diphtheria. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. . In pulmonary phthisis. thins the blood (Yunani). useful in diseases of eye and heart.
ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. tonic. gonorrhœa. India. NS. Kadusale. Chatian. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. DISTR. Kaduhale. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Root. simple or branched. aphrodisiac. stem short thick. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Ceylon. The plant contains aloin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. planted in Indian gardens . fattening. Native of S. common in the rain-forests of N. Saptaparna. M. digestive. tumours. also cultivated. pain in muscles. :—Wild along the coast in S. K. ulcers (Ayurveda). vomiting. bronchitis. It also acts as a mild purgative. Br. scape longer than the leaves. C.—Apocynaceæ. Satian. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. Hale. Jamaica. pendulous.—in dense racemes . mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. strangury. biliousness (Yunani). Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. pale-green. Australia. :—A perennial herb . alexiteric. LOC.—sessile. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. alterative. biliousness. Dita bark tree. Fl. yellow. margins spiny. carminative. emollient and demulcent. Satwin. asthma. Java. cooling. purgative. Mediterranean. LOC. crowded. tropical Africa. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. LOC. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. perianth cylindric . The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. milky juice. tonic. Barbados. :—Throughout India. scaly. useful in splean inflammation. FAM. spleen enlargement. Sk. DISTR. bark. inflammations. somewhat divided. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Kanara. :—E. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. Saptachhada. Satwin. leaves. H. lanceolate. COM. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. anthelmintic. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. fleshy. PARTS USED :—Leaves. skin diseases. HABITAT :—Moist forests. isobarbaloin and emodin. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. L. and it is largely imported into India. E. wild along the coast. jaundice. ophthalmia. piles. useful in eye-diseases. lumbago. liver troubles. methritis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. liver complaints. Africa. purgative. PARTS USED :— . used in fevers. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. West Indian Islands. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Bitter .
valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. anthelmintic. Fl. Prickly amaranth. Pathyashaka. . COM. unisexual. :—E.8 cm. ulcers. rubbish heaps .—Amarantaceæ. rugose. diseases of the blood. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. Cholai. Kantanatia. antipyretic. LOC. leucoderma. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. bristles pointed. entire. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. leprosy. Kante math. good in diseases of the heart. female calyx oblong. Apamarisha. rubbish heaps and fields. Tandulibija. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. numerous. NS. long. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . " tridosha " pain. high. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. oleaginous.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. improves appetite. 30-60 cm. Root—heating expectorant. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). often reddish. Drug Com. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Ceylon. antiperiodic and febrifuge. Bark—acrid. :—An erect glabrous herb. galactogogue.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. heating. laxative. biliousness. :—Throughout India. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. H. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. M. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. useful in " Kapha ". Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers.5 X 1. Tandulja. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. ovoid. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. Kantanu-dant.2—7.). Mullarave-soppu. Sk. diuretic. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. FAM. lanceolate. sudorific and febrifuge.3—3. See—Vegetables. bronchitis. hallucination. obtuse. also in fields. HABITAT :—In waste places. alexiteric. Tandulaja. rat-bite. tumours. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. asthma. piles. stomachic. laxative. ovate. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. Fr. also useful in catarrhal fever. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. bitter.— capsule.— 3. DISTR. burning sensation. G. leucorrhoea. L. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. appetiser. LOC. Kantalo dambho. boils and burns. K. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. thickened at the top. blood diseases. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). CHAR. LOC. male calyx acute. tropical countries. See—Timbers. obtuse.. Mulladantu. digestible. apiculate.
Arshaghna.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face .—Nov. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. Suran. elephantiasis . irregularly circumsciss above the middle. stomachic.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. fresh or dried. FAM. CHAR. depressed. NS. Ceylon. Fl. high. Suran. Blistering ammania. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Australia. abdominal pains. Jangli mehandi. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle.—opposite. useful in piles. DISTR. Suran . erect or subscandent herb. used as an appetiser (Yunani). especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Sk. much narrowed at the base. Jalavgiyo. M. :—Throughout India in moist places. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). blood diseases. H. . they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Tropical Africa. sessile. K.:— Konkan. Elephant's foot. Kandala. causes itching sensation. bronchitis." blood troubles. Bharajambhul. G. enlargement of the spleen. Kuranda. LOC. fevers etc. DISTR. LOC. Gujarat and Kanara. Vatari. " Vata. increases appetite and taste. acrid. :—Cultivated widely in the State. FAM. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. :—E. 8-65 cm.—Araceæ. China. Kanthalla. Kandavardhan. tumours. red. PARTS USED :—Leaves. laxative. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. Dadmari. Sd. Kurendika. :—An annual. branches usually opposite. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. NS. the plant. Deccan. corm. removes " Kapha ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. aphrodisiac. COM. Vikata. H. pungent. LOC. M. Kuranti. Sukaranda. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).—Lythraceæ. stomachic. G. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. globose. Grows wild on the banks of S. LOC.—capsule. :—E. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. COM. Afghanistan. strangury . Malaya. t. Bitter and acrid . It is also used as an emmenagogue. constipating. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Suran. Sk. In the Konkan. appetiser. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. L. harmful in "Kapha". vomiting. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. Konkan rivers.
Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. leucoderma. ulcers. :—A native of tropical America. 5-nerved. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. CHAR. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Jermic. many flowered. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones .—Menispermaceæ. anthelmintic. Oils. Kakkisoppugida . L. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. LOC. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Kaju. Kaju. fever. Fl. See—Vegetables. DISTR. . Garalaphala.—in panicles 25-35 cm. sweet. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. . The seed contains vitamin A. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kanara. Kakamari. Kakanashika. USES :—Bark is alterative. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. skin diseases. Kajutaka. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. The plant contains Vitamins A. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—E. long.5 cm. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. G.—Anacardiaceæ. digestible. corns and obstinate ulcers.. FAM. COM. H. 10-12 X 7. & A. hot. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. Sk. ringworm. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Kaju . Cashew apple-nut. swollen peduncle of fruit. K. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. H. Prithagbija. equal to almond oil. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. Gova. Govamba. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. ascites. Corm is poisonous. It is supposed to have restorative power. aphrodisiac. flowers.5-12. Sophara. Sk. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. which is nutritious and emollient. also cultivated. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. dysentery. Crow-Fish Killer. Kakamari. B. bark vertically furrowed . Agni-krita. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. :—E. cordate or truncate. tumours. Fish-Louse Berry.— subcoriaceous. Upapushpika. COM. K. piles. NS. FAM. LOC. Kakaphal. Kakamari. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. and trace of C. See—Timbers.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. leaves. broadly ovate. Kakamari. Gerubi. M. Kakamari.
. Kiryat. M. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Sk. also acts as a purgative. smooth. LOC. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. K. :—E. LOC.—Acanthaceæ. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ananasa. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Creat. diaphoretic and refrigerant. FAM. Kanara. COM. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. N. causes cough and biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. M. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). to a certain extent in Gujarat.—Bromeliaceæ. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. K. petals absent. NS. H. Kantak sanjika. fruits. See—Fruit Trees. DISTR. t. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. from Orissa to Ceylon. FAM. Olen kirayat. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. black . USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Kiriyata. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Olikiriyat. Bengal. Ananas . In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. DISTR. Bhuinimba. also allays gastric irritability in fevers.) LOC. cultivated. NS. Pine-apple . ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. Ananas. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. it is useful in jaundice.-Oct. G. dioecious. It acts also as diuretic. Sk.—Sept. removes gases from the intestines . COM. PARTS USED :—Roots. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. leaves and fruits. Kirata. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Ama. Ananas. :—Konkan. Mahatit. Nelabevu gida. Ananas hannu. Fl. native of Brazil (tropical America). :—Khasia Hills. H. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. a poison to fish (Yunani). Mahateet. E. Parvati. :—E. LOC. good expectorant. Ananas .
3-0. Gojivana. Br. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. DISTR. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. Chodhara. white below.—nutlets. high. PROPERTIES AND LOC. yellowish brown. :—S. :—Konkan and Kanara.-Nov. COM. made into an electuary. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin.8 m. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. lateral lobes small. t. ellipsoid. lower lip very large and broad . Fr. Malay Peninsula. Plant is useful in general debility. dysentery.—in dense whorls . lower 3lobed. :—An erect shrub. C—2-lipped. linear-oblong. DISTR. Oshthaphala. distant. Malabar Catmint. 1. thickly woolly. clothed with woolly hairs .. :—An erect branched annual 0. Karnatak.—lanceolate. LOC. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. high. :—E. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . CHAR. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. smooth. C—2-lipped. NS. Sundraphul. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. tonic. sometimes cultivated. Fl. LOC. Green leaves. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Kanara. crenate-serrate.9 m. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. Alamoda. dyspepsia and fever from teething. solitary. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease.—Ghats. stomachic.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. upper lip 2-toothed. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.3-10 X 2-4.—very thick. acute at both ends . distant.5 cm. Fl. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles.2-1.—many. bracts lanceolate. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. pale above. Fr. rose coloured. L. very small. t. and N.—small. K. polished brown. Vaikunth. G. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. rugosely pitted.-Oct. pale beneath. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Fl. undulate. Sundara. :—Throughout India. 6. HABITAT. FAM.—Dec. stem quadrangular. :—Deccan. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. and certain forms of dyspepsia. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. . alterative. L. Karitumbe. and anthelmintic. purple. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. Fl. acute.— capsule. Sk.—Labiatæ. oblong-lanceolate. Sd. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Ceylon. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. approximate above. forming a spicate inflorescence. extensively used in Bengal.
lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Dyes. Sk. Sitaphal. abortifacient. Bahubijika. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. DISTR. Bakla. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. DISTR. fruit and seeds. causes fever and furunculosis . PARTS USED :—Root. Sitaphala. Dhavada. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . FAM. Dhava. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. discharges. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Sitaphala. COM. Kanara border.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. PARTS USED :—Root. tasty. FAM. erysipelas. leaves.—Anonaceæ. NS. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. H. Anan. useful in liver complaints. Dohu. Dhavada. improves taste and appetite . stimulant. leaves and fruits. LOC. G. G. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). COM. Anuram. expectorant. chronic diarrhœa. Pitaphala. increases biliousness . and eyesores. produce ulcers in the eye. sedative to heart. K. Shushkanga. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Fruit—sweet. :—Throughout the greater part of India. LOC.—Combretaceæ. Damora. applied to skin-diseases. Durangi. bark. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Button Tree. good tonic. Amritphala. Sugar apple. increases muscular strength. Dhamora. M. enriches blood . Seeds—difficult to digest. Krishnabija. :—A native of West Indies . Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. useful in anaemia. (Yunani). Custard apple. LOC. Bark is bitter. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. M. Sk. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Ata. Bejjalu. now cultivated throughout India. Sitaphala. cooling. :—E. Dindala. Sitaphala. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Sweet-sop. H. Dabria. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. bark. Dhavala. flavoury. K. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. NS. Dhava. Dindiga. enriches blood. cooling . Sharipha. Ceylon. Root—cathartic. Bark is a powerful astringent. LOC. astringent to the bowels. See—Timbers. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with .
Kadamb . USES:—In the Konkan. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages .—Moraceæ. mixed with gram-flour. LOC. They are detergent and their powder.—Rubiaceæ. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. H. Kadamb. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. wild or cultivated. sap of the tree. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. :—G. It is generally considered tonic. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Nipa. Karnapuraka. Kanara . In eye inflammations. COM NS. Malayan Peninsula. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND LOC. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Surabhi. . ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. FAM. See—Fruit Trees. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. common near Yellapur. blood diseases. Chandkuda. stomachic. Nadija. Sk. Peninsula. bitter. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Chandala. M. Seeds yield an oil and resin. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. :—E. Kaduve. sweet. Fruit—heating. indigestible. Bairi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. " Vata". good in uterine complaints. aphrodisiac. acrid. Kadamb. Sprouts—acrid. NS. :—W. often cultivated. COM. Chandkuda. H. Sk. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. DISTR. galactagogue. Upas Tree. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. is a good hairwash. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. saline. Burma. Niv. Kadamba. cooling. biliousness. Ceylon. vulnerary. Kadamb . PARTS USED:—Bark. Valkala. LOC. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Fodder Plants. Tennaserim. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Kadam. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. K. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Jajpugri. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Pegu. Ashokari. LOC. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. PARTS USED :—Seeds. strangury. Sacred Plants. See—Timbers. FAM. Ajjanpatte. M. " Kapha". sprouts and fruits. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. K. astringent to bowels.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Malay Islands. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Kadubale. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout India. causes biliousness when ripe. DISTR.
cauline 3-partite. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. Abyssinia. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. improve appetite . COM. astringent to bowels . specially near large cities. Nelkadle.5-2 mm. amenorrhœa. W. urinary discharges. FAM. :—A biennial plant. vittae broad. useful in ophthalmia. scorpion and other stings. chest-pains. Africa. Markati..MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. Ajmoda . good for heart. used in anasarca and colic. rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. erect. M. Bhuimug. Shimbika. appetiser. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. Afghanistan. ridges narrow. Brahmakoshi. Asia. " Vata " . vomiting. Java and Malaya. rays 5-10. Glucoside apiin is present. Bhuimug. cure " Kapha ". :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. G. CHAR. scabies. pedicels 6-16 . Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Bhuimug-chana. . :—E. Seeds—carminative. 0. and γ-antiarin. Ground-Pea-nut. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). abortifacient. segments once or twice trifid. G. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Mungphali. Chinimung. β-antiarin. Ugragandha. H. laxative. H. anthelmintic. traces of B and C. tooth-ache. COM NS. nasal catarrh (Yunani).— radial. Bhuchanak. hiccup. aphrodisiac. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. W. K. N.:—Foot of the N. abdominal pain. See—Vegetables.—Umbelliferæ. LOC. Wild celery. fever with cough. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. inflammations. rectal troubles. L. Fibres. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). good in ophthalmia.— in umbels. NS. Monkey-nut. Fl. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. heart and spleen diseases. Celery. Bodi ajomoda. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. high. cure asthma. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. Moda. ascites. vomiting.3-2. :—E. Sk.4 m. Ajmud. Sk.—1. branching. DISTR. LOC. Ajamoda. Mandapi. See—Timbers. tonic. Karafs. Europe. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. bronchitis. apex toothed . Snehabijaka. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. Bori ajmud. The plant contains vitamins A.
Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Bengal. :—E. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. improves appetite and taste. fairly largely in the Konkan. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Sk. K. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. emmenagogue. See—Food Plants. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Areca palm. Nut astringent. LOC. Chikka. FAM. useful in urinary disorders. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Mysore. gum. Chikkan. aphrodisiac. Gum pungent. USES. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Akota. Seed cooling.. In French Guinea. . Pophal. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. gleet. Pugiphal. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. COM. Poga. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Burma. removes foul breath. cardiotonic. Country. Betta. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. ARECA CATECHU Linn. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Supari. LOC. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. Assam.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated.:—Extensively grown in N. Kaungu. Sopari. Siam. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. DISTR. Tantusara. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. used for eye-inflammations. :—Madras. laxative. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. Hopari. Indo-Malaya. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. bleeding gums. Oils. Supari. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Root. seeds. LOC. Betel-nut palm. LOC. Adki. NS. Suppiyari. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. M. cooling. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Areca-nut palm. Chhataphala.—Palmæ. giddiness. Gujarat and S. digestive. indigestible. DISTR. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. diuretic. leaves (rarely). G. removes pus (Yunani). H. Malabar. M.
5-5 cm. It is also diuretic. DISTR. arecoline. Datturi. expectorant and demulcent. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. various skin-diseases. inflammations and bilious fevers. Darudi.3-0. 7.5-18 cm. 2. prickly. veins white. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. purgative. t. :—E. antidote to various poisons.). The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. sinuately pinnatifid. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. branching. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. K. Plant enriches blood. India. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine.—thistlelike. glaucous herb . Brahma dandi.—all the year. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). high. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. cures leprosy. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani).—Papaveraceæ. COM. :—A glabrous. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. relieves blisters. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . diam. Fl. good expectorant and aphrodisiac.—numerous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Juice—used as a collyrium. This is said to bring the worm out at once.— terminal. Srigalkanta. Fl. Seeds—purgative. globose. opening by 4-6 valves. oblong. Root anthelmintic. . CHAR. juice yellow. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). H. netted. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. M. Bila dhatura. Bharbhand. and guvacine. Sd. emetic. and in pertussis and asthma. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. Sk. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. Mexican prickly poppy . arecaidine.5-3. LOC. prickly. oblong-ovoid 2. stem clasping. brownish black. Seeds are laxative. Svarnakshiri. Pita-pushpa. spinous. nauseant. Balurakkisa.—capsule. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Fr. Fruit Trees. Ind. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. See—Timbers. G. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. destroys worms . juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. stem 0. yellow. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. LOC. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. NS. Shialkanta.12 m. USES :—Root is an alterative. seeds and yellow juice. sedative. Pirangi datturi.8 cm. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. useful is strangury. L. Indigenous in tropical America. Daruri.
M. C—5-6. DISTR. M. Samudraballi. :—Throughout India. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). perianth 2.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Arabia. pedicel with a large bract at the base. Fl. Deccan and S. pubescent outside. Dridhadaru. used in gleet. Country. white-tomentose L. chronic ulcers (Yunani). long. t. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. ovate glabrous above. In synovitis. cultivated. base cordate with wide sinus . (sometimes even larger).—Aug. white-tomentose. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. Soge. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. tubular. Dhuma-patra. infundibuliform. base subglobose. Java. Shyambhuna. M.5-4.—Convolvulaceæ. Varghoro. oblongellipsoid. . 12-ribbed .28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. tip linear dark purple. absorptive. tropical Africa. Ganda. Fr. H. :—A slender perennial. G.3-2 cm. Vridhadaraka. " Kapha" fevers. W. gonorrhœa. See—Ornamental Plants. Bracteated Birth-wort. Kidamari. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. anthelmintic. Hastivalli. Konkan. 1. t. :—Bengal. useful in " Vata". Krimighni.— 3. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz.—solitary.— 7.. FAM. Elephant Creeper.5 cm. K. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Leaves are maturative. FAM.—in sub-capitate cymes. prostrate. strangury. COM. bracts large .—Aristolochiaceæ. Fr. rose purple.—capsule. Gandali. white-tomentose beneath. aphrodisiac. diuretic . LOC. Kiramar. Fl. LOC. CHAR.-Sept. weak. H. Sk. glabrous inside. CHAR. perhaps a native of Bengal. NS. powdered root is given with milk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. Peninsula. Samudrapatrashoh. Sk. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth.:—Konkan. reniform or broadly ovate. Samudrashok.3-25 cm. HABITAT. long. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. LOC. :—E. striate. base cordate. Ceylon.-Nov. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . Samudrashosh. Kidamar.5 cm. Ajantri. Fl. DISTR.—deltoid with cordate base . Samandarka phal. Kitakaba. the bands silky pubescent outside. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. long and as broad as long. COM. NS. with revolute margins. stems. painful joints.5-30 x 6. M. Adumuttadagida.3 cm. K.8-7. L. tube inflated.— globose apiculate. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Kitamari. stems stout. Sd.— Aug. Samardar sokh. :—A very large climber. G. long. peduncles stout. Country. Gujarat and S. :—E.
dry cough. Saraparni. Seeds useful in inflammation. Mother or Mugwort.8-10 X 1.5 cm. 6-valved. CHAR.—Nov. M. winged. bitter. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. useful in " Tridosha.. Ceylon. Nagdamani. Nepal. joint-pains. Isvara balli beru .—Compositæ. NS. emmenagogue. base vaiable. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. dyspnoea of children. tonic. Gathona.) FAM. Dovana.—Aristolochiaceæ. M. Arkamula. Dhor-davana.5 cm. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels.—in few flowered axillary racemes. woody at the base. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Sk. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Isharmula. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Fl. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. NS. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Nilpushpa. M. COM. Nagduna. slender. Flea-bane. COM. biliousness. :—E. The plant contains an alkaloid. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. grooved. :—Western Peninsula. G. LOC. alexiteric. . In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Fr. :—A twining shrub. Nakuli. DISTR. Majtari. Plant is used as an abortifacient. 3. perianth greenishwhite. Mastaru. Manjipatri. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. H. Dona. FAM. t. leaves and seeds. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. PARTS USED :—Roots. H. The plant contains an alkaloid. K. Country. Ruhimula. also useful in dropsy.5x7. Stem long. reaching 4. Bengal.—flat. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma.—variable linear oblong. Arkamula. L. :—E. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children.3-2.:—Konkan and S.5 cm. K. Indian wormwood. LOC. Sk. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. entire with undulate margins. purgative (Yunani). Ishvari. Sapsan. bract opposite the pedicel. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Indian Birth-wort. obovate oblong 10-12. Sugandha. long with globose inflated base. Fl.. globose-oblong. — capsule. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Sd." pains in the joints.
alexiteric.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.— achene. Kanara. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. involucral bracts villous. 3-fid or entire. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn.:—A perennial shrub. t. Tage. COM. Fruit Trees and Dyes. useful in biliousness. aphrodisiac.—Urticaceæ. HABITAT. Fl. NS. Kantakaphala. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Panas. Fl. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. Jack-fruit tree. appetiser. outer flowers female. The plant contains an essential oil. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. base lobed. high. Jack-Orange wood. aromatic. lanceolate. An infusion is given as a tonic. fruit and seeds. diuretic. often planted along roadsides in N.5-5 em. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. DISTR. Kanthal. 0. asthma and brain diseases. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. L— lower leaves 5. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. " Vata". ovate. tonic. FAM. enriches blood. LOC. itching (Ayurveda). " Kapha". Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. . white tomentose beneath. fertile. constipating (Ayurveda). M. The unripe fruit is astringent. :—Widely cultivated. grown in gardens also. although very nutritious. :—E. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Ghats. ulcers.6-2. Kujja. :—Konkan. Skandaphala. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. LOC. solitary or 2. Thailand (Siam). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Ceylon. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Fr. Seeds sweet. inner hermaphrodite. cooling. Vanas. "Vata". Sk. See—Timbers. pubescent above. K. Panos. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. oleaginous. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. deeply pinnatisect. Java. petioled. Halasina.4 m. toothed or again pinnatisect. upper leaves smaller. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). deobstruent and antispasmodic. Chakki. G. DISTR. hairy. fattening. leprosy. LOC. aphrodisiac. oblong ellipsoid. Phanas.-Hilly districts. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. Phanasa. but rather difficult to digest. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. aphrodisiac. tonic.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. minute. Externally it is used in fomentations.10x2. lobes entire. ripe fruit laxative. H.—heads ovoid or subglobose. LOC. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. temperate Asia. cures "Kapha". Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles.—Jany. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. stems leafy. Panesa.
root-stock tuberous.—berry. long. Kaktundi. tonic. 0. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. undershrub. up to 1. lanceolate. :—E. NS. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. PARTS USED:—Root. L. Java and Australia. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kuraki. CHAR. A fibre is extracted from the plants. valvate in bud. segments. Flower is a good styptic. indigestible.—Asclepiadaceæ. Var. See—Ornamental Plants. biliousness. :—Extremely scandent. t. Satamulika. thin. useful in dysentery.ovoid. DISTR. cladodes in tufts. Sk. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. 7.5 cm. CHAR. S.-Feb. Fr. Fr.-Dec. tumours.9-1. narrowed at both ends. from Kashmir eastwards. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. oblong.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. curved. JAVANICA Baker. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. LOC.000 m. inflammation. COM. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. aphrodisiac. Asual Shatavari. astringent to bowels. cultivated as ornamental plant. white. in the Himalayas.—Liliaceæ. Fl. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. with coma.2 m. tapering at both ends.5-10 X 1.3-2. t. Svetmuli. oleaginous. FAM. appetiser. Satavari. Shatavari.—June-Sept. Fl. :—G. naturalised in many parts of India.5 cm. M. DISTR. Fl. Svadurasa. throat complaints. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic.—lobes reflexed in flower. FAM. thorn. straight. K. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. Sd.5-5 cm.. :—An erect undershrub.—orange in axillary umbels. galactogogue. Satavari. M. :—Introduced from the W. M. alterative. H. . red when ripe. :—Deccan.—opposite 7. 2. Tropical Africa. dark brown. Siprimuli. Fl. abundant round about Poona. LOC. NS. Indies. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. spines recurved. and moist monsoon forests. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa.— follicles. erect. solitary. COM. leaves and flowers. Satavari. high. stomachic.—linear with a stout spinous spur. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. globose. Country. blood and eye diseases. common in the Deccan. fragrant. linear. PARTS USED:—Root. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. C. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places .—in simple raceme. L. cooling. spinous.
long. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. Vikhara. CHAR. Shrigalghant.—June-Jany. And.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . anæmia. 18 X 3-3. and alterative tonic. DISTR. H. tonic. tonic. aphrodisiac. NS. eyediseases. :—A stout herb. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Vajrakantaka. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. 4 inner small. Africa. useful in diarrhœa. HABITAT:—Swampy places. Seeds fattening. COM. biliousness. Talamkhana. scalding of urine. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. hairy. hispid with long hairs. leprosy. thickened at the nodes.5 cm.:—Common throughout the State.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. diuretic. galactogogue. (Yunani. Ceylon.) LOC. C. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. Fl.2 cm.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. lanceolate. Narayana Taila. anuria. aphrodisiac . Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. tonic. Kolavalike. widely 2-lipped. Gokshura.—capsule. Vishnu Taila. Talim-khana. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. USES :—The root is refrigerant. laxative. improve blood (Yunani). aphrodisiac . gleet. M. urinary calculi and discharges. and dysentery. Talamkhan. linear oblong. erect. K. lips sub-equal. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). Leaves good for cough. hypnotic. ciliate . aphrodisiac. USES. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. upper 2-fid. useful in jaundice and anasarca. :—Throughout India. lower deeply 3-lobed. . applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains.) FAM. subquadrangular.— purple blue. high. Gokhalkanta.. Fl. Fr.8 cm. LOC. 0. expectorant. L. thirst. aphrodisiac. 2 outer large. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. 4-8 seeded. PARTS USED :—Root. Ekharo. LOC. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Used in diarrhœa.6-1. stems fasciculate. The root is sweet. Kalavankabija.—sessile. Phalaghrita. gonorrhoea. tropical and S. abruptly swollen at the top. inflammations. tonic. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Kak-Kokilaksha. dysentery. Seeds cooling. antispasmodic. like leaves. 3. bracts. abdominal troubles. t. colic. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. sedative to gravid uterus . ascites. constipation. Konkan and Deccan. tube. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Ikshura. pointed. :—G. Gokhran. demulcent.— Acanthaceæ. leaves and seeds.
COM. branches many ascending.:—Konkan and Deccan. Karmal. dried fruit is given in fevers. G. capsule.:—E.:—Throughout India in wet places. Jany-May. sessile. axillary. fleshy. DISTR. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . Brahmi. LOC.5-10 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. HABITAT :—Damp places. Carambola apple. ovoid. NS. COM. M. :—A glabrous. LOC. Kirihuli. :—E. C. Fruit sour. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). 2-lipped. obovate-oblong or spatulate. astringent to bowels. M. FAM. emetic. Barambhi. Brahmi. anæmia. L. heats the body (Ayurveda). allays thirst. Safed-Kammi. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation.) FAM. rarely wild. Fruits are used in pickles. inflammations. Coromandel gooseberry. Kanara villages. sour. indigestion. Kamaranga. Ceylon and all warm countries. enlargement of spleen. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Fl. laxative. Soumyalata. t. leprosy. pale blue or white. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. Nirbrahmi. pale. Jalneam. Kamrang. Kamarakha. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . CHAR.—Oxalidaceæ. H. Brahmi. See—Fruit Trees. lobes equal spangled. striate. Shiral. LOC. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. digestible. also used in diarrhœa. K. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. useful in bad ulcers. "Vata". Fl. stems rooting at the nodes. Thyme-leaved graticula . Sk. pungent. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. heating. K. tumours. Sk. 6-25 X 2. decussate. Mudgara. astringent to bowels . Darehuli. Fr. acute. DISTR. tonic. ascites. succulent. causes biliousness.. Karmare . black dotted : entire. NS.—Scrophulariaceæ. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. found wild near N. with shining dots. perhaps a native of Malaya. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. Bama. creeping herb. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. causes biliousness (Yunani). H. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Karuka. oblong. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. fruits. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. solitary. Sd. Kamarakh. Tamarak. HABITAT :—Cultivated. when fresh. Manduki. Karmar.
Sd. Peninsula. purifies blood. Uddipta. Danti. LOC. COM. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. capsule. NS. good in scabies. Dec. Gugul. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. :—G. alexiteric. leaves and seeds. anthelmintic. useful in pains. Dantimul. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). Kanara. :—A stout undershrub. Bengal. Guggula. LOC. leucoderma. Kaduharalu. Fl. K. piles. Burma. Leaf-juice. Sk. Chota Nagpur. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Rechani. Malaya. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leucoderma. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. 2-glandular.8 m. L. mottled. syphilis . They are used in dropsy. Fr. wounds. yellowish. epilepsy and hoarseness. Assam. . USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Guggula. W. anaemia. toothed. Root and leaves are cathartic. G. PARTS USED :—Root. diuretic. COM. :—Dry open Deccan plains. :—Bihar. the lower large.. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. 0. in monsoon forests of N. Sk. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. Danti. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. DISTR. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. CHAR. Gum gugul. K. Dantika. purgative. itching. t. inflammations. Fl. Jamalgota. epilepsy and hoarseness.9-1. LOC. aphrodisiac . in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. jaundice (Ayurveda). Mukul. smooth. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. ellipsoid. all male or with a few females below.—Burseraceæ. useful in insanity. FAM. or in monsoon forests. Danti. It is a direct cardiac tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Guggul. anasarca and jaundice. of three 2-valved cocci. M. obovoid. sinuate. FAM. Hakum. branching from the roots. conjoined with petroleum. Vishodhini. NS. the upper small. M. high. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. enlarged spleen. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Seeds are poisonous. often palmately 3-5 lobed. diseases of skin and abdomen. Danti.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. :—E. Guggula. Devdhup.—Euphorbiaceæ. H. hairy. Jatala. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. is used as a local application in rheumatism. N. H. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. blood diseases. enriches blood. aphrodisiac. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Root. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. There are two varieties. t. "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. Buds—indigestible. asthma. Kohala.-Feb. Kumaon. Fruit—antiperiodic. tuberculous glands. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. M. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. aphrodisiac. " Tridosha". LOC. DISTR.-Apl. used as gargle in stomatitis. bark and flowers. appetising. cures biliousness. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. K. leucoderma. Timisha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. eye diseases. dehiscent. cures biliousness. China. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. flat. Kudimah. dysmenorrhoea. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. Koholu.8-2. Fr. Budekumbalkai. burning sensation. red and white. Burma. cough. heart tonic (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. tuberculous glands. anthelmintic. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). wounds and ulcers. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Tallow-White gourd. menorrhagia. :—Cultivated throughout the State. vaginal discharges. given' to corpulent persons. it is also anti-fat remedy. tonic. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. Shikhivardhaka. See—Ornamental Plants. Kondha. cures strangury. NS. :—E. . :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. biliousness. thirst. astringent. Golkaddu. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Bhuru-koholu. anal troubles.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. not indigenous. fever. LOC. Kushmanda. urinary discharges and calculi. DISTR. leprosy. Bark—astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Fruit.10-15. Sd. used in dry cough. in dyspepsia and flatulence. removes foul taste from mouth. asthma. cardiac and general tonic. Seeds— cooling.5 cm. H. thirst. 15-20 X 1. Dorokaru. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. FAM. G. Karkutika.—pod. USES :—Root-decoction is given. used in strangury. seeds. Sikkim. Ash pumpkin. diuretic. tonic. urethral discharges. blood diseases . used in piles. oil from the seeds. blood impurities. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cough. tonic to liver. leprosy. Sk. COM. ulcers.
Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. astringent. sharply serrate-dentate. base tapered. . Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia.-achene. elliptic-oblong. with a strong odour of turpentine. heart diseases.—heads many. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). blood diseases. bitter. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. cures bronchitis. Fr. and diuretic. Fruit is made into confections. Kanara. Mriduchhada. Kalhar. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. it is given in bleeding piles. Bhamurdi. LOC. Kakarunda. oblong. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Ceylon. S. COM. M. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. BLUMEA LACERA DC. H. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. CHAR. Pilokapurio. ash colored. China. good for the brain and liver. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity.—Compositæ. :—Throughout plains of India. high. fevers. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera.9 m. L. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. haemoptysis. Kakaronda. 0. phthisis. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. good in syphilis (Yunani). LOC. cooling.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst.—Jany. t. thirst. Kukurbanda. Australia. stem erect.:—In plains south of Bombay. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Country. Malaya. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. it is also useful in insanity. catarrh. often incised or lyrate. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative.-Apl. FAM.3—0. Fl. upper subsessile. pungent. febrifuge. Kukkurdru. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. NS. laxative. asthma. finely silky pubescent on both sides. M.—the lower ones petioled. pubescent. Deccan. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. mixed with black pepper. Tamrachuda. etc. :—G. DISTR. LOC. Jangali-muli. pappus white. densely glandular. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. Konkan. and nutritious tonic. not ribbed. anti-pyretic. :—Annual herb. Tropical Africa. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Sk. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). inner bracts with green midrib. Oil—is soporific. See—Vegetables. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. burning sensation. sweetish.
COM. Sk. fusiform. anæmia.—clavate. PARTS USED :—Root. Plant contains large quantities of pot. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. Sk. useful in ophthalmia. Varshabhu. very glandular . "Kapha" heating.—Palmæ. sub-orbicular. LOC. Hogweed. M. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. NS. cultivated and self-sown. FAM. Seeds—tonic. inflammations. abdominal pains. DISTR. native of tropical Africa. (Ayurveda). BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. L. Desert Palm. whitish beneath. common in S. LOC. Bitter. bluntly 5-ribbed. asthma. COM. Palmyra Palm. Moto-satodo. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Tad. Tad. Talimara. Vasu. :—E.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. H. Dhvajadruma. root large. "Vata". Santhikari. :—E. heart diseases. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. —Nyctaginaceæ. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Punarnava. It is also laxative and anthelmintic.—in corymbose umbels.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. expectorant. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. P. Ghetuli. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Madhurasa. 1. spleen enlargement. generally found in poorer soils. Uttar Pradesh. Kommegida. DISTR. and dropsy. cooling . . green above. Fan Palm. G. very small.— Nov. alterative. scabies. useful in biliousness. astringent to bowels . HABITAT :—Coastal districts . India. margins undulate. gonorrhœa. K. Dholia-saturdo. Tad.. H. It is used in jaundice. Asavardu. blood impurities. Tala. Shothaghni. NS. :—A diffuse herb. LOC. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears.3—2 cm. useful in lumbago. K. It produces a very marked and persistent. leucorrhoea. Raktakanda. Lekhyapatra. Fl. Persian Gulf. :—Tropical India. in pain of joints. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). Celyon. alexiteric. leaves and seeds. t. G. Burma. Ceylon. tumours. Africa and America.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. M. cultivated. Fl. CHAR. carminative. Indian Archipelago. Leaves— appetiser.—in unequal pairs at each node. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). HABITAT :—A weed. stem prostrate or ascending. pinkish. Brab tree. Fr. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Kolaba and Thana districts. FAM. Baluchistan.
. Luban. astringent to bowels. allays asthma. Loban. allays. flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. thirst and scalding of urine. K. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . bitter. See—Timbers. antibilious . blood complaints . skin diseases. ulcers . diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). fruit and gum. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Mukulsalai. useful in intestinal troubles. also found in Belgaum District. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. with a good flavour. fatigue. Vishesha-dhupa. cures dysentery. Salgond. LOC. juice. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. thirst. also used as antiperiodic. binding. NS. antiglycosuretic. LOC. Salpe. Fruit—cooling. Fruit—aphrodisiac. cough. useful in skin and blood diseases. burning sensation. expectorant. causes " Kapha ". Salphali. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. aphrodisiac. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . COM. Kundur. antipyretic.. FAM. purifies blood (Yunani). helps delivery. expectorant. vaginal discharges. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests .USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. used for boils. :—E. laxative. Guggali. intoxicating. asthma. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Bark-decoction. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. PARTS USED :—Bark. M. heals wounds . allays thirst. intoxicating. fruits. Fermented juice—tonic. cooling. antidysenteric. fevers. causes headache. tonic. convulsions. removes "Kapha". improves taste. if taken regularly acts as laxative. tonic. "Vata". " Vata". hot. Dup. Gum is of five kinds . flowers. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. G. with a little salt added. Salashi. bad throat. DISTR. Gum—hot.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Sambrani. diaphoresis. fattening. aphrodisiac. purifies blood. diuretic . Guggula. Indian olibanum tree. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. Dhupam. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. biliousness. Salai. Sugars. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India.—Burseraceæ. scabies. useful in biliousness. Sk. H. leaves. bronchitis. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. invigorating. fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. alexiteric. Gums and Resins. dry. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Liquors. strengthens teeth. Dhup. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. mouth-sores. Moddi. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). may cause vomiting.
DISTR. spasmodic. FAM. See—Condiments and Spices. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. . Asuri. biles. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. Rajika. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. H. Jwalanti. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. COM. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. cause burning . Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. India. Dharwar and Belgaum. bechic. used with butter in syphilis . It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. See—Timbers. Sarshapa. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. eye-troubles. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. cure nose. rheumatism. stomachic. anthelmintic . G. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. good for throat complaints. Sk. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Taramira . Rai. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Surat. kill external parasites. internal congestions. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Kari Sasive . cure enlargement of spleen. increase bile. ear.—Cruciferae. chiefly in Nasik. Seeds act as digestive condiment . given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. :—Cultivated in India. cure skin-dissases. Khandesh. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Seeds-laxative. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. spleen. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. Black-True mustard. good in cough and for inflammations. dispel fever . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. Broach. Seeds— remove cough tumours. lessen oedema of body. K. appetiser. Kali-rai. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. M. LOC. LOC. increase appetite . as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. " Vata". PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. vermicide. Gums and Resins. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Kaira. and toothache. Mohori. NS.
Asana. smooth. ovate-oblong. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Philippines. long. COM. It is used in bilious attacks. corolla as in the male . LOC. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Chandra. pungent. Patharphoda.— membranous. Sk. lobes oblong lanceolate. Country. 5-partite. DISTR.—Cucurbitaceæ. Asana. 3—2 . FAM. 1 . See—Timbers. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. 10-15 cm. S. Ekadivi.—yellowish brown. Sk. :—G. Shivalingi.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Ishawara-Shivalingi. or few or many. Manj. Garige. Fl. DISTR. Australia. Gauli. H. bark. Lingaja. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). M. Shivlingi. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. corolla companulate. lumbago. Kaj. alterative. tendrils 2-fid : L. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Gunjan. glabrous . streaked with broad vertical lines . The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Goge. Tans. Asana. :—Deccan. green and scabrid above. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). tropical Africa. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. :—An annual scandent herb. stem grooved.— Aug-Sept. M. Asana. :—G. subsessile. t. LOC. of Shivaling shape . and in fevers with flatulence. Apastambhini. NS. paler and smooth beneath. Fr.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. 5-lobed.:—Throughout India. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. CHAR. M. Mauritius. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Mullu-siru Honne. Ekalkanto. K. Kassi. .—baccate. Malaya. useful in "Vata". diam. 5 cm. bluish green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell.—Euphorbiaceæ. Shivavalli. hemiplegia.. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. southward to Ceylon. COM. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. H. Kavodi. Gargumaru. female flowers solitary. Mahavira.. FAM. deeply cordate base. globose. NS. Khaja. heating. Lingini. LOC. margins sinuate denticulate. bitter. PARTS USED :—Root. Suviraka. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents.. hot. Sd.
Fl. Charpoppu. occasionally compound.—Crassulaceæ. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. LOC.. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0.—swollen and octagonal at the base. HABITAT :—Dry. the older light-coloured. Pyalchar. Panphuti. Paira. fevers. gum (rarely). Fl. Snehabija. Dhanu. aphrodisiac. Lalana. laxative. S. C. cooling. also wild. M. deciduous open forests. PARTS USED :—Roots. Asthibhakshya. Priyal.3-1.—pendant. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). leaflets ovate. ulcers. when punctured. Piyal. LOC. Country. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. K. Stems obtusely 4-angled. purifies blood. :—Hot and drier parts of India. M.—Anacardiaceæ. cardio-tonic. the leaves often produce on their crenatures.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. inflammations. :—Konkan. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . Tapaspriya. thirst. aphrodisiac. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. elliptic. DISTR. Deccan. Cochin-China. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. DISTR. astringent to bowels. M.) FAM. alexipharmic. Charoli. It is a disinfectant. Burma. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. Lonnahadakana gida. Parnabija. lobes triangular. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). :—Native of tropical Africa. tonic. Deccan. :—H. in large panicles. CHAR. allays .2 m. expectorant. binding. Char. NS. L. fruit. Country. NS. lower usually simple. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". constricted in the middle. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. buds with root. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. COM. Sk. Panphui. Thailand (Siam). bruises. high. Charoli. seeds. Zakhi-haiyat. Char. upper 3-5-7 foliate. Sk.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. burning sensation on body. smooth. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). speckled with white. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. younger reddish. S. The bark is bitter and poisonous. with opposite branches . Sd. crenate or serrate. boils and bites of venomous insects. See—Ornamental Plants. Fr. M. FAM. reddish purple. Kolegeru.—small. useful in diarrhœa. analgesic. carminative. cures blooddiseases.—Jany. :—Konkan. vomiting. the Dangs. LOC. purgative. Cambodia. t.—variable. Rajadana. fattening. Leaf-juice digestive. H. "Vata" and biliousness. Gujarat. COM. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. decussate. Char. Murukali. :—G. leaves.
dysentery.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). seeds. bark. laxative. burning sensation. piles. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. tumours. used in diseases of chest and lungs. worms and piles. COM. Oils. Gum—acrid. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. used in liver disorders. Kshatadru. leprosy. diuretic . Gums and Resins. leaves. Palas. carminative. tonic. India. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . aphrodisiac. flowers. cold and cough. burning urine. if chewed. Dyes. LOC. useful in elephantiasis. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. corneal opacities. DISTR. piles. anthelmintic. G. aphrodisiac. prickly heat and itch. tonic to liver. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Fruit and seed—hot. M. gum. cause headache (Yunani). relieves abnormal thirst. Bark—appetiser. H. purifies blood. anthelmintic. colic. Khakhrao. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. Gum—astringent to bowels. tonic. Bark—appetiser. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. useful in bone fractures. pterygium. K. Muttala. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh.) FAM. pimples. gonorrhoea. dry. digestible. thirst. gonorrhœa. in the Khandesh Akrani. cough. cures ulcers and tumours. Yajnika. emmenagogue. anthelmintic. astringent. stomatitis. ascends to 1200 m. expectorant. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Kinshuk. good in biliousness. Leaf—very astringent. anthelmintic. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Fruit and seeds—oily. PARTS USED :—Root. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. inflammations. Muttuga. LOC. remove bad humours. Chichra. Seeds tonic to body and brain. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Ceylon. lessens lumbago. useful in piles. aperient used in urinary discharges. Kakria. fractures. See—Timbers. skindiseases.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Flower—aphrodisiac. good in dysentery. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. eye diseases. hydrocele. useful in syphilis. biliousness. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. Tripatrak. gout. cures excessive perspiration. Palash. Flowers—cure " Kapha". Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Bastard teak. cure tumours. lessens inflammations. NS. stomachic. Dhak. strangury. Palas. :—E. dysmenorrhoea. buboes. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. aphrodisiac. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Sk. Kuntz. diseases of anus. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. good in fevers. Khakera. Khakda. topically in piles and hydrocele. lessens biliousness. LOC.
long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. strongly mucronate. Tapasi. 30-60 cm. skin-diseases. lead-colored 1. Kuberakshi. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. shortly stalked. pinnae 6-8 pairs. hydrocele. Kakechika. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Flowers are astringent. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Karanja. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. useful in colic. FAM. flowers and fruit. DISTR. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. LOC.5 X 4. sprouts useful in tumours. LOC.) COM. oblong 5-7. Gajjige. They are applied to orchitis. astringent to bowels. Fr. Fl. aphrodisiac and diuretic. heating.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. H. long. elliptic-oblong. Sd. M. leaves. K. etc.—JulySept. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . antiperiodic. cures inflammation . anthelmintic .MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women.—pod. CHAR.—1-2 oblong. Sk. fevers.—yellow. Gum solution is applied to bruises. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. leucorrhcea. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. leprosy (Yunani). petioles prickly. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout India. Fl. Fruit—acrid. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. See—Timbers. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). . ringworm. long . :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. Physic nut. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. :—An extensive climber. malaria. Gajaga. :—E. leaflets 6-9 pairs. cures urinary discharges. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . Leaves contain a glucoside. very common near the sea-coast. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Deccan hills. 5-7. Sind.5 cm. Dyes. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Katkaranj. Katkaleja. piles. Sagargota. asthma and colic. Fever nut. act as rubefacient.5 cm.—abruptly pinnate. Seed—styptic. L.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. prevents contagious diseases . Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". t. G. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Gums and Resins. NS. anthelmintic. densely armed on the faces with prickles. wounds. the tropics generally. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.3 cm. Gajga. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic.
H. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Br. Surpan. gum. Australia. Shuka-phala. Kshirparni. CHAR.. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—Cultivated throughout India. sometimes amplexicaul. Akdo. COM. base cordate. Undi. both surfaces tomentose. Arka. Kanara associated with littoral species. East African Islands. covered with cottony pubescence. LOC.8-10 cm. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State.. NS. Dholaakdo. :—E. Sk.. FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark. Punnag. Malaya. Tungakeshera. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Sultanchampa. Mandara. Polynesia. Sk.. L. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Punnaga. Undi. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Ark. Oils. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. and for its oil. The gum from wounded branches. 2. :—E. Ekke. Vuma. Mandara. See—Timbers. Purasakeshera.— opposite. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Alexandrian laurel. Ceylon. sessile. astringent. Arka.—Asclepiadaceæ. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Kshiranga. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. M. Surangi. Ak. :—A large shrub. much branched. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. COM. 10-20 X3. Ponne. Gigantic swallow-wort. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Rui. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma.4-3 m. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. FAM.—Guttiferæ. G. elliptic or ovate oblong. M. K. lessens appetite. and oil. . K. Akand. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. LOC. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. NS. thick. Surhonne. used in chronic fevers. DISTR. branches stout. Madar. high. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Madar. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. H. often gregarious. very common in N..
acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. also useful in intestinal worms. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . Safedak. corona shorter than the column. Flowers—digestive.5-8. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. Ak. purgative. NS. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. China. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Fl. Fr. very common. usually 5.5 cm. very common is S. back much curved. LOC. Mandara. astringent. high. FAM. ulcers. painful joints . M. lobes usually erect. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion.-July. alterative and purgative properties.—7. depilatory.—broadly ovate. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. elliptic or obovate. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.:—H. expectorant and anthelmintic. Ark. across. Sk. laxative. purplish or white. leaves applied to paralysed parts. ellipsoid or ovoid. cures piles and "Kapha".—Asclepiadaceæ.—follicles.. . bark. Sd:—many. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera.8-2.5-10 X 5-7. rat-bite. asthma.— Feb. India. 9-10 cm. acrid . :—An erect shrub usually 1. comose. coughs. bark corky. See—Fibres. dropsy. cures inflammations. Milk— caustic. cures leprosy. buds ovoid. Flowers—stomachic.4 m. good for liver (Yunani). All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. Fl.7—15 X 4. DISTR. buds globose. swellings. piles. liver and spleen enlargement. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. ovate oblong. oleaginous. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action.—subsessile.—lobes deltoid-ovate.5 cm.. scabies. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. Flower—analgesic. tonic and stomachic in action. L. apex with two auricles.—about 2. eruption on body. LOC. long. cures leucoderma. elephantiasis. spongy. tumours. catarrh and loss of appetite. useful in leprosy. broad. diaphoretic. leaves and flowers. ascites. COM. spleen and liver diseases. green. ringworm of scalp. ascites and anasarca. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . heal wounds. cures asthma and syphilis. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. C. Milk— heating. Mandara. Malay Islands and S. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum.2 cm. subglobose. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. Root-bark is diaphoretic.. asthma. C. cottony. Sd. young parts white. Rajarka. Madar.— purplish in umbellate cymes. used in cough. flattened tomentose. Ceylon. CHAR.—in umbellate cymes. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Br. t. tumours. comose . Juice—anthelmintic.
Akalabera. Sarvajaya. on trees and hedges . cooling.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. root-stock tuberous. H. Kamakshi. bracts oblong. (Chopra). COM. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. useful in burning sensations. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses.:—Perennial herb . veins arching. :—E. Sarvajaya. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Gavria. 1 linear . Sambe. Waziristan. Tarvardi. Arabia. DISTR. acrid.. G. K. erect. but doubtfully wild. ulcers (Ayurveda). Sk. LOC. Egypt. Shitarambha. NS. K. CANNA INDICA Linn.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Leaves. narrow. tropical Africa. membranous. hernia and colic. 3 sub-erect. they are given in cholera. There is an alkaloid present in the pods.9-1. Kadsambu. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. DISTR. lanceolate to ovate. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. abundant in Sind. H. M. Fl. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Warm leaves used as poultice.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. :—E. Kalehu. greenish or colored. Nilashimbika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Tamateballi. NS. Sk.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Koshaphala.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. spatulate.2 m. Khadsambal. G. high . FAM. M. Iran. stem 0. Hudingana. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. tonic. CHAR. flowers and milky juice.3 cm. LOC. long. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. See—Vegetables. Abai. Paraholiya. Shimbi. P.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). biliousness. LOC. The pods contain vitamin A. Kadavare.—Scitaminaceae. Gigantea. See—Fibres. indigestible. PARTS USED :—Pods. Broad—Sword bean. Indian shot. Gavara. oval or orbicular. L. green. FAM. Afghanistan.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Kardali. COM. Flowers used as detergent. staminodial segments. appetiser. Sema. Devakeli.—segments 2. Asishimbi. Sabbajaya.
In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. :—Widely cultivated in India.5 m. K. alterative . Bhang. H. flowers and seeds. Harshini. Sd. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). lower 3-8 foliate. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. Bhang. Bhangi.—sub-globose or oblong . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. tonic. shining. PARTS USED :—Bark. aphrodisiac. leaves. serrate. upper 1-3. Fl. piles. globose. causes thirst. male fascicled. Hemp.—small axillary. female perianth hyaline. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. inflammations. intoxication. lessen inflammation. Central Asia. causes thirst and biliousness. Ganja. (2) Bhang. astringent. Ganja. sepals 5. usually 0. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. cause headache. echinulate . useful in convulsions. Ganja. good for hydrocele. leprosy. heating. flowers. CHAR. intoxication (Ayurveda). insanity. Unmattini. stomachic. G. DISTR.—more or less throughout the year. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. Mohini. aphrodisiac. useful in " Kapha". LOC. FAM. (3) Charas.—alternate or the lower opposite. imbricate.—many. abortifacient. high in its feral state. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). Shivapriya. Leaves—bitter. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. L. tonic. seeds and resin. antidiarrhoeic. restlessness. hot. soporific. :—E. also wild. male flowers. dioecious.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. astringent to bowels. Siddhapatri. :—Throughout India. 3-lobed. check vomiting. female crowded under convolute bracts. Not indigenous. melancholia. LOC. Female inflorescence is stomachic. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. dropsy. COM. hallucinations. Sk. PARTS USED :—Roots. HABITAT :—Cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . PROPERTIES AND LOC. black. causes biliousness. Seeds—carminative. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. excessive use causes indigestion. Fr. DISTR. soporific. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn.9-1. Wild in the Himalayas. oil-good for earache. cough. intoxicating. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Vijaya. leaves.—Urticaceæ. Bark—tonic. Fl. Fr. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. t. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. water extract anthelmintic. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . impotence. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). They are broken in small pieces.—achene. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. NS.
whooping cough. chronic ulcers. Ujjvala. Mirchi. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. increases appetite. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). DISTR. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. spermatorrhoea. It is stomachic. COM. Fruit—pungent. Lanka mirchi. dysuria. Tikshna. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. muscular pains. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. K. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Mirchi. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Raktamaricha. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. diarrhœa. Madana modak used in cough.—Solanaceæ. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. FAM. . Sk. H. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Country in Deccan. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Narcotics. Tivrashakti. Lalmirchi. in the form of electuary. useful in indigestion. acute mania. Vegetables. PARTS USED :—Fruit. useful in brain complaints. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated all over India. Marichiphala. See—Condiments and Spices. often found as an escape. NS.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. Capsaicin and Solanin. delirium (Ayurveda). cholera. LOC. increases biliousness. M. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. :—E. :—Extensively cultivated in S. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. LOC. Chillies. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. Cayenne-pepper. and is employed by Indian physicians. also in gout. G. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. M. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. and dropsy. Fibres. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). The plant contains cannabinin. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Marchu . expectorant. erysipelas. and flatulence. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. Menshinkai. loss of consciousness. See—Gums and Resins. dyspepsia. The fruit contains Capsisin. weakness of body. asthma.
:—E. M. Fruit—acrid. Kumbha. inciso-serrate. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. skin-diseases. epileptic fits. Fibres. bladdery . HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Sind. anthelmintic. colic. very acute apex. Kumbhi. PARTS USED :—Root. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . See—Timbers.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. black. G. Jyotish-mati. COM. :—Throughout India. Girikarnika. Maniju balli. Kangu. Karnasphota. and is administered in fevers. Agni-erum. CHAR. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. LOC. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . Kapalphodi. dyspepsia. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Blister creeper. Kalindi. M. diuretic and aperient. urinary discharges. leaves and seeds.— alternate. Root is considered diaphoretic. Sk. G. FAM. DISTR. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. K. NS. subglobose. L. winged at the angles. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. . bark. :—E. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Daddala. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. leaves. Sk. Sakralata. hot. Deccan. deltoid. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Kumbi. bark.—Myrtaceæ. K.—white. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND LOC. common in S. The plant contains saponin. Karolio. :—Most warm countries. LOC. DISTR. rounded at the apex. HABITAT :—In hedges . Thailand (Siam). also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. H. Hennumatti. Ghats. bronchitis. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. aphrodisiac. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). leucoderma. flowers and fruits. Root. NS. piles. Vakambi. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. Sd. Konkan and W. Balloon vine. Fl. petals 4. stem wiry. smooth. trigonous. FAM. it is mucilaginous. LOC. Kumbhi. Fr. " Vata ". PARTS USED :—Root. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Shaundi. introduced. ultimate segments lanceolate.—globose. Kanphuti. Wild guava . dry. Gavvahannu. useful in tumours. COM. abscesses and ulcers. Malay Peninsula. C.—capsule. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. alexiteric. Ceylon.—Sapindaceæ. 2-ternate. when moistened.
Kardai. NS. relieves obesity. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Papita. Fruit—stomachic. Flower—tonic to liver. Kamalottama. depilatory. Leaves—hot. diuretic. "Tridosh". Pappayi. fruit and seeds. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. wounds of urinary track. Papaw. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. digestive. Kusumba. ringworm. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. :—E. Papayi. aphrodisiac. appetiser . hypnotic.—Caricaceæ. K.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. COM. M. LOC. bronchitis. made into curries. cure urinary discharges. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. LOC. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . :—Native throughout India. in haemoptysis. Safflower. Papaya. Seeds—oleaginous. Papaya. FAM. seeds and oil. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). M. expectorant. Mexico and Brazil. H. G. DISTR. appetiser. astringent to bowels. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. Dyer's saffron. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). :—Grown extensively in Poona. DISTR. heating. Sk. bile. LOC. cooling. Chirbhita. diuretic. Pangi. used. flowers. Barre. cures insanity (Ayurveda).—Compositæ. causes burning sensation . USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. See—Fruit Trees. K. Karrak. it is used to procure abortion. scabies. cures inflammation. Chibda. Karada. enlargement of spleen. Papaya. piles. leucoderma. Nalikadala. Agnishikha. PARTS USED :—Leaves. G. cure "Vata". carminative. NS. Kusumbo. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. cures inflammations. Kusumba. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Oil—indigestible. strangury. cause biliousness. "Kapha". White thin latex contains Papain. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Kusumba. . removes biliousness . Kusumbha. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Popayi. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. leprosy. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :— E. unripe fruit. Guppe. of W. H. removes urinary concretions . bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. Indies. laxative. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. FAM. good for eyes. aphrodisiac. COM. bleeding piles.
H. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated extensively in India. Dadamardana. See—Condiments and Spices. atonic dyspepsia. diuretic. Oils. 30-60 cm. Dyes. Simyatase. FAM. Oma. Baluchistan. Sk. DISTR. myrabolans and rock salt. chest and throat pains. improve speech and eyesight. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. tonic. Egypt. downy beneath. Bishops' weed . tonic and carminative properties. give lustre to eyes. Europe. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. chest pains. good in weakness of limbs. M. Iran. They are administered in flatulence. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). inflammation (Yunani). spleen. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. subsessile. FAM. Dadrughna. stomachic. Ajowan. carminative. aphrodisiac . NS. emmenagogue and sedative. rachis . COM. cure catarrh. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. good for old people. Dadmardan. oblique at the base. bitter. bechic. dyspepsia. enlargement of spleen. CASSIA ALATA Linn. liver. The seeds bitter and hot. Dodda sagate. good for ear boils. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. LOC. good for heart and tooth-ache. CHAR. kidney troubles. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Ajamoda. Seeds—purgative. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. hiccup. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. carminative. Omu . Tivragandha. Datka pat. and diarrhœa.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Owa. See—Vegetables. Dipyaka. vomiting. pinnate. Leaves contain vitamin A. stimulate intestines. Sk. Ajwain. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. L. laxative. leaflets 10-12 pairs. G. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. Afghanistan. :—E. Elgra. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. anthelmintic. stimulant. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . abdominal pain. long. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. piles. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. carminative. purgative. mucronate. Winged senna. Ajamo . LOC. vomiting. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. and even in cholera. aphrodisiac. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. oblong-obtuse. Dwipagasti. cure ascites. Oil—good in all diseases. appetiser. NS :— E. they are used in jaundice . strengthening.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. K. pungent. paralysis. Ringworm shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot.—Umbelliferæ. abdominal tumours. enrich blood. COM. K. M. H.
LOC. rachis densely pubescent. Fl.—pod long. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. Ceylon. along the sea coast in laterite region.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.-July. obliquely septate. 28-4-88). a linear gland between each pair of leaflets .—in spiciform. Sakusina. t. causes flatulence . Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. M. long. reddish brown. leaflets 8-12 pairs. straight. 20-25. stipules very large. buds in yellow bracts. skin-diseases. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric.. pedunculate racemes . CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. membranous. urinary discharges . oblong-obovate. DISTR. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). In cases of bronchitis and asthma. dull green above. Fl. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). LOC. bark smooth. asthma. N. G. Ph. K. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. itching. Avarike. DISTR. cm. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. reniform.5 X 10 cm.—pod.. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). Burma. FAM. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve.. rhombohedral. leprosy. Country. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. Tarwad. leaves. CHAR. yellow with orange veins. cough. M. vermicide (Ayurveda). " In eczema. Fr. Sk. flowers. and throat troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. The whole plant.—30-35. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day.3-1.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Fl. mucronate. cure " Vata ". thirst. diabetes. H. cures tumours.—large. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. PARTS USED :—Root. alexipharmic . Pitakilaka. across. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. NS. Tanner's cassia. Fl. Sd. Tangadi.-Oct. Taroda. slightly overlapping. rotundate. Madhya Pradesh and W. very likely a native of the W. L. . Tarwad. Bark has the same properties. good for ulcers. Sd. fruits and seeds. Avartki. 5 cm. :—E.—Jany. C.—bright yellow with darker veins. pale beneath.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely).-50 or more. Ahmed. Awal. Peninsula. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan.6 cm. Mayahari. Charmaranga. ringworm. anthelmintic. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. useful in thirst. HABITAT :—Planted. LOC. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. t. J. 10-20 X 1.) COM. useful in vomiting. Gujarat and S. skin diseases. nocturnal emissions. Indies. Fr. Mukerji). asthma . :—Introduced into India.—7. LOC.
cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. demulcent. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. cures burning sensation. FAM. yellow. CHAR. also planted. safe for children and pregnant women. Dodda-tagase. .— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Rankasvinda. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. rheumatism. apex acute. Kakka. Stinking weed. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Kasmarda. fruit and seeds. recurved.) COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. DISTR. biliousness . cause flatulence.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. purgative. useful in chest and liver complaints. Fruit—antipyretic. H. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. K. Indian laburnum. M. Tans. Kasondi.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. LOC. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. throat-troubles. cooling. leprosy. K. long.. :—E. antipyretic. G. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Hema-puspha. Aragina. Suvarnaka. Chakinda. CASSIA FISTULA Linn.—very foetid when bruised. smooth. shining dark olive-green. Ornamental Plants. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Leaves lessen inflammation.—petals 5. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. used in rheumatism.—20-30. leaves. Kacodari. Kasoda. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Seeds— oily. astringent. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism.) COM. base somewhat oblique. Balla. branches furrowed. C. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. syphilis. cooling. heal ulcers . Pudding-pipe or stick. laxative. Arogyashimbi. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Negro coffee. 10—12. carminative. :—Throughout India. Fl. Bahava. distinctly torulose. Burma. purgative. Ane sogate. (Ayurveda). Rajataru. :—E. Sk. Flowers—purgative. FAM. 15-20 cm. G. See—Timbers. It is a mild laxative. Konde. ovate-lanceolate. corymbose. flowers. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Fl. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. hard. LOC. L. Arimarda. t. NS. Sk. M. long. abortifacient. eye-diseases. transversely septate. Ceylon. Rechana. Seeds—emetic (Yunani).—pods. NS. See—Dyes. Fruit—digestible.—in few flowered racemes. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. Golden shower. tuberculous glands. faintly veined with orange .— Jany-March.5 cm. Garmala. In Konkan. juice given in erysipelas. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. and Famine Plants. improve appetite. H. Chimkani. griping. Kasundari. often purplish. Amaltas. Leaves—anti-periodic . Fr. Kasari. cure " Kapha ". Vyadivata. Kasonda. Flowers—improve taste. Bandartauri.
leaves. L. petals 5. few flowered corymbose racemes. Fl. and seeds are cathartic. Baskikasondi. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. leaves and seeds. The bark. See—Famine Plants. annual or perennial.—30-40 broadly ovoid. with a solitary conical gland near the base . alexiteric.—18-23 cm. elephantiasis. Banar. Leaves—aphrodisiac. fevers. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. opposite. Sd. high. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda).510 cm.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). tonic and febrifuge. hiccup.. M. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. septate between the seeds . for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). H. Fl. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. cough. FAM. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Sk. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. cure " Kapha". lanceolate. LOC. Kasundari.Jany.—in axillary. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. rachis grooved . K. In many countries root is considered diuretic. asthma. obtuse. Talapota. dark brown . long . At Kotra. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. :—G. leaves and seeds. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Ran tankala. t. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. base rounded. heals wounds. turgid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Kasondi. leaflets 6-10 pairs.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis.. LOC. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). in Kutch. See—Famine Plants. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. are given in diabetes. COM. 7. CHAR. . slightly recurved. Kasamarda. cures ascites. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. stomachic. DISTR. :—A shrub 2. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. Fr. LOC.—pod. mixed with honey. NS. " tridosha " . " Vata ".4-3 m.— Nov. C. Kasamarda. Seeds used in heat of the blood. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. ovate. yellow.
small yellowish-green. Sk.—pinnate. DISTR. M. base oblique. K. unarmed. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. Sk.5-20 cm.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. leaflets 3 pairs. 7. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ceylon. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Takala. high.8-7. Fr. stem upto 23 cm. LOC. Dadrughna. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. LOC. Kangani. 30-90 cm. in drooping panicles. The plant contains glucoside emodin. cure joint-pains. upper petal 2-lobed . long. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. much curved when young. FAM. Intellect tree. Velo . leaves and seeds. L. PARTS USED :— Root. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. branches rough. brain and liver tonic. 12. hot. Black-oil tree. G. Seeds—bitter. aphrodisiac. opposite (lowest smaller). :—E. 1-6 completely covered with red.5-10 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. CHAR.5 cm.3-10 X 3. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. H.— petals 5.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Taragosi.. in diam.) COM. reddish brown. 6. Chakunda. Sphutabandhani. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. H. :—An annual foetid herb. Seeds— acrid. Chakramarda. expectorant. NS. :—A very common weed all over the State. capsule. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. X 4. Kanguni. Malkakni. obovate. Tarota. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Tagache.5 mm. pale yellow. rachis grooved. high.. Pamad. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. :—E. crenate.—pod. Kangodi. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". K. Dadamari. L. C. Sd. FAM. ovate or obovate. Chagoche. covered with lenticels. Malkangoni. Fr. Sd. CHAR. NS.—Celastraceæ. powerful brain tonic. usually unisexual. Malkamni. Madras State.. fleshy arillus. emetic. appetiser.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. 18 m. Kangli. Jyotishmati. t. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Panevar. COM. bitter. DISTR. Burma. M. bright yellow. Fl. . laxative. oblong. Taga. obliquely septate. Foetid cassia. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. alternate.—after the rains. Climbing-staff plant. cause burning sensation. Svarnalata. :—Large deciduous climber. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). globose. Malhangana. shining above.
minute. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. reniform. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. Ekpani.—3 from each node. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. rooting at the nodes. orbicular. Sk. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Deccan and S. high. Mahaushadhi. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. Brahmamanduki. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. M. H. G. ovoid. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. t. C. and is employed for external application. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Seeds are hot. stem creeping with long internodes. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. good for cough and asthma.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. they are also sudorific. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. L. radical leaves revolute. M. Jangli-karayatu. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. :—A slender herbaceous plant. aphrodisiac and stimulant. Lahanchirayat. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. FAM. obovate or oblong.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. Fr.). CHAR. gout. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. H. . LOC.). CHAR. :—Konkan. pink. long.—in fascicled umbels.—Gentianaceæ.—Feb. hard-rugose.—Umbelliferæ. Brahmi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Don. Vondelaga. paralysis and leprosy. :—G. linear-oblong. narrowly oblong . Fl.—capsule.—May-Nov. Brahmamanduki. NS. Vallari . COM. t. elliptic. M. Oil stomachic. Barmi. K. persistent. :— E. Fl. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). cloves. cauline smaller. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. :—Throughout India. DISTR. base deeply cordate stipulate. Jhinkun-kariatum. NS. spreading star-like . PARTS USED :—The whole plant.-Apl. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Fl. Mandukparni. pink. COM. Country. LOC. L. tonic.—tubular lobes 5. especially in Bengal.—4 mm. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce.—opposite. Fl. used in leprosy. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. Fr. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. FAM.
cures leucoderma. :—Throughout India near the coast. alterative. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. leaves and seeds). :—In moist situations (streams. anæmia. asthma. improves appetite. memory. LOC. tonic. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". PARTS USED :—Bark. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. thirst. sedative to nerves. USES :—Bark is purgative. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. antipyretic. abundant on the Malabar Coast. used in insanity (Ayurveda). fevers. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root.) DISTR. cooling. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. M. small-pox. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. water courses throughout the State. bronchitis. FAM. voice. clears voice and brain. . plaster or bath are used. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. tonic. improves appetite (Yunani). biliousness. Australia Pacific Islands. laxative. The plant contains glucoside cerberin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. spleen enlargement. diuretic. cardio-tonic. COM. ointment. alexiteric. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. urinary discharges. For external use powder. soporific. LOC. NS. See—Timbers. scalding of urine. PROPERTIES AND LOC. nallas. milky juice. fruit. carminative. " Kapha ". nut is narcotic and poisonous . Tande. asthma. Leaf-powder. headache . twigs. :—South Konkan and N. :—K. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. inflammations. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. DISTR. and a bitter substance odollin. bronchitis. LOC. stomachic. digestible. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. Chanda. Plant—bitter. Kanara. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. Sukanu. blood diseases. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Honde. bitter. Malay Archipelago. Leaves are also diuretic. bechic. cures hiccup. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost.—Apocynaceæ. China.
diseases of blood. sour . purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). LOC. Kanchuki. USES :— Root is purgative. G. But. Chunna. aphrodisiac. fruit and seeds. urinary concretions. NS. improves appetite. Chana. Country gooseberry. Fruit is very sour . :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Lavali. Goose-foot. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. Bathusag. LOC. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. :—Cultivated in India. Cheel. K.—Chenopodiaceæ. Chandanbedu. FAM . also cultivated as a pot herb. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. constipation. The fruit is acrid and astringent. DISTR. M. Harparauri K. Rai-avala. useful in thirst. Kari-Kempukadale. Chakravati. useful in bronchitis. The plant yields an essential oil. Chana.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. heart. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Chick pea. H. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. acrid. :—Very common in the Deccan. piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Kadale. abdominal pains. H. "Vata". oleaginous. Chanaka. H. spleen (Ayurveda). G. "Kapha". vomiting. :—Widely distributed. Balabhojya. M. Country.. throattroubles. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. :—E. M. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Sk. . LOC.) FAM. Wild-spinach. LOC. COM. Laveni. NS. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Harbara. Rayara nelli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. See—Fruit Trees. Bengal—Common-gram.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. biliousness. K. LOC. laxative. tonic. Harparrevdi. fragrant. Chakravarti. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. diuretic. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). tonic to liver. Ksharadala. eye-diseases. :—E. :— E. Deccan and S. Tanko. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Vajibhakshya. Skandhaphala. Chakwat. root and the seed are cathartic. Chalmeri. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. M. NS. Chillika. useful in biliousness. COM. piles . Sk. biliousness. Chania. Agralohita. Pandu.
Kanara district. HABITAT :—Rain-forests.—Lauraceæ. itching. seed and acid exudation. appetiser. rectum and urinary diseases. strengthens liver. M. pains . It checks nausea and vomiting. emmenagogue. toothache (Ayurveda). biliousness. NS. astringent to bowels . Oil is externally used in neuralgia. Duk. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic . PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. pungent. very common in the N. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Kash. causes flatulence. heart. anthelmintic. Seed—indigestible. causes flatulence. bronchitis (Yunani). Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. enriches blood. :—W. toothache. Bark—tonic. diarrhœa and dysentery. throat troubles. . It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. cure bronchitis. Leaves—purgative. indigenous and cultivated. DISTR. Valkala. headache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. cures skin diseases. Ceylon. Oil—styptic. parched mouth. :— Bark and oil. tonic . tonic to hair. Malay Peninsula. Nisane. flatulence. hiccup. indigestion. Gudatwaka. vomiting. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). H. Oil—carminative. piles. Sk. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. liver-tonic . astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. See—Food Plants. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. carminative. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). cures thirst and burning. Leaves contain vitamin A. FAM. chest complaints. causes salivation. Seed—stimulant. Burma. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. abortifacient. tonic. refrigerant. Dalchini. Dalchini. abdominal pains. thirst. useful in hydrocele. anthelmintic. expectorant. It possesses carminative. :—G. useful in cold. See—Condiments and Spices. LOC. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. COM. foul mouth and fever. tonic. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. PARTS USED. headache. improve taste and appetite. Dalchini. biliousness. Dalchini. carminative. cold in head. diarrhœa. alexiteric. Darchini. Oils. Lavange-hakke. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. useful in " Vata ". USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. flatulence. leprosy. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. etc. vomiting. aphrodisiac. blood troubles. Peninsula. heated brain. useful in bronchitis. LOC. useful in loss of appetite. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. useful in inflammations. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. throat troubles. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter.
uterine complaints. yellow within. margins ciliate. upto 25 cm. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. 5-partite. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers.—Nov. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". or twin. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. mucronate. COM. red. HABITAT. C. greenish. male flowers in axillary cymes. Kaduvrindavan. solitary. :—Deccan. Paharmul. K. Asso. heart troubles. Ghorumba. solitary. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Katurasa. which possibly has a cholinergic action. dropsy and cough. Trapusi. Africa and America. Nirbisi. Kanara. LOC. Pavamekke Kayi. burning. :— E. an alkaloid.e. :—In hills. Venivalli. itching . FAM. Fl. axillary racemes . CHAR. Venivel. i. lobes obovateoblong. alleviates vomiting. Indrayan. R. Indraphal. removes pain. G. Velvet-leaf. Sk. removes intestinal worms. Indrayana. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). dysentery. young shoots woolly. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. M. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Makal. cordate at the base. Sk. DISTR.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. t. Tumtikayi. piles. (Ind. leaves.— usually margined. in conjunction with aromatics.5-20 cm. Patha. asthma . The active constituent of the drug. G. PARTS USED :—Root. subglobose.—A climbing shrub. Fl. 5-nerved. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. FL t. NS. Bitter apple. drupe. hairy. peltate. Sd. Fr. F. 7. waxy coated. flesh juicy. orbicular or reniform. diam. FAM. NS. angular . compressed. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. long. monœcious. Colocynth.-Jany. stem thick.. Indruk. H. minute. useful in hemicrania. Uthika. L. :—An extensively climbing annual. sub-globose. Fr. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. 1949). helps parturition. H. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . . warm parts of Asia. E. fever. Chitraphala. smooth. COM. red or yellowish white.8-10 cm. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. greenish outside.. yellowish. diarrhœa.—July-Sept.—Menispermaceæ. M.—Cucurbitaceæ. somewhat hairy. branches more or less pubescent. LOC. Mahendravaruni.—large. Fl. has been isolated. Indrayan. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. also for prolapsus uteri. :—E. Annual Report. female flowers in elongate. diam. CHAR. Pahadvel. tendrils bifid. subcampanulate. 3. skin eruptions.
PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. epilepsy. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. elephantiasis . removes " Vata ". fortifies chest. ascites. throat diseases. :—Konkan. Kirmirtvaka. ulcers. useful in piles. diuretic. useful in biliousness. astringent. W. (Poona. aphrodisiac. bowel complaints. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. cooling. leuco-derma. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. constipation. anæmia. enlargement of spleen. DISTR. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. :—Widely cultivated in India. Gujarat. In the Konkan fruit and root. Root and fruit cooling. dyspepsia. Nagaranga. DISTR. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . jaundice. aphrodisiac . Also indigenous in Arabia. LOC. anthelmintic. K. Deccan. tuberculous glands of neck. COM. Asia. Narange. bronchitis. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). H. Narangi. sweet and has agreeable flavour. removes fatigue .—Rutaceæ. Sunthura. removes biliousness. Sk. fever and worms. Doddile. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. urinary discharges. relieves colds. Naringi. sea-shores. N. LOC. Kittale. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. laxative. Ceylon. cures tumours. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. Naringa. tonic. antipyretic. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. tonic. Fruit—sour. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. enlargement of spleen. constipation. " Kapha". Tvakasugandha. pain in joints. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. M. and lumbago. with or without nux-vomica. NS. anthelmintic . Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. purgative. Sukkare-kanji. Rind— anthelmintic. relieves vomiting and retching. Narenj. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. LOC. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. FAM. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. carminative. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Flower— stimulant. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. chest troubles. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Santra. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. asthma. good in fevers. G. Cardiotonic. :— E. good in vomiting and skin diseases. LOC.
removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Idalimbu. sharp. Balank. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. M. stimulant. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. the pulp cold and dry. Fruit—sweet and sour. intoxication. FAM. its preserve is used for dysentery. tonic and astringent properties. G. Ruchaka. anasarca and chronic fever. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Bijapurna. HABITAT :—Cultivated. anæmia. :—E. . :— E. Sk. bark and fruit. digestible. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Matalunga. Paharinimbu . K. Matunga.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Seeds—indigestible. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Flowers—stimulant. aphrodisiac. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. B and C. increase appetite. Turanj. relieve vomiting. NS. dry and tonic . gastric irritability in general and general debility. PARTS USED. cough.—Rutaceæ. relieves sore-throat. Adam's apple. VAR. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. Lemon . useful in abdominal complaints. According to Theophrastus.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. flatulence. the juice allays ear-ache. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. Bijoru. heating. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. removes colic. COM. G. Madala. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Amlakeshara. cures leprosy. flowers. :—Roots. Citron . Rusaki. astringent to bowels . juice refrigerant and astringent. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. thirst. :—Citron rind is hot. Turanj. Mavalunga. Kutla. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. leaves and flowers hot and dry. jaundice. Bijaura. Devamadala. also corrects foetid breath. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Ghats. Mahaphala. LOC. Limonum. said to be wild in W. seeds. M. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. asthma. Sk. The fruits contain vitamins A. DoddaGaja-nimba. tonic. asthma. USES. Jambira. See—Fruit Trees. Mahaphala. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. H. hiccup. rind of the fruit is bitter. used in constipation and tumours. cough. H. Mahanimbu. K. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. fruits and seeds. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Thora-limbu. oily. LOC. Harale. with a sharp taste. Matulunga. LOC. Mahalunga. Bera nimbu. though there are no regular plantations. Motalimbu .
:—An extensive climber. but often found trailing amongst grass. blades 2-2. Fruit—sour. t. Fl. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Nimbe. Limbe. L.Nov. COM. VAR. Dhantiate. heart.—simple or once ternate. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. burning in the chest.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. bronchitis . Fl. it helps digestion. relieves biliousness. Lebu. CHAR. COM. it cures and prevents scurvy. FAM. Murva. lobes mucronate. sharp taste. stimulant . cures abodominal complaints. Snuva. Morvel. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Shodhana. Acid-Sour lime . Acida. with long feathery tails . K.—in axillary corymbose panicles. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Nimbu. where there is dry skin and much thirst. C. Limpaka. Khatalimbu. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. silky villous. :—G. :—E. LOC. improves liver. constipation. hemicrania. petioles twinning. Sk. measles. also useful in rheumatism. Amlasara. M. throat trouble.—Ranunculaceæ. brain disorders. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Rochana.—petals O.—achenes. Moravel. Nimbuka. Nebu. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Churhar. eyes . both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Devashreni. Nimbu. Madhulika. long ovate or orbicular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. hairy outside. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . sepals 4-6. fatigue . white. relieves vomiting . H. Murhari. vomiting. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. M. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. not good in old age. with flavour. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). plethora. whole plant tomentose. Oil from rind. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. NS. appetiser. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. G. Sk. . loss of appetite. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). scarletina.—Sept. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. K. anthelmintic. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. leaves (rarely). Lebu.5 cm. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Limbu. ovoid.. Kagadi limbu. Morhari. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Morata. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. H. stomachic. See—Fruit Trees. Ranjai. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Fr. NS. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative.
K. Sauri. 30-90 cm. Kanphutia. obliquely striate.—capsule. stomachic. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard.—Sept-June. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. petioles of lower leaves longer. in lax racemes. COM. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. HABIT :—A common weed. :—G. Hulhul. veined. Jangali-harhar. C. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Sk. LOC. cooling. hairy. Talvari. Bharang. K. M. Barbara. reduces tumours and inflammations . used internally in thirst. very common in the Deccan. laxative.—brownish black. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Fl. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. leaflets elliptic-oblong. and fevers. erect. removes " Kapha". CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. Juice— cures ear-ache. stems grooved and glandular. Nayibela. . Karnasphota. subglobose. LOC. tapering towards both ends . Fl. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. yellow. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Bharangi. astringent. Leaves—favour digestion.—3-5 foliate. stimulant. Bharangi. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. Kiritekki. Sk. Phanjika. FAM. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. :—Common in grass lands. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Brahmani. CHAR.—petals 4. diuretic. H. hairy.—axillary. DISTR. hot. LOC. terminal the largest. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Konkan. gradually becoming shorter upwards. t. Ghats. L. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. stimulates secretion of bile. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). mixed with oil. Bharangi. Kanphodi. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. M. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. oblong-obovate. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. Sd. :—G. and dispel intestinal fermentation. Kasaghni. bitter taste and a strong odour. good in malaria. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. transversely striate. COM. Tilparni. externally applied to boils. FAM. Vatari. Tilwan. Gantubarangi.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Plant has penetrating bad smell. :—Annual erect herb. high.—Verbenaceæ. NS. anthelmintic. Harhuria. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). blood diseases.—Capparidaceæ. :—W. H. bitter. causes excessive biliousness. NS. Tinmani. Adityabhakta. useful in leprosy. dryness and urethral discharges. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. laxative. Fr. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. DISTR.
standard bright blue or white. 3. ulcers of the cornea. Ceylon.9-2. There are two varieties :—white flowered.—many. beaked. anthelmintic. 0. LOC.—much exerted. showy. Fr.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). LOC. FAM. fevers. black. long . burning sensation. asthma. Kajli. collectively forming a terminal panicle.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. biliousness. ozœna. L. asthma. obovoid. Gokarnika. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling.—ternately whorled. and blue flowered. useful in bronchitis. sharply serrate. tubercular glands. also found throughout the State. fevers (Yunani). Root is purgative and diuretic. Fr. leaflets 5-7. Koyala. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. Gokarni.-Oct. ulcers (Ayurveda). hairy. C. with an orange centre. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia.7-6. NS. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. M. DISTR. H. Malay Peninsula. Fl. inflammations. diuretic.—pale blue. PARTS USED :—Root.:—More or less throughout India. bronchitis. epilepsy.8-5 cm. pubescent. fleshy. blood diseases. stomachic.2 cm.. 2-2. "Vata". Fl.—axillary. DISTR. leucoderma. Fl. headache.5-15 X 5. HABITAT :—In hedges. lessens expectoration.5 X 2-3. burning sensation. laxative.2 m. elephantiasis. Wowatheti. solitary. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. COM.—imparipinnate. Kowa. tuberculous glands. . The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. good for eye-diseases. the larger lower lobe dark purple.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—A perennial twining herb. Aparajita. 12.. Kalina. anthelmintic. Fl. useful in ascites (Yunani). tube hairy within. Vishnukranta. flat. elliptic oblong. sometimes opposite. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. alexiteric. Root increases appetite. pains. L. Girikarnika.—6-10 yellowish brown. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. Sk. :—G. leaves and seeds. tumours. Sd. t— June-Jany. Aparajita. acrid. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. Girikarniballi. LOC. stems bluntly quadrangular. in lax dichotomous cymes.—Shrub. consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. K. 4 lobes flat. cures "Tridosha".— Aug. leaves and seeds. Garani.3 cm. hiccup. t. lower one deflexed. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. wounds (Ayurveda).. oblong or elliptic. stems terete. CHAR.. spreading. useful in inflammation. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . nearly straight. C.— drupe. smooth. tonic to the brain. heating.
consumption. Gujarat. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". asthma. Leaves—acrid. COCCINIA INDICA W. antipyretic . aphrodisiac. a hormone and an alkaloid. G. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. PROPERTIES AND USES.:—Root cooling. Bimbi. dried and powdered. Tundi. DISTR :—Throughout India. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). stops vomiting. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. H. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Vevati. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Root bark.) FAM. Malaya. M. Sk. COM. Chireta. cause flatulence. Parvel. Galedu. Tondali. wild in hedges. useful in ascites and fevers. Jamtikibel. Faridburti. Bimba. leaves. Oshthi. diseases of blood. Vasandi. allays thirst. Broom-creeper. Bimb. Fruit— indigestible. urinary losses. Vasanvel. & A.—Menispermaceæ. Bimbika. Tana. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Glum. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Tundika. PARTS USED :—Root. Ink-berry. Dirghvalli. biliousness. and jaundice. Konkan. " Vata". See—Vegetables. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Deccan. flowers. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Garudi. HABITAT. NS. Tondeballi. M. LOC. :—G. Kanduri. Vevdi. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. K. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. . Sk. fruit. given for uterine discharges. astringent to bowels. COM. Flowers cure itching. Kambhoja. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. S. LOC.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. H. galactagogue. Ceylon. Ghobe. M. NS. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). The fruit contains vitamins A and C.:—Cultivated in gardens. FAM. Fruit is aphrodisiac. cures leprosy. tropical Africa. Seeds are purgative and aperient. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose).—Cucurbitaceæ. USES:—In the Konkan. The plant contains an enzyme. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. :—Grown everywhere in gardens.—E. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Country. Vasantitikta. K. Hunder. burning of hands and feet.
Toyagarbha. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . indigestible. lessens thirst. fattening. fermented juice. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.8-6.. useful in leprosy. as a cure for gonorrhœa. with a few heads of pepper. tropical Africa. female in axillary clusters. S. thirst. keeled. India. Milk—cooling. NS. Nariyal. Ceylon and throughout the tropics.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. rugose . HABITAT :—In hedges. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts.—dioecious. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. villous . M. "Kapha" and "Vata". Narikel. tuberculosis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. laxative and sudorific. DISTR. S. biliousness. Common in Konkan and N. lessens bile and burning sensation. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. laxative. Tengu. 3-5 nerved. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. tonic. it is heating. India and Ceylon. smells sweetish and pungent. Arabia. L. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). Dried seed (copra) improves taste. fattening. Mad. bronchitis. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". alexipharmic . Leaf-juice. tonic. t. and put on to sore-eyelids. LOC. Naral. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. DISTR. COM.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Fl. ovate-oblong. Antipyretic. oleaginous.8 cm. Nalivar. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). dysentery. In the Konkan. oil. It is also used as a refrigerant.3 X 1. Gujarat. Seed-cooling. aphrodisiac. seed. 2-8 together. China. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. FAM. mixed with water. K. causes "Kapha". tumours.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Tenginmara. Pegu. which is taken internally with sugar. LOC. G. LOC. useful in biliousness. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Fl. size of a small pea. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. Kanara. subdeltoid or subhastate. appetiser. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. ovate. :—E. also in many places in the interior. Deccan. good in fractures. Jataphala. constipation. young parts densely Villous. Narial.—3. laxative.3-3. Konkan.—drupe. Mahaphala. useful in diabetes. bark. enriches blood. aphrodisiac.—Dec. Fr. H. aphrodisiac. cardiotonic. urinary discharges. . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste.—Palmæ. Cocoanut palm. it is used for coughs. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. flowers. Flower-cooling . Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. blood diseases.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Mangalya.
tonic. long. LOC. B and C. enriches blood. t. It is also used for burns. piles and scabies (Yunani. base cordate. bluish grey. polished. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Assam. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Gregarious. polished. it promotes growth of hair. useful in urinary complaints. :—E. spinously serrate margins. G. rooting at the lower nodes. Madhya Bharat. liver complaints. bronchitis. useful in fever.—10-15 x 2. Sk. L.3 cm. Rajputana. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. stem 90-150 cm. DISTR. notched at the nodes . India.5-6. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani).—broadly ovoid to globose.6-10 mm. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A.—Gramineæ COM. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). LOC. abundant in standing water. Dabha. paralysis. 6. Fl. China. M. America. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. See—Fruit Trees. above the bract stout. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Gavedhu. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant.—monœcious racemes 2.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Oils. lessens inflammations . tropical Asia-Africa. :—Himalayas. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Malaya. piles .—Oct. Gojivha.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. ulcers (Ayurveda). Japan. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). consumption. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. high or more. Jargadi. Madhya Pradesh. sheaths long. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. smooth. diuretic. stout. smooth. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Ran-jondhala. Gurlu . promotes hairgrowth. LOC. Fibres. Polynesia. fermented juice is intoxicating. diuretic . internodes smooth. useful in fevers and urinary disorders.5-5 cm. Bengal. Oil—indigestible. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . rachis within the bract slender. Fl. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. long. NS. Fr. incipient phthisis and cachexia.. :—A tall leafy grass. H. it also purifies blood. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. midrib stout. Job's tears. Kasai. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. FAM. fattening. asthma. Oil—sweet. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. CHAR. useful in lumbar-pain. S. It is refreshing and laxative. increases body weight. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn.
:—E. acute or acuminate. lysin. Rayagundo.—7. K. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. wedgeshaped. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Gujarat. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. fever. Sd. not beaked. growing very tall under cultivation. Bhuselu. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . stomachic. H. NS. subglobose. Challa. DISTR. Gondan.2 cm. Mannadike. Hadige. Sk. cultivated in most tropical countries. . :—Konkan. See—Fodder Plants. Fl. and dyspepsia.5-10 X 2-3. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Jute . 5-valved. 12 mm. laxative. Lassora. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. lanceolate. In jutegrowing districts. Bhokar.—petals 4-5. carminative. also as antiperiodic.— capsule. See—Fibres. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. serrate. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Kalasaka. L. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. G. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. Fr. FAM. Bhukerbudara. NS. CHAR. Bargund.—in short cymes.—Tiliaceæ. yellow. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. PROPERTIES AND LOC.— Sept. arginine and coicin. Chaunchan . :—An annual herb. Resalla.—Boraginaceæ. smooth. diam. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin.—few in each cell. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. brown. Col. leaves and fruit. The plant contains leucin. anthelmintic. tyrosin. histidin. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. It is also used as a bitter tonic. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. M. astringent. ridged and muricated. COM. Chhunchh . and intestinal antiseptic. C. G. Sebesten plum. Patta. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. FAM. Fl. LOC. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. t. M. Pistan. :—E. Bhokar. buds obovoid.
Egypt. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. bechic. COM. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Fruit—diuretic. anthelmintic. DISTR. Kustumburi. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. indigestion. Dharika. gleet. used as an expectorant and astringent. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. diuretic. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). highly esteemed in coughs. The plant and fruit— acrid. useful in hiccup. chronic fevers. expectorant. stomatitis. Mesapotamia and Greece. tuberculous glands. stimulant. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). piles. pains in joints. tooth-ache. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). used in dry cough. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. LOC. Hivija. laxative. Allaka.:—E. cures thirst. Syria. Ceylon. removes bad humours. used in syphilis. eye-pains. Satpudas. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. LOC. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. headache. thirst. jaundice. M. Dhania. NS. Cochin-China. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Kothamir. . biliousness. often planted. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. analgesic. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Kothimbir. aphrodisiac. DISTR. maturant. tonic to brain. carminative and antispasmodic. dyspepsia.:—Throughout the State in W. K. diseases of chest. Vitunnaka. Kanara. :—Throughout India. also cultivated. antipyretic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. Fruits are used as spice. Seeds—aphrodisiac. biliousness.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. H. LOC. causes suppuration. gives appetite. inflammations. Konphir. heart and liver. widely known from Palestine. Ghats. G. bronchitis. Fibres. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache.—Umbelliferæ. purgative. burning of throat. Fruit is aromatic. cooling. vomiting. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. diseases of chest and urethra. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Bark. vulnerary. FAM. scabies. bleeding gums. wild and cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Leaves—hypnotic. :—Cultivated throughout India. stomachic. biliousness. anthelmintic. Sk. stimulant. LOC. Coriander. Kothambri. tropical Australia. uterus and urethra. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut.
. NS. lobes ovate-oblong.-Oct. globosely 3-gonous. Keu. C.7 m.— tube short. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. It is also astringent and digestive. Malay Islands.— in very dense spikes. DISTR. K. M. Khandala. Sd. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Varuna. By the earliest writers. Fl. H. nalas. :—G. M. fever. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. :—Almost all over India (Assam. NS. stem sub-woody at the base . useful in catarrhal fevers. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. dyspepsia. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Chikke. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. M.—15-30 X 5.—Aug.—Capparidaceæ. Varvunna. Pakarmula. Kashmira. high. Castle Rock. " Kapha". coughs and skin diseases. S. Mahakapittha. Pushkarmula. Kumaraka.:—Konkan ghats. lumbago. Penva. subsessile.2-2. bright red. COM. and aphrodisiac. Changalkashta. Sk. a tonic is prepared from it. H. also in Sub-Himalayan tract).— black with white aril. Madhya Bharat. hiccup (Ayurveda). PARTS USED:—Root. crisped. Barna. Fr. rheumatism. Country. sheaths coriaceous . Kust. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Sk. S. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. Ajapa. mucronate. Shura. Hadawarna. lip white with yellow centre. inflammations. Bitusi. Vayavarno. Ceylon. and " Vata". concave. red. LOC. Varuna. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. FAM. Nervele. bracts ovate. :—G. See—Condiments and Spices.7-7. in moist and shady places. :—More or less throughout India. China. Var. Vayavarna. L. Karikuttu. subequal. spirally arranged. Pinga. root-stock tuberous. Fl.—capsule. Kemuka. oblong. COM. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. FAM. DISTR. Kushtha. useful in bronchitis. depurative.—Scitamineæ. many. Pushkarmula. silky-pubescent beneath. LOC. t. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Var. :—An erect plant 1. Bilpatri. anæmia. LOC. Varno. CHAR. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. The plant yields an essential oil.5 cm. India. also planted near Muslim tombs. Biliana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. disk with a tuft of hair at the base.
urinary discharges. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). anuria. lobes 6. Patra-pushpi. toothache. Nagdavana. emmenagogue. Visha-Mandalamardini. it promotes appetite. NS. anthelmintic. fragrant at night. Nag-damani. lumbago. as long as the tube. defective vision. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. diam. bark. anthelmintic. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. Chindar. antipyretic. leaves. Nagadown. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. flat.—1 (rarely 2). vesicant. linear lanceolate. The plant contains saponin. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. COM. USES:—Root is alterative. :—Throughout tropical India. Nag-damani. Fl. FAM. then sweet. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State.:—G. laxative. tumours. beaked. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani).5 cm. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Bark promotes appetite. scape 45-90 cm. Kanda-shalini. cylindric. detergent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Ceylon. Seeds—purgative. antilithic.—15-50 in an umbel. gonorrhœa. good in strangury. Kanmu. and seeds. See—Timbers. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. Kanwal. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. vulnerary. "Pitta" and "Kapha". laxative. found wild in North and South Konkan. white. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. act as rubefacient and vesicant.5-18 cm. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . carminative. . :—A herb with tunicated bulb. K.—Amaryllidaceæ. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. thin. laxative.5-10 cm. digestive. L. flowers and fruits. bulb 5-10 cm. chest. Tonic.—subglobose. Sd. stomachic. Vishamungalli. lung and spleen diseases. tuberculous glands. useful in bronchitis. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. useful in biliousness. Wild or cultivated.9-1. removes "Vata". increases secretion of bile. H. Sk. bracts 7. M. Pindar. diseases of vagina. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. HABITAT :—Cultivated. perianth tube greenish-white. also wild. with a sheathing base. linear. Fr. 0. bright green.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). CHAR.. strangury. bitter. expectorant. long. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. urinary concretions.. bechic.—20-30. heating. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. vomiting. DISTR. LOC. expectorant. LOC. X 12. night-blindness. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. leaves. chest and blood diseases.
NS. emetic. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Seeds cause burning sensation. See—Ornamental Plants. insanity. abdominal diseases. Oil cathartic. Burma. carminative. FAM. inflammations. FAM. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. . Sk. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Nepala. Purging croton . :—Bengal. Danti. :—H. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Madhya Pradesh. Chota-Natpur. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. LOC. Sk. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Assam to Malacca. Jayapala. bark. The plant contains lycorin. cathartic. Japala. good in sore eyes. near Junnar (Poona Dist). :—Sylhet. Danti. Seeds contain an alkaloid.—Euphorbiaceæ. Nepala . PARTS USED :—Root. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malay Islands. excessive phlegm. M. Oil from the seed is purgative.—Euphorbiaceæ. DISTR. LOC. Kanara. :—Rare in the State. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Jamalgota . NS. See—Timbers. Nepal. DISTR. Konkan. COM. G. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. etc. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Jepal. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites.. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. expectorant. Bhutankusam. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Ganasur. leaves and seeds. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. K. :—E. in small doses. As an application to sprains. M. China. :—Naturalised in S. H. Ceylon . Ieucoderma. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Burma. Bengal. it is in great request. Chucka . removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). fever. nauseant and diaphoretic. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. convulsions. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Western Peninsula. Jamalgota. useful in mental troubles. Ceylon. tonic. naturalised or cultivated.
Shantanu. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. COM. nutritive and diuretic. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. Kankadi. fruit and seeds. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. cooling. LOC. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Sweet melon . laxative. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. oily. gives headache. Vrittervaru. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. They are edible. convulsions. It is useful in apoplexy. Tarkakadi. FAM. diaphoretic. and lock-jaw. fattening. Melon. insanity.:—E. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. DISTR. in ascites and anasarca. Rind—vulnerary. may cause indigestion. Mutrala. &c. chronic fever. galactagogue. COM. MELO Var. K. allays fatigue. It is given internally with great caution. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root. Karkali. insanity. Lomashi. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation.—Cucurbitaceæ. M. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. cures " Vata ". HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. brain and body. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kalangida. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. LOC. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Kakri. M. used in liver and kidney troubles. Chibdu Shakarteti. synovitis. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. diuretic. LOC. ascites. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Said to be truly wild in India. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. obstinate constipation. ascites. laxative. Seeds—lachrymatory. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. Valungi. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. dropsy. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Kharbuja. DISTR. Kachra. C. :—G. Kakadi. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Mahanaracha Rasa. Ripe fruit—sweet. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. thirst (Yunani). Valaka. cures ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. H. wholesome. Chibuda. . Kharbuja. diuretic. aphrodisiac. :—In Deccan. Shadrekha. strengthens heart. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. Kharbuja. Fruit—tonic. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. colic. Sk. Karkati. NS. Sk. H. biliousness. urinary discharges. bronchitis. Kakni. Pathira . NS. tonic. G. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema.
Takamaki. LOC. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani).—yellow segments elliptic. COM. diuretic. Yunani). margined . male in clusters. melo var. Sk. female peduncle longer than male. seeds. Kothiban. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. See-Fruit Trees. Sd. Khira. cures thirst. Chitravalli. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A.—Cucurbitaceæ. fruits. fatigue. lobulate or dentate . See—Vegetables. utilissimus (Ayurveda. strangury. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. causes "Vata". angled. Fruit—fattening . H. lobes obovate. M. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Khira. antipyretic.—June-Sept. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme.:—N. C. B. NS. COM. DISTR. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. indigestible. are administered in throat affections. LOC. Ripe one tonic. Sudhavsa. allay thirst.—subglobose or ellipsoid. Kumbhakshi. cures biliousness. purgative. Kankdi. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Trapusha. cooling. Sushitala. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. . good for brain and body. rigid. L. biliousness. :—A perennial climber. hairy. used in thirst. t. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb.:—E. Cultivated in all parts of India. "Kapha" and flatulence. LOC. :—G. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. dry. Vishala. Seed oil used in fever. NS. Sk. Seeds possess cooling properties. PARTS USED :—Leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. They are nutritive. tendrils simple. India is considered to be the original home. they are also used as diuretic. fever. CHAR. Kakari. improve complexion. FAM. Kakdi.—Cucurbitaceæ. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. G. K. and C.— suborbicular. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). Hislambhi. roasted and powdered. cordate at the base. Seeds—diuretic. Tansali. Fl. Fl. Tavasa. stem slender.—white. enrich blood. Karit. FAM. Mrigadani. H. astringent.—monœcious . pulp bitter. Santekayi. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Cucumber. Fr. pale yellow when ripe.
G. Karkarn. USES. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. etc.—Cucurbitaceæ. Ceylon. Seeds are used as taeniacide. LOC. FAM . H. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Dangari. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic.:—Considered to be a native of America. M. HABITAT. Punyalata. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. allays thirst. improves taste (Ayurveda). Dudia. COM. Kumra. Kadimah. Safedkaddu . K. In Malabar. fruits and seeds. Kashiphala.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Red squash gourd. indigestible. M. Pumpkin. :—Cultivated. H. Fruit contains vitamins A. DISTR. . to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Mithakaddu. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. :—E. Dried fruit indigestible . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bhopala. Sk. See—Vegetables. fruit is used to prevent insanity. stomachic. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. N. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative.—Cucurbitaceæ. Afghanistan. cures cough. LOC. The plant contains glucoside saponin. LOC. : — E.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. Iran. Sk. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. carbuncles. Kumbala. K. Koron. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. tonic. Malaya. G. NS. unhealthy ulcers. FAM. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Kushmand. increases " Vata ".:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. Tambda bhopala. Melon pumpkin. Kumbala. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Kaddu. LOC. cultivated in many parts of India. Australia. increases " Vata" . astringent to bowels . cures " Kapha " and biliousness . PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Vegetable marrow. NS. Pitakushmand. Kushmand. on hedges. B and C. DISTR. DISTR.
Cumin. thirst. Leaves—digestible. Sk. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. Girautmi. stomachic. belching . :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. stops epistaxis . In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. See—Condiments and Spices. Fruit—very cooling. leprosy. uterine stimulant. anthelmintic. astringent to bowels. increases appetite . They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe.—Umbelliferæ. antidysenteric. cure haemoptysis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—G. K. bronchitis. fruit and seeds. LOC. Kalimusali. ft contains vitamins A and C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. antipyretic. FAM. abortifacient. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Musali. fever. enlargment of the spleen. cures haemoptysis. Jiru. NS. haematinic. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Kalimusali. alexipharmic. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Jira. carminative. See—Vegetables. H. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. throat and eyes. scabies. Kapha " and " Vata ". asthma. also a lactagogue. Jire. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. tonic to intestine. purifies blood (Ayurveda). allays thirst. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). :—E. analgesic. Sk. tonic. aphrodisiac. sweet. cures leprosy. emmenagogue. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. astringent. gonorrhœa. H. LOC. remove biliousness. Mushalikand . M. M. Neltati gadde. astringent to bowels. Dipaka. tonic. Kalimusali. diuretic and demulcent. Neladati. Jirige. FAM. Seeds are taeniacide. Cures " Vata " tumours.—Amaryllidaceæ. NS. leucoderma. eye-diseases. fattening. Gaurajerka. appetiser. K. cooling. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. and the root for making these more potent. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Seeds—diuretic. COM. laxative. LOC. Talamulika. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. ulcers. Fruit yields an essential oil. vulnerary. Dirghaka. Seeds anthelmintic. COM. heals corneal opacities. carminative. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). relieves hiccup. Fruit astringent. . :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. inflammations. carminative. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. fatigue. fever. beneficial in consumption. good for teeth. biliousness. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. G. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. Ajjika. Zira.
Peninsula. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. useful in piles.:—W. gleet.5 cm. cylindric or ellipsoid. antipyretic. alterative and tonic. useful in inflammations. lumbago. LOC. sessile. scape. Fl. Bitter. Root—carminative. yellow.:—Sweet. maturant. ulcers on penis. :—Konkan and Gujarat.8-5 cm. fattening. appetiser. Amragandha. tubers thick.— in autumnal spikes 7. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. piles. causes "Vata".5-12. PROPERTIES AND USES. L. Fl. Assam. Kapurahaldi.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. aphrodisiac. asthma.—capsule. black. . tips sometimes rooting. appetiser. flowering bract greenish-white. M. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. useful in biliousness. linear or linear-lanceolate .— in racemes. jaundice. ophthalmia. gonorrhœa. G. Kanara. expectorant. troubles in the mouth and ear. :—Konkan and N. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. gonorrhœa. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. gleet.—Scitamineæ. inflammations (Ayurveda). pale yellow inside . :—Stemless herb. oblong lanceolate. Malay Archipelago. stomatitis (Yunani). :—A small herb. bronchitis. :—Bengal. COM. Peninsula.-Sept. vomiting. very short. Sd. LOC. Karpuraharidra. hiccup. perianth segments elliptic. NS. DISTR. 1545 X 1. shining .5 cm.— May-June. distichous. antipyretic. lumbago. Amhaladi. Fr. colic. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. C—white or very pale-yellow. :—E. emollient. cooling.5-15 X 3. root stock large. W. rhizome. scabies. " Vata". CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Ambehalad. hairy on the back. with a beak . H. all skin-diseases. debility and impotence. t. during convalescence after acute illness. diuretic. tonic. Ambahaldi. alexiteric. common at the beginning of rains. blood-diseases (Ayurveda).—long petioled in tufts. 30-45x7. Java. LOC.—grooved. alterative. L. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. diarrhœa.—sessile or petiolate. oblong. oblong. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . antipyretic. hydrophobia. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. biliousness. fatigue. aphrodisiac. Bengal. useful in bronchitis. Fl.. appetising. Mango-ginger. Ambahaladara. aphrodisiac. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. pains in joints (Yunani). Fl. indigestion. DISTR. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. K.3-2. often cultivated. laxative. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . bitter. t. diarrhœa. CHAR. clavate .
Turmeric. It is considered tonic and carminative. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. Varnadatri. also stomachic. palmately branched. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Cochin-Wild turmeric. G. :—E. FAM. Bengal. Halad. it is seldom used alone . base deltoid. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Halad. lateral lobes oblong. Vanhaldara. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. annulate. pale green. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Indian saffron. K. DISTR. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. root-stock large.. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. CHAR. :—Western Peninsula. C. Mangalya. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. Banharidra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Arishina. forming pouches for the flowers. G. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. lip yellow. used as an application for skin-diseases. Also cultivated in Konkan. Sk. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. DISTR. NS. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . FAM. Sholika. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. t. Fl. flowers fragrant. :—E.—Scitamineæ. in spikes 15-30 cm. upper half funnel-shaped. L. the dorsal longer.—Scitamineæ. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. LOC. :—Stemless herb.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. LOC. Jayanti.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Banhaladi. Harita. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. long. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. H. appetiser . H. COM. See—Condiments and Spices. Kapur-kachali.— flowering stem sheathed. long. variegated above. Ran-halad. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. NS. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. COM.—tube 2.-May. M. Haridra.5 cm. M. sessile. Vanarishta. Fl. Sholi. Yellow Zedoary. sometimes cultivated. Sometimes cultivated. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. 3lobed. LOC. flowering bracts cymbiform. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). green. appearing before leafing stem. Aranyaharidra. rounded at the tips. Halada. lobes pale-rose. biennial. Sk. . PARTS USED :—Tubers.
Karechura.—capsule. Fr. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. . useful in leucoderma. flowers yellow in spikes. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. clothed with sheaths. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. said to be Wild in E. coma-bract crimson or purple . and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. used in prurigo.—4-6 with long petioles. appetiser. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. heating. improves complexion. leucoderma. Kachora. long.:—E. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. vulnerary.— flowering stem 20-25cm. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . L. blood diseases. useful in " Kapha". It contains vitamin A. destroys foulness of breath. Hakhir. FAM . K. G. fragrant. 30-60 cm. NS. externally applied to leech-bites. root-stock of palmately branched. Kachari. and yields an essential oil. bruises. Shathi. an alkaloid. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. deepyellow. carminative. alexiteric. jaundice. Bitter. Sk. Tuber is used as a stimulant. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. Jatala. In coryza.—funnel shaped. LOC. oblong-lanceolate. Gandhamulaka sara. Himalayas and Chittagong. annulate tubers. vulnerary. lip 3-lobed. swellings. tonic. scabies. long. fumes are used during hysteric fits . antipyretic. small-pox. laxative. boils and urticaria. Kachuri. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. :—Stemless herb. The plant contains curcumin. diuretic. "Vata ". urinary discharges. flowering bract green tinged with red . C. inflammations. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. lobed . Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. maturant. asthma. clouded with purple down the middle. Kachora. anthelmintic. internally administered in blood disorders. :—Cultivated in the State. H. COM. LOC. bitter.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. M. alexiteric. bronchitis. piles. Fl. oblong. CHAR. boils. pale-yellow inside. taste bitterish spicy. HABITAT :—Cultivated. urinary discharges. heating. scabies. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. appearing before the leaves. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. cylindric. odour like camphor. anthelmintic. bitter. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. See—Condiments and Spices. good for liver affections. DISTR. Narakachora. bruises (Yunani). bruises. itches etc. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . sprains (Ayurveda). In small-pox and chicken-pox. 3-gonous. emollient.—Scitamineæ. Zedoary.
CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. also used as a tonic and depurative. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. NS. anthelmintic. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. good odour. aphrodisiac. glaucous green. Sk. It is also aromatic. toothache (Yunani). neuralgia. Lemon grass. sheaths terete . PARTS USED :—Leaves.:—E. emetic. . Takratrina. :—A tall perennial. Gandhatrina. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. FAM. epileptic fits. long. furunculosis. K. sheaths of the culm tight. Bitter. Tubers yield an essential oil. velvety at the nodes. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. alexipharmic. erect. emmenagogue. laxative. probably of Indian origin. M. enlargement of spleen. up to over 1. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. pains. expectorant. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda).—Gramineæ. It is an excellent stomachic to children. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. Putigandha. carminative. sharp hot taste. Gavati-chaha. L. culm stout. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. Externally it is rubefacient. Lilicha. sharp. gastric irritability. useful in griping of children. G. others narrow and separating. applied to bruises and sprains.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. COM. midrib whitish on the upper side.. inflammations. bitter. of much use in typhoid fevers. and is of great value in cholera. Purhati hullu. tonic to brain and heart. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. stimulant and carminative. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. LOC. LOC. Bhustrina. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. chronic rheumatism.—linear tapering upwards to a point. sprains. hot. it is also a good application for ringworm. CHAR. long. and other painful affections. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). leprosy. Ligule very short. tuberculous glands of neck. H. high. useful in bronchitis. carminative. it is stimulant. laxative. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth.8 m.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. LOC. appetiser. Majjige hullu. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. nodding. alexipharmic. upto over 90 cm. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago.
Durva. Vasanchullu. Harali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. with erect flowering branches 7. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). Durva. thirst. NS.5-5 cm.t. narrowly linear. leprosy. Sind. fatigue. K. Konkan. upto 2. Country. LOC. Bahuvirya. Geramium grass. subcordate or rounded at the base. useful in biliousness. 1 mm. bad taste in the mouth. particularly the Deccan trap areas. Ghats. sweet. :—E. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Burma. Mirchiagand. prostrate . CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. G. 1. X 1 cm. S. pungent. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. M. t. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. L. NS. H.3 cm. soft. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. G. carminative. LOC. and Ceylon ascending to 3. finely acute. widely creeping. useful in fevers. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. Fl. Shatamula. Durba. CHAR. vomiting.4 m. H. scabies. sheaths tight. Fl. M. FAM. in the Himalayas.—Gramineæ. :—Punjab.—Gramineæ. heart diseases. straw coloured. leprosy. K.5-2.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. most warm countries. Sk. epileptic fits. Shyamaka. wide below. 12-18 mm. Rohisha. high. bitter.—grain. FAM. :—A perennial grass . slender.000 m. Baluchistan. throughout India. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. bronchitis. stem. Garikehallu. Gujarat. LOC. :—Sourashtra.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. See-Oils. Afghanistan. Gharo. long. Dhro. Rohisha. high. usually broad.—Oct. skin . those below the inflorescence 23 cm. DISTR. oblique or divaricate. margins scabrid. Fl. Dhoboghas. leafy. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. Bujina. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. forming matted tufts. Africa to Morocco.. cooling. COM. throat troubles. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge.—2-10 cm.—spikes 2-nate. burning sensation. Saugandhika.:—Grows all over the State. W.-Nov. long. DISTR. smooth. green or purplish. Fl. Roshagavat. Bhutika. COM. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. hallucinations.5-30 cm. Kobbar. pains.—flat. Fr. stem. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. glaucous beneath. Roshdo. through N. Rhusghas. CHAR. :—Cosmopolitan . Shatagranthi. long. :—E.—throughout the year. long. Deccan. L. Mangala.
K. :—G. burning sensation. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. epistaxis. Mustaka. COM. PARTS USED :—Tubers. pruritis. anthelmintic. Root— diuretic. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . appetiser. ophthalmia. t. emmenagogue. trigonous. M. See—Fodder Plants. pain. Motha. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. erysipelas (Ayurveda). dysentery. erysipelas. Granthi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. vulnerary. dyspepsia. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. H. juice is used in hysteria.. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. epistaxis (Ayurveda). vulnerary. . epilepsy. bruises. stolons elongate. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. Sk Bhadramusta. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. most hot countries. Ceylon. Mutha. vomiting. spikelets 10-50 flowered.—Sept-Nov. blood diseases. DISTR. biliousness. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. NS. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. L. diaphoretic. stomatitis. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. fevers. useful in vomiting. :—Throughout India. Tubers yield an essential oil. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. useful in leprosy. useful for ulcers and sores. 0. FAM. Kachhola. LOC. They are also diuretic and stimulant. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. urinary concretions (Yunani). LOC. Nagarmotha. astringent.—Cyperaceæ. Nut—broadly ovoid. Koranarigadde. Fl. fever. In Ceylon. hiccup (Yunani). narrowly linear. Bimbal. Motha. cooling.82. expectorant. dysentery.. :—Glabrous herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. greyish black. Tungegaddo. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. stomachic. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Fl. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. anthelmintic.—shorter or longer than the stem. thirst. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. Motha. fever. USES :—Roots are commonly. CHAR. very troublesome weed. epilepsy and insanity. difficult to eradicate. blood diseases. it is diuretic. diarrhœa. biliousness. Bitterish. diarrhœa. acrid.— in simple or compound umbel. Sugandhi-granthila. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles.5 cm. LOC.
nodding. stem hairy. beak long.—Solanaceæ. Kanaka. tubular. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 18 cm.2-7. Sk. G. e. COM. covered with straight sharp prickles. :—A perennial twining herb. ciliate. COM. Fl. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals.—7. Kanaka. soft spiny. LOC. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. somewhat zigzag. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. packed.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. Bhranta. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. very unequal at the base. S. Unmatta. 30-60 cm.. . glabrous above. Administered after the third stage of labour. Utran. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. Ceylon. diam. Rajdhattura. long 10-20. a glucoside. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. K: Dhattura. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. t. Fl. across. t. on curved stalk 3. corona outer and inner.—Sept-Dec. Sd. Gujarat. reflexed. Black-Purple datura. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding).—Asclepiadaceæ. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. acute. spur acute. DISTR. LOC. Fl. Fl.—purple outside.—Aug. funnel-shapped. :—H. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. usually pubescent.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. long. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . ovate. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Kariyu-Um-Matta.— tubular. :—Annual shrub. paralytic ileus.5-15 X 3. Kaladhatura.—capsule. Country. M.5 cm. CHAR. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. double. H. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". Phalakantak. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn.5 cm. lobes spreading. Utarni.—follicle. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. FAM. Sk. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Ns.—thin. green.g. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. high. :—Deccan. NS. C.2 cm. CHAR. M.-Jany. subglobose. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. Kaladhatura. solitary. velvety pubescent beneath. L. white inside. greenish-yellow or dull-white. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. Fr. Kala-dhotara. M. Fr.:—E. FAM. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. afterwards racemose. inner curved high over the staminal column. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. yellowish brown. Sd. divaricately branched. HABIT :—A common weed. and sub-involution of the uterus.—many. entire or with large teeth or lobes. outer truncate.
It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. jaundice. majum. Gajar. LOC. Leaf poultice. bronchitis. useful in leucoderma. piles. anodyne. The whole plant is narcotic. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. USES :—Out of the two varieties. PARTS USED :—Root. Gajjari. Seeds—narcotic. Europe. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. in gonorrhœa. ganja. Garjara. HABITAT :—Cultivated. heating. anthelmintic. ulcers. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. bitter. leaves and seeds. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. toddy. Root—useful in reducing inflammation.. digestive and heating. febrifuge. with curdled milk. toxic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. Leaf-juice is given internally. aphrodisiac. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. GranthiPinda-Mula. skin-diseases. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. The plant as a whole has narcotic. biliousness. Gajar. :—E. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. febrifuge. nosetrouble. emetic. relieves pain. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. alexiteric. FAM. tonic. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. equal in effect to atropine. emetic. painful tumours. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. cause headache (Yunani). :—Throughout the tropics. anthelminitic . (Ayurveda). NS. K. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. in combination with subja. H. Carrot. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. and antispasmodic properties. black variety is considered to be more powerful. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Roots. Gajra. nodes. mumps etc. black (Kala) and white (Safed). See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. to increase their stupefying effect. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. LOC. . Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Cultivated in many parts of India. enlargement of testicles and boils. Shikkikanda. M. Sk. chronic coughs. Gajar. leaves and seeds.—Umbelliferæ COM. G.
biliousness. Kitavinashini. Dirghamula. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . hooked hairy. 0. thirst. M. China. lessens griping and spleen inflammation.6-1. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. LOC. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. bronchitis. K. tonic. Deccan and S. LOC. sub-falcate. alexipharmic. It is used in fevers.—pod. paler and hairy beneath. L.—onefoliate. cardiotonic. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. ovate-oblong. good for inflammation. margins wavy. chronic affections of chest and lungs. hairy. hiccup. :—A woody undershrub. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Roots contain vitamins A. removes " Kapha". useful in chronic fevers. Malay Peninsula and Islands . DISTR. Salwan. Salwan. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. biliousness. Fr. LOC. astringent to bowels. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. COM. upper edge straight. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. chest troubles. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. :—Konkan and N. vomiting and asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Country. CHAR. piles. green and glabrous above. FAM. pains. Kanara . Ranbhal. Salparni. membranous. indigestible. :— G. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). good for liver. aphrodisiac. B and C. Fl. urinary discharges. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. See—Vegetables. C—violet or white. vomiting. " Vata". corrects foul breath (Ayurveda).—in terminal or axillary racemes. antidysenteric. Fl. Philippines. burning sensation. cough. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. cures biliousness. high. inflammations. stems and branches angled.—May-July.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. expectorant. anthelmintic. . used in bronchitis. Tonic. throughout India. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. boiled with honey and fermented. alterative. Burma. astringent to bowels. joints 6-8. diuretic. stomachic. prevents death of fœtus in womb . cures typhoid.2 m. Shaliparni. tropical Africa. USES :—Externally. Darh. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. dysentery . fattening. carminative. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. vomiting.. " Tridosha ". NS. Root marmalade is refrigerant. thirst. Salpani. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. asthma. Murele-honne.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). asthma. other fevers. cures leprosy. Salpan. tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. piles. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. they are also diuretic. M. standard cuneate at the base . H. urinary complaints. they produce a spirituous liquor. aphrodisiac. Salwan. Ceylon. Vidarigandha. t. Sk. nausea (Yunani).
. DISTR.. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. -panicle 15-45 X 1. Sk.—Ebenaceæ.—many. cooling. covered with shining sheaths. stolon very stout.) FAM. clothed with sessile spikelets. COM. Sphurjaka. branches short crowded. Timbwini. oleaginous. Kanara and the Konkan. stems 30-90 cm. vomiting. jaundice. strangury. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. diseases of blood. thirst. NS. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. Darbha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Wild mangosteen. PARTS USED :—Wood. good for lumbago. Egypt. heating. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. smooth. Davoli. vesical calculi. H.—Gramineæ. See—Fodder Plants. Sacred Plants. sheaths glabrous. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Kusha.3-3. branched from the base. diuretic. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Tendu. astringent to bowels. FAM. H. aphrodisiac. Gavandu.—G. Zeeberwo. G. Tumari. rigid. DISTR. Anilsara. stout. vaginal discharges.:—Saurashtra. cures ulcers and " Vata". margins hispid. :—Perennial tall grass. flowers.—Dec. tufted. LOC. skin eruptions. ligule a hairy line . diseases of bladder. CHAR. LOC. sedative to pregnant uterus. Nubia. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). useful in blood diseases. Malay Archipelago. COM. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.8 cm. in the beds of rivers and streams. long. fruit and seeds. K. Fruit—oleaginous. the basal fascicled. biliousness. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). creeping. rootstock stout. M. Konkan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Kalatendu. Fl. Gujarat. Riber ebony. Darbha. Kalaskandh. asthma. erect pyramidal or columnar. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Tinduka. L. M. Durva. Dabha. Ceylon. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Banda. Dab. Syria. reaching 50 cm. high. :—E. :—Throughout India. Makurkendi. LOC. bark. Wood cures biliousness. Thailand (Siam). used in biliousness and blood diseases. NS. erect. t. :—Along the coasts of N. Temburni. Pavitra. Tumaki Mara. interrupted. Gale. Sk. Fl.
Bark is used for intermittent fevers. heart-troubles. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. stout. Ashvakatri. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. NS. strangury. anthelmintic. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. intestinal colic. enlargement of spleen. Kulith. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Kulthi. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). Kulitha. Tans. FAM. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. acrid. :—M. Sk. LOC. Grains contain vitamin A. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. :—E. pain in liver. Basingh. M. piles. Sitetara. Konkan— Ratnagiri. Horse-Gram. ovate. liver troubles. Jurali. :—Tropics of the old world.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Kalvrinta. G. densely clothed with red-brown scales. short. diseases of the brain and eyes. ozoena. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. :—Rhizome creeping. abdominal complaints. emmenagogue. "Vata". asthma. Kulit. Nasik. coughs etc. base decurrent on the stipe. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. causes biliousness (Yunani). K. Sk. NS. COM. improves complexion. fertile ones long stalked. Diuretic. Texture membranaceous to leathery. FAM. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. COM. dry. astringent to bowels. See-Food Plants. Kulthi. LOC. fattening. HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is demulcent in calculus affection. Bijapur and Dharwar. leucoderma. cures " Kapha". hot. Surfaces naked.—Polypodiaceæ. Kulathi. Hurali.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). hiccup. antipyretic. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. inflammation. tumours. generally on trees and rocks. piles. removes stone from kidney. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Country—Belgaum. . It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. CHAR. cordate.Gahat. M. Sori two in each primary areole. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Wandar bashing. eye troubles. bronchitis. appetiser. variously lobed. grown to a certain extent in S. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. urinary discharges. Kulithaka. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. cures hiccup. H. DISTR.
surrounded by strong white bristles. cottony pubescent. CHAR. Mochand. LOC. Shulio. spiny. CHAR. DISTR. gleet. involucre. Root— abortifacient.—Compositæ. :—Konkan. pain in joints. stimulates liver. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Kadechubak. :—G. oblong. Sk. densely villous. COM. Garagadasoppu. Utkanta. DISTR. Fl. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. L. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). subentire. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. :—Kanara. It is used in hoarse cough.—Compositæ. antipyretic. COM. Maka. long. useful in brain-diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. increases appetite. biliousness.—heads white. Pitripriya. H. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Sunilaka. analgesic. :—More or less throughout India. causes " Kapha". sessile. bracts 3seriate. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. NS. high. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Utakatara. urinary discharges.—achene obconic. Utkatara. improves taste. Bhringraj. also cultivated to a certain extent. Kalobhangro . S. . Deccan. Dadhal. Sk. Kantalu. globose.3—0. Keshrangana. the lobes triangular and oblong. Utanti. Bhangra. K. cottony. :—A much branched rigid annual. branches widely spreading from the base. usually oblong-lanceolate. Plant stomachic. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. sinuate and spinescent. H. Bhangro. hot. dyspepsia.:—Throughout India. inflammations. Fr. Utkantaka. yellowish. M. LOC.—limb linear. Country. thirst. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Afghanistan. Seeds—wholesome. NS.5 cm. Kantaphala. tonic. M. strigose and hairy. 0. Balari. LOC.9 m. pappus short. cooling. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. glabrous above. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. Kadigga-garaga. " Vata". FAM. stems and branches strigose and hairy. bitter. used in ophthalmia. wooly beneath. chronic fever.-Jany.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. :—G. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. often rooting at the nodes. Ajagara. hysteria. hectic fever. Bhangra. t. FAM. spines 2. Markara. Utkanto.— opposite. used in strangury. deeply pinnatifid. dyspepsia and cough. L. Konkan.—sessile. M. astringent to bowels . Fl. diseases of heart.— Nov.
ray flowers ligulate. hot. See—Sacred Plants.:—India (Bengal. internal diseases. M. axillary.. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. cures vertigo (Yunani). and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Veldoda. Bahula. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Ilaji. It is given internally in scalding of urine. :—E. Burma. . There are two forms erect and prostrate. hemi-crania. antipyretic. expectorant. good for spleen diseases. and for strengthening gums. Sk. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. anthelmintic. :—Western valleys of N. Gourangi. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. alexipharmic.-Dec. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Malaya.—achene. syphilis. good for complexion.—Scitaminaceæ. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). It relieves headache when applied with oil. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. hernia. disk ones tubular . C—often 4-toothed . Bitter . Chandrabala. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . improves colour of hair. bronchitis. it is powdered and applied externally. Ceylon. H. Kanara (Siddapur. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. LOC. W. FAM. liver pain. eyes. lustre of eyes. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). cuneate with a narrow wing. alterative. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers.—in heads. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Fl. anæmia. teeth. Fr. "Vata". COM. asthma. Elachi. heart and skin diseases. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. involucral bracts about 8 . Yalakki. Choti-Elachi. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). toothache. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. Peninsula). fevers. a reputed and popular liver tonic. Velchi. fattening. eye diseases. Sind. solitary or 2 together. stomachic. K. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. cures inflammations. LOC. pappus 0. "Kapha". leucoderma. Karangi. t. G. hair. stomatitis. cultivated. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. Madhya Bharat. Panjab. tonic. DISTR.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl.— Oct. prevents abortion and miscarriage. Ela. Triputa. NS. Gandhkuti. night blindness.
DISTR. Nachani. M. chest and throat (Yunani). In S. Makra. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. root is laxative and tonic. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. Sk. PARTS USED :—Grain. tonic. :— G. Boberang. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. cooling. COM. ear and tooth ache. diseases of bladder.—Myrsinaceæ. fragrant. cause biliousness . EMBELIA RIBES Burm.:—Western and S. Vavoding. FAM. Vavading. lessens inflammation. K. Seed—fragrant. Bavato. abortifacient. LOC. NS. Rotka. kidney. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. FAM. Jantughna. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. Wavrung. Ragi. bitter. Navalo-nagali. scabies. Vayuvitang. pungent. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Sk. rich or poor. PARTS USED :—Root. Bidanga. fruit is tonic. causes thirst. India. laxative. stomachic. useful in biliousness. Vidariga. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). See-Food Plants. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. stimulant and emmenagogue. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. H. NS. diuretic. K. Kanisha. strangury. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. fruit and seeds. LOC.:—G. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. piles. M. H. alexiteric . cultivated. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. Rajika. . Grains contain vitamin B. Varding. pruritus.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. tonic to heart. diuretic. CUM. useful in asthma. LOC. brain and mouth. bad humours of liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. stomachic. Narttaka. See—Condiments and Spices. It is said to be astringent. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). It is stomachic. cooling. Pavaka.. Marua. Nagali. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. useful in head. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. bronchitis. Bhasmaka. consumption. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat.—Gramineæ. carminative. most suitable to hard-working classes. clear head.
poisoning. flowers. tonic. LOC. Deccan. internodes long. flexible. laxative. DISTR. :—A large scandent shrub. fruit and seeds. Kanara. useful in asthma. Triphala. elliptic-lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Ceylon. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Konkan and N. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). coriaceous. carminative. dries wound discharges . China. Int. dyspnoea. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Anward. Avala. S. Ambala. vulnerary. laxative. Amalaka. Bitter. Malaya. black when ripe. alexiteric. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. antipyretic. cures tumours. alterative. with a sharp bitter taste. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . many. t.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. cures bronchitis .—Feb. Fl. jaundice. leaves. Fl. greenish yellow. bronchitis. urinary discharges. aphrodisiac. constipation. analgesic. good appetiser. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). DISTR. Bhoza . often planted in Konkan. shining above. Dhatri. Arch. COM. Pharm. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. . purgative. :—Throughout India. S. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Paranjpe and G. Gokhale. L. Ceylon. nearly globose. anæmia. Amla.) FAM. urinary discharges. ascites. succulent. H. NS. diseases of heart. K. Anola. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. dry. :—Hilly parts of the State. strangury. LOC. sweats. G. (Dymock). It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. wild or planted. like a pepper corn when dried. slender. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). mental diseases. alexiteric. Adiphala. vomiting. hemicrania. thirst. Amlika. inflammations. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. racemes minute. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. useful in burning sensation.—Euphorbiaceæ. erysipelas. PARTS USED :—Root. bark. good for plethoric constitution. Western Ghats.—berry.—alternate. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. :— E. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. alterative. et. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. LOC. Dadi. Seed— acrid. piles. carminative. sour. " Tridosha ". anuria. HABITAT :—Rain forests. Ther. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. bronchitis. paler and silvery beneath. Sk. Embelic myrobalan. China. Dhatriphala. 42-II-1932). Daula . cooling. reddens urine. K. anthelminitic.—in lax panicles. M. bark studded with lenticels . EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. smooth. Malay Islands. Fr. Amlika. biliousness. branches long. anthelmintic . Nellika . leprosy. " Kapha'.
Celyon. Tiktapatra. Giant's rattle. . eye troubles. Fr. CHAR. K. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). cooling. Lady nut. Nahu. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. purifies body humours (Yunani). cold in the nose.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. rounded apex.—Aug. Tans. Madvinashi.— capsule. Dried fruits. :—G. See—Timbers. opposite. mid-nerve strong. improves appetite. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. L. R. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. narrowed at the base. Hallekayiballi. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". sub-quadrangular or terete. lobes 5. Saurashtra. LOC. white.) FAM. anthelmintic. S. 10—50 cm. astringent. stops nasal hæmorrhage. tonic. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Mabhipaka. vulnerary. Fl. Garbe.—sessile. COM.—Gentianaceæ. West Indies. Mamejavo . useful in heart-diseases. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. stems erect or procumbent. M.—sessile. Unripe fruit is cooling. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Country. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Tanavadi. :—A perennial glabrous herb. C—infundibuliform. aperient. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. DISTR. Sind. Sk. branched from the base. high. Malaya. expectorant. M. ellipsoid. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Dyes. variable. liver complaints.-Nov. Fl. Nagajivha. Garambi. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. t. LOC. biliousness. sour. LOC. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. thirst. FAM. :—Throughout the greater part of India. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. diuretic and laxative. USES :—Root. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. NS. H. Chhotakirayat. :—Konkan. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Gujarat. Fruit—acrid. piles. bark and fruit are astringent. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Doddakampi. Grey). Kadvinayi. Fruit Trees.). used as laxative and astringent. M. Ind. COM. 3-nerved. tropical Africa. NS. Mackary bean. :—E.
) FAM. Var. stalked. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. glabrous.. Mandara. stomachic. Sd. COM. branches terete. Peninsula. Halivan. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. PARTS USED :—Root. Paribhadra.—yellow. bark used in dysentery. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kanara. Mochi-wood. along sea-coast above high-water. dark green. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Pegu. L. Arakan. Indian coral-tree. long.3-2 cm. Fr.7-5x7.—6-15. USES :—Powdered kernel. K.—2pinnate. H. wide and 3-8 cm. Andamans and Nicobar. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. :—Coast forests of Malabar. slightly curved. hot. Raktapushpa. rigidly coriaceous. cure urinary discharges. leaves. Sk. DISTR. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Panderavo. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. Fl. woody. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. Tennaserim. W. diam. DISTR. Kantakinshuka. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Fl. Mandara. Salaki. :—E. compressed. C.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.— Mar. 3. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. they are given internally as an emetic. Panarvo. t. G. oblong or obovate. mixed with spices. Phandra .. PROPERTIES AND LOC. thick. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. Panjira. improve appetite. Planted as ornament.—pod. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.5-5-7 cm. the tropics generally.5-10 cm. LOC. N. orbicular. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Leaves—bitter. :—Konkan and N. 4. long. Mullumurige.. bark. The plant is used as a fish-poison. anthelmintic. LOC. for grapevines in Nasik district.S. often along river banks. 30-90 cm. Sundribans. pinnae 2—3 pairs. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Hongara.-May. Bangaro. flowers. Dadap. indented between the seeds. Planted as support for pepper vines. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. shining and brown.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Pangara. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Pangara. leaflets 7-5 x 2. . The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. smooth. in debility and glandular swellings . inflammations. ORIENTALIS Merr. Ceylon. Nepal.
—Euphorbiaceæ. Sahud. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Bahukshira. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Dudhi. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Dudhi. Nevli. Sendh. Pusitoa. Nagpur 1931). most tropical and sub-tropical countries. M. COM. gland minute. it is anthelmintic. with or without a limb. L.—ovoid-trigonous. high. pale beneath.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. and to relieve pain of the joints. Ceylon. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. Sd. Dudhi. dark green above. appressedly hairy. Milk hedge. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Indian tree spurge. H. LOC. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Dandasruha. Vajradruma. globose. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Sher.) FAM. . Australian asthma herb. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. :— E. CHAR. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. :—E. K. :—Annual herb. The plant contains an alkaloid. NS. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. bowel complaints and cough in children. reddish brown. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Milk bush. Plant is chiefly used for worms. FL. Sk. COM. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache.—capsule. G. Dudanali.—opposite. Kodukalli. Achchegida. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores.—Euphorbiaceæ. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. 18th Ind. Duddi. NS. G. base unequal-sided. 15-50 cm. FAM. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Sc. —throughout the year. H. erect or ascending. Pill-bearing spurge. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Cong. Fl. Paradeshi thora . Dandalio thora. Fr. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. K. Sk. t. M.—involucres numerous. branches often 4-angled. rugose. Mondukalli. Govardhan. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Shirthahar. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Bottugalli. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. serrulate or dentate.
Juice is purgative. useful in biliousness. :—A small tree. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. stems many.— capsule. :—Sind. LOC. pungent. linear. Vishnukranta. useful in gonorrhœa. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. high. Konkan and Gujarat. terete.—capsule. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. thin. epilepsy. Kalisankhavali. asthma. t. t. about 6 m. silky hairy. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. mostly female. carminative. NS. anthelmintic. L.-July-Nov. also as an alterative. CHAR. Sd— glabrous. dropsy. solitary or sometimes 2.—many. leprosy and leucorrhoea. H. naturalised in India. Jhinkiphudardi. Fr. Fl. elliptic-oblong. branchlets whorled. stone in bladder (Yunani). long (appearing in rainy season) . Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Vishnugandhi. .-Aug. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn.—Convolvulaceæ. axillary. FAM. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. DISTR. polished. alterative. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. spreading. almost leafless. colic. COM. whooping cough.—ovoid. peduncles very long. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. cocci velvety. LOC. Fl. leucoderma. enlargement of spleen. Fl. biliousness. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. LOC. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. teething of infants . LOC. leprosy. rootstock woody . L.-light blue.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. useful in abdominal troubles. tropical and sub-tropical countries. Shyamakranta . employed to raise blisters. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. milk is alexiteric. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. brightens intellect. branches erect. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. jaundice. Ceylon. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State. prostrate. usually clothed with long hairs . DISTR. Vishnukranti. smooth. K. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. wiry. 6-13 mm. carminative. tonic.-Sep. Vishnukranta.—small. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. smooth. useful in bronchitis. thick like quill. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. tumours. 4valved. Nilpushpi. :—G. long. globose. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). base acute. :—A perennial herb. and with oil to promote growth of hair. dyspepsia. more than 5 cm. Fr. M. campanulate. :—Native of East Africa. Sd.
good for liver troubles. removes "Vata. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Fr. pyramidal to the apex. COM. toothache. :—Madras State. typhoid. in chronic bronchitis. cures dysentery. Dhamasa. smooth. :— H. Mediterranean. M. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. purifies blood (Ayurveda). HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Fl. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. LOC. DISTR. removes "Vata". obliquely obovate.— showy. DISTR. Ind. Cooling. FAM. Udichirayat. Iran.-Nov. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. fever. pale rose-coloured. root fibrous. FL. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. t. Mysore. ovate.—very variable in size and form sessile. M. lower half white. Coimbatore. yellowish brown. Country. about 1.—Zygophyllaceæ. Kashaya. the middle the largest. high. ophthalmia. also used in chronic fevers. Sk. NS. CHAR. Waziristan. 5-nerved. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). LOC. Punjab. Prabhodhini. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. in copious terminal cymes . Atmamuli. N. shining. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. spitting of blood. alexipharmic. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. Sd. L. . urinary discharges. the upper blue. :—G. t. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . :—An erect annual. acute. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. Arabia. Hinguna. Dhamaso . Bark is used in scabies. L. Baluchistan. Circars. emmenagogue. 1-seeded cocci. scarcely branched. :— Sind.-Oct.— ovoid.-Aug. arising from between the stipules ." asthma. W. ellipsoid. 1-3 foliate. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. deeply 5-partite. of 5.).-Dec. Upper Gangetic plains. long. Ghats. stem.—capsule. Dhanavi. stomatitis. it has got cooling properties. NS. vomiting. quadrangular. H. M. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani).—Gentianaceæ. Fr. asthma. Rajasthan. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic.—opposite.2 cm. Fl. COM. cooling. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. smooth. westwards to Afghanistan. reaching 60 cm. Maval. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. glandular hairy. Dusparsha. more or less glandular. Gujarat. Ustarkhar. erysipelas. elliptic or lanceolate. thirst. CHAR. sessile. Deccan hills and S. reduces tumours. petioles deeply striate. small.—solitary. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. LOC. leaflets linear. Barachirayat. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. Fl. flattened. C—lobes 4-5.
:—Indigenous in S. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Manmadha. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Goli. removes biliousness. hiccup. COM. Kanara. Vata. good for throat. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Fruit—sour . Bargad. See—Timbers. tonic to heart. :—E. CHAR. Kathinyaphala. LOC. Vad. Bahupada. " Tridosha". Sk. H. Byala. Jatala.—Moraceæ. fatigue. K. 10-20 X 5-12. often planted. Grahiphala. with spreading branches. Fr. Kapitha. Ceylon. ovate to elliptic. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. strengthening to gums . Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. ophthalmia. " Vata ". acrid. K. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Banian tree.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . high. alexipharmic. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. country and N. S. Fruit Trees. dysentery. Kavitha. LOC. G. Avaroha. leucorrhoea. tumours. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa.5 cm. Bargat. refrigerant. . refrigerant .:— Large evergreen tree 30 m.. Elephant or wood apple. useful in biliousness. asthma. COM. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. difficult to digest. diam. female. fruit and seeds. M. :— E. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Leaves—very astringent. aphrodisiac. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. FAM. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children.— globose. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat.—Rutaceæ. thirst.—coriaceous. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Ala. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. cordate or rounded base. India. Kathel. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. :—Cultivated all over the State. M. Kavath. blood impurities. Belada. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Vat. H. LOC.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Kait. DISTR. NS. often cultivated. Bar. Vad. Kavit. Kothun. liver and lungs . Bhringi. Seeds—antidote to poison. Kotha. L. Monkey fruit. consumption. G. NS. Alada. Kapipriya. M. Malura. binding diuretic. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. shining above. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. astringent. Dadhiphala. heart diseases. Vadlo . Self-sown. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Balin. common in the Tapi Valley. vomiting . Ghats. Sk. with male. about 2 cm. cures cough. Nyagrodha. Java.
vomiting. K. G. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. useful in "Vata". PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Anjir. FICUS CARICA Linn. seeds and milky juice. Kakodumbar. stimulates hair-growth. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. root-fibres. lessens inflammations. Sk. erysipelas. nutritive. Cultivated in N. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. See—Famine Plants. nose-diseases. LOC. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. diuretic. NS. M. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Sacred Plants. H. paralysis. Afghanistan. lithotriptic. Bijapur. COM. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. vulnerary. liver and spleen diseases. tonic. Anjir. diseases of head and blood. boils and carbuncles. India. pain in chest cures piles. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. DISTR. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. useful in "Kapha". Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Fibres. Anjir. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. in rheumatism and lumbago. leprosy (Ayurveda). Simeyatu . laxative. :— E. inflammations. hill ranges of S. fever. bruises. leaves. :—Baluchistan. alexiteric. weakness. Seeds are cooling and tonic. Dharwar. Fig. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). Milky Juice—expectorant. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. Anjir. biliousness. Asia and Mediterranean. vaginal complaints. gonorrhœa. maturant. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). dysentery. USES :—Fruit is emollient. ringworm. LOC. leprosy. Anjura. useful in piles. Aerial root is styptic.—Moraceæ. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. biliousness. aphrodisiac. useful in syphilis. inflammation of liver (Yunani). W. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. W. LOC. useful in inflammation . HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. Grown scattered elsewhere. Root—tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. India. useful in leucoderma. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. demulcent. FAM. ulcers.
M.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. DISTR. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. burning sensation. Pipers. Pipal. good for bronchitis. fatigue. Sacred Plants. in diseases of blood. Sk. G. ulcers. NS. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). H. urinary discharges. Umar. leucorrhoea. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. NS. acrid. Bark useful in asthma and piles. FAM. menorrhagia. ground with onions. Pipli. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. G. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. galactagogue. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. Milk—aphrodisiac. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. planted all over. tonic. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. diseases of kidney and spleen. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Bark is cooling. biliousness.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. See—Timbers. Umar. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. uterus . Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. :—Throughout the State near villages. Atti. Vriksharaj. allays thirst. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Yajnika. :—Widely spread throughout India. Ragi. :—E. Ashvatha. PARTS USED :—Root. nose bleedings. Hemadugdha. good for foul taste. Leaves—astringent to bowels . FAM. Umbro. vulnerary. HABITAT :—Planted. Umbar. K. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers.—Moraceæ. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Pippala. vagina. styptic. Fruit—astringent to bowels. good for gravid uterus. useful. loss of voice. blood diseases. H. Sk.—Moraceæ. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. COM. LOC. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Arani. latex. Gular-Country fig. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Pippala. Lalka. biliousness. (Yunani). :—E. Peepal tree . leaves and fruits. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Pimpal. Jari. cummin. LOC. . Shuchidruma. Pavitraka. bark. bark. Ashwatha mara. COM. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. Gular. Udumbara. Demera. given in leucorrhoea. Pipal. Rumadi. K. DISTR. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Bark. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. M. useful in "Kapha". Bodhidruma. leaves. fruit.
gum. and produces sterility in women. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Tambat. Khandesh. Variali. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Fennel. checks vomiting (Yunani). good for lumbago. seeds. SAPIDA Roxb. upper Gangetic plain. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. N. cleans ulcers. See—Timbers. Bhuripushpa. common in the Peninsula. Young bark useful in bone fractures. COM NS. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. :— G. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Potika. Bhanber. M. W. Soupa. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. The juice is employed in hiccup. Katar. Sk. Paker. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. HABITAT :—Hills.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. K. G. Hettarimullu. K. Fodder Plants. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Root-bark good in stomatitis. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Badisoppu. Gajale. Badishep. Kanara Jungles. Finkel. PARTS USED :—Root. Mullutari. DISTR. Circars. COM. Hunmunki. Shateya. H. LOC. Swadukantaka. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. fruit. See—Timber.—Flacourtiaceæ. Tapaspriya. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Fruits are sweet. heart diseases. FAM. Bilangra . FAM. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. M. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Satpura. Sacred Plants. bark. Country and N. Burma. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. appetising and digestive. Kankod . astringent in leucorrhoea.—Umbelliferæ. Variari. NS. Fruit—purgative. Sk. promotes granulations. Bhakal. M. aphrodisiac. Shalina. H. Handi Kandai. Ghats. Root good for gout. LOC. Akrani. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. . S. :—E.
eye-diseases. laxative. aphrodisiac. USES :—Bark is astringent.— decompound. Wynaad. L. LOC. stimulant. K.9 m. fruit and seeds. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. M. G. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. ultimate segments linear. often cultivated. :—Endemic in W. annual. strengthen eyes (Yunani). Ghats. USES :—used as stimulant. Kokam . biliousness. fissures of lips. LOC. (Mhaskar and Caius). . amenorrhœa. kidney. causing constipation . DISTR. tumours. yellow. Leaves—improve eyesight. PARTS USED :—Bark. Fr. :—W. dysentery. PARTS USED :—Roots. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. seeds-carminative. FL. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. dysentery. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. carpophore 2-partite. Murjinhalli. furrows vittate. Konkan and N. See—Timbers. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. common in S. burning sensation. anthelmintic. H. spleen. Ghats south of Bombay. high. LOC. Kokam. Atyamla. " Vata ". See—Condiments and Spices. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. diuretic. wounds etc. ridges prominent. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". NS. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. lessen inflammations. leaves and seeds. useful in bleeding piles. COM. Sk. leaves (rarely). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". demulcent and emollient. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). cardiotonic. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. :—Apparently a native of S. Kanara. Ratambi. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. bracts and bracteoles absent. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. aromatic and carminative. :—A tall glabrous. HABITAT :—Cultivated. dark green. appetiser. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. improves appetite and allays thirst. Tittidika . cures "Tridosh". it relieves griping of bowels in infants. stomachic. fever. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. wounds. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. Kokam . The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter.6-0. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. :—E. in headache. leprosy (Ayurveda). In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. FAM. DISTR. It is much used as a nutritive. Oils. Amlabija.—Guttiferæ. galactagogue.—ellipsoid. 0. cough and asthma. useful in diseases of chest. difficult to digest.—in large umbels . Mulgala. Coorg. LOC. thirst.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Tintidika. Wild mangosteen. anthelmintic.
common on laterite in southern parts of N. buds resinous. unarmed.5x22. LOC.. Dikkamalli. PARTS USED:-Gum. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . K. FAM. DISTR.8 m. Dekamari. 1-3 together. H. Kanara. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. Northern ghats of Madras State. HABITAT :—Open situations. Western Peninsula. COM. M. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. long. t.-tubular. Dikamari. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. :—India (W. :—E. FAM.8 cm. oblong or ellipsoid. Gums and Resins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G.—Rubiaceæ. Suvirya. lucida (Ayurveda). G. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. LOC. Fl. L. Pinda. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . Fl. :—Common from Konkan southwards. . Burma. NS. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests.-sessile. Dakamali. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms.5 cm. NS. all dry districts of Madras State.—Rubiaceæ.-subsessile. first white then changing to yellow. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. LOC. :—A deciduous shrub. Sk. oblong. Hingu. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Fr. Bikke. Peninsula). Cambi resin tree. As sold in the bazar it is hard. PARTS USED :—Gum. high. COM. elliptic-obovate. See—Timbers.—2. relieves pain of bronchitis. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. not fragrant. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. astringent to bowels. about 1. See—Gums and Resins. lucida. opaque. Jantuka. CHAR. same as for G. -June. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. :—India. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. C.—Feb.5-3. Dikemali. 4. Dikamali. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. shining.
Fl. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. perianth segments reaching 6. Sivasaktibalb . inflammations. abortifacient. acrid.—capsule. given off from young tubers . branching climber . M. itching. 7.—sessile. Cochin-China. t. tall. . COM. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. Kulhari. Tropical Africa. In case of retained placenta. Kalihari. DISTR. scarlet. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa... In Guinea. H.5 cm. solitary. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. PARTS USED :—Tuber. root-stock of arched. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. bitter. scattered or opposite. expectorant. Kathari. NS. Languli. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Agnimukhi. axillary . piles. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. leaves and flowers. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. solid.2 cm. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. Indai. useful in chronic ulcers. heating. Khadyanag.. There are two varieties of the plant. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. used to remove placenta from uterus. Sk. CHAR. :—Throughout tropical India. Linn. :—Herbaceous. Nangulika. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. laxative. LOC. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. Garbhapatani. linear oblong. K. sometimes whorled.—large. leprosy. and crimson from blooming to fading. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. Dudhio vachhonag. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins.5-3. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs.5 X 15 X 2-4. thirst.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. L. stems annual. anthelmintic. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties.-July-Oct. Ceylon. filaments long spreading. FL. linear-lanceolate. changing colours from greenish yellow. ovate lanceolate. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. Tuber— astringent. margins wavy. FAM. Akkitang hall. Kalikari. LOC. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms.3 cm. :—G. Fr. orange. alexiteric. The former is supposed to be male. Huliyuguru. abdominal pains. Karianag.—Liliaceæ. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Malay Peninsula.
chronic cystitis. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Provinces. piles. urinary discharges. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. strangury. See—Fibres. useful in fevers . COM. " Tridosha ". Philippines. gleet. :—Throughout the State. DISTR. Cashmere tree. Sind. stomachic. consumption and some catarrhal affections . useful in leprosy and blood diseases. leaves. Khandesh. scattered in monsoon forests. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Savan. laxative. G. Hanji. ulcers. Root taken with liquorice. Karibatti. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. Fruit— diuretic. Karpasam. DISTR. In the Konkan. LOC. Devakapus. fevers. Mahabhadra. anthelmintic .—Malvaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. abdominal pains. . thirst. scalds etc. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Gupsi. leprosy. flowers and seeds. Kashmari. White teak. LOC. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Var. H. Gambhari. flowers and fruit. promotes hair-growth. alterative. Shripani. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. anasarca. common on Satpuda. K. PARTS USED :—Root. :— Bengal. COM. root is also stomachic and laxative. useful in "Vata". Coomb teak. consumption. Shivan . Bachanige. Nurma . anæmia. G. catarrh of the bladder etc. :—Throughout the State and about temples. leaves. Shivani. M. Shiwan. Madhya Bharat.—Verbenaceæ. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction.:—E. FAM. Sk. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. M. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. W. Gandhari. K. made into paste. aphrodisiac. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Oils. FAM. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). useful in hallucinations. thirst. Malaya. :—Throughout India. tonic. NS. improves appetite . the root. Gumbhar. burning sensation. indigestible. Devkapas. Deokapas. Kumbudi. Ceylon. H. :— E. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Rajasthan and N. Sk. Flowers—astringent. Tree cotton. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. Shiwan. Gambari. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. useful in indigestion.
scabies . M. :—Cultivated in the State. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Gujarat and S. NS. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. in hypochondria. used in orchitis.. fevers and consumption. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. Rui. Iran. PARTS USED :—Root. Syria. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. S. See—Fibres. sour. Province (Pakistan). Sutrapuspha. Parapera. Tula. wild in Deccan. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . DISTR. removes " Vata" and biliousness. fruit. expectorant and aphrodisiac. good for all kinds of inflammations. NS. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. aphrodisiac. extensively in Gujarat. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. H. laxative . :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Sk. :—E. G. Karpas. Tadasala. Sk. enrich blood. restore consciousness. cooling. increase flow of urine. analgesic. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Anagnika. East Tropical Africa. LOC. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. expectorant. Afghanistan. tonic. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Parusha. LOC. Badari.. Seeds are laxative. Mediterranean. tonic. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. M. U.—Tiliaceæ. cures inflammations. cure all ear-troubles. Jana. demulcent. Rui. Karihariyale. Egypt. A. FAM. K. Ripe fruit—sweet. K. PARTS USED :—Root. W. Arabia and Asia Minor. :— Cultivated in N. Country. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. Baluchistan. F. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. fruits and seeds. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. extensively cultivated. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. heart and blood disorders. COM. (Yunani). H. leaves. removes " Vata ". All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Hatti. digestible. acrid. Leaves remove " Vata " . Phalsa. Oils. DISTR. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Phalsi. Dhamin. allay thirst. bark. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Mesapotamia. Seeds— ' galactagogue.Phalse. Pharuah. good for throat . preventing their access to wounds etc.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Arali. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. LOC. leaf-juice good in dysentery. in hills near Poona. Buttiyu-dippa. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Kapas .—Malvaceæ. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . :—Sind. poultice applied to burns' scalds. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. In India they are used to procure abortion. fomentation for burning eyes . probably in N. Roshana. Cotton . urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Kapus. Kupas.
— with thin marginal wing. Kanphodi. NS.— opposite. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. FL. Karnasphota. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.—Capparidaceæ. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. See—Fruit Trees. sweet. The ease of administration. Small Indian ipecacuanha. SK. anthelmintic. Pandhari tilwan. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. :E. Vakundi. :—Western Peninsula. leucoderma. alexiteric. tonic. cornea. Shrikala.—follicle. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. S. Kanara coast. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). K. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. COM. elliptic. Kabari. L. M. G. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Caravella. base rounded or cordate . the stomachic stimulant. inflammations. Adiyakharan. Sanngera. . Mabli. Sd. Sk. cooling. C. Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Meshavalli. alterative. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. :—A large woody climber. Periploca of the woods. young stems densely pubescent. Vishani. asthma. should not be eaten raw. much branched. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. ulcers. :— E. Gurmar. piles. Tanmani. LOC. vitreous body) burning sensation. H. Hulhul.— Apl. NS. Kavali. acrid. LOC. Fruit—sour. H. corona of 5 processes . Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Karalia . Merasingi. — Asclepiadaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. India. lanceolate. Bedki. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Bastagandha. biliousness. relieves thirst and hiccup. Churota. K. Fr. Sati talvani. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Mardashingi. stomachic. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). helps removal of dead fetus. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. common in hedges in Dharwar district. LOC. Mahabaleshwar and N. Hulhul. Br. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. usually single. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. FAM. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Tilparni. Ugragandha. M.-May. CHAR.—in cymes . Arkapuspika. DISTR. Fl. Ceylon. strengthens chest and heart. t. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. :—Throughout the State. FAM. bronchitis. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant.— companulate . Root and bark used in strangury. ovate. G. yellow . Sannagerse. COM. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). Meshashingi. good in heart-diseases.
5 cm. M. pedicels viscid hairy. NS. DISTR. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. :—Deccan.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Gidesa Jitasai. vesicant. long . (Kirtikar and Basu). good in ascites. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. hills in Supa Taluka.—Sterculiaceæ. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. L. . DISTR. t.—June. leaves and seeds.5-20 X 3. Country. K.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. hairy. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. hairy. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. t. hills near Nagothana. tapering at both ends. NS. Edamuri. Fl. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus.. CHAR. glabrous or pubescent above. FAM.—in dense bracteate racemes. :—M.—3-5 foliate. leaflets subsessile.. pink . :—A small deciduous shrub. elliptic-lanceolate. earache. :—G.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. L. elliptic-obovate. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. H. hairy on the nerves beneath. Kanara. Murudi.-Feb. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. opposite. M. Marosi.—Oct. :—An annual erect herb 0.8-9 cm. sessile. high. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . long. Fl.—capsule. Mrigashringa. Sk. with divaricate herbaceous branches . Katraj Ghat. margins crenate-dentate. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. removes "Vata". stomachic . Sd. ellipsoid . . the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). Sinhgad hills. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Kewan. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . white or blue. 5-9 cm. gynophore 2-2.—capsule. Fl.—Rubiaceæ. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. COM. Murudseng. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. HABITAT:—Hills.2 m. Gujarat. stem and branches hairy.6—1. pain.—petals 4 with long slender claws. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.—muricate. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. pubescent.12. producing copious exudation. Sd. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. ulcers. Fr. tumours. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. LOC. stipules triangular. Jonkaphal Maraphali. Fr. FAM. S. viscid.—rather rigid. LOC. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. LOC.—many. dark-brown . acute. Kavargi. China. Murdasing. Avartant. C.
—follicle of 5-6. L. NS. cures all skin-diseases. Magrabu. Anantmula. HABITAT :—In hedges. Stem lessens inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root. t. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda).—Asclepiadaceæ. useful in piles. They are demulcent. Hindisalse. :—Large shrub or small tree. astringent to bowels.. "Vata' dysentery.3 cm. M. Fl. . Country. epileptic fits. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Sd. Dhaval kashtha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. Durivel. K.5 X 5-10 cm. India. DISTR. eye troubles.—throughout the greater part of the year. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). dark-green. mildly astringent. paralysis. often variegated with white above. scabrous above. uterine complaints. syphilis. Indian sarsaparilla . beaked.—numerous. fevers.Sd. purplish inside. lessens griping. Deccan and S. Kanara ghat forests. "Kapha". Sugandhi-balli. and leaves. Kapurimathuri. long. LOC. diarrhœa. Upalsari. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. Fr.—follicle cylindric. diaphoretic. greenish outside. Upalsali.512. asthma. G. Burma. diuretic. spirally coiled. Ceylon. Australia and West Indies. ovate orbicular. Root and stem—laxative. alexiteric. rat-bites. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). blood diseases. anti-galactagogue. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. COM. burning sensation. astringent to bowels . FL. stems thickened at the nodes .— very variable. joint-pains. stem. Sk. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Hamadaberu . useful in gleet. CHAR. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub.-Dec. Utpalashariva. 5-6. :—Upper Gangetie plain. demulcent. leucorrhoea. cough. 7. low appetite. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. antidiarrhœal. thirst. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery.—tubular. good for brain. LOC. Fr. common in hedges. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. Anantmula. root-Stock woody . FAM.-biferous. liver and kidney diseases . :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Fl. red at first fading to lead colour. C. L. bilabiate. DISTR. H. bark and fruit. tapering . Malaya. angular . :—Throughout the State. poisoning. bronchitis. foul body odour. M. irregularly crowded.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. Root useful in hemicrania. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic.— in cymes in opposite axils. :— E. Konkan. Br. obliquely cordate.— with silvery white coma .MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. urinary discharges. See—Fibres. Fl. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. t — Aug. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. “tridosh".
Jasum. . See—Ornamental Plants. urinary discharges.—Malvaceæ. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. Root roasted in plantain leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. piles. flowers. LOC. Native country probably China. Fl. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . t. bright red. Kempupundrika. astringent. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. magenta. demulcent. Sk. seminal weakness. M. cm. H. CHAR. Dasanihu. ovate or ovate lanceolate. Japapushpa. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. Dasavala. fevers. Fl. entire near the base. C. Root is valuable in coughs. and mixed with ghee. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. yellow. Jasut. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. petals thrice as long as the calyx. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. In the Konkan. uterine and vaginal discharges. Jasavand. :— E. Jasuva. Fr. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. crimson. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra).—no fruits produced in India. cooling. etc. glabrous. It is said to purify blood. pedicel jointed above the middle. :—A perennial shrub.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. It is also diuretic. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Rudrapushpa. irregularly serrate towards the top. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. NS. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. solitary. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda).—axillary. skindiseases. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). remove burning of body. useful in loss of appetite. tubular below. Shoe flower.5.. Harivallaba. FAM. G. syphilis and leucorrhoea. Aruna.—short petioled. tonic. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. diam. involucral bracts 5-7. LOC. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. bark and petals are demulcent. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. and as early as 1864. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. K. red.—during most of the year.—7. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. L. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. Raktapushpi.
In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. Adimurtte Adirganti. PARTS USED :—Leaves. involucral bracts 10. Kanara. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. See—Vegetables. clawed. across. and adding a little salt. long. petioles silky. Haladvel. hairy. Fibres. Kampti. NS.— solitary. tropics of the old world. erect. white. 10-18 X 4. Madhavi. elliptic-oblong. young parts silky. CHAR. asafoetida and molasses.—large.—capsule. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Fl.—5-7. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Fl. black-brown. Vasantduti. L. Lal ambadi.—petals 5.-Dec. mid-lobe the longest. K. covered with minute hairs . Ragotpiti. Kamuka. Sd. Patwa. glabrous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn.5 cm. calyx fleshy.—purple with darker centres. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. LOC. M. ovoid. :—Cultivated. fruits and seeds.) FAM. Ghats. Atimukta. Vasanti.5 cm. C. acuminate. Madhavi. Malati.—Oct. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Lal ambari. t. PROPERTIES AND LOC. pepper.lobes oblong. Deccan.—1-3. Madmalati.-Mar.2-2 cm. Sd. Madhumalati. FAM. Kempupundrike. HABITAT. DISTR. CHAR. :—Throughout the State. Fr. LOC. Lal ambadi. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Fl. Rozelle. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. :—An annual.—axillary. entire glabrous.—Malpighiaceæ. Fr. K. t. purple. fragrant. fringed. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. G. Konkan. Vasantduti. Pundi-bija or soppu. long.3-7.—Malvaceæ. . Atimukta. L. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. much used in curries. COM. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. 3-winged. Sk. sedative and refrigerant. :—E. (lower leaves sometimes entire). :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. COM. on the margins. H. M. NS. 1. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Grows abundantly on the W. Fl. globose. flowers. 5th petal yellow at the base. serrate. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. purple.—in erect racemes. 3-5 lobed.. Madhavi. C. uppermost petal broader. stem and branches purple. H.— Jany.—coriaceous. Madhavi. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. base cuneate. Chandravalli. Ceylon. beaked. :—G. Red sorrel. orbicular. Madhalata.
fevers. FAM. Burma. cough. Hath.-June. China. Kutaja. FL. ulcers.5 cm. Seeds—carminative. LOC. astringent to bowels cure pains. Flowers— acrid. Seeds—appetiser.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Pandhara Kuda. often dotted with white spots. bitter. anthelmintic. good in headache. acrid. good in erysipelas. Dudhi. fatigue. remove muscular pains . Kaling. cause "Vata". given in chest affections. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Mt. thirst and inflammation. Kodasige. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. main nerves conspicuous . if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. cures dysentery. Ceylon. N. " Kapha". Indrayana. Conessi bark tree. PARTS USED :—Bark. acrid. heating. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. asthma. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. remove "Tridosh". Andamans. boils. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. flowers and seeds.—follicles 20-48 cm.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. diarrhœa. Karuindrayan. Kurchi tree. galactagogue. urinary discharges. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Madras State. Karnatak. vulnerary. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. tonic. branchlets drooping. LOC. cooling. See—Ornamental Plants. Veppale. Fr. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. burning sensation. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. excessive menstrual flow. leaves. wounds. Sd. Kura. bleeding piles.—Apocynaceæ. Malay Peninsula. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. thirst. Leavesastringent. Assam. Bark—bitter. LOC.. cylindric. cool the brain. Kaduoindrajav. DISTR. styptic. Kuda. K. :—E. Kumaon. Karohi. leucoderma . common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Kuda. C—tubular. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Nepal. colic. lessens inflammations. Sk. Thailand (Siam). H. t. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. broadly ovate or elliptic. smoke good for piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot.—Feb. Siwalik. leprosy. NS. long. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Fl. skin diseases. Kudsalu. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. diuresis (Yunani). :—Throughout the State. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. aphrodisiac. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. biliousness. biliousness. Abu. Hale. L. throat hairy inside. tonic. inodorous.—10-20 X 5-11.. G. strengthens gums. piles. vulnerary. insecticidal. appetiser cure blood diseases. skin and spleen diseases. COM. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. M. lumbago. Circars. good in chronic bronchitis. CHAR. PROPERTIES. white. leprosy. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda).
It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. India. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. useful in fevers. Java. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. kurchine. fevers (Yunani). allays thirst. inflamed gums. Sk. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. HABITAT :—Cultivated. 1928). Divya. K. Aug. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). with radicle attached to it. Germinated barley. Gaz. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). causes constipation. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. widely cultivated in temperate regions. Tasteless. :—E. COM. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. biliousness. nor astringent. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Jawa. especially cod-liver oil.—Gramineæ. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. appetiser. bronchitis. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. LOC. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. anæmia. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. and kurchicine. Ymvah. Shaktu. headache. DISTR. Barley. They are also used after delivery. PARTS USED :—Seeds. acrid. LOC. Suj. G. The grains contain vitamin B. Yava. Jav. diarrhœa. Ind. dysentery and intestinal worms. good for ulcers. lowers the pulse. NS. Javegodhi. burns. nor styptic. Knowles. malt sugar and diastase. Med. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Satu. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. fattening. demulcent and expectorant. M. pains in chest. useful in bronchitis. They are astringent. Hayapriya. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. stomachic. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. improves voice. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. —Cultivated chiefly in N. useful in biliousness. Jav.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. aphrodisiac. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. FAM. (R. febrifuge. See—Food Plants. . asthma. sweetish.
cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Dondru.—solitary or in racemes. Sd. globose or ovoid. See—Oils. Bhoswar. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Dondra. Bhanina. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. :—K. more or less coriaceous. sulphur. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. :—G. Bandaru. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases.—Rubiaceæ. Betaga. Gandele.. Madhya Pradesh. CHAR. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. camphor and lime-juice. Sk. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. t. Kadukavata. acuminate. DISTR. Kanara evergreen forests. bitter. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards.—berry. Kshiradru. COM. Kastel. FL.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Bihar. LOC. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Niradivittulu. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Garudphala. LOC. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. white.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Country and Kanara. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. tomentose. pungent. M. M.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood.5-23 X 3. Doti. S. Garudphala. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. broadly ovate. flat. Bharnarasalya. NS.—numerous. Bhorsal. DISTR.8-7. 12. Fl. C. Sk. COM. common in Travancore. PARTS USED :—Seeds. good for the throat. Southern and Western India. Bhringamallika. young parts brown pubescent. Ghats.—Apl. .5 cm. K. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. NS. Bhrijatuaka. :—W. Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. Kowti.—Jany. Malabar. Amarachala. size of small apple. L. For scald-head. Fr.—Bixaceæ. high.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. M. dioecious . increases taste and appetite. sometimes along river banks. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Ugragandha. FAM. Bhutabi. Common in N. Phaldu.
DISTR. Krishnasariva. fever. rusty pubescent. LOC. vomiting. L. cures " Kapha ". . Fl. blood diseases.. t. Sariva. Sd. Kanara. greenish white. M. Sk. Fr. :—More or less throughout India.— Nov. black with white scanty coma. LOC.5 cm. NS. elliptic oblong. Sd. Chandangopa. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . X 4 cm. Siamalata. numerous . cylindric . very slender. :—A large twining shrub . glabrous above.—tube with narrow portion below. Potuasaga. Karmi. cooling. C. PARTS USED :—Root. thick. rooting at the nodes .—Convolvulaceæ. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. t. trailing on mud or floating. middle portion much inflated. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid.—4 or 2. Gopini. Kalaghantika. FL. thirst. H. the powdered wood is used for herpes. lobes obscure . HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Java. " Vata ". Pechuli.—in axillary and terminal. :—G.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Kalambika. stalks and leaves. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Nalichibhaji. Karihambu. cordate or hastate. Common in the evergreen forests of N. M. M. Kanara. Nalanibhaji. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. FAM. ovoid . See—Timbers.8 cm. C. Fodder Plants. Gorwiballi. pubescent. throat and tube dull purple . trichotomous cymes. :—Annual or biennial herb.—Apocynaceæ. Ceylon. Fl.—Nov. :—Throughout the State. stems long.-Apl. hollow. Kalmisag.—follicle. prostrate. 10-15 cm.—capsule. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Kalaka. CHAR. Kalidudhi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. base rounded. Nadika. :—H. :—Konkan. Fr.—1-5 flowered peduncles . slightly pubescent and pale beneath. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. aphrodisiac. COM. Bhadra. Shradhashaka. Sk. Kantebhovari. Australia.—4-5-7 X 2-3. acute. Br.—5-12.—linear. very common in Gujarat. In Indo-China. K. COM. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge.2 -7. Fl. LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. The outer layer is tasteless. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. straight or slightly curved. CHAR. FAM. upper constricted. NS.-Dec. biliousness. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. S. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R.5x 3. Country. L.
Nila-kumbala. . stem long. Flower causes " Vata ". improves voice and complexion. :—Perennial. appetiser. demulcent and lactagogue.8—6. glabrous. 3. lessens inflammation. useful in fever. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. diuretic. Carminative. biliousness and fevers. near sea coast. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. M. bronchitis. dry. long. :— E. entire. See—Gums and Resins. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). purple. useful in leucoderma. carminative. burning sensation. aphrodisiac.—in. t. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. LOC. 4-valved. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. LOC. Africa and Australia. enclosed in fleshy sepals. :—Throughout India. jaundice. stomachic. DISTR. peduncle solitary axillary. COM. NS. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. alterative. flowers (rarely). H.—Convolvulaceæ. useful in syphilis. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. PARTS USED :—Root. tropical Asia. anthelmintic . In Burma. Ceylon. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . Australia in moist climate. (Ayurveda). Africa. liver complaints. Kanara sea coast. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. tonic. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. Swadu Vidarikand. tropical Asia. (Yunani). leprosy. deeply palmately divided. ovoid. alterative. long. to children in case of emaciation. often broader than long. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. also useful in liver complaints. Bhunichahragadde. (Yunani). biliousness. Bhumikushmanda. FAM. galactagogue. being regarded as tonic. K. aphrodisiac. galactagogue. CHAR. LOC. Fr. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. America. cures biliousness. Fl. pale. indigestible. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. expectorant. stimulant. Bhuikohala. anthelmintic.—10-15 cm. useful in leprosy. 4-celled. debility and want of digestive power. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—capsule. blood diseases.3 cm. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. Root—heating. " Kapha " . Bilaikand . twining. Fl. thick.-July-Sept. L. Sk. vomiting. leaves. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. gonorrhœa and inflammation. Giant potato . lobes 5-7. Leaves enrich blood. ovate-lanceolate. root large.
PARTS USED :—Seeds. reniform or ovate-cordate. Nilpushpa.:—Throughout India.— 4-6. The plant contains a glucoside. Purgative. NS. :—A herb .—Convolvulaceæ. Undirkani. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. :—G. Ganribij.—3. Kalokumpo.5 cm. glabrous . Fl. deeply three-Iobed. Fr. M. bronchitis (Ayurveda). cultivated and wild up to 1800 m.—capsule. H. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Musekani. M. 3-celled. scabies and biliousness. LOC. stems many.3-2. :—Western Peninsula. Fl. Vrishchikparni. COM. blue tinged with pink. believed to be of American origin.— yellow. :—An annual herb. surrounded by ciliate sepals. FAM. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq.5 cm. S. . Deccan. lobes ovate. subglobose. Mirchai. L. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle.-5-12. Shyamala-bijak. Nilvel. M. in the Himalayas. Krishna—Shyama-bija. DISTR. Sk. tropical Africa.) FAM. petioles hairy. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. H. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). Ceylon. Country. t. abdominal diseases. filiform. clothed with long hairs. CHAR. Sd. creeping and rooting at the nodes. LOC. CHAR. axillary. COM. diseases of head. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative.—capsule. useful in liver and spleen diseases..—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . dries the phlegm. Sk. Fr.-Oct.8-5 cm. bracts linear.—Convolvulaceæ. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. cures inflammations. DISTR. crenate. K. anthelmintic. subglobose or ovoid. leucoderma. :—Konkan. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. L.—Sept. long tubular funnel-shaped. Sd. NS. Undirkani. headache. fevers. E. G. S. pains in joints. See—Ornamental Plants. diam. Kaladana. stems twining. ovate-cordate.—dark chestnut coloured . HABITAT :—Water-logged places. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). K. carminative.—1. Kaladanah. broad. Indian jalap. bechic. Morning glory. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. C. Africa. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. LOC. sparsely hairy.
Kanaka. anthelmintic. expectorant.—in few flowered cymes. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Sk. FAM. pungent. heart and abdomen. good in pain. LOC. Philippines. fistula. COM. cooling.—Convolvulaceæ. Root— bitter. useful in bilious tremors of body. tropical Africa and America. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. enclosed in enlarged sepals . Fl. :—Throughout India. Fr. ovate or oblong. antipyretic. DISTR. Root with bark should be used. bronchitis. lungs. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. strangury. carminative. burning sensation and intoxication. leucoderma. good for weakness. Triputi. PARTS USED :—Root.—5-10 X 1. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. laxative. . Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. wounds. purgative. Nandi. uterus. bechic. applied in diseases of eye and gums.—Oct. useful in loss of consciousness. globose. stems very long. useful in spleen enlargement. angled and winged.—white. Turbith root. M. CHAR. Br. laxative. useful in bilious fevers. C. like others of the genus . It is also alterative. False-Indian jalap. fleshy. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. inflammations. K. Pithori. HABITAT :—Wild . when used alone . paralysis. long. LOC. Fl. pedicels thickened upwards. mucronate. pains of chest and joints.8-5 cm. bracts large. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). useful in diseases of kidney. anæmia. Mauritius. often pinkish. inflammations and abdominal diseases . rarely slightly lobed. Trivrit. Common in southern Gujarat. Nishottara. muscular pains. urethral discharges. NS. twining and twisted together. H. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic.—capsule. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. bladder. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).. acrid. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. white variety is a mild cathartic. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). Kalaparni. L. :— E. 3. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Nishoth. Nahatara. also in the Konkan and N. G. fevers. Indian rhubarb.3-7 cm. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. t. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. Nashotar. root long. paralysis. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti.-Jany. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. sometimes cultivated. removes bad humours. base cordate or truncate . The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). much branched. Malay Islands. LOC. brain diseases.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Rechani.
FAM. Pankul. t. obtuse . oblong. also along river banks.9 m. t. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. Kisukare. DISTR. stipules . Kepala. C.—3.—throughout the year.2-6. pale when dry. often tinged with pink outside.—globose. :—E.. :—E. M. CHAR. FAM. Chambeli. lobes 4 (rarely). Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. petiole and rachis margined. stipules with a long rigid point. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. pale when dry. coriaceous. across. . hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat.5 cm.. Ajjige. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Parali. Guddedasal. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. Pendgul.—opposite. CHAR. DISTR. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. :—Cultivated throughout India. high. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Fr. :—Western Peninsula.3 cm. COM. Raktaka. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. Surabhigandha. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. purple when ripe. tube long. leaflets 7-11. FL—numerous. 3. wild. obtuse. distal pair confluent with the terminal. L. Chambali. size of a pea. LOC. Sk. Bakali. Anemallige. oblong.—tubular. very slender . Sk. Fl. imparipinnate. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Chambeli. fleshy. terminal rather larger. M. sessile. 5-12. intermediate sessile . TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. G. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated .8 cm. Priyanvada. Jajimalle. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. proximal petiolulate. :—A large subscandent shrub. sessile. COM NS. NS. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. Jati. Ceylon.3 coriaceous. Bandhuka. very common in Konkan and N. K. H. Flame of the woods . white.—Oleaceæ. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. See—Ornamental Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.2-6. Jai. Fl. :—Bombay southwards .—July-Sept. LOC. K. Fr. smooth.— Rubiaceæ. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. 5-10 X 3.—ripe carpels 2. L. of stems and roots. Fl.—opposite.
variable in shape. caries of teeth. intoxicating. M. See—Ornamental Plants. diuretic. Vanchandrika. useful in stomatitis. biliousness (Ayurveda). Mogro. flowers and oil. leprosy. Mallige. See—Ornamental Plants. DISTR. In Goa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. membranous. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . head. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. alexiteric. COM NS.—opposite. base rounded or subcordate. Arabian Lily. LOC. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. diseases of mouth. Fl. LOC. Tuscan jasmine. good in asthma. Iravantige. eyes and ear.—more or less throughout the year . expectorant. vulnerary. black. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. emmenagogue. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. abundant in April-May. headache and weak eyes. Sambac. Navamallika. Mogra.—Oleaceæ. tonic to brain. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. emetic. ulcers. G. cures headache. Sk. t. Oil—lessens inflammations.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. scarcely climbing. entire. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. Chamba. FAM. mouth and skin. surrounded by calyx-teeth. The plant contains an alkaloid. L. anthelmintic. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. it is used in cases of insanity. allays fevers . alexiteric. aphrodisiac. softens skin.—ripe-carpels 1-2. Fl. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. brain tonic . paralysis. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. H. soporific. Root—purgative. otorrhoea. subglobose. :—Cultivated throughout India. rheumatism. useful in diseases of eye. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. good for pains in joints and ear. K. Flower has bitter taste . The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. teeth. Motia. given in blood diseases. aphthae. CHAR. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). suppurative. :—E. Leaves are also used in toothache. ear. Pramodini. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared.—white. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Plant—deobstruent. Banmallika. Fr. Ananga-mallika. heating. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. alexiteric. very fragrant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. biliousness. and for scabies (Yunani). Flowers—tonic. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. stomatitis. Mogara. . :—A sub-erect shrub.
Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. G. coral-red.—E. across. Jangali erandi. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. Fr. COM. cordate. fruits and seeds. useful in chronic dysentery. French or Small physic nut. thirst. herpes. PARTS USED :—Wood. and also promotes healing. K. urinary discharges. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. fistula. Sk. long. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums .—orbicular. longer than calyx. 10-15 X 7. biliousness. K. CHAR:—A handsome. Ratanjot. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. corolla lobes 5.— ovoid. Vilayati haralu. L. Dundigu.—monœcious. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. Coral plant. Jangali—Pahari erand. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. The seeds act as drastic purgative.5-12. Akhuparnika. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. subfleshy. dull brownish black. Kananerand.5 cm.—in flat-topped cymes. Sd. The acrid. NS. juice sticky opalescent.— alternate. garden shrub . HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. anaemia. stipules capillary. LOC. male flowers. H. M.8 cm. diam. multifid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. . JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. Seeds contain active principle curcin.—ovoid oblong.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM.—capsule. have suppurative effect. DISTR. FAM. Barbados Physic nut.. when applied to boils. CHAR. villous within. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. LOC. Simeavadala. FAM. Fr. 7. 3-lobed. :—Native of tropical America.5-12. Jyotishka.5 mm. :—E. yellow.5 cm. Virechani. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases.—Euphorbiaceæ. Bhadradanti. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. L. broadly ovate. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Fl. Mogali—Ran-erand. Sutashreni. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. 1. black. large. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. NS. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. disk of female flower urceolate. long-petioled. Sk. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. abdominal complaints. leaves. 7. " Tridosha". Fl. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch.
The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Sk. dyspepsia. causes " Kapha ". Kala adulsa.—Ghati pitpapda. FAM. fattening tonic . LOC. NS. LOC. inflammations. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). . Nilinirgandi. CHAR. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. " Vata ' and "Pitta". M. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. M. LOC. wounds. wild in Tenasserim. vaginal discharges. fevers. Karambal. Nachukaddi. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. pains. Bhutakeshi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. LOC. heating. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). eye diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Shady positions.—white spotted. skin-diseases. DISTR. tympanitis.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. often met with in Bengal. COM. rheumatism and dysentery.—Acanthaceæ. all over the State. useful in bronchitis. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle .5 cm.5-12. branches subterete with raised lines.5 cm. Leaves are used in scabies. COM. dry . Nilmanjari. aphrodisiac. native of N. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.2 m. Krishna-nirgundi. clavate glabrous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. America. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. L. Kalmashi. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. Fr. high . :—A native of China.6-1.—Acanthaceæ. In Cambodia.—capsule. hot. Seed— oleaginous. in interrupted spikes. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bakas. NS. 5-12. long. 7. DISTR. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. enlarged spleen. leaves. Karinchki. useful in piles. :—H. bitter. K. purgative. Shindhuka. purple within. :—Bomb. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. FAM. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice.
teeth.—finely tuberculate. Tubers yield an essential oil. Fl. Malay Islands. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). Deccan. elliptic. Australia. . enriches blood. Panchgani.-Mar. urinary discharges. South Konkan. DISTR.5 X 4. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. petioles channelled. diaphoretic. thin. tired feeling.—in cylindric terminal spikes. deep green. constricted between the seeds . spreading horizontally. oblong shortly pointed. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. Fl. Kachchura . LOC. removes indigestion. Konkan. stops vomiting. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. stomachic. Fl. :—N.—612 from the centre of the plant.. root-stock tuberous. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. lower 3-lobed . Madras State. upper lip notched. CHAR. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). wandering of mind. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it.—2. pale violet pink. Sd. L. Travancore. 6. Kapurkachri. strengthens lungs. obtuse at both ends. Cultivated in gardens. Fr. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. fever.—capsule.:—Stemless herb. Maval in the Deccan.—Oct. Malaya. :—Konkan. NS. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. Western Ghats . good in spleen diseases. t. :—Western Peninsula. thirst. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sugandhavachai. tube funnel-shaped . Chandramulika. burning of body. fugacious. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). PARTS USED :—Tubers. FAM. round.5-9 cm. vomiting. pure-white. Chandramala.—Scitaminaceæ. oval. expectorant. DISTR. Plant diuretic. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. COM. LOC. lying flat on the ground. Kachri. constipating .—2-lipped. biliousness. fragrant. ovate or lanceolate. K. purifies blood in skin diseases. Fl. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections.—variable. M.3-12. C. L. aromatic. :—More or less throughout India. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. P. (Yunani). KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. t. gives lustre to eyes. diuretic. softly pubescent. increases " Vata ".—lobes lanceolate.. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sk.— June-July. intoxication. :— H.
—Feb. Alkaddu. Kaddu.—globose 3. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. :— G.5-10 cm. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. oblong. simple. Vatsanabhi. The whole plant. Fr. Nelasampige . Fl. COM. L.—30X7. :—M. N. diam.. entire. coriaceous. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . Calabash. L.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser.5 X 5-12. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. female cylindric. rootstock reaching 5 cm. Bhuichampa . petiole as long as blade.— inflorescence. thick. FAM. Country. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Kanara. NS. .. elliptic-oblong. semicylindric. midrib very stout.. Sk. Cochin. Tumbaka. Ceylon. M. Bottle-gourd. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . H. margins undulate. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. Dudio Tumbada. :—An aquatic herb. long. FAM. COM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. :—Konkan. H.-Apl. Dudhya bhopala. Travancore. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India.—Scitaminaceæ. K. M. Halagumbala. annulate .8-5 cm. :—Mysore. tubular below. spathe 7. FAM.—narrowly oblong. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Bhuichampo . CHAR. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Lauka. Tubers yield an essential oil.. Dudhi. Coorg. in many cycles. Fl. K. furrowed.5-23 cm. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz.—15-37.. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. Bhuchampaka. very poisonous . creeping. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. yellow. Katutumbi. :—Stemless plant. Malay Islands.— sweetly fragrant. LOC. NS.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Fl. inflorescence of many ovaries. NS. Bhuichapha. promotes suppuration. of various shades of purple and white. DISTR. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Fl. remedy for itch. CHAR. M. :—E.5 cm. used in the form of poultice. G.-Mar. Kadu bhopala. t. crowded in a globose bead . anthers crowded. Danta-bija. DISTR. Sk. Labuka. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. S.—Aroideæ.
in many cases only cultivated. bitter variety is diuretic. brain-tonic. improves taste. :—Western Peninsula. flowers. Bark and leaves are purgative. PARTS-USED :—Root. Holematti. Arjuna. causes bronchitis. DISTR. Arjuna. Ceylon. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. anti-bilious. anti-periodic. Assam. refrigerant and anti-bilious. muscular pains. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. Ornamental Plants. fruits and seeds. . The fruit has trace of vitamin A. DISTR. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. seeds are narcotic. emetic. Bandhara. LOC. wholesome to fœtus. See—Timbers. Taman. cause haemoptysis. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. Seeds—good for hot constitution. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. fever. laxative. diuretic. aphrodisiac. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. Malaya.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. Sk. inflammations. cures asthma. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. fattening. K. leaves. earache. Konkan Ghats. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. Tarul. China. leaves. bark. lessens inflammations. alexiteric. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. styptic. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. flatulence. LOC:—North Kanara and S. Nirbendeka: M. LOC. :—H. Challa. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. sweet. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. COM. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. piles. cardiac and general tonic. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . Seeds emetic (Yunani). bronchitis. NS. There are two varieties. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. Fruit good in bronchitis. pains (Ayurveda).—Lythraceæ. cooling. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. cures leucorrhoea. scalding of urine. earache. Flowers cooling. increases "Vata". cures blood diseases. "Vata". Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic.) FAM. oleaginous. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :— Leaves are purgative. In the Andamans. dry cough. wild (rarely). ulcers. vulnerary. See—Vegetables. bitter. fruits and seeds. antipyretic.
Kukurgal. Henna plant.—ellipsoid-oblong. FAM. S. CHAR. piles and wandering of the mind. lobes 4. Medi. Sk. inflammation. :—Konkan southwards. COM. lameness. Kanara. LOC. The bark is used to poison fish. Triputi. t. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Lang. D. Mukute. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. dense terminal heads 2. NS.5-3. G. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. Basu). Fl.5 cm. yellow. Chickling—White vetch. :—W. 5-7. pain. Wooly-headed gnidia. Rametha. K. subsessile. :—E. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division.8 cm.—Dec-May. bark mottled. DISTR. enclosed in the perianth . Sandika.—Thymelaeaceæ. Mendi. M. Khesari. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. heart-troubles. M. Medika. Latri. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Rami. Belgaum hills . FAM. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. oblong flat. FAM. Peninsula—Ceylon. COM.. :—E. Yavaneshta. K. L. Kassar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Country. Lakh. causes much flatulence. (B. Mehndi. oblong lanceolate. common at Mahabaleshwar. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. M. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . silky beneath.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—in erect.. Fl. Sk. LOC. burning. improves taste. pointed. G. glabrous above. Grains contain vitamin A. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. Gorantha. Tree mignonette. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. NS. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India.5 X 2-2. Ragangi. :—A much branched large shrub. cooling. (Ayurveda). . in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. DISTR. common on the Supa Ghats. H. NS. See—Food Plants. but dangerous cathartic. swellings etc.—opposite or scattered. diam. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Nakharanjaka. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Lythraceæ. COM. :—E. tonic. Madaranga. N. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. M. Deccan hills. perianth-tube densely silky villous .
HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. supported by persistent calyx. Gabholika. indigenous in S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. cure strangury tumours.—opposite. G. DISTR. syphilitic sores. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. LOC. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Masura. skin diseases . PARTS USED :—Leaves. Asia. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. E. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. many. :—Grown in Nasik. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. amenorrhœa. finger nails and hair. lateral branches 4-gonous. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. allay burning sensation. K. Sk.). common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. dysentery. HABITAT:—Cultivated. boils. planted as hedge.—angular. mucronate. improve appetite. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. H. PROPERTIES. The plant contains a glucoside. wild in Arabia. favours hair-growth.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cure insanity (Ayurveda). Europe and in temperate W. fragrant. Fr. Flowers are refrigerant. ophthalmia. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . Masuridal. veined outside. Masur.—Apl-July. diuretic. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. Massur. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. Fl. diuretic. t. Lentil. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. white or rose coloured . in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. LOC. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. :—E. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. pyramidal and panicled cymes. cure leucoderma. Fl. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". scabies. in diseases of heart and of . FAM. Sd. enriches blood. truncate. Gurubija. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. often ending in spinous point. useful in headache. See—Dyes. NS. & Gib. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. useful. DISTR. globose. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast .—in terminal. bronchitis. Chanangi. Sura. M. ulcers. Masur. lumbago. Belgaum and Poona districts.—capsule. Iran and Baluchistan. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Ragadali. diseases of spleen. expectorant. L. vulnerary. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. LOC. COM. stomatitis. Leaves—bitter. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. flowers. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. Ceylon. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. The oil and essence keep the body cool. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows.
aperient. chest complaints. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger).—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. bronchitis. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). The covering is styptic and astringent. Chavnsar. bitter. LOC. Leaves are used as pot-herb. FAM. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). very likely indigenous in W. Ahaliva. Fl. :—E. often with linear segments . NS. Hurfi. affections of spleen. Fr. laxative. Raktabija. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. :—An erect glabrous annual. bronchitis. bechic. blood and skin diseases. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. white.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). cures dysentery . aphrodisiac . Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Halim . :—Cultivated throughout India. Suvasura. G.—Cruciferæ. Chandrashura. Ashalika.—small. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. good for pain in abdomen. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. PARTS USED :—Root. Chandrika. See-Food Plants. COM. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. Seeds—indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. LOC. and muscular pains.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. enrich blood. Asia. M. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Kurutige. K. . leaves and seeds. aphrodisiac. CHAR. Garden cress . rheumatism. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Hot and dry. DISTR. upper sessile. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. useful in diseases of chest. diuretic. tonic. galactagogue. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . They are mucilaginous and laxative. good in inflammations. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. C—petals 2-4 or 0. stomatitis . Seeds contain fatty oil. L. tumours and injuries. H. See—Vegetables. the lower petiolate. Halim. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Grains contain vitamins A and B. Sk. LOC. They contain vitamin B. Allibija. Asahio. constipating.
NS. Tisi. CHAR. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. Fibres. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). good for cough and kidney troubles. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. Garbijaur. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Alsi.—May-July. Alsi. L. "Pitta". 10-25 X 5-10 cm. heal ulcers. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. "Kapha". inflammations. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated throughout India. yellowish.. 8-12 together in heads. tonic. supported by the thickened pedicel. DISTR. Alasi. boils. Alashi. Jivanika. hot. diam. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. LOC. gouty and rheumatic swellings. aphrodisiac. Country. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns.. LOC. M. perianth lobes wanting. base narrowed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. hard to digest. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. causes loss of appetite. Kanara. aphrodisiac . usually alternate. native country probably Egypt. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). dysentery. K.:—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Seeds contain vitamin A. pale beneath. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Roasted seeds are astringent. G. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Sk. PARTS USED :—Bark. urinary complaints. Maidelakri. FAM. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Sk. Fl. COM. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate.5 mm. H. . burnt bark styptic and healing. leaves. Haimwati. M. Seeds—mucilaginous. 7. See—Oils. bronchitis. bark somewhat corky. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Alashi. Alshi. Maidalakadi. Sedhavi. flowers. bad for eyesight. galactagogue. Javas . Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Madagandha. Fl. NS. glossy dark-green above. LOC. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. remove biliousness.—Linaceæ. Tailottama.—crowded at the ends of branches.— globose. Common flax.:—A small evergreen tree. M. lead to impotency. Medini. black. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. urinary discharges . Fr. Linseed. lenticellate. Common tallow laurel. used in consumption. back-ache. t. Malina.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. diuretic. :—E. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. H. emmenagogue. branchlets densely tomentose. cure leprosy. remove "Vata". FAM. seeds and oil.—Lauraceæ. colds and throat complaints.:—Throughout the Konkan and N.
Kandele. aphrodisiac. overheated brains.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. Narsala. thirst. NS. vagina. Bibhishana. uterus.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Deccan and S. Ghontali. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. FAM. bark. cure cough. pains in joints. Mrityupushpa. It acts as anodyne. Country.—. aphrodisiac. :—E. 2. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . fever. :—E. Leaves are mucilaginous. Nali. leaves. high. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. lanceolate. LOC. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. stomachic. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. Root—astringent. Dhaval. long. hollow. LOC. FAM.—Nov. NS. Sthulanala. useful in biliousness. burning sensation.—numerous. fruits and seeds. Ceylon. Dhamana. useful in inflammations. . USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. branched upwards. strangury. H. K. Wild tobacco. bronchitis. throat troubles. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. burning sensation. M. C—2-lipped. lower much longer. spleen diseases.100 m. midrib white. Nal. DISTR. Katukoshataki. SK. Fl. paralysis. much curved. 1. Ranturai. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Karvituri. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. diseases of blood. M. Jhinga.9 cm. galactagogue. leprosy (Ayurveda). L. Kalahogesoppu. erysipelas (Ayurveda). opening by 2 valves. Malay Islands. heart. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. tonic. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism.—alternate. "vata". all oblong. G. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var.—Cucurbitaceæ. expectorant. aphrodisiac. white. many. finely serrulate. Fr. Kahire. biliousness. Australia. Sd. Devnal. Sk. lobes linear. stem stout. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. G. Jalini. Divali. K. Kadudodka. acrid.5-3. subglobose.2-3 m. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . H. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne.—capsule. COM. bitter. Devanala. Fl. COM. light green. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. 3 usually connate throughout . t. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. very small. yellowish brown . nearly sessile. AMARA Clarke. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.-Mar. Narttaka. Ridge gourd. :—Konkan.—Lobeliaceæ. heating. CHAR. consumption. M.
—obovoid. H. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. recommended in splenic enlargement. jaundice. Mahua tree. obtusely conical at both ends. cures urinary discharges. Mahura. thick. Bengal to the W. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). Doddippa. :—Throughout India. also in Konkan and N. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. "Kapha". leucoderma. 5-10 cm. asthma. asthma. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. tendrils usually 3-fid. Butter tree. Fruit cures fever. USES. LOC. Mahuda. . tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. 10-ribbed. cough. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. 5-7 lobed. useful in rat-bite. PARTS USED :—Leaves. M. at length scabrid. LOC. at first whitish and softly villous. NS. thrives in Deccan trap. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. piles. diuretic. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. LOC. bitter. hydrogogue.—petals yellow with green veins . Mowa. Root-bark is abortifacient. :—E. pale green.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. base cordate. DISTR. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. DISTR. fruit and seeds. COM. C. Madhya Pradesh. laxative. Burma. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Madhuka. W. liver complaints. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. bronchitis.:—A large climber.8 cm. t. inflammations. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Fr. acrid. especially in western Peninsula. L. Sk. K.) FAM. :—Plant is bitter. Mahua. Gudapushpa. solitary in the same axil as males. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mahula. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat).. digestible. long and about 2. alexiteric. leaves. females. bitter. Kanara (rare) . palmate. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. cathartic. Fl. Madhusrava. tonic and diuretic. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. Ceylon. Fl. tuberculous glands.—monœcious.53. tonic to intestines. piles. cures "Vata". ascites. uterine and vaginal tumours . stems 5-angled.—Sapotaceæ. G. Mowda. Mhowra. Pokka. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Hunage. Moha. flowers and fruits. carminative.—Sept. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis.—small. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). biliousness. anæmia.
Flower—sweet. Mahuva of S. fattening. COM. yields two important products. Sk. See—Timbers. ulcers. anthelmintic. Kampillaka. Madhuka. Mehua. H. fixed oil and a spirit. Famine Plants. tonic. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. flowers act as a mild purgative. India . Hullichillu. DISTR. Kamala. Ceylon. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. heals wounds . Movanuhjad. aphrodisiac. galactagogue. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. There is a trace of alkaloid. :—Western peninsula. consumption. and also a remedy for itch.. See—Timbers. Liquors. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). flowers and oil. Kesarimavu. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Mysore. USES :—Astringent and emollient. Kapilo. often planted. Ippe. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. K. leprosy. fatigue . Flowers are regarded as cooling. and appetiser (Sushruta). Mohache jhad. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. :—E. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. cures biliousness. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Oil—emollient (Yunani). bronchitis. Oil is good for skin-diseases. expectorant. Kapila. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Fruit-tonic .136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Moha. Oils.—Sapotaceæ. M. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Flowers—oleaginous. good in heart diseases. Movaro. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Huli. NS. Karnatic. :—-E.) FAM. LOC. COM. K. Mahuda. Sk. NS. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. cures blood diseases. aphrodisiac. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. astringent.—Euphorbiaceæ. burning sensation. LOC. and Kanara. Kambhal Raini. Monkey-face tree. Kapila. Honey tree. PARTS USED :—Bark. G. . FAM. H. cooling. and Upper Burma. used in fractures. causes "Kapha". G. carminative. Shendri. thirst. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. tonic and nutritive. Oils. Mohwa. :—Konkan.
cooling. Bihar. stone in bladder. LOC. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. Kamarasa. liver. removes bad smell from mouth. COM. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Ghats and the Satpudas. improves cough. used in chronic diarrhœa. sweet. LOC. wounds. cultivated throughout the State. "Kapha". throat troubles. Mavu. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). tonic to body. piles. vomiting. Kanara. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. useful in skin-diseases. thirst. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). urinary discharges. bronchitis. Astringent. chronic dysentery and gleet. lessen intestinal pains. improve taste and appetite. enriches blood. detergent. Khasia Hills. :—-Throughout the State. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). DISTR. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). Sikkim. in "Tridosh". Burma. maturant. Mavin-mara. anthelmintic. Malay Islands.—Anacardiaceæ. :—Tropical Himalayas. aphrodisiac. Introduced. hiccup. Dyes. Cuckoo's Joy. :—E. purgative. DISTR. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. it exudes a pink coloured gum. Sind. good in cough. M. flowers. biliousness. heals ulcers. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. alexiteric. Seeds-astringent to bowels. purgative. cooling. :—Throughout tropical India. ulcers. leaves. Australia. dysentery. improves complexion. Gum . Ambo. a good collyrium (Yunani). Mango tree. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Chuta. bad blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. fruits and seeds. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. FAM. Amba. useful in bronchitis. beautifies complexion. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Amra. spleen. good in heart trouble. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. dispels langour and burning of body. See—Timbers. tumours. cause flatulence and constipation. styptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. aphrodisiac. Amri. Am. "Pitta". astringent to bowels. Sahakara. Bhutan. NS. China. anthelmintic. wild and cultivated. vermifuge and. LOC. diseases of abdomen. Fruit—heating. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. vaginal troubles. diuretic. Sk. tonic. cure leucorrhoea. sour. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). cure "Vata". PARTS USED :—Root. G. good in dysentery. laxative. clears brain. Rasala. carminative. H. Ceylon. stomachic. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. K. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. styptic. appetiser. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. fruits and seeds. leaves. vulnerary. liver pain.
—Apl. NS. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Bevu. Kadulimb. CHAR. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. M. Khandodi. Nim or Margosa tree.5 cm. Madhumalati. useful in diseases of eye. stops nasal bleeding. LOC. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Juice of kernel. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Fl.5-10 cm. Nim. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. :—A large twining shrub. Java. few glands above the petiole cordate . USES. aphrodisiac. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. :—Deccan and S. Ripe fruit is laxative. burning sensation. all plains districts of Madras State. tumours. Nimbaka. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Fl. alexiteric. Nakchhikni. useful in bleeding piles. M. Suparnika. LOC. biliousness. C. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. corona lobes large. Limbada.—rotate with broad lobes. Sd. t. DISTR. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. See—Timbers.—many. coma copious . K. leucoderma. Sk. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. NS. cures "Vata". Nimba. L. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. antipyretic. margined. M. It is also anthelmintic. 7. flattened. broadly ovate or suborbicular. :—-E. asthma. Confection made from ripe mango juice.3-15 X 4. G. inflammations.—broadly ovate. Country. Assam. :—Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. pale yellowish brown. Kharkhodi. H.—follicles. rat-bite (Ayurveda). Harandori.—6. astringent to bowels. cooling. Juss.. Nimla. fleshy. older branches ash coloured.) FAM. Limbra. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits.) FAM. overlapping to the right.5-11. .:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. :—G. K. H. Nimba. Hari. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. with lenticels and black dots.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. Balant nimba. Hemajyoti-valli. green or yellowish green. rugosely striate. Fr. Paribhadraka. COM.—Asclepiadaceæ. good for dyspepsia. Dugdhike . long. Fruit Trees. Dodi. COM. urinary discharges.—Meliaceæ. if snuffed. Ambri. Sk. piles. Ceylon.
almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. insecticidal. urinary discharges. earache. fatigue. valuable in consumption. carminative. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. anthelmintic. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. chronic leprosy. tonic and antiperiodic. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . cures ulcers and inflammations . USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. lessens inflammation. and loss of appetite. bark. useful in syphilitic sores. expectorant. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. tonic. refrigerant. alexiteric. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. maturant. resolvant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. leprosy. rheumatism . M. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. leucoderma. maturant. skin diseases. swollen glands. LOC. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. piles. lumbago. sprains. Ranmethi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Banmethi. Oils. . Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. The flowers are stimulant. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. it is a general vermifuge. tumours. general debility. leaves. See—Timbers. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. "pittadosh. bad taste in the mouth. COM. stomachic. relieves "Kapha". The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . boils. NS. LOC. bruises.. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. asthma. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. for unhealthy ulcers. good for leprosy. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. Tonic. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). blood complaints. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. thirst. cough. DISTR. burning sensation near heart. convalescence. Sk. good in ophthalmia. astringent. toothache. Burma.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. piles. stimulant and stomachic. H. :—E. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). Small melilot. aphrodisiac. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. FAM. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. pectoral. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . flowers. Vanmethika. anthelmintic. antiperiodic. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. fever." vomiting.
. 30-45 cm. standard exceeding the wings and keel. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—size of a pea. M.—monœcious . "Sikkim. stem angular. of terminal rather long. Europe. FAM. M. LOC. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn.—variable in size. Khasia.—3-foliate. COM. truncate at the apex.—Cucurbitaceæ. Iran. Fl. Fl. Externally used as a fomentation. high. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. leaves and seeds.—pale yellow. Bilari. :—Western Peninsula. Malaya and Africa. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. Afghanistan. Agamaki. Pudinah. ellipsoid. Pudina. tapering at both ends. :—India (tropical zone). L. leaflets toothed. Country and Gujarat. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. :—H. :—E. K. glabrous. north Bengal. young parts white-hairy. H. Fr. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. NS. Pudina. base cordate.—pod. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. in spicate close racemes. :—Common in Deccan. especially in strained back.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Fl. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds.. poultice or plaster for swellings. introduced into many other regions. rounded.— Jany. NS. FAM. DISTR. at first green and variegated with yellow. It has expectorant properties to some extent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. S. Ghugri. G. very hispid . C. scabrid. LOC. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. Corn-March mint.—Labiatæ. L. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). brown. Fr. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. deltoid-ovate entire. females sessile. Assam. CHAR.—small. oblanceolate. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. lobes dentate or serrate . finally red. HABITAT :—In hedges.—one. t. oblong-ellipsoid. glabrous or slightly hairy. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Chatinmaragu. M. Ceylon. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. COM. :—An erect annual herb. tendrils simple. also in S. male fascicled on short peduncles. slightly echinulate. Sd. given as a gruel (Murray). :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan .
DISTR. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. hairy. Country. good for fevers. tonic to kidneys . leaves. alexipharmic. USES :—Root. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. foul breath. E. dry. Naghas. Oils. LOC. North and West Asia. LOC. sorethroat. used for cough. Fr. Fl. L. Konkan and N. :—E. Nagchapha. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Ceylon Iron-wood. biliousness. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). infusion is given in fevers. flowers and fruits. DISTR. :—A perennial erect herb . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Nagkinjalka. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). oblong. COM. thirst. Burma Tenasserim. Andamans. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. vomiting. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. stem short. asthma. expectorant. smooth. Suvarna. stalked. Assam Iron-wood.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. hiccup. sweats. diuretic. cardiotonic. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. good in asthma and sweats. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. skin diseases. toothed. indigestion and cephalagia. lilac. In N. lanceolate. China. FAM. small tumours. C. Travancore. Gums and Resins. Nagsampige. Assam. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. binding.—Guttiferæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Kanara. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. . LOC. Kashmir. Nagkesara. S. Europe. headache. lined with hairs and hairy outside. MESUA FERREA Linn. NS. M.—in axillary distant whorls. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. PARTS USED :—Bark. The plant is used in chutneys. cough. :—Western Himalayas. Bengal. the upper similar and large. Himalayas. useful in liver and spleen diseases. See—Timbers. emmenagogue. Ceylon. M. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Carminative. LOC. pains in joints (Ayurveda). blood and heart troubles. Sk.-narrowed below. Flowers are astringent and stomachic.—nutlets dry. Nagkesara. digestive. Nagakeshara. HABITAT :—Cultivated. none at the top. :—E. H. and stimulant. ovate. K.
K.—Sept.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. nausea and fevers . sensative. Nachike-gidda. India. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). 57. Yunnan. diuretic. FAM. hairy beneath. Fr. diaphoretic. rachis bristly. bark. Sk. Fl. petioles hairy. Flowers— expectorant. Lajalu. bile. DISTR. removes worms. 45-90 cm. Champaka.. G. G.—Magnoliaceæ. :—E. :—Cultivated all over the State. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. clothed with glandular hairs .-Oct. COM. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Champo. gout. Ghats. rheumatism. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m.-pod flat. aphrodisiac. H. W. "Kapha". it is given with honey to relieve colic.—4-merous. destroys poisons. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas .—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Pivala chapha. Sankochini.—bipin-nate. Flowers-stomachic. digitate. pinnae 1-2 pairs. slightly recurved. glabrous above. FAM. COM. with 3-5 one-seeded joints.. in globose heads. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. PARTS USED :—Root. IndoChina. Kanara. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Burma. Sensitive plant. H. near temples and in gardens. blood affections. Champa. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. LOC. :—E. Champaka. L. :—A diffuse under-shrub. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. . young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Lajalu. in vertigo. S. Sonchampo. Fruit. Vanamallika. Golden champa. long. Lajjavati. Fl. also used as purgative. useful in cough. Lajjika. stems and branches sparingly prickly. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Sk. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. NS. Surabhi. Sone-chapha. acrid. diuretic. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. CHAR. remove biliousness. Sampige. K. LOC. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . facilitates micturition. See—Timbers. Muthmurika. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Dyes. flowers and fruits.5 cm. Hem-pushpa. rheumatism. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Pilochampo. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Humble plant. stimulant. Suvarna champaka. Champaka. "Vata". t. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Sparshalajja. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). good in leprosy. M. pink. leaves. Raktamula. ophthalmia. Yellow champa . Lajja. cultivated. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. NS. Lajalu. evergreen rain-forest of N. Lajari. high. Risemani. Assam. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia.
:—Naturalised throughout India. Fruit causes flatulence. Bakul. Mukul. ulcers. fruits and seeds. Kanara and Konkan. Varsuli. Bolsari. DISTR. In Brazil root is used as emetic. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. headache. Bakul. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. cures biliousness. FAM.:—Western Peninsula. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. piles. flowers and fruits acrid. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . PARTS USED :—Root. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. LOC. Baphuli. Ceylon. acrid. cures "Kapha". smoke good in asthma (Yunani). leucoderma. Sk. cure blood diseases. Mugule. Root. smallpox (Yunani). Juice is applied externally. Flowers—expectorant. bilious fevers. liver complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Kanara. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Kalhala. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Ranjal. bark. astringent to bowels.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. H. in piles and fistula. leprosy. Bakul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. probably a native of tropical America. blood diseases (Ayurveda).—Sapotaceæ. LOC. alexipharmic. Root is resolvent. cooling. Seeds fix loose teeth. stomachic. DISTR. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. Anangaka. Flowers give taste. often planted in gardens. vaginal and uterine complaints. :—G. Bark cardiotonic. cure biliousness. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Mulsari. Malaya. jaundice. LOC. M. good for gonorrhœa. dysentery. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. oleaginous. It is also resolvent and alterative. cooling. Sharadika. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. alexipharmic. nose diseases. NS. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. leprosy. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. asthma. K. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. alterative. Vovali. cultivated in gardens in pots. sweet. biliousness. inflammations. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. Bakula. teeth and gum diseases. cultivated in the tropics. flowers. vulnerary. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. fatigue. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. burning sensation. Borsalli. useful in blood and bile diseases.
Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Karela. FAM. Kareli. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. Hagalkai. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. DISTR. LOC. Kandura.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS.—Nyctaginaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants. Karli. cordate. Sandhya-kali or Raga. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. :—A herbaceous plant. LOC. Marvel of Peru. Fr. . COM. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. M. G. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. M. HABITAT -Cultivated. 30-75 cm. high with large perennial tuberous roots. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Karala. Four o'clock plant. COM.—continually in bloom. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. CHAR. yellow. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Sk. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. Fl. lessen inflammations (Yunani). and rather fleshy stems . Fruit Trees. Karavalli. H. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . each one surrounded by an involucre.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. native of tropical America. K. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. t. Gulbasa . it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation.—large. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Hagala.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Carella fruit. :—E. good for syphilitic sores. Oils.—E. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. it is applied to relieve headache. Karelo. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. It is also tonic and febrifuge. L. blackish. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Fl. Chandra—Sanjimallige. :—Grown throughout India. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. H. Sk. Leaves are maturant. NS. FAM. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Krishnakali. often ribbed or rugose. See—Timbers. Karela. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Guleaabbas . K.—membranous.
cure "Vata". urinary calculi. Sk. Leaves act as galactagogue. M.—Cucurbitaceæ. Beksa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. etc. anæmia. hiccup. China. and externally in ague as an absorbent. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. NS. piles. "Kapha". LOC. DISTR. Kanta. cure "Tridosh". LOC. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. aphrodisiac. COM. Gid-hagalu. stomachic. DISTR. blood diseases. Vishakankini. digestible. antipyretic. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Nagarali. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. LOC. :—G. S. antibilious. Vandhya. Leaves—aphrodisiac. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. boils. It is useful in gout. lessens expectoration . tropical Africa. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. B and C. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. tonic. asthma. Country and Gujarat. Malaya. Fruit is tonic. longpepper. urinary discharges. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. urinary discharges. Plant cures diseases of blood. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. leaves and fruit. carminative. leaves and fruit. M. hot alexiteric. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. rheumatism. all kinds of poisoning. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. Fruit—very bitter. piles. stomachic. erysipelas (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. diseases of spleen and liver. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. leprosy. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. Fruit— bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. Kantoli. Fruit—bitter. Ceylon. FAM. Karkotaki. . laxative and authelmintic. Golkandra. jaundice etc. also in Malaya. rheumatism. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . anthelmintic. fever consumption. bronchitis. Kartoli. ulcers. cures biliousness. eye and heart. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. anthelmintic. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness.'. Fruits contain vitamins A. used in syphilis. Karehiballi. sparingly in Konkan. laxative. asthma. bronchitis. K. and America. H. excessive salivation. burns. :—Throughout India. hearttroubles. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. Kantolan. tumours. :—Cultivated throughout India. See—Vegetables. laxative. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cooling.
Seglo. biliousness . Rochana. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. Saraoji. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Vegetables. Root-tonic to body and lungs. emmenagogue. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Sk. Guggala. Sajina. G. Ab. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. astringent to bowels. Mulgule. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Achi. M. tuberculous glands in neck. also in the Oudh forests. also wild. K. See—Dyes. Ashyuka.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. analgesic. Achchuka. Formosa. stuttering. dyspepsia. Drum-stick Tree. cultivated throughout India and Burma. Shevaga. K. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. COM. :—E. LOC. Mochaka. H.—Moringaceæ. Munigha. aphrodisiac. Ugra. Nuggi. FAM. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). . makes blood impure . Al. inflammations. alexiteric.—Rubiaceæ. Bartondi. PARTS USED :—Root. "Vata". ulcers. M. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Indian mulberry. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. Murangi. Ak. fattening. COM. removes all kinds of pains. eye diseases. bark. Haladipavate. Ainshi. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. flowers. Indian horse radish . "Kapha". Segua. useful in heart-complaints. earache. Aal. causes burning sensation. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. leaves and fruits. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Tikshnamula. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Mochaka. Sargavo. H. Famine Plants. China. DISTR. digestible. Burma. leaves. Tagase . G. all "tridosha" fevers. NS. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Introduced var. spleen enlargement. :—E. DISTR. Sk. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. fruits and seeds. HABITAT :—Cultivated . NS. LOC. anthelmintic. FAM.
burning sensation (Ayurveda). leaves and fruit. bronchitis. epilepsy and hysteria. Ambat. ulcerated intestines. sour. loss of appetite. internal inflammations and calculous affections. increases biliousness. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. Shetur. Fruit—tonic. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. good for inflammations of throat and chest. diuretic. Fruits contain vitamins A. Tuta. wounds. MORUS INDICA Linn. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. DISTR. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. . gout. PARTS USED :—Root. G. Leaf paste. appetiser. cooling. LOC. COM. Oils. aphrodisiac. common about villages in N. diuretic. See—Vegetables. cures gleet. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. lumbago. Root is purgative. Sk. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. rheumatism. expectorant. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. lumbago. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. obstinate asthma. with garlic. it is cooling laxative. M. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. biliousness. diarrhœa. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. K. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . FAM. spleen. laxative. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. aromatic and acid flavour. Tutri. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. carminative. urinary discharges. expectorant. piles. good for brain. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. Tuda. Madhu pippali. Kanara. stomatitis. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). See—Fruit Trees. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. Seeds yield a fixed oil. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. H. sweetish. bark. Peninsula. Tut. :—E. heart. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Karihannu. White mulberry. useful in small-pox. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. enlarged spleen or liver. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. enriches blood. turmeric. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid. enriches blood. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). B and C. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. fattening. Tut. Siahtut. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. salt and pepper.—Moraceæ. Kambali. LOC. Fibres. Gums and Resins. anthelmintic.
Kapikachu. LOC. stem. PARTS USED :—Root. Kivanchha. Kela. Nayi songuballi. Banana. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. K.3-11. Kuhili. common in hedges.) FAM. long. Adam's Fig. Urustambha.3 cm. Fr. Var.2 cm. LOC. which produce intensa irritation of skin. covered with tawny stinging hairs. lateral very unequal sided. consumption. Sk.—5-6 small. Fl. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Root—emmenagogue. Havanch. petioles 6. flowers and fruit. :—E. Rambha. leaflets membranous. laxative. SAPIENTUM O. sometimes cultivated. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. turgid-shaped. Atmagupta. grey-silky beneath. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Goncha. G. Bale.—Scitaminaceæ. LOC.—3-foliate. FAM. HABITAT :—Humid areas .. They are used as anthelmintic. Himalaya up to 1200 m. biliousness .—in drooping racemes. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. COM. cures blood diseases. 6-30 flowered. H.5x1. M. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. L. pods and seeds. cultivated. terminal smaller. dark-purple. DISTR.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. Seeds— alexipharmic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—E. " Vata ". HABITAT :—In hedges. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. :—Punjab plains. COM. Kadali. DISTR. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. NS. Hasaguni. NS.. Plantain. CHAR. :—An annual twiner. Kela. Kivanch. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Kela. improves blood. with honey is given in cholera. Root useful for delirium in fevers. 5-7. Sd. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. PARTS USED :—Root. MUSA PARADISIACA L. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. H. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . tonic. Kadvare. Fl. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. K. M. Vanari. juice given for headache. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Cowhage. Ceylon.—pod. Kunth. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. t. G. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. silky. Strong root infusion. Kavatch. Sk. Tikshna. Kavach. tonic. Maoz kela. leaves.—Oct-Nov. Fruit— aphrodisiac. spermatorrhoea etc. Turashi. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Dirghapatra. .
Assam. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. kidney troubles (Yunani). hairy. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. buds densely hairy.—Rubiaceæ.— July-Oct. Fr. leaves. Root-juice. Ipparati. Nagavalli. in " Vata". PROPERTIES AND LOC. very hairy outside. :—A rambling shrub. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. leprosy. deep golden yellow. dyspepsia. menstrual disorders. Lawsat. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. broad at base. Fruit—sweet. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. diseases of uterus and vagina. K. Bellotti. ear-pain. blood diseases. in thirst. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. indigestible . and are used in acidity.. Bhutakes. NS. Sk. useful in "Kapha". COM. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes.— berry. Fl. L. thickens blood. improves complexion (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Root-juice is anthelmintic. Bedina. Tropical Himalayas. Burnt stem is vulnerary. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. linear. aphrodisiac. flowers and fruit. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. causes bronchitis . Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. tonic. antidysenteric. pubescent. Hastygida. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. PARTS USES :—Root. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. appetiser. anthelmintic. urinary discharges. strangury. LOC. stipules twin. Kanara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. M. LOC. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. astringent to bowels. B and C. :—H. biliousness. Fibres. DISTR. diabetes. :—S. Shrivalli. Serwadh. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. heart-burn and colic. FAM. See—Fruit Trees. tonic. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. t. :—Konkan and N. subglobose. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. increases appetite. Fl.—opposite or 8nately whorled. consumption and bronchitis. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes .—tubular. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. astringent to bowels. tube slender. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . . good for dry bronchitis.--in terminal cymes. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. CHAR. C. Andamans. sore-throat. broadly elliptic. lobes broadly ovate.
W. LOC. Malabar.—Myrtaceæ. :—Western Peninsula. See—Timbers.—berry. Kanara Ghats . Fl. Himalayas. fruits and oil. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. FAM. Vilayantimendhi. Fr. Kamuka. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. M. axillary on slender peduncles.— Myristicaceæ. K. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. small. black when ripe. Ram-patri. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. ellipsoid. :—Konkan and N. :— E. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. ovate to lanceolate. all over the State. cures headache. Pliny. COM. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk.— solitary. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). CHAR. enriches blood. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. :—A shrub. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . DISTR. common in the Kumta taluka. LOC. applied locally to relieve pain. They are given in asthma. Malati. white. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. It is used as a substitute for true mace. intermittent fevers and dropsy. Galen and the Arabian writers. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. A decoction is employed. smoke beneficial to piles.—small. L. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. as . M. allaying pain.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. LOC. DISTR. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. very sweet smelling. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Murad. Sk. Kanage. promotes growth of hair. Myrtle. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. Dioscorides. Habules. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malati. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. H. used in stopping vomiting. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. NS. Kaiphal. It is credited with opposite qualities. False nutmeg. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. FAM. Condiments and Spices. diuretic. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. :—E. COM. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. emmenagogue. especially epilepsy. PARTS USED:—Seeds. is regarded as.
with slender. Kamala. solitary or 2 together.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. Pankaja. cures asthma.3-0. high.—July.—Meliaceæ. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Papra-vel. K. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Timpani. Amlavalli. dysentery. Ambuj. bronchitis. elongate. :—A large aquatic herb. t. CHAR. Kandabahula. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. diam.—Nymphæaceæ. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. erect. Kandalu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. anthers with clavate appendages. top flat. entire. PARTS USED :—Root.—white. NS. Kapurbhendi. C. t. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Padma. peltate. Kamal. fleshy. 3-foliate. Belakanji. Nelanaringa . L. spongy. Fl. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Kamal. radiately nerved. :—E.-Nov. curved. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. .—solitary. 0. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas.6 m. M. petals 5. white or rosy. Fl. Sk. muricate.. Chinese water-lily. disk annular. Kanara.—pendulous. glabrous. leaves.5 cm. M. axillary. Fl. FAM. COM. petioles very long. torus 18 mm. Indian sacred lotus. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. Sk. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. hæmorrhage. Tavari-bija or gadde.—alternate. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. in diam. elliptic. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. K. LOC. from Iran eastwards to Australia. cells 2-seeded. long. Ripe carpels. Sd. 3-valved.—capsule. ulcers (Ayurveda). Ambuja. vulnerary. Fr. LOC. G. ovoid.—petals many 5-12. biliousness. H. Padam. Pitmari. L. Pundarika. :—W. LOC. concave or cupped. CHAR. :—Konkan.-Dec. Kamal. COM.. DISTR. linear spathulate. NS. Aravinda. stem. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Fl. DISTR. alexiteric.—membranous. rough with distant prickles . Goanese ipecacuanha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. ovoidglobose. Suriyakamal. & A. petiole winged. Sarasija. free. orbicular.) FAM. :—A small branching undershrub. 10-25 cm. :—E.
PARTS USED :—Root. Ashwa-marak. leaves. fruit. Kanagile. lobes rounded. vomiting. India. COM. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Sk. useful in fevers .—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. Karber. Fl. tapering into short petiole. Salt Range. fragrant. :—Madhya Bharat. allays thirst. L. leucoderma. stem. Kaner. K. at length separating. gives tone to breast. linear-lanceolate.—follicles. good in blood-complaints. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. flowers. Vishavrikshanka. Kanel. M. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Karvira. coriaceous. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. Cool. Karvira. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. useful in piles.—red. :—E. spermatorrhoea. Upper Gangetic Plains. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . Baluchistan. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). rigid. long. C. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. FAM. menorrhagia. Filaments are astringent and cooling. DISTR. chest-pains. cures cough. . LOC. long. in fever and liverdiseases. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. also as a hedge plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs.—Apocynaceæ. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . biliousness. Sd. honey. Fl. Paddali. Kaner. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. S. See—Ornamental Plants. inflammations and poisoning. In China and Malaya dried red petals. removes worms. 15-23 cm. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . good in throat-troubles.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Cool. H. throat scaly. diseases of skin and eye . :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. also recommended as cardiac tonic. dark green and shining above. 10-15 cm. LOC. small-pox.—funnel-shaped. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . flowers. also cholera. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". NS. slightly bitter. leaves. Pratihasa. Waziristan. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. t. astringent to taste . aphrodisiac. diuretic. useful in burning sensation of the body. CHAR. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. Fr. allays thirst. Kanher. Sweet scented oleander. heart and brain tonic . G. ulcers and sores of mouth. fever. seeds. rose or white. strangury. Sind. planted in gardens throughout the State.—in threes. improves watery eyes (Yunani).
very poisonous. tonic. CHAR. nervous depression and sleeplessness. asthma. M.—capsule. Sk. LOC. The plant contains a glucoside. NS. cultivated in all tropical countries. especially root. An ointment made . oblong or elliptic.8 cm. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. across. carminative. headache. Fr. disinfectant. Poisonous to fish. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. skin diseases. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. useful in bronchitis. Krimighni. sedative and emetic. Tamarakuthika. funnel-shaped. :—Native of America. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. good for lumbago. also applied in leprosy. tonic.—alternate.—Solanaceæ. emetic. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. Bujjarbhang. anthelmintic. laxative. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). are poisonous and are used externally. LOC. bronchitis. K. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. Fl. H. FAM. Tamaku. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. smoke constipating. sores. G. water from hookha is diuretic. base wedgeshaped . Tambakhu. Tambak. a mental stimulant. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. Tobacco.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. inflammations. USES :—All parts of plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). DISTR. M. Kalanja. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. Dhumrapatrika. inflammations. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. scabies. Root—aphrodisiac. lobes spreading. Hoge soppu. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). See—Ornamental Plants. wounds. Tabak. dimness of sight. C.—pink or white. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). large (especially lower ones). HABITAT :—Cultivated. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. scabies (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Tamakhu. L. caries of teeth. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). foul nose. useful in caries of teeth. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. the surface is plain or bullate. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. Flowers— aphrodisiac. tubercular glands of neck. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in open corymbose panicles . Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. COM. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. conical. :—E. about 1.
Fl. :—E. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. rough above with bulbous hairs. peduncles 4angled. Indian Mourner : G.—lobes white. tube orange-coloured. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Bilitavarai. bark. Prajakta. NS. Lalkamal. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Nilophhal. HABITAT :-Cultivated. :—A large shrub or a small tree. useful in bilious fevers. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Nalkumkuma. ovate acute. hairy.—Nymphæaceæ.—capsule. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Aravind. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. It is used with honey in chronic fever. K. Lotus.5-6. Madhya Bharat. Cultivated in many parts of India. C. H. Burma. t. Buds are tonic. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. densely pubescent beneath. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. leaves. DISTR. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. scalp affections etc. Harsing. Bark cures bronchitis. Jayaparvati. Fr. obcordate or merely orbicular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . solitary. Sephalika. Parijataka. Kanwal. Parijata . NS. M. Assam. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. COM. :—E. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. tonic to hair. Shonapadma. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. G. FAM. LOC. Sk. Kharapatraka. Sephali.— fragrant. COM. M.. flowers and seeds. Bengal. lessen inflammation. astringent-to bowels. bark. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). cures fevers. Parijata. Nyadale huvu . compressed. stomachic. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. southwards to the Godavari. Sk. Chotakanwal. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. PARTS USED :—Root. Har. (Ayurveda). L. LOC. axillary.3 cm. Prajakta. Har-singhar. Kanval. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. carminative. K. abundant July-Sept. Alipriya. 2-celled. CHAR. Kumuda.—opposite 5-10x2.—Oleaceæ. young branches quadrangular. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement.— more or less throughout the year. . a decoction of root. H. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Fl. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. in terminal trichotomous cymes. See—Ornamental Plants.) FAM. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant.
PARTS USED :—Root-stock. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. H. pale rose or white. alexipharmic. white. Var. leaves. Philippines.— in whorled racemes . allays thirst. inflammations.—Labiatæ. Sabja. LOC. Damaro. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. cooling .—all the year. Surasa. DISTR. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). Manjarki. toothed or lobed. long. causes burning sensation. stamens about 40. deeply cordate at the base. juice gives lustre to . short. Fl. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. across. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions.—3 cm. Sk. Ajagandhika. Tukhamariya . Hungary.. diam. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . Fl. irregularly sinuate-dentate.9 m. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). thyrsiflora. obtuse. glabrous or pubescent. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. pink or purplish.— ovoid. hot taste. diameter. 8-13 mm. emmenagogue. :—Var. C. diuretic. NS. black and pitted. Barbar. L. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. Tungi. DISTR. fleshy. globose. M. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. Ramkasturi. G. lessens bile. See—Ornamental Plants. Africa. leaves and flower.—peltate. 7. anthelmintic. Java. red. Fr. " Kapha". long. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. Bahari. entire. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Barbar. Sabja. oblong. bracts stalked. 15-25 cm.—nutlets about 2 mm. Surabhi. biliousness. Sajjebija. ellipsoid. LOC. aphrodisiac . Sd. ripening beneath the water. roundish. PARTS USED :—Roots. Fl. :—Large aquatic herb . t. asthma. open in the morning only. :—E. high. purple stem. flowers and seeds. erect. bitter taste. useful in diseases of heart and blood. itch. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). Rihan. root stock tuberous. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts.5-20 cm. rough. removes impurities from blood .—petals about 12. and nigropunctate above. green. enlarged spleen. CHAR. COM. K. Burma. FAM. diarrhœa and piles . Sabzah. peduncles very long . bitter. LOC. antipyretic .6-0. "Kapha". "Vata". petioles very long.—ovate. Nasabo. C. filaments dilated at the base .—2-lipped. submerged . Fr. leucoderma. Plant has a sharp. "Vata".—solitary. acute.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. cylindric. improves taste . glabrous or hispidly pubescent. :—An erect herb 0. chronic pain in joints. stems and branches green or purplish. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. stomachic. Ceylon. useful in diseases of heart and brain. Common sweet basil. febrifuge. glabrous.
earache. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. high.8 m. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). heating. elliptic-lanceolate. Large basil. diuretic and stimulant. lower lip longer. good for toothache. Country. :—E. pale greenish yellow. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. :—A perennial shrub. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor.5 X 3. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. strengthens gums. Rama-Ran tulasi. often cultivated : Ceylon. heart. CHAR. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. During fever when the extremities are cold.2—1. pubescent.— in simple or branched racemes.. rugose. strangury . Java. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.—2-lipped. " Kapha". 1. Fl. NS. they are also aphrodisiac. diuretic and demulcent properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. gland-dotted. good for griping and piles (Yunani). " Vata". Deccan. Sumukha.—6. fits. The flowers possess. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. BanMal tulasi.-July-Oct. useful in diseases of brain. Gujarat. brown. Lemon—shrubby basil. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. FAM. in close whorls . Plant has bitter. aphrodisiac . LOC. branched. stimulant. Fr. headache. Rantulasi. coarsely crenate-serrate.8—5. LOC. t. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. rachis quadrangular . young ones pubescent.—nutlets subglobose. G. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. LOC. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. liver and spleen.—Labiatæ. alexiteric. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). DISTR. inflammations. M. COM. Ajaka. carminative. It is also styptic. Fl. sharp taste .7 cm. C. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women.3—12. S. H. . Ram Tulasi. stems and branches subquadrangular . :—Konkan. useful in vomiting. L. removes foul breath. M. woody below . for which the juice warmed with honey is given. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. skin diseases. Avachi-bavachi. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. Sk.
—2. obtuse or acute. globose or pyriform . leaves and seeds. minutely gland-dotted. varying from 7. strangury. Parapate. M. :—An annual herb. M. LOC. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. Malay Archipelago. anthelmintic.— in racemes 15-20 cm. CHAR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. used in catarrh and bronchitis . HABIT :—A common weed. long in close whorls . Pavitra. Suravallari. :—An annual plant. 30-60 cm. . H. Ceylon. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). :—Konkan.. DISTR.— capsule. Phapti. stems numerous. heating. Tulasi. stipules with bristles . Manjari. " Vata". Tulasa.2 cm. lumbago pains. " Kapha". LOC. CHAR. :—Throughout India. Papli. long. Tropical E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases .5—38 cm. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. Fr. of children and in hepatic affections . :—G. usually 2-3 cm. Arabia. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system.—subsessile. Vishnuvallabha. M. L.6— 3. margins recurved and scabrous. stems and branches subquadrangular. LOC. foul smells. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Kala tulasi. H. L. NS. smooth. purulent discharge of ear. upper lip pubescent on the back. Australia. Fl. Damanpaper. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. useful in heart and blood diseases. COM. Vrinda. elliptic-oblong. stomachic. Fl. Asia to Java and the Philippines. FAM. DISTR. purplish. t. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos.—Sept-Nov. vomiting. linear or linear-lanceolate. and are given with honey. antipyretic. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. FAM. K. hiccup. Vranda.—pale brown. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. pubescent.5-5 X 1. C. leucoderma. high.— nutlets. G.—Rubiaceæ. COM. Tulasi. high. yellow with black marking. Parpat. Fl. lobes acute. Krishna tulasi. West Asia. angular. especially in children. entire or serrate. asthma. clothed with soft hairs . Sk. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent.—2-lipped. See—Sacred Plants. bronchitis. bitter. Sd. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. cholagogue. alexiteric. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Country. painful eye. Deccan and S. Tulasi.—on filiform pedicels. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots.:—E. purplish.—Labiatæ. Fr. Sk.
Chorhothalo. Grown as hedge. Nagadru. carminative. rather thin. . about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. leucoderma. vesicular calculi. used in ophthalmia. or more high. loss of consciousness. inflammations.5 cm. 3 m. Prickly pear.—7. cures inflammations. M. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. Sher. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. Plant juice—heating. recurved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. CHAR. angular or warty. urinary complaints. burning. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw.—Cactaceæ. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . reddish purple when ripe. pyriform. Snuka. dull bluish-green. largest 3. Fr. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. across. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. flowers and fruits. K. spleen enlargement. ascites. yellow at the edges. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. long. anæmia. perianth rotate. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. stomachic. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). FAM. DISTR. Slipper thorn. reddish at the tips. Vajrakantaka. Joints variable in size. Nagaphana. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. xerophyte. purgative. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. Nagaphani. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. Nagaphana. laxative. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. yellow or orange. Sk. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. :—E. introduced into India. ulcers. long. COM. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. cures biliousness. L. outer segments ovate red in the centre. lumbago. Phadyanivdung. spleen enlargement. digestive. inner spathulate.—5 cm. rusty brown. LOC. Plant bitter. liver complaints. it is also used in liver complaints. alexiteric.— berry. tumours. Nagdali. Zhoratheylo. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. piles. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). NS. diuretic. obovate or elliptic. subulate. H. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. Hathathoria. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. cures bronchitis in children.5 mm. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. " Vata". juice cures earache (Yunani). Fl. LOC. Mullugalli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. G. antipyretic.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. good for leucoderma. carminative.
FAM. K. LOC. H.S. G. M. LOC. Bhat. asthma. Araluka. Fruit—acrid. K. anal troubles. intestinal worms. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Tandula. :—The Konkan and the N. Mokka.). Shyonaka. fevers. Rice . dysentery. FAM. astringent to bowels . Shali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. good in heart and throat diseases. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). DISTR. Tetu. tonic.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Dyes. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. :—Widely cultivated. Ghats. improves appetite. Tetu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K.—Bignoniaceæ. vomiting. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Ceylon. leucoderma. Dirghavrinta. Cochin-China. oleaginous. bronchitis (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In moist-forests. R. Nivara. Kanara ghats . Akki. Chokha. Tetu. Rice. PARTS USED :—Grain. bronchitis. Bagi. LOC. Alangi. Ullu. Arlu. Indian trumpet flower. COM. Seeds are purgative. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. appetiser. Ava. stomachic. Podval. improves taste. Chaval. K. NS. :—E. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. COM. anthelmintic. It is astringent and tonic. biliousness. Pharri. cooling. piles. See—Timbers. M. Tans. Sk. Vrihi. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. H. useful in " Vata". useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. sweet. fattening. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). LOC. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. M. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Fruit—expectorant. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). :—E. aphrodisiac. tonic. Tandula. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. NS. Mayarjangha. aphrodisiac. G. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. DISTR. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Tuntaka. Sk. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. inflammations. diuretic. useful in biliousness . Malaya.
diarrhœa. NS. Dugdhika. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Amrul. linear-oblong. margins ciliate. transversely striate. beaked. Sk. Amlalonika. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. if applied to chest. cures dysentery. Dudhialata. also in burns and scalds. Sd. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. scarlet fever. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Kshiravi. Changeri. M. long.— many. measles. The grains contain vitamin C. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . good appetiser . Br. to which a little lemon juice is added. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Indian Sorrel. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. LOC. leaflets 1. buboes. H. CHAR. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. boils. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. Ceylon. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts .2—2. C. rounded at the apex. t. brown. Marudbhava. Rice water.—Oxalidaceæ. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. Sk. inflamed piles. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. sub-umbellate . COM. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. Dudhatani.5 cm. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. FAM. removes " Kapha ". M. bruised. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. yellow. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. ulcers. H.—palmately 3-foliate. stems rooting. Shuklika. Dugdhica. Dudhialata. K. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Fl. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. small-pox. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. COM.—petals 5. :—G. bowels or kidneys. Ambastha. . skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). :—E. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. astringent. Fr. " Vata " and piles. Dudhari. It is a pleasant.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good.—axillary. LOC. Jaladudhi. :—Throughout the State. Chukrita. Fl.—Asclepiadaceæ. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. PARTS USED :—Leaves. petioles very slender. K. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. easy to digest. dysentery and scurvy. Dugdhike. L. Ambuti. ovoid. base cuneate subsessile.— Oct-May. 5-angled. FAM. gives great relief. obcordate. :—A small procumbent acrid herb .— capsule. NS. used externally. DISTR. oblong. pubescent. See—Food Plants. Kyirin . fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. In dysentery. Dudhani.
8-6. aphrodisiac. cough. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. K. long. Anthers useful in pruritus. Umbrella Tree. scabies.—Pandanaceæ. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. useful in strangury and tumours. alexiteric. heat of body. Poona Sangam.—deciduous. leucoderma. rarely erect. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. much branched. X 3. FAM. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. lobes ciliate. Sundarbans. high. HABITAT :—Usually near water. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. diuretic. stem supported by aerial roots . 3. PARTS USED :—Plant.5 m. mouth with pubescent ring. Fl. DISTR. milky juice. Kevada.5-9 cm.8 mm. Gandha-pushpa. causes flatulence. tonic. expectorant. fruit. anthers. L. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. stems many. Mundige. leaves. margins and midrib spiny. Java.—very numerous. LOC. anthelmintic. :—Konkan and N. Andamans. Kanara. root. with flavour. Screw pine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. aphrodisiac. CHAR. pale rose or white. Flowers improve complexion. Country— Belgaum. :—E. Keora.— large. Fruit—tonic. . Ketaki. long. pain. bitter.3 cm. Dhulipushpika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.—follicles.—glaucous green. t. DISTR. Burma. Giripriya. syphilis. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat.—dioecious.9—1. Fr. indigestible. Deccan. coma present. M. S. M. NS. laxative. somniferous. linear or linear-lanceolate. coriaceous ensiform. female flower spadix solitary. aphrodisiac. thin. palegreen. LOC. often planted. Kewoda. Sk.—oblong or globose. LOC. Kanara. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Fr. anthelmintic. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. corona staminal. " Kapha ". Leaves are useful in leprosy. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. C. :—A shrub up to 6 m. L. Fl. :—Konkan. Kedige. juice is used in gleet. 4. gonorrhœa.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. pain in the muscles. fruit and oil from bracts. G. Fl. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". purple veined. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). black. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . strikingly handsome. yellow or red.—Dec. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). 0. Gogandhul. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. Chama-pushpa. Ketaka. dry. COM. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. PARTS USED :-Root. Ceylon. small-pox. Ketgi. Sd. diseases of heart and brain.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
—Palmæ. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. nose complaints. Afghanistan. M.:—Very common throughout the State. Kidney diseases. biliousness. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. long. leaflets 1. Kohesaru. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. Kajuri. Fl. Sind. CHAR.—in sub-capitate. and southwards to Ceylon. yellow. piles. cures consumption. FAM. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. dry. glabrous or hairy. M. FAM. Ranmug. wild date palm. dysentery. membranous.—6-12.—Oct. :—Annual or perennial. COM. blood diseases. Kolaba and Kanara. Kallu. Sd. Fl. good in fevers. Seeds— tonic. layer.3—2. laxative. DISTR. Kherk. Boichand. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. Kalli-chalu. COM. DISTR. Sendhi. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Khandesh. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Sk. LOC. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. Deccan and Gujarat.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Ranmath. enrich blood. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. thirst. aphrodisiac. good for the eyes . Kurangika. LOC. K. as a kharif crop. :—Largely grown in. bitter. H. inflammations. See—Food Plants. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. Siyindu. Magavala. Tadi. Dharwar. Swadi. " Kapha".— pod. cough. Kharjurika. straight subcylindric. :—G. digestible. Sk. Fr. wiry. Mugani. t. Belgaum. Trianguli. light and astringent. LOC. Khajuri. Ahmednagar. eye troubles. Konkan. broadly spathulate. K. peduncles 10-23 cm. astringent. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Kharjuri. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Abyssinia. H. . G. styptic. long. L. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). Kashayi. Ahmedabad.5 cm. headache. Shindi. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. long. Burma. Malay Islands.5—5 cm. Adavada. mugawana. burning sensation. Shimbiparni. slightly recurved. prostrate. Vanmudga. good for eyes. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). few flowered racemes. cure biliousness. gout. Kapila. Date sugar palm. Satara.—3-foliate. " Tridosh". 2. throat inflammations. :—E. astringent to bowels. LOC. Indian wine palm. PARTS USED :—Seeds. The grains contain vitamins A and B. bronchitis. Ichela-mara. Adabanmagi. petioles grooved. antipyretic. Koshila. Khaji. NS.
LOC. wandering of mind. Jalapipali. oblique. crown hemispherical. ensiform.—sessile. Fl. Baluchistan. useful in diseases of heart. :—Found fairly in Surat. Africa. :—A creeping perennial herb. spinous. outer Himalayas. vomiting. C. Coromandel Coast. 9-15 m. oleaginous. scented. Langali.—Jan-Feb. cooling. female spadix and spathe as in the male. Mysore. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice.—2. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. constipating. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. Ratoliya. Fl.) FAM. pinnules many.—Verbenaceæ. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. t. large and thick. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. aphrodisiac. wild or more often cultivated.5 m. t.—opposite.5 m. :—Throughout India. orange-yellow. Ratuliyo. cooling. Bhuiokra. Fr. Siwalik. anthelmintic. Ceylon. Sholapur. spadix 60-90 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet.5—3. H. NS. oblong-ellipsoid. roundish. stems rooting at the nodes.—rounded at the ends. erect. LOC. 2-lipped. usually along banks. densely fascicled. See. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Bihar. Poona and Belgaum districts. L. CHAR. Jalapimpli. M. long. fruit and juice of the tree. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. subsessile. deeply grooved on one side. pointed. fevers. clothed with appressed white hairs . Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika.—globose. spiny at the base. rigid. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). rounded at the apex. triangular. Sharadi. sharply serrate in upper part. Fl. greyish-green. long. Okra.—white or pale-pink. aphrodisiac. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). . high. long. :—G. This is called neera. Rohilkhand. :—Tolerably common throughout India. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. good in heart and abdominal complaints. Ratoliya. flowers very many. Sk. blood and eye. Jalpippali. spatulate. Fr.—Fibres. Toyavallari. Bengal.—pinnate. :—A tall graceful palm. L. Sd. Vashira. petioles compressed towards the apex. DISTR.. fattening. lower 3-lobed. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. much branched. cardiotonic. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . male white. Famine Plants. 15-45x2-2.2 cm. Fl. upper 2-lobed.— dioecious. angular. oblong. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. COM.—more or less all the year. flowers distant. and in beds of streams and water courses. DISTR. 3-4. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. Agnijwala. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. alexiteric.
fruit. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. M. anæmia. cooling. Plant—hot. very numerous. smooth. Bhumyamali. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda).—capsule. Kiranelligida. L. leprosy. asthma. distichous. Bhuianvalah. good for ulcers. globose. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. thirst. Bhuiavli. wounds. dry. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness.. LOC. asthma. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. sores. alexipharmic . In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . of female. Sukshmadala. milky-juice. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. lobed. Fr. It is valuable in scurvy. useful in thirst. The whole plant. :—Konkan and Deccan. maturant. and without salt may be applied to bruises.useful in fevers.—Euphorbiaceæ. scabies. leaves. NS. Sadahazurmani. bronchitis. . monœcious. Infusion is a good tonic.— numerous. FAM.— July-Aug. Ceylon. COM. Tropics generally. high . Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. except Australia. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. disk of the male of minute glands. axillary. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. stem branched at the base. hiccup. males 1-3. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. anuria. urinary discharges.—yellowish. Jaramla. :—G. LOC. elliptic-oblong. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). :—Throughout India. angular. scarcely lobed. DISTR. LOC. Bhumyamalaki. Fl. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). burning sensation.—3-gonous. diuretic.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. wounds. very small. Stomachic. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. Sk. Leaves are stomachic. females solitary. Bhumyamali. longitudinally ribbed on the back. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Amala. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Ajata. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. ringworm (Yunani). 30-60 cm. K. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. CHAR :—An annual herb. Sd. H. bronchitis. annular. Vituntika. t.
smeared with oil. Bhakshyapatra. throat diseases. anthelmintic. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. K. M. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Nagavalli. removes all foulness from mouth. It contains an aromatic essential oil. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. tonic and digestive. generally in Konkan. Tambola. K. bechic. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. spleen diseases.—Piperaceæ. Sk. Pan. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. heating. given with milk in hysteria. aphrodisiac. FAM. ozœna. Sk. LOC. Kanara forests. FAM. satyriasis and to allay thirst. liver and muscular pains. Tambulavalli. carminative and astringent. urinary discharges. purgative. Vidyache-pan. asthma. improves voice. Kalaka. styptic (Yunani). hot. tonic to brain. Poona. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. and fruits (rarely). laxative. M. piles. elephantiasis . It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. Warm leaves. Pan. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. It increases saliva. bronchitis. foul smell in the mouth. Fresh leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. LOC. Vata". inflammations. Marich. Linn. Betelleaf. Tikshna. See—Condiments and Spices. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. useful in "Kapha". night blindness. leavs. Kalamirich. Menasin-kallu . improves appetite (Ayurveda). heart and liver. clears throat. :—E. :—Wild in the N. PARTS USED :—Fruits. LOC. H. carminative. aphrodisiac. Kaphavirodhi. Kanara. Satara. G. NS. Mensinballi. Pan. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. It sweetens breath. Betel pepper. NS. carminative. Sholapur. :—E. alexipharmic.—Piperaceæ. DISTR. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. acrid. Menasu. vulnerary. Panu. pains. stomachic. cultivated in Konkan and N. Kalimiri. increases biliousness. COM. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Kalamiri. useful in toothache. . leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. ozoena. " Kapha ". alterative. strengthens teeth . :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. useful in "Vata". Eleballi. Vileyad-ele. COM. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). tonic. Malimirich . Saptashira. G. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Golmirch . Black-pepper. Betel leaf vine.
It has specific effect on skin-diseases. C. paralysis . piles and some skin-diseases . :—K. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Deccan. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . used in chronic bronchitis. N. Khandala (pretty common). as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . sprains. weakness following fevers. Khasia Hills. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. coma. See—Condiments and Spices. LOC. DISTR. Lahuriya. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. base tapering into petiole. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. lumbago. tonic and a local stimulant. Externally it is rubefacient. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim.—lobes 4.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . various forms of cutaneous diseases. Vehkali. variable in width. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. hills of S. :—E. COM. NS.—Pittosporaceæ. FAM. It is a good expectorant. Fr. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. & A. dries body humours (Yunani). piperidine and an essential oil. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. leprosy.—Plantaginaceæ. used as febrifuge.5-12. H.—capsule. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Bark contains a glucoside. Greater plantain . Tammata. ovoid. petiole longer than leaf-blade. . In physiological action. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. It yields an essential oil. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. vertigo. chest affections. Bartang. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. M. sciatica. COM. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. Vikhari. chronic fevers. bruises. facilitates menstruation.— alternate. W. Konkan. and possesses narcotic properties . Arcot and Salem. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. radial 2.5 cm. ophthalmia and phthisis. See—Timbers. Burma. the oil is alterative. long. CHAR. L. entire or toothed. lanceolate or greenish . NS. Fl. FAM. Kanara in ghat forests. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. ovate or oblong. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism.
stems herbaceous. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). obtuse.—3-5 cm. Chitra.. LOC. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood.—large. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. LOC. Ratochatro. :— E. DISTR. Agnishikha. L. Sd. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. afford relief.Kempuchitramula. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Fl. limb wide. H. :—Konkan : Deccan. Sk. angled. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). :—Temperate Himalayas.—throughout the year. high. and seeds. Nilgiris. alterative. Ghats. t. Raktachitraka. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Malaya. :—Cultivated throughout India.—tube slender. Rosy-coloured leadwort. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State.Sept. Lead-wort. lax spikes. Ceylon. Lalachitraka. K. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Fl. Lalchita. Lalchitrak. alterative and diuretic. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Palni hills. rosy scarlet.. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. long in long terminal axillary.-4-8. Burma. Fl. W. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Baluchistan. attenuate. LOC. LOC. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. base passing into amplexicaul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. top coming off as a conical lid. G. COM. erect. t. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Assam. DISTR. FAM. Lalchitrak. striate .MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Chitraka.—Plumbaginaceæ. M. HABITAT :—Along river banks. Fire plant. dull-black. C. exauriculate petiole. PARTS USED :—Roots. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. oblong. zeylanica. leaves. Fattening. Mahang. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. NS. PARTS USED :—Roots.-Feb.
FAM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. See—Ornamental Plants. Chitaro Chitrak. Chitra . t. stomachic. Malay Peninsula. tonic.—in elongate spikes. diseases of liver. it is useful in dyspepsia. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . bechic. leucoderma. :—E. itching. leprosy. laxative. Bile-Chitra-mula. Agnishikha. pointed. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. useful in laryngitis. striate. leaves are caustic. and in leucoderma. piles. COM. diseases of spleen. oblong. skin disease. stomachic.—Plumbaginaceæ. NS. vesicant. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. ascites. Chitranga. cultivated . entire. a paste is made with milk. In S. G. See—Ornamental Plants. It is used in procuring abortion. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. stems 0. Fl. inflammations. January 1933). Fl. . a favourite medicine for flatulence. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. LOC. L. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies.—white. hot. Res. " Vata" and " Kapha". Chitra. piles. ovate. C. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. rachis glandular . ring-worm. juice. " Tridosha" . Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. Tropics of the old world. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. aborti-facient. The use of Pl. dysentery. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. bronchitis. anthelmintic. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. DISTR. terete. H. :—Throughout India. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. scabies. attenuated into a short petiole.5 m. Fr. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. leaves. astringent to bowels. Sk. Chitra . a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. Jyotishka. long. rheumatism. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Chitramula. LOC.—thin. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). woody. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. root-bark. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. wild in Western Peninsula. Medi.—Aug. lobes 5. expectorant. alexipharmic. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. Vahni. consumption. cure intestinal troubles. Vallari. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. Root—bitter. alterative .6-1. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). Journ. Ind. Chitrak.—capsule. K. spreading. anasarca. M. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. diarrhœa. leucoderma. Chitraka. carminative. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. Bengal. appetiser. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite.-Sept.
Fr. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth.-May. Sk. :—All throughout the State. urinary discharges. M. LOC. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. common. Radha-champo. :—A small shrub 1. Kanara. t. CHAR. stems and branches quadrangular. Champakam. long. venereal sores. Fr. C. 7. Pagoda tree. very fragrant. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. purple. Rhuruchapha. Root-bark is purgative. Khairchapha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter.—Apocynaceæ. 12 cm. K. COM.2—1. L. G. acrid. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. M.8-9 cm. Mahabaleshwar. useful in gleet. FAM. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. cylindrical. ascites (Ayurveda). entire. long.— large. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague.—salver-shaped. . 3-lobed. acute at both ends. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. irregularly doubly toothed. L. NS. oblong-lanceolate. divaricate. abundant from Mar.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. :—E. pungent. H. laxative . Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. rounded. high. whorls close. 15-30 cm. heating. 4-lobed. :—Native of tropical America. leaves and milky juice. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. Fl. pains. bark. Goleurchampa. NS. DISTR. inner face angular. COM.—2-lipped. LOC. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India.-nutlets ellipsoid. See—Ornamental Plants. white with a pale yellow centre.-Feb. Devagangile. DISTR. FAM. Fl. Pangli. spirally arranged. Country. PARTS USED :—Root. broadly ovate. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Deccan. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. itching.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. upper lip white shot with purple.8 m. cultivated. ulcers. Kadu-sampige. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. rarely maturing. C. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. S.:—More or less throughout India. Phangla.—Dec. Belchampaka. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). abundant. carminative. smooth. t. :—Konkan. Frangipani. Golainchi.5-18x3. lower lip white. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. :—M. with an intra-marginal vein. shining. many flowered. Fl. shining black. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism.—practically throughout the year.—follicles. useful in leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. CHAR.—Labiatæ. LOC. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch.
—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Pavaka. Agnibijaka. Kanja. lumbago. leaves. G.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Gracie). lumbago. See—Timbers. COM. J. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. ascites. leucoderma. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. bruised. H. flowers. chest complaints. DISTR. Oil—anthelmintic. F. . liver pain. K. Huligili. juice is given in colic and fever. Kanika. Sk. chronic fever and hydrocele. chronic fever. :—G. Arni.—Verbenaceæ. Kanaji. Jayanti. Oil—styptic. itching. Oils. Chamari. good for tumour. Honge. purify and enrich blood. skin diseases. M. K. carminative. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Karanja. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. skin and in keratitis . leprosy. " Kapha ". throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Arni. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). relieves inflammation. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Naktamala. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. LOC. H. good in scabies. cures eye diseases. Seeds—acrid . alexipharmic . PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. cure earache. M. Karanja. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. anthelmintic. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). COM. Indian beech.) FAM. rheumatic pains. piles. Karanj. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. USES :—The fresh leaves. Kirmal. Ustabunda . herpes and other cutaneous diseases. In Satara. useful in diseases of eye. LOC. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. vagina. cures biliousness. NS. NS. piles. Agetha. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. also planted. along Deccan rivers . wounds. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. ulcers. fruits and seeds. Sk. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. " Vata ". :—E. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Agnimandha. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Ichu. Gaura. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary discharges . Karanjmara. FAM. wounds (Ayurveda). Arand. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Aran. Karanj. head and brain diseases.
PARTS USED :—Leaves.—Myrtaceæ. stomachic. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. Peru .2-6. cooling.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Gum is tonic. diabetes. smooth. causes "Kapha". lobes 4. pungent. Jamb. aphrodisiac . bronchitis.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). flowers. Piyara. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. H. . heating. Perala. used in bronchitis. constipation. Fl. Jamphal. It is also employed in scurvy. common about Karwar. Sk. piles. Ceylon. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Gova. Kanara. blue-black. laxative after food.— June-July. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. :—Cultivated all over the State. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. applied to sore eyes. Ash—caustic (Yunani). HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. C. hairy in the throat. FAM. DISTR. seated on the calyx . fever. Peruka. Fl. :—E. good in colic and for bleeding gums. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers.—5-9 X 3. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Amrut. as an astringent to bowels. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. fruits and gum. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. LOC.—hard. Young leaves are tonic in the . :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. high. DISTR. Root is laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. K. It is given in the form of decoction. M. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. Vastula. COM. Flowers cool body. Nicobars and Malaya. useful in anaemia. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. inflammations. broadly elliptic. small. t. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Fruit—tonic. cooling. cylindric. Sd.. cool heated brain.—tubular. Fr.3 cm. Perala. Andamans. laxative. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). bark yellowish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. L."Vata". Guava tree. G. NS. sour. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). for unhealthy ulcers. rough-tubercled . decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. LOC. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Safedsafari. chyluria. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Jamud-rukh.— globose. greenish yellow. LOC. stomachic. Dridhabija. Peru. entire or upper part dentate. Anthers—dry wound. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. See—Famine Plants.
skin diseases. scabies. Kushtaghni. laxative. " Rakta-pitta". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. PARTS USED :—Root. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). Leaves—good for diarrhœa. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). nigro-punctate. Konkan and S. antipyretic. clawed. 3. anthelmintic. L. good for leucoderma.—simple.—Aug-Dec. improves hair and complexion. stem and branches grooved. 0.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. G. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. aphrodisiac. stomachic. studded with glands and white hairs. C. DISTR. urinary dis charges. cures blood diseases . high. raw one is used in diarrhœa. ovoidoblong. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Chandralekha. :—E. M. Sd. Fl. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. smooth. biliousness. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. white hairy. petioles hairy and gland-dotted.8 X 2.—in dense axillary. vulnerary. vomiting.—one. nephrites and cachexia. LOC. improves appetite. anæmia. fruit and seeds. leaves. H. alexiteric. Bavachi. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. LOC. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Sk.6-1. Babachi.5—5 cm. CHAR. good for heart troubles. Bavachi. Seed—purgative. NS. Babachi. t. Vanguji. causes biliousness. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Bakuchi. diuretic. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cures "Vata". 10-30 flowered racemes . piles. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. bronchitis. M.2 m. :—An erect annual. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). Bhavanj. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. closely-pitted. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. . Kalameshi. mucronate. alterative. Seeds— refrigerant. COM. Bowach-chi. stimulant. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. difficulty in micturition. Fr.—pod. solitary. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". See—Fruit Trees. black. Country. anthelmintic. leprosy. inflammation.—bluish purple . Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. FAM. HABITAT :—Waste places. bitter taste. K. Bukchi. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. heals ulcers. Fl. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Fruit—diuretic. standard orbicular.
tonic. FAM. DISTR. " Kapha ". Mahakutaj. Benga. anal troubles. COM. Bigsah. Indian kino-tree. Sk. used in sore throat. styptic. flowers and gum. Dadimba.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. ascends to 1100 m. tonic. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. colic. LOC. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). cures " Vata ". Common in N. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Khandesh and Dangs. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Gums and Resins. PARTS USED:—Root. body eruptions. ophthalmia. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. laxative. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. called kino. diuretic. enriches blood. vulnerary. cultivated in many parts of India. :—E. allays thirst. NS. scabies. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Dalimba. Flowers—check vomiting. antipyretic. flowers and fruits. Raktabija-pushpa. FAM. Pomegranate tree. used in piles. Fruit-appetiser. biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Bija. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. Bibla. India. DISTR. Dalimb . Honi. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. erysipelas. stomatitis. laxative. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. :—Western Peninsula and S. applied to hydrocele. fever. NS. somewhat milder in action than catechu. Hulidalimb . prolapsus ani. alterative . Honne. M. useful in biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. fattening. H. Sk. sore eyes brain diseases. COM. also in Konkan.—Punicaceæ. elephantiasis. strengthens gums. Malabar kino-tree. useful in eye troubles. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). Gum. boils. :—Leaves. burning sensation. :—Wild in Iran. K. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Valka-phala. . Anar. LOC. liver tonic. earache. Bio. blood diseases. LOC. heart-disease. Pitasar. Gum—bitter. sore-throat. Bark—astringent. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. good for biliousness. useful in vomiting. See—Timbers. bark. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. scattered but not gregarious . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Bia. Ceylon. Dharimb . Dadam. leucoderma. M. Kanara. Bibla. useful in all body diseases. ulcers. Kabul and Baluchistan. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. leprosy. anthelmintic. Bijak. urinary discharges (Yunani). Dhalim. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. chest troubles. " Tridosh". spleen complaints. in Akrani. griping. H. K. Sunila. Dadima. Bibla. G. :—E. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. thirst. Hirdokhi. gleet. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Flowers— improve appetite. Dadima.
hairy beneath. widely cultivated all over India. :—A strong climber. FAM.—Rubiaceæ. L. Malaya. pendant. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. long. LOC. Rangoon creeper.-Aug. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. CHAR. glabrous above. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Barmasinivel. LOC. COM. Konkan. base rounded. acutely 5-angled. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. :—E. K. calyx tube long. numerous. Lalchameli. Karhar Mainphal. jasmine . H. M. LOC. Fruit contains vitamin C. Dharaphal. Gelphal.—opposite. M. The rind of the fruit. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. H. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Chinese honeysuckle. Mangari-kai. Mindhola. Madana. Fl. Fr. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. Rangoonchavel. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking.—Combretaceæ. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Fl. dark green. See—Ornamental Plants. C—petals 5. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. S. Country and Kanara. In China. at first white then deep red . It is given in the form of decoction. USES :—In Amboyana. lanceolate . Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. Karigidda. Pinditak. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine.—Mar. Gela. Minkare. t. acuminate. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. . Emetic nut. nearly 6 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated. elliptic. :—E. G.5 cm. 7. COM. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Annam. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. NS. M. DISTR. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. NS. Rangoonkibel. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual.— ellipsoid. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. G. Midhola.—in axillary and terminal spikes. FAM. Sk.
Mulak. it is equal to it in every respect. M. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. Mura. boils. heating. Muro. DISTR. cholera. tumours. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda).—Cruciferæ. Hastidanta. used in diseases of the brain. :—E. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. anthelmintic. DISTR. Sumatra. carminative. eruptions. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. H. Mali. Tropical Africa. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. antipyretic. Mula. LOC. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. flowers. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. useful in diseases of heart. bad taste. muscular pains. inflammations. NS. It also contains an essential oil. useful in chronic bronchitis. FAM. amenorrhœa. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . purgative. emetic. LOC. emetic. Bitter. Bili Mulangi. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. It is also used to poison fish. Mula. alexiteric. Seeds-sharp. fruit and seeds. G. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . E. hiccup. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. :—Throughout India. carminative. S. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. leprosy. Muri. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. produce alopecia (Yunani). K. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. Ksharmula. cures abscesses. laxative. its action is very safe.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. See—Timber. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. piles (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. bitter. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. China. leprosy. sweet. certain and regular. and all inflammations . asthma. paralysis. Ruchira. COM. skin-diseases. inflammations. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. good for spleen and in paralysis. binding. juice relieves earache. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Radish. Juice of . carminative. leucoderma (Yunani). given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. piles. leaves. The plant contains glucoside saponin. good in tumours. destroys "Vata". Java. ulcers. Sk. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Ceylon. " Vata" and " Kapha".
RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. cures " Tridosha ". :—An erect perennial shrub.) FAM. M. Sivanabhi. HABITAT :—Moist forests.—drupe.—Acanthaceæ. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. ginger.5-18 X 2. CHAR. Chandrika. Andamans.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative.-May.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. DISTR. LOC.—in irregular corymbose cymes. 7.—Apocynaceæ. Root contains vitamins A. single or didymous. In the Konkan. K. Fl. COM. pale beneath. Chandrika. irregularly.. Sarpagandha. Kanara.-in whorls of 3. NS. Nai. diuretic. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. serpentinine. Chhotachand. used in hyperpiesis . heating. It is hypnotic. Fr. NS. Group B — Serpentine.5-6. COM. ajamalinine. leaves (rarely). sedative. Sk. laxative. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0.9 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. t. . corrective and emmenagogue. :—H. Doddapatike. B and C. thin. expectorant.— Mar. bright green above. Mungusavel. black shining. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. FAM.3 cm. LOC. Palakjuhi. nodular. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Western Peninsula. Gaja-karni. L. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. PARTS USED :—Root. often tinged with violet. See—Vegetables. acrid. swollen a little above the middle. M. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. Sarpakshi. white.—tubular. Sk. Garudpatala. K. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. seeds are considered peptic. and black salt. with a long. :—H. sharp. carminative. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. C. Nakulikand. pungent. Ceylon. anthelminitic . Harki. Yuthikaparni. Fl. yellowish root stock.. Harkaichand. ajmalicine. shady open places near rain-forests. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Juipani. lanceolate. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. acute. bright red . Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. Java. specific for insanity. ulcers (Ayurveda)..
Country. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. DISTR. fevers. COM. :—Throughout India. strangury. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. NS. velvety hairy Sd. pointed. Divaligo. HABITAT :—Hills. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. widely cultivated in tropical countries. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. pubescent: C. S. oil—anthelmintic. Madagascar (cultivated). glands. Tirki. body pains. glandular. convulsions. leaves. bronchitis. Fruit— appetiser. M. M. inflammations. K. vaginal pains. 0. tumours. Fl. narrow. ascites. boils. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Seeds and oil have a bad taste.5 m. L. ring-worm. Ceylon (wild) . stems obscurely angled.— tuberculate. Chitrabija. some fevers. Divald. earache. useful in inflammations. H. Vardhaman. asthma. flowers and seeds. high. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula.9—1. LOC. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". alterative. Straits-Settlements. Erand. M. Haralu. Java. Sk. Sholapur). Erand. Erand. Castor oil plant. paralysis. LOC. useful in pains. Root-bark—purgative. Fr. Leaves—galactagogue. Khandala. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. elephantiasis. PARTS USED :—Root. diseases of rectum and head. useful in liver troubles. pains. rheumatism. leprosy. night-blindness. G. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. LOC. eructations.—lipped. :—Undershrub. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Cattle are fed with leaves for . :—Deccan. useful in skin-disease. Mahabaleshwar. cultivated. lumbago. Vardhamana. aphrodisiac. inflammations. ascites. black.-Jany. t. liver and spleen diseases. increase biliousness. purgative. generally cultivated. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. Palma christi. elliptic lanceolate. anal troubles. entire. Seed and oil—cathartic.—Oct. FAM. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). intestinal worms.—capsule.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—E.. piles. dropsy. hairy outside . :—Probably of African origin.—5-10 X2-5 cm. good for burns. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. LOC. piles. DISTR. useful in heart diseases. solitary. tropical Africa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. asthma. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. increases "Kapha". Arand. Country (Dharwar. Triputiphala. white. upper lip bifid . lumbago. Belgaum. ascites. Very little in other districts of the State. carminative . amenorrhœa (Yunani). leaves and seeds. pain in back. alterative. bracts ovate lanceolate. hills near Belgaum. leprosy. typhoid. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn.—nearly sessile. Eranda.
DISTR. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . Ghazipur is a chief centre. good for eyes. laxative. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. cultivated all over India. liver. G.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. they are cold. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. :—A perennial shrub. tooth-ache. red. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache.— usually corymbose. hairy. Ati-manjula. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—obovate . improves appetite (Ayurveda). Gulab . stems with stout and hooked prickles. t. stomatitis. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Rosaceæ. used in heat of body. Sudburj. CHAR. dry. Pannira. cooling. tonic. removes bad odour from mouth. cardiotonic. excessive perspiration. head-ache. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. sweetish. France. attaining 1. Italy. long. mild and safe purgative. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. aperient removing bile and cold humours.—pinnate.— all the year. Flower—bitter. Fr. benefits lungs. L. P. stipules scarcely dilated. In constipation it is used as an enema. Fl. which is a powerful poison. Lakshmipushpa.3 cm. with a good odour. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. FAM. petioles prickly. M. Greece and Germany. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. . sometimes glandular. cures leprosy. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). antipyretic. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid .. seldom griping or causing flatulency. :—Origin unknown. PARTS USED :—Flowers. sometimes striped . See—Ornamental Plants. much used in lotions and collyria . cardiotonic. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge.5 m. etc. Tarana. chronic fevers. ovate oblong. They are also applied to painful joints. NS.5-6. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. serrate. intestinal affections. LOC. double. Soumyagandha. astringent when dry (Yunani). Gulab. adults. " Vata". biliousness. aphrodisiac. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. laxative. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. Punjab and U. LOC. COM. :—E. expectorant. Sk. kidneys. acrid. pink or white. burning sensation. K. H. Shatadala. 2. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. inflammations. See—Oils. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. cephalic. Gulab.
roots very long. M. it powerfully affects the nervous system. improves voice and complexion . amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. greenish.—2. PARTS USED. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. branches quadrangular . eye. Leaves-sweet. Chuka. paralysis. Amlavetasa. all scabrous with white prickles. FAM. leaves and fruit. Tamravalli. :—Perennial climbing herb. base cuneate. Chukra. erect glabrous herb.—in terminal panicled cymes. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily.—white or pink.-Jany. NS. Java. liver complaints. pains in joints. Sorrel. grooved. uterine pains (Yunani). spleen-enlargement. :—Root. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. Country. cures " Kapha ". analgestic. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. Sk. L. H. tropical Africa. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. K. jaundice. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. inflammations. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. Manjishha. high. Fr. alexiteric. leucoderma. Fl. urine and even bones red. branched from the root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. inner perianth-segments membranous. anthelmintic. ovate. Bladder. Root—bitter. Sk. Ambat Chuka. Fr. Fl. Gulmketu. rheumatism. Japan. H. . lactagogue. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. L. emmenagogue. shining. purplish black when ripe. Ceylon. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). 15-30 cm. CHAR. erysipelas. Malay Peninsula. :—E. obtuse. cordate or hastate. antidysenteric. ulcers and skin-diseases. t-Oct. jaundice. LOC. one pair with longer petioles ovate.—Rubiaceæ. acrid. five-nerved. ear. blood. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. with a thin red bark.5 cm. lower leaves larger. dysentery. Dock. :—Annual. and was much used in dropsy. diseases of uterus. elliptic. bitter. vagina. Manjishtha. prickly.—in whorls of 4. leucorrhoea. antipyretic. M. Decoction tinges blood. COM. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. Majit. NS. analgesic. stems very long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. the Konkan and S. Aruna. COM.—didymous or globose. lethargy. used in eye-sores. ulcers. Chitralata. :—E. Manjit. heating. LOC. FAM. Manjishtha.—Polygonaceæ. Indian Madder. Fl.5—7. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. orbicular .—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . piles. laxative. Raktasara. smooth. M. diuretic. oleaginous . increase appetite. cylindric. petioles triangular. urinary discharges. valves hyaline. leucoderma. paralysis.. DISTR. Rohini. CHAR.
H. :—Common throughout the State.—Rutaceæ. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. Satri. N. G. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. stomachic. 2-lipped.—Nov. with darker spots. ovoid oblong. COM.-Jany. laxative. C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. pains. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. rugose with furrow. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. vomiting. in dysentery. DISTR. Persia. DISTR. acute. alcoholism. Sd. FAM.—white. Ceylon. they are prescribed. See—Vegetables. dyspepsia. LOC. USES :—Leaves are cooling. S. bracts elliptic. Common—Garden-rue . Fr. NS. lower shortly 3-lobed. blue or pink. stems usually decumbent. :—Western Punjab. COM. roasted. oblong lanceolate. H. CHAR. Kanara. useful in heart troubles. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. checks nausea and promotes appetite. analgesic. ciliate. bronchitis. Satapa . :—A herb . Sadapaha. aperient and diuretic. M. Satap. Deccan. Cooling. bites and stings of poisonous animals. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn.—Acanthaceæ. M. constipation.— subsessile. Sk. t. The juice allays tooth-pain. Parpatha. :—E. piles. Africa. Sadabu. upper emarginate. Country. hiccup. then erect. acute . Fl. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). tumours.—capsule. Trans-Indus Hills. Afghanistan. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. flatulence. Konkan. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. M. . :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Nagadali.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. toothache. pale brown. LOC. The seeds have the same properties . leucoderma. often rooting near the base. Khatselio . LOC. :—G. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. Fl. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Sk. Vishapaha. Kharmor. Pismarum Sadab. also considered as a vermifuge. NS. Ghati pittapapada . tonic. useful in scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour.—suborbicular. L.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. while fresh they are bruised. generally in the Deccan. K. diseases of the spleen. Havananju. asthma. FAM.
oleaginous. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Sk. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Asia is very likely the original home of the species. The oil is the best form for administration. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia.—petals 4. Satara. HABIT :—Cultivated. NS :—E. emmenagogue. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. thirst. grown in gardens. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. obtuse . all over the State. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. flawed. Ganna. petioled. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. FAM. etc. M. digestive. LOC. garden. Fl.—Gramineæ. Poona. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. Gudatrina. increases mental activity. epilepsy. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan.. M. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems.—angled. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. glandulose punctate. C. :—Egypt and Algeria. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Powdered and combined with aromatics. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. abortifacient. Tanigarbu . USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Sugarcane. G. COM. useful in fatigue. diuretic. tonic. :—A strong smelling herb . Us . LOC. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. L. Rasala. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). K. S. indigestible. :—Grown everywhere in India. oblong-obovate. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. yellowish. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. decompound. The plant is tonic. cultivated throughout India. There are three varieties . laxative. in pots. Gudakastha. diuretic. Madhuyashti. Ikshu. DISTR. Kumad. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. H. S. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. The plant contains glucoside glutin. . I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. particularly Deccan. Rikhu. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Naisakar. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. DISTR. Sd. anti-aphrodisiac . Ingotu. Fr.-alternate.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. amenorrhœa. Kabbu. Ukh .—capsule. Sherdi. segments cuneate. heats body. leprosy. it may be given internally in hysteria. flatulence. colic. cooling. spathulate or linear-oblong . heating to body . and externally used as a rubefacient. forest and mountain.
Pilu. Brihat madhu pilu. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac . Abyssinia. useful in nosetroubles. disorders and wind. Pilu. Kanara in littoral forests. G. white. NS. diuretic. greenish-yellow.—Salvadoraceæ. improve diuresis (Yunani). See—Food Plants. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . COM. deobstruent. alexiteric. Sind. lobes much reflexed. :—E.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. DISTR. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. L. useful in heat. Fruit—aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. The juice contains vitamins A and B. bad for liver (Yunani). opposite. piles. Cane—sweet. leucoderma. stomachic . 3 mm. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. Kharijal. carminative and diuretic. Mahaphala. ulcers. scabies. LOC.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. Egypt. Fl. Pilu. pectoral and aphrodisiac. carminative. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. Sk. Tooth-brush tree. useful in biliousness. causes " Kapha. deeply cleft. often mucronate at the apex. . LOC. oil is digestible. H. leaves. Goni. sugar is considered heavy. Piludi. smooth. good for lungs . arsenic or corrosive sublimate. sometimes it raises blisters. numerous.. It is good in calculous complaints. K. In the Punjab. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Fl. M. the Konkan and N. LOC.—very thin. anæmia. often planted near Muslim tombs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. In cases of poisoning by copper. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. purifies blood . delirium. shining. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). Fr. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Leaves—bitter. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Pilu. Seeds—purgative. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. laxative. Jal. lessen inflammation . fruits seeds and oil. dry regions of W. :—Dry districts of the State. diuretic. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. Khakan Mirjoli.". t. strengthen teeth. astringent to bowels. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Asia. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. bile. erysipelas. C. inflammations. Ceylon. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. corrective. tonic and aperient. finely striate. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. fattening. red when ripe. useful in biliousness. Sugar causes " Kapha". improves appetite. fleshy. analgesic.-Feb. Fruits are deobstruent. near the coasts of Gujarat .—drupe. :—Drier parts of India. tonic to liver. branches numerous. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism.—Nov. diam. FAM. globose. drooping.
hemicrania. COM. stomachic. NS. Ceylon. Malayaja. aphrodisiac. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. emetic. PARTS USED:—Wood. Bhadrasri. :—Western Peninsula. Anthuvala. small-pox (Ayurveda). M. . Fruit—bitter. See—Timbers. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Bhadrasara. Mysore and parts of Madras State. is applied to local inflammations. Sk. Sukhad . up with water into a paste. Ritha. Sandal-wood Tree. S. :—E. strangury. Burugukayi. Chandal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. alexipharmic. Shrigandhalmara. alexiteric. in skin-diseases. K. Kumblabijaka. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Ritha . LOC. DISTR. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. head-ache (Yunani). lumbago. chiefly in S. Chandan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Cultivated elsewhere. much cultivated. ground. alexiteric. Kanara. to allay heat and pruritus. LOC.. aphrodisiac. Country and N. diarrhœa.—Sapindaceæ. USES :—Wood. Phenila. Arithan . HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Chandan. Sandal. COM. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Ringni. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. cold in head. gleet. M. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Bhogivallabha. H. G. astringent to bowels . useful in chronic dysentery. fruit and seed. to temples in fever. Soap-Nut tree. thirst. useful in inflammations. antipyretic. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Root—expectorant. Chandan. Sk. gonorrhœa. abortifacient. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. H. Arishtaka. laxative. tubercular glands. K. Agarugandha. paralysis. Mangalya. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. vaginal discharges. NS. Rishta. Antharalo. biliousness. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . G. LOC. DISTR.—Santalaceæ. cholera. burning sensation. Phenilu. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. Kugale. often planted. acts as diaphoretic. FAM. :—E. M. Suket. Aritha. exhilarating. " Kapha ". epileptic fits of children. Oils. useful in diseases of heart. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. cures "Tridosha". bronchitis. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. allays uterine pains. Oil. India. :—Indian Peninsula.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
removes "Kapha". cure menorrhagia. LOC. Raysingani. beaked. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. cooling. strengthening. linear-oblong. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. tonic. of eye and ear. Fr..5-15 cm. H. galactagogue.—in lax. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. suppurating wounds. hair-tonic. LOC. Sk. CHAR. tonic. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. Jayanti. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in sorethroat. K. into claw. spleen troubles. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. Waziristan. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. M. bark. 15-23 cm. Seeds contain vitamin A. eye diseases .—pod. promote hair growth. Jayanti. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. applied to ulcers and piles. mottled with purple on the outside. indigestible . L. They are nourishing. gouty joints. etc. biliousness. oil. Black variety is common. useful in diarrhœa. strangury. 4-5 m. white and red. applied to gouty joints. Jaya. lung diseases. See—Oils. Shewari.— abruptly pinnate. syphilitic ulcers. inflammations. 7. asthma. useful in dry cough. obscurely angled . opposite. alterative. Sd. astringent to bowels. small-pox. There are three varieties of seeds : black. They are also emmenagogue. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . Jayantika. seeds. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. scabies. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. enrich blood. leaflets 914 pairs. Fl. :—A soft-wooded shrub. in height. leaves. septate between the seeds.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. cures . NS. DISTR. long. inflammations (Yunani). Janjhan. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. diuretic. few flowered axillary racemes. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). seeds. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. Rasin. and as an oildressing for ulcers. Jayat. :—Cultivated all over India. urinary concretions. They have been used to procure abortion. inflammations.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Nadeyi. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. anthelmintic. Jinangi. diuretic and lactagogue. an emollient poultice is also made from them. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. probably a native of tropical Africa. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. long. Jayanti. COM. bleeding piles.—standard as broad as long. branches striate. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. slightly torulose. pendulous. C. such as dysentery etc. Baluchistan. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—20-30. carminative. leaves. diseases. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. Seed-oil—fattening. oleaginous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. yellow. FAM.
MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. anthelmintic. high. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). Bak. 15-30-cm. biliousness. Leaves—purgative. useful in ophthalmia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). C. :—A soft wooded tree . DISTR. long. allays thirst. Fl. FAM. COM. night-blindness. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. H. 6-9 m. ulcers. NS. long. M. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. Flowers—cooling. See—Fodder Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". diarrhœa. dysentery and paludism. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). LOC. Ornamental Plants. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . Agathio. gout . cures " Tridosh " pains. Dirghashimbi. Agusta. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. Bark—astringent. Sk. Agasta. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic.— pinnate. Fl. improves taste. gout. useful in ozœna. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. long. LOC. CHAR. alexiteric. relieves throat-troubles. Kanali. Agasti. leucoderma. 2-4 white or red. epilepsy. Vranari. L. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). t. very showy. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Australia. diabetes. cure quartan fever. leaflets 16-30 pairs.—in racemes . In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. Seeds—emmenagogue. astringent. bronchitis. fruits. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bark— astringent. is applied in rheumatism. Kempagase. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin.5-8. useful In diseases of spleen. LOC. Agase. PARTS USED :—Root. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). The plant contains vitamin A. "Kapha" and inflammation. :—G. is applied in painful swellings. linear oblong.—7. 50 cm. cure itching. . Fr. rubbed into a paste with water.— flowers at various times. Hatiya .8 cm. Indigenous from Malaya to N. leaves. maturant. leprosy. anaemia. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. fevers. Agati. See—Vegetables. improve appetite . An infusion is given in small-pox. anthelmintic. Fruit—laxative . tumours .— pod. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. demulcent. flowers. Leaves—indigestible. K. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. stimulant. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Basna. Munidruma. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). :—Cultivated in many parts of India.
PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'.—6-8 mm. K. branches slender.. LOC. dorsal margins toothed. bark. Kareta. Chikna. Sd. carpels 5-9. dorsal scabrid.—Malvaceæ. Fl. leaves and seeds. aphrodisiac . Root—cooling. bleeding piles. astringent. Bala. Fr. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. DISTR.Dec. LOC. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). astringent. carpels 7-10. long.—Malvaceæ. G. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. H. cordate. Barial. upper margins ciliate. M. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. long. linear. C. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . diam. emollient. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). sharply serrate. is given .—solitary or few together. DISTR. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. pedicel jointed about the middle. diuretic. Deccan and S. puberulous. Chikna. yellow. glabrous. Kumghi. pedicel jointed much above the middle.— yellow. stomachic and tonic. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Sk. Country. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. Pata. Samanga. base rounded. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). Baladana. FAM. Chittuharatu. COM. ovate-oblong.—smooth. Fl. useful in blood and throat diseases. Sk. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. decoction. M. Jayanti. awns 2. Rajbala. obtuse.-Nov. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. " Kapha " . with ginger. FAM. digestive. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Hettutti-gida. minutely hairy. a weed. Bariara. softly hairy all over.5-6. Country Mallow. Batyalaka. crenate. t.—2. :—G. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. :—Konkan..3 cm. t. Vatyapushpi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. CHAR. Khareti. H. " Pitta ".—1-2 in each axil. strongly reticulated . USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. L. L. M. Kharanti. Pata. LOC. NS. COM. :—Hotter parts of India. Fl. strongly reticulated. useful in fever. Gujarat and S. diam. NS. K. removes " Vata ". black.—Nov. awns 2. Fl. CHAR. Prahasa. scabrid-hairy. LOC. Tukti. M. Bala. lanceolate.—2. Country. Kherati. :—A shrub. linear . HABITAT :—Moist places . Kisangi.5-5 cm. Bala. :—E. Fr.-Oct.—5-6 mm.. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Konkan (common).
and head-ache. Externally. M. black. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. t. Bala—Sida cordifolia. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn.—opposite. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. administered in hemiplegia. Pilibadkadi. diaphoretic. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. those of the ray red beneath. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra.—Nov. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. Fl. stiff-neck.-Dec. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. Fr. LOC. 5 outer clavate. DISTR. M. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea.—yellow. stem stiff. involucral bracts 2 rows. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. high. . Country. S. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. Fl. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. 5 inner boat-shaped.6—1. common. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c.—Compositæ. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. NS. L. tinged with purple. rhomboides Roxb. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. :—A large annual herb. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. facial paralysis. :—G. triangular-ovate. Ceylon. cystitis. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. It is also used to favour menstruation.—achene. also in colic and tenesmus. Linn. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. :—Throughout India. erect. Fl.—heads small in leafy panicles . slightly rough. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. all running down wing-like into petiole. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". pappus 0. deeply and irregularly toothed. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Leaves are used in ophthalmia. 0. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. noise in ears. Katampu.2 m. :—Deccan. juice is used for healing wounds. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. COM. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres.
The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. K. FAM. aphrodisiac. Badanikai.—pale-purple. Bhantaki. lessens inflammations. Fruit—cardiotonic. Dorli. recurved.5—7. Vange. :—E. Indian Nightshade. HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Nilaphala. Brihati.5 m. petiole prickly. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating.5 cm. M. fruit and seeds. Vrittaphala. :—Widely cultivated in India. Sk. Hinguli. Philippines. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Vengni. DISTR. China. Rigana. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. laxative. dark-yellow when ripe. Baingan. Sk. stem stout. Malpya. Kadusonde. maturant. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). clothed outside with purple hairs . COM. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. t. bad for piles if taken internally. analgesic. LOC. loss of appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. useful in leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Root.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. " Vata". diam. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. Habba-Kirigulla. Bhanta. enriches blood. asthma. lobed.—Solanaceæ. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. subentire. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). high. Ubhi-bhuringni. globose. Mahotika. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. digestive. anthelmintic. C. Vayase. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. NS. COM. Fl. " Kapha". prickly. H. Root is applied to lessen pain. covered with stellate hairs. 8 mm. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills.3—1. LOC. removes foulness of the mouth. improves appetite. leaves (rarely) and fruits. Hinguli. Barhanta. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache.. Sd. leaves. Ceylon. rarely wild. prickles large. 0. Kattarta. Mhotiringni. K.-Oct. sharp. M. Bhantaki.—Solanaceæ. NS. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". It is seldom used alone. pain.—minutely pitted: Fl. cardiotonic.. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Egg Plant. :—E. ovate. fever. causes biliousness. G. G. pruritus ani.-Aug. Brinjal. Vadikadheri.— berry. bronchitis. DISTR. L. . very.—5—15 X 2. astringent to bowels.. Ranringni. FAM. :—Throughout tropical India. Fr. LOC. Vartaki. or triangular-ovate. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Vantak. base unequal-sided. vomiting.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache.
useful in diseases of eye. DISTR. Morellel.—many. in extra-axillary. C. Sd.-Jany. t. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. It acts as a hydrogogue. bitter. leucoderma. M.—discoid. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. . gonorrhœa (Yunani). HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. fever. bronchitis. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. Root-bark—laxative . :—Throughout India. NS. 6 mm. Kabaiya. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. Fl. G. B and C. entire or sinuate toothed. diuretic. inflammation. eye-diseases hydrophobia. worms in ear. K. heating. dysuria and asthma. Makoi. Hound's Berry. shining. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. hiccup. stem erect. LOC. Kakamachi. Vayasi. alterative. Ceylon. piles. Gurkamai. fever. liver inflammation. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. Sk. improves appetite. minutely pitted . H. diam. etc. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. asthma. improves voice . Tiktika. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. " Tridosha". :—E. COM. Katuphala. Kakamunchi.—small. Black Night-shade. useful in giddiness. CHAR. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. Seeds—laxative. not to be given to pregnant women. smooth. 3-8 flowered cymes . Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. FAM. bark. useful in heart and eye-diseases. taste. :—A variable annual herb . leaves and fruit. In S. Fl. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera.. good for neck ulcers.— berry.—Sept. L. throat burning. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. inflammation. and used with success in psoriasis. favours conception and facilitates delivery . tapering into petioles. itch.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . cathartic and diuretic.—Solanaceæ. Kamoni. in pains. LOC. dysentery. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. ovatelanceolate. vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. griping. urinary discharges. bronchitis. Fr. Fruit contains vitamins A. yellow. See—Vegetables. Kakamachi. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. aphrodisiac. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. ear and nose . chronic fever. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. subumbellate. much divaricately-branched . diarrhœa. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. The seeds are used as a stimulant. Piludi.
pruritus . It is used in asthma. appetiser. :—G. straight.—Gramineæ. G. urinary concretions. H. Sorgho. Sundia . stems. Leaves—good application for piles. Kantakini. "Vata" and " Kapha". Kenjal. Ringni. Sholapur. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State .— June. Jondhala. Fruit—laxative. Chikka-sonde. asthma. heating. asthma. :—Common in the Deccan .7 cm. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Dhavani. Nidigdhika. thirst. H. lumbago. Jonera. useful in bronchitis. Kantakari. chronic bronchitis. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. dysuria. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Seeds—anthelmintic. Great Indian millet. Jowar. Basu). prickles compressed. base unequal-sided. NS. Fr. expectorant and febrifuge. Jundri. Konkan. leaves. pains. Bhoyaringni.5-5. M. Nirgol. Root—aphrodisiac. good in inflammation. CHAR. Bhui-Kate-ringni. yellow and shining. M. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Nele-Rama-gulla .. often exceeding 1. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. 3-2 cm. biliousness. Sind. anthelmintic . K. Fl. Shalu. LOC. flowers. diam. :—A very prickly diffuse. Malaya.—purple. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. :—Throughout India. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Africa. S. fruits and seeds. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . they are used in the burning of feet. Vrittatandula.. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. heart disease. Bijapur and E. LOC. Yuvanala. yellow or white with green veins. Ceylon. ovate or elliptic. lobes deltoid. COM. LOC.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Kateli. fevers. t. Katai. Durrah. sterility in women. laxative. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). tropical Australia.—berry. stone in bladder. sinuate or subpinnatifid. COM. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. hairy on both sides. hairy outside. bright green perennial herb . PARTS USED :—Root. NS. FAM. long. Jolah. L. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. Jowari. D. stem zig-zag. Sk.-5-10 X 2. E. Fl. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic.3 cm. Ikshupatraka. & Wendl. DISTR. :—E. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. muscular pains. petiole prickly. piles.—Solanaceæ. ozoena. Dirghashara. Brihati. C. surrounded by enlarged calyx . fever. Yengara . Sk. strangury.
Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. PARTS USED. Ruhin. fevers. general debility. stem and branches cylindric. CHAR. tumours (Ayurveda).—sessile. high. PARTS USED. laxative. useful in " Kapha". the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. LOC. See—Food Plants. Fibres. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. COM. COM. Ahmedabad. Khandesh and S. good for sore-throat. Juss. DISTR. cures " Tridosha ". Sumbi. Bodiakalara. Grains contain vitamin B. aphrodisiac. Asia and Africa. common in Gujarat. refrigerant. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—G. G. M. introduced into America and Australia. Ceylon. Rohani. FAM: —Compositæ. Gorakhmundi. :—Bark. :—Seeds. hairy. Gorakhamundi. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Rawtarohan. Agniruha. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery.—Meliaceæ. leprosy and dysentery . improves appetite and taste. :— E. Karanda-gida. ulcers. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . Aruna. Sk. Some. Country. biliousness. L. Bastard Cedar. Rohini. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. :—Dry forests of W. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. on dry stony hills. Swami-mara. glandular. ulcers. H. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. bladder and kidney complaints. K. hence used in intermittent fevers. NS. Sk. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. with toothed wings. aphrodisiac. Rohina. H. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Indian Red-Wood. Gums and Resins. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). constipating. :—Widely cultivated in India. :—Bark-acrid. Pravrajita. FAM. tonic and antiperiodic . while Belgaum. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Rohun. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Vritta. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Munditika. NS. Mahamundi. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. piles. M. M. . Dharwar. vaginal injections and enemas. HABITAT :—Open situations. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—The grain is cooling. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Tans. LOC. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Bijapur and E. Poona. Gorakmundi. See—Timbers. Kumbhala. indigestible. K. diseases of blood.
compressed .. ovate. the latter when present minute. They are given in powder form. spleen diseases. PARTS USED. serrate or dentate. ciliate near the ends . Pappuso. HABITAT. scabies. Akarakara . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Nov. tonic. L. glandular hairy. rectal pain. leaves. used in insanity. Ceylon. t. :—Root. flowers and seeds. jaundice. glaborous. laxative. :—E. asthma. globose ovoid. Australia. PARTS USED. :—Wild and cultivated. stem and branches hairy. alterative. urethral discharges and jaundice. t. :—Root. urinary discharges. biliousness. :—Hot. DISTR. Fl. Powdered root is given as tonic. Fl. truncate. increases appetite. They are chewed to relieve toothache. DISTR. Akara-karava. pain in uterus and vagina. strangury. peduncles reaching 10 cm. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . sometimes grown in gardens. Africa. HABITAT. C. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. good for eyesore. LOC. oblong. involucre bracts linear. fattening. tuberculous glands. cools brain. LOC. scalding of urine. all warm countries. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. elephantiasis. .— achene. :—Throughout India. emmenagogue. FAM. Fl. It is also used as fish and crab poison. anthelmintic. enriches blood . LOC. COM. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. :—Deccan. M. peduncles with toothed wings. Fr. :—Common in the Konkan. irregularly crenateserrate.—Compositæ.—purple. PROPERTIES AND USES.—in heads ovoid. alexipharmic. hemicrania (Ayurveda). with honey they are given in cough. gives lustre to eyes . boils. stalked. :—Throughout India. ring-worm of waist. used also for local application.—compound heads. Fr.. Fl. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. biliousness. chest diseases.—Achene. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. depurative.—opposite. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bark. USES. H. piles. Akkalkara . Malay Islands. Pellitary . involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. S. long. and tonic (Stewart) . useful in skin diseases. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. vomiting. ovate-oblong. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. Tonic. in cases of worms and indigestion. dysentery. Sk. digestible.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. Country and Kanara. CHAR. :—Annual herb. lessens inflammations . used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). gleet. M. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. bronchitis. :—Common in rice-fields.—Nov-Jany. anæmia. solitary or subpanicled. leaves and flower-heads. indigestion. cooling. epileptic convulsions. laxative. Celyon. base usually acute. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. NS. looseness of breasts. leucoderma. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr.
Toyadhivasini.5 cm. Kumbhi. Avatekayi. NS. L. DISTR. Kapichuta. ash-coloured . Hude.—Bignoniaceæ. It has been found useful in dysentery.— petals 4-5. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. appetising. 3. branches nearly horizontal. Kariguddada. NS. :—H. ulcers. Indian Archipelago. M. destroys " Vata ". stone woody. aphrodisiac. Gujarat. K. bark smooth. t. ovate oblong. blood complaints . Western Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES. Pitana. Bile Tree. ovoid. entire. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. trunk straight.—drupe. Amrataka. Ceylon.5-18 x 3. refrigerant.Feb. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Patala.. Tungi. yellow. good for sore-throat. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. pinkish green. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Hongkong. hard. LOC. Ambada. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Pahad. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. burning sensation. H. astringent. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Country. Sk. long. M. widely planted. cures rheumatism. long. enriches blood . Sd. Kalavrinta. Hulave. Padal. COM. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). :—Bark. Patala. Ambodha. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Fruit—indigestible. Parur. :—Leaves-tasty. Dr. C. Fl. Andamans. . :—Often planted throughout the State. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. FAM. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. LOC. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Indian Hog-Plum. Kamduti. Fr. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. COM.—Anacardiaceæ. Gum is demulcent. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Ali-vallabha. Burma. Padiala. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. PARTS USED. See—Gums and Resins. :—A tree 9-10. Marahunise. Amra. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. CHAR. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Kanara.-Apl. Konkan. phthisis. biliousness.8 cm. S. W. Wild Mango. tonic. leaves and fruit. K.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles.. Giri Hadari. Padal. :—Cultivated. :—E. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. Pandri.5 m.8-7.-usually 1. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache.. HABITAT. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. oblique. Ran-amba . Salt Range. high. oblong. Amate. M. Fl. round with furrows and cavities.
useful in bilious diarrhœa. LOC. ulcers. cures leucoderma. from Kashmir to Sikkim . COM. heating. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Poison Nut.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Kuchla. flowers. FAM. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. bitter. cures pains in joints. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . N. Travancore . Kupaka. Kajavara. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. jaundice. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. poisonous. piles . LOC. loss of taste. :—Monsoon-forests. Flowers— acrid . DISTR. Kuchala. Karnatak. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism.—Loganiaceæ. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N.. tonic. :—Root-bitter. Kachita. Circars. anæmia. Vishamushti. sub-Himalaya. Kuchla. Ittangi. PARTS USED. heating. Nirmal. fruit. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). appetiser. "Vata". Kakatinduka. See—Timbers. Planted in Ceylon. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. vomiting. Ceylon. LOC. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kelakutaka. pungent. tonic. blood diseases. Fruit—bitter. Crow Fig. Kajra. :—Very common in Konkan and N. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. seeds. "Kapha". G. ring-worm. heating. :—More or less throughout tropical India. DISTR. lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. astringent to bowels. fruit. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. tonic. piles. Karaskara. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Travancore. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. NS. :—Root. K. emmenagogue . Kangira. west coast of Madras State. Indo-China. Hemushti. It is regarded as cooling. :—E. itching. burning sensation. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. inflammation. H. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). thirst. Kanara. antipyretic. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Burma. Visha-druma. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. blood diseases. :—Fruit-acrid. aphrodisiac. Kajra. Kanara. fevers. PARTS USED. leaves. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. eructations. Sk. asthma. :—In forests south of Bombay. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . diuretic. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :—Wood (rarely). diuretic. Laos.
H. :—Sand-stone hills of S. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. also in Konkan. astringent to bowels. Chittu bija. urinary discharges. Fruit useful in eye diseases. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Nelmal. Nirmali. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. fruit and seeds. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord.. :—Root (rarely). (Rasendrasarasangraha). poisoning. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Aduguchali-bija. thirst. improve eye-sight. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. diuretic. aphrodisiac. NS. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. cure strangury. alexiteric. Kanara and Khandesh. diaphoretic. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. See—Timbers. :—Western Peninsula. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. HABITAT. Madhya Bharat. Clearing Nut Tree. :—Deciduous dry forests. M. . Sk. Ceylon. :—E. Seeds—acrid. anæmia. FAM. causes biliousness. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. cures inflammations. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. DISTR. LOC. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. Seeds—bitter. LOC. hallucinations. good for liver. PROPERTIES AND USES. emetic. Country. The demand for strychnine is increasing. increases "Vata". Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. K. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. COM.—Loganiaceæ. Shodhanatmaka. See—Timbers. :—Root cures leucoderma. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. jaundice. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Burma. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. M. kidney complaints. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Nivali. tonic. lithotriptic. gonorrhœa. PARTS USED. relieve colic (Yunani). head-diseases (Ayurveda). Kataka. alexipharmic. Ambuprasadini.
0. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. C. :—Root. Fl. Lodh Tree. diseases of blood. Deccan . Lodh is used in raw condition. Dyes. Lodhraka. :—India (W. flowers (rarely). broadly ovate. bleeding gums . t. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". white with blue veins. . 4-winged. Mahabaleshwar. Shavaraka. :—M. acrid. Bhilli. See—Timbers. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. dysentery. Country. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. Broughton). PARTS USED. CHAR.—Symplocaceæ. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. H. C. Californian Cinchona. :—Bark-acrid. Bose). LOC. HABITAT. :—Western Ghats . Kadu. useful in eye-diseases. colloturine and loturiaine. stem densely leafy. alexiteric. :—Bark. E. Sk. Sd. Fl. Loder. Tiritaka. 5-nerved . 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . Lodhra. Balaloddujinamara. high. LOC. Peninsula. leprosy. astringent to bowels. Lodhra . FAM. quadrangular. K. NS. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) .— Oct. decussate.. Torna fort. etc. :—W. eye-diseases and ulcers . S. M. biliousness. digestible. Burma. COM. Chota Nagpur. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). cooling. L.. Lodh . "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas.9 m. :—The whole plant is bitter.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . The plant contains alkaloids loturine. aphrodisiac. NS. Tillaka. Lodh. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. PARTS USED. 2-valved.—capsule. cures cough. Bark—bitter. ovoid or oblong.—many. Deccan. LOC.—Gentianaceæ. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). astringent and useful in bowel complaints. :— E.-Jany. PROPERTIES AND USES. C. Peninsula).—very many in dense corymbose cymes . inflammations. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. FAM. M. :—Konkan and N. Fr. DISTR. :—Hilly parts. useful in abortions . DISTR. throughout N. emmenagogue. in powder or in fresh decoction.3-0. :—An erect herb. vaginal discharges. China Nora.— sessile. winged .— lobes 4-5.
good lotion for ring-worm in head. H. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Malaya. also wild. astringent. useful in spleen diseases. H. Jambul. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. anthelmintic. carminative and diuretic. Ceylon. sprouts. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Pharenda. Shukapriya. G. DISTR. Fruit—acrid. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Kokileshta. Seeds—diuretic. good for sore-throat. common along river banks. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Neralu. fruits and seeds. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. common at Mahabaleshwar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. K. Gulabjaman. gargles and washes . ulcers. Sk. blood impurities. Jam. sweet. COM. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. PARTS USED. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. removes bad smell from mouth. dry. astringent to bowels. Malay—Rose apple. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). M.—Myrtaceæ. Australia. :—Throughout India. . strengthens gums and teeth. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Jambu. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. astringent to bowels. :—Bark-acrid. fruit vinegar is tonic. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. digestive. :—Throughout the State. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Fruit—a general and liver tonic. bronchitis.) FAM. Jambu-Nayinerale. Jambudi. Gulab-Jamb. Jambu. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. LOC. Pannerali. Sk. Jambura. Jambula. Jamen. asthma. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. biliousness. COM. Jamburaj. LOC. dysentery. also used in spongy and painful gums. M. Jambu. LOC. Surabhipriya. Fruit Trees. increases "Vata". Nerate. cooling. etc. good gargle for sore-throat. Jambul. Nilphala. thirst. very often planted. enriches blood.—Myrtaceæ. NS. See—Timbers. :—E. Nenda. Jambu.) FAM. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. both wild and cultivated. carminative . NS. :—Bark. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. :-Black-Java Plum. Shukapriya.
7. fruit and seeds. Fl. alexipharmic. Assam. :—Sikkim Terai. The plant contains an alkaloid. hot. Maddarasa gida . The fruit is sweet with a flavour. Ananta. indigestible. tonic to brain. divaricate. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. pale beneath. with milky juice . :—Bark. acrid. G. tonic to brain. thirst. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. heavy speech. :—Cultivated in gardens. Cultivated in many places. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. salver-shaped. lessens pains in limbs and joints . Khasia Hills. digestible. Fr.5-15 X 2.—rainy season. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. aphrodisiac.—snow-white. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. removes bad humours. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). bronchitis. glossy green above.—Apocynaceæ. Burma. inodorous during the day. orange within. Tagar." biliousness. Hills of Visakhapatanam. :—Root. bitter. C—lobes overlapping to the left. heating. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. . DISTR. astringent to bowels. astringent to bowels. double. strangury. :—Root is acrid. Fl. Seeds are astringent to bowels. CHAR. Garhwal. dysentery. cures epilepsy. Fruit—sweet and tasty. improves voice. Br. L. fatigue. PROPERTIES AND USES.5-5 cm. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. weakness of limbs. LOC. Tagar . :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. and an essential oil. Trinidad .206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. useful in "Kapha. Taggar. Nandi. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. Sk. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. Bengal. E. used in liver complaints. NS.5-5 cm. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. across. liver and spleen .—follicles. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. :—E. LOC. PARTS USED. K. indigestible. Wax flower. HABITAT. fragrant at night. purgative. See—Ornamental Plants. Tagara. emmenagogue. 1-3 ribbed. . Yunnan to Australia. wood and oil. Root—bitter . The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). Chandani.— opposite. H. COM.) FAM. used in asthma. Kottuhale. :—Bark is sweet. margins wavy. lobes 5 in single. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. LOC. used in syphilis (Yunani). M. PARTS USED. tonic. Ashvathabheda. cultivated in many parts. useful in paralysis. Root chewed relieves toothache . t.. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate.
lessens inflammation .—surrounded by red pulp. Zendu. good for teeth . Gultora. Sk.—Compositæ. Fr. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. their juice is given in ear-ache. Kalaga.. FAM. grown in gardens all over India.— Mar-Apl. HABITAT. wood. Fl. :—Malabar. G. FAM. Makhamali. LOC.000 m. kidney troubles. Makhamal. NS. HABITAT. L. NS. Nuli. high. DISTR. NS. :—Native of Mexico. Maddarssa. Halmeti. PROPERTIES AND USES. Chinchika. throughout the Konkan and N. bitter. Sandu. See—Ornamental Plants.. rough. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles.—white. Sthulapushpa. C. PROPERTIES AND USES. Pandarakuda. astringent. Nagakuda. Amli. :—Leaves and flowers. internally they are said to purify blood. across in pedunculate cymes . :—Root. :—E.4-4. Tintrani. yellow when ripe. M.—opposite. Amlika. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Amla. Kanara. Fl. useful in scabies.. Zanduga. CHAR. stomachic. Makhamala. oblong lanceolate . French Marigold. LOC. H. Amlike. H. M.—follicle. : K. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . :—A shrub or a small tree 2. Imli. Sd. :—E. t. coriaceous. Leaves—good for piles. Teter. acrid. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Tamarind. somewhat boat-shaped. G. HABITAT. divaricata.. belching. muscular pains.—Apocynaceæ. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). M. :—Flower-pungent. 2. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. :—Same as T. carminative. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia.5-20 X 3. Chinch. PARTS USED.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. Travancore up to 7. LOC. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Amala.5 cm. COM. .5 cm. Flower—bitter. common in rain-forests. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. COM. Genda. :—Rain-forests. Guljharo. oil. :—Cultivated.2-7.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).— tube inflated near the top.5 m. Tintidika. Nagaskuda. DISTR. 7. Amli. FAM. bark grey. Sk. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. PARTS USED. Chinch. K. COM.
G. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. FAM. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Tega. :—Throughout India. sore-throat. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. aphrodisiac. Sk. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Circars. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Sag. Madhya Bharat. Malay Peninsula. COM. M. laxative. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. LOC. Anil. Teak. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. K. tasty. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. . fruit and seeds. Teka. tonic to heart. Sagun. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. abundant all along the slopes of W. heals wounds and fractures. Flowers— appetising . used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. stomatitis. flowers and seeds. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". such as body-burning. eye-diseases. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. costiveness. LOC. Bark—astringent. Fruit-sour. Arna. :—Bark. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Cultivated also. Condiments and Spices. earache. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Tegu. leaves. Mahapatra. vomiting. laxative. PARTS USED. Seeds astringent. sweetish. thirst. DISTR. flowers. Fruit—sour. bark. Burma. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. biliousness. Kanara. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. digestive. wood. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. causes cough. heating. H. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Sagwan. :—E. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. small-pox. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Sagach. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. See—Timbers.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Sag. boiled they are used as a poultice. urinary discharges. and laxative. carminative. Sumatra and Java. astringent to bowels. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Sagwan. NS. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). scabies. DISTR. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling.. Seeds are good astringent. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests.—Verbenaceæ. intoxication &c. heals ulcers. and for sizing materials. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. anthelmintic. useful in liver-complaints. tonic. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root.. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Tropics generally. tumours. indigestible. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings.
Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. alexiteric. alterative. DISTR.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. useful in scabies. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. spleen. Kalika. . leprosy. cures diarrhœa . Sharapunkha. Bark is an astringent. suborbicular. Sk. Flowers—acrid.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. increase "Vata". cooling. asthma. Country. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. glabrous above. Malay Peninsula. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . branches spreading. biliousness. improve appetite. Konkan. liver. S. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon.—pod 3—4. LOC. mucronate. anthelmintic. sedative to gravid uterus. cures diseases of liver. silkyhairy beneath. 30—60 cm. allays thirst. Deccan. 2—2. Sarphoka.—5-6 . LOC. Sharapunkha. leaflets 11—21. long. poisoning. burning pain over the region of liver. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. root. syphilis. high. Phanike. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. Sd. red. Empali.8 X 0. biliousness. Gujarat.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). "Root—diuretic. :—A perennial herb. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . M. t. asthma. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. expectorant. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight.2 cm. C. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair.—petals clawed. laxative. LOC.—Oct. fresh root-bark. gonorrhœa (Yunani). standard. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). CHAR. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. inflammations. K. along forest borders.. Kogge. linear. PARTS USED. boils and pimples. Udhadi.. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. antipyretic. L. allays thirst. COM. anthelmintic. Ghodakan. Plihari. Jhila. slightly curved. good in piles. useful in bronchitis. Unhali. spleen diseases. Wood good for head ache. Fl. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). Wood—acrid. :—All over India. mucronate. it acts also as a vermifuge. Leaves—tonic to intestines . bitter.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. blood. ground and made into a pill.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine.8—1. long. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. NS. heart. enriches Blood . PROPERTIES AND USES. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. FAM.5 cm. useful in lung and chest diseases. HABITAT:—Open situations. ulcers. Sarpankho. cultivated lands and roadsides. Fr. See—Timbers. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). useful in bronchitis. Fl. pubescent on the back. urinary discharges. :—The whole plant. leaves and seeds. useful in piles. oblanceolate. :—Plant-digestible. dry. H.-June. tumours. M. :-G. Sarphonka.
useful in biliousness. Tara.. FAM. G. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. FAM. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). Chota-Nagpur. PARTS USED. H. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Sk. LOC. M. inflammation. Arjun-Sadada. false presentation of fœtus. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Kahu. Koha. acrid. useful in bronchitis. Belleric Myrobalan. DISTR. & A. excessive perspiration. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Hela.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Bahaza. Arjan. intoxication. NS. Madhya-Pradesh. tonic. Kushika. K. :—Alexiteric. COM. strangury. Behada. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. H.. Vibhata. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Kalidrum. Sadura. Behedo. :—E. Fruit-pungent. in Khandesh Akrani. Sagona.. useful in fractures. Bastard Myrobalan. Sk. Karshaphala. Bibhitiki. with milk. biliousness. Beheduk. Arjuna. :—Bark. Rajastan and Sind. . aphrodisiac. very common in South Konkan. Madras State. anthelmintic . anthelmintic. Madhya-Bharat. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. biliousness. Vibhitika. in the sub-Himalayan tract. asthma. Arjun Sadada. laxative. :—E. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Bahara. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Dhanvi. :—Throughout the forests of India. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Tari. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. Burma. NS. G. anæmia. COM. tumours. strangury. urinary discharges. styptic.—Combretaceæ. except in dry arid regions. blood-diseases. externally in wounds and fractures. Arjuna. sore-throat. M. PARTS USED. heart disease. Kakubha. Arjuna. LOC. :—Bark. :—Konkan and Deccan. White Marudah. Ceylon. tonic. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Voting. K. Bera. diuretic. Shantimara. ulcers. Buhura. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. leucoderma. LOC. DISTR. fruit (rarely). Expectorant. digestible. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Karvirak. fruit and seed. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. Baire. Indradruma. " Kapha". Bedda Nut. See—Timbers. Sadado.—Combretaceæ. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Aksha.
Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. Hirda. constipation. used in paralysis (Yunani). urinary discharges. M. PARTS USED. gout. carminative. biliousness. antipyretic. common in Khandesh Akrani. vomiting. sore-throat. piles and diarrhœa. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. vomiting. diarrhœa. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. Harade. Kanara. is used as an application in ophthalmia.—Combretaceæ. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". anthelmintic. strangury. itching pain. diseases of eye.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. antidysenteric. the fully ripe or dried fruit. Dyes. Black myrobalan. dyspepsia. leucoderma. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. Gums and Resins. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. anaemia. Burma. alterative . USES. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. bleeding and ulceration of gums. :—Fruit-dry. LOC. bilious headache. —E. Ripe fruit—purgative. Kernel has narcotic properties. strengthens brain. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. useful in asthma. stomachic. which is considered a good digestive. thirst. useful in caries of teeth. FAM. LOC. Haria. hiccup. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). diseases of spleen. heart and bladder. tonic. Jivantika. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. DISTR. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. gums. Haritaki. See—Timbers. typhoid fever. intoxicating. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. heating. aperient. Hirdo . :—Bark and fruit. elephantiasis. nose. COM. diseases of eye. PROPERTIES AND USES. applied to eyes. attenuant. Ceylon. eye diseases etc. piles. carminative. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Chebulic myrobalan. hoarseness. tonic. expectorant. tonic. bleeding piles. useful in dyspepsia. Harara. corneal ulcers. Seed—acrid. vesicular calculi. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. Haritaki. H. piles. cold in head. good in ophthalmia. delirium (Ayurveda). mixed with honey. Sk. useful in thirst. brain tonic (Yunani). in Travancore. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. eyes. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. G. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. inflammations. NS. Fruit-astringent. K. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . ascites. Alate. LOC. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. tumours. heart and bladder. Jivanti. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. Abhaya. enriches blood. Har.
good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac . :—E. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Mhaskar and Issac).. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative.—Malvaceæ. leaves. K. Burma. Bhindi. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Gajadanta. also planted as roadside tree. DISTR. . :—Coast forests of India. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. LOC. Bhend. profuse discharge. Gandarati. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Ranbhendi. Suparshuakan. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. flowers and fruit. Paraspipal. Sacred Plants. Hucerasi. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. burning of body . Fibres.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). difficult to digest. Arasi. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). produces worms in intestines . Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Phalisha. Bugari. especially centipedes. Bhandi. Sk. :—Districts of Konkan and N. FAM. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Parasipu. It is also used in chronic dysentery. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. COM. See—Timbers. :—Bark. Kuberaksha. Paras-piper. NS. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Bengal. Dyes. H. Kanara. :—Fruit-sour. LOC. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Tans. Paraspiplo. Tulip Tree. Kandarala. See—Timbers. Parisha. M. PARTS USED. G. acrid . Portia Tree. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Jogiyarale. increases " Kapha " . INDIAN PREPARATIONS. PROPERTIES AND USES.
G. hot. dorsally convex. very poisonous (Ayurveda). :—An extensive climber. Pila kaner. Amritvalli.—generally 4. cures " Vata " . astringent to bowels. endocarp corky. 5 cm. :—E. G. leucoderma. bronchitis . COM. Jwaranashini. often planted in India. FAM. America and W. females solitary. Indies . :—E. elliptic. Amarvel. and blood vessels . throat campanulate. tubular. red. seeds and milky juice. bark corky. size of a pea . H. :—Bark.. 5—10 cm. Vatsadani. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. eye-troubles. t. 1—3. piles. wounds. ventrally flat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss.—broadly obovate. Fr. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. lobes 5. Andamans and Ceylon. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. H. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. Ashvaghna. corona in the throat. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. Sk. :—Often planted. Fl. worms.. K. grooved . Gado. root. Pivali kanher. with milky juice. mesocarp bony. Sd. PARTS USED. NS. PARTS USED. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . Gulvel. pungent. M. 7—9 nerved. but its use is attended with considerable danger.5 cm.-spirally arranged. L. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Uganiballi. skin diseases. Gulhel. Heart-leaved moonseed. Gulvel. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji).—drupes. yellow. Zard kunel. Gurch. linear. yellow. Burma. C. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. :—Throughout tropical India. HABITAT.. Gulo. CHAR. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. growing on mango and other trees. DISTR. Sk. CHAR. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. L. fevers. 7. Haripriya.—Apocynaceæ. Fl. long. bladder.—Menispermaceæ.—membranous. Fr. COM. NS. :—Native of S. frequently planted. :—Stem. virgin uterus. across. Exile or yellow Oleander. LOC. Gulancha. male fascicled. FAM.—in terminal cymes. useful in urethral discharges. See—Ornamental Plants. exocarp fleshy. Pittaghni. crowded .—in axillary and terminal racemes. bright green and shining above. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. Shatakumbha. Pila kanir. acrid. HABIT :—In thickets. .—Apl. Karvira. Fl. LOC. Amrita-Valli.5—12. M. it has no action on digestive enzymes .
The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. Dahan. NS. Kadu-menasu. tonic. Sumatra. Forest Pepper. burning sensation. Khasia Hills. unisexual. stomachic . also in the Deccan hills. H. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Kumaon to Bhutan.— alternate. anæmia. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. diarrhœa.8-3. stimulates bile secretion.—Aug. HABITAT. especially acid. causes constipation. high. COM. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. DISTR. :—Rain-forests. coriaceous. orange coloured. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. FAM. China.-Jany. male flower bud globose. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Fl. antipyretic. Root-bark is aromatic.—Rutaceæ. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. Mirchi. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. stomachic. :—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. crenulate. Konkan and Kanara. Macimullu. CHAR. Sk. 5-7 lobed. useful in skin diseases.. t. white. :—Stem-bitter. female flower buds oblong. Java. K. chronic fever. juice useful in diabetes. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. bark. 3-5 grooved. good in cough. cures jaundice. 5-10 X 1. LOC. FT. stigma sessile. digitately trifoliate. M. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. expectorant. Philippines. dark shining green above. size of a large pea. PARTS USED. Limri. vomiting. tonic appetiser. Manger.8. Lopezroot Tree. armed with small hooked prickles . L. jaundice. Fl. tropical Africa. LOC. oblong. ovary rudimentary.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. (Kirtikar). fruits. Ceylon.—Dehan.—globose. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. vomiting. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. pitted on the rind. allays thirst. diuretic. . stimulant and anti-periodic. leaves. Kaduhakukare. 15 m. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. fever. giddiness. Root and stem are bitter. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Gangalaki. :—All over the Madras State . renews blood. piles. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. common in S. enriches blood. Stem-bitter. USES. vaginal and urethral discharges.—in axillary cymes. Jangali-Mirchi. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. :—Root. leaflets sessile.
:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. COM. Nand-vriksha. Shingada. leprosy. :—Aquatic (in tanks). burning sensation. Tundu. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Trikone-phala. PARTS USED. tonic. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Garige. Indian Mahogany. Kuruk. useful in . Assam. Deodari. H. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). digestible. of India). very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Malaya. M. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent to bowels. H. Mahalimbu. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. cures leprosy. Kalingi. Singodi.—Onagraceæ. Sk. :—E. fatigue. "Tridosha". The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar.. M. DISTR. NS. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. antipyretic . G. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. removes " Tridosha". strangury. Jalakantaka-valli. Tuni. expectorant. Lim. Tunika. Trikota.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. LOC. Apina. cooling. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Toon. Tun. biliousness. aphrodisiac. Gums and Resins. astringent to bowels. inflammation. K. astringent to bowels.) FAM.—Meliaceæ. LOC. blood diseases. biliousness. cardio-tonic. Chota-Nagpur. itching. good for scabies and gleet. PARTS USED. :—Bark and flowers. fattening. Kanara. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. useful in ulcers. removes " Kapha ". :—Fruit. Dyes. urinary discharges. Lud. LOC. Shringa-kanda-taka. Burma. :—Throughout the State in tanks. aphrodisiac. Bark—bitter. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. Shingoda. often cultivated. :—Cooling . anthelmintic. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. HABIT. Gandhagarige. tropical Africa. Water-chestnut. FAM. Kuberaka. :—E. Waitz). Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Ceylon. cures fevers. aphrodisiac. Sandal Neem. :—Throughout India. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Mandurike. burning sensation. Chittagong. indigestible. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. headache. Sk. Singhara. See—Timbers. :—Bark-acrid. Kaechaka. causes " Vata " . DISTR.
each with 2 pairs of hard. The plant contains an alkaloid. NS. Kantaphala. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. alexiteric.. abruptly pinnate. :—A procumbent herb. Tumri. Hussuk. . Gokshura. used as food. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections.. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. young parts silky. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. :—H. antipyretic. lumbago. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. COM. They are also used in the form of poultice. See—Food Plants. of 5 woody cocci. Country. oblong. yellow. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. H. :—E. Gamhar. mucronate. sore-throat. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. :—Throughout India. Fr. upto 3300 m. K. in Kashmir. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ. Seeds abound in starch. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Shadanga. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. leaflets 3—6 pairs . K.—opposite. sharp spines.:—Saurashtra. t. LOC. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. a common weed of the drier parts. Kere Padye. COM. hairy. Gokhru. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests.—Zygophyllaceæ. considered cool and sweet. LOC. Pindara. :—Plant is cooling tonic. LOC. DISTR. Malay Peninsula. Gokhru. Sd.. solitary. Karahate. PARTS USED. M. improves taste . :—The whole plant. bronchitis. Gokshri. DISTR. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Sarata. PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. Sk. Chhota gokhru. Deccan and S. Sumatra. M. Aphrodisiac. FAM. Gokharu. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice.—several in each coccus . Gokhura. Petari . Kanara. G. Calthrope. NS. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Ceylon. Fibres. useful in chronic fevers. base oblique. one of each pair smaller than the other. along nalas and in swampy localities. one pair longer than the other .216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Negalu . appetiser. stems and branches pilose. CHAR. Gujarat. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Assam. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fl. biliousness.—throughout the year. Kurangaha. Sk. M.—globose. bad-teeth (Yunani). bile and phlegm. L. See—Timbers. Ceylon. pain. Java. Pindara. thirst. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Trikantaka.
PROPERTIES AND USES. inflammations. emmenagogue (Yunani). used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. linear-oblong or lanceolate. leaves. Country.—sessile. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. —achene. pruritus ani. slender. yellowish brown. gonorrhœa. S. Brahma-dandi. Brahmadandi.— purple. oblong. CHAR. increases menstrual flow. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). lumbago . USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . H. COM. useful in strangury. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. :—Root. cures strangury. removes " Tridosha ". bitter. :—A glabrous herb. asthma. Talakanto. t. Physiaran. L. PROPERTIES AND USES. alterative . PARTS USED. M. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. Fl. urinary disorders and impotence. Central India. cures "Kapha". West Rajastan. purifies blood . spinous toothed or serrate. Brahmadandi. enriches blood . M. Abu. HABITAT. stomachic. long. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. tonic. Kantapatraphala. tonic. fruits. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. Mt. Kanara. piles. Fl. S. :—Cooling . bloody urine. ciliate. which is taken in large quantities. copious. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. seeds. reduces inflammation . Brahmadandi. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. USES :—Fruits are cooling. :—Hot. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. improves appetite . Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. :—The whole plant. leprosy . tonic . LOC. Aja-dandi. fattening. vesicular calculi. ovoid. stem erect. aphrodisiac. "Vata". Diuretic. cures skin and heart diseases. urinary discharges. S. : — G. the Deccan. reduces inflammation. alleviating burning sensation. pain . Konkan.—heads 6—8 mm.—Compositæ. .— Dec. branches angled and ribbed. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. C. diuretic. faintly ribbed. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). diuretic. pappus shorter than the achenes. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. NS. gleet. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Mota-Motachor. :—Western Peninsula. cough. suppression of urine. LOC. appetiser. FAM. Kanara. Sk. DISTR. K. LOC. Brahmadandi. :—Wild in places.
5 m. allays thirst. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. — surrounded with red-pulp .5 cm. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Makal. paler beneath. bitter. Jangli— Kadu padval. laxative. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . t. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. Mahakala. green with white stripes when raw. ulcers. :—A scandent annual. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. M. stem robust. deeply 5-lobed. Ceylon. K. oil. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). K. the Deccan. alterative. G. asthma. HABITAT:-In hedges. erysipelas. COM.3-12. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. eye diseases. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. headache and boils.-male in axillary . cures bronchitis. Sk. DISTR. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. white. pungent. blood diseases. Patola. H. scarlet when ripe. tendrils 3 cleft. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit—hot. :—Root-cathartic . Fl. cures itching. stomachic. male in axillary racemes. CHAR. Malaya. H. FAM .. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda).218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. leaf-juice is emetic. :—Root. anasarca and ascites. slender.6—4. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. Indrayan. long as well as broad.—Cucurbitaceæ.5—7. lobes ovate-oblong.—Cucurbitaceæ. Ratan-indrayan. fruit. LOC. Sd. useful for boils and intestinal worms. Perula. dark-green above. Fl.—2. Jangali chichonda. —G. Betlada padaval. leucoderma. Malay Peninsula. Mukal. reniform or broadly ovate.-6. orbicular. In Bombay. long.—monœcious. NS. woody below. Fl. tendrils 3-fid. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. Katuka. females solitary.5 cm.3 cm. base cordate . TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. axillary. leprosy.. L. CHAR.. variable. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. alexiteric. LOC. Wild Snake-gourd. NS. L. dentate or serrate. antipyretic. FAM. Kaundal. Kadvi-padyal or patola . distantly denticulate. Leaves—good for biliousness. long. with a long sharp beak. :—Throughout India. COM. Australia. slightly hairy. palmately 3-5 lobed. stems 3. Kiripodla. chireta and honey. ovoid-fusiform. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. Fr. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. Sk. :—E. base deeply cordate. leaves. Lal-indrayan. it is given in decoction with ginger. furrowed.—July-Oct. antipyretic.-5-12. long. PARTS USED. Avagude-hannu. burning sensation. Jyotsna. N. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Root-juice is very purgative. Panduka.
glandular. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. heat of brain. N. sparsely white hairy. Deccan and S. acute. densely silky hairy. PARTS USED. Fruit—carminative. DISTR. female solitary. Ceylon. limbweakness. gargle good for toothache. bruises and wounds. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m.—globose 3-8. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. :—Leaves. inner slightly longer than outer. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). ophthalmia. boiled with gingelly oil. cures hemicrania. :—Wild in hilly parts. :—M. which is found abundantly all over the country. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Root and fruit. high. Ekdandi. ligules yellow. C. rheumatism. leprosy. the smoke causes hæmatemesis.75-1 in.—1. purgative. many years ago. CHAR. LOC. M. LOC. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache.— achene. Ray flowers ligulate. PROPERTIES AND USES. peduncles very long. Malaya.75 X . TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. all over the State. stem and branches hairy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. bracts large. LOC. DISTR..—petals wedge-shaped. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). Australia.—many . Fl. :— Wild in Konkan. hairy. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. Fl.. .—throughout the year. ovate-elliptic. 3-partite. abortifacient. COM. middle lobe smallest. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. very hairy.5 cm. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. FAM. lessens inflammations . :—Fruit is useful in asthma. used in epilepsy. 30-60 cm. NS. fringed. :—Throughout India.-July. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. Juice of fruit or root-bark. Sd.— Apl.. L. PARTS USED.—head solitary. Country. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. outer involucral bracts ovate. China. t. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. black. Kirkee. on the Himalayas. Japan. HABITAT. :—A perennial straggling herb. Fr. petioles densely hairy. axillary. :—Abundant in the Deccan.—Compositæ. slender. t. Fr. Fl. diam. white..
C. PARTS USED. Konkan. astringent to bowels.— broadly ovate. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. Fenugreek . Antamul. Pitakari (Pitamari). M. Nepala . The leaves contain vitamins A and B. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. :—Cultivated. anthelmintic.7 cm. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Methini. L.—in umbellate cymes . dysentery. "Vata". Kanara. removes bad taste from mouth. M. dropsy. K. long. Chandrika. HABITAT. aperient.—opposite. FAM. enlargement of spleen and liver.-Nov. CHAR. FAM. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. 7. Methi..5—10 cm. LOC. emmenagogue. Pitabija Vedhini. FN. vomiting. Janglipikvan. flatulence. large for the genus. :—Punjab. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). long. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. See—Vegetables. Country. t. COM. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. corona gibbous below. :—Hot. roots many. NS. LOC. antipyretic.—follicles. Kashmir. greenish-yellow outside. :—South of Bombay. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. 5-10 x 2. much used in colic. chronic cough. DISTR. useful in dropsy. suppurative. . LOC. Muthi. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. G.—Aug. cures leprosy.—Asclepiadaceæ. narrowed at the apex to a free point. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. cultivated in many parts of India. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. S. fleshy. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. piles. tonic. :—Leaves and seeds. diarrhœa.. Hot and dry. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. :—A twining perennial. Sd. and the seeds contain vitamin A. ovate or elliptic oblong. Methi. bronchitis. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). appetiser. M. Jyoti. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. Methi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). H. with coma . PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. also in low and sandy localities. Fl.5-5. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. purplish within. base cordate. enlargement of spleen and liver. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—E. Methi . Menthe—palle. :—H. Sk. tapering to a fine point at the apex. tonic and carminative.—deeply lobed. NS. Fl. they are also aphrodisiac. diuretic. K. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink.
USES. Malay Islands. L. tapering to both ends . W. Fl. glabrous. :—Western Himalayas. HABITAT. long. linear-oblong. PARTS USED. light-brown . stalks long. joints 3-6. diaphoretic and expectorant. polished. Sd. L. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Vanapalandu. :—E.— petals lanceolate. Pitvan.—appearing after the flowers. Shankaraja . :—Bulb. NS. Fl. hairy beneath. white. Jaglipiaz. 15-45 x 1. DISTR. USES. scape erect 30-45 cm. Peninsula. tropical Africa. :—Konkan. :—Common on sandy shores. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. H. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. :—Throughout India. stems downy with hooked hairs. Dabra. HABITAT. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Malay Islands. :—A perennial shrub.— flattened. :—Roots and leaves.— pod. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—capsule. Fr.. Dried leaves are emetic. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. folded on one another. Chota-Nagpur. PARTS USED. COM.. Rankanda.—in racemes 15-30 cm. KolaPutakand. 0. drooping. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman).3-2. LOC. C. pale lead-colored. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion).— Liliaceæ. Fr. M. flat.. LOC. Panjala. Philippines.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. found useful in dysentery. :—Sandy places.. ellipsoid. Borneo. long. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ranganja . COM. Burma.. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. Jangli-Ran-khanda. tropical Africa. 20-30 cm. G. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. Bihar. Pitavan . t. high. Thailand (Siam). blotched with white above.. perianth campanulate. URARIA PICTA Desv. long. C. . :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sk. NS.— imparipinnate.-Sept. :—A herb. Prishna-parni. Pithavan.5 cm. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. H. Sk. CHAR. :—Wild. black.—Aug. Indian Squill. :—Throughout the plains of India. FAM. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. :—G.9-1. CHAR. 10-20 cm. DISTR.8 m. linear.—purple. M. 5-7 (rarely 9). Ceylon. Fl. FAM.
:—Root is bitter. Rasna. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. tonic to brain and liver. maritima of U. long. alexiteric. Peninsula. Atiras. M. Sarpagandha. acute. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . S. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. rheumatic pains. Vanda. USES :—Expectorant. Fl. W. :—An epiphyte. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. A. 2-lobed. 15-20 X 1. toothache. diuretic. column very short. LOC. dropsy. LOC. CHAR. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. purgative. L. Madhya-Pradesh. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. laxative. stout. bronchitis. antipyretic.5—9 cm. . Rasna. bronchitis. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. Sk.—thickly coriaceous. Fr. Gaz. cardiac. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. (In Med. obtusely keeled. stimulant and diuretic. pollinia ellipsoid..—Orchidaceæ. long. skin diseases. alexiteric. K. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Banda. t. anthelmintic. Bihar. inflammations. Root is bitter. COM. good for piles. :—G. Ceylon. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. Travancore. recurved. scandent by simple or branching roots . asthma. heals fractures (Yunani).—capsule. Rasna. scilla of Great Britain.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. alexiteric. Fl. useful in dyspepsia. Nakula.— July. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—The bulb is pungent. FAM. internal pains (Yunani). tremors (Ayurveda). NS.3-2 cm. and an acute interposed one. LOC. The bulb is stomachic. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. diseases of nose.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. :—Epiphyte. Chota-Nagpur. DISTR. lessens inflammations . Rasno. H. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia.. Gujarat and Kanara. :—Konkan. rheumatism. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. complicate. HABIT. Br. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—Root and leaves.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. tip. hiccup. Bandanike. praemorse. Vriksharuha. heating. :—Bengal. and was found useful (Koman). emmenagogue. lip bluish dotted with purple. and U. bronchitis. renal calculi.. diseases of the abdomen. boils in the scalp. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. lumbago. stem 30-60 cm. 1931. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. heating. PARTS USED. Persara. useful in paralysis. long. erect.
Coorg in Ghats. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. useful in atonic dyspepsia. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. alexipharmic. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment.. Bilidhupa. useful in leprosy. Khandvel.. t. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. Ceylon. Kundura. PARTS USED. abundant in S. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . bechic. H. ulcers and wounds.5-3. :—North Kanara. NS. Country. with an offensive odour. dysentery.—5-10 X 2.—Dipterocarpaceæ. whitish). Haruge. (T. Shandike. acrid. :—Western India. itch (Ayurveda). Madidhupa. Travancore. skin eruptions. rheumatism. good for sore-throat. M. . the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. young branches and panicles pubescent. M. Poppli. G. K. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Pitti. Malamaitra. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. LOC. USES. in chronic bronchitis. COM. :—E. C. Sekalyel. CHAR.—in large drooping terminal panicles. FAM. Sarjaka. yellowish. globular. :—A large much branched woody climber. PROPERTIES AND USES. detergent. tonic and stimulant. dark. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Raktavalli. K. piles. PARTS USED. diam. DISTR. :—Bark. cures cough. Sandras. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. FAM. Fl. Kanara and S. Fl. Safed-damar. Fr.8 cm. diarrhœa. fruit.—Rhamnaceæ. Lokhandi. prolonged into a linear-oblong. resin. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Sk. Dhupa. DISTR. Tenasserim. :—Bark.-nut about 5 mm. also planted. amenorrhœa. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). NS. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Oils. :—E. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). buds 5-angled. carminative. See—Timbers. debility and slight cases of fever. PROPERTIES AND LOC. greenish. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. urinary discharges. LOC. Ragatarshado. hemicrania. anæmia. Mysore. Kaharub. M. H. entire or crenate. Kubbila. Gums and Resins. stomachic.—petals 5. tuberculous glands.-Jany..—Dec. boils and ringworm. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. :—Bark-hot. COM. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. Red Creeper. 1-nerved wing. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. eardiseases. Sk. tonic. also in N. Shala. Kanara. alexipharmic. Dhupa. expectorant. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. :—Madras State. deciduous and monsoon-forests. LOC.
high. rachis glandular pubescent. astringent to bowels. innermost the longest.-rotate. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda).2 cm. robust. Country. warted. C. M. Gadar-tambaku. PARTS USED. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. with purple tips . erect. . stem 0. Gujarat. 5—9 x 2. Kalizhiri. K. H. coarsely serrate. Vapehi. Kalejire. COM.—Compositæ. DISTR.8 cm. LOC. branched near the top.6-0. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). :—An annual herb. :—Seeds-acrid. Fr. hairy on both sides. Sk. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. Sundika. COM. compound or pinnatisect. FAM. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. Sk. Bhutakeshi.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Ceylon . :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. NS. t— Jany. pappus reddish. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. China. Deccan . :—Annual. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. :—Plant. :—Throughout India.Feb. DISTR.-achene oblong cylindric. M. hairy. Afghanistan.) FAM. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. 10-ribbed. Fr. anthelmintic.—Scrophulariaceæ.5—3. G. cure ulcers. Kadu-Kala Jiriga.. LOC. Vishamushti.. involucre bracts linear. Somaraj..—capsule.—alternate. The juice of the whole plant. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. :—Throughout India . :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. The juice mixed with mustard oil. in equal proportions.—Dec. PROPERTIES AND USES. t. Kulhala. :—E. CHAR. Kalhara. Kalijiri. often cultivated. Kadvojiri. on long petioles. ofter cultivated. about 40-flowered.—heads subcorymbose. K. and leaves. used in skin-diseases. lobes 5. NS. stems 60—90 cm. H. high . :—G. Kutki. Bakchi. rounded. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. Fl. hairy. Somaraj. lyrate. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Sd. L. Purple Fleabane. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. Fl. CHAR. Agnibija. yellow.—oblong. lanceolate. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. Java .-radical 5-10 x 2-3. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet.. truncate. leafy herb . "Vata" and "Kapha".9 m. L. Fl. squeezed out by pounding. :—Konkan .-May. M. HABITAT:-Waste places. Fl. hairy. Kulara. LOC. sub-globose. Seeds— anthelmintic. Ceylon. Vanajiraka. all coarsely dentate.
Vecrnam.—achene. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Sind. oblong. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). CHAR.—Compositæ. Fl. :—E. H. Koosa. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Ardhaprasadana. Khas. heads small. :—Plant. Fr. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). cold. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. silky on the back. kidney troubles. consumption. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. 15—75 cm. pappus white. Cuscus grass. Kuruvelu. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils.—simple. COM. :—Throughout India. LOC. good for sores and itching of eyes. Ushira. Africa . alternate. high. Sahadevi. Vala. The expressed juice is given in piles. LOC. PARTS USED. with lime-juice. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf.— pinkish violet. hiccup . they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. striate. Mudivala. stomachic and diuretic.—Gramineæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. NS. tropical Asia. clothed with white hairs . Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. The plant with quinine. Lavancha. used for asthma. DISTR. bruised seeds ground up in paste. tonic. Sahadevi. :—Annual. L. astringent. Valo . Australia. . pubescent. stem stiff. K. cures "Tridosha". remove blood from liver. G. FAM.-Feb. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. bronchitis . G.—Jan. awned. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. COM. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Sk. Fl. flowers. In Ceylon. :—E. Sedardi. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. applied in inflammatory swellings .. asthma. Ash-coloured Fleabane . t. stomachic. H. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. seeds. Bena. made into a bolus with lime-juice. LOC. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. K. Osari. erect herb. Sadori. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. :—A common weed throughout the State. NS. Bala. a depilatory (Yunani). Dandotpala. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. M. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. FAM. are used in destroying pediculi. M. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Sahadevi. Sadodi. Devika. Panni. They are also used as tonic. plant is used in fever convulsions. Sk.
:—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. Philippine Islands. :—Root. strangury. :—Common in Gujarat and N. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. inflammations and irritability of stomach. bronchitis. :—Roots. Sambhalu.-leaf sheaths compressed. Culms stout. FAM. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. refrigerant. H. West-Indies and Brazil. racemes up to 5 cm. Nirgundi. Ceylon. Cooling to brain. inflammations. rachis stout. LOC. Sinduvara. Nirgundi. K. Nirgud. DISTR. soporific.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES. bitter. :—Throughout India. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. high. Nilpushpi. Sk. bilious fevers. usually sheathed all along. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. Leaves are aromatic. L. NS. The roots contain an essential oil. febrifuge. USES :—Root is tonic. foul breath.—Verbenaceæ. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. anthelmintic. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. up to over 1. DISTR. leucoderma. LOC. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). tonic and vermifuge. M. stomachic. bitter. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. head-ache. Fl. LOC. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. leaves. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. sweats. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . bitter. Nirgundi. also cultivated. consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. Afghanistan. throughout the Malayan regions. astringent. long. stimulant and tonic. PARTS USED. slender. Nigod. :—Cooling. Kanara in damp places. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . PARTS USED. Indrani. blood diseases (Yunani). diuretic. useful in eye diseases. Sind. stomachic. Nirgari. useful in spermatorrhoea. lower ones keeled and fan-like. colour varying from yellowish to black. Sessile spikelets. alexiteric. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. astringent. margin spinously rough.. Nukki. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . :—Throughout the State. Konkan and Deccan. useful in burning sensation. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Lakki. :—G.8 m. biliousness. spleen enlargement. heating. cephalic. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. pale green. promotes hair-growth. erect.. thirst. Bilenekki. long. asthma. expectorant and diuretic. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. COM. The otto is used as a tonic.—panicle up to 30 cm.
asthma. stones in bladder. good for eyes and throat. Fruit— digestive. emmenagogue. stops bleeding from mouth. emmenagogue. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. liver and kidney. astringent to bowels. Sap of young branches. LOC. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. and given in coughs. K. :—Fruit-acrid. a remedy for skin diseases. diuretic . Sk. Angura. burning. sparingly in Poona. India. bad effects of drinking. The fruits contain vitamin A. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. allays vomiting. difficult to digest. Khandesh. M. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). fever. M. fever. Yakshmaghni. Draksha. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. syphilis. aphrodisiac.. Ahmednagar. FAM-—Vitaceæ. and traces of vitamins B and C. seeds. Drakh . PROPERTIES AND USES. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. testicle swellings and piles. See—Timbers. Gujarat and S. piles. allays vomiting. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. :—Cultivated. diuretic. flowers. PARTS USED :—Stem. :—A native of western Asia. LOC. . ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). skin should not be eaten. Country. fattening. good for lungs. produces alopecia. Draksha. cures thirst. leaves. tonic to liver. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. applied in scabies. strangury. cooling useful in thirst. useful in old fevers. cough. Draksha. sweet. Madhurasa. Draksha. :—Deccan. :—E. cooling. DISTR. produces constipation. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. Fruit is nervine. G. causes gases in the stomach. jaundice. fattening . hoarseness and consumption. good in chronic bronchitis . cooling . Darakh. laxative. Angur. HABITAT. Guchaphala. W. appetiser. diarrhœa. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. purifies and enriches blood . Seeds—aphrodisiac. spleen inflammation. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. blood diseases. catarrh and jaundice. aperient. COM. stomachic. Grape-vine. expectorant. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Flowers—expectorant. The plant contains an alkaloid. fruits. There are numerous cultivated varieties. laxative. heat of body. H. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia.
FAM. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. emmenagogue . NS. Asan. dark-green. HABITAT. entire. aphrodisiac. . Fl. alterative. oblong. Drakshasava—used as tonic. Balada. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . Winter-cherry. heating. good in asthma. acrid. psoriasis. FAM. Kanara. Asgundh.—Solanaceæ. scabies. Sd. Asgund..5 m. bronchitis. "Kapha". Hirimaddina-gadde.-Jany. constricted between them. oblong. anthritis.—5-10 X 2. Sogada-beru. t. aphrosidiac. leaves. pretty common in the ghats. Hooliganji. seeds. alexipharmic. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. insomnia. :—In the drier regions of India . slightly 5-angled. Fr. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). H. K. :—K. main rachis armed with prickles. :—A robust woody climber. LOC. useful in "Vata". t. green berries.—berry.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. Amangura. Tuber—bitter. PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR.— Sept. Fl. Asoda. Wakeri. inserted on the top of. Ghodasoda. spathulate. Ceylon. long.5 cm.5-5 cm. :—E. minutely hairy. G. Vajini. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Tubers-bitter. inflammations. dark-orange. red. smooth. Fr. M.-Feb. :—Drier regions. ovate.—greenish or lurid yellow. Deccan. 0. swollen above the seeds. senile debility. base dentate.—pod.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. PARTS USED. leaflets 5-7 pairs. Kamrupini. L. Gandhpatri. Mediterranean regions. calyx-tube.—2-pinnate. Gujarat. (not common. high. :—A branched erect undershrub. bony Fl. long. pinnae 4-6 pairs. Sd.3-1. favours constipation (Yunani). long. :—Deccan. inflammations. asthma. Ashvagandha.—3-4. ulcers. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. rachis grooved with soft hairs. branches armed with recurved prickles . usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . leucoderma. NS. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. coriaceous. 23-30 cm. Canaries. armed with prickles . Punir. DISTR. consumption.—yellow. Wagati. PROPERTIES AND USES. bronchitis. hard. USES. enclosed in inflated calyx. Fl. C. CHAR. chest troubles etc. obovate. abundant in Sind . linear oblong.. M. hoary tomentose . WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. tonic.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). L. 7. COM. LOC. tonic. Sk. See—Fruit Trees. Kanchuki. lumbago. :—Root and bark. 6 mm. Cape of Good Hope. marasmus of children. diam. :—Konkan jungles. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal.5-12. COM. Wagati.) DISTR. anthelmintic. branches terete.. somewhat scurfy.—petals 5.
DISTR. LOC. Dyes. Ornamental Plants. Dhaiti. Dec. Kanara near the sea-coast. 1 cm. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Br. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. erysipelas. Dhaw. leaf-infusion is given in fever. common in the Konkan and N. Madagascar. Indrajav.) FAM. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. Tamrapushpi. lumbar pains. The plant contains an alkaloid. M. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). branchlets clothed with white pubescence . t. branches long. alexiteric. uterine sedative. debility from old age. Santha. diuretic and deobstruent.—mostly opposite.5 cm. Fl.. Dhavani. . smooth. ulcers and painful swellings . emaciation of children. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. NS.—Apocynaceæ. velvety above. Baluchistan. long. Japan. toxic. Dhawai. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. USES. Sd. Kuda. irregularly dehiscent. Hayamaraka. :—Throughout India. China. blood diseases. :—Pungent. Are.— numerous. :—Bark and flowers.3-2. haemorrhoids. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Madhavasini. Kalakuda. brown. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. PROPERTIES AND USES. wedge-shaped.—numerous.—Lythraceæ. Kalikari. NS. cooling. :—Monsoon-forests. useful in leucorrhoea.-May. COM.—capsule. :—Root is regarded as tonic. See—Tans. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. anthelmintic . K. Swetakutaj. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Sk. Madhuindrayava. used in thirst. Vanhishikha. H. 5-9X 1. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Kodamurki. alterative. rheumatism. COM. Sumatra. on trap in the Akrani. Bela. tropical Africa. K. Fl. LOC. leprosy. Dhavani. Indrajav. Hale. Fr. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Dhawadina. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). H. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. acrid. M. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. PARTS USED. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Indrajav. and in derangement of liver . FAM. ovate-lanceolate. Sk. Hallunova. :—G. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Dhateki. simple. Ceylon. dysentery. nigro-punctate beneath. It is narcotic. Dudhi. Phulsatti. Khirni. :—G. Java. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. scarlet. HABITAT.
Dutundi. H. fertile heads few. :— Throughout India. DISTR. FAM. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn.. Khandesh at 1050 m. See—Timbers. USES :—Root is bitter. with 2 erect beaks. 5-7. CHAR. :—Bark and seeds. stout. long and broad. in W. irregularly incisoserrate . . rough with short hairs . at the top. hard and tough. Gadrian. oblong ovoid. DISTR.—Jany.. Fl. Sarpakshi. West-Peninsula. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. LOC. salivation. t. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. Sankeshwar. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. especially root and fruit. M. L. epilepsy.Feb. G. alexiteric. memory. :—Rajastan. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. Ceylon. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. complexion. NS. Madhya Pradesh. :—Annual herb . 3-lobed.—many. the bark is specially useful in piles. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. PROPERTIES AND USES.5 cm. tonic. axillary. digestive. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. COM. Fl. Banokra. PROPERTIES AND USES. Shankhahuli. fever. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. Itara. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. LOC. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. Fr. PARTS USED. hairy on both sides. LOC. Bur-Weed.—Compositæ. Aristha. :—Cooling. Sk. ovoid in fruit. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. fattening. all over the State.-E. long. laxative. biliousness. 1-3 cm.1-6. compressed .achene. tonic. barren heads many.. improves appetite. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). stem short. In S. Timor. Dumundi. LOC. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). cures leucoderma. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . thickly clothed with hooked prickles. antidysenterica (Yunani).—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. involucre of fertile head.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. :—The whole plant. antipyretic. Clot-Cockle-bur. voice. Kambu-Vanamalini. poisonous bites of insects.
LOC. Gulmmula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Badari. useful in elephantiasis. Plum. dyspepsia. on poor soil and in rocky places. :—Cultivated. Bordi. Bogari. M. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. tongue and increases appetite. Shringavera. Kuvali. Hasisunthi. Alen. Alla Adrak. stomachic. pains (Yunani).. piles. Ber. Chinese Date. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. useful in heart and throat diseases. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. inflammations. it cleans throat. "Kapha". PARTS USED. G. rheumatism. Ada. head-ache. HABITAT.—Scitaminaceæ. FAM. NS. "Vata". :—E. to prevent nausea and griping. H. laxative. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. vomiting. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. DISTR. Ginger. Adrate. eructations. carminative. expectorant. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. loss of appetite and piles. Ipanji. Sk. COM. Egasi. Bor. good in piles. tonic. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ardraka. and dry situations. Indian Cherry. heating. asthma. K. COM. Anupama. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Rhizome-pungent. . it is also used in tooth and face-ache. FAM. NS. appetiser. G. stomachic. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. :—Rhizome. pains. Boyedi. Kandara. alexiteric. lumbago. :—E. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). gives lustre to eye. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Beri. anthelmintic. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. K. See—Condiments and Spices. M. LOC. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . vomiting. Ajapriya. Rhizome—pungent. Alen. H. it is also given in the form of infusion. Bore. Dridhabija. Koli. carminative. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk.—Rhamnaceæ. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Sk. bronchitis. removes pain due to cold. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. flatulence. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. colic. Ber. Bor. It is stimulant.
Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Fruit Trees. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . good in dysentery and diarrhœa. bark. indigestible. Root and Bark tonic. head-ache. . :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. good in liver complaints. Bark—causes boils . and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. fruit. Fruit—sweet and sour. China. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. useful in fevers. Kanara. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Burma. good in consumption and blood-diseases. cure asthma. LOC. Fruit— cooling. DISTR. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Afghanistan. allays thirst (Yunani). Ceylon. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. See—Timbers. seeds. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Fruits contains vitamin A. causes diarrhœa in large doses . Leaves form a plaster to boils. Leaves antipyretic. aphrodisiac. laxative. causes cough. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. biliousness. :—Root-bitter. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). removes biliousness.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Seed—astringent. PARTS USED. Leaves—anthelmintic. tonic to heart and brain . tonic. Africa. burning sensation. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. vomiting. reduce obesity.. abundant in the Deccan. on the laterite near the coast in N. Australia. leaves. cooling. thirst. wounds and ulcers. :—Root. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m.
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