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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
Dantadhavan.-t. LOC. wrinkled when dry . relaxation of the uvula. H. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. Charmakusha. anthelmintic. cooling. fleshy when green. leucorrhoea. along the coasts of Konkan and N.—pod. Phena. Vidula. urinary and vaginal discharges. hypertrophy of tonsils. tonic. psoriasis. :—Common in the Konkan and N. cures itching. L. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Kushthari. Country and Gujarat. Fl. LOC. anti-pyretic. yellow. DISTR. " Kapha ". M. Sk. aphrodisiac. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Khair. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful.5-12. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Bhuriphena. Sige-balli or kai.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Yajnika. linear-oblong. Saptata. COM. Pegu.-6-10 .. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Ritha. mouth troubles.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis.-July. prurigo. Burma. astringent to bowels. Shige. Himalayas up to 1700 m. DISTR. erysipelas. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). In ulceration of the gums.—bipinnate. indigestion. 5-10 cm. Kath-bole. antidysenteric. CHAR.—in fascicled globose heads. Manda-otte. K. 7. :—E. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Soap-pod tree. Fr. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. piles. :—Common throughout the Stale . given in elephantiasis. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). palate and tongue (Chakradatta). Sk. Saradruma. heaviness. Fl. gums. boils. ulcers. :—Rajastan. overlapping. NS. FAM. acrid. bronchitis. throat diseases. G. Khandesh Akrani S. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. China. Sd. Chikakai. Dyes. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. long. Lalkhair. measles and other skindiseases. strengthens teeth. leprosy. Kanara forests. Kanara (often on laterite). Sikkim. It is given in diarrhœa. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Western Peninsula. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. " Vata ". inflammations. sore-throat and tooth-ache. :—An extensive woody climber.5X2-2. .-Mar. Dipta. LOC. Tans. :—Throughout India. Deccan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. See—Timbers. Shikekai. Malay Islands. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles .. M. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Kochi. M. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.8 cm. Khadira.
Sk. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. PARTS USED :—Bark. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. blood diseases. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. tonic. Internally they are aperient. HABITAT :—Moist situations.pungent. caries of teeth. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. cures " Kapha. In Philippines decoction. digestible. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . cures stomatitis. . biliousness. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Arimeda. NS. cardio-tonic. ascites. anthelmintic. Jali. anti-dysenteric. improves appetite. detergent. H. stomatitis. Sauna jali. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. eczema. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . LOC. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. burning sensation. Pissibabul. bronchitis. See—Timbers. Jheri baval. Gums and Resins. Girimeda. Kari jali. prurigo. itching. blood-diseases. Vilavati kikar. inflammations. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. cooling. :—E. M. Sind. Cassia flower. often planted . Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. COM. anti-diarrhoeal. FAM. G. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. deobstruent. DISTR. anthelmintic. leaves and gum. buboes. expectorant and good emetic. LOC. causes " Vata". Gandhbabul. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. purgative.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Gandhelo khair . Sponge tree. Marudruma. often cultivated. K. leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. LOC. not indigenous but naturalised. ulcers. Kankri.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Devababhul. erysipelas. piles. erysipelas. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Gum—sweetish. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda).. leucoderma. alexiteric. Stinking acacia.
long in fruit. Khokali. Fr.—Nov. Apamarga. ascending. L. females. Uttrane .—Amarantaceæ. Arittamanjaria.5-4. LOC. Kharamanjiri. one-seeded. Kuppi.5 cm. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. K. L. Utranigida. minute. axillary spikes . enclosed in perianth smooth. elliptic obovate. M. Vanchhikanto. . DISTR. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Prickly chaff-flower. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. crenate-serrate. It is used in congestive headache. :—Common in the Deccan and S.—capsule.3 X 2. K.—utricle. in elongate terminal spikes. 3. smooth. Fr. Var.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. G. M. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. The plant contains acalyphin. few.—opposite. branches long. branches terete or quadrangular striate. Apang.—truncate at apex. Sd. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. erect herb. H. angular. NS.. Vasira. small. Khajoti. somewhat 3-nerved. pale-brown. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. about 50 cm. 30-75 cm.57. Chalmari. stem stiff. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. Kuppi-gida.5 cm. many.—Euphorbiaceæ. Philippines. scattered. H. :—Annual. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Merkati. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. Fl. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. 2. Ksharamadhya. t. FAM. Chirchira. perianth 4-5 segments. Sk. :—E.—June-Sept. asthma. :—An erect herb 0. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis.8-6. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation.5x2-4. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. elongate.9 m. rounded at base. erect. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. CHAR. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. brown. softly hairy. pneumonia and rheumatism. Sk. COM. high. COM. LOC. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. clustered near the summit of spike.—monœcious. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. :—G. brown. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. hispid.— ovoid. CHAR. high. Fl. tropical Africa. oblong-cylindric. :—Throughout India. Sd. Country. Khokla. t..3-0. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps.-Jany. M.—greenish white. Kantarika. Fl. Chichra. Agheda-di. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. males. Aghada . Fl. Latjira . in lax.
America. :—E. spathe 15-75 cm. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. acute. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. good for mouth diseases. epilepsy. heating. prismatic. anthers yellow. M. creeping and branching. 0. stomatitis. L. Sweet flag . PARTS USED : —Root. Bach. carminative. laxative. Australia. rat-bite.. Throughout Asia. voice. carminative. diuretic. toothache. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery.—turbinate. anthelmintic. COM.9-1. useful in dyspepsia. improves appetite. tumours.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—Araceæ. abdominal pains. thirst. LOC. itching. bronchitis. Bitter. Ugragandha. "Vata". Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. stomachic. Godavaj. 5-10 cm. Vacha. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. spadix.. G. Sikkim. bright-green. margins wavy. sepals scarious. liver and chest pains. Vekhand . Ceylon. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. carminative. obtuse. heart diseases. long. alexiterie. flowers and seeds. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. Baluchistan. boils. thickened in the middle. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. laxative. laxative. Gorbach . :—An aromatic herb . LOC. useful in abdominal pains.8 cm. long. flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. NS. dyspepsia. Baja . piles. dysentery. :—Throughout India. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. FAM. top pyramidal.8 X 1. See—Sacred Plants. Tropical Asia. slightly curved. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. pungent. skin eruption etc. green . it is used in cases of cough and asthma. useful in vomiting. America. improves appetite. expectorant. Vekhand. Bhutnashini. HABITAT :—Marshy places. CHAR. etc. kidney troubles. leaves. LOC. H. DISTR. emetic. loss of memory. Sk. K. inflammations. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. leucoderma (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. ascites. its infusion is tonic and stomachic.7-3. delirium. hysteria. piles. Gandhilovaj. Europe and N. emmenagogue . Jatila. blood diseases (Ayurveda). . Fr. brain-tonic. and is considered useful in dropsy. bronchitis. heating. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. throat. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. dysentery. Africa. useful in general weakness. fevers.
useful in biliousness. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. K. leaf and fruit. Haggodgimara. fever. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. Gopali. Gorakhchinch. :—Western Peninsula. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. H. indigenous in tropical Africa. Monkey-bread tree. Powder is very effective insecticide. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. African calabash. NS. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. dysentery. PARTS USED : —Root. in children. FAM. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Gorakamali.—Lauraceæ. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) .:—Konkan. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. :—Grown in many places in India . It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons.—Bombacaceæ. Panch-parnika.. Goremlichora . Baobab.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . N. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. :—K. Tudgensu . Bukha. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. FAM. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. DISTR. fevers and other maladies. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. LOC. Pichli. COM. It is a good remedy in asthma. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. Brahmamlika. HABITAT':—Cultivated. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. LOC. COM. DISTR. etc. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. colic. :—E. bark. vomiting. M. anti-pyretic. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). LOC. Pisa. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . Gorakshi. M. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Rukhdo . NS. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. Kanara evergreen forests. Sk. Gujarat. See—Timbers. G. Gorakhaamli. In small doses it is carminative and nervine.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Root-bark poisonous. :—Throughout India. Sirsul. Anedhera. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. NS. LOO. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. often along banks of nalas in N. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. " Vata "-pain. tonic. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. cures " Kapha". Shirish. colic. Kanara. Fruit—laxative. G. Kullumavu. fish-poison. Kathora. useful in worms. anthelmintic. leaves (rarely). Dridhakantaka. M. LOC. Kalshish. Piloshirish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Kaloshirish. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. stem. COM. :—E. inflammations. alterative. S.) FAM. K. DISTR. (Mimosaceæ). HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. China. Root-bark— used in piles. Sk. indigestible. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. gleet. Kalosadasado. biliousness. Ankoli. FAM. NS. dysentery.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Ankota. H. Ceylon. . Sk.—Leguminosæ. diarrhœa. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Vamaka. hydrophobia. commonly planted along roadsides. Ankola. anthelmintic. K. Ankotha. burning of body. poisonous bites. and fruit. :—Throughout the State.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. wasting diseases.—Alangiaceæ. Shirisha. Tamraphala. Akoly. Seeds—cooling. M. Sage-leaved alangium. Asroli. Ankola. heating. Chinchola. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. COM. Sirai. Kalashirish. Ankora. Shirish. Onkla. Malaya. acute fever. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Tantia. pungent. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Shankiniphala. Ankoli. inflammations. G. Karnapura. rat-bite. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . alexipharmic . Ankola. H. Krishnashirisha. LOC. aromatics or honey. alexiteric. Uddanaka. See—Timbers. expectorant. carminative. See—Timbers. Juice—emetic. spermatorrhoea. Gudhapatra. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Sirisa. Philippines. Garso. it is said to stop after-pains. blood diseases. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. Ankol. Dodda-Hombage. lumbago (Yunani). blood diseases. lumbago. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). cures erysipelas. useful in inflammations. Shyamala.
stimulant and expectorant. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. FAM. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. It is an important garden crop. Sk. The plant contains vitamins A. piles. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. improves taste. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Ceylon. syphilis. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. G. M. Kanda. etc. Bark-bitter. scabies. asthma. piles. paralysis. cures "Vata". Palandu. flowers. Piyaz. cultivated everywhere. strengthens gums and teeth. bark. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. ophthalmia. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). given in piles. Burma. body pains. leucoderma. LOC. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. their smell useful in hemicrania. spleen diseases. and chronic bronchitis . Root—astringent. excessive perspiration. skin-diseases. Dungari. and also in skin diseases . Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. COM. Bark and seeds are astringent. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis.—Liliaceæ. Rajapriya. boils. which acts as a diuretic. Flowers—aphrodisiac.: —Throughout India. diarrhœa. H. eruptions and swellings. PARTS USED :—Root. volatile oil. Oil is used in leprosy. anthelmintic. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. NS. alexiteric. Seeds—tonic to brain. Bark— anthelmintic.:—E. tumours. deafness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. DISTR. bleeding piles. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). ear-ache. seeds. emollient. biliousness. used in leprosy. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. . Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa.K. erysipelas. Bulb—tonic. blood diseases. B & C. See—Timbers. itching. useful in vomiting. stomachic. prescribed in ophthalmia. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Bengal. etc. tonic. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. useful in malaria. occasionally used in fever. Seeds—fattening. dropsy. good in rat-bite. leaves. weakness. relieves tooth-ache. enriches blood. LOC..MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. seeds. appetiser. catarrh.. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. vomiting. inflammations. LOC. maturant. Onion. Leaves—good in night blindness. cooling. Ulageddi. See—Vegetables. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. :—Native country probably Persia. aphrodisiac. scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. usually planted. Rochaka. epistaxis. bronchitis.
Korphad. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. oleaginous . See—Vegetables. NS. piles. M. useful in diseases of eye and heart. thirst. H. Sk. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. low fevers. Kumari. In cases of diphtheria. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. thins the blood (Yunani). " Vata ". Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. M. Korkand. G. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. FAM. Kumari.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. . sciatica. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. It is an important garden crop. aphrodisiac. digestive. Lashuna.—Liliaceæ. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. Lahsan. Rasonaka. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. caries of teeth.—Liliaceæ. body and joint pains. Country. K. COM. improves appetite. Indian aloe. Ugragandha. :—E. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Kuvarpatha. chronic fevers. Diuretic. good for lumbago. leucoderma. heating. FAM. Lolisara. complexion. asthma. tonic. Kanya. clears voice. fattening. coughs and other debilitating conditions. In pulmonary phthisis. Lasun. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. In Cambodia. voice. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. H. leucoderma. bronchitis. anthelmintic. The plant contains vitamin C. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. :—E. liver and lungs . NS. ALŒ VERA Linn. thirst. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. troubles of spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. COM. G. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. tumours. Ikshurmallika. paralysis. aphrodisiac. Lasan. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. lumbago. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Lasan. M. Bellulli. LOC. Kapila. Kattali. alexipharmic. K. PARTS USED :—Bulb. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. LOC. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Sk. inflammation. epileptic fits. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. useful in inflammations. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. hemiplegia. Ghi-kumari. carminative. Garlic.
pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia.—Apocynaceæ. lumbago. alterative. asthma. useful in eye-diseases. tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Root. M. somewhat divided.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. carminative. milky juice. inflammations. scape longer than the leaves. emollient and demulcent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. alexiteric. piles. DISTR. Sk. biliousness (Yunani). Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. The plant contains aloin. L. used in fevers. Native of S. skin diseases. lanceolate. also cultivated. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. West Indian Islands. jaundice. useful in splean inflammation. Hale. crowded. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. purgative. used in form of paste in pleurisy. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. biliousness. ulcers (Ayurveda). Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. Mediterranean. wild along the coast. DISTR. Barbados. Satwin. planted in Indian gardens . scaly. aphrodisiac. H. Fl.—in dense racemes . yellow. :—E. fleshy. :—Throughout India. margins spiny. COM. simple or branched. perianth cylindric . It also acts as a mild purgative. liver complaints. tumours. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. Dita bark tree. gonorrhœa. India. Satian. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. leaves. tonic. :—Wild along the coast in S. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards.—sessile. LOC. LOC. vomiting. bronchitis. Br. LOC. E. pendulous. Bitter . PARTS USED :—Leaves. ophthalmia. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. strangury. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Saptaparna. and it is largely imported into India. Chatian. K. Australia. C. PARTS USED :— . Africa. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Kadusale. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. purgative. Kaduhale. :—A perennial herb . ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. cooling. Jamaica. fattening. NS. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. spleen enlargement. tonic. Saptachhada. Kanara. Java. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. isobarbaloin and emodin. pale-green. Satwin. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. Ceylon. bark. FAM. common in the rain-forests of N. pain in muscles. methritis. stem short thick. liver troubles. digestive.
appetiser. Root—heating expectorant. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. Pathyashaka. Apamarisha. Kantalo dambho. L. hallucination. antiperiodic and febrifuge. ovoid. also useful in catarrhal fever. heating. rugose. antipyretic. FAM.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. Kantanatia. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. HABITAT :—In waste places. anthelmintic. Fr. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. good in diseases of the heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. asthma.8 cm.— capsule. Drug Com. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. CHAR. Kantanu-dant. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. male calyx acute. boils and burns. entire. . tumours. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. Tandulja. laxative. tropical countries. numerous. apiculate. unisexual. :—Throughout India. leprosy. COM.. rubbish heaps . oleaginous. burning sensation. H. leucoderma. long. leucorrhoea. stomachic. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. LOC. piles. Tandulibija. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. biliousness. Tandulaja. Cholai.2—7. LOC.—Amarantaceæ. ovate. K. high. Bark—acrid. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. improves appetite. alexiteric. ulcers. M.3—3. diuretic. often reddish. Sk. LOC. Kante math. bristles pointed. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). :—An erect glabrous herb. rat-bite. obtuse. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. laxative. useful in " Kapha ". NS. G. Mullarave-soppu. sudorific and febrifuge. diseases of the blood. Fl. rubbish heaps and fields. Mulladantu. obtuse. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. thickened at the top. digestible. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. :—E. See—Timbers. female calyx oblong.5 X 1. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. bitter. See—Vegetables. bronchitis. lanceolate. DISTR.— 3. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. 30-60 cm. Ceylon.). " tridosha " pain. blood diseases. also in fields. Prickly amaranth. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. galactogogue.
Kandala. In the Konkan.—Lythraceæ. NS. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. appetiser. H. red. CHAR. Bharajambhul. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Kanthalla. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. enlargement of the spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter .—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Vikata. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Kurendika. strangury . Gujarat and Kanara. 8-65 cm." blood troubles. high.—Araceæ. " Vata. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. :—An annual. LOC. :—Cultivated widely in the State. . DISTR. Suran. FAM. Kuranda. stomachic. branches usually opposite. laxative. LOC. Fl. Bitter and acrid . G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. t. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. :—Throughout India in moist places. Dadmari. Suran. fresh or dried. increases appetite and taste. fevers etc. L. G.—capsule. Afghanistan. COM. Malaya. :—E. aphrodisiac. Sukaranda. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. globose. abdominal pains. pungent. Grows wild on the banks of S. asthma. much narrowed at the base. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. LOC.—opposite. Kuranti. Sk. Australia. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). removes " Kapha ". It is also used as an emmenagogue. stomachic. bronchitis. Fr. depressed. M. DISTR. K. China. Sd. Sk. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Kandavardhan. Suran. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. H. constipating. elephantiasis . Jangli mehandi. harmful in "Kapha". HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Deccan. LOC. Suran . Konkan rivers.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. FAM. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Blistering ammania. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. sessile. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. Jalavgiyo. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. blood diseases. tumours. Tropical Africa. M. Ceylon. corm. Elephant's foot. Fl. Vatari. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—Leaves. acrid. vomiting. erect or subscandent herb. :—E. Arshaghna. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. the plant.—Nov. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. causes itching sensation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains.:— Konkan. COM.
digestible. FAM. Kanara. leaves. 10-12 X 7. Agni-krita. :—E. Oils.—in panicles 25-35 cm. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. PARTS USED :—Bark. Sophara. NS. COM. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). CHAR. Kaju . hot. piles. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . Kaju. Upapushpika.. sweet. COM. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. skin diseases. It is supposed to have restorative power. LOC.—Menispermaceæ. See—Timbers. flowers. Kakamari. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". cordate or truncate. K. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. See—Vegetables. M. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. corns and obstinate ulcers. G. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. Sk. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. FAM. B. Gerubi. H. Sk. NS. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Gova.— subcoriaceous. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Fl. leucoderma. :—A native of tropical America. 5-nerved. M. long. Govamba. anthelmintic.5 cm.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. Kakamari. Garalaphala. & A. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. DISTR. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. bark vertically furrowed . The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. :—E. USES :—Bark is alterative. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Kaju. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant.5-12. broadly ovate. Corm is poisonous. Crow-Fish Killer. and trace of C. . LOC. Kakaphal. fever. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fish-Louse Berry. tumours. Kakamari. Kakamari. Prithagbija. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. . Kakanashika. The seed contains vitamin A. swollen peduncle of fruit. many flowered. Kajutaka. ringworm. Kakkisoppugida . which is nutritious and emollient. ascites. Jermic. H. dysentery. Kakamari. The plant contains Vitamins A. L.—Anacardiaceæ. G. also cultivated. equal to almond oil. ulcers. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. Cashew apple-nut. aphrodisiac.
good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. N. also acts as a purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular.-Oct. Kanara. NS. LOC. Creat. Sk. Olen kirayat. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. to a certain extent in Gujarat. cultivated. :—E. M. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). :—Konkan. smooth. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . M.) LOC. G. Mahatit. Ananas hannu. Assam. it is useful in jaundice. :—E. LOC. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). H. K. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. :—Khasia Hills. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. Olikiriyat. FAM. Bhuinimba. K. Bengal. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. Ananas . 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. a poison to fish (Yunani). Ananasa. removes gases from the intestines . COM. Ananas . Ananas. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ananas. native of Brazil (tropical America). Ama. G. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . leaves and fruits. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. Nelabevu gida. H.—Sept. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. causes cough and biliousness. Kiriyata. DISTR. black . Mahateet. . PARTS USED :—Roots. DISTR. t. NS. See—Fruit Trees. from Orissa to Ceylon. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Kantak sanjika. Pine-apple . Parvati. Kiryat. good expectorant. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue.—Acanthaceæ. Sk. It acts also as diuretic. E. Kirata. dioecious. COM. Fl. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. diaphoretic and refrigerant. FAM. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). fruits. petals absent. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. LOC.—Bromeliaceæ.
Sd. high. Plant is useful in general debility. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. C—2-lipped. L. distant. linear-oblong.—lanceolate. crenate-serrate. stomachic. Malabar Catmint.3-0. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles.—Ghats. acute at both ends . Sundraphul.—very thick. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. Alamoda.—Dec. dyspepsia and fever from teething. Br. yellowish brown. and anthelmintic. Vaikunth. alterative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. white below. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. :—Throughout India. CHAR. Fr. and N. Chodhara. Fl. rose coloured. lower lip very large and broad .—small. polished brown. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. and certain forms of dyspepsia.8 m. stem quadrangular. :—Konkan and Kanara. high. t. G. Kanara. :—An erect shrub.9 m. approximate above. Fr. Green leaves.3-10 X 2-4.5 cm. L. Karitumbe. :—An erect branched annual 0. solitary. M. Sundara. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Gojivana. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. purple. 1. .2-1. DISTR. Fl. upper lip 2-toothed.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. C—2-lipped. COM. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children.—nutlets. clothed with woolly hairs . t. tonic. rugosely pitted.— capsule. LOC. HABITAT.—many. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Fl. Sk. undulate. oblong-lanceolate. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Oshthaphala. DISTR. :—Deccan. LOC. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. K. thickly woolly. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. distant. Karnatak. pale beneath. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. forming a spicate inflorescence. dysentery. smooth. :—S. extensively used in Bengal. Ceylon. very small. sometimes cultivated. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. lateral lobes small. made into an electuary.-Oct. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. :—E. NS. bracts lanceolate.—Labiatæ. Malay Peninsula. lower 3lobed. acute. FAM. ellipsoid. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. Roots and leaves are febrifuge.—in dense whorls . Fl. 6.. pale above.-Nov.
HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Anan. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. M. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. COM. LOC. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. useful in anaemia. Dindiga. Bahubijika. See—Timbers. Seeds—difficult to digest. increases muscular strength. H. DISTR. increases biliousness . Custard apple. Sweet-sop. Sitaphala.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. expectorant. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. Damora. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. FAM. LOC. Bejjalu. Dhava. K. Sk. stimulant. Ceylon. Bark is bitter. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Anuram. Durangi. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Dhamora. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). enriches blood. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Sugar apple. and eyesores.—Anonaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. :—E. discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Pitaphala. abortifacient.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. good tonic. produce ulcers in the eye. Dyes. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Root—cathartic. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Sitaphal. Dabria. Dhava. Amritphala. Sitaphala. :—A native of West Indies . PARTS USED :—Root. G. Kanara border. G. (Yunani). LOC. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . leaves and fruits. Bark is a powerful astringent. Sk. COM. Dhavada. Dindala. Sharipha. :—E. chronic diarrhœa. fruit and seeds. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Sitaphala. cooling. LOC. tasty. useful in liver complaints. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Krishnabija. erysipelas. Bakla. Dhavala. NS. :—Throughout the greater part of India. improves taste and appetite . DISTR. Shushkanga. Ata. cooling . applied to skin-diseases. M. sedative to heart. Dhavada. H. flavoury. Sitaphala. enriches blood . astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). bark.—Combretaceæ. causes fever and furunculosis . FAM. Fruit—sweet. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. NS. Dohu. astringent to the bowels. Button Tree. now cultivated throughout India. bark.
Kadam. saline. Valkala. PARTS USED :—Seeds. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Fodder Plants. USES:—In the Konkan. Niv. aphrodisiac. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. DISTR. LOC. Kadamb. :—Throughout India. K. Kadamba.—Rubiaceæ. Ceylon. acrid. Kadamb . stomachic. FAM. Chandkuda. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. mixed with gram-flour. See—Timbers. Malay Islands. Chandkuda. Kaduve. LOC. Tennaserim. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . NS. " Kapha". common near Yellapur. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). from the Himalayas to Ceylon. COM NS. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. PARTS USED:—Bark. :—G. vulnerary. cooling. Kadamb . Ajjanpatte. strangury. aphrodisiac. :—E. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. burning sensation. blood diseases. . DISTR. Kadubale. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. bitter. Pegu. M. It is generally considered tonic. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Surabhi. Kadamb. Ashokari. Seeds yield an oil and resin. In eye inflammations. Upas Tree. FAM. galactagogue. H. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Sk. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Peninsula. sap of the tree. :—W. Karnapuraka. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. alexiteric. Fruit—heating. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. indigestible. " Vata". K. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. LOC. Sacred Plants. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. astringent to bowels. Jajpugri. biliousness. Chandala. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. good in uterine complaints. Malayan Peninsula. Nipa.—Moraceæ. often cultivated. Bairi. H. sweet. wild or cultivated. They are detergent and their powder. M. Nadija. Kanara . COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Sprouts—acrid. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. See—Fruit Trees. causes biliousness when ripe. Burma.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Sk. is a good hairwash. sprouts and fruits.
NS. H. The plant contains vitamins A.:—Foot of the N. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. Bhuimug-chana. improve appetite . and γ-antiarin. scorpion and other stings. G. inflammations. cure asthma. laxative. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. LOC. COM. Bodi ajomoda. See—Vegetables. N. Ugragandha. 0. high. Java and Malaya. Sk. LOC. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. pedicels 6-16 . abortifacient. Africa. :—E. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. nasal catarrh (Yunani). fever with cough. Sk. scabies. bronchitis. FAM. traces of B and C. Glucoside apiin is present. Fibres. :—E. Monkey-nut. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. L. heart and spleen diseases. . ascites. Celery.—1. anthelmintic. appetiser. apex toothed .. DISTR. chest-pains. Bhuimug. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Moda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. tooth-ache. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Bori ajmud. Ground-Pea-nut. Ajmud. vomiting. ridges narrow. rectal troubles.4 m. good in ophthalmia.— in umbels. amenorrhœa.3-2. Markati. hiccup. " Vata " .— radial. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. useful in ophthalmia. M.5-2 mm. β-antiarin. Snehabijaka. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. good for heart. :—A biennial plant. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. tonic. K. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Mandapi. Nelkadle. Shimbika. Ajmoda . W. See—Timbers. Mungphali. Bhuimug. vittae broad. COM NS. Abyssinia. cauline 3-partite. Seeds—carminative.—Umbelliferæ. rays 5-10. M. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Bhuchanak. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. H. Afghanistan. abdominal pain. Fr. CHAR. W. rheumatism. specially near large cities. Europe. segments once or twice trifid. astringent to bowels . urinary discharges. branching. Fl. used in anasarca and colic. Wild celery. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Chinimung. Ajamoda. aphrodisiac. vomiting. Asia. Karafs. cure " Kapha ". Brahmakoshi. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. erect. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison.
cooling. Hopari. removes foul breath. DISTR. Siam. Chhataphala. Betta. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. M. LOC. Kanara. USES. In French Guinea. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. aphrodisiac. LOC. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. See—Food Plants. Nut astringent. cardiotonic. Oils. gum. Mysore. seeds.:—Extensively grown in N. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Areca-nut palm. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Country. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Betel-nut palm. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. COM. Gum pungent. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. . K. fairly largely in the Konkan. Malabar. Supari. used for eye-inflammations. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Bengal. LOC. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Pophal. :—E. DISTR.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tantusara. LOC. Suppiyari. Chikkan. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. emmenagogue. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Poga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Pugiphal. H. removes pus (Yunani). The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Chikka. indigestible. G. Akota. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. M. Gujarat and S. PARTS USED :—Root. gleet. giddiness. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. FAM. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Indo-Malaya. Supari. useful in urinary disorders.—Palmæ. Adki. Areca palm. bleeding gums. Sopari. Kaungu. laxative. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Sk. :—Madras. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. digestive. Seed cooling. improves appetite and taste. Burma. NS. diuretic. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. leaves (rarely). Assam. Deccan.
—Papaveraceæ. . Svarnakshiri. This is said to bring the worm out at once. globose. H. Balurakkisa. See—Timbers. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. oblong. Daruri. juice yellow. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Fr. various skin-diseases. relieves blisters. branching. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. expectorant and demulcent. oblong-ovoid 2.—numerous. Mexican prickly poppy . PARTS USED :—Root. G. Sd. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. Fruit Trees. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Srigalkanta. nauseant. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. M. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine.3-0. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. stem clasping. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. brownish black. FAM. Datturi.5-5 cm. Root anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic.—all the year. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. antidote to various poisons. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Bila dhatura. Seeds are laxative. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. Juice—used as a collyrium. India. useful is strangury. glaucous herb . sinuately pinnatifid. t. seeds and yellow juice. emetic. stem 0. Sk. veins white. arecoline. It is also diuretic. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. destroys worms . CHAR. prickly. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient.8 cm.). :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . purgative. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. Indigenous in tropical America. Ind. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). sedative. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Bharbhand.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. cures leprosy. yellow. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. diam. 7.—capsule. USES :—Root is an alterative. 2. spinous. opening by 4-6 valves. :—A glabrous. Shialkanta. K.12 m. NS. DISTR.5-18 cm. Brahma dandi. good expectorant and aphrodisiac.—thistlelike. Pirangi datturi.— terminal.5-3. inflammations and bilious fevers. Pita-pushpa. LOC. Fl. Plant enriches blood. and in pertussis and asthma. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. COM. arecaidine. prickly. high. :—E. LOC. and guvacine. Darudi. L. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). Fl. netted. Seeds—purgative.
Kiramar. Ceylon. stems. peduncles stout. Fl. :—A very large climber. Fl. long and as broad as long.—Aug. Samudrapatrashoh. L. Hastivalli.5-30 x 6. 12-ribbed . strangury. Kitakaba. G. Arabia. Vridhadaraka. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. cultivated. tube inflated. perianth 2. M. oblongellipsoid.-Sept. Fr. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. CHAR. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. white-tomentose.— 3. rose purple. Gandali. LOC. M.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. absorptive. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Peninsula. CHAR. Country.— Aug.3-25 cm. W. Samardar sokh. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . Kidamar. Bracteated Birth-wort. K. Deccan and S. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. COM. Fr. prostrate. Java. Dridhadaru. Samudraballi. DISTR. In synovitis. :—E. white-tomentose L. M. useful in " Vata". long. glabrous inside. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. Sk. striate. Sk. base cordate with wide sinus . USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. bracts large . ovate glabrous above. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda).3-2 cm. Varghoro. H.—in sub-capitate cymes. painful joints. perhaps a native of Bengal. G. Elephant Creeper. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. t. Shyambhuna. Ganda.—capsule.— 7. H. powdered root is given with milk. used in gleet. " Kapha" fevers. Leaves are maturative. reniform or broadly ovate. Ajantri. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. Gujarat and S. :—Throughout India. infundibuliform.— globose apiculate. LOC. Dhuma-patra.—Aristolochiaceæ. FAM. Fl. tropical Africa. NS. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases.5-4. DISTR. NS. :—Bengal. LOC. Kitamari. M. weak. Adumuttadagida. Krimighni. with revolute margins. :—A slender perennial.—Weed of cultivation in black soils.8-7. C—5-6. long. anthelmintic. Kidamari. COM. Samudrashosh. Soge.5 cm. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. HABITAT.-Nov. Sd. Samudrashok. Samandarka phal. base subglobose.:—Konkan. tubular. chronic ulcers (Yunani). gonorrhœa. diuretic . white-tomentose beneath. Country.. Konkan. tip linear dark purple. aphrodisiac. long. the bands silky pubescent outside. pedicel with a large bract at the base. t. . :—E.3 cm. FAM.—deltoid with cordate base .—Convolvulaceæ. base cordate. (sometimes even larger).5 cm.—solitary. pubescent outside. 1. K. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. stems stout.
. Dovana. :—A twining shrub. Flea-bane. dyspnoea of children.—flat. NS. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. Nakuli. The plant contains an alkaloid. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). H. :—E. useful in " Tridosha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Bengal. Fl. PARTS USED :—Roots. . Seeds useful in inflammation. Sapsan.) FAM. Mother or Mugwort. Indian Birth-wort.5x7. dry cough. Dhor-davana. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. H. Majtari. K. base vaiable. COM. M. joint-pains. tonic. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic.—variable linear oblong. Mastaru. also useful in dropsy. G. Isvara balli beru . long with globose inflated base.3-2. K. Sk. globose-oblong. 3. Arkamula. Isharmula. Nepal. Nilpushpa. Sk. grooved. Fr. :—E. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. LOC. NS. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. woody at the base.8-10 X 1. Saraparni. bract opposite the pedicel. — capsule. purgative (Yunani). winged. Nagdamani. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. M. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Manjipatri. FAM. Stem long. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. 6-valved.—Aristolochiaceæ.5 cm. Ishvari. Country.—Compositæ. Ceylon. Sugandha.. alexiteric. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Arkamula. Nagduna. reaching 4. :—Western Peninsula. obovate oblong 10-12. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Indian wormwood. Dona. M. t. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. The plant contains an alkaloid. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp.5 cm. perianth greenishwhite. L." pains in the joints.—Nov. CHAR. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. slender. Sd. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. entire with undulate margins. leaves and seeds.—in few flowered axillary racemes. biliousness. DISTR. LOC. Fl. Gathona.:—Konkan and S. bitter. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. COM.5 cm. Ruhimula.
minute. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. Panas.5-5 em. inner hermaphrodite. asthma and brain diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions.6-2. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. Jack-Orange wood. An infusion is given as a tonic. Fruit Trees and Dyes. NS. FAM. alexiteric. LOC. useful in biliousness. tonic.10x2. oblong ellipsoid. LOC. asthma. Chakki. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. 3-fid or entire. constipating (Ayurveda). Kantakaphala. DISTR. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. white tomentose beneath. oleaginous. aphrodisiac. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. solitary or 2. fruit and seeds. Kanthal.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. diuretic. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. The plant contains an essential oil. Externally it is used in fomentations. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. Phanasa. ripe fruit laxative. Thailand (Siam). Kanara. Java. ulcers. although very nutritious. K. COM.4 m. Panos. aphrodisiac. outer flowers female.—Jany. M. stems leafy. Seeds sweet. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. fertile. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. deobstruent and antispasmodic. appetiser. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Phanas. base lobed. temperate Asia. grown in gardens also. ovate. aromatic. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. HABITAT. " Kapha". often planted along roadsides in N. Vanas. " Vata". USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. petioled. Panesa. but rather difficult to digest. See—Timbers.—Urticaceæ. Sk. :—Konkan. Skandaphala. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. toothed or again pinnatisect. H. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. :—E. Tage. G. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration.:—A perennial shrub. tonic. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. lanceolate. Jack-fruit tree. .—heads ovoid or subglobose. 0. Fl. L— lower leaves 5. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. deeply pinnatisect. Fr. high. LOC. fattening. leprosy. :—Widely cultivated. itching (Ayurveda). upper leaves smaller. Kujja. involucral bracts villous. cooling. enriches blood.-Hilly districts. pubescent above. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. LOC. Ghats. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. "Vata". Halasina. The unripe fruit is astringent.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. hairy. t. aphrodisiac. lobes entire. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. PARTS USED :—Leaves.— achene. Fl. cures "Kapha".
Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic.ovoid. cladodes in tufts.—Liliaceæ. linear. :—Introduced from the W. appetiser. COM. high. See—Ornamental Plants. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. Country. Satavari. L. Satamulika. Fl. undershrub. leaves and flowers. M. up to 1.5 cm. Flower is a good styptic. PARTS USED:—Root. 0. A fibre is extracted from the plants.—orange in axillary umbels. red when ripe. spinous. :—Deccan. indigestible. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.. Sk. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet.5-10 X 1. CHAR. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. with coma.—linear with a stout spinous spur. useful in dysentery.—opposite 7. CHAR. tapering at both ends. alterative. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. naturalised in many parts of India. in the Himalayas. Indies. fragrant. M.9-1. thorn. lanceolate. DISTR.5-5 cm. oleaginous. cooling. LOC. narrowed at both ends. Kuraki.3-2. oblong. M. root-stock tuberous. spines recurved. C. straight. and moist monsoon forests. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. Fl. JAVANICA Baker.—lobes reflexed in flower. H. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. curved. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. 2. segments. white. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent.—berry. tonic. thin. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. Asual Shatavari. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. Satavari. throat complaints. blood and eye diseases. Kaktundi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. inflammation. astringent to bowels. biliousness. Sd. solitary. stomachic. NS.—in simple raceme. Shatavari. Fl. L. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds.-Feb. K. Satavari. erect. globose. dark brown. long. COM. t. Svetmuli. :—E.5 cm. abundant round about Poona. Tropical Africa. Var. :—G. t.-Dec. . tumours. Fr. FAM.—Asclepiadaceæ. PARTS USED:—Root. Fr. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. Svadurasa. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. common in the Deccan. Java and Australia. galactogogue.2 m. from Kashmir eastwards. cultivated as ornamental plant. :—An erect undershrub. aphrodisiac. :—Extremely scandent. Siprimuli. valvate in bud. NS. LOC. S. FAM.— follicles.—June-Sept. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 7.000 m.
DISTR. Gokshura.:—Common throughout the State. hypnotic. And. :—A stout herb. erect. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. tonic. eyediseases. dysentery. t. :—G. thickened at the nodes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. urinary calculi and discharges. ciliate . Sk. 3. inflammations. Prameha-Mihira-Taila.— Acanthaceæ. Ekharo. useful in jaundice and anasarca. 2 outer large. Vikhara. lower deeply 3-lobed.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . hispid with long hairs. COM. aphrodisiac . Vishnu Taila. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. demulcent.) LOC. anuria. long. gonorrhoea. C. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. :—Throughout India. pointed.—June-Jany. high.—capsule. lanceolate. Narayana Taila. abdominal troubles. leprosy. Ikshura. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. Seeds fattening. Kak-Kokilaksha. H. constipation. LOC. antispasmodic. subquadrangular. USES. expectorant. scalding of urine. Used in diarrhœa. lips sub-equal.2 cm. Gokhalkanta. bracts. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. tropical and S. diuretic. USES :—The root is refrigerant. Fl. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Kalavankabija. 18 X 3-3. Seeds cooling. abruptly swollen at the top.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. Africa. Vajrakantaka. Konkan and Deccan. tonic. tube. anæmia.) FAM. tonic. M. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). Talim-khana. The root is sweet. leaves and seeds. Talamkhana.— purple blue. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. K. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. and alterative tonic. useful in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. L. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Shrigalghant. Kolavalike. linear oblong. gleet. . Leaves good for cough. laxative. hairy. night-blindness (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. 4 inner small. Talamkhan. upper 2-fid. CHAR. 4-8 seeded.5 cm. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. NS. improve blood (Yunani). colic.8 cm. stems fasciculate. biliousness. widely 2-lipped. Gokhran. 0. HABITAT:—Swampy places. galactogogue. Fl. Fr. aphrodisiac. ascites. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. like leaves. tonic.—sessile. and dysentery. LOC.. aphrodisiac . Phalaghrita. Ceylon.6-1. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. sedative to gravid uterus . Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. thirst. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. (Yunani.
pale blue or white. capsule. Bama. heating. sessile. M. succulent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Karmare . Kamarakha. solitary. when fresh. LOC. 6-25 X 2. indigestion. found wild near N. branches many ascending. digestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sd. See—Fruit Trees.. Jalneam. COM. perhaps a native of Malaya. Sk. Mudgara. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). Tamarak. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . Kirihuli. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. with shining dots. . :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . also used in diarrhœa. 2-lipped. K.:—Throughout India in wet places. heats the body (Ayurveda). Jany-May. useful in bad ulcers. allays thirst. oblong. Fr. Sk. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). causes biliousness (Yunani). acute. black dotted : entire. Kanara villages. anæmia. ascites. Shiral. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. C. Fruit sour. pungent. fruits. Fruits are used in pickles. creeping herb. Nirbrahmi. HABITAT :—Damp places. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. LOC. astringent to bowels. rarely wild. Brahmi. M. FAM. COM. "Vata". Kamrang. Thyme-leaved graticula . causes biliousness. H.5-10 mm. inflammations. Fl. Coromandel gooseberry. ovoid. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. Ceylon and all warm countries. K. Brahmi. emetic. astringent to bowels . DISTR.—Scrophulariaceæ. pale. obovate-oblong or spatulate. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. axillary.) FAM. LOC. stems rooting at the nodes. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. Safed-Kammi. CHAR. :—E. t. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. fleshy. decussate. Carambola apple. DISTR. Karuka. H. dried fruit is given in fevers. Fl. Manduki. NS. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. leprosy. Karmal. Soumyalata. :—A glabrous.:—Konkan and Deccan.—Oxalidaceæ. enlargement of spleen. L. sour. laxative. tonic. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Brahmi. lobes equal spangled. Karmar. tumours. Kamaranga. Kamarakh. Darehuli. Root is given in cases of poisoning. G. Barambhi. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. striate. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.:—E.
0. They are used in dropsy. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). ellipsoid. obovoid. M.9-1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. branching from the roots. :—G. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. leucoderma. H. Seeds are poisonous. Dantika. Kaduharalu. Danti. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. capsule. CHAR. Sk. HABITAT :—Dry open plains.. useful in insanity. Root and leaves are cathartic. Rechani. Burma. M. hairy. Fr. Jatala. toothed. Gugul. anaemia. leaves and seeds. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. LOC. Leaf-juice. good in scabies. of three 2-valved cocci. or in monsoon forests. all male or with a few females below. Guggul.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter.—Burseraceæ. LOC. inflammations. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. COM. It is a direct cardiac tonic. H. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. anthelmintic. Danti. leucoderma. Guggula. sinuate. :—Bihar. jaundice (Ayurveda). NS. anasarca and jaundice. Guggula. wounds. conjoined with petroleum. Jamalgota. is used as a local application in rheumatism. W. abundant on the hills of Karanja. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis.—Euphorbiaceæ. DISTR. Assam. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. often palmately 3-5 lobed. . the lower large. Peninsula. NS. Bengal. diuretic. Vishodhini. Devdhup. Fl. K. Guggula. in monsoon forests of N. yellowish. epilepsy and hoarseness. aphrodisiac . :—E. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. smooth. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. Malaya. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. K. Dec.8 m. G. piles. LOC. Kanara. Uddipta. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. Danti. high. purifies blood. enlarged spleen. :—A stout undershrub. Sd. diseases of skin and abdomen. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. useful in pains. Chota Nagpur. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Hakum. N. itching. purgative. alexiteric. Danti. Gum gugul. t. FAM. :—Dry open Deccan plains. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Mukul. Dantimul. FAM. Sk. L. epilepsy and hoarseness. 2-glandular. COM. mottled. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. syphilis . the upper small.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
tonic to liver. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. NS. anthelmintic. H. Kondha. thirst. "Kapha". Kudimah. asthma.—Cucurbitaceæ. cough. G. See—Ornamental Plants. Buds—indigestible. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. cures biliousness. aphrodisiac. Seeds— cooling. M. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. enriches blood. it is also anti-fat remedy. Koholu. Kumaon. Ash pumpkin. Fruit—antiperiodic. Tallow-White gourd. cardiac and general tonic. burning sensation. not indigenous. :—Cultivated throughout the State.10-15. given' to corpulent persons. USES :—Root-decoction is given. t. Budekumbalkai. There are two varieties. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. Golkaddu. wounds and ulcers. eye diseases. ulcers. dysmenorrhoea. blood impurities. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. thirst. cough. leprosy. LOC. tonic. Root. vaginal discharges. urinary discharges and calculi. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Kohala. used as gargle in stomatitis. " Tridosha". Sk. Karkutika. :—E. Fr. astringent. 15-20 X 1. oil from the seeds. cures biliousness.—pod. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. appetising. DISTR. Shikhivardhaka. biliousness. Sd.8-2. FAM. seeds. urethral discharges. red and white. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. tonic.5 cm. Fl. LOC.-Apl. Timisha. blood diseases . Dorokaru. blood diseases. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. tuberculous glands. used in strangury. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. leucoderma. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. asthma. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. menorrhagia. Sikkim. COM. leprosy. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. tuberculous glands. Bhuru-koholu. removes foul taste from mouth. dehiscent. diuretic. Bark—astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. used in dry cough. flat. heart tonic (Ayurveda). DISTR.-Feb. PARTS USED :—Root. K. aphrodisiac. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Burma. bark and flowers. . used in piles. Kushmanda. in dyspepsia and flatulence. fever. cures strangury. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). anal troubles. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards.
sweetish. Fl. Malaya. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. good in syphilis (Yunani). NS. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. Kakaronda. Kukurbanda. it is also useful in insanity. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. stem erect. M. and diuretic. S. elliptic-oblong. fevers. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). febrifuge. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. good for the brain and liver. mixed with black pepper. LOC. blood diseases. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Konkan. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. phthisis. base tapered. ash colored. :—Annual herb. burning sensation.9 m. oblong. laxative. Kukkurdru.—Jany. high. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. Oil—is soporific. Sk. Tamrachuda. DISTR. astringent. it is given in bleeding piles. .—the lower ones petioled. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Jangali-muli. finely silky pubescent on both sides. Fr. bitter. Kakarunda. H. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Ceylon. cooling. not ribbed. Kanara. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst.-Apl. catarrh. with a strong odour of turpentine. thirst. heart diseases. asthma. Fruit is made into confections.3—0. LOC. :—Throughout plains of India. pungent.—heads many. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury.:—In plains south of Bombay. Tropical Africa. pubescent. etc. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. Country. See—Vegetables. LOC. inner bracts with green midrib. Bhamurdi. sharply serrate-dentate. 0. haemoptysis. pappus white. Kalhar. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. often incised or lyrate. upper subsessile. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. t. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons.—Compositæ. Fl. FAM. anti-pyretic. COM. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. and nutritious tonic. CHAR. :—G. Pilokapurio. cures bronchitis. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Mriduchhada. BLUMEA LACERA DC. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. China. densely glandular. M. Australia.-achene. L. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. Deccan.
LOC. Indian Archipelago. Celyon. Kommegida. Moto-satodo. green above. Kolaba and Thana districts. LOC. Madhurasa. DISTR. asthma.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. K. P. H. H. pinkish. Talimara. fusiform. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. COM. K. alterative. very glandular . Vasu.. Asavardu. and dropsy. :—E. margins undulate. It produces a very marked and persistent. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. . Sk. Fr.— Nov. root large. anæmia. (Ayurveda). Uttar Pradesh. useful in biliousness. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Lekhyapatra. L. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. very small. 1. Tala. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. cooling . Dhvajadruma. Dholia-saturdo. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. G. common in S. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Brab tree. useful in lumbago. Santhikari. Hogweed. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Tropical India. Burma. NS. Punarnava. Fl. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. carminative.—Palmæ. Seeds—tonic. leucorrhoea. FAM. Tad. inflammations. FAM. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). Plant contains large quantities of pot. Persian Gulf. It is used in jaundice. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. LOC. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). :—E. native of tropical Africa. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. NS.—clavate. Fl.—in corymbose umbels. cultivated and self-sown. Desert Palm. expectorant. —Nyctaginaceæ. India. Leaves— appetiser.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. stem prostrate or ascending. HABITAT :—A weed. "Vata". alexiteric. Bitter. Raktakanda. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. astringent to bowels . Varshabhu. heart diseases.3—2 cm. abdominal pains. Baluchistan. tumours. COM. Tad. blood impurities. generally found in poorer soils. Tad. whitish beneath. M. bluntly 5-ribbed. Palmyra Palm. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. gonorrhœa. Africa and America. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. useful in ophthalmia. in pain of joints.—in unequal pairs at each node. Fan Palm. spleen enlargement. Ceylon. cultivated. leaves and seeds. CHAR. sub-orbicular. :—A diffuse herb. Sk. "Kapha" heating. scabies. t. DISTR. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. Ghetuli. Shothaghni.
Loban. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . improves taste. used for boils. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. Guggali. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. LOC. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). "Vata". tonic. G. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Dhupam. biliousness. fattening. Indian olibanum tree. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Sugars. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. mouth-sores. LOC. skin diseases. useful in biliousness. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. dry. M. strengthens teeth. burning sensation. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. purifies blood. Salai. PARTS USED :—Bark. purifies blood (Yunani). intoxicating. Fruit—cooling. causes " Kapha ". FAM. NS. Salpe. intoxicating. antibilious . :—E. bitter. allays thirst. diuretic . . may cause vomiting. Salgond. fruit and gum. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. fatigue. helps delivery. aphrodisiac. Sk. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. with a little salt added. Moddi. Gum is of five kinds . antidysenteric. flowers. astringent to bowels. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. thirst. cooling. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). Dhup. expectorant. K. cures dysentery. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. H. Dup. removes "Kapha". diaphoresis. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. Fermented juice—tonic. :—Common in hills of the Deccan.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.—Burseraceæ. heals wounds . binding. juice. expectorant. leaves. bronchitis. blood complaints . fevers. tonic. laxative. Salphali. cough. Kundur. useful in intestinal troubles. See—Timbers. Vishesha-dhupa. ulcers . BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Liquors. bad throat. COM. hot. thirst and scalding of urine. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. asthma. Luban. scabies. if taken regularly acts as laxative. aphrodisiac. vaginal discharges. allays. Sambrani. invigorating. also found in Belgaum District. slightly fermented is used in diabetes.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. Salashi. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests .. convulsions. with a good flavour. Gum—hot. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. also used as antiperiodic. causes headache. Guggula. allays asthma. fattening. antiglycosuretic. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . " Vata". Bark-decoction. alexiteric. Gums and Resins. useful in skin and blood diseases. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Mukulsalai. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. flowers. antipyretic. fruits.
cure enlargement of spleen. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Khandesh. See—Timbers. Seeds act as digestive condiment . Kari Sasive . In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. Surat. . mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. dispel fever . kill external parasites. cure nose. Asuri. spasmodic. Kali-rai. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. internal congestions. FAM. anthelmintic . stomachic. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Black-True mustard. COM. LOC. Dharwar and Belgaum. :—E. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. LOC. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). chiefly in Nasik. :—Cultivated in India. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Sk. M.—Cruciferae. used with butter in syphilis . good for throat complaints. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. rheumatism. vermicide. eye-troubles. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. biles. Jwalanti. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. G. H. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . appetiser. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Seeds-laxative. bechic. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. NS. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. cure skin-dissases. Rajika. " Vata".MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. DISTR. cause burning . Taramira . K. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. good in cough and for inflammations. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Kaira. Mohori. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. Seeds— remove cough tumours. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. spleen. Broach. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). increase appetite . and toothache. increase bile. if swallowed whole they are laxative. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Sarshapa. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. Rai. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. India. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. lessen oedema of body. ear. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Gums and Resins.
Philippines.:—Throughout India. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. . ovate-oblong. Fr. Kaj. hemiplegia. Asana.. useful in "Vata". Country. :—An annual scandent herb.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kavodi. Shivavalli. margins sinuate denticulate.— Aug-Sept. lumbago. pungent. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. DISTR. Malaya. alterative. S. bitter. streaked with broad vertical lines . FAM. :—G.—baccate. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. NS. M. long. bark. :—Deccan. or few or many. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). Sd. 5-lobed. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. Garige. globose. Asana. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Suviraka. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. H. hot. Asana. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Lingini. corolla companulate. heating. See—Timbers. It is used in bilious attacks. Sk. Ishawara-Shivalingi. Apastambhini. subsessile. COM. smooth. COM. LOC.—yellowish brown. Ekadivi. Ekalkanto. and in fevers with flatulence. 1 . Goge. K. of Shivaling shape . tropical Africa. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Mahavira. t. Shivalingi. Patharphoda. Manj. green and scabrid above. Lingaja. lobes oblong lanceolate. Gargumaru. female flowers solitary. Tans. M.— membranous. LOC. :—G. Asana. Fl. stem grooved. Kassi. tendrils 2-fid : L. Fl. 5-partite. M. H. Gauli. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. corolla as in the male . HABITAT :—Common in hedges.. southward to Ceylon. 3—2 . Sk. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Mullu-siru Honne. Shivlingi. 10-15 cm. Khaja.—Euphorbiaceæ. glabrous . Australia. Mauritius. diam. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. bluish green. NS. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell.. paler and smooth beneath.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. LOC. Gunjan. FAM. Chandra. CHAR. 5 cm. deeply cordate base.
Fr. Char. upper 3-5-7 foliate. Deccan. also wild. Char. C. :—Konkan. H. Country. NS. decussate. bruises.—Jany. LOC. M. reddish purple. It is a disinfectant. cardio-tonic. NS. analgesic. :—H. Lalana. S.) FAM. Charoli. K. "Vata" and biliousness. lower usually simple. fevers. :—Konkan. Paira. aphrodisiac. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. The bark is bitter and poisonous.3-1. Charoli. lobes triangular.—small. fattening. Panphui. the older light-coloured. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). S. DISTR. Panphuti. boils and bites of venomous insects. Pyalchar. HABITAT :—Dry.. occasionally compound. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). Charpoppu. :—G. Country. LOC. :—Native of tropical Africa. Char. t. leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. carminative. Priyal. Fl. allays . Burma. burning sensation on body. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. deciduous open forests. with opposite branches . FAM. when punctured. :—Hot and drier parts of India. in large panicles. tonic. speckled with white. buds with root. Zakhi-haiyat. Thailand (Siam). See—Ornamental Plants.—Anacardiaceæ. K. Lonnahadakana gida. elliptic. purifies blood. Dhanu. inflammations. Cochin-China. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. seeds. high. the Dangs. cooling.—swollen and octagonal at the base. Sk. PARTS USED :—Roots. constricted in the middle. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . leaflets ovate. Piyal. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. COM. Deccan. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world.—pendant. L. cures blooddiseases. smooth. alexipharmic. M. Rajadana. thirst. astringent to bowels. Fl. aphrodisiac. expectorant. Sd. M. fruit. Sk. crenate or serrate. DISTR.2 m. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Asthibhakshya. binding. Parnabija. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. Cambodia. ulcers. M. Stems obtusely 4-angled. younger reddish. laxative. Gujarat. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. LOC. Snehabija. gum (rarely). purgative. vomiting. COM.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Tapaspriya. Kolegeru. Leaf-juice digestive.—Crassulaceæ. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. useful in diarrhœa. Murukali.—variable.
aperient used in urinary discharges. Kuntz. Muttuga. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . M. thirst. dysmenorrhoea. LOC. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. good in dysentery. good in fevers. Ceylon. stomatitis. diuretic . anthelmintic. in the Khandesh Akrani. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. useful in syphilis. Dhak. LOC. Muttala. Kinshuk.) FAM. lessens lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. good in biliousness. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. digestible. gonorrhœa. colic. buboes. Chichra. dry. Dyes. Bark—appetiser. Sk. cough. gout. Leaves—good for eye diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. hydrocele. tonic. carminative. DISTR. Fruit and seeds—oily. anthelmintic. seeds. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Bastard teak. purifies blood. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Palas. Tripatrak. cures excessive perspiration. tonic to liver. leaves. India. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. prickly heat and itch. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. topically in piles and hydrocele. piles. Palash. Kakria. bark. K. pterygium. used in liver disorders. leprosy. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . fractures. lessens inflammations. COM. corneal opacities. dysentery. pimples. biliousness. relieves abnormal thirst. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. Khakda. See—Timbers. Flower—aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Kshatadru. Yajnika. useful in bone fractures. piles. G. skindiseases. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. Khakera. expectorant.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. diseases of anus. Oils. cause headache (Yunani). laxative. Gums and Resins. Leaf—very astringent. strangury. LOC. burning sensation. inflammations. :—E. useful in elephantiasis. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. stomachic. Seeds tonic to body and brain. lessens biliousness. Gum—astringent to bowels. remove bad humours. Palas. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. Khakhrao. ascends to 1200 m. H. anthelmintic. astringent. aphrodisiac. Gum—acrid. Flowers—cure " Kapha". emmenagogue. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. tonic. worms and piles. Fruit and seed—hot. burning urine. cures ulcers and tumours. Bark—appetiser. NS. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. gonorrhoea. eye diseases. if chewed. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. flowers. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). tumours. cure tumours. gum. useful in piles. aphrodisiac. cold and cough.
aphrodisiac and diuretic. FAM. Dyes. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base.5 cm. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. asthma and colic. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. elliptic-oblong. LOC. H. They are applied to orchitis. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. long. G. Kakechika. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Fr. Sk. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Karanja. cures urinary discharges. act as rubefacient. leprosy (Yunani). piles. t. Katkaleja. wounds. K. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. antiperiodic. densely armed on the faces with prickles. fevers. malaria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . petioles prickly. anthelmintic .5 cm. Fruit—acrid. cures inflammation . Fl. 30-60 cm. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. LOC. DISTR. Sd. 5-7. Gajaga. PARTS USED :—Root-bark.—pod. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Flowers are astringent.) COM. :—An extensive climber. anthelmintic. hydrocele. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Fl. long .—JulySept. strongly mucronate. Katkaranj. CHAR. oblong 5-7. L. Deccan hills.—1-2 oblong.5 X 4. Seed—styptic. NS. Tapasi.—abruptly pinnate. . Gums and Resins. useful in colic.3 cm. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic.—yellow. shortly stalked. Gajjige. Kuberakshi. sprouts useful in tumours. M. leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Gum solution is applied to bruises. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . destroys bad odour due to perspiration. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. Sind. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. leucorrhcea. etc. flowers and fruit. prevents contagious diseases . ringworm. aphrodisiac. lead-colored 1. Sagargota. skin-diseases. heating. See—Timbers. Leaves contain a glucoside. very common near the sea-coast. astringent to bowels. :—Throughout India. the tropics generally. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Fever nut. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Gajga. Physic nut.
Surhonne. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. M. Mandara. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Sultanchampa. LOC. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Akand. Arka. Madar. Gigantic swallow-wort. mixed with bark strips and leaves.—Asclepiadaceæ. elliptic or ovate oblong.H. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. Br. Oils. Purasakeshera. Sk. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R.— opposite.4-3 m. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Madar. thick. Kshiranga. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. covered with cottony pubescence. Polynesia. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Tungakeshera. Ceylon. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. FAM. NS. Punnag. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Shuka-phala. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. CHAR. . H. much branched. high. Dholaakdo. G. branches stout. gum. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies.. Kshirparni. Akdo. Mandara. :—Cultivated throughout India. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye.. base cordate. East African Islands. :—E. Surangi. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. M. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. K. Ponne. COM. :—E. DISTR. Vuma. 2. :—A large shrub.. The gum from wounded branches. Undi. astringent. PARTS USED :—Bark. K. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Ak. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Ark. Arka.. Australia. L. Surpan. Rui.. Alexandrian laurel. NS. very common in N. See—Timbers. FAM. also cultivated as an ornamental plant.—Guttiferæ. sometimes amplexicaul. sessile. Kanara associated with littoral species. both surfaces tomentose. Undi. and oil. and for its oil. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Ekke.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). used in chronic fevers. 10-20 X3. Malaya. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. often gregarious. Sk. LOC. improves complexion (Ayurveda). lessens appetite. COM.8-10 cm. Punnaga.
dropsy. ovate oblong. Fl. spleen and liver diseases.2 cm. cottony. Flowers—digestive. ascites and anasarca. painful joints . ulcers. buds ovoid. ascites. Sd. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. comose. oleaginous. . high. tonic and stomachic in action. cures piles and "Kapha".4 m. India. Fr. bark corky. ellipsoid or ovoid.:—H. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. ringworm of scalp. Fl. lobes usually erect. rat-bite. purgative. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. L. apex with two auricles. elliptic or obovate. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. Sk. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. heal wounds. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. cures leucoderma.—in umbellate cymes. Juice—anthelmintic. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. tumours. Flower—analgesic. purplish or white. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . liver and spleen enlargement. Malay Islands and S.—about 2. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. swellings. Fr. buds globose.7—15 X 4. expectorant and anthelmintic. NS. cures inflammations. good for liver (Yunani). C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. cures leprosy. young parts white. Madar. subglobose. spongy. also useful in intestinal worms.—follicles. FAM.— purplish in umbellate cymes. across. broad. COM.8-2. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. leaves applied to paralysed parts.—broadly ovate. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. DISTR. useful in leprosy. 9-10 cm.5-8. elephantiasis. Br. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.—Asclepiadaceæ. coughs. Mandara. comose .. diaphoretic. green. usually 5. alterative and purgative properties. laxative. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda).. corona shorter than the column. eruption on body. Safedak. leaves and flowers. CHAR. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. asthma. LOC. Root-bark is diaphoretic.5 cm. C.-July. used in cough. t. back much curved.— Feb. astringent. Flowers—stomachic. China.—lobes deltoid-ovate. catarrh and loss of appetite. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. Ceylon.—subsessile. Ak. bark. acrid . flattened tomentose. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action.5 cm. LOC. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. piles. very common. scabies. very common is S.. Mandara. Sd:—many. asthma. cures asthma and syphilis. Milk— heating.5-10 X 5-7. tumours. :—An erect shrub usually 1. Ark. Rajarka. depilatory. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . long. M. Milk— caustic. See—Fibres.—7.
Gavria. indigestible. on trees and hedges . Kamakshi. L. Broad—Sword bean. ulcers (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Indian shot. but doubtfully wild. NS. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. staminodial segments. Hudingana. Shitarambha.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Waziristan. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. LOC. bracts oblong. FAM. hernia and colic.—segments 2. flowers and milky juice. Tarvardi.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. LOC. root-stock tuberous. Abai. :—E. Akalabera. Egypt. Sarvajaya. M. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Afghanistan.9-1. Asishimbi. tropical Africa. Sk. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Sk. green. membranous. Sambe. 1 linear . acrid.—Scitaminaceae. erect. Kadsambu. Sabbajaya.. H. Devakeli. lanceolate to ovate. LOC. FAM. stem 0. H. high . DISTR. greenish or colored. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. veins arching.3 cm. long.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Arabia. Gigantea. P. Tamateballi. Flowers used as detergent. See—Vegetables. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. K. Paraholiya. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Gavara. 3 sub-erect. Warm leaves used as poultice. narrow. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. abundant in Sind. DISTR. useful in burning sensations. Sema. The pods contain vitamin A. Koshaphala.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).5 cm. PARTS USED :—Pods..2 m. Iran. Khadsambal. Kalehu. spatulate. Kadavare. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Sarvajaya. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. See—Fibres.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. COM. NS. cooling. M. COM. oval or orbicular. G. Kardali. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Shimbi. G. :—E. CHAR. biliousness. (Chopra). they are given in cholera.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. tonic.:—Perennial herb . Fl. Nilashimbika. K. CANNA INDICA Linn.
male flowers. :—Throughout India. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. abortifacient. Sk. hallucinations. intoxicating. Ganja.—many. female perianth hyaline. DISTR. upper 1-3.—small axillary. Ganja. PARTS USED :—Bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. usually 0.—achene. Siddhapatri. (2) Bhang. :—E. oil-good for earache. Fr. (3) Charas. leprosy. aphrodisiac. also wild. Shivapriya. insanity. CHAR. Vijaya. t. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. astringent. Leaves—bitter. cause headache. 3-lobed. aphrodisiac. Sd.5 m. serrate. Bhangi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Hemp. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. Ganja.—more or less throughout the year. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). dropsy. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). heating. impotence. Wild in the Himalayas. lower 3-8 foliate. antidiarrhoeic.—alternate or the lower opposite. Seeds—carminative. high in its feral state. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. hot. Mohini. soporific. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Bhang.—sub-globose or oblong . They are broken in small pieces. causes thirst and biliousness. restlessness. echinulate . excessive use causes indigestion. melancholia. FAM. Not indigenous. male fascicled. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. intoxication (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. stomachic. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. leaves. COM. Bark—tonic. M. flowers and seeds. tonic. shining. leaves. dioecious. lessen inflammation. imbricate. check vomiting. Fl. Fr. soporific. PROPERTIES AND LOC. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. intoxication. All these are intoxicating in different degrees.—Urticaceæ. H. inflammations. NS. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. female crowded under convolute bracts. flowers. causes thirst. L. alterative . Fl. Female inflorescence is stomachic. :—Widely cultivated in India. K. water extract anthelmintic.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . Bhang. black. seeds and resin. good for hydrocele. PARTS USED :—Roots. LOC. G. causes biliousness. Unmattini. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). sepals 5. Harshini. cough. Central Asia. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. globose. useful in " Kapha". :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. LOC. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. tonic. useful in convulsions. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male.9-1. piles.
produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Ujjvala. :—E. increases appetite. Fruit—pungent. It is stomachic. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. Madana modak used in cough. dysuria. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. Sk. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Tivrashakti. HABITAT :—Cultivated. increases biliousness. Vegetables. M. H. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. whooping cough. K. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. Menshinkai. Capsaicin and Solanin.—Solanaceæ. Narcotics. and is employed by Indian physicians. erysipelas. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. acute mania. Mirchi. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Tikshna. Lalmirchi. Marichiphala. useful in indigestion. asthma. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. and dropsy. Marchu . Cayenne-pepper. also in gout. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. loss of consciousness. PARTS USED :—Fruit. FAM. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. G. expectorant. The fruit contains Capsisin. and flatulence. M. Fibres. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. cholera. delirium (Ayurveda).52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. See—Gums and Resins. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. Raktamaricha. :—Cultivated all over India. useful in brain complaints. chronic ulcers. Lanka mirchi. Mirchi. The plant contains cannabinin. often found as an escape. LOC. spermatorrhoea. See—Condiments and Spices. Chillies. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. . Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. weakness of body. DISTR. COM. Country in Deccan. diarrhœa. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. LOC. muscular pains. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. NS. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. in the form of electuary. dyspepsia.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. ultimate segments lanceolate.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. FAM. Fibres. hot. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. :—E. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. The plant contains saponin. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Fl. dry. Thailand (Siam).:—Common in hedges throughout the State. G. . PARTS USED :—Root. Root. Sind. COM. Jyotish-mati. black. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. deltoid. Konkan and W. :—Most warm countries. PROPERTIES AND LOC. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Kumbhi. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. COM. M. Root is considered diaphoretic. dyspepsia. trigonous. Gavvahannu. See—Timbers. when moistened. NS. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Kumbi. introduced. colic. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. rounded at the apex. epileptic fits. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Hennumatti. very acute apex. NS. Ceylon. :—Throughout India. Blister creeper. " Vata ". M. petals 4. Daddala. Fruit—acrid.—globose. Kanphuti. DISTR. DISTR. G. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. alexiteric. leaves. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). useful in tumours. LOC. 2-ternate. subglobose. Ghats. smooth. skin-diseases. bladdery . Girikarnika. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Malay Peninsula. winged at the angles. Fr. bronchitis. Kapalphodi. and is administered in fevers. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. stem wiry. anthelmintic. Sd. diuretic and aperient. FAM. Sk. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. K. Kumbha. Deccan. common in S. Shaundi.—Myrtaceæ. it is mucilaginous. Karolio. H. C. aphrodisiac. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . PARTS USED :—Root. Balloon vine. urinary discharges. flowers and fruits. Vakambi. HABITAT :—In hedges . Maniju balli. Agni-erum. Wild guava . piles. Sakralata. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Sk. Kalindi. Kumbhi.— alternate. bark. :—E. K. L. LOC. leaves and seeds. CHAR.—white.—Sapindaceæ.—capsule. inciso-serrate. abscesses and ulcers. bark. Kangu. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. leucoderma. Karnasphota. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period.
M. H. enlargement of spleen. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. fruit and seeds. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. :—E. . Guppe. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. in haemoptysis. COM. diuretic. :— E. LOC. Nalikadala. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. piles. Oil—indigestible. Mexico and Brazil. LOC. Popayi. G. G. Indies. Kusumba. bleeding piles. cures insanity (Ayurveda). heating. Papayi. Karada. appetiser . Papaw. expectorant. See—Fruit Trees. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. K. Leaves—hot. DISTR. wounds of urinary track. carminative. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Sk.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. made into curries. laxative. unripe fruit. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. diuretic. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. M. NS. diuretic. FAM. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. causes burning sensation . ringworm. cause biliousness. Kusumba. Dyer's saffron. removes urinary concretions . used. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. scabies. Papita. Pangi. Kusumbo. cures inflammations. FAM. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. White thin latex contains Papain. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. bile. seeds and oil. Kardai. good for eyes. cooling. Kamalottama. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). Fruits contain vitamins A and C. Agnishikha.—Caricaceæ. DISTR. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Seeds—oleaginous. K. Pappayi. Papaya. strangury. Safflower. of W. Papaya. Flower—tonic to liver. relieves obesity. cures inflammation. "Tridosh". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Chirbhita. astringent to bowels. leucoderma. Barre. Karrak. Papaya. Chibda. digestive. PARTS USED :—Leaves. COM. "Kapha". Kusumba. cure "Vata". cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). leprosy. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. cure urinary discharges.—Compositæ. removes biliousness . it is used to procure abortion. Kusumbha. H. :—Grown extensively in Poona. bronchitis. Fruit—stomachic. Sk. NS. appetiser. hypnotic. flowers. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. depilatory. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Native throughout India.
pinnate. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. Datka pat. Ringworm shrub. L. stimulate intestines. mucronate. See—Vegetables. vomiting. Baluchistan. Dodda sagate. oblong-obtuse. spleen. They are administered in flatulence. enlargement of spleen. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. Dadrughna. stimulant. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. improve speech and eyesight. K. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. G. See—Condiments and Spices. good for heart and tooth-ache. Sk. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. myrabolans and rock salt. Europe. and even in cholera. Elgra. abdominal tumours. atonic dyspepsia. Dwipagasti.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Oils. carminative. NS. Omu . aphrodisiac. bechic. LOC. Leaves contain vitamin A. kidney troubles. Seeds—purgative. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). emmenagogue and sedative. and diarrhœa. carminative. inflammation (Yunani). Dyes. NS :— E. CHAR. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. anthelmintic. leaflets 10-12 pairs. downy beneath. Iran. Afghanistan. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . laxative. tonic and carminative properties. give lustre to eyes. FAM. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. purgative. rachis . Simyatase. FAM. Tivragandha. Owa. good for old people. good in weakness of limbs. M. Ajamoda. Ajamo . they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Dipyaka. tonic. long. carminative. vomiting. they are used in jaundice . hiccup. aphrodisiac . K. Dadamardana. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Ajowan. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). Sk. H.—Umbelliferæ. chest pains. Egypt. Ajwain. COM. Winged senna. CASSIA ALATA Linn. paralysis. good for ear boils. cure ascites. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. Bishops' weed . The seeds bitter and hot. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Oma. 30-60 cm. M. DISTR. Oil—good in all diseases. cure catarrh. abdominal pain. diuretic. stomachic. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. chest and throat pains. bitter. appetiser. piles. :—E. COM. subsessile. strengthening.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. H. pungent. dyspepsia. liver. enrich blood. LOC. oblique at the base. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. Dadmardan.
Indies. Sd. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. leprosy. NS. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. obliquely septate. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. The whole plant. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. Tanner's cassia. cm.-Oct.—bright yellow with darker veins. CHAR. Country.—pod. t. LOC. pale beneath. mucronate. yellow with orange veins. M. M. Peninsula. Mayahari. flowers.—pod long. t. FAM. useful in thirst. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground.—large. Fr. along the sea coast in laterite region. Sk. Fl.-50 or more. leaves. LOC. Fl. Mukerji). PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). ringworm. Fr. 28-4-88). is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. Sd. nocturnal emissions. stipules very large. Ceylon. Fl. and throat troubles. bark smooth. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). anthelmintic. alexipharmic . 5 cm. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. G. asthma. across. rotundate. Pitakilaka. PARTS USED :—Root.—30-35. N. J. Fl. urinary discharges . causes flatulence . diabetes. useful in vomiting. reddish brown.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.:—Dry regions of Rajputana.6 cm. :—Introduced into India. Gujarat and S. . they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie).) COM.. DISTR.. long. straight.. LOC. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . Charmaranga. skin diseases. Madhya Pradesh and W. DISTR. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. cure " Vata ". vermicide (Ayurveda). itching. slightly overlapping. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Awal.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. In cases of bronchitis and asthma.—7. membranous. Tarwad. 20-25. asthma . Ph. cough. " In eczema. L.5 X 10 cm. Avartki. Taroda. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. good for ulcers. rhombohedral. very likely a native of the W. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. fruits and seeds. cures tumours. Avarike. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. H. 10-20 X 1. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers.—in spiciform. buds in yellow bracts. skin-diseases.3-1. oblong-obovate. Tarwad. rachis densely pubescent. LOC. Burma. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). Ahmed. :—E.-July. K. HABITAT :—Planted. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. reniform. Sakusina. C. Bark has the same properties.—Jany. leaflets 8-12 pairs. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. Tangadi. dull green above. pedunculate racemes .
Rajataru. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. juice given in erysipelas. cooling. biliousness . Kasari. Konde. Golden shower. Flowers—improve taste. Kakka. Kasonda. G. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Negro coffee. faintly veined with orange . purgative. Vyadivata. smooth. Fruit—antipyretic. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Leaves lessen inflammation. Kasmarda. Fl. heal ulcers .—very foetid when bruised. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Chimkani. also planted..—petals 5. safe for children and pregnant women. Suvarnaka. apex acute. FAM. Leaves—anti-periodic . G.— Jany-March. L. eye-diseases. t. cure " Kapha ". CASSIA FISTULA Linn. and Famine Plants.) COM. Fr. cooling. branches furrowed. 10—12. Kasundari. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Indian laburnum. rheumatism. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. transversely septate. :—E. long. H. Fruit—digestible. ovate-lanceolate. recurved. C. Aragina. fruit and seeds. long. Balla. H. astringent. Hema-puspha.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. NS. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. It is a mild laxative. Sk. carminative. leaflets 3-5 pairs. throat-troubles. Flowers—purgative.5 cm. Bandartauri. Kasondi. cures burning sensation. Dodda-tagase. See—Timbers. Sk. Arimarda. FAM.—pods. Ornamental Plants. M. antipyretic. leprosy. griping. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. base somewhat oblique. Bahava. purgative. Burma. DISTR. Tans. leaves. Rechana. NS. (Ayurveda). improve appetite. :—Throughout India. Kacodari.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Ane sogate. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. Chakinda. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. In Konkan. distinctly torulose. cause flatulence. useful in chest and liver complaints. Seeds— oily.) COM. Arogyashimbi. flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Garmala. demulcent. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. often purplish. K. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Stinking weed.—in few flowered racemes.—20-30. K. :—E. . hard. CHAR. See—Dyes. LOC. shining dark olive-green. corymbose. used in rheumatism. Pudding-pipe or stick. Fl. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Kasoda. Rankasvinda. abortifacient. Sd. yellow. LOC. M. tuberculous glands. syphilis. 15-20 cm. Amaltas. laxative.
Fl.—in axillary. Ran tankala. ovate. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. Talapota. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Bark. 7. slightly recurved. cough. t. leaflets 6-10 pairs. are given in diabetes. K. C. See—Famine Plants. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Kasundari. LOC. long . and seeds are cathartic. Seeds used in heat of the blood. LOC. LOC. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. leaves and seeds. L. petals 5. tonic and febrifuge. dark brown . when mixed with sandal-wood paste. rachis grooved . Kasondi. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. Sk. in Kutch. Baskikasondi. opposite.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). CHAR. Banar. hiccup.. " tridosha " . DISTR.— Nov. NS. leaves and seeds. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root.—18-23 cm. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm.—30-40 broadly ovoid.4-3 m. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. " Vata ". plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). The plant contains glucoside emodin. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. cure " Kapha". yellow. H. Kasamarda. elephantiasis. few flowered corymbose racemes. LOC. asthma. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. fevers. In many countries root is considered diuretic. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn.. alexiteric. See—Famine Plants. annual or perennial. stomachic.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. At Kotra. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. heals wounds. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. leaves. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). with a solitary conical gland near the base . PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. M. The bark. FAM. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. cures ascites. obtuse. . septate between the seeds .Jany. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . mixed with honey. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. :—A shrub 2. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. base rounded. Sd. COM.—pod. Leaves—aphrodisiac. :—G.510 cm. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. lanceolate. Fl. high. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. Kasamarda. turgid.
:—A very common weed all over the State. in drooping panicles. cause burning sensation. high. PARTS USED :— Root.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. leaves and seeds.5-20 cm. brain and liver tonic.—pod.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Sk. fleshy arillus.5 mm. bitter. Panevar. hot. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. long. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. COM. Seeds— acrid. Fl. Seeds—bitter. obliquely septate. Malkakni. 18 m. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. shining above. opposite (lowest smaller). Taragosi. bright yellow. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Pamad. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. cure joint-pains. Climbing-staff plant. leaflets 3 pairs. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Jyotishmati. capsule. CHAR. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. 30-90 cm. DISTR. Malhangana. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Taga. powerful brain tonic. Tagache. base oblique. appetiser. The plant contains glucoside emodin. oblong. 7.) COM. in diam.8-7. Svarnalata. Kangli. Kangani. Malkangoni. Sd.—after the rains. Sk.. upper petal 2-lobed . branches rough.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . reddish brown. Tarota. high. FAM. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. aphrodisiac. unarmed. stem upto 23 cm. globose. Fr. NS. Kanguni. laxative.—pinnate. DISTR. :—Large deciduous climber. remove "Vata" and "Kapha".. Intellect tree. Takala. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. M. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. expectorant. Velo .5-10 cm. LOC.5 cm. Sphutabandhani. K. M. pale yellow. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ceylon. :—E. FAM. Chagoche.—Celastraceæ. usually unisexual. . t. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Chakunda. emetic. Chakramarda.— petals 5. LOC. small yellowish-green.. 6. rachis grooved. Malkamni. Dadrughna. 1-6 completely covered with red. L.3-10 X 3. G. :—E. crenate. Sd. ovate or obovate. :—An annual foetid herb. Kangodi. CHAR. L. K. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. 12. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Burma. NS. X 4. obovate. much curved when young. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. alternate. H. Foetid cassia. Dadamari. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. C. Fl. Black-oil tree.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Fr. H. Madras State. covered with lenticels.
nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. spreading star-like . high. orbicular. hard-rugose. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. Mandukparni. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. pink. stem creeping with long internodes. Oil stomachic. H.—opposite. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. linear-oblong. Jangli-karayatu. Vallari . LOC.). Fr. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. cloves. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. CHAR. tonic. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. Sk. pink. Fl. L. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). obovate or oblong. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. rooting at the nodes.-Apl. DISTR. minute. elliptic. Country. G. . M.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. :— E. reniform. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. Brahmamanduki. especially in Bengal.—Feb. persistent. Ekpani. aphrodisiac and stimulant. NS. Fl. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Don. COM. M. :—Konkan. Fl. good for cough and asthma. Vondelaga.—tubular lobes 5. gout. CHAR. LOC.—capsule. radical leaves revolute. L. K. Kheta-Barik-chirayat.—May-Nov. It is used as a substitute for chiretta.—Gentianaceæ. Brahmamanduki. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Fl. M. base deeply cordate stipulate. and is employed for external application.). Lahanchirayat.—4 mm. Brahmi. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). :—G.—in fascicled umbels. Barmi. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Seeds are hot. :—A slender herbaceous plant. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. C. Mahaushadhi. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. t. cauline smaller. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. used in leprosy. Fr. long. t. Deccan and S. narrowly oblong .—3 from each node. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. COM. FAM. ovoid. Jhinkun-kariatum. FAM. H. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. they are also sudorific.—Umbelliferæ. paralysis and leprosy. :—Throughout India.
Leaves are also diuretic. clears voice and brain. small-pox. diuretic. :—Throughout India near the coast. voice. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". USES :—Bark is purgative. nut is narcotic and poisonous . tonic. laxative. used in insanity (Ayurveda). thirst. antipyretic. alterative. cures hiccup. fevers. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. improves appetite (Yunani). asthma. Kanara. Tande. blood diseases. Malay Archipelago. plaster or bath are used. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . spleen enlargement. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. abundant on the Malabar Coast. alexiteric. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. Sukanu. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. LOC. cooling. biliousness. See—Timbers. bitter. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. bronchitis. tonic.) DISTR. PARTS USED :—Bark. cardio-tonic. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. :—In moist situations (streams. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. nallas.—Apocynaceæ. stomachic. For external use powder. scalding of urine. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. cures leucoderma. water courses throughout the State. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. FAM. Australia Pacific Islands. :—South Konkan and N. soporific. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. anæmia. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. fruit. DISTR. :—K. LOC. and a bitter substance odollin. headache . Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. inflammations. memory. NS. digestible. LOC. asthma. leaves and seeds). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. bronchitis. improves appetite. bechic. urinary discharges. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. . As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. milky juice. ointment. Chanda. twigs. " Kapha ". tropical and subtropical regions of the world. M. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. Honde. China. sedative to nerves. Leaf-powder. Plant—bitter. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. COM. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant.
spleen (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. throattroubles. fragrant. Bengal—Common-gram. biliousness. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. LOC. heart. M. NS. Chunna. M. But. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. :—E. acrid. NS. :—Cultivated in India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. constipation. diuretic. Deccan and S. Harbara. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. COM. K. Sk. Tanko. Harparauri K. root and the seed are cathartic. Fruit is very sour . See—Fruit Trees. "Kapha". . LOC. LOC. Lavali. DISTR. also cultivated as a pot herb. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Balabhojya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. useful in biliousness. biliousness. LOC. diseases of blood. FAM. Country. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Sk. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Chalmeri. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. piles. improves appetite. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Skandhaphala. PARTS USED :—Root.—Chenopodiaceæ. FAM . tonic. Chandanbedu. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Agralohita. G. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). H. Chakravati. Wild-spinach. Goose-foot. eye-diseases. sour .62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. LOC. Kanchuki. K. Chania. Harparrevdi. urinary concretions. :—Widely distributed. Chana. Chakravarti. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The fruit is acrid and astringent. oleaginous. M. abdominal pains. Vajibhakshya. Chakwat. COM. tonic to liver. H.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). aphrodisiac. :—E.. Pandu. fruit and seeds. Rai-avala. Kari-Kempukadale. "Vata". useful in bronchitis. :— E. anthelmintic. :—Very common in the Deccan. H. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. laxative. Ksharadala. Sk. Chillika. vomiting. useful in thirst. Chana. piles . CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Cheel. G.) FAM. NS. Bathusag. COM. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat.—Euphorbiaceæ. Laveni. USES :— Root is purgative. The plant yields an essential oil. Chanaka. Chick pea. Kadale. Rayara nelli. M. Country gooseberry.
PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. Kash. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. vomiting. abortifacient. strengthens liver. tonic . :—G. Leaves—purgative. M. Ceylon. LOC. rectum and urinary diseases. Oil—styptic. flatulence. anthelmintic . Dalchini. See—Food Plants. leprosy. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. It possesses carminative. Nisane. Peninsula. cures thirst and burning. Lavange-hakke. LOC. :— Bark and oil. hiccup. flatulence. aphrodisiac. K. biliousness. H. indigestion. etc. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. useful in loss of appetite. DISTR. indigenous and cultivated. abdominal pains. LOC. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. expectorant. headache. It checks nausea and vomiting. useful in bronchitis. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Oil—carminative. tonic. piles. carminative. aphrodisiac. Dalchini. Seed—stimulant. Duk. Leaves contain vitamin A. tonic. throat troubles.—Lauraceæ. foul mouth and fever. liver-tonic . useful in inflammations. pains . COM. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. Valkala. Malay Peninsula. emmenagogue. :—W. tonic to hair. improve taste and appetite. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. biliousness. Seed—indigestible. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. toothache (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. bronchitis. Gudatwaka. good for diseases of liver and spleen. pungent. . aphrodisiac. Bark—tonic. cure bronchitis. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. chest complaints. useful in hydrocele. itching. useful in " Vata ". Oils. Dalchini. parched mouth. toothache. heart. astringent to bowels . heated brain. refrigerant. See—Condiments and Spices. alexiteric. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. Dalchini. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. causes flatulence. causes salivation. vomiting. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. anthelmintic. headache. Kanara district. Darchini. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. cold in head. carminative. thirst. Burma. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Leaves. cures skin diseases. causes flatulence. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). appetiser. useful in cold. seed and acid exudation. enriches blood. throat troubles. anthelmintic. bronchitis (Yunani). diarrhœa. very common in the N. NS. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. blood troubles. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. diarrhœa and dysentery.
H. 3.5-20 cm. Indrayan.e. CHAR. :— E.—Nov. Fl. dropsy and cough. Patha. FAM. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. burning. sub-globose. :—Deccan. solitary.—Menispermaceæ. long. Pahadvel.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. COM. Sk.—A climbing shrub. Sk. Fr. removes intestinal worms. alleviates vomiting. CHAR. also for prolapsus uteri. or twin. :—E. COM. . 5-nerved. Mahendravaruni. Chitraphala. Sd. K. Venivel. Africa and America. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. Tumtikayi. :—In hills. i. NS. Indrayana. Indraphal. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. H. DISTR. Uthika. uterine complaints.-Jany. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". in conjunction with aromatics. Indrayan. Nirbisi. Makal. red. Asso. FL t. compressed. cordate at the base. (Ind. axillary racemes . which possibly has a cholinergic action. diam. helps parturition. minute. diam. male flowers in axillary cymes. monœcious. waxy coated. hairy. warm parts of Asia. upto 25 cm. L. G. Paharmul. piles. stem thick. flesh juicy. Fl. subglobose. Kaduvrindavan. an alkaloid. Fr. NS. 1949). Annual Report. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. Pavamekke Kayi. Ghorumba.. 7.. :—An extensively climbing annual. lobes obovateoblong. subcampanulate. skin eruptions. greenish. E. branches more or less pubescent. itching . M. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. Katurasa. L. C. yellowish. G. removes pain. Indruk. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. R. diarrhœa. Trapusi. Velvet-leaf. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. Colocynth. tendrils bifid. yellow within.—large. drupe. t. Venivalli. 5-partite. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. female flowers in elongate. M. angular . CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. orbicular or reniform. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . mucronate. HABITAT. Kanara. heart troubles. fever. LOC.— usually margined. somewhat hairy.8-10 cm. peltate.—July-Sept. asthma . red or yellowish white. Fl. has been isolated. young shoots woolly. greenish outside. margins ciliate. LOC. smooth. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. The active constituent of the drug. leaves. useful in hemicrania. solitary. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Bitter apple. dysentery. F. PARTS USED :—Root.
useful in biliousness. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. Deccan. Kirmirtvaka. FAM. astringent. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Ahmednagar and Khandesh). sweet and has agreeable flavour. enlargement of spleen. asthma. aphrodisiac .MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. and lumbago. carminative. sea-shores. fever and worms. DISTR. Rind— anthelmintic. useful in piles. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. ascites. relieves vomiting and retching. Narange. tuberculous glands of neck. removes fatigue .—Rutaceæ. constipation. aphrodisiac. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. jaundice. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. urinary discharges. Gujarat. cures tumours. NS. bowel complaints. bronchitis. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. Naringa. throat diseases. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. good in fevers. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). Asia. Sukkare-kanji. Sunthura. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. antipyretic. Narangi. chest troubles. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). K. Nagaranga. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. anæmia. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. Fruit—sour. dyspepsia. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). Cardiotonic. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in India. Also indigenous in Arabia. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. elephantiasis . USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. Santra. Naringi. W. COM. LOC. purgative. Root and fruit cooling. cooling. " Kapha". CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. :— E. H. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . removes biliousness. tonic. G. Kittale. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. leuco-derma. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. Doddile. :—Konkan. with or without nux-vomica. LOC. Narenj. constipation. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. DISTR. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Ceylon. In the Konkan fruit and root. enlargement of spleen. removes " Vata ". anthelmintic . (Poona. M. tonic. pain in joints. fortifies chest. diuretic. good in vomiting and skin diseases. N. relieves colds. laxative. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. epilepsy. Tvakasugandha. anthelmintic. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. LOC. Flower— stimulant. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy.
Motalimbu . flowers. said to be wild in W. anasarca and chronic fever. seeds. Citron . odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. LOC. cures leprosy. Rusaki. jaundice. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. tonic. aphrodisiac. Mahaphala. Devamadala. dry and tonic . fruits and seeds. Seeds—indigestible. :—E. Adam's apple. Bijapurna. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. COM. LOC. LOC. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. digestible. Paharinimbu . Limonum. cough. useful in vomiting. Mahaphala. Thora-limbu. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. Kutla. B and C. Harale. See—Fruit Trees. Turanj. K. Matulunga. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. M. relieve vomiting. juice refrigerant and astringent. Bijaura.—Rutaceæ. K. Ghats. :— E. Sk. PARTS USED. M.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Lemon . Flowers—stimulant. . leaves and flowers hot and dry. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. useful in abdominal complaints. heating. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. cough. gastric irritability in general and general debility. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). COM. sharp. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root. with a sharp taste. its preserve is used for dysentery. Fruit—sweet and sour. The fruits contain vitamins A. VAR. the juice allays ear-ache. Madala. Jambira. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. astringent to bowels . H. G. anæmia. bark and fruit. Matunga. Mahanimbu. intoxication. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Bera nimbu. removes colic. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. According to Theophrastus. Idalimbu. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . oily. Ruchaka. hiccup. NS. Sk. Amlakeshara. :—Citron rind is hot.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. tonic and astringent properties. also corrects foetid breath. stimulant. Mahalunga. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. the pulp cold and dry. asthma. Turanj. Mavalunga. increase appetite. though there are no regular plantations. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. used in constipation and tumours. H. Bijoru. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. DoddaGaja-nimba. :—Roots. relieves sore-throat. Matalunga. flatulence. anthelmintic. thirst. Balank. G. rind of the fruit is bitter. USES.
Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Dhantiate. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. constipation. whole plant tomentose. Morvel. K. VAR.Nov. Sk. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. stomachic. COM. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. appetiser. lobes mucronate. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites.. G. Rochana. L. FAM. LOC. Limbe. Fruit—sour. Moravel. Devashreni. See—Fruit Trees. brain disorders. hemicrania.—Sept. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Morata. Acida. sepals 4-6.—achenes. Madhulika. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Limpaka. Sk. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. cures abodominal complaints. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. . blades 2-2. COM. not good in old age. H. Nimbuka. Nebu. M. Khatalimbu. Nimbu. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Oil from rind. eyes . but often found trailing amongst grass. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes.—Ranunculaceæ. loss of appetite. improves liver. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Ranjai. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. K. long ovate or orbicular. NS. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. :—G. Acid-Sour lime . where there is dry skin and much thirst. anthelmintic. petioles twinning. fatigue . both as a prophylactic and as a curative. C. relieves biliousness. Murva. scarletina. stimulant . Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Nimbe. :—E. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. Churhar. Murhari. NS.—simple or once ternate. Morhari. :—An extensive climber. silky villous. also useful in rheumatism. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. hairy outside. M. CHAR. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Lebu. throat trouble. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. it cures and prevents scurvy. Kagadi limbu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Shodhana. white. heart.—in axillary corymbose panicles. vomiting. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. sharp taste. with long feathery tails .—petals O. burning in the chest.5 cm. Snuva. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. Nimbu. H. measles. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Limbu. with flavour. bronchitis . Lebu. Fl. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. it helps digestion. Fl. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. relieves vomiting . plethora. Amlasara. Fr. leaves (rarely). ovoid.
FAM. Konkan. oblong-obovate.—petals 4.—capsule. obliquely striate. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. used internally in thirst. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). NS. Sk. stimulant. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. DISTR. Bharangi. Tilparni. H. Talvari. Barbara. Fl. useful in leprosy. transversely striate. COM. NS. Gantubarangi.—Verbenaceæ. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. veined. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. M. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. COM. Kasaghni. bitter. M.—3-5 foliate. . dryness and urethral discharges. erect. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Jangali-harhar. Fr. mixed with oil. gradually becoming shorter upwards. laxative. leaflets elliptic-oblong. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. laxative. Phanjika. Hulhul.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Tilwan. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Kanphutia. very common in the Deccan. Vatari. :—G.—axillary. petioles of lower leaves longer. L. Sauri. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. astringent. Leaves—favour digestion. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LOC. in lax racemes. Karnasphota. and fevers. Ghats. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. Fl. H. terminal the largest. :—Common in grass lands.—Capparidaceæ. high. cooling. LOC. stems grooved and glandular. blood diseases. Bharang. K. tapering towards both ends . stimulates secretion of bile. anthelmintic. HABIT :—A common weed. good in malaria. hot. Plant has penetrating bad smell. CHAR. K. subglobose. Kiritekki. externally applied to boils. Sd. :—W. Adityabhakta. Bharangi. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. Tinmani. t. Harhuria. DISTR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bitter taste and a strong odour. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. yellow. hairy. Bharangi. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. :—Annual erect herb. 30-90 cm. LOC. hairy. Brahmani. reduces tumours and inflammations . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. removes " Kapha". useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. :—G. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). Sk. Juice— cures ear-ache. C.—brownish black. FAM. causes excessive biliousness. and dispel intestinal fermentation. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Kanphodi. diuretic. Nayibela. stomachic.—Sept-June.
stomachic. "Vata". ozœna. the larger lower lobe dark purple.-Oct. elliptic oblong. alexiteric. Fr. smooth. Kalina. PARTS USED :—Root. obovoid. Root is purgative and diuretic. consumption. HABITAT :—In hedges. Gokarni.—many. black. inflammations. stems bluntly quadrangular. Kowa. useful in bronchitis.. Sk. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. C. collectively forming a terminal panicle.—much exerted. 2-2.8-5 cm.. standard bright blue or white. heating. inflammations.—ternately whorled. L. flat. Gokarnika. asthma. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. asthma. tuberculous glands. leaflets 5-7. Fl. useful in ascites (Yunani). DISTR. laxative.3 cm. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). hiccup. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills .—Shrub. ulcers (Ayurveda). :—G. blood diseases. fevers.—imparipinnate. Garani. K. sharply serrate. Wowatheti. Sd. Aparajita. leucoderma. 3. lower one deflexed. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State.7-6. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. PARTS USED :—Root. lessens expectoration. burning sensation.. cures "Tridosha". elephantiasis. anthelmintic. pains. sometimes opposite. . tonic to the brain. pubescent. Koyala. Ceylon.—6-10 yellowish brown. Fl. Malay Peninsula. LOC. fleshy. LOC. There are two varieties :—white flowered.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. in lax dichotomous cymes. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. leaves and seeds. Girikarniballi. ulcers of the cornea.— Aug. nearly straight. Girikarnika. long .2 m. LOC.:—More or less throughout India. hairy. C. Kajli.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. Vishnukranta. solitary. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. with an orange centre. anthelmintic. Fl. epilepsy. showy. FAM.5 X 2-3. CHAR. H.. stems terete. NS. wounds (Ayurveda). 0. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. Fr. leaves and seeds.—axillary. beaked.5-15 X 5. tumours. also found throughout the State. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. DISTR. Root increases appetite. high. and blue flowered. 12.— drupe. useful in inflammation. t. t— June-Jany. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. tube hairy within.—pale blue. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. M. biliousness. tubercular glands. bronchitis. diuretic.9-2. Aparajita. 4 lobes flat. fevers (Yunani).2 cm. spreading. L. oblong or elliptic. :—A perennial twining herb. headache. burning sensation. good for eye-diseases.
H. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. COM. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). asthma. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. G. Tundi. Leaves—acrid.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. The plant contains an enzyme. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. M. H. Deccan. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). Jamtikibel. Fruit— indigestible. LOC.:—Root cooling. Sk.—Menispermaceæ. . root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. and jaundice. Sk. Vevati. Vevdi. S. burning of hands and feet. Tana. K. Chireta. useful in ascites and fevers. galactagogue. Country. COM. urinary losses. Bimbi. Tundika. Vasandi. Vasanvel. Kanduri. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Kambhoja. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). stops vomiting. biliousness. Vasantitikta. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. M. Root bark. Seeds are purgative and aperient. Ink-berry. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bimb. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. FAM. DISTR :—Throughout India. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. leaves. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Oshthi. COCCINIA INDICA W.—Cucurbitaceæ. fruit. Glum. PARTS USED :—Root. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Hunder. Ceylon. Dirghvalli. Parvel. K. USES:—In the Konkan.) FAM. dried and powdered. " Vata". :—G. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Tondali. NS. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. LOC. antipyretic . Ghobe. wild in hedges. M. Garudi. Malaya. tropical Africa. allays thirst. Galedu. cause flatulence. Gujarat. HABITAT. Bimba. astringent to bowels. diseases of blood.:—Cultivated in gardens. cures leprosy. given for uterine discharges. Faridburti. Tondeballi. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables. Flowers cure itching. Konkan. Fruit is aphrodisiac.—E. consumption. flowers. aphrodisiac. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. NS. a hormone and an alkaloid. Broom-creeper. & A. Bimbika.
. It is also used as a refrigerant. India and Ceylon. Common in Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Pegu. oil. Mahaphala.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Nalivar. with a few heads of pepper. urinary discharges. India. DISTR. Toyagarbha. causes "Kapha".:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. male in small axillary cymose panicles. tropical Africa. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. DISTR.8 cm. Arabia. useful in biliousness. M. Naral. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani).—3. aphrodisiac. biliousness. S. rugose . fermented juice. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. Cocoanut palm. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. ovate. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). blood diseases. 3-5 nerved.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. thirst. Tenginmara. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. tumours. tonic. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. cardiotonic. smells sweetish and pungent. LOC. constipation.—Dec. lessens thirst. In the Konkan. Mangalya.3 X 1. seed. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—In hedges. tuberculosis. Jataphala. as a cure for gonorrhœa. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. useful in diabetes. Tengu. Sk. laxative. "Kapha" and "Vata". :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. Kanara. alexipharmic .—dioecious. fattening. young parts densely Villous.—drupe. it is heating. size of a small pea. oleaginous. appetiser. Fl. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). K. 2-8 together. dysentery. Deccan.—Palmæ. tonic. Fl. Seed-cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. NS. Nariyal. Narial. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic.. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. indigestible. laxative. China. Narikel. keeled. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Mad. Leaf-juice. flowers. mixed with water. bark. female in axillary clusters. and put on to sore-eyelids. Fr. useful in leprosy. bronchitis. good in fractures. :—E. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. ovate-oblong. L. Konkan. it is used for coughs. t. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". Gujarat. G. Flower-cooling . lessens bile and burning sensation. enriches blood. COM. aphrodisiac. laxative and sudorific. H. burning sensation.8-6. FAM. subdeltoid or subhastate. LOC. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. villous . in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . Milk—cooling. Antipyretic.3-3. also in many places in the interior. fattening. which is taken internally with sugar.
tropical Asia-Africa. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . 6. :—E. long.5-5 cm.—Gramineæ COM. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. diuretic. Japan. stout. Job's tears. internodes smooth..—10-15 x 2. Madhya Bharat. Fl. Fr. promotes hairgrowth. Polynesia.—Oct. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing.6-10 mm. Oil—sweet. ulcers (Ayurveda). DISTR. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. paralysis. useful in urinary complaints. Jargadi. :—Himalayas.5-6. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. Rajputana. it also purifies blood. fattening. useful in lumbar-pain. piles . :—A tall leafy grass. Fibres. Bengal. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Ran-jondhala. M. H. long. increases body weight. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Malaya. FAM. liver complaints. polished.—broadly ovoid to globose. lessens inflammations . fermented juice is intoxicating. B and C. t. base cordate. NS. it promotes growth of hair. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Oil—indigestible. bronchitis. abundant in standing water. strengthening and agreeable vegetable.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. L. G. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. notched at the nodes . stem 90-150 cm. sheaths long. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. smooth. above the bract stout. Gavedhu. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . China. America. midrib stout. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. diuretic . consumption. S. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. It is also used for burns. Kasai. smooth. useful in fever. bluish grey. CHAR. rachis within the bract slender. LOC. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Sk.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Fl. spinously serrate margins. Madhya Pradesh. piles and scabies (Yunani. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). Gurlu . asthma. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant.3 cm.—monœcious racemes 2. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. rooting at the lower nodes. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. polished. tonic. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. enriches blood. It is refreshing and laxative. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. LOC. Dabha. high or more. India. Assam. incipient phthisis and cachexia. Oils. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. Gojivha. LOC. See—Fruit Trees. HABITAT :—Gregarious. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell).
may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. See—Fodder Plants. In jutegrowing districts.—petals 4-5.:—E. DISTR. Sk.— capsule. histidin. carminative.2 cm. :—An annual herb. acute or acuminate. stomachic. :—Konkan. Fl. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. buds obovoid. Gujarat. C. Patta. Hadige. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sk. yellow. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. anthelmintic. M. Sd. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Fl. Chaunchan . Bhokar. Bhuselu. and intestinal antiseptic. Jute . brown. Kalasaka.—7. lysin. Rayagundo.—few in each cell. also as antiperiodic. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. arginine and coicin. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. serrate. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . fever. tyrosin. Bargund. See—Fibres. and dyspepsia. L. Chhunchh . stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Col. t. FAM. Bhukerbudara. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin.—Boraginaceæ. :—E.—in short cymes. G. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. smooth. COM. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Resalla. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . not beaked. Gondan. laxative.— Sept. NS. They are also used in lung and chest complaints.—Tiliaceæ. cultivated in most tropical countries. growing very tall under cultivation. M. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. Sebesten plum. Lassora. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. leaves and fruit. Pistan. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. PARTS USED :—Root. . The plant contains leucin. G. Mannadike. lanceolate. Bhokar. astringent. diam. 12 mm. NS. Challa. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. subglobose. K. Fr. FAM. It is also used as a bitter tonic. LOC. wedgeshaped. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. ridged and muricated. COM. H.5-10 X 2-3. 5-valved. CHAR.
DISTR. anthelmintic. tuberculous glands. M. analgesic. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. COM. Mesapotamia and Greece.—Umbelliferæ. DISTR. aphrodisiac. heart and liver. used as an expectorant and astringent. headache. Dharika. also cultivated. tooth-ache. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. cures thirst. uterus and urethra. maturant. diuretic. vomiting. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). diseases of chest and urethra. Egypt. Bark is used as a mild tonic. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. FAM. jaundice. Kothamir. piles. tropical Australia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. dyspepsia. inflammations. eye-pains. G. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). biliousness. tonic to brain. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. gives appetite. carminative and antispasmodic. K. Syria. stomatitis. Ceylon. Fruit is aromatic. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. diseases of chest. The plant and fruit— acrid. pains in joints. widely known from Palestine. stimulant. gleet. Allaka. removes bad humours. bechic. Kanara. indigestion. Fruit—diuretic. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. wild and cultivated. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. stimulant. anthelmintic. biliousness. Vitunnaka. Kothambri. Kothimbir. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Fibres.:—Throughout the State in W. thirst. PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). often planted. Satpudas. Fruits are used as spice. Hivija. LOC. NS. causes suppuration. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. scabies. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. :—Throughout India. laxative. Seeds—aphrodisiac. LOC. bleeding gums. used in syphilis. bronchitis. expectorant. cooling. Leaves—hypnotic. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Konphir. purgative. stomachic.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Dhania. useful in hiccup. H. biliousness. See—Timbers. burning of throat. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Kustumburi. Ghats. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Coriander. chronic fevers. . LOC.:—E. Cochin-China. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. vulnerary. used in dry cough. anthelmintic. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. highly esteemed in coughs. Sk. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes.
— in very dense spikes. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. t. :—G. useful in bronchitis. By the earliest writers.— black with white aril. Chikke. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. H. It is also astringent and digestive. Fl. inflammations. Sk. Shura.—15-30 X 5. concave. Biliana. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. DISTR. Fl. Castle Rock. Vayavarna. Pakarmula. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. K. Khandala. lip white with yellow centre. red. Pushkarmula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. a tonic is prepared from it. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. The plant yields an essential oil. root-stock tuberous. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. rheumatism. Hadawarna. Country. spirally arranged. See—Condiments and Spices.:—Konkan ghats. :—G. H. K.7-7. fever. also planted near Muslim tombs. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. sheaths coriaceous . Changalkashta.5 cm. . Ajapa. coughs and skin diseases. Penva. Varuna.—capsule. LOC. many.2-2. Malay Islands. in moist and shady places. LOC. subequal. C. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. " Kapha". COM. Madhya Bharat. lumbago. silky-pubescent beneath. L. Var. FAM. DISTR. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Varuna.-Oct. Keu. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Leaves contain vitamins A and C .—Scitamineæ. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. :—An erect plant 1. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Varno. LOC. Sk. S.—Aug. NS. PARTS USED:—Root.7 m. China. Karikuttu. stem sub-woody at the base . high. anæmia. Var. bright red. M. Nervele. Mahakapittha. Kemuka. and " Vata". this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. crisped. Fr. nalas. oblong. NS. globosely 3-gonous. COM. Kushtha. useful in catarrhal fevers. Vayavarno.—Capparidaceæ. India. mucronate. Pushkarmula. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Kashmira. Barna. Bitusi. M. and aphrodisiac. CHAR. :—More or less throughout India. depurative. Varvunna. Sd.— tube short. hiccup (Ayurveda). S. Kumaraka. lobes ovate-oblong. dyspepsia. M. subsessile. Kust. Ceylon. FAM. Bilpatri. bracts ovate. Pinga.
PARTS USED :—Root. vulnerary. Vishamungalli. cylindric. See—Timbers. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. bulb 5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. H. useful in bronchitis. found wild in North and South Konkan. Pindar. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. toothache. anuria. Kanwal. vesicant. urinary discharges. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. antipyretic. Nag-damani. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). Patra-pushpi. chest and blood diseases. K.5-18 cm. anthelmintic.5 cm. also wild. beaked. anthelmintic. tuberculous glands. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. Nagdavana. tumours. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). laxative. emmenagogue. lung and spleen diseases. antilithic.. flat. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. "Pitta" and "Kapha". aphrodisiac. CHAR. Wild or cultivated. bitter. and seeds.—15-50 in an umbel. lobes 6. Fr. fragrant at night. thin. Sk. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. scape 45-90 cm. Tonic. M. diuretic. leaves. Chindar. diam. removes "Vata". with a sheathing base. X 12. heating. perianth tube greenish-white. good in strangury. linear lanceolate. it promotes appetite.5-10 cm.—20-30. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). Nag-damani. detergent. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. Fl. vomiting. Kanda-shalini. laxative. NS. linear. increases secretion of bile. bark. LOC. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. lumbago. 0.—subglobose. Visha-Mandalamardini. bracts 7. stomachic. Sd. Ceylon. strangury. act as rubefacient and vesicant. carminative. useful in biliousness. gonorrhœa.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. as long as the tube. L. diseases of vagina. expectorant. LOC. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. then sweet. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. :—Throughout tropical India. Bark promotes appetite. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. COM. Kanmu. The plant contains saponin. bright green..—Amaryllidaceæ. white. digestive. DISTR. laxative.9-1. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. Seeds—purgative. flowers and fruits. USES:—Root is alterative. urinary concretions. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue.—1 (rarely 2). night-blindness. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. leaves. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. HABITAT :—Cultivated. chest. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State.:—G. long. Nagadown. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). defective vision. bechic. . expectorant.
Ceylon . PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Ganasur. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Jamalgota . NS. Ieucoderma.—Euphorbiaceæ. nauseant and diaphoretic. DISTR. Nepala . useful in mental troubles. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Nepala. bark. insanity. Nepal. cathartic.—Euphorbiaceæ. it is in great request. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Ceylon. Chota-Natpur. near Junnar (Poona Dist). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Oil from the seed is purgative. Konkan. See—Ornamental Plants. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Sk. :—E. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. carminative. Sk. :—Sylhet. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). Jamalgota.. fever. DISTR. As an application to sprains. M. Bhutankusam. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. G. Chucka . Danti. leaves and seeds. Jayapala. good in sore eyes. COM. LOC. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. COM. Madhya Pradesh. Assam to Malacca. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Malay Islands. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Kanara. Burma. convulsions. Purging croton . CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. K. :—H. emetic. M. FAM. Seeds contain an alkaloid. . FAM. :—Rare in the State. Seeds cause burning sensation. :—Bengal. Japala. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. NS. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. in small doses. Jepal. Western Peninsula. tonic. See—Timbers. excessive phlegm. :—Naturalised in S. Burma. LOC. inflammations. H. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. The plant contains lycorin. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. China. naturalised or cultivated. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. etc. abdominal diseases. expectorant. Oil cathartic. Bengal. Danti.
MELO Var. PARTS USED :—Root. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. obstinate constipation. allays fatigue. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. oily. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. laxative. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Pathira . and lock-jaw. convulsions. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Tarkakadi. They are edible. Kakni. Mutrala. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. ascites. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. NS. Chibuda. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. LOC. Mahanaracha Rasa. cures " Vata ". FAM. cures ophthalmia. COM. Sk. ascites. It is useful in apoplexy. in ascites and anasarca. See—Timbers. Kankadi. . causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is given internally with great caution. H. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Valaka. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. galactagogue. strengthens heart. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Kakadi. LOC. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. C. Kakri. dropsy. Said to be truly wild in India. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. M. LOC. Seeds—lachrymatory.:—E. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Karkati. NS. diaphoretic. K. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. :—In Deccan. Karkali. bronchitis. Shantanu. Melon. chronic fever. Rind—vulnerary. wholesome. synovitis. Sweet melon . INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. colic. tonic. brain and body. Kalangida. insanity. H. Kharbuja. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. COM. diuretic. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. M. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. insanity. Lomashi.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Sk. gives headache. Chibdu Shakarteti. urinary discharges. Kharbuja. laxative. Kharbuja. Valungi. DISTR. G. Fruit—tonic. fruit and seeds. Shadrekha. thirst (Yunani). used in liver and kidney troubles. DISTR. fattening. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Ripe fruit—sweet. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. cooling. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. diuretic. Vrittervaru. Kachra. &c. nutritive and diuretic. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. may cause indigestion.
—monœcious . Seed oil used in fever. fruits.:—N. Fl. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme.—Cucurbitaceæ. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. H. Vishala. DISTR. astringent. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Sudhavsa. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. enrich blood. cures thirst. indigestible. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—white.— suborbicular. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. Kakari. Kankdi. M. purgative. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. rigid. roasted and powdered. dry. Sd. NS.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. Tavasa. LOC.—June-Sept. Ripe one tonic. utilissimus (Ayurveda. cooling. L. male in clusters. Cultivated in all parts of India. M. stomachic. :—A perennial climber. and C. :—G. C. "Kapha" and flatulence. angled. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. India is considered to be the original home. Fr. Trapusha. pale yellow when ripe. melo var.—subglobose or ellipsoid. LOC. improve complexion. Santekayi. Chitravalli. K. Fruit—fattening . cordate at the base. strangury. are administered in throat affections. good for brain and body. Kothiban. PARTS USED :—Leaves. lobes obovate. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. FAM. Sk. Hislambhi. seeds. NS. Kakdi. Karit. Mrigadani. Khira. tendrils simple. COM. See—Vegetables. stem slender. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. G. H. they are also used as diuretic. Seeds—diuretic. FAM. cures biliousness. LOC. Cucumber. lobulate or dentate . female peduncle longer than male. See-Fruit Trees. pulp bitter. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Khira. . They are nutritive. causes "Vata". :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. Sushitala. margined .—yellow segments elliptic. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). fever. used in thirst. COM. B. Takamaki. hairy. fatigue.:—E. Kumbhakshi. CHAR. biliousness. Seeds possess cooling properties.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. Tansali. Sk. antipyretic. diuretic. Yunani). allay thirst. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani).
PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. Melon pumpkin. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. The plant contains glucoside saponin.—Cucurbitaceæ. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. M. increases " Vata" .:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. cures cough. unhealthy ulcers. FAM . N. DISTR. astringent to bowels . :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Australia.—Cucurbitaceæ.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Pitakushmand. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. USES. LOC. COM. G. Dudia. Kaddu. Koron. etc. Tambda bhopala. Malaya. Sk. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. FAM. Kushmand. See—Vegetables. HABITAT. increases " Vata ". COM. Kushmand. Fruit contains vitamins A. Dried fruit indigestible .:—Considered to be a native of America. : — E. LOC. stomachic. :—E. M. B and C. cultivated in many parts of India. Punyalata. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Red squash gourd. G. Mithakaddu. allays thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kumbala. Bhopala. Kadimah. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Dangari. carbuncles. Sk. H. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. :—Cultivated. Pumpkin. DISTR. Afghanistan. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. fruits and seeds. Safedkaddu .:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. Ceylon. NS. LOC. K. Kumra. H. :—Throughout the greater part of India. K. tonic. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Kashiphala. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Karkarn. Vegetable marrow. on hedges. LOC. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . LOC. Iran. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Kumbala. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. indigestible. In Malabar. NS. improves taste (Ayurveda). Seeds are used as taeniacide.
stops epistaxis . sweet. Dipaka. alexipharmic. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. appetiser. Talamulika. heals corneal opacities. laxative. See—Condiments and Spices. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. LOC. Cumin. Jiru. NS. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. scabies. emmenagogue. M. remove biliousness. G.—Amaryllidaceæ. purifies blood (Ayurveda). beneficial in consumption. belching . carminative. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). leucoderma. abortifacient. FAM. good for teeth. anthelmintic. biliousness. fever. LOC. ulcers. stomachic. Jira. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. also a lactagogue. asthma. tonic to intestine. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Zira. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. FAM. Kalimusali. astringent to bowels. diuretic and demulcent. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Seeds are taeniacide. cures haemoptysis. fatigue. tonic. H. uterine stimulant.—Umbelliferæ. and the root for making these more potent. vulnerary. inflammations. K. cooling. Jirige. thirst. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. cure haemoptysis. :—E. fattening. tonic. Neladati. gonorrhœa. :—G. . antipyretic. leprosy. LOC. enlargment of the spleen. M. Ajjika. bronchitis. Cures " Vata " tumours. Fruit astringent. Kalimusali. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. relieves hiccup. Dirghaka. cures leprosy. astringent. Mushalikand . Fruit yields an essential oil. Girautmi. Neltati gadde. analgesic. haematinic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. fruit and seeds. fever. Fruit—very cooling. Musali. increases appetite . NS. Sk. See—Vegetables. throat and eyes. antidysenteric. Sk. Kapha " and " Vata ". CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. Seeds—diuretic. H. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Leaves—digestible. K. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). astringent to bowels. DISTR. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. carminative. Seeds anthelmintic. Jire. carminative. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. COM. eye-diseases. allays thirst. Gaurajerka. aphrodisiac. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. COM. ft contains vitamins A and C. Kalimusali.
Peninsula. Kapurahaldi. hiccup. tonic. Fr. Ambahaldi.5 cm. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Ambahaladara.— in racemes. flowering bract greenish-white. ulcers on penis. Root—carminative. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . Malay Archipelago. aphrodisiac. appetiser.—Scitamineæ. :—Stemless herb. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. hairy on the back. stomatitis (Yunani). bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. 30-45x7. C—white or very pale-yellow. NS. gleet. oblong. bronchitis. FAM.5-15 X 3.3-2. Kanara. pale yellow inside . clavate . common at the beginning of rains. appetising. emollient.—capsule. useful in biliousness. lumbago. useful in piles. sessile. bitter. Fl. Ambehalad. during convalescence after acute illness. diuretic. M.8-5 cm.:—Sweet.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Sk. very short. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). debility and impotence. Peninsula. . expectorant. fattening. t. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . laxative. useful in bronchitis. tubers thick. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. piles. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres.-Sept. DISTR. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. antipyretic. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. jaundice. H. perianth segments elliptic. cooling. Sd. causes "Vata". scabies. COM. L. distichous. root stock large. :—Konkan and Gujarat. t. 1545 X 1. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. alexiteric.—sessile or petiolate. Java. linear or linear-lanceolate . Fl. :—Konkan and N. gonorrhœa. Karpuraharidra. LOC. scape. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root.. useful in inflammations. W. troubles in the mouth and ear. :—Bengal. DISTR. " Vata". tips sometimes rooting. alterative and tonic. appetiser. CHAR. maturant. diarrhœa. hydrophobia. black. asthma.:—W. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating.— May-June. lumbago. Fl. alterative. pains in joints (Yunani). antipyretic. Amragandha. gleet. rhizome. Mango-ginger. G. :—A small herb. vomiting. LOC. shining . :—E. indigestion. Fl. colic. biliousness.5 cm.— in autumnal spikes 7.5-12. Bengal. LOC. fatigue. diarrhœa. oblong lanceolate. cylindric or ellipsoid. often cultivated. K. aphrodisiac. all skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES.—grooved. ophthalmia. Bitter.—long petioled in tufts. Amhaladi. antipyretic. yellow. L. oblong. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Assam. gonorrhœa. inflammations (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Hotter regions. with a beak .
H. sometimes cultivated. base deltoid. long.-May. LOC.—Scitamineæ. M. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. palmately branched.. COM. Sk. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Vanarishta. the dorsal longer. also stomachic. Sk.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. NS.—Scitamineæ. DISTR. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. lip yellow. Haridra. Halad.5 cm. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Kapur-kachali. Halada. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. LOC.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. pale green. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. long. lateral lobes oblong. Banhaladi. Also cultivated in Konkan. G. DISTR. flowers fragrant. appearing before leafing stem. Aranyaharidra. K. :—Stemless herb. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Vanhaldara. Jayanti. Yellow Zedoary.—tube 2. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Sholika. green. It is considered tonic and carminative. :—Western Peninsula. COM. t. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. LOC. biennial. Turmeric. . Varnadatri. appetiser . L. flowering bracts cymbiform. C. Sometimes cultivated. upper half funnel-shaped. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. Ran-halad. it is seldom used alone . lobes pale-rose. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. CHAR. G. variegated above. M. rounded at the tips. FAM. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). in spikes 15-30 cm. Sholi. Fl. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Harita. NS.— flowering stem sheathed. H. Cochin-Wild turmeric. root-stock large. used as an application for skin-diseases. sessile. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. :—E. Bengal. forming pouches for the flowers. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. 3lobed. Mangalya. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. Halad. See—Condiments and Spices. Banharidra. Indian saffron. Arishina. :—E. FAM. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. annulate.
LOC. alexiteric. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. externally applied to leech-bites. bitter. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. jaundice. odour like camphor. "Vata ". Jatala. long. bitter. urinary discharges. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. coma-bract crimson or purple .—4-6 with long petioles. DISTR. G. scabies. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . K. fumes are used during hysteric fits . an alkaloid. taste bitterish spicy. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India.— flowering stem 20-25cm. Narakachora. asthma. lip 3-lobed. oblong. lobed . good for liver affections. carminative. inflammations. In coryza. leucoderma.—capsule. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. It contains vitamin A.:—E. improves complexion. Karechura. alexiteric. :—Stemless herb. used in prurigo. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. tonic. small-pox. flowering bract green tinged with red . clouded with purple down the middle. deepyellow. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. and yields an essential oil. itches etc. flowers yellow in spikes. Hakhir. HABITAT :—Cultivated. oblong-lanceolate. laxative. Sk. antipyretic. blood diseases. Fr. NS. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. fragrant. L. CHAR. See—Condiments and Spices.—Scitamineæ. useful in " Kapha". 30-60 cm. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. Bitter. C. clothed with sheaths. internally administered in blood disorders.—funnel shaped. appearing before the leaves.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. piles. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. scabies. root-stock of palmately branched. urinary discharges. useful in leucoderma. FAM . Gandhamulaka sara. :—Cultivated in the State. bronchitis. heating. anthelmintic. bruises. Kachora. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. bruises. emollient. heating. . Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. Fl. M. vulnerary. Himalayas and Chittagong. Shathi. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. sprains (Ayurveda). appetiser. Kachuri. annulate tubers. LOC. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. long. diuretic. 3-gonous. Kachari. boils. pale-yellow inside. destroys foulness of breath. cylindric. swellings. Zedoary. Kachora. maturant. boils and urticaria. vulnerary. bruises (Yunani). In small-pox and chicken-pox. said to be Wild in E. Tuber is used as a stimulant. COM. H. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . anthelmintic. The plant contains curcumin.
neuralgia.. NS. glaucous green. of much use in typhoid fevers. Bhustrina. :—A tall perennial. erect. sheaths of the culm tight. sharp hot taste. sheaths terete . given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. epileptic fits. toothache (Yunani). laxative. long. M.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. upto over 90 cm.:—E. high. Sk. CHAR. sprains. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. tonic to brain and heart. . PARTS USED :—Leaves. hot. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Bitter.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. Majjige hullu. Lilicha. Externally it is rubefacient. It is also aromatic. Lemon grass. Gandhatrina. stimulant and carminative. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. H. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. gastric irritability. L. inflammations.8 m. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. furunculosis.—Gramineæ. COM. useful in bronchitis. K. Ligule very short. DISTR. others narrow and separating. it is also a good application for ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. pains. bitter. probably of Indian origin. long. velvety at the nodes. FAM. LOC. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. sharp. emmenagogue. chronic rheumatism. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. appetiser. anthelmintic. nodding. It is an excellent stomachic to children. midrib whitish on the upper side. aphrodisiac. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. culm stout.—linear tapering upwards to a point. enlargement of spleen. useful in griping of children. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. tuberculous glands of neck. emetic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. expectorant. and other painful affections. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. Purhati hullu. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. Gavati-chaha. carminative. and is of great value in cholera. alexipharmic. LOC. carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. alexipharmic. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. leprosy. Tubers yield an essential oil. applied to bruises and sprains. G. LOC. also used as a tonic and depurative. it is stimulant. Takratrina. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). good odour. up to over 1. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. Putigandha. laxative.
M. leprosy. leprosy. wide below. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. 1 mm. Country. Rohisha. scabies. high. pungent. Roshdo. :—E. Bujina. forming matted tufts. FAM. L. M. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. cooling. green or purplish. CHAR. Vasanchullu. through N. Bhutika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.3 cm. usually broad. and Ceylon ascending to 3.t.-Nov.—2-10 cm. fatigue. Saugandhika. G. Shatagranthi.—grain. vomiting. M. useful in fevers. Mirchiagand. Fl. Sk. Fl. Rohisha. Sind. oblique or divaricate. K.—throughout the year. straw coloured. widely creeping. Durba. Burma. Kobbar. t. :—A perennial grass . Harali.—flat. margins scabrid. G. skin . burning sensation. most warm countries. S. useful in biliousness. Durva. thirst. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. :—Cosmopolitan . USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. carminative. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). Fl.000 m. leafy. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. DISTR. Roshagavat. Sk.:—Grows all over the State. COM. Afghanistan. NS.—Oct. Geramium grass. W. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Gujarat. :—Punjab.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Garikehallu. long. L. :—E. Dhro. FAM. Baluchistan. bitter. smooth. Gharo. long. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. heart diseases. sweet. Dhoboghas. subcordate or rounded at the base.5-30 cm.4 m. Deccan.—Gramineæ.5-5 cm. prostrate . LOC. 1. throughout India. Shyamaka. glaucous beneath. Ghats. H.. :—Sourashtra. throat troubles. CHAR. See-Oils. soft. narrowly linear. Konkan. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere.5-2. Bahuvirya. Rhusghas. bad taste in the mouth. high. Fr. H. K. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. Shatamula. LOC. upto 2. Durva. sheaths tight. with erect flowering branches 7. long. pains. X 1 cm. Africa to Morocco. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. epileptic fits. finely acute. 12-18 mm. hallucinations. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. slender. particularly the Deccan trap areas. long. stem. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS.—Gramineæ. LOC.—spikes 2-nate. in the Himalayas. DISTR. Mangala. COM. bronchitis. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Fl. stem.
Sugandhi-granthila. blood diseases. fever. useful in vomiting. diarrhœa. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. ophthalmia. CHAR. :—Glabrous herb. stomatitis. :—G. DISTR. Root— diuretic. Motha. Ceylon. Motha. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. dysentery. Mustaka. thirst. epilepsy and insanity.. Koranarigadde. greyish black. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. vomiting. burning sensation. useful in leprosy. LOC.5 cm. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. narrowly linear. :—Throughout India. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. anthelmintic. juice is used in hysteria. very troublesome weed. Kachhola. useful for ulcers and sores. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. Nut—broadly ovoid. Tubers yield an essential oil. biliousness. pain. See—Fodder Plants. epistaxis. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. PARTS USED :—Tubers. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. emmenagogue. L. NS. diaphoretic. 0.82. USES :—Roots are commonly. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . difficult to eradicate. most hot countries. erysipelas. epistaxis (Ayurveda). In Ceylon. urinary concretions (Yunani). COM.—Sept-Nov. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. vulnerary. bruises. cooling. trigonous. hiccup (Yunani). LOC. Mutha. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. dysentery. M. acrid. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. H. biliousness. fevers. epilepsy.. fever. t.—shorter or longer than the stem. They are also diuretic and stimulant. it is diuretic.—Cyperaceæ. FAM. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. diarrhœa. Granthi. Tungegaddo. Nagarmotha. erysipelas (Ayurveda). appetiser. dyspepsia. vulnerary. blood diseases. stomachic. Motha. . Sk Bhadramusta. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation.— in simple or compound umbel. Bimbal. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. spikelets 10-50 flowered. astringent. pruritis. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. expectorant. K. anthelmintic. stolons elongate. Fl. Bitterish. LOC.
stem hairy. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. long 10-20. HABIT :—A common weed. Utarni. somewhat zigzag. G. Kanaka. Gujarat. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. white inside.5 cm. FAM. :—Annual shrub. solitary. M. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. t. corona outer and inner. Administered after the third stage of labour. a glucoside. COM.—capsule. :—Throughout India in hotter parts.5 cm. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals.-Jany. Bhranta. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. LOC. FAM. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma.—7. LOC..5-15 X 3. has been isolated and its mode of action studied.— tubular. Fl. COM. e. high. paralytic ileus. Phalakantak. funnel-shapped. Utran. velvety pubescent beneath. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Black-Purple datura. green. soft spiny. :—Deccan. Fl. packed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 30-60 cm. spur acute. Fl. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. CHAR. 18 cm.2-7.—thin.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. Sd. :—A perennial twining herb. ciliate. Kala-dhotara. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. lobes spreading. greenish-yellow or dull-white. :—H. Sk. NS. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ".:—E.—Asclepiadaceæ. usually pubescent.—Aug. M. long. t. reflexed. K: Dhattura. glabrous above. Sk. and sub-involution of the uterus. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. acute. very unequal at the base. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). Unmatta. entire or with large teeth or lobes. Sd. afterwards racemose. outer truncate. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . Kanaka. Kariyu-Um-Matta. Fr. S.g. Kaladhatura. nodding. tubular. M. Country. Fl. C. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. divaricately branched.2 cm. . L.—purple outside. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Ceylon. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine.—many. H. Ns. covered with straight sharp prickles. subglobose. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. double. diam.—Sept-Dec. ovate. Kaladhatura. Rajdhattura. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). DISTR.—Solanaceæ. Fr. beak long. across. yellowish brown. inner curved high over the staminal column. on curved stalk 3.—follicle. CHAR. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. L.
anodyne. NS. GranthiPinda-Mula. M. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. leaves and seeds. Leaf poultice. Gajjari. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. :—Throughout the tropics. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Gajar. anthelmintic. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. Europe. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. LOC. Gajra. enlargement of testicles and boils. aphrodisiac. leaves and seeds. piles. . black (Kala) and white (Safed). mumps etc. digestive and heating. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. ganja. cause headache (Yunani). bitter. to increase their stupefying effect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. :—E. chronic coughs. useful in leucoderma. Sk. G. The plant as a whole has narcotic. toxic. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Leaf-juice is given internally. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. bronchitis. jaundice. (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Seeds—narcotic. febrifuge. Gajar. ulcers. LOC. toddy. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. anthelminitic . PARTS USED :—Roots. heating. equal in effect to atropine. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. The whole plant is narcotic. tonic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. PARTS USED :—Root. relieves pain. emetic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. febrifuge. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Shikkikanda. Carrot. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. with curdled milk. Garjara. headache. emetic. FAM. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. K. H. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. in combination with subja. and antispasmodic properties. skin-diseases. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. painful tumours. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye.. Cultivated in many parts of India. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. alexiteric.—Umbelliferæ COM. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. in gonorrhœa. biliousness. nodes. USES :—Out of the two varieties. Gajar. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. DISTR. majum. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. black variety is considered to be more powerful. nosetrouble.
Ceylon. astringent to bowels. upper edge straight. they are also diuretic.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. K. chronic affections of chest and lungs. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. Shaliparni.—pod. tropical Africa. good for inflammation. other fevers. indigestible. piles. Burma. carminative. urinary discharges. lessens griping and spleen inflammation.—in terminal or axillary racemes. Darh. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. H. cures typhoid. China. B and C. ovate-oblong. membranous. removes " Kapha". asthma. hairy. cardiotonic.6-1. margins wavy. astringent to bowels. Fl. Fl. Ranbhal. high. chest troubles. Salpani. vomiting. green and glabrous above. Kitavinashini. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . aphrodisiac. joints 6-8. Fr. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). expectorant. DISTR. L.. good for liver. used in bronchitis. Roots contain vitamins A. Salwan. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. vomiting and asthma. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. " Tridosha ". Deccan and S. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. tonic. Salwan. sub-falcate. inflammations. pains. LOC. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). M. LOC. fattening. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. bronchitis. LOC. stomachic. dysentery . vomiting. Philippines. asthma. hooked hairy. 0. Vidarigandha. cures biliousness. urinary complaints. stems and branches angled. tumours. FAM. Root marmalade is refrigerant. Dirghamula. diuretic. antidysenteric. . See—Vegetables. cough. alterative.—May-July. It is used in fevers. nausea (Yunani). piles. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. USES :—Externally. they produce a spirituous liquor. boiled with honey and fermented. Kanara .2 m. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). Tonic. cures leprosy. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Malay Peninsula and Islands . In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. Murele-honne. prevents death of fœtus in womb . :—A woody undershrub. biliousness. CHAR. paler and hairy beneath. thirst. Country. Salwan.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Konkan and N. COM. M. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. alexipharmic. hiccup. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. t. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. " Vata". thirst. C—violet or white.—onefoliate. throughout India. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. burning sensation. useful in chronic fevers. biliousness. Salparni. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. standard cuneate at the base . Sk. Salpan. :— G.
Pavitra. Gujarat. G. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. creeping. Wild mangosteen. M. Malay Archipelago.—Dec. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Tendu. clothed with sessile spikelets. LOC. Makurkendi. Temburni. Fl. Banda. Sk. interrupted. Sphurjaka. NS. erect pyramidal or columnar. t. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers.) FAM. See—Fodder Plants. jaundice.:—Saurashtra. in the beds of rivers and streams. Kalatendu. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. tufted. :—Along the coasts of N. Timbwini.. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). cures ulcers and " Vata".—many. Nubia. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Fruit—oleaginous. margins hispid. rootstock stout. erect. Durva. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. Fl. branches short crowded.8 cm. thirst. rigid. -panicle 15-45 X 1. aphrodisiac. branched from the base. stout. vomiting. astringent to bowels. Riber ebony. bark. good for lumbago. stolon very stout. sheaths glabrous. FAM. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv.—G. Zeeberwo. Kusha.—Gramineæ. Sk. the basal fascicled. H. Gavandu. strangury. K. NS. cooling. DISTR. DISTR. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). long. Kanara and the Konkan. Tinduka. LOC. covered with shining sheaths. stems 30-90 cm. Darbha. H.—Ebenaceæ. Sacred Plants. Konkan. diseases of blood. Egypt. COM. CHAR. ligule a hairy line . Thailand (Siam). Gale. Ceylon. useful in blood diseases. LOC. Dab. smooth.3-3. Tumaki Mara. PARTS USED :—Wood. :—Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. sedative to pregnant uterus. :—E. . Darbha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Anilsara. Syria. asthma. COM. skin eruptions. used in biliousness and blood diseases. high. oleaginous. biliousness. diseases of bladder. vaginal discharges. Dabha. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. reaching 50 cm. vesical calculi. Davoli. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Kalaskandh. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Wood cures biliousness. flowers. L. :—Perennial tall grass. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. heating. fruit and seeds. Tumari. diuretic. M.
Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. :—E. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. Kulithaka. causes biliousness (Yunani). Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. strangury. Bijapur and Dharwar. DISTR. eye troubles. intestinal colic. Nasik. leucoderma. abdominal complaints. tumours. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. :—Rhizome creeping. Grains contain vitamin A. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. cures hiccup. Tans. ovate. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Konkan— Ratnagiri. Kulith. See—Timbers. Kulathi. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. NS. K. Kulitha. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Horse-Gram. Sitetara. See-Food Plants. appetiser. "Vata". grown to a certain extent in S. generally on trees and rocks. pain in liver. improves complexion. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. bronchitis. Country—Belgaum. astringent to bowels. Sk. diseases of the brain and eyes. antipyretic. :—M. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. PARTS USED :—Seeds. cures " Kapha". green when very young but soon turning dark brown. G. inflammation. . Wandar bashing. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. densely clothed with red-brown scales. urinary discharges. NS. enlargement of spleen. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. removes stone from kidney. cordate. dry. Kulthi. Texture membranaceous to leathery. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. short. Jurali. M.Gahat. acrid. liver troubles. Diuretic. hot.—Polypodiaceæ. LOC. Kulit. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. piles.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Kalvrinta. coughs etc. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. fattening. It is demulcent in calculus affection. COM. fertile ones long stalked. Ashvakatri. Sk. Sori two in each primary areole. M. LOC. base decurrent on the stipe. stout. ozoena. asthma. anthelmintic. Basingh. variously lobed. H. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). FAM. :—Tropics of the old world. Kulthi. COM. Hurali. FAM. piles. Surfaces naked. CHAR. emmenagogue. heart-troubles. hiccup. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia.
Utakatara. Garagadasoppu. hot. subentire. biliousness. L. Shulio. C.:—Throughout India. :—Kanara. CHAR.—limb linear. Dadhal. used in strangury. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Sk.-Jany. M. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. analgesic. :—G.3—0. Kantaphala. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. stems and branches strigose and hairy. globose. LOC. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. pain in joints. bracts 3seriate. Utkanta. Utanti. gleet. stimulates liver. Deccan. cottony pubescent. the lobes triangular and oblong. :—G. sinuate and spinescent. Mochand. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. deeply pinnatifid. Sunilaka. Utkanto. pappus short. H. Kantalu. It is used in hoarse cough. urinary discharges. Utkatara. used in ophthalmia. hectic fever. L. Afghanistan. dyspepsia and cough. often rooting at the nodes. inflammations. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. LOC. tonic. glabrous above.5 cm. astringent to bowels . Fl.—achene obconic. strigose and hairy. Seeds—wholesome. LOC. FAM. densely villous. spines 2. usually oblong-lanceolate. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. K. involucre. Ajagara. thirst. also cultivated to a certain extent. antipyretic. dyspepsia. Sk. Markara. Fl. Maka. causes " Kapha".—Compositæ. Pitripriya. Kadigga-garaga. Plant stomachic.— opposite. diseases of heart. H. increases appetite. . Bhangra. cottony. FAM. Bhangra. Root— abortifacient. 0. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Keshrangana. Kalobhangro . wooly beneath. COM. yellowish.— Nov. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. Fr. sessile. hysteria. " Vata". :—A much branched rigid annual. Bhringraj. chronic fever. high. DISTR. Bhangro. surrounded by strong white bristles. DISTR. branches widely spreading from the base. Konkan. NS. COM. spiny. M.—sessile. S. intermediate produced in sharp spine. t. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Kadechubak.—heads white. improves taste. Balari. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. :—More or less throughout India.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. long. oblong. Country. Utkantaka. bitter. useful in brain-diseases. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. CHAR. NS.9 m. M.—Compositæ.
They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Yalakki. Gandhkuti. eyes. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. liver pain. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. It is also used as an emetic and purgative.—in heads. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. Choti-Elachi. it is powdered and applied externally. t. cures vertigo (Yunani). "Vata". W.— Oct. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. Velchi. and for strengthening gums. LOC. DISTR. :—E. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). "Kapha". Bitter . cures inflammations. Fl. bronchitis. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. night blindness. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. involucral bracts about 8 . hemi-crania.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. anæmia. hot. FAM. Malaya. tonic. Ilaji. internal diseases. eye diseases. solitary or 2 together. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. Ela. good for spleen diseases. cuneate with a narrow wing. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. prevents abortion and miscarriage. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). C—often 4-toothed . axillary. teeth. antipyretic. It is given internally in scalding of urine. hair. See—Sacred Plants. a reputed and popular liver tonic. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases .—Scitaminaceæ. asthma. fattening.:—India (Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. Kanara (Siddapur. There are two forms erect and prostrate. syphilis. Madhya Bharat. alterative. K. Fr. Burma. stomatitis. Karangi. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . Elachi. pappus 0. stomachic. Ceylon. leucoderma. heart and skin diseases. Triputa. :—Western valleys of N. Sk. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. lustre of eyes. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black.. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Gourangi. improves colour of hair. It relieves headache when applied with oil. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. NS. expectorant. G.-Dec. M. COM. LOC. H. Chandrabala. alexipharmic. disk ones tubular . ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. Sind. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. hernia. Panjab. . ray flowers ligulate. toothache. cultivated. Peninsula). Bahula. fevers. good for complexion. Veldoda.—achene.
it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. useful in asthma. LOC. fragrant. NS. cultivated. It is said to be astringent. Bidanga. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. consumption. pungent. K. India. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. Bavato. stomachic. H. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). stimulant and emmenagogue. It is stomachic. K. strangury. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. DISTR. Boberang. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. See-Food Plants. pruritus. Marua. tonic to heart. useful in head. PARTS USED :—Grain. ear and tooth ache. Bhasmaka. diuretic. bronchitis. Pavaka. PARTS USED :—Root. root is laxative and tonic. tonic. abortifacient. Vayuvitang.. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate.:—Western and S. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. Ragi. In S. Makra. bad humours of liver. cooling. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Wavrung. rich or poor. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. clear head. See—Condiments and Spices. piles. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). brain and mouth. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. LOC. NS. . kidney. diseases of bladder. M. Rotka. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. causes thirst. scabies. Vavoding. Nagali. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. fruit and seeds. FAM. COM. carminative.—Gramineæ. chest and throat (Yunani). EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Narttaka. H. Seed—fragrant. diuretic. laxative. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. bitter. Navalo-nagali. FAM. CUM.:—G.—Myrsinaceæ. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. fruit is tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. Kanisha. M. stomachic. :— G. useful in biliousness. Sk. Vavading. cause biliousness . Vidariga. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. Jantughna. alexiteric . cooling. Rajika. Grains contain vitamin B. lessens inflammation. Sk. Nachani. Varding. most suitable to hard-working classes.
branches long. Kanara. Arch. paler and silvery beneath. LOC. et. succulent. Fl. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. Malay Islands. Embelic myrobalan. " Kapha'. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Dadi. laxative. dries wound discharges . Seed— acrid. bark. anthelminitic. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). laxative. cures bronchitis . alterative. carminative. good for plethoric constitution. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. good appetiser. dry. sour.—berry. anthelmintic . :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. Ceylon. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. K. internodes long. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). . constipation. vulnerary. HABITAT :—Rain forests. racemes minute. S. elliptic-lanceolate. COM. Anward. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. anæmia. Gokhale. bark studded with lenticels .—Feb.—in lax panicles. Bhoza . nearly globose. Dhatriphala. (Dymock). bronchitis. Anola. Paranjpe and G. Amalaka. :—A large scandent shrub. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. strangury. Avala.—Euphorbiaceæ. sweats. poisoning. urinary discharges. L. slender. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. Sk. alexiteric. Amlika. biliousness. Ambala. Fr. useful in asthma. China. erysipelas. useful in burning sensation. many. piles. S. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. Triphala. fruit and seeds. DISTR. smooth. coriaceous. Daula . :— E. DISTR. Konkan and N. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Ceylon. purgative. reddens urine. PARTS USED :—Root. antipyretic. black when ripe. shining above. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. Dhatri. H. " Tridosha ". urinary discharges. China. mental diseases. Int. aphrodisiac. with a sharp bitter taste. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. bronchitis. Bitter. Nellika . :—Throughout India.—alternate. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . LOC. like a pepper corn when dried. Pharm. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. t. jaundice. thirst. leaves. ascites. G. diseases of heart. cures tumours. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Amlika. M. wild or planted. 42-II-1932). inflammations. Malaya. dyspnoea. leprosy. alterative. Fl. :—Hilly parts of the State. Amla.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). anuria. greenish yellow. cooling. NS. hemicrania. Deccan. analgesic. often planted in Konkan. Western Ghats. alexiteric. LOC.) FAM. K. flexible. flowers. Ther. Adiphala. tonic.
FAM. useful in heart-diseases. Nagajivha. cooling. Tiktapatra. tonic. L. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. stems erect or procumbent. thirst. Mackary bean. :—E. Grey). West Indies. anthelmintic. Kadvinayi. Doddakampi. Unripe fruit is cooling.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). stops nasal hæmorrhage. Fr. mid-nerve strong. biliousness. Celyon. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). :—G. Fl. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Giant's rattle. liver complaints. in axillary clusters all along the stem. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. sub-quadrangular or terete. Sind. opposite. aperient. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Garambi. M. DISTR. :—A perennial glabrous herb. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. NS. cold in the nose. 10—50 cm. Hallekayiballi. narrowed at the base. bark and fruit are astringent. K. variable.—sessile. COM.). vulnerary. See—Timbers. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. purifies body humours (Yunani). used as laxative and astringent. Tanavadi. NS. M. Madvinashi. astringent. Saurashtra. 3-nerved. CHAR. Fruit—acrid. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. eye troubles. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). M. Fl. improves appetite. C—infundibuliform. Sk. sour. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. tropical Africa.—sessile. . Chhotakirayat. ellipsoid. Mabhipaka. t. high. rounded apex. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. white. R. Country.— capsule. S. piles. Malaya. Fruit Trees. COM. Dried fruits. LOC. lobes 5. branched from the base. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. LOC. diuretic and laxative. Ind. Garbe. Tans. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth.-Nov. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg.—Aug. Mamejavo . Dyes. USES :—Root. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. expectorant. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Gujarat. :—Konkan. H.) FAM. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. Nahu. Lady nut. :—Throughout the greater part of India.—Gentianaceæ.
5-10 cm. Var. . Mochi-wood. Phandra .) FAM. DISTR.—yellow. L. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". C. inflammations. often along river banks. anthelmintic. flowers. USES :—Powdered kernel. Planted as support for pepper vines. hot. Mullumurige. bark used in dysentery. branches terete. Paribhadra. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. ORIENTALIS Merr. PARTS USED :—Seeds.. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks.— Mar. :—E.3-2 cm. diam. 4.—2pinnate. The plant is used as a fish-poison.—pod. thick.7-5x7. stomachic. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. shining and brown.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sk. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. glabrous. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. improve appetite.—6-15. rigidly coriaceous. G. pinnae 2—3 pairs.. the tropics generally. Pangara. t. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. 3. compressed. Nepal.5-5-7 cm. Sundribans. Panarvo. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. H. Panjira. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. along sea-coast above high-water. Kanara. stalked. Arakan. indented between the seeds. slightly curved. LOC. for grapevines in Nasik district. Salaki. K. in debility and glandular swellings . COM. mixed with spices. Tennaserim. Bangaro. 30-90 cm. Dadap.. leaflets 7-5 x 2. Peninsula. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Leaves—bitter. Fr. they are given internally as an emetic. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . wide and 3-8 cm.S. Ceylon. woody. Fl. W. LOC. Pangara. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. Indian coral-tree. :—Konkan and N. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. leaves. Mandara. bark. DISTR. Andamans and Nicobar. Mandara. N. :—Coast forests of Malabar. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Planted as ornament. Hongara. Panderavo. long. Pegu.-May. dark green. long. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Kantakinshuka. oblong or obovate. M. Seeds are used in pains of the loins.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. cure urinary discharges. Fl. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. Raktapushpa.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. orbicular. Halivan. Sd.
Vajradruma. Dudanali. Cong. and to relieve pain of the joints. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. appressedly hairy. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Dudhi. K. Pill-bearing spurge. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Sd. Indian tree spurge. :—E. Sendh. H. Shirthahar. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. K. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. COM. 18th Ind. globose. base unequal-sided. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . t. Bottugalli. Sk. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Govardhan. Paradeshi thora . :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Sc. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. pale beneath. NS. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Milk bush. LOC. Mondukalli. it is anthelmintic. See—Timbers. Dudhi. FL. gland minute. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. with or without a limb. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. G. 15-50 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dudhi. Nagpur 1931). dark green above.—Euphorbiaceæ. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Dandasruha. reddish brown. CHAR. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Sher. Milk hedge.—Euphorbiaceæ. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Sahud. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. high. Fr. NS.—opposite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. rugose. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands.—capsule. Ceylon.—ovoid-trigonous. serrulate or dentate. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. branches often 4-angled. M. :— E.—involucres numerous. COM. Sk. G. H. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Australian asthma herb. . Bahukshira. bowel complaints and cough in children. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. Duddi. Dandalio thora. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. erect or ascending. Pusitoa. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. L. Kodukalli. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine.) FAM. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Nevli. M. FAM. —throughout the year. :—Annual herb. Fl. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Achchegida. PROPERTIES AND LOC.
useful in gonorrhœa. long (appearing in rainy season) . Fl. enlargement of spleen.—ovoid. :—Native of East Africa. more than 5 cm. and with oil to promote growth of hair. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. axillary. campanulate. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery.—small. COM. polished. leprosy and leucorrhoea. :—Sind. spreading. tonic. CHAR. high. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda).-July-Nov. Vishnukranta. about 6 m. whooping cough. FAM. colic. M. :—G. elliptic-oblong. Konkan and Gujarat. leucoderma. :—A small tree. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. employed to raise blisters. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. dropsy. Jhinkiphudardi. LOC. 6-13 mm. mostly female. terete. Sd. linear. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. alterative.-light blue. Juice is purgative. L. useful in bronchitis. t. anthelmintic. biliousness. Fl. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. prostrate. brightens intellect. Sk. wiry. epilepsy. Fl. milk is alexiteric. LOC. t. DISTR. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. :—Throughout the State. Kalisankhavali. long. carminative. smooth. peduncles very long. Vishnukranta. The plant contains an alkaloid. alexiteric. branches erect.—Convolvulaceæ. Fr. H. thick like quill.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. 4valved. teething of infants . K. usually clothed with long hairs .-Aug. jaundice. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . smooth. Ceylon. Shyamakranta . LOC. asthma. silky hairy. LOC. solitary or sometimes 2. almost leafless. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. thin. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). stone in bladder (Yunani).— capsule. pungent. naturalised in India. tropical and sub-tropical countries. base acute. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State.—many. NS. Nilpushpi. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. DISTR. Vishnugandhi. Sd— glabrous. stems many. also as an alterative.-Sep. cocci velvety. useful in abdominal troubles. tumours. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. rootstock woody . globose. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. useful in biliousness. branchlets whorled. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Fr. dyspepsia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. carminative. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. :—A perennial herb.—capsule. Vishnukranti.
Ustarkhar. Mysore. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning.—Zygophyllaceæ. vomiting. smooth. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). 1-3 foliate.-Oct. Maval. removes "Vata. :— Sind. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). elliptic or lanceolate. erysipelas. obliquely obovate. purifies blood (Ayurveda). Arabia. Fl. . it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. leaflets linear. in chronic bronchitis.). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. Waziristan. small. reduces tumours. also used in chronic fevers. petioles deeply striate. of 5.2 cm. Dhanavi. the middle the largest. fever. alexipharmic. scarcely branched. CHAR. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. ophthalmia. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields.-Dec. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Baluchistan. LOC. Deccan hills and S. LOC.—opposite. reaching 60 cm. sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. Atmamuli. Gujarat. C—lobes 4-5. deeply 5-partite. COM. root fibrous. Coimbatore. more or less glandular. Prabhodhini.— ovoid. Dhamasa. Mediterranean. thirst. it has got cooling properties. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. t. Dhamaso . The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Upper Gangetic plains. DISTR. Iran. urinary discharges. stomatitis. :—G. westwards to Afghanistan. Country. cures dysentery. good for liver troubles. stem.-Aug. N. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. DISTR. FAM. Sk. emmenagogue. shining. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . toothache. pale rose-coloured. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. Fr. the upper blue. removes "Vata". 5-nerved. Bark is used in scabies. Sd.—Gentianaceæ. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. flattened. Hinguna. pyramidal to the apex. Ghats. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. NS. Fl. Cooling. :—Madras State. NS. ellipsoid. arising from between the stipules . FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Rajasthan. glandular hairy.-Nov. L. acute. 1-seeded cocci.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. yellowish brown.— showy. long.—very variable in size and form sessile. quadrangular." asthma. smooth. lower half white. COM. M. W. Fl.—solitary. Kashaya.—capsule. FL. spitting of blood. Dusparsha. :—Konkan. Fr. H. typhoid. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. :—An erect annual. high. L. :— H. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. ovate. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. in copious terminal cymes . LOC. CHAR. about 1. FAM. Punjab. asthma. Ind. Barachirayat. cooling. Udichirayat. Circars. M. t.
See—Timbers. fatigue.— globose.5 cm. H. Banian tree. NS. consumption. diam. K. LOC. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. country and N. Kathel. Self-sown. Ala. Byala. with male. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—E. cordate or rounded base. good for throat. Jatala. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. useful in biliousness. leucorrhoea. asthma. Sk.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. L.—Moraceæ. blood impurities.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. removes biliousness. ophthalmia. Kavath. :— E. strengthening to gums . Fruit Trees. liver and lungs . Vad. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn.. dysentery. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. with spreading branches. vomiting . often planted. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. aphrodisiac. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Kavit. M. Grahiphala. Kait. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Dadhiphala. difficult to digest. Vata. often cultivated. Seeds—antidote to poison. female. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Balin. K. Goli. Java. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Monkey fruit. shining above. Bar. G. cures cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. :—Indigenous in S. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . 10-20 X 5-12. Manmadha. thirst. heart diseases. M. Fruit—sour . fruit and seeds. India.—Rutaceæ. Alada. Malura. Sk. LOC. binding diuretic. common in the Tapi Valley. Bargad. Nyagrodha. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Bhringi. refrigerant . Bahupada. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. G. alexipharmic. Belada. CHAR.—coriaceous. Vat. refrigerant. S. Ghats. Kothun. Ceylon. Kanara. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Kavitha. Kapipriya. NS. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. . ovate to elliptic. Kathinyaphala. Fr. hiccup. " Tridosha". DISTR. acrid. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . tonic to heart. astringent. COM. Elephant or wood apple. FAM. Kapitha.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. about 2 cm. tumours. Leaves—very astringent. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Vadlo . H. Kotha. COM. :—Cultivated all over the State. high. Bargat. Avaroha. Vad. M. " Vata ". LOC. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat.
demulcent. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. weakness. in rheumatism and lumbago. Afghanistan. See—Famine Plants.—Moraceæ. DISTR. Anjir. Grown scattered elsewhere. boils and carbuncles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. vomiting. hill ranges of S. K. diseases of head and blood. liver and spleen diseases. Dharwar. vaginal complaints. paralysis. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Root—tonic. lithotriptic. inflammation of liver (Yunani). :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Sk. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. FAM. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. bruises. PARTS USED :—Bark. aphrodisiac. stimulates hair-growth. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. dysentery. nose-diseases. Bijapur. pain in chest cures piles. FICUS CARICA Linn. Anjir. W. gonorrhœa. W. Kakodumbar. laxative. Anjir. Aerial root is styptic. Sacred Plants. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. LOC. :— E. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. lessens inflammations. Simeyatu . India. M. Cultivated in N. biliousness. useful in "Kapha". H. vulnerary. seeds and milky juice. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. COM. nutritive. :—Baluchistan. thirst. LOC. G. alexiteric. diuretic. Milky Juice—expectorant. Fibres. useful in "Vata". leprosy (Ayurveda). ulcers. maturant. tonic. Seeds are cooling and tonic. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Anjir. Anjura. fever. useful in inflammation . biliousness. Fig. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. ringworm. Asia and Mediterranean. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. India. erysipelas. useful in syphilis. USES :—Fruit is emollient. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. root-fibres. leaves. inflammations. useful in leucoderma. LOC. useful in piles. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. .
leprosy. (Yunani). Pavitraka. planted all over. Udumbara. nose bleedings. Pippala. styptic. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Pimpal. is given to cattle in rinderpest.—Moraceæ. LOC. vulnerary. K. loss of voice. Bark. biliousness. HABITAT :—Planted. vagina. Shuchidruma. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. blood diseases. Umbar. DISTR. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. FAM. Bark is cooling. galactagogue. Pipal. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Peepal tree . burning sensation. Jari. :—E. H. diseases of kidney and spleen. FAM. Ashwatha mara. . Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Pippala. Ashvatha. Umbro. good for bronchitis. Sk. Sacred Plants. DISTR. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. urinary discharges. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. ground with onions. LOC. Gular. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. acrid. Hemadugdha. NS. Bark useful in asthma and piles. leaves. useful. See—Timbers. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Ragi. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Pipli. Demera. Milk—aphrodisiac. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Vriksharaj. H. given in leucorrhoea. Umar. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E.—Moraceæ. cummin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Yajnika. Sk. Rumadi. LOC. latex. burning sensation. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. ulcers. bark. K. fruit. G. Gular-Country fig.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. COM. in diseases of blood. biliousness. :—Widely spread throughout India. Bodhidruma.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. good for foul taste. tonic. leucorrhoea. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Pipal. Pipers. COM. Arani. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves and fruits. good for gravid uterus. bark. uterus . The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. allays thirst. fatigue. Umar. Atti. menorrhagia. :—Throughout the State near villages. Lalka. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. NS. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. G. useful in "Kapha". Fruit—astringent to bowels. M.
See—Timbers. Shateya. FAM. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Burma. . Bhanber. Kankod . appetising and digestive. Soupa. heart diseases. aphrodisiac. N. K. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. S. and produces sterility in women. Variali. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Hunmunki. Ghats. Fennel. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Finkel. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. checks vomiting (Yunani). Badisoppu. Root good for gout. fruit. DISTR. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bark. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Shalina. M. promotes granulations. upper Gangetic plain. Sacred Plants. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. good for lumbago. PARTS USED :—Root. Variari. Badishep. W. Gajale. M. Katar. HABITAT :—Hills. astringent in leucorrhoea. Kanara Jungles. The juice is employed in hiccup. Potika. Country and N. Sk. H. cleans ulcers. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Tambat. COM. Fodder Plants. common in the Peninsula. Akrani. H. Mullutari. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Fruits are sweet. COM NS. gum. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Bilangra . Fruit—purgative. Sk. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. NS. SAPIDA Roxb. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :—E. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. LOC. Bhakal. Paker. FAM. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell).—Umbelliferæ. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Hettarimullu. Swadukantaka. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Handi Kandai. Satpura. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Tapaspriya. G. See—Timber. Bhuripushpa. seeds. Khandesh. Circars. :— G.—Flacourtiaceæ. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. K.
kidney. alexiteric. 0. dysentery. Kokam . seeds-carminative. Atyamla. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. laxative. USES :—used as stimulant. . Ratambi. strengthen eyes (Yunani). ultimate segments linear. Tintidika. anthelmintic. Fr. high.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. USES :—Bark is astringent. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. Amlabija. (Mhaskar and Caius). :—A tall glabrous. thirst. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. in headache. " Vata ". Kanara. wounds. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. LOC. cough and asthma. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. improves appetite and allays thirst. :—Endemic in W. burning sensation. anthelmintic. leaves and seeds.—in large umbels . LOC. FL. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. Wynaad. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. dysentery. furrows vittate. Tittidika . DISTR. amenorrhœa. FAM. galactagogue. cardiotonic. often cultivated. stimulant.6-0. G. useful in diseases of chest. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. :—E. spleen. fissures of lips. :—Apparently a native of S. M. fruit and seeds. cures "Tridosh". Oils. demulcent and emollient. leaves (rarely). Mulgala. Ghats. COM. leprosy (Ayurveda).—Guttiferæ. fever. :—W. eye-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. PARTS USED :—Roots. yellow. dark green. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). GARCINIA INDICA Chois. Coorg.— decompound. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. tumours. L. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. K. ridges prominent. stomachic. It is much used as a nutritive.—ellipsoid. See—Condiments and Spices. biliousness. wounds etc. diuretic.9 m. causing constipation . aphrodisiac. difficult to digest. annual. LOC. common in S. useful in bleeding piles. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. H. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. bracts and bracteoles absent. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Bark. Wild mangosteen. Kokam. appetiser. LOC. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Leaves—improve eyesight. Ghats south of Bombay. lessen inflammations. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". Murjinhalli. Kokam . aromatic and carminative. Konkan and N. carpophore 2-partite. DISTR. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". NS.
COM. astringent to bowels. Sk. Dikamali. PARTS USED:-Gum. LOC. unarmed. See—Gums and Resins. -June. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. first white then changing to yellow. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. about 1.-tubular. same as for G. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. :—India (W. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. not fragrant. See—Timbers. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. DISTR. LOC. lucida (Ayurveda). opaque. Cambi resin tree. :—E. Northern ghats of Madras State. . NS. Fr. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. lucida. H.8 cm. 1-3 together. Dakamali.-subsessile. CHAR. C. Bikke.—2. As sold in the bazar it is hard. PARTS USED :—Gum. M. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. Suvirya. oblong. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. all dry districts of Madras State. oblong or ellipsoid. :—Common from Konkan southwards.. :—India. Pinda. :—A deciduous shrub.—Rubiaceæ. common on laterite in southern parts of N.5x22.8 m. FAM. FAM. elliptic-obovate. high. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). t. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . The plant yields a gum Dikemali. 4. Fl.5 cm. Gums and Resins. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. K. Western Peninsula. Burma. long. Dikemali. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. Dikkamalli. LOC. Fl. Hingu.-sessile. COM. LOC. HABITAT :—Open situations. Peninsula). L. Kanara.5-3. shining. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. G. Jantuka.—Rubiaceæ. relieves pain of bronchitis.—Feb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. Dikamari. Dekamari. buds resinous. NS. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent.—capsule. Garbhapatani. solitary. abortifacient. root-stock of arched. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. perianth segments reaching 6. tall. expectorant. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties.5-3. Huliyuguru. 7.. Indai. In case of retained placenta.2 cm. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. Kalihari. t.—Liliaceæ. margins wavy. filaments long spreading. scattered or opposite. useful in chronic ulcers. thirst. alexiteric.5 cm. Kathari. Languli. and crimson from blooming to fading. stems annual. piles. bitter. In Guinea. orange. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral.—sessile. FAM. Khadyanag. branching climber . changing colours from greenish yellow. leaves and flowers. Nangulika. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. CHAR. linear-lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Tuber. Karianag. DISTR. LOC. itching. Linn. Fl.-July-Oct. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). anthelmintic. NS. Malay Peninsula. sometimes whorled. H. heating. inflammations. Akkitang hall. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine.. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Tuber— astringent. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. M. There are two varieties of the plant. abdominal pains. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. acrid. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. linear oblong. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side.—large. :—Herbaceous. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. :—Throughout tropical India. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. K. Fr. ovate lanceolate. Tropical Africa. LOC. Cochin-China. :—G. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. axillary .108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. scarlet. used to remove placenta from uterus. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. . FL. Dudhio vachhonag. laxative. L. COM. Kulhari. Sk. solid. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. Ceylon. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. given off from young tubers . Kalikari. leprosy. Sivasaktibalb .3 cm. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant.5 X 15 X 2-4. The former is supposed to be male. Agnimukhi.
USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. K. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. leprosy. Khandesh. :—Throughout the State and about temples. aphrodisiac. Kashmari. White teak. flowers and seeds. LOC. Kumbudi. Sind. Sk. the root. Savan.—Malvaceæ. scattered in monsoon forests. laxative. H. M.—Verbenaceæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tree cotton. consumption and some catarrhal affections . See—Timbers. fevers. stomachic. Shiwan. Nurma . thirst. Deokapas. burning sensation. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Ceylon. chronic cystitis. . gleet. common on Satpuda. G. Devakapus. promotes hair-growth. Madhya Bharat. LOC. Gandhari. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Shivani. Sk. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. DISTR. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. indigestible. abdominal pains. Bachanige. Malaya. flowers and fruit. :—Throughout India. Shivan . Karibatti. Gambari. COM. LOC. FAM. Fruit— diuretic. Gumbhar. COM. M. K. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. tonic. Coomb teak. leaves. anæmia. G. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Gambhari. Var. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. anthelmintic . :— E. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. thirst. useful in leprosy and blood diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Devkapas. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. Philippines. leaves. ulcers. useful in "Vata". Root taken with liquorice. strangury. FAM. alterative. urinary discharges. useful in hallucinations. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in fevers . PARTS USED :—Root. Flowers—astringent. :—Throughout the State. W. made into paste. :— Bengal. Gupsi. Cashmere tree.:—E. NS. anasarca. consumption. DISTR. Mahabhadra. H. useful in indigestion. improves appetite . catarrh of the bladder etc. Hanji. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. " Tridosha ". USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Oils. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Provinces. In the Konkan. Rajasthan and N. piles. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. NS. scalds etc. Shripani. Shiwan. root is also stomachic and laxative. Karpasam. See—Fibres.
Egypt. Parusha. (Yunani). Pharuah. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. expectorant and aphrodisiac.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Arali. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Roshana. fruits and seeds. demulcent. Cotton . Baluchistan. acrid. Syria. :—G. extensively cultivated. wild in Deccan.—Tiliaceæ. Seeds— ' galactagogue. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . Anagnika. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). sour. Parapera. W. increase flow of urine. Dhamin. Leaves remove " Vata " . DISTR. Afghanistan. M. cure all ear-troubles. good for throat . extensively in Gujarat. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. preventing their access to wounds etc. Country. Kapus. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Ripe fruit—sweet. expectorant. East Tropical Africa. M. in hypochondria. NS. Province (Pakistan). HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. Iran. G. See—Fibres. tonic. restore consciousness. bark. S. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. in hills near Poona. scabies . Tadasala. tonic. A. Kupas. allay thirst. :—Cultivated in the State. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. Sutrapuspha. digestible. enrich blood. leaves. Arabia and Asia Minor. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. LOC. Phalsi. used in orchitis. LOC. Badari. leaf-juice good in dysentery. analgesic. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Phalsa. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. K. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Oils.—Malvaceæ. :—Sind. In India they are used to procure abortion. H. Seeds are laxative. Sk. F. Tula. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—E. probably in N. heart and blood disorders. Sk. Jana. Kapas . removes " Vata" and biliousness. Buttiyu-dippa. cooling. FAM. FAM. fevers and consumption. COM. good for all kinds of inflammations. fomentation for burning eyes . H. NS. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. U. DISTR. Hatti. LOC. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Rui. laxative .. M. removes " Vata ". PARTS USED :—Root. :— Cultivated in N. Mediterranean.. Gujarat and S. fruit. Karihariyale. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases.Phalse. Mesapotamia. cures inflammations. Karpas. Rui.
yellow . S. Root and bark used in strangury. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. Mahabaleshwar and N. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). asthma. Pandhari tilwan. Arkapuspika. Tropical Africa. Bedki. piles. vitreous body) burning sensation. Hulhul. C. bronchitis. t. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. Fruit—sour. M. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Fl. Mardashingi. sweet. Meshashingi. Sannagerse. Fr. :—A large woody climber. H. Vakundi. stomachic. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Sd. NS. elliptic. K. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. usually single. Shrikala. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. DISTR. cooling. Bastagandha. Meshavalli. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Sati talvani. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. strengthens chest and heart.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. FL.— Apl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. leucoderma. India. Caravella. Kanphodi. Kavali.— opposite. Tilparni. much branched. Vishani. ovate. LOC. Churota. LOC. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Mabli. FAM. Karalia . acrid. G. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Ugragandha. COM. Sk. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. L. should not be eaten raw. Sanngera.—Capparidaceæ. LOC. relieves thirst and hiccup. M. Kabari.-May. tonic. base rounded or cordate . Ceylon. alexiteric. cornea. the stomachic stimulant. young stems densely pubescent. — Asclepiadaceæ. helps removal of dead fetus. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Kanara coast. Hulhul. corona of 5 processes . Gurmar. good in heart-diseases. K. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. CHAR. alterative. :—Western Peninsula. lanceolate. :E. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Periploca of the woods.— with thin marginal wing. COM. H.—follicle. FAM. :—Throughout the State. biliousness. anthelmintic. Adiyakharan. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. . G. See—Fruit Trees. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. The ease of administration. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Merasingi. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). ulcers. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. common in hedges in Dharwar district. Karnasphota.— companulate . inflammations. SK. Br. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". NS. Tanmani.—in cymes . :— E.
stipules triangular. H. Kewan. long . ellipsoid . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. removes "Vata". L. stomachic . HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. Marosi. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. LOC.5 cm. M. Murdasing. pain. Sinhgad hills.. Edamuri. good in ascites. producing copious exudation. Fr. Murudi. hills in Supa Taluka.—rather rigid. margins crenate-dentate. Gidesa Jitasai. glabrous or pubescent above. NS. long. Fl. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. C. white or blue. ulcers. HABITAT:—Hills. :—G.—in dense bracteate racemes.2 m. :—An annual erect herb 0.—3-5 foliate. Sd. S. tumours. K. pink . :—Deccan. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. with divaricate herbaceous branches . Fl. FAM. FAM. opposite. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. Gujarat. viscid.—capsule. Sd. pubescent. Fr. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root.—capsule.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles.—Oct. NS.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. COM.—Rubiaceæ.—Sterculiaceæ. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. sessile. Jonkaphal Maraphali. leaves and seeds. Kanara.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas.—petals 4 with long slender claws. acute. gynophore 2-2. high. leaflets subsessile. DISTR. COM. Country. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . elliptic-lanceolate. t. t. LOC. HELICTERES ISORA Linn.5-20 X 3. earache. (Kirtikar and Basu). Fl. . Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. Avartant.—muricate. Sk. Kavargi.-Feb. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. L. Fl. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . Mrigashringa. stem and branches hairy. :—A small deciduous shrub. . the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). LOC. vesicant. hairy.—June.12.—many. China. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar.8-9 cm. hairy on the nerves beneath.. Katraj Ghat. 5-9 cm. pedicels viscid hairy. :—M. Murudseng. tapering at both ends. dark-brown . this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. M. elliptic-obovate.6—1. hairy. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. hills near Nagothana. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.
and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). mildly astringent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. LOC. L.—follicle cylindric. greenish outside. H. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. astringent to bowels . :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. "Kapha". "Vata' dysentery. paralysis. obliquely cordate. bilabiate.—Asclepiadaceæ. eye troubles. FL. Upalsari. foul body odour. 5-6. Durivel. low appetite. angular .512. red at first fading to lead colour. Indian sarsaparilla . Sugandhi-balli. rat-bites. joint-pains. antidiarrhœal. India. “tridosh". liver and kidney diseases . :— E. :—Throughout the State. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. M. purplish inside. Fl. Utpalashariva. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. K. HABITAT :—In hedges.— in cymes in opposite axils. lessens griping. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. LOC.-biferous. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. Anantmula. Hindisalse. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. Malaya. NS. Root useful in hemicrania. Fr. COM. cures all skin-diseases. uterine complaints.—numerous. Country. diarrhœa. Australia and West Indies. Hamadaberu .3 cm.— very variable. diuretic. Ceylon. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani).—throughout the greater part of the year. They are demulcent. Burma. M. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. FAM. tapering .5 X 5-10 cm. Fl. often variegated with white above. blood diseases. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Kapurimathuri. urinary discharges.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. :—Large shrub or small tree. t — Aug. .—follicle of 5-6. Br. alexiteric. scabrous above. poisoning. PARTS USED :—Root. long. Stem lessens inflammation. Konkan. spirally coiled.—tubular. LOC.-Dec. useful in gleet. See—Fibres. burning sensation. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. leucorrhoea. Sk. astringent to bowels. G. irregularly crowded. good for brain.Sd. Anantmula. useful in piles. Upalsali. root-Stock woody . Magrabu. Kanara ghat forests. demulcent. Root and stem—laxative. thirst. :—Upper Gangetie plain. Deccan and S. stem. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. DISTR. Dhaval kashtha.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. L. asthma. stems thickened at the nodes . USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. DISTR. bronchitis. anti-galactagogue. ovate orbicular. asthma. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. beaked.— with silvery white coma . C. and leaves. bark and fruit. Fr. Sd. t. Fl. diaphoretic. dark-green. fevers. 7. common in hedges. cough. syphilis. epileptic fits.
FAM. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms.5. Fl. demulcent.. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. Dasanihu. Jasut. Jasavand.—axillary. flowers. G. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. yellow.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. Japapushpa. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. Jasum. :—A perennial shrub. and as early as 1864. Aruna. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. Rudrapushpa. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. In the Konkan. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa.—no fruits produced in India. tubular below. entire near the base. :— E. See—Ornamental Plants. fevers. bark and petals are demulcent. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Root roasted in plantain leaves. t. It is said to purify blood. LOC. cooling. Shoe flower. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. uterine and vaginal discharges. L. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). etc. It is also diuretic. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. H. Kempupundrika. piles. useful in loss of appetite. Fl. Native country probably China. Dasavala. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). bright red. LOC. glabrous. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. Jasuva.—7. Raktapushpi. skindiseases. DISTR. . leaves. Fr. ovate or ovate lanceolate. K. diam. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). COM. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. involucral bracts 5-7. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . syphilis and leucorrhoea. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. crimson. cm. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. seminal weakness.—Malvaceæ. Root is valuable in coughs. remove burning of body.—short petioled. red. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. petals thrice as long as the calyx. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Harivallaba.—during most of the year. NS. C. Sk. astringent. M. irregularly serrate towards the top. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. pedicel jointed above the middle. magenta. and mixed with ghee. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic. solitary. urinary discharges.
involucral bracts 10. beaked. Fr.—5-7. Rozelle. stem and branches purple. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. HABITAT. Red sorrel.— solitary. Sd. erect. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—G. Vasantduti. Sk.—large.-Dec. K. H. DISTR. Patwa. ovoid. L. hairy. long. base cuneate. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn.5 cm.3-7. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. H. Grows abundantly on the W. across. :—Cultivated. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. entire glabrous. fragrant. Madhavi. elliptic-oblong.) FAM. uppermost petal broader.lobes oblong.—in erect racemes. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. fringed. Madmalati. Fl.—1-3.—Malvaceæ. Haladvel.—purple with darker centres.-Mar. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. :—An annual. Kampti. Malati. G. Madhalata. Ragotpiti. Pundi-bija or soppu. Kamuka. Fibres. and adding a little salt. serrate. Konkan. Lal ambadi. acuminate. Atimukta. NS. Madhavi. purple. clawed. petioles silky.2-2 cm. LOC. tropics of the old world. pepper. CHAR.—coriaceous.5 cm. 10-18 X 4. See—Vegetables. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Lal ambadi.—Malpighiaceæ. flowers. COM. Fl. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Kanara. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. LOC. Atimukta. covered with minute hairs . Ceylon. black-brown. globose. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. Madhavi. Vasantduti. Ghats.. K. Fr. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. M. Madhumalati. Fl. L. 5th petal yellow at the base. Vasanti. 3-winged. 1. mid-lobe the longest. on the margins. M. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. sedative and refrigerant. Sd. COM. fruits and seeds. FAM. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. long. calyx fleshy. . C. much used in curries.—Oct.—axillary. purple. orbicular. Madhavi. :—Throughout the State. young parts silky. Deccan. Kempupundrike. 3-5 lobed. :—E. Chandravalli. Lal ambari. asafoetida and molasses. white. glabrous. t. NS. Fl.—petals 5.— Jany. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Adimurtte Adirganti. CHAR. C.—capsule.
Seeds—appetiser. often dotted with white spots.. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Dudhi.—Feb. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. styptic. COM. acrid. :—Throughout the State. Kuda. Karohi. N.. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. good in chronic bronchitis.5 cm. inodorous. Kaling. given in chest affections. leprosy. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). G. NS. leucoderma . Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). branchlets drooping. Madras State. Sd. acrid. thirst. cause "Vata". China. throat hairy inside. cures dysentery. insecticidal. biliousness. Kutaja. Leavesastringent. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Siwalik. lessens inflammations. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. FAM. vulnerary. Bark—bitter.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. Fl. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. bitter. cylindric. diarrhœa. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. urinary discharges. Nepal. Karuindrayan. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. L. tonic. biliousness. Sk. Flowers— acrid. t. Circars. Kura. heating. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. flowers and seeds. K. diuresis (Yunani). HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion.—Apocynaceæ. Thailand (Siam). boils. fatigue. thirst and inflammation. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. Mt. Malay Peninsula. leprosy. skin and spleen diseases. burning sensation. C—tubular. piles. Hale. Hath. anthelmintic. Ceylon. remove muscular pains . strengthens gums. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . PARTS USED :—Bark. lumbago.—follicles 20-48 cm. H. cough. vulnerary. appetiser cure blood diseases.—10-20 X 5-11. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. ulcers. Fr. good in erysipelas. Indrayana. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Karnatak. Conessi bark tree. galactagogue. Kuda. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. broadly ovate or elliptic. astringent to bowels cure pains. excessive menstrual flow. long. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. bleeding piles.-June. smoke good for piles. Abu. LOC. fevers. CHAR. asthma. Kudsalu. " Kapha". good in headache. Kaduoindrajav. Pandhara Kuda. Andamans. DISTR. colic. white. cool the brain. M. Veppale. Kodasige.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Burma. See—Ornamental Plants. Seeds—carminative. skin diseases. Kurchi tree. Kumaon. Assam. burning sensation. wounds. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. remove "Tridosh". PROPERTIES. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. tonic. main nerves conspicuous . FL. LOC. aphrodisiac. LOC. :—E. cooling.— in terminal corymbose cymes .
Ymvah. Yava. nor astringent. febrifuge. Divya. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Suj. They are astringent. demulcent and expectorant. useful in fevers. aphrodisiac. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. . diarrhœa. Hayapriya. fattening. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Tasteless. dysentery and intestinal worms. biliousness. Shaktu. inflamed gums. Sk. and kurchicine. useful in bronchitis. bronchitis. Knowles. Aug. M. LOC. fevers (Yunani). widely cultivated in temperate regions. LOC. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927).—Gramineæ. Satu. India. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. lowers the pulse. kurchine. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. headache. Ind. allays thirst.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. with radicle attached to it. Jav. good for ulcers. Jav. pains in chest. Gaz. DISTR. 1928). :—E. improves voice. appetiser. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. (R. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. asthma. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. nor styptic. acrid. sweetish. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. G. Med. Jawa. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Barley. malt sugar and diastase. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. Java. Germinated barley. causes constipation. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. They are also used after delivery. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. —Cultivated chiefly in N. PARTS USED :—Seeds. burns. Javegodhi. The grains contain vitamin B. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. anæmia. See—Food Plants. FAM. stomachic. COM. especially cod-liver oil. useful in biliousness. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant.
M. flat.—Jany. Panch Mahals in Gujarat.—ovate or oblong lanceolate.. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Bhoswar. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Fl. sulphur. Garudphala. Ugragandha. Doti. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. pungent. :—K. .—petals fringed with soft white hairs . The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. white. Bhringamallika. M. Betaga. For scald-head. DISTR. Bhrijatuaka. size of small apple. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Kshiradru. high. Peninsula. Bihar.—Bixaceæ. M. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. LOC. C. NS. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. acuminate. Dondru. FL. Bandaru. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Malabar. Country and Kanara. 12. NS.—berry. DISTR.) FAM. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m.—solitary or in racemes. Sd. Madhya Pradesh. Southern and Western India. Bharnarasalya. Kowti. COM. See—Oils.—Rubiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kadukavata. Phaldu. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. Common in N. t. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. K. :—W. LOC.—Apl. L. Fruits are used for poisoning fish.5-23 X 3. tomentose. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). S. Sk. Bhanina. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Dondra. :—G. common in Travancore. globose or ovoid. Bhutabi. COM.8-7. sometimes along river banks. camphor and lime-juice. CHAR. dioecious . Kanara evergreen forests. Kastel. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fr. bitter. Sk. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Niradivittulu.—numerous. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. more or less coriaceous. Amarachala. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Garudphala. FAM. H. Gandele. Bhorsal. Ghats. increases taste and appetite. broadly ovate. good for the throat. young parts brown pubescent.
FAM. M. Siamalata. biliousness. M. upper constricted. stalks and leaves. S. middle portion much inflated. Sd.—1-5 flowered peduncles . trichotomous cymes. Common in the evergreen forests of N.—4-5-7 X 2-3. elliptic oblong. :—G. Fodder Plants.5 cm. See—Timbers. Fr. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. :—A large twining shrub . Kalaka. 10-15 cm. DISTR. fever. Kalmisag.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Shradhashaka. stems long.—Convolvulaceæ. :—H. :—Annual or biennial herb. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. :—Konkan. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid.—Apocynaceæ. C. " Vata ". Kalidudhi. acute. LOC. Sariva. FAM. Nalanibhaji.. the powdered wood is used for herpes. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. throat and tube dull purple . thick.2 -7. vomiting.— Nov. Fl. In Indo-China. L.—linear.—4 or 2. cures " Kapha ".—in axillary and terminal.-Apl. Kanara. black with white scanty coma. Sd. Nalichibhaji. cooling. Kantebhovari. lobes obscure . Kanara. Java. Nadika. CHAR. Krishnasariva. K. Karihambu. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . glabrous above. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. H. LOC. ovoid . base rounded. Br.—5-12. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. very slender. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. numerous . It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. . Fr. aphrodisiac.8 cm. NS. Karmi. :—Throughout the State. prostrate. hollow. M. trailing on mud or floating. Kalambika. Pechuli. Country. t. very common in Gujarat. Potuasaga. greenish white. L. t. Bhadra. pubescent. Kalaghantika.—Nov. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. straight or slightly curved. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. X 4 cm.—capsule. The outer layer is tasteless. Ceylon. Sk. :—More or less throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda).-Dec. LOC. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. FL. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge.—tube with narrow portion below. Chandangopa. Gopini.—follicle. Sk. Fl.5x 3. blood diseases. NS. rooting at the nodes . Australia. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. COM. cylindric . CHAR. cordate or hastate. rusty pubescent. Fl. COM. Gorwiballi. C.
—10-15 cm. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. H. carminative. aphrodisiac. leaves. M. " Kapha " . jaundice. aphrodisiac. Bhuikohala. expectorant.—in. useful in fever. stomachic. alterative. lobes 5-7. demulcent and lactagogue. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. PARTS USED :—Root. Africa. In Burma. galactagogue. bronchitis. Bilaikand . increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. Leaves enrich blood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. diuretic. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. blood diseases.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. useful in leucoderma. Sd. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. gonorrhœa and inflammation. ovoid. Carminative.8—6. COM. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. L. tropical Asia. debility and want of digestive power.-July-Sept. LOC. :— E. Bhumikushmanda. being regarded as tonic. cures biliousness. America. lessens inflammation. stem long. often broader than long. appetiser. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. t. tropical Asia. biliousness and fevers. peduncle solitary axillary. CHAR. Kanara sea coast. . deeply palmately divided. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn.—Convolvulaceæ. :—Throughout India.3 cm.—capsule. ovate-lanceolate. (Yunani). Fl. to children in case of emaciation. Fl. useful in leprosy. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . entire. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. pale. long. anthelmintic . also useful in liver complaints. anthelmintic. Flower causes " Vata ". thick. See—Gums and Resins.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. Giant potato . tonic. dry. indigestible. NS. galactagogue. twining. Africa and Australia. alterative. Nila-kumbala. useful in syphilis. long. LOC. LOC. Bhunichahragadde. vomiting. root large. purple. (Ayurveda). liver complaints. Swadu Vidarikand. improves voice and complexion. near sea coast. burning sensation. biliousness. (Yunani). 4-celled. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Australia in moist climate. K. 4-valved. Sk. 3. stimulant. glabrous. DISTR. leprosy. FAM. Ceylon. Fr. enclosed in fleshy sepals. :—Perennial. flowers (rarely). Root—heating. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility.
axillary. sparsely hairy. Deccan. Musekani. broad. anthelmintic. fevers. creeping and rooting at the nodes. cures inflammations. H. Purgative.—Convolvulaceæ. Vrishchikparni. 3-celled. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Mirchai. crenate. L.—Convolvulaceæ. bracts linear. :—Western Peninsula. glabrous . Ceylon.-5-12. NS.— yellow. H. useful in liver and spleen diseases.-Oct. Africa. in the Himalayas. COM. PARTS USED :—Seeds. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. t. Sd. :—Konkan. stems twining. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. COM. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. Kaladana.:—Throughout India. Undirkani. C.3-2. NS. CHAR. FAM. LOC. surrounded by ciliate sepals. lobes ovate.— 4-6. Morning glory. Shyamala-bijak. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. stems many. abdominal diseases.—Sept. :—A herb . dries the phlegm. Sk. Fl.—capsule. diseases of head. Sd. tropical Africa. Kalokumpo.8-5 cm. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. clothed with long hairs. K. long tubular funnel-shaped. reniform or ovate-cordate. Undirkani.5 cm. Kaladanah. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. believed to be of American origin. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. Sk.) FAM. CHAR.5 cm. Ganribij. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Country. Fl. bechic.—dark chestnut coloured . DISTR. S. filiform. Fr. scabies and biliousness. Nilvel. ovate-cordate. DISTR. subglobose. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). Krishna—Shyama-bija. S. L. diam. pains in joints. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. carminative. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. M. The plant contains a glucoside. headache.—3. See—Ornamental Plants. :—G. K. blue tinged with pink. Fl. deeply three-Iobed. M. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. leucoderma. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. bronchitis (Ayurveda). M. Indian jalap. LOC. G.. subglobose or ovoid. .—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . :—E. petioles hairy. :—An annual herb.—1. Nilpushpa. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). E.—capsule.
removes bad humours. ovate or oblong. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Mauritius. anæmia. laxative. Nahatara. Philippines. Fr. M. Br. sometimes cultivated. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Rechani. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. tropical Africa and America.—Convolvulaceæ. Turbith root.3-7 cm. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. also in the Konkan and N. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. stems very long. CHAR. good in pain. DISTR. brain diseases. G. useful in bilious fevers. Kalaparni. base cordate or truncate . Fl. pungent. L. pedicels thickened upwards. pains of chest and joints.—5-10 X 1. inflammations and abdominal diseases .-Jany. fevers. applied in diseases of eye and gums. Nishottara. strangury. LOC.—Oct. Ceylon. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. leucoderma. Pithori. NS. H. often pinkish. useful in diseases of kidney. bronchitis. when used alone . twining and twisted together. False-Indian jalap. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. acrid. bladder. carminative. Nandi. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. FAM. :— E. 3. like others of the genus . fleshy. rarely slightly lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Root— bitter. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). paralysis. useful in loss of consciousness.—capsule. wounds. Fl. HABITAT :—Wild . Kanaka. t. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. expectorant. It is also alterative. Nashotar. paralysis. bechic. cooling. Root with bark should be used. mucronate. lungs. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). C. uterus. Malay Islands. good for weakness. K. bracts large. urethral discharges. burning sensation and intoxication. heart and abdomen.—in few flowered cymes. LOC. Trivrit. angled and winged. :—Throughout India. enclosed in enlarged sepals . laxative. fistula. much branched.—white. Indian rhubarb. useful in bilious tremors of body. Nishoth. LOC. purgative. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. anthelmintic. muscular pains.. antipyretic. root long. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. white variety is a mild cathartic. Triputi. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. COM.8-5 cm. globose. Common in southern Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. inflammations. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). useful in spleen enlargement. long. . Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani).
high. Sk. :—Western Peninsula. Fr. LOC. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Raktaka. :—A large subscandent shrub. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. lobes 4 (rarely). petiole and rachis margined. Pankul.8 cm. Fl. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. Sk. Jajimalle.—opposite. See—Ornamental Plants. Chambali. purple when ripe. M. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. FAM.—Oleaceæ. Jai. Anemallige.—ripe carpels 2. leaflets 7-11. DISTR.. tube long. Surabhigandha. 3. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. :—Cultivated throughout India. FAM. C. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. t. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. CHAR. COM NS. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. sessile. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. oblong.—throughout the year. sessile. Parali. proximal petiolulate. NS. Jati. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. DISTR. G. coriaceous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. K. . Flame of the woods . Ajjige. :—E. COM. intermediate sessile . often tinged with pink outside. Kisukare. imparipinnate. :—E. obtuse.9 m. size of a pea. very slender . bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Priyanvada. Chambeli. Guddedasal.. stipules . pale when dry. very common in Konkan and N. Bakali. t. H.2-6.3 cm.—tubular. stipules with a long rigid point. smooth. :—Bombay southwards . oblong.— Rubiaceæ. CHAR. 5-10 X 3.2-6. wild.—globose. fleshy. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. LOC.—July-Sept. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. Fl. Fr. pale when dry. obtuse . IXORA COCCINEA Linn.—opposite.—3. Kepala. Bandhuka. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. 5-12. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. terminal rather larger. Ceylon. Pendgul. Fl. FL—numerous. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. also along river banks. across. Chambeli. M. of stems and roots. HABITAT :—Cultivated . :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant.3 coriaceous. white. K. L.5 cm.
usually broadly ovate or elliptic. Chamba. black. suppurative. mouth and skin. good in asthma. L. paralysis. Mogro. :—Cultivated throughout India. Oil—lessens inflammations. rheumatism. ear. aphthae. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. HABITAT :—Cultivated. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases.—opposite. Sk. membranous. G. Pramodini. tonic to brain. flowers and oil. . FAM.—ripe-carpels 1-2. See—Ornamental Plants. entire. LOC. eyes and ear. surrounded by calyx-teeth. subglobose. H. useful in stomatitis. anthelmintic. :—E. diseases of mouth. otorrhoea. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. Fl. In Goa. headache and weak eyes. DISTR. Iravantige. cures headache. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. very fragrant. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. softens skin. head. caries of teeth. Mogara. biliousness. diuretic. stomatitis. variable in shape. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. Motia. aphrodisiac. intoxicating. Fl. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). alexiteric. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. :—A sub-erect shrub. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. and for scabies (Yunani). fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. Banmallika. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. Mallige. scarcely climbing. K.—Oleaceæ. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Plant—deobstruent. Ananga-mallika. brain tonic . LOC. Tuscan jasmine. Navamallika. Vanchandrika.—more or less throughout the year . allays fevers . leprosy. alexiteric. given in blood diseases. COM NS. CHAR. emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. t. abundant in April-May. heating. Fr. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. it is used in cases of insanity. ulcers. Arabian Lily. The plant contains an alkaloid. soporific.—white. Leaves are also used in toothache. expectorant. M. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). base rounded or subcordate. Root—purgative. teeth. Mogra. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Flowers—tonic. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . emmenagogue. useful in diseases of eye. Flower has bitter taste . biliousness (Ayurveda). Sambac. good for pains in joints and ear. alexiteric.
Coral plant. large. FAM. yellow. COM. L. herpes.5-12. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.5 mm.5 cm. 7. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. PARTS USED :—Wood. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. biliousness. CHAR:—A handsome. Vilayati haralu. 3-lobed. G. black. Kananerand. Sutashreni.— alternate. Mogali—Ran-erand. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). M. cordate. fistula.5-12. urinary discharges. K. Fr. LOC. LOC. . DISTR. anaemia. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. :—Native of tropical America. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. Virechani. and also promotes healing. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch.—orbicular. abdominal complaints.—in flat-topped cymes. 7. dull brownish black. H. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. " Tridosha". stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. The acrid. Dundigu. FAM.—ovoid oblong. villous within.8 cm. Bhadradanti. male flowers.—monœcious. Sd. Sk. broadly ovate. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. longer than calyx. :—E. French or Small physic nut. COM. have suppurative effect. Jangali—Pahari erand. CHAR. subfleshy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Akhuparnika. Barbados Physic nut. thirst.— ovoid.5 cm. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. Sk.—Euphorbiaceæ. long-petioled. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. diam. stipules capillary. juice sticky opalescent. The seeds act as drastic purgative. disk of female flower urceolate. Seeds contain active principle curcin. 10-15 X 7.—E. Ratanjot. Simeavadala. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Jangali erandi. coral-red. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . long. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. leaves. garden shrub . The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. fruits and seeds. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. NS. L. Fl. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. when applied to boils. 1. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). Fl. NS. K. useful in chronic dysentery. Jyotishka. multifid. corolla lobes 5..—Euphorbiaceæ.—capsule. Fr. across.
. COM. Seed— oleaginous. clavate glabrous. Kala adulsa.5-12. Krishna-nirgundi. hot. :—Bomb. high . FAM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. 7. branches subterete with raised lines. CHAR. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. M. America. " Vata ' and "Pitta". NS.—white spotted. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. aphrodisiac. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. dry . eye diseases (Ayurveda). long. in interrupted spikes. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). Bhutakeshi. LOC. Karambal. vaginal discharges. Bakas. Nilinirgandi.6-1. fattening tonic . Nilmanjari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0.—Acanthaceæ. useful in piles.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. skin-diseases. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm.2 m. Fr. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. tympanitis. DISTR. all over the State. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. purple within. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda).—Ghati pitpapda. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. useful in bronchitis. M. dyspepsia. Karinchki. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally.—capsule. Kalmashi. In Cambodia. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. 5-12. FAM.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. heating. wounds. Fl. Nachukaddi. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . :—A native of China. Leaves are used in scabies. L. Shindhuka. bitter. leaves. LOC. COM. enlarged spleen. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. often met with in Bengal. DISTR. fevers. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. NS. purgative. HABITAT :—Shady positions. native of N. LOC. rheumatism and dysentery. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. causes " Kapha ".5 cm.—Acanthaceæ. :—H. inflammations. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction.5 cm. LOC. K. pains. wild in Tenasserim.
P.5-9 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. enriches blood. burning of body. petioles channelled. increases " Vata ". M.—lobes lanceolate. round. Panchgani. urinary discharges.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR.—2-lipped.. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. Fl. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. purifies blood in skin diseases. removes indigestion. teeth. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage.—finely tuberculate. spreading horizontally. Kachchura . good in leprosy (Ayurveda). Fl. :—N. softly pubescent. :—Western Peninsula. South Konkan. deep green. Kachri.—Scitaminaceæ. wandering of mind. Fl. good in spleen diseases. C.—2. Sugandhavachai. Tubers yield an essential oil. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. thin. Sd. fever. DISTR. COM. LOC. Sk. t. Cultivated in gardens.5 X 4. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. fugacious. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. biliousness. Fr. Madras State. Ceylon. Plant diuretic. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . FAM. vomiting. Australia. lying flat on the ground. stomachic.—variable.— June-July. PARTS USED :—Tubers. CHAR. obtuse at both ends. Fl. stops vomiting. LOC. root-stock tuberous. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. strengthens lungs. pure-white. upper lip notched.—612 from the centre of the plant. Maval in the Deccan. Konkan. intoxication. Travancore. expectorant. L. DISTR.3-12. Malay Islands. tube funnel-shaped .. NS. 6. pale violet pink. ovate or lanceolate. Chandramala. (Yunani). K. oval. . t. :—Konkan. tired feeling. L. lower 3-lobed . Western Ghats .—Oct. elliptic. constricted between the seeds .-Mar. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. constipating . :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. :—More or less throughout India. Kapurkachri.—in cylindric terminal spikes.:—Stemless herb. diuretic. diaphoretic. :— H. gives lustre to eyes.—capsule. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Malaya. aromatic. thirst. Deccan. oblong shortly pointed. fragrant. Chandramulika.
Halagumbala.8-5 cm.5 X 5-12. Cochin. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike.—15-37. semicylindric. . K. Dudhi. :—E. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Bhuichapha. Sk. NS.— inflorescence. :—M. CHAR.—globose 3.—30X7. :—Mysore.. remedy for itch. Tubers yield an essential oil. Bottle-gourd. S. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Vatsanabhi. Coorg. Alkaddu. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. FAM. M. coriaceous. :— G. Calabash. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant.-Apl.-Mar. CHAR. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . crowded in a globose bead . It is useful to anasarcous swellings. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. G. Bhuichampo . M. t.5-10 cm. inflorescence of many ovaries.5 cm.5-23 cm. —Feb. HABITAT :—Marshy places. furrowed. long. margins undulate. Fl.. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. petiole as long as blade.—narrowly oblong. simple. K.—Aroideæ. midrib very stout. Dudhya bhopala. anthers crowded.. Bhuichampa . The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. N. :—An aquatic herb. Lauka. Danta-bija. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. H. spathe 7. :—Konkan. of various shades of purple and white. Kanara. COM. thick. Dudio Tumbada. very poisonous . L. Fr. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. elliptic-oblong. Kaddu. DISTR. Malay Islands. only 1 or 2 opening at a time .—Scitaminaceæ.. :—Stemless plant. The whole plant.— sweetly fragrant. Country. Nelasampige .128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. COM. used in the form of poultice. Labuka. yellow. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. tubular below. LOC. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps.. FAM. NS. NS. Bhuchampaka. t. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. in many cycles. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Fl. Tumbaka.—Cucurbitaceæ. entire. Travancore. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. rootstock reaching 5 cm. female cylindric. oblong. LOC. DISTR. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. diam. Kadu bhopala. COM. Katutumbi. annulate . M. Ceylon. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. promotes suppuration. L. Fl. creeping.
Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. Flowers cooling. improves taste. Holematti. fattening. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. Ceylon. bark. Nirbendeka: M. styptic. Taman. cooling. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. LOC. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. fruits and seeds. Seeds—good for hot constitution. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Konkan Ghats. In the Andamans. cures blood diseases. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. antipyretic. Challa. COM. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. anti-bilious. Ornamental Plants. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. ulcers. brain-tonic. refrigerant and anti-bilious. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. Arjuna. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. sweet. fever. "Vata". good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. emetic. Malaya. increases "Vata". bitter variety is diuretic. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. inflammations. dry cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. Sk. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. USES :— Leaves are purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. DISTR. cause haemoptysis. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . Assam. cures asthma. earache. leaves. Arjuna. cardiac and general tonic. NS. lessens inflammations. aphrodisiac. fruits and seeds. alexiteric. flowers. LOC. There are two varieties. Seeds emetic (Yunani). vulnerary. scalding of urine. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. LOC. earache. wholesome to fœtus. bitter. wild (rarely). K.) FAM. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. pains (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables. muscular pains. . causes bronchitis. :—H.—Lythraceæ. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. oleaginous. Fruit good in bronchitis. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. LOC:—North Kanara and S. seeds are narcotic. See—Timbers. Bark and leaves are purgative. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. cures leucorrhoea. diuretic. leaves. Tarul. bronchitis. piles. PARTS-USED :—Root. China. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. flatulence. :—Western Peninsula. anti-periodic. Bandhara. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. in many cases only cultivated. DISTR.
enclosed in the perianth . :—W. t. tonic. K. G. common at Mahabaleshwar. CHAR. Sk. Wooly-headed gnidia. Deccan hills. COM. common on the Supa Ghats. 5-7. HABITAT :—Cultivated. burning. Khesari. Grains contain vitamin A. Fl. Mendi. :—A much branched large shrub. Rami. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. diam. Kassar. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. DISTR. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. M. DISTR. M. Triputi.5 cm. pain. Henna plant. bark mottled. Fr. H. Belgaum hills . Chickling—White vetch. glabrous above. Kanara. Basu). Lakh. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. causes much flatulence.—Lythraceæ. LOC. dense terminal heads 2. Peninsula—Ceylon. subsessile. Kukurgal. :—E. inflammation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. (Ayurveda). Latri. lobes 4. Madaranga. oblong lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India.. S. Sandika. FAM. piles and wandering of the mind. See—Food Plants. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. FAM. Lang. lameness. yellow. Yavaneshta. :—E. :—Konkan southwards.. Rametha. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Nakharanjaka. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Gorantha. Medi. Ragangi. heart-troubles. improves taste. COM.—Thymelaeaceæ.5-3. N. NS. G. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. Fl. M. pointed.—Dec-May. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. M. oblong flat. Country. The bark is used to poison fish. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark.—opposite or scattered.8 cm. cooling.—in erect. Mukute. D.5 X 2-2.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Mehndi. :—E. perianth-tube densely silky villous . . LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Medika. NS.—ellipsoid-oblong. Tree mignonette. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . COM. K. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. LOC. NS. L. but dangerous cathartic. Sk. swellings etc. (B. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. silky beneath.
:—A glabrous much branched shrub. finger nails and hair. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. skin diseases . useful in headache. indigenous in S. allay burning sensation. G. Masura. diuretic. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". amenorrhœa. seeds.—angular. useful. K. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Belgaum and Poona districts. ulcers. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. diseases of spleen. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. Sd. many. COM. flowers. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. The plant contains a glucoside. M. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. HABITAT:—Cultivated. LOC. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. improve appetite. L. Asia. lumbago. Sk. :—E. dysentery. in diseases of heart and of . mucronate. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sura. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. supported by persistent calyx.). & Gib. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. stomatitis. NS. Masur. expectorant. Ragadali. :—Grown in Nasik. favours hair-growth. Masur. Lentil. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. bronchitis. DISTR. enriches blood.—opposite. veined outside. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . LOC. See—Dyes. Fl. scabies. Fr. t. often ending in spinous point. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. globose. Chanangi. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. PROPERTIES.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). FAM. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. truncate. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. cure strangury tumours. The oil and essence keep the body cool. E. Europe and in temperate W. Gurubija. Leaves—bitter. Massur. pyramidal and panicled cymes. diuretic. H. cure leucoderma. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). boils. Flowers are refrigerant. cure insanity (Ayurveda). Ceylon. LOC. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. vulnerary. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. Masuridal. planted as hedge. lateral branches 4-gonous. Gabholika. DISTR. ophthalmia.—capsule. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. Iran and Baluchistan. wild in Arabia.—Apl-July. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . fragrant. syphilitic sores.—in terminal. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. white or rose coloured . Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic.
upper sessile. Seeds contain fatty oil. stomatitis . bechic. Fl.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. constipating. Fr.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). DISTR. See—Vegetables. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. FAM. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. often with linear segments . Hot and dry. aperient. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. Seeds—indigestible. Sk. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). blood and skin diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. They contain vitamin B. The covering is styptic and astringent.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. L. COM. :—Cultivated throughout India.—small. rheumatism. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Grains contain vitamins A and B. LOC. bitter. Asia. laxative. the lower petiolate. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). tumours and injuries. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. tonic. diuretic. LOC. Ashalika. enrich blood. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. Kurutige. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Halim . bronchitis. They are mucilaginous and laxative. bronchitis. Leaves are used as pot-herb. Halim. good for pain in abdomen. white. and muscular pains. useful in diseases of chest. Allibija. PARTS USED :—Root. cures dysentery . eye diseases (Ayurveda). CHAR. aphrodisiac . . Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). HABITAT :—Cultivated. See-Food Plants. Hurfi. chest complaints. Chandrika. Ahaliva. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. good in inflammations. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. aphrodisiac. :—E. Chandrashura. affections of spleen. NS. G. LOC. Asahio. Chavnsar. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). galactagogue. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. tonic. K. M. leaves and seeds. Garden cress . very likely indigenous in W. C—petals 2-4 or 0. Suvasura. :—An erect glabrous annual. Raktabija. H.—Cruciferæ.
Javas .:—E. 7. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). Maidelakri. native country probably Egypt. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Garbijaur. Maidalakadi. Common flax. Seeds—mucilaginous. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. lenticellate. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. "Kapha". CHAR. supported by the thickened pedicel. Roasted seeds are astringent. Country. bark somewhat corky. Haimwati. cure leprosy. H. LOC. hard to digest. remove "Vata".—Lauraceæ. COM. Alashi. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. colds and throat complaints. tonic. M. FAM. DISTR. remove biliousness. Common tallow laurel. hot. Alsi. Alsi. Alshi.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. LOC. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. :—Cultivated throughout India. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac . galactagogue. gouty and rheumatic swellings. NS. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. H. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. causes loss of appetite. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment.. Sedhavi. M. K. leaves. seeds and oil. Malina. flowers.:—A small evergreen tree. "Pitta".5 mm. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. base narrowed.—May-July. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds.—Linaceæ. Fl.—crowded at the ends of branches. PARTS USED :—Bark. bronchitis. dysentery. Kanara. heal ulcers. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. back-ache. urinary discharges . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). FAM. black. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood.. :—E. urinary complaints. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. aphrodisiac. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. Sk. . Tailottama. L. good for cough and kidney troubles. used in consumption. lead to impotency. 8-12 together in heads. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. COM. emmenagogue. Fr. Jivanika. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. branchlets densely tomentose. Medini. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). t. Fibres. Tisi.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Alasi. perianth lobes wanting. Seeds contain vitamin A. glossy dark-green above. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. bad for eyesight. usually alternate. burnt bark styptic and healing. diam.— globose. Madagandha. G. boils. See—Oils. Fl. Alashi. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. NS. M. Sk. Linseed. yellowish. inflammations. diuretic. pale beneath.
thirst. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts .—Lobeliaceæ. many. Malay Islands. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. stem stout. Fr. Kahire. Dhamana. leaves.9 cm. uterus.5-3. Narsala. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. Ridge gourd. G. diuretic. high. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. fruits and seeds. fever. H. Karvituri. L. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. galactagogue. Jalini. biliousness. Devnal. bitter. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. AMARA Clarke. long. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . bronchitis. LOC. lanceolate. useful in inflammations. bark. H. throat troubles. Narttaka. Devanala. paralysis. COM. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. Katukoshataki. aphrodisiac. yellowish brown . It acts as anodyne. Wild tobacco. Sthulanala. M. finely serrulate. LOC. midrib white. Ranturai. PARTS USED :—Root. SK. long. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. Ceylon. NS. nearly sessile. Deccan and S. stomachic. branched upwards. Ghontali. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Kandele.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS. spleen diseases. burning sensation. Kalahogesoppu. FAM. pains in joints.2-3 m. t. Divali. heating. K. all oblong. CHAR. FAM. Nal. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. leprosy (Ayurveda). erysipelas (Ayurveda). vagina. "vata".—capsule.100 m. Australia. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. opening by 2 valves. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. :—E. :—Konkan. white.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. Mrityupushpa.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.-Mar. diseases of blood. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds.—Nov. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. useful in biliousness. Bibhishana. C—2-lipped. Jhinga. burning sensation.—alternate. lobes linear. Dhaval. Nali. Sk. M. Leaves are mucilaginous. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. acrid. tonic.—. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". COM. 2. cure cough. hollow. M. strangury. light green. aphrodisiac. very small. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. G. LOC. Country. much curved. Kadudodka. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . overheated brains. expectorant. consumption. subglobose.—numerous. 1. heart. . :—E. Root—astringent. Fl. aphrodisiac. 3 usually connate throughout . lower much longer. K. Sd.
The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. M.:—A large climber. bronchitis. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. Madhuka. Mahua. tonic to intestines. Gudapushpa. DISTR. flowers and fruits. COM.—Sept. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). thrives in Deccan trap. palmate.—petals yellow with green veins . L. laxative. Fruit cures fever. recommended in splenic enlargement. at first whitish and softly villous. tonic and diuretic. especially in western Peninsula. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Mahua tree. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Ceylon. Fl. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. biliousness. K. USES. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. "Kapha". asthma. carminative. bitter. cough. females. bitter. at length scabrid. Madhusrava. cures "Vata". Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. jaundice. tumours. Burma. G. tuberculous glands. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai.8 cm. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). leucoderma. Hunage.—Sapotaceæ. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery.. digestible. solitary in the same axil as males. inflammations. Mowa. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. LOC. hydrogogue. Madhya Pradesh. cures urinary discharges. ascites. fruit and seeds. uterine and vaginal tumours . Sk. H. PARTS USED :—Bark. pale green. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. :—E. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. diuretic. anæmia. LOC. . used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda).—obovoid. C. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). Mowda. Mhowra. piles. 5-7 lobed. alexiteric. Fl. useful in rat-bite. :—Throughout India. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). W. 10-ribbed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. Root-bark is abortifacient. t. base cordate. also in Konkan and N.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. piles. NS. stems 5-angled. 5-10 cm. Pokka.53. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. tendrils usually 3-fid. Butter tree. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice.) FAM. Kanara (rare) . liver complaints. LOC.—small. haemorrhoids and leprosy. acrid. leaves.—monœcious. :—Plant is bitter. Mahura. Moha. obtusely conical at both ends. thick. DISTR. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. Bengal to the W. cathartic. long and about 2. Fr. Mahuda. Doddippa. Mahula.
tonic. and Kanara. cures blood diseases. Movanuhjad. expectorant. Madhuka. Sk. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. . Mahuda. See—Timbers. :—E. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. India . Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient.. M. Mahuva of S. Mohache jhad. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Flower—sweet. Kampillaka. Sk. aphrodisiac. flowers act as a mild purgative. Honey tree. Shendri. ulcers. Movaro. aphrodisiac. Liquors. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. tonic and nutritive. H. Famine Plants. :—-E. often planted. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. G. causes "Kapha". Oils. Karnatic. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. leprosy. heals wounds . Kamala. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. fattening. NS. FAM.—Sapotaceæ. galactagogue. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. cooling. Monkey-face tree. used in fractures. cures biliousness. Kesarimavu. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Mysore. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. carminative. Mehua. :—Western peninsula. DISTR. consumption. fatigue . COM. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Flowers—oleaginous. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. K. H. Hullichillu. Mohwa. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. G. and also a remedy for itch.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Ceylon. Kambhal Raini. good in heart diseases. LOC. LOC. There is a trace of alkaloid. COM. NS. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. :—Konkan. Oils. Kapila.—Euphorbiaceæ. USES :—Astringent and emollient. See—Timbers. Flowers are regarded as cooling. astringent. Fruit-tonic . Oil—emollient (Yunani). Moha. Huli. fixed oil and a spirit. and appetiser (Sushruta). Kapilo. thirst. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. yields two important products. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Ippe. burning sensation. flowers and oil. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). K. and Upper Burma. M. Kapila.
useful in bronchitis. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. cure leucorrhoea. chronic dysentery and gleet. See—Timbers. astringent to bowels. a good collyrium (Yunani). tumours. improves cough. Amra. wounds. Burma. Cuckoo's Joy. cooling. bronchitis. Ghats and the Satpudas. FAM. styptic. Fruit—heating. beautifies complexion. cause flatulence and constipation. Am. dysentery. H. vomiting. carminative. Sikkim. Amba. tonic. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. purgative. vaginal troubles. leaves. Ceylon. tonic to body. dispels langour and burning of body. cure "Vata". more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). detergent. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. good in cough. Bihar. spleen. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. purgative. LOC. :—-Throughout the State. aphrodisiac. diseases of abdomen. Khasia Hills. Sind. styptic. improve taste and appetite. China. hiccup. Kamarasa. cultivated throughout the State. biliousness. heals ulcers. lessen intestinal pains. ulcers. piles. Chuta. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. Malay Islands. used in chronic diarrhœa. fruits and seeds. Australia. sweet. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. laxative. sour. Bhutan. DISTR. good in heart trouble. Sk. COM. vulnerary. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. vermifuge and. M. it exudes a pink coloured gum. liver pain. removes bad smell from mouth. alexiteric. useful in skin-diseases. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. flowers. improves complexion. Gum .MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. thirst. :—Tropical Himalayas. urinary discharges. Sahakara. stomachic. Seeds-astringent to bowels. NS. G. Mavu. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. enriches blood. maturant. Ambo. cooling. in "Tridosh". Mavin-mara. Rasala. clears brain. PARTS USED :—Root. "Pitta". Astringent. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). LOC. diuretic. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). LOC. :—E. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. wild and cultivated. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Introduced. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Mango tree. anthelmintic. appetiser. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. Kanara. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. leaves. liver. good in dysentery. throat troubles. fruits and seeds. :—Throughout tropical India. K. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). "Kapha". bad blood. Amri.—Anacardiaceæ. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. stone in bladder.
:—-E. Limbra. fleshy. Khandodi.—6. Suparnika. LOC. Fl. Dugdhike . K. useful in bleeding piles. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark.5-11. Nim. useful in diseases of eye. if snuffed. Juice of kernel. Balant nimba. Dodi. Harandori. pale yellowish brown. M. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Nimla. Ambri. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn.) FAM. G. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. burning sensation. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac.—rotate with broad lobes.—many. Java. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. K. coma copious . margined. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. NS. cures "Vata". H. COM. Nimba.. C. Paribhadraka. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. antipyretic. Ripe fruit is laxative.—Apl. Country. Kharkhodi.—follicles. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. :—Bengal. cooling. Nim or Margosa tree. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Madhumalati.—broadly ovate. Juss. COM. all plains districts of Madras State. asthma. Hemajyoti-valli. CHAR.3-15 X 4.) FAM. Nimba. :—A large twining shrub. Limbada. Ceylon. Kadulimb. overlapping to the right. Nimbaka. Hari. M. Sk. Assam. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Bevu. H. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. It is also anthelmintic. Fruit Trees. astringent to bowels.—Meliaceæ. corona lobes large. good for dyspepsia. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. broadly ovate or suborbicular. green or yellowish green. Confection made from ripe mango juice. stops nasal bleeding. urinary discharges. inflammations. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. flattened. 7. :—Deccan and S. piles. M. USES.5 cm. Fr. . rugosely striate. DISTR. Nakchhikni. :—G. Fl. few glands above the petiole cordate .5-10 cm. Sd. leucoderma. with lenticels and black dots. tumours. slightly tapering to a very blunt point.—Asclepiadaceæ. older branches ash coloured. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. long. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. rat-bite (Ayurveda). alexiteric. t. Sk. NS. biliousness.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs.
almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. tumours. piles. Sk. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. flowers. NS. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). COM. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . PARTS USED :—Root. fatigue. . resolvant. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. Ranmethi. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. Small melilot. lumbago.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). refrigerant. Oils. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. :—E. valuable in consumption. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . burning sensation near heart. Burma. pectoral. alexiteric. See—Timbers. bad taste in the mouth. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. LOC. earache. useful in syphilitic sores. stomachic. bruises. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. FAM. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. convalescence. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. good in ophthalmia. skin diseases. piles. urinary discharges. astringent. and loss of appetite. Vanmethika. expectorant. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. carminative. general debility. chronic leprosy. cough. Tonic. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. leaves. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf." vomiting. relieves "Kapha". aphrodisiac. swollen glands. insecticidal. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. for unhealthy ulcers. tonic. it is a general vermifuge. fever. LOC. leprosy. antiperiodic. "pittadosh. leucoderma. DISTR. tonic and antiperiodic. asthma. Banmethi. M. good for leprosy. stimulant and stomachic. blood complaints. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. toothache. anthelmintic. fruits and seeds. bark. lessens inflammation. H. The flowers are stimulant. cures ulcers and inflammations . maturant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. biliousness. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. thirst. maturant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. sprains. boils.. rheumatism .
Europe. C. "Sikkim. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. :—Common in Deccan. LOC. CHAR.—size of a pea.—pale yellow.—variable in size. Externally used as a fomentation. . PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. DISTR. brown. oblanceolate. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. of terminal rather long. glabrous or slightly hairy. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb.—Labiatæ. in spicate close racemes. Fr. also in S. Khasia. glabrous. Pudina. at first green and variegated with yellow. Pudinah. Fl. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. finally red. Afghanistan. FAM. :—H. NS. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness.—3-foliate. K. t. L. Chatinmaragu. standard exceeding the wings and keel. rounded. ellipsoid. lobes dentate or serrate . male fascicled on short peduncles. poultice or plaster for swellings. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. tendrils simple. HABITAT :—In hedges. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). LOC. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. leaflets toothed. H.—small. very hispid . Assam. Bilari. introduced into many other regions. young parts white-hairy. 30-45 cm. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . tapering at both ends. Ceylon. north Bengal. stem angular. G. M. Malaya and Africa. DISTR. COM. scabrid. M. Ghugri.—monœcious .— Jany. Fl.. NS. deltoid-ovate entire. females sessile. given as a gruel (Murray). L. Sd. S.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn.—one. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. Fl. :—E.—pod. PROPERTIES AND LOC. base cordate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. oblong-ellipsoid. M. Pudina. Country and Gujarat. :—Western Peninsula. Fr. :—An erect annual herb. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Agamaki. :—India (tropical zone). Corn-March mint. FAM. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. truncate at the apex.—Cucurbitaceæ. high. Iran. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. leaves and seeds. It has expectorant properties to some extent. COM. slightly echinulate. especially in strained back.
alexipharmic. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Bark. good in asthma and sweats. none at the top. Sk. Nagkesara. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—nutlets dry. pains in joints (Ayurveda). Nagkinjalka. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. oblong.-narrowed below. :—E. foul breath.—sub-equally 4-lobed. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Carminative. dry. COM. DISTR. asthma. Ceylon Iron-wood. China. Konkan and N. MESUA FERREA Linn. Assam. blood and heart troubles. Europe. M. Bengal. Country. Burma Tenasserim. . In N. The plant is used in chutneys.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. sorethroat.—Guttiferæ. LOC. Suvarna. leaves. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Gums and Resins. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). toothed. binding. good for fevers. DISTR. LOC. Fl. tonic to kidneys . and stimulant. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Nagakeshara. headache. infusion is given in fevers. C. Oils. stalked. indigestion and cephalagia. Kashmir. ovate. expectorant. Andamans. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. small tumours. Nagchapha. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. :—A perennial erect herb . Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. cough. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. USES :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. lined with hairs and hairy outside. hairy. :—Western Himalayas. biliousness. Ceylon. LOC. thirst. FAM. L. E. flowers and fruits. skin diseases. See—Timbers. Travancore. Assam Iron-wood. used for cough. Fr. M. smooth.—in axillary distant whorls. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. diuretic. :—E. emmenagogue. Nagkesara. Naghas. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. NS. stem short. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. hiccup. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. lilac. S. Himalayas. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. LOC. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. H. digestive. North and West Asia. sweats. K. vomiting. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Nagsampige. cardiotonic. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). lanceolate. the upper similar and large.
Nachike-gidda.-Oct. clothed with glandular hairs . blood affections. near temples and in gardens. Vanamallika. :—E. K. NS. G. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. diuretic. Golden champa. FAM. bile. Sone-chapha. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Suvarna champaka. Lajari. Lajalu.—bipin-nate. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Champa. Yellow champa . Flowers-stomachic. in globose heads. Sensitive plant. H. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. slightly recurved. Champaka. "Kapha". Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. stems and branches sparingly prickly.. Sparshalajja. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. CHAR.-pod flat. Assam. COM. petioles hairy. Muthmurika. Lajalu. M. remove biliousness. leaflets 15-20 pairs. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Fl. also used as purgative. Burma. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Raktamula. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Fruit. destroys poisons. Dyes. W. IndoChina. cultivated. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . digitate. Fl. Lajja. See—Timbers. Sankochini. Ghats.—Sept. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. Fr. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Lajjika. Hem-pushpa. :—E. facilitates micturition. S. LOC. Champaka. diaphoretic. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Sk. K. acrid. removes worms. Pilochampo. diuretic. Sampige. rachis bristly. G. :—Cultivated all over the State. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Pivala chapha. hairy beneath. Surabhi. LOC.. useful in cough.—4-merous. gout. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Yunnan. in vertigo. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . 57. sensative. Lajjavati. pinnae 1-2 pairs. M. Lajalu.5 cm. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. 45-90 cm. . pink. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. :—A diffuse under-shrub. L. flowers and fruits. good in leprosy. glabrous above. DISTR. t.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. "Vata". Champaka. evergreen rain-forest of N. aphrodisiac.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Champo. ophthalmia. Humble plant. NS. high. India. H. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Kanara. long. Risemani. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. leaves. nausea and fevers .—Magnoliaceæ. Sonchampo. rheumatism. bark. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. COM. FAM. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Flowers— expectorant. rheumatism. stimulant.
cures "Kapha". NS. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. H. dysentery. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Ranjal. Mugule. piles.—Sapotaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. anthelmintic. K. useful in blood and bile diseases. cures biliousness. liver complaints. Kanara. Root. vulnerary. Juice is applied externally. acrid. burning sensation. Flowers give taste. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. cultivated in the tropics. nose diseases. asthma. Baphuli. Flowers—expectorant. Kalhala. fatigue. bilious fevers. in piles and fistula. cure biliousness. Vovali. Bark cardiotonic. jaundice. stomachic. Bakul. Mulsari. headache. leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. COM. Varsuli. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). bark. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. biliousness. Ceylon. cure blood diseases. It is also resolvent and alterative. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Bakula. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. See—Ornamental Plants. teeth and gum diseases. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. alterative. Anangaka. Sharadika. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. cultivated in gardens in pots. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. cooling. Root is resolvent. Fruit causes flatulence. Mukul. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. :—G. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). probably a native of tropical America. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. alexipharmic. Seeds fix loose teeth. good for gonorrhœa. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. In Brazil root is used as emetic.:—Western Peninsula. LOC. vaginal and uterine complaints. often planted in gardens. Borsalli. cooling. smallpox (Yunani). sweet. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Bakul. flowers. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. blood diseases (Ayurveda). flowers and fruits acrid. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. inflammations. Bakul. oleaginous. LOC. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. FAM. fruits and seeds. M. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . alexipharmic. Sk. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Bolsari. leucoderma. DISTR. Malaya. DISTR. :—Naturalised throughout India. leprosy. Kanara and Konkan.
white or crimson striped with white yellow) . Kareli. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Four o'clock plant. Hagalkai. H. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Karavalli. HABITAT -Cultivated. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Fr. CHAR. It is also tonic and febrifuge. Leaves are maturant. M. native of tropical America. Oils. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Hagala. H. Sk.—membranous.—Nyctaginaceæ. brightly coloured (dark crimson. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. t.—Cucurbitaceæ. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. 30-75 cm. :—A herbaceous plant.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. See—Ornamental Plants. Fl. . Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. DISTR. and rather fleshy stems . L. K. :—E.—large.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Karela. cordate. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Krishnakali. LOC. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. yellow. Fruit Trees. NS. Karela. See—Timbers. Carella fruit. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. NS. Sk. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. it is applied to relieve headache. Karli. often ribbed or rugose. FAM. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. COM. M. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. Kandura. :—Grown throughout India. Marvel of Peru. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds.—continually in bloom. K. FAM.—E. Fl. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Guleaabbas . Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Gulbasa . G. COM. blackish. Karala. each one surrounded by an involucre. Karelo. good for syphilitic sores. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. lessen inflammations (Yunani).
piles. Karkotaki. :—G. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. diseases of spleen and liver. boils. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. Leaves—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. LOC. lessens expectoration . and externally in ague as an absorbent. . laxative and authelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. Plant cures diseases of blood. Beksa. urinary discharges. Gid-hagalu. all kinds of poisoning. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. hiccup. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). antibilious. laxative. Nagarali. K. LOC. COM. stomachic. DISTR. burns. PARTS USED :—Root. asthma. cures biliousness. Fruit—very bitter. laxative. rheumatism. carminative. Fruits contain vitamins A. hearttroubles. stomachic. ulcers. S. Fruit— bitter. anthelmintic. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. leprosy. Malaya. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . :—Throughout India. NS. blood diseases. Kantoli. B and C. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. rheumatism. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. cure "Tridosh". eye and heart. It is useful in gout. anæmia. cooling. China. piles. longpepper. Country and Gujarat. Kartoli. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. bronchitis. digestible. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. LOC. tropical Africa. Karehiballi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. bronchitis. etc. excessive salivation. appetiser. tonic. Fruit is tonic. aphrodisiac. Sk. Vandhya. also in Malaya. Vishakankini. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. Ceylon. jaundice etc. erysipelas (Ayurveda). cure "Vata". juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. Leaves act as galactagogue. antipyretic.'. urinary discharges. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. "Kapha". :—Cultivated throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. Fruit—bitter. used in syphilis. M. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. See—Vegetables. Kanta. anthelmintic. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. Golkandra. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. stomachic. Kantolan. urinary calculi. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. fever consumption. hot alexiteric. leaves and fruit.—Cucurbitaceæ. FAM. tumours. and America. sparingly in Konkan. leaves and fruit. M. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints.
USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. G. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. alexiteric. See—Vegetables. Achi. Saraoji. leaves and fruits. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Sargavo. K. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. Ainshi. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness . Formosa. Nuggi. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. PARTS USED :—Root. also wild. fruits and seeds. NS. K. DISTR. anthelmintic. analgesic. causes burning sensation. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Achchuka. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. flowers. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. aphrodisiac. Sajina. G. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. FAM. Seglo. Al. fattening. also in the Oudh forests. all "tridosha" fevers.—Rubiaceæ. Munigha. bark. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Indian horse radish . See—Dyes. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. China. makes blood impure . Tagase . dyspepsia. tumours. Ak. inflammations. H. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Guggala. LOC.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Shevaga. Mochaka. Aal. "Vata". useful in heart-complaints. H. Ab. Tikshnamula. Ugra. stuttering. HABITAT :—Cultivated . astringent to bowels. . Mochaka. DISTR. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Murangi. NS. digestible. Mulgule. M. Rochana. "Kapha". COM. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. Burma.—Moringaceæ. Drum-stick Tree. improves appetite. leaves. :—E. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Sk. emmenagogue. removes all kinds of pains. Introduced var. Segua. eye diseases. Indian mulberry. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Famine Plants. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Haladipavate. ulcers. M. LOC. Sk. Bartondi. FAM. cultivated throughout India and Burma. earache. spleen enlargement. tuberculous glands in neck. Ashyuka. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—E.
ulcerated intestines. lumbago. urinary discharges. Ambat. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. Seeds yield a fixed oil. anthelmintic. fattening. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. Kanara. White mulberry. . diarrhœa. Leaf paste. Root is purgative. piles. salt and pepper. :—E. See—Vegetables. lumbago. See—Fruit Trees. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Root and bark are used to procure abortion. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. gout.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. cooling. wounds. heart. Kambali. Tut. epilepsy and hysteria. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. enriches blood. biliousness. B and C. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Peninsula. Fibres. LOC. Fruits contain vitamins A. stomatitis. it is cooling laxative. K. Siahtut. carminative.—Moraceæ. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. Shetur. Karihannu. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. spleen. laxative. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. useful in small-pox. Tuta. aromatic and acid flavour. Fruit—tonic. bark. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. Gums and Resins. Tut. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. with garlic. MORUS INDICA Linn. enriches blood. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. increases biliousness. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. enlarged spleen or liver. DISTR. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. H. cures gleet. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Madhu pippali. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. good for brain. burning sensation (Ayurveda). good for inflammations of throat and chest. M. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. Tutri. aphrodisiac. rheumatism. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. Tuda. appetiser. diuretic. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. diuretic. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". expectorant. bronchitis. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). common about villages in N. sweetish. expectorant. sour. turmeric. obstinate asthma. loss of appetite. leaves and fruit. Oils. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. internal inflammations and calculous affections. COM. FAM. LOC. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim.
:—E. petioles 6. Kivanchha.3 cm. terminal smaller. improves blood. covered with tawny stinging hairs. stem. grey-silky beneath. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. LOC.—pod. Kapikachu. Kunth.—5-6 small. Sk. Fl. Turashi. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. common in hedges. Atmagupta.. :—Punjab plains.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. H. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. silky. LOC. Seeds— alexipharmic. cures blood diseases. MUSA PARADISIACA L. Kavatch. Vanari. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). HABITAT :—Humid areas . . Kela. with honey is given in cholera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. L. which produce intensa irritation of skin. pods and seeds. Tikshna. Fruit— aphrodisiac. K. Kela. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Kuhili.—Scitaminaceæ.3-11. LOC. spermatorrhoea etc. Kela.—Oct-Nov.. COM. tonic. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Kadali. Var. Goncha. lateral very unequal sided. FAM. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. DISTR.2 cm. COM. tonic. Sd. long. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . They are used as anthelmintic. H. Banana. Urustambha. t. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . cultivated. biliousness . Nayi songuballi.5x1. Hasaguni. HABITAT :—In hedges. M.—in drooping racemes. K. Plantain. laxative. flowers and fruit. Ceylon.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Havanch. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. PARTS USED :—Root. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda).) FAM. Kavach. leaflets membranous. Dirghapatra. 5-7. Fr. NS. sometimes cultivated. Kivanch. Maoz kela. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. :—E. SAPIENTUM O. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. turgid-shaped. PARTS USED :—Root. Rambha. Himalaya up to 1200 m. leaves. Strong root infusion. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Sk. Kadvare. Bale. G. Cowhage. dark-purple. CHAR. :—An annual twiner. 6-30 flowered. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Root—emmenagogue. consumption. G.—3-foliate. M. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Fl. " Vata ". DISTR. juice given for headache. Adam's Fig. NS. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system.
:—S. very hairy outside. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . biliousness. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. leprosy. deep golden yellow.--in terminal cymes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Lawsat. :—H. and are used in acidity. broadly elliptic. in " Vata". consumption and bronchitis. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. tonic. useful in "Kapha". leaves. causes bronchitis . B and C. aphrodisiac. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. Fibres. COM. appetiser. stipules twin. Nagavalli. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. astringent to bowels.—opposite or 8nately whorled. hairy. DISTR. antidysenteric. tonic. Bedina. aphrodisiac. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. CHAR. LOC. anthelmintic. diseases of uterus and vagina. lobes broadly ovate. Fl. Shrivalli. LOC. thickens blood. NS. sore-throat. Assam. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. L. :—A rambling shrub. Sk. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. pubescent. tube slender. improves complexion (Ayurveda). See—Fruit Trees. menstrual disorders. M. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium.— berry. Fr. C. kidney troubles (Yunani). Fl. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Root-juice. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. heart-burn and colic. Serwadh. in thirst. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa.—Rubiaceæ. Bellotti. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Burnt stem is vulnerary. Tropical Himalayas.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. urinary discharges. buds densely hairy. Root-juice is anthelmintic. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. broad at base. ear-pain. Andamans. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa.— July-Oct. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Hastygida. linear. PARTS USES :—Root.—tubular. astringent to bowels. . Bhutakes. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. indigestible .. K. flowers and fruit. Ipparati. Kanara. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. t. strangury. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. dyspepsia. subglobose. FAM. blood diseases. increases appetite. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. good for dry bronchitis. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. :—Konkan and N. Fruit—sweet. diabetes.
very sweet smelling. :— E. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. Vilayantimendhi. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. promotes growth of hair. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children.— Myristicaceæ. Kanage. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. They are given in asthma. fruits and oil. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kamuka. A decoction is employed. common in the Kumta taluka. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart.— solitary. NS. It is credited with opposite qualities. Myrtle. ovate to lanceolate.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. small. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. See—Timbers. smoke beneficial to piles. emmenagogue.—Myrtaceæ. Sk. axillary on slender peduncles. COM. False nutmeg. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. It is used as a substitute for true mace. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. Fl. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Kanara Ghats . LOC. intermittent fevers and dropsy. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). cures headache. L. Himalayas. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Ram-patri.—small. Kaiphal. white. allaying pain. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. all over the State. NS. :—Western Peninsula. :—E. Malabar. Dioscorides. H. as . is regarded as. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. M. FAM.—berry. Murad. black when ripe. used in stopping vomiting. Galen and the Arabian writers. K. COM. ellipsoid. CHAR. LOC. M. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. enriches blood. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Malati. PARTS USED:—Seeds. Pliny. :—A shrub. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Fr. diuretic. Habules. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. Malati. :—Konkan and N. W. PARTS USED :—Leaves. applied locally to relieve pain. especially epilepsy. Condiments and Spices. LOC. DISTR. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. DISTR. FAM. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative.
—Nymphæaceæ. vulnerary.—petals many 5-12. glabrous. fleshy. rough with distant prickles . linear spathulate. ovoid. Padam. orbicular. DISTR.3-0. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. from Iran eastwards to Australia. dysentery. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. torus 18 mm. elongate.—July. Kamala. muricate. alexiteric. Nelanaringa . spongy. axillary..—Meliaceæ. radiately nerved. Chinese water-lily. Kapurbhendi. elliptic. Kamal. petioles very long.—alternate.. Kandalu. Timpani. :—E. ulcers (Ayurveda). :—A small branching undershrub. peltate.—pendulous. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. solitary or 2 together. M. top flat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. 10-25 cm. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. L. :—A large aquatic herb. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Fl. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. disk annular. t. Ripe carpels. Kanara. Suriyakamal.—white. Belakanji. curved. white or rosy. H. high. Sk. Tavari-bija or gadde. Amlavalli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. NS. Padma. L. NS. CHAR. COM. Fl. Indian sacred lotus. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Pitmari. CHAR. Fl. concave or cupped. anthers with clavate appendages. Goanese ipecacuanha. bronchitis.5 cm. LOC. 0. Pundarika. Fl. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. COM. M. ovoidglobose. long. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. in diam. Pankaja. petiole winged. Fr. Sk. Ambuja. K. Aravinda. with slender. See—Ornamental Plants. & A. DISTR. 3-foliate. :—Konkan. Kandabahula.—membranous. LOC. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. Kamal. NAREGAMIA ALATA W.—capsule.-Dec.-Nov.6 m. Sd. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Sarasija. cells 2-seeded. erect. K. creeping stem rooting at the nodes.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State.—solitary. petals 5. hæmorrhage. cures asthma. FAM. entire. diam. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. C. t. Ambuj. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. LOC. . Kamal.) FAM. :—E. stem. free. 3-valved. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. Papra-vel. :—W. G. biliousness.
—in threes. PARTS USED :—Root. also recommended as cardiac tonic. gives tone to breast. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. seeds. improves watery eyes (Yunani). See—Ornamental Plants. 15-23 cm. K. Karvira. Kanel. Upper Gangetic Plains. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Kaner. long. also cholera. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . good in throat-troubles. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. fragrant. long. small-pox. menorrhagia. honey. Fl.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Waziristan. fever. flowers.—follicles. linear-lanceolate. Paddali. in fever and liverdiseases. useful in fevers . :—Madhya Bharat. In China and Malaya dried red petals. vomiting. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Cool. good in blood-complaints. removes worms. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. Kaner. biliousness.—red. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. leaves. H. Cool. Vishavrikshanka. LOC. throat scaly. S.—funnel-shaped. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . slightly bitter. LOC. leucoderma. Sk. Sweet scented oleander. G. strangury. allays thirst. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). CHAR. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Kanher. C. inflammations and poisoning. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . Sind. Filaments are astringent and cooling. Baluchistan. COM. Fl. planted in gardens throughout the State. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . rose or white. rigid. useful in burning sensation of the body. allays thirst. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. Kanagile. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. cures cough.—Apocynaceæ. diuretic. DISTR. aphrodisiac. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". :—E. stem. dark green and shining above. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. M. also as a hedge plant. Karvira. NS.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. lobes rounded. astringent to taste . useful in piles. Sd. India. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Karber. coriaceous. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . ulcers and sores of mouth. 10-15 cm. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. t. Fr. Pratihasa. chest-pains. Ashwa-marak. spermatorrhoea. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. L. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. fruit. at length separating. flowers. Salt Range. tapering into short petiole. diseases of skin and eye . FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. leaves. . heart and brain tonic .
smoke constipating. tubercular glands of neck. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Tambak. Kalanja. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. base wedgeshaped . lobes spreading. Dhumrapatrika.—in open corymbose panicles . useful in caries of teeth. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. See—Ornamental Plants. Flowers— aphrodisiac. water from hookha is diuretic. conical. Tobacco.—Solanaceæ. C.—pink or white. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Root—aphrodisiac.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. :—E. CHAR. caries of teeth. LOC. funnel-shaped. foul nose. Krimighni. across. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). USES :—Leaves are narocotic. LOC. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. COM. asthma. DISTR. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. NS. :—Native of America. bronchitis. emetic.8 cm. about 1. the surface is plain or bullate. Fr. Tamarakuthika. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). nervous depression and sleeplessness. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Leaves. disinfectant. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. Bujjarbhang. FAM. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. K. sores. inflammations. M. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. good for lumbago. Tabak. G. wounds.—alternate. Tambakhu. cultivated in all tropical countries. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). Tamakhu. also applied in leprosy. USES :—All parts of plant. sedative and emetic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. tonic. tonic. An ointment made . carminative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. Sk. very poisonous. L. Poisonous to fish. a mental stimulant. anthelmintic. headache. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. are poisonous and are used externally. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. especially root. H. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. oblong or elliptic. skin diseases. dimness of sight.—capsule. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. scabies (Yunani). large (especially lower ones). Hoge soppu. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. useful in bronchitis. M. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. scabies. laxative. Tamaku. The plant contains a glucoside. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis.
tube orange-coloured. FAM. Buds are tonic. Kanwal. Har. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Jayaparvati. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels .) FAM. Bark cures bronchitis.3 cm. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. NS. Aravind. COM. Kharapatraka. M. COM. peduncles 4angled. Nyadale huvu . a decoction of root. (Ayurveda). tonic to hair. rough above with bulbous hairs. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. See—Ornamental Plants. Madhya Bharat. G. carminative. L. Fr.—Oleaceæ.—lobes white. leaves. Sk. scalp affections etc. axillary.—opposite 5-10x2. southwards to the Godavari. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants.— more or less throughout the year.5-6. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. :—E. It is used with honey in chronic fever. .—Nymphæaceæ. Nalkumkuma.— fragrant. LOC. Prajakta. Fl. Burma. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. flowers and seeds. abundant July-Sept. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. M. Lotus. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Assam. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . HABITAT :-Cultivated.—capsule. Cultivated in many parts of India. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. DISTR. Kanval. young branches quadrangular. bark. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Parijataka. Kumuda. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Nilophhal. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. PARTS USED :—Root. lessen inflammation. Alipriya. CHAR. Parijata. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. C. :—A large shrub or a small tree. t. Bengal. solitary. hairy. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). Har-singhar. Chotakanwal. NS. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. useful in bilious fevers. Fl. Indian Mourner : G. cures fevers. compressed. :—E. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. Lalkamal. Sephali. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Sephalika. Prajakta. Bilitavarai. LOC. Sk. Shonapadma. Harsing. Parijata . astringent-to bowels. bark. H. K. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. densely pubescent beneath.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. 2-celled. stomachic. H.. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. ovate acute. obcordate or merely orbicular. K.
long. glabrous or pubescent. 8-13 mm. Plant has a sharp. green. root stock tuberous.—solitary. Nasabo. pale rose or white. aphrodisiac .— ovoid. LOC. Ajagandhika.—3 cm. Sabzah. oblong. bracts stalked. glabrous. t. Sd. hot taste. itch. flowers and seeds.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. fleshy. M. Fr. bitter taste. Barbar. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . G. stamens about 40. Java. long. :—Var. filaments dilated at the base . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. juice gives lustre to . "Vata". pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. diam. 7. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. C. L. black and pitted. Common sweet basil. COM. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. Barbar. K. bitter. causes burning sensation. ellipsoid. alexipharmic. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. DISTR. entire. Var. Hungary. Surasa. thyrsiflora. Fl.—all the year. high. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. across. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. See—Ornamental Plants. 15-25 cm. Sajjebija.5-20 cm. submerged . biliousness. LOC. short. "Vata". diameter. Bahari. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Roots. useful in diseases of heart and brain. H. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. chronic pain in joints. removes impurities from blood . "Kapha". red. and nigropunctate above. NS. Sabja. useful in diseases of heart and blood.— in whorled racemes .6-0. asthma. rough. cylindric. Fr. antipyretic . Surabhi. Philippines. Fl. allays thirst. purple stem. obtuse. " Kapha". HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. stomachic. petioles very long. leaves and flower. emmenagogue. open in the morning only. cooling . Tungi. stems and branches green or purplish. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. acute. anthelmintic. lessens bile. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. inflammations. FAM.—Labiatæ. irregularly sinuate-dentate. LOC. Ramkasturi. white.—ovate.9 m. Africa. DISTR. erect. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). :—Cultivated in many places in the State.—nutlets about 2 mm. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). Manjarki. pink or purplish. L. ripening beneath the water. roundish. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). cultivated throughout the greater part of India. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. Sabja. :—Large aquatic herb . :—E. improves taste .. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. C. diuretic.—2-lipped.—peltate. Ceylon. leaves. leucoderma. Tukhamariya . Damaro. :—An erect herb 0. globose. Burma.—petals about 12. enlarged spleen. peduncles very long . diarrhœa and piles . toothed or lobed. febrifuge. Sk. Rihan. deeply cordate at the base.
156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. Deccan.. Fl. Sk. gland-dotted. removes foul breath. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. young ones pubescent. diuretic and demulcent properties. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. rugose. branched. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. useful in diseases of brain. S. COM. heating. pale greenish yellow. alexiteric. aphrodisiac . LOC. elliptic-lanceolate. Sumukha. useful in vomiting. " Vata".5 X 3. :—A perennial shrub. Rama-Ran tulasi. in close whorls . It is also styptic. BanMal tulasi. lower lip longer.— in simple or branched racemes. good for toothache. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. stems and branches subquadrangular .8—5. high. The flowers possess. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. woody below . In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. H. During fever when the extremities are cold. Rantulasi. " Kapha". HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka.—Labiatæ. :—Konkan. M. Ram Tulasi. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. Plant has bitter. rachis quadrangular .—nutlets subglobose. diuretic and stimulant.8 m. L. NS. earache. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. :—E. Lemon—shrubby basil. good for griping and piles (Yunani). often cultivated : Ceylon. coarsely crenate-serrate. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. Gujarat. G. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. 1. fits.—2-lipped. strangury .3—12. LOC. stimulant.7 cm. skin diseases. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. they are also aphrodisiac. liver and spleen. LOC.-July-Oct. Ajaka. pubescent. Java. Country. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. strengthens gums. Large basil. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). Avachi-bavachi. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. C. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. FAM. t. CHAR. sharp taste . Fr. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. brown. M. headache.—6. . inflammations. heart. DISTR.2—1. carminative. Fl.
5—38 cm. Krishna tulasi. CHAR. Tulasi. lumbago pains. upper lip pubescent on the back. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. Kala tulasi. high. strangury. leaves and seeds. heating. Suravallari. HABIT :—A common weed. C.—2. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Tulasa. and are given with honey. Vranda. stems numerous. LOC. Manjari. Sd. L. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . t. Tropical E. NS. cholagogue. Ceylon. obtuse or acute. of children and in hepatic affections . Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. DISTR. especially in children. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. :—G.—Sept-Nov. COM. DISTR. long in close whorls . anthelmintic. Sk. M. linear or linear-lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Country.— in racemes 15-20 cm.:—E. usually 2-3 cm. stems and branches subquadrangular. Fl. long. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. See—Sacred Plants. globose or pyriform . painful eye. West Asia. K. bronchitis. :—Throughout India. H. M. FAM.6— 3.—Rubiaceæ. G. H. Arabia. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. " Kapha". Tulasi. purplish. hiccup. alexiteric. leucoderma. Pavitra. high. purulent discharge of ear. :—Konkan.2 cm. lobes acute. elliptic-oblong. Damanpaper. Malay Archipelago. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). L. Vishnuvallabha. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Papli.— capsule.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. angular. Parapate. Vrinda. vomiting. CHAR. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. FAM. Parpat. smooth. . Asia to Java and the Philippines. bitter.—2-lipped. Australia. M. :—An annual herb. antipyretic.5-5 X 1. Fl. clothed with soft hairs . stipules with bristles . Tulasi. Phapti. NS. " Vata". entire or serrate.—pale brown. useful in heart and blood diseases.—on filiform pedicels. foul smells. used in catarrh and bronchitis . Fr. Deccan and S. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. margins recurved and scabrous. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. pubescent. varying from 7. Fl. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system.—Labiatæ. stomachic. asthma. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—subsessile..— nutlets. LOC. LOC. Fr. :—An annual plant. minutely gland-dotted. COM. 30-60 cm. purplish. yellow with black marking.
G. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. long. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. " Vata". introduced into India. yellow at the edges. COM.5 cm. ulcers. Hathathoria. dull bluish-green. Prickly pear. burning. LOC. carminative. CHAR. DISTR. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. stomachic.— berry. diuretic. flowers and fruits. pyriform. juice cures earache (Yunani). Sher. Phadyanivdung. M. ascites. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. LOC. recurved. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. Slipper thorn. Plant juice—heating. piles. Mullugalli. outer segments ovate red in the centre.—Cactaceæ. used in ophthalmia. cures biliousness. perianth rotate. tumours. antipyretic. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . Plant bitter. reddish at the tips. Chorhothalo. subulate. lumbago. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). yellow or orange. leucoderma. L. digestive. Zhoratheylo. Fr. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. purgative. laxative. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. cures bronchitis in children. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . vesicular calculi. inflammations. Vajrakantaka. or more high. NS. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. Fl. spleen enlargement. long. liver complaints.—5 cm. rusty brown. loss of consciousness. K.—7.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Grown as hedge. good for leucoderma. 3 m. inner spathulate. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. angular or warty. Nagaphani. Nagaphana.5 mm. :—E. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. carminative. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. reddish purple when ripe. FAM. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. largest 3. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. Nagaphana. H. across. Nagdali. urinary complaints. it is also used in liver complaints. alexiteric. Snuka. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. Nagadru. cures inflammations. . Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. spleen enlargement. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Joints variable in size. xerophyte. Sk. obovate or elliptic. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. anæmia. rather thin.
Cochin-China. HABITAT :—Aquatic. LOC. :—E. stomachic. Sk. Arlu. FAM. Mokka. NS. Kanara ghats . H. FAM. COM. Pharri. piles. M. Mayarjangha.). useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. aphrodisiac. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. LOC. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Bhat. G. NS. Ullu. tonic. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. DISTR. aphrodisiac. dysentery. LOC. anthelmintic. astringent to bowels .—Bignoniaceæ. K. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. intestinal worms. :—E. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. K. PARTS USED :—Grain.—Gramineæ. Alangi. Shali. Fruit—expectorant.S. leucoderma. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. Tandula. :—Widely cultivated. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Rice . Seeds are purgative. fevers. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Sk. Nivara. M. Podval. Dirghavrinta. Ghats. LOC. fattening. R. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Chokha. Chaval. COM. Malaya. H. useful in " Vata". improves appetite. Indian trumpet flower.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Dyes. :—The Konkan and the N. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Tetu. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Akki. DISTR. Rice. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). K. improves taste. Tetu. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. anal troubles. oleaginous. Tetu. useful in biliousness . vomiting. Araluka. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. G. sweet. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Ava. asthma. Tuntaka. It is astringent and tonic. Bagi. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Tans. tonic. M. Fruit—acrid. cooling. diuretic. Vrihi. Ceylon. Shyonaka. inflammations. good in heart and throat diseases. Tandula. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. appetiser. biliousness.
PARTS USED :—Leaves. C. :—E. buboes. ulcers. used externally.—Oxalidaceæ. LOC. It is an excellent application to abscesses. It is a pleasant. Kshiravi.— capsule. Kyirin . oblong. Jaladudhi. :—G. The grains contain vitamin C. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. 5-angled. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. yellow. cures dysentery. dysentery and scurvy. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. Dugdhike. Dudhari.—palmately 3-foliate.—petals 5. NS.2—2. M. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Amrul. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. obcordate. H. M. Sd. In dysentery. COM. LOC. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. leaflets 1. See—Food Plants.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . diarrhœa. petioles very slender. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. Amlalonika. Sk.5 cm. gives great relief. FAM. if applied to chest. Ceylon. beaked. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. measles. Fr. Dudhialata. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. Sk. pubescent. Fl. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . boils. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. linear-oblong. Br. Ambastha. Dugdhica.—Asclepiadaceæ. Chukrita. COM. t. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. long. Indian Sorrel. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. stems rooting. FAM. inflamed piles. NS. also in burns and scalds.— many. Dudhatani. transversely striate. margins ciliate. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). to which a little lemon juice is added. Marudbhava. Ambuti. Dudhialata. L. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. K. ovoid. Dudhani. bruised. Changeri. base cuneate subsessile. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . Fl.—axillary. removes " Kapha ". DISTR. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). bowels or kidneys. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. scarlet fever. Dugdhika. Shuklika. :—Throughout the State. brown. CHAR. sub-umbellate . rounded at the apex. easy to digest. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. K. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. H. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. " Vata " and piles. Rice water.— Oct-May. small-pox. . astringent. good appetiser .
Fr. female flower spadix solitary. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda).—deciduous. Ceylon.5-9 cm. Fl. Ketaka. Fl. milky juice. 4. linear or linear-lanceolate. X 3. Leaves are useful in leprosy. tonic. :—E. Fr. cough. HABITAT :—Usually near water. " Kapha ". stem supported by aerial roots .—dioecious. Burma. syphilis. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. bitter. useful in strangury and tumours. Fruit is useful in " Vata ".—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. Mundige. anthers. CHAR. fruit. long. with flavour. pale rose or white. Java. DISTR. Chama-pushpa. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. Sd. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . aphrodisiac. 3. palegreen. NS.8-6. often planted. Country— Belgaum. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. anthelmintic. dry. L. heat of body. gonorrhœa. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers.—oblong or globose. M.9—1. Kevada. long. LOC. Anthers useful in pruritus. leucoderma. M. Flowers improve complexion. Kedige. Dhulipushpika. Sk. black. Sundarbans. pain in the muscles. PARTS USED :—Plant. rarely erect. aphrodisiac.5 m. purple veined.. coriaceous ensiform. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. :—Konkan. thin. Ketaki. diuretic. causes flatulence. aphrodisiac. Ketgi. t. laxative. high. pain. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. Deccan. LOC. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Fruit—tonic.3 cm. corona staminal. Keora. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. Kanara. expectorant. much branched. root.—glaucous green. yellow or red. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).— large. indigestible. coma present. Fl. PARTS USED :-Root. Andamans. Poona Sangam.—Pandanaceæ. C. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. K. Screw pine. Kanara. anthelmintic. margins and midrib spiny. L. Gogandhul. lobes ciliate. :—Konkan and N. strikingly handsome. juice is used in gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). mouth with pubescent ring. somniferous. DISTR. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. S.8 mm. :—A shrub up to 6 m. G. Umbrella Tree. diseases of heart and brain. Giripriya. leaves.—very numerous.—Dec.—follicles. small-pox. Gandha-pushpa. COM. 0. . fruit and oil from bracts. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. Kewoda. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. FAM. scabies. stems many. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. H. alexiteric.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
digestible. CHAR. few flowered racemes. Khandesh. and southwards to Ceylon. L. peduncles 10-23 cm. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. LOC.5 cm.3—2. Ranmug. nose complaints. antipyretic. inflammations. M. COM. Kapila. Boichand. Seeds— tonic.:—Very common throughout the State. piles. LOC. good for eyes. throat inflammations. Vanmudga. long. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Sendhi. long. membranous. Date sugar palm. LOC. cough. Dharwar. Kohesaru. Satara. Mugani. astringent. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. :—Annual or perennial. Fr. Sk. wiry. " Tridosh". laxative. gout. K. long. Adavada. FAM. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Sk. bitter. Indian wine palm. yellow. wild date palm. PARTS USED :—Seeds. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. Kherk. . NS. petioles grooved. prostrate. NS. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Kharjurika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Sind. light and astringent. bronchitis.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. Sd.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Tadi. styptic. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. cure biliousness. Afghanistan. enrich blood. See—Food Plants. Adabanmagi. Kharjuri. good in fevers. layer. Kallu. Ranmath. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. :—G. burning sensation. :—Largely grown in. Kajuri. Burma. Shindi. G. Kurangika. Trianguli. slightly recurved. :—E.5—5 cm. Siyindu. Ahmednagar. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever.—6-12. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Kidney diseases. Belgaum.— pod. Fl. The grains contain vitamins A and B. as a kharif crop. good for the eyes . DISTR. H. blood diseases. glabrous or hairy. Fl. stems numerous from a woody root-stock.—Oct. anthelmintic. Malay Islands. H. thirst. Magavala. Khaji. Kalli-chalu. Kolaba and Kanara. cures consumption. Konkan. t. eye troubles. Khajuri. straight subcylindric. dry. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. aphrodisiac. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Koshila. 2.—3-foliate. leaflets 1. FAM. K. broadly spathulate. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. mugawana. DISTR. Deccan and Gujarat. " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Kashayi. Shimbiparni. dysentery. COM. Abyssinia. Ahmedabad.—in sub-capitate. Ichela-mara. LOC. M. Swadi.—Palmæ. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. headache.
5 m. DISTR. and in beds of streams and water courses. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. COM. useful in diseases of heart. cardiotonic. long. :—A creeping perennial herb. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. aphrodisiac. subsessile. See. oleaginous. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. vomiting. Ratoliya. Bihar. This is called neera. erect. Ceylon. Vashira.—Fibres. cooling. Rohilkhand. spadix 60-90 cm.5—3. long. rounded at the apex. 15-45x2-2. :—G. sharply serrate in upper part. Jalapimpli. Langali. greyish-green.—more or less all the year. t. angular. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Fr. fruit and juice of the tree. Sholapur.2 cm. Mysore. male white.—globose. orange-yellow. ensiform.—pinnate.—white or pale-pink. oblong-ellipsoid. usually along banks. Baluchistan. L. Fl. oblique. roundish. anthelmintic. constipating. NS. pointed. rigid. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. :—A tall graceful palm.—Jan-Feb. Jalpippali. fevers. M. large and thick. LOC. crown hemispherical. spiny at the base. petioles compressed towards the apex. Ratoliya. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). outer Himalayas. high. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet.—Verbenaceæ. 9-15 m. Sd.—rounded at the ends. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Bhuiokra.5 m. . Agnijwala.) FAM. flowers distant. wild or more often cultivated. densely fascicled. LOC. clothed with appressed white hairs . t.. LOC. fattening. spatulate. good in heart and abdominal complaints. Sk. Jalapipali. Toyavallari. scented. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. Africa. blood and eye. lower 3-lobed. upper 2-lobed. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. Fr. Okra.—sessile. Fl. L. Ratuliyo. much branched. deeply grooved on one side. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Fl. alexiteric. H. stems rooting at the nodes. Siwalik. Bengal.—2. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. pinnules many. long. spinous. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. :—Found fairly in Surat. 3-4. Coromandel Coast.—opposite. wandering of mind.— dioecious. Fl. Famine Plants. Poona and Belgaum districts. C. 2-lipped. Sharadi. female spadix and spathe as in the male. flowers very many. :—Tolerably common throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. :—Throughout India. oblong. cooling. triangular. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. aphrodisiac.
NS. Kiranelligida. FAM. Ceylon. of female. K. Infusion is a good tonic.—yellowish. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia.— numerous. :—Throughout India. burning sensation. bronchitis. The whole plant. scabies. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). monœcious. high . longitudinally ribbed on the back.—capsule.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. anæmia. LOC. Sd. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. . USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. LOC. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. biliousness. dry. Sk. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. LOC. ringworm (Yunani). Vituntika. Stomachic. and without salt may be applied to bruises. scarcely lobed. sores. Bhumyamalaki. 30-60 cm. males 1-3. milky-juice. lobed.useful in fevers. good for ulcers. Bhuiavli. :—Konkan and Deccan. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). Sukshmadala. Plant—hot.— July-Aug. hiccup. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections.—3-gonous. PARTS USED :—Root. smooth. Fr. asthma. wounds. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. diuretic. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. CHAR :—An annual herb. annular. leaves. urinary discharges. Tropics generally. Bhumyamali. Fl. axillary. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). leprosy. cooling.—Euphorbiaceæ. Leaves are stomachic. females solitary. globose. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. bronchitis. Bhumyamali. Ajata. Bhuianvalah. disk of the male of minute glands. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). t. anuria. Sadahazurmani. angular. COM. stem branched at the base. except Australia. very numerous. alexipharmic . elliptic-oblong. thirst. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. M. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. useful in thirst. Fl. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. It is valuable in scurvy. Jaramla. wounds. asthma.. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). :—G. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . DISTR. Amala. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. distichous. maturant. fruit. L. very small. H.
Menasu. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Pan. PARTS USED :—Fruits. Kaphavirodhi. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Menasin-kallu . Satara. Saptashira. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. :—E. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Tambulavalli. useful in toothache. pains. Marich. It contains an aromatic essential oil. and fruits (rarely). Black-pepper. Kalamiri. heart and liver. Betel leaf vine. Bhakshyapatra. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. G. Eleballi. See—Condiments and Spices. M. bronchitis. Kalimiri. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. COM. Betelleaf. useful in "Vata". Vidyache-pan. given with milk in hysteria. ozoena. carminative. It sweetens breath. Sholapur. laxative. vulnerary. strengthens teeth . purgative. NS. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. night blindness. elephantiasis . Kanara. Mensinballi. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. asthma. Tambola. hot. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. cultivated in Konkan and N. Pan. Kalaka. M. Golmirch . alterative. K. Tikshna. spleen diseases. :—Wild in the N. It increases saliva. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. leavs. Sk. foul smell in the mouth. tonic. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. satyriasis and to allay thirst. aphrodisiac. . LOC. DISTR. Kanara forests. Kalamirich. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. carminative and astringent. generally in Konkan. tonic to brain. removes all foulness from mouth. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). anthelmintic. H. ozœna. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. clears throat. Fresh leaves. acrid. H. LOC. LOC. COM. DISTR. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. piles. alexipharmic. Pan. liver and muscular pains. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon.—Piperaceæ. Panu. " Kapha ". improves appetite (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Poona. FAM. Sk. FAM. smeared with oil. stomachic. tonic and digestive. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. bechic. useful in "Kapha". improves voice.—Piperaceæ. G. Nagavalli. Vileyad-ele. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Vata". inflammations. Malimirich . increases biliousness. heating. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. styptic (Yunani). carminative. Betel pepper. throat diseases. Warm leaves.
C. LOC. Greater plantain . facilitates menstruation. NS. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. Deccan.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. various forms of cutaneous diseases. dries body humours (Yunani). vertigo. petiole longer than leaf-blade. See—Condiments and Spices. . hills of S. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. M. Bartang. ovoid. Fr. weakness following fevers. Arcot and Salem. used in chronic bronchitis. In physiological action. chronic fevers. CHAR. ovate or oblong. It is a good expectorant. LOC.—Plantaginaceæ. long. FAM. and possesses narcotic properties . Vehkali. tonic and a local stimulant. Bark contains a glucoside. DISTR. leprosy. sprains. chest affections. W. used as febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. coma.5 cm. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. Externally it is rubefacient. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. sciatica. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. lumbago. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. :—E.—Pittosporaceæ. :—K. Lahuriya. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. L. Fl. variable in width. H. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. base tapering into petiole. bruises.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . FAM. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Tammata. piperidine and an essential oil. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . piles and some skin-diseases . :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . the oil is alterative. COM. Kanara in ghat forests. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism.5-12.—capsule.— alternate.—lobes 4. Vikhari. radial 2. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. COM. Burma. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. PROPERTIES AND LOC. paralysis . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. Khandala (pretty common). It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. Khasia Hills. Konkan. NS. N. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. It yields an essential oil. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. See—Timbers. & A. lanceolate or greenish . PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. ophthalmia and phthisis. entire or toothed.
Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. angled. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Raktachitraka. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic.-Feb.Kempuchitramula. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. M. Mahang. LOC. Lead-wort. L. FAM. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. alterative. Fl. :—Temperate Himalayas. LOC.—large. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. PARTS USED :—Roots. dull-black. Fire plant. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. erect. Baluchistan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic .MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Palni hills. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. :—Konkan : Deccan. Agnishikha. Lalchitrak. DISTR. LOC. Rosy-coloured leadwort. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Fl. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. leaves. exauriculate petiole.—throughout the year. base passing into amplexicaul. oblong. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). COM. rosy scarlet. Chitra. high. lax spikes. Fattening. NS.—tube slender. attenuate. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . t. Sd. Sk. Ghats. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. H. limb wide. :—Cultivated throughout India. Lalchita.. long in long terminal axillary. G. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. top coming off as a conical lid. HABITAT :—Along river banks. PARTS USED :—Roots. afford relief. Fl. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn.. Assam.-4-8. W. Ratochatro. LOC. zeylanica. CHAR. C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl.—3-5 cm. Lalchitrak. and seeds. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). Lalachitraka. Malaya. obtuse. DISTR. stems herbaceous. Chitraka. Ceylon.Sept. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. alterative and diuretic. striate . :— E.—Plumbaginaceæ. Burma. K. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Nilgiris. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts.
USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. See—Ornamental Plants. The use of Pl. stems 0.5 m. COM. Journ. It is used in procuring abortion. :—E. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Chitra . petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . Medi.—capsule. consumption. Res. woody. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. Chitranga. leaves. alexipharmic. scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. skin disease. a paste is made with milk. inflammations. attenuated into a short petiole. Fl. L. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. cure intestinal troubles. piles. bechic.-Sept. terete. Chitrak. :—Throughout India.6-1. Ceylon. ovate. Jyotishka. Chitramula. Root—bitter. rheumatism. Vahni. See—Ornamental Plants. long. useful in laryngitis.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. rachis glandular . oblong. astringent to bowels. Agnishikha. Fl. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. and in leucoderma. Ind. diseases of liver. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. " Vata" and " Kapha". Chitaro Chitrak. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. hot. C.—Aug.—Plumbaginaceæ. a favourite medicine for flatulence. root-bark. wild in Western Peninsula. Bile-Chitra-mula. Chitra . pointed. stomachic. leucoderma. Malay Peninsula. t. expectorant. carminative. anasarca. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. anthelmintic. G. leucoderma. January 1933). NS.—in elongate spikes. piles. Vallari. cultivated . it is useful in dyspepsia. Chitra. leprosy. dysentery. diseases of spleen. K. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. stomachic. Sk. vesicant. . Chitraka. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. itching. Bengal. In S. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. tonic. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. entire. aborti-facient. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. LOC. alterative . striate. juice. spreading. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. FAM. appetiser. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. lobes 5. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. H. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Tropics of the old world. LOC. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. ascites. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—thin. diarrhœa. M.—white. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). " Tridosha" . laxative. leaves are caustic. bronchitis. ring-worm. It is used as a powerful sialogogue.
DISTR. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. stems and branches quadrangular. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. shining black. acrid. pains. divaricate. Fl.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. rounded.—2-lipped.:—More or less throughout India. t. spirally arranged. smooth. See—Ornamental Plants. cultivated.—salver-shaped. t. Pangli.8-9 cm. DISTR. Devagangile. :—All throughout the State. Fr. Radha-champo. FAM. irregularly doubly toothed. C.5-18x3. leaves and milky juice. 7. LOC. NS. 15-30 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. Sk. laxative . USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. with an intra-marginal vein.-May. urinary discharges. Fl. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. whorls close. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. H. Kanara. :—A small shrub 1. G. :—E. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. shining. useful in leprosy. NS. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. white with a pale yellow centre. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. Champakam. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Goleurchampa. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. Root-bark is purgative. Frangipani. COM. venereal sores. Phangla. pungent.—follicles.— large. Pagoda tree.. FAM. Belchampaka. PARTS USED :—Root. Khairchapha.-Feb. very fragrant. Rhuruchapha. . heating. 4-lobed. bark.-nutlets ellipsoid. CHAR. high. upper lip white shot with purple.8 m. 12 cm. LOC. LOC. carminative. Fl. 3-lobed. ascites (Ayurveda). itching. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. cylindrical.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. oblong-lanceolate. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. K. entire. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. Golainchi. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. useful in gleet. :—Konkan. COM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. L. Fl. acute at both ends.—Labiatæ.—Apocynaceæ.—practically throughout the year. :—Native of tropical America. abundant from Mar. rarely maturing. abundant. Mahabaleshwar. S. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Kadu-sampige. purple. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. Deccan. Country. M.—Dec. L. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. broadly ovate. inner face angular. long. M. many flowered. ulcers. lower lip white. C. :—M. Fr. long. CHAR. common.2—1.
FAM. skin diseases. In Satara. Huligili. PARTS USED :—Root. Ustabunda . F. Sk. Oil—styptic. COM. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. liver pain. lumbago. Indian beech. :—E. USES :—The fresh leaves. Karanja. chronic fever and hydrocele. Pavaka. leprosy. piles. also planted. cures eye diseases. good in scabies. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. lumbago. cures biliousness. bruised. . are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. wounds. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. carminative. vagina. head and brain diseases. Jayanti. chest complaints. Karanj. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. cure earache. Seeds—acrid . Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). good for tumour. useful in diseases of eye. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Kirmal. Naktamala. skin and in keratitis .) FAM. piles. Honge. Ichu. urinary discharges . flowers. fruits and seeds. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). COM. NS. Kanja. wounds (Ayurveda). Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. along Deccan rivers . juice is given in colic and fever. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough.—Verbenaceæ. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Aran. Agetha. K. Karanjmara. Gracie). leaves. Kanaji. Arand. M. relieves inflammation. Sk. DISTR. Agnibijaka. Agnimandha. chronic fever. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). enlargement of spleen and abdomen. " Kapha ". :—G. Oil—anthelmintic. Karanja. Kanika. Arni. H. anthelmintic. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. ulcers. purify and enrich blood. ascites. alexipharmic . M.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Chamari. K. " Vata ". bark. NS. rheumatic pains. leucoderma. Arni. itching. G. Karanj. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. J. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. H. LOC. LOC. Oils. Gaura.
3 cm. . DISTR. fruits and gum. laxative after food. Jamphal. Peru. fever. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). cooling. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. rough-tubercled . It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. small. M. hairy in the throat. common about Karwar.. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. See—Famine Plants. high. Root is laxative. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Perala. Fr. cylindric. for unhealthy ulcers. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. used in bronchitis. causes "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Piyara. flowers.— globose. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan.— June-July. inflammations. piles. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. bark yellowish. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Fl. blue-black. FAM. H. aphrodisiac . useful in anaemia. Anthers—dry wound.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Sk.—Myrtaceæ. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). cooling. C.—hard. heating. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—tubular. Kanara. good for liver complaints (Yunani). greenish yellow. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. broadly elliptic. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Sd. Jamb. entire or upper part dentate. bronchitis. good in colic and for bleeding gums. laxative. t. Young leaves are tonic in the . Perala. It is given in the form of decoction. Vastula. lobes 4. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. It is also employed in scurvy. chyluria. Ash—caustic (Yunani). dyspepsia. diabetes. NS.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). Ceylon. pungent. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. as an astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated all over the State.2-6. LOC. Gum is tonic. Guava tree. Peru . stomachic. Gova. stomachic.—5-9 X 3. cool heated brain. LOC. LOC. Peruka. LOC. Dridhabija. Nicobars and Malaya. Fruit—tonic. Jamud-rukh. Safedsafari. L. Amrut. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. K. Andamans. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. DISTR. Flowers cool body. COM. sour. applied to sore eyes. Fl. G. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. seated on the calyx . constipation."Vata".
Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. Bakuchi. Seeds— refrigerant. leaves. NS. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". high. bitter taste. diuretic. piles. C. Vanguji. leprosy.8 X 2. heals ulcers. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn.—one.—pod. Fl. L. H. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. t.2 m. Country. stem and branches grooved. nigro-punctate. biliousness. stomachic. Sk. 3. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. improves appetite. fruit and seeds. good for heart troubles. white hairy.—bluish purple . causes biliousness. antipyretic. improves hair and complexion. Konkan and S. 0. M. Bavachi. Seed—purgative. closely-pitted. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth.—Aug-Dec. vulnerary. " Rakta-pitta". Fruits and seeds cure asthma. Kalameshi. Fr. urinary dis charges. anthelmintic. Kushtaghni. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. anthelmintic. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. nephrites and cachexia. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root.—in dense axillary. alterative. studded with glands and white hairs. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. Bowach-chi. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. difficulty in micturition.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). inflammation. Babachi. Bhavanj. Bavachi. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. black. cures "Vata". Chandralekha.—simple. smooth.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. K. solitary. cures blood diseases . rounded and mucronate at the apex. clawed. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths.5—5 cm. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. :—E. ovoidoblong. stimulant. 10-30 flowered racemes . raw one is used in diarrhœa. Fl. Ripe fruit is a good aperient.6-1. DISTR. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. mucronate. CHAR. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. standard orbicular. bronchitis. LOC. laxative. alexiteric. Bukchi. scabies. See—Fruit Trees. good for leucoderma. anæmia. skin diseases. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). Sd. Babachi. LOC. Fruit—diuretic. M. COM. HABITAT :—Waste places. :—An erect annual. G. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. . vomiting.
Bibla. sore-throat. Hulidalimb . H. Honne. useful in all body diseases. urinary discharges. Mahakutaj. tonic. scattered but not gregarious . Dhalim. good for biliousness. gleet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. " Tridosh". It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. :—E. applied to hydrocele. Honi. LOC. NS. diuretic. tonic. prolapsus ani. enriches blood. burning sensation. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. :—Western Peninsula and S. Malabar kino-tree. elephantiasis. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. LOC. " Kapha ". heart-disease. Benga. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. vulnerary. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). useful in biliousness. flowers and fruits. FAM. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. bark. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Indian kino-tree. Raktabija-pushpa. stomatitis. blood diseases. Kanara. earache. NS. called kino. somewhat milder in action than catechu. sore eyes brain diseases. COM. Dadimba. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. liver tonic. useful in eye troubles. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. ascends to 1100 m. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. anthelmintic. cultivated in many parts of India. leucoderma. Fruit-appetiser. griping. Gum—bitter. alterative . biliousness. fattening. Dadam. Flowers—check vomiting. India. chest troubles. G. Gum. Dalimba. Bibla. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Bija. urinary discharges (Yunani). useful in vomiting. antipyretic. Flowers— improve appetite. See—Timbers. thirst. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). spleen complaints. laxative. :—Leaves. G. styptic. erysipelas. Bia. Bio. boils.—Punicaceæ. K. FAM. H. used in piles. Bark—astringent. :—E. allays thirst. PARTS USED. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). laxative. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. K. used in sore throat. Sk. LOC. anal troubles. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. body eruptions. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Bijak. Valka-phala. DISTR. . Dalimb . Bibla. strengthens gums. Sk. in Akrani. Sunila. Khandesh and Dangs. ophthalmia. ulcers. Dadima. Dharimb . Hirdokhi. DISTR. colic. Pitasar. COM. Common in N. also in Konkan. :—Wild in Iran. fever. scabies. Dadima. PARTS USED:—Root. M. Ceylon. Bigsah. leprosy. Gums and Resins.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Anar. Pomegranate tree. M. cures " Vata ". flowers and gum. Kabul and Baluchistan. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests.
Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. K. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Mangari-kai. NS. :—E. Gela. LOC. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. G. long. S. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Konkan. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. dark green. Sk. Dharaphal. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. jasmine . Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . glabrous above.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. Mindhola. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. lanceolate .—opposite. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Malaya. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. nearly 6 cm. COM. M. Karhar Mainphal. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. numerous. Rangoon creeper. LOC. Karigidda. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. C—petals 5. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. NS. pendant. DISTR. M. Minkare. USES :—In Amboyana. See—Ornamental Plants. Rangoonkibel. Gelphal. . widely cultivated all over India. elliptic. Fl. acuminate. The rind of the fruit.-Aug. Midhola. H. L. Fruit contains vitamin C. Annam. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . Fr. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. Emetic nut. 7.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.—Combretaceæ. Fl. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. at first white then deep red . COM. FAM. calyx tube long. base rounded. CHAR. FAM. Country and Kanara. Chinese honeysuckle.— ellipsoid. Madana. hairy beneath. t. Rangoonchavel. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. G. acutely 5-angled. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. Barmasinivel. It is given in the form of decoction. Pinditak. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. H. Lalchameli. In China. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking.—in axillary and terminal spikes. M. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. :—E. :—A strong climber.5 cm.—Mar.—Rubiaceæ.
Ruchira. purgative. Mali. paralysis. Hastidanta. G. Radish. Sk. certain and regular. tonic. ulcers. flowers. hiccup. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. piles. Muri. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. laxative. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K. antipyretic. LOC. useful in chronic bronchitis. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . produce alopecia (Yunani). Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. it is equal to it in every respect. heating. Muro. The plant contains glucoside saponin. emetic. DISTR. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . Seeds-sharp. useful in diseases of heart. destroys "Vata". bitter. leaves. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. its action is very safe. juice relieves earache. eruptions. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. Juice of . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent.—Cruciferæ. Mula. good for spleen and in paralysis. M. muscular pains. Mura. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). piles (Ayurveda). alexiteric. inflammations. NS. asthma. It also contains an essential oil. See—Timber. Ceylon. Mula. Tropical Africa. Java. leucoderma (Yunani). E. Sumatra. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. bad taste. :—E. Bili Mulangi. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. carminative. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. COM. fruit and seeds. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. tumours. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. emetic. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. " Vata" and " Kapha". sweet. It is also used to poison fish. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. H. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. cholera. Bitter. Mulak. good in tumours. leprosy. and all inflammations . binding. cures abscesses. China. skin-diseases. LOC. carminative. emmenagogue. S. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. boils. amenorrhœa. Ksharmula. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. used in diseases of the brain. leprosy.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins.
Andamans. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica.. ajmalicine. It is hypnotic. Fl. M. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. Yuthikaparni. Sk. single or didymous.5-6. Chandrika.—tubular. Harkaichand. cures " Tridosha ". Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. Harki. Sk. acrid. COM. B and C. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. white. specific for insanity. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels.—drupe. Sivanabhi. Sarpakshi. used in hyperpiesis . Gaja-karni. Kanara. thin. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. acute. Fr. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. Fl. NS. bright green above. heating. COM. Ceylon. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. carminative. L. . corrective and emmenagogue.9 m. HABITAT :—Moist forests. shady open places near rain-forests. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. swollen a little above the middle. See—Vegetables. :—H. pungent. Juipani.3 cm. serpentinine.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. diuretic. and black salt. black shining. 7. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Java. Western Peninsula. C. irregularly. laxative. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth.5-18 X 2. Palakjuhi. sedative. M. CHAR. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Chandrika. often tinged with violet. with a long. anthelminitic . Chhotachand. In the Konkan. K. DISTR. :—An erect perennial shrub. pale beneath. FAM. ajamalinine. seeds are considered peptic. PARTS USED :—Root.— Mar. Nai. LOC. K. bright red . leaves (rarely).180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative.—Apocynaceæ. Mungusavel. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. expectorant. Group B — Serpentine. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. :—H. Sarpagandha. Nakulikand.-May. Doddapatike. sharp.. Garudpatala..-in whorls of 3. yellowish root stock.—in irregular corymbose cymes. NS. t. ulcers (Ayurveda). Root contains vitamins A. lanceolate. nodular.—Acanthaceæ.) FAM. ginger. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power.
Khandala. M. Ceylon (wild) . upper lip bifid . DISTR. bracts ovate lanceolate. Divaligo. Divald. piles. glandular. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. vaginal pains. amenorrhœa (Yunani). eructations. paralysis. :—E. black. LOC. Fl. :—Undershrub. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. diseases of rectum and head. stems obscurely angled. solitary.—Euphorbiaceæ. Root-bark—purgative. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. convulsions. pains. intestinal worms. K. Erand. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. lumbago. leaves and seeds. Erand.—capsule. Very little in other districts of the State. Sholapur). 0. DISTR. NS. liver and spleen diseases.—lipped. Castor oil plant. Country (Dharwar. dropsy. Java. Palma christi. LOC. generally cultivated. purgative. elephantiasis. ascites. glands. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). leaves. Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. fevers. LOC. Chitrabija. bronchitis. increases "Kapha". ring-worm. carminative . t. narrow. tumours. COM. cultivated. useful in pains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR.—5-10 X2-5 cm. M. L. useful in liver troubles. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. body pains. S. inflammations. anal troubles. good for burns. Belgaum. leprosy. high. HABITAT :—Hills. flowers and seeds. piles. H. alterative. Fr. Tirki. oil—anthelmintic.-Jany. Madagascar (cultivated). PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. ascites. Country. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. useful in skin-disease. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. inflammations. boils. ascites. white. tropical Africa. entire.. Seed and oil—cathartic. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Vardhamana. leprosy. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. Cattle are fed with leaves for . Sk. Fruit— appetiser. lumbago. :—Probably of African origin. rheumatism. asthma.— tuberculate. velvety hairy Sd.9—1. pubescent: C. night-blindness. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). elliptic lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. typhoid. Eranda. Vardhaman. widely cultivated in tropical countries. useful in inflammations. Triputiphala. increase biliousness. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. strangury. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Fl. asthma.5 m. pointed. Haralu. Straits-Settlements. Erand. FAM. Leaves—galactagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. M.—nearly sessile. G. Arand. earache. hairy outside . some fevers. useful in heart diseases. hills near Belgaum. alterative. :—Throughout India. LOC. pain in back. :—Deccan.—Oct.
good for eyes. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose .— all the year. Ati-manjula. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Gulab. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Flower—bitter. cultivated all over India. with a good odour. DISTR. Sudburj. petioles prickly. 2. intestinal affections. they are cold. cooling. mild and safe purgative. acrid. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. burning sensation. Italy. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. serrate. used in heat of body. . H.—obovate .—pinnate. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. G. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. hairy. liver. P.5 m. much used in lotions and collyria .182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . :—Origin unknown. attaining 1. COM. adults. Fl. improves appetite (Ayurveda). tonic. Shatadala. NS. France. ovate oblong. benefits lungs. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. head-ache.5-6. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. antipyretic. expectorant. Soumyagandha. See—Ornamental Plants. Fl. In constipation it is used as an enema. Punjab and U. PARTS USED :—Flowers. CHAR. LOC. Lakshmipushpa. :—A perennial shrub. removes bad odour from mouth. double. astringent when dry (Yunani). sometimes striped . laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. cardiotonic. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. long. L. which is a powerful poison. dry. cardiotonic. cephalic. Sk. stipules scarcely dilated. K. laxative. Ghazipur is a chief centre. stems with stout and hooked prickles. sometimes glandular. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge.3 cm. sweetish.— usually corymbose.. They are also applied to painful joints. seldom griping or causing flatulency. kidneys. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Fr. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). M. biliousness. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. Tarana. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . FAM. :—E. Greece and Germany.—Rosaceæ. LOC. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. Gulab . excessive perspiration. Gulab. etc. red. stomatitis. chronic fevers. inflammations. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. See—Oils. " Vata". pink or white. cures leprosy. tooth-ache. t. Pannira.
shining. piles. roots very long. :—Root. H. Indian Madder. grooved. ear. valves hyaline. Chukra. laxative. improves voice and complexion . Japan. Tamravalli. :—E. branched from the root.—Rubiaceæ.-Jany. Fl. ulcers and skin-diseases. NS. DISTR. . Sk. pains in joints.—2. Bladder. Chitralata. eye. one pair with longer petioles ovate. leucoderma. rheumatism. Country. Dock. lower leaves larger. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Sorrel. analgestic. leaves and fruit. blood. diseases of uterus. urine and even bones red. L. ulcers. obtuse. prickly. Sk. H. elliptic. :—Perennial climbing herb. purplish black when ripe. anthelmintic. antidysenteric. increase appetite. stems very long. LOC. lethargy. :—E. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. M. Fr. high. alexiteric. heating. Decoction tinges blood. Ceylon. and was much used in dropsy. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. jaundice. with a thin red bark. Leaves-sweet.—white or pink. NS.—in whorls of 4. Manjit. Rohini. Manjishha. branches quadrangular . petioles triangular. orbicular . 15-30 cm.5—7. it powerfully affects the nervous system. Gulmketu. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. cures " Kapha ". PARTS USED. cordate or hastate. Manjishtha.—didymous or globose. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. inflammations.5 cm. K. CHAR. urinary discharges. jaundice. dysentery. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. L. COM. all scabrous with white prickles. used in eye-sores. diuretic. Manjishtha. Root—bitter. smooth. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. spleen-enlargement. CHAR. erysipelas. t-Oct.—Polygonaceæ. oleaginous . M. the Konkan and S. paralysis. inner perianth-segments membranous. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. vagina. Aruna. Fr.—in terminal panicled cymes. FAM. leucoderma. ovate. bitter. lactagogue. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Ambat Chuka. LOC. uterine pains (Yunani). COM. Raktasara. analgesic. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. Amlavetasa. liver complaints. base cuneate. paralysis. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. :—Annual. Fl. Java. five-nerved. Malay Peninsula. Majit. tropical Africa. greenish. leucorrhoea. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). antipyretic. cylindric. emmenagogue.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. Fl. FAM. M. Chuka.. erect glabrous herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn.
Fl. Havananju. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. aperient and diuretic. toothache. Nagadali.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. also considered as a vermifuge. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. blue or pink. roasted. :—G. stems usually decumbent. stomachic. Vishapaha. FAM. Satap. ciliate. USES :—Leaves are cooling. checks nausea and promotes appetite. Africa. Deccan. Khatselio . rugose with furrow. in dysentery. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. :—Western Punjab. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme.—capsule. Sadapaha.-Jany. Konkan. Kharmor. . Sk. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India.—Rutaceæ. then erect. LOC. COM. leucoderma. 2-lipped. bronchitis. generally in the Deccan. DISTR. ovoid oblong. analgesic. pains. with scarious faces and hard ridges. M. Common—Garden-rue . Kanara. Sd. See—Vegetables. useful in scabies. constipation. H. while fresh they are bruised. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Parpatha. LOC.—Nov. with darker spots. Pismarum Sadab. Satapa . G. lower shortly 3-lobed. S. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Cooling. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. diseases of the spleen. Afghanistan. FAM. Fl. vomiting. oblong lanceolate. Ghati pittapapada . flatulence.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. pale brown. K.— subsessile. tumours. H. M. dyspepsia. hiccup. :—E. DISTR.—white. :—Common throughout the State. Ceylon. NS. LOC. N. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. C. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. Persia. t. bites and stings of poisonous animals. Sk.—suborbicular. Trans-Indus Hills. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). they are prescribed. acute. NS. Country.—Acanthaceæ. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. bracts elliptic. laxative. Sadabu. The seeds have the same properties . acute . alcoholism. upper emarginate. Fr. often rooting near the base. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. :—A herb . tonic. piles. Satri. L. The juice allays tooth-pain. useful in heart troubles. asthma.
Ikshu. laxative. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. cultivated throughout India. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. M. digestive. and externally used as a rubefacient. diuretic. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. epilepsy. Us . grown in gardens. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. . SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh.—angled. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. FAM. :—Egypt and Algeria. C. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Kumad. Fl. useful in fatigue. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. segments cuneate. abortifacient. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). particularly Deccan. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. Gudatrina. LOC. Sugarcane. oblong-obovate. glandulose punctate. K. Kabbu. heating to body . cooling. diuretic. L. LOC. it may be given internally in hysteria. G. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. colic. leprosy. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. garden. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. tonic. Naisakar. anti-aphrodisiac . Ganna. obtuse .—in divaricately spreading corymbs. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Tanigarbu . thirst. flatulence. The oil is the best form for administration. Gudakastha.—capsule. indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. aphrodisiac. LOC. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . oleaginous. M. Rasala. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. HABIT :—Cultivated. heats body. amenorrhœa. all over the State. S. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). DISTR.—petals 4.. S. DISTR. yellowish. :—Grown everywhere in India. petioled. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Ingotu. in pots. Madhuyashti. etc. Ukh . Powdered and combined with aromatics. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Sherdi. The plant contains glucoside glutin.—Gramineæ. H. Rikhu. increases mental activity. NS :—E. The plant is tonic. Satara. spathulate or linear-oblong . :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. forest and mountain. Sk. flawed. COM. Poona. :—A strong smelling herb . Fr. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. See—Ornamental Plants. There are three varieties . emmenagogue.-alternate. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). decompound.
Ceylon. laxative. Fl. . NS. improves appetite. Fr. diam. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. fleshy. useful in biliousness. Piludi. inflammations. Asia. LOC. improve diuresis (Yunani). sometimes it raises blisters.—Salvadoraceæ. numerous. Pilu. sugar is considered heavy. tonic to liver. COM. smooth. useful in biliousness. the Konkan and N. Abyssinia. causes " Kapha. Pilu. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. DISTR. lobes much reflexed. Pilu.—Nov. pectoral and aphrodisiac. dry regions of W. leaves. C. piles. useful in nosetroubles. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. Pilu. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. In the Punjab. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Cane—sweet. PARTS USED :—Bark. near the coasts of Gujarat . carminative. opposite. Sugar causes " Kapha". oil is digestible. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. scabies. aphrodisiac . SALVADORA PERSICA Linn.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. Kharijal. anthelmintic. Brihat madhu pilu. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. shining. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. white. :—Dry districts of the State. Leaves—bitter. finely striate. leucoderma. Fruits are deobstruent. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . bad for liver (Yunani). See—Food Plants. disorders and wind. stomachic . deeply cleft. lessen inflammation .-Feb. ulcers. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. branches numerous. M. :—E. carminative and diuretic. often planted near Muslim tombs. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. diuretic. H. tonic and aperient. Khakan Mirjoli. good for lungs . often mucronate at the apex. red when ripe. Tooth-brush tree. delirium. LOC. :—Drier parts of India. alexiteric.—drupe. G. K. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. strengthen teeth. purifies blood . fruits seeds and oil. Sk. anæmia. greenish-yellow. FAM. 3 mm. The juice contains vitamins A and B. globose. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda).. drooping. astringent to bowels. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. erysipelas. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. Goni. t. useful in heat. Jal. LOC. Fruit—aphrodisiac. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Sind. In cases of poisoning by copper.". It is good in calculous complaints. corrective. Fl.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles.—very thin. bile. deobstruent. analgesic. Kanara in littoral forests. L. Seeds—purgative. Egypt. fattening. diuretic. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Mahaphala.
sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). small-pox (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. useful in inflammations. K. :—Indian Peninsula. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . M. ground. Kumblabijaka. Phenilu. Country and N. head-ache (Yunani). S. Chandan. Sandal-wood Tree. M. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. biliousness. allays uterine pains. to temples in fever. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. thirst. Anthuvala. Chandal. cholera. LOC. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. LOC. Sukhad . G. vaginal discharges. Agarugandha. Mysore and parts of Madras State. tubercular glands. Antharalo.—Sapindaceæ.. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. H. stomachic. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Bhadrasri. Burugukayi. NS. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Oil. DISTR. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. USES :—Wood. Malayaja. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. abortifacient. up with water into a paste. Bhadrasara. Arithan . PARTS USED :—Root. Oils. alexiteric. Sandal. Fruit—bitter. PARTS USED:—Wood. H. Kugale. laxative. Kanara. Rishta. Mangalya. Sk. Bhogivallabha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. epileptic fits of children. FAM. burning sensation. Shrigandhalmara. Ceylon. emetic. cures "Tridosha". diarrhœa. COM. Ringni. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Chandan. Arishtaka. Ritha . bronchitis. . aphrodisiac. antipyretic. COM. astringent to bowels . alexipharmic. in skin-diseases. K. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. " Kapha ". M. Aritha. LOC. cold in head. Phenila. often planted. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Cultivated elsewhere. DISTR. Ritha. hemicrania. Root—expectorant. :—E. fruit and seed. gleet. useful in diseases of heart. :—Western Peninsula. FAM. tonic. strangury. is applied to local inflammations. :—E. much cultivated. Suket. to allay heat and pruritus. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. See—Timbers. alexiteric. Soap-Nut tree. Chandan. useful in chronic dysentery. gonorrhœa. lumbago. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Sk. G. paralysis. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . acts as diaphoretic.—Santalaceæ. chiefly in S. exhilarating.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
HABITAT :—Cultivated. gouty joints. inflammations. LOC. There are three varieties of seeds : black. leaflets 914 pairs.—20-30.—in lax. Raysingani. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. enrich blood. white and red. etc. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. Jayanti. syphilitic ulcers. LOC. cures . strangury. NS. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. Seed-oil—fattening. such as dysentery etc. PARTS USED :—Root. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. burning sensation. They have been used to procure abortion. inflammations (Yunani). long. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. carminative. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. H. and as an oildressing for ulcers. leaves. into claw. diuretic. pendulous.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. C. cooling. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. They are nourishing. Jinangi. applied to ulcers and piles.—standard as broad as long. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. FAM. :—A soft-wooded shrub. lung diseases. tonic.— abruptly pinnate. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. K. in height.—pod. leaves. useful in diarrhœa. of eye and ear. Jaya. Shewari. Rasin. oil. Janjhan. oleaginous. DISTR. strengthening. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). biliousness. beaked. bleeding piles. an emollient poultice is also made from them. Baluchistan. seeds. linear-oblong. diseases. seeds. promote hair growth. removes "Kapha". suppurating wounds. probably a native of tropical Africa. Jayanti.5-15 cm. Jayanti. astringent to bowels. alterative. asthma. scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. diuretic and lactagogue. CHAR. slightly torulose. They are also emmenagogue. Sk. small-pox. mottled with purple on the outside. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda).. galactagogue. Jayat. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. See—Oils. 7. urinary concretions. hair-tonic. long. useful in sorethroat. spleen troubles. septate between the seeds. :—G. Waziristan. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. tonic. indigestible . eye diseases . Jayantika. Fr. obscurely angled . Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. inflammations. cure menorrhagia. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. Black variety is common. L. COM. :—Cultivated all over India. M. aphrodisiac. 4-5 m. useful in dry cough. anthelmintic. applied to gouty joints. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. opposite. Sd. few flowered axillary racemes. bark. branches striate. Seeds contain vitamin A. yellow. PARTS USED :—Root. Nadeyi. Fl. 15-23 cm.
maturant. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. leaflets 16-30 pairs. leprosy. fruits. L. anthelmintic. Basna. Australia. FAM. Leaves—indigestible. diabetes. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. See—Fodder Plants. useful in ozœna. epilepsy. Agusta. long. Agathio. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. DISTR. Ornamental Plants. Agase. long. long. Fr. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). gout . In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. 2-4 white or red. :—G. night-blindness. C. Bark—astringent. stimulant. :—A soft wooded tree . SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. t. Hatiya . biliousness. See—Vegetables. An infusion is given in small-pox. Kempagase. Leaves—purgative. dysentery and paludism. The plant contains vitamin A. COM. cure quartan fever. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. useful In diseases of spleen. allays thirst. leucoderma. Vranari. Fl.—7. fevers. "Kapha" and inflammation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Fruit—laxative . very showy. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". relieves throat-troubles. NS. Seeds—emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. high. cure itching. 50 cm. Fl.5-8. Sk.—in racemes . improve appetite . LOC. Flowers—cooling. 6-9 m. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). cures " Tridosh " pains. gout. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). useful in ophthalmia. CHAR. diarrhœa. Kanali. 15-30-cm. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. LOC. Indigenous from Malaya to N.— pinnate.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). tumours . anthelmintic. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . Agati.8 cm. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. rubbed into a paste with water. K. Agasti. bronchitis. astringent. demulcent. is applied in rheumatism. flowers. is applied in painful swellings. Bak. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Bark— astringent. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh.— flowers at various times. Dirghashimbi. LOC.— pod. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. . Agasta. linear oblong. anaemia. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. H. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. M. alexiteric. ulcers. improves taste. Munidruma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. leaves.
—5-6 mm. is given . FAM. long. stomachic and tonic. leaves and seeds. Pata. cordate. Fl. DISTR. FAM. upper margins ciliate. Batyalaka. Fl.—2. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fl. L. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. H.-Nov. cooling. Fr. Kherati. Sk. with ginger. Vatyapushpi. Bala. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils.-Oct. t. carpels 5-9. strongly reticulated.. CHAR. NS. bleeding piles. Bala. Prahasa. :—G. LOC. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. pedicel jointed much above the middle. Sk. HABITAT :—Moist places . Chikna.5-5 cm. Baladana. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. useful in blood and throat diseases. linear. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. scabrid-hairy. glabrous. t.—6-8 mm. sharply serrate. :—Hotter parts of India. branches slender. awns 2. " Pitta ". H. Pata. NS. Deccan and S. COM. COM. Kareta. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. :—Konkan (common). Country. black. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. a weed. DISTR. Chikna. ovate-oblong. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. M. diam. awns 2. :—Konkan. Bala. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . M. Rajbala. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. G. " Kapha " . Barial. Bariara.—solitary or few together. M. strongly reticulated . Fr.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.3 cm.5-6. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. M. Kisangi. Khareti. base rounded.—Malvaceæ. Tukti. aphrodisiac .— yellow. PARTS USED :—Root. Jayanti. pedicel jointed about the middle. diam. K.Dec. useful in fever.. dorsal scabrid. Samanga. Chittuharatu. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. K. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. astringent. Kumghi. Country Mallow. :—A shrub. Gujarat and S.—smooth. digestive. Kharanti. emollient. removes " Vata ". bark. long. yellow. LOC. astringent. C. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). CHAR. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. lanceolate. puberulous.—Nov.—Malvaceæ. LOC. Sd. softly hairy all over. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). linear . Country. crenate. carpels 7-10. decoction..—2. Root—cooling. minutely hairy. diuretic. L. Hettutti-gida. obtuse.—1-2 in each axil. dorsal margins toothed.
barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. rhomboides Roxb. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Fl. Linn. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. PROPERTIES AND LOC. high. LOC. stiff-neck. DISTR. involucral bracts 2 rows. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering.-Dec. pappus 0. 0. It is also used to favour menstruation. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. M. . :—Throughout India. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. juice is used for healing wounds. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. tinged with purple. FAM. those of the ray red beneath. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. 5 outer clavate. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. also in colic and tenesmus. COM. Fl. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. CHAR. noise in ears.2 m. Country. Fl.—Compositæ.—opposite. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. common. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. S. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. cystitis. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. stem stiff. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var.6—1. Fr.—yellow. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Pilibadkadi. L. all running down wing-like into petiole. triangular-ovate. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". :—G. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. t. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Externally. black. erect.—heads small in leafy panicles . In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. 5 inner boat-shaped. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. facial paralysis. administered in hemiplegia. and head-ache. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". NS. :—A large annual herb. Katampu. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. :—Deccan. Ceylon. deeply and irregularly toothed.—Nov. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. slightly rough.—achene. diaphoretic.
DISTR. eye diseases (Ayurveda). analgesic. asthma. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. :—Widely cultivated in India. leaves (rarely) and fruits. fruit and seeds. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. recurved. Kattarta. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. PARTS USED :—Root. Vayase. Brinjal. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache.—pale-purple. Fruit—cardiotonic. anthelmintic. COM. :—E. causes biliousness. diam. Brihati. Habba-Kirigulla. M.. Sk.5—7. Ceylon. .— berry. Barhanta. fever. Vantak.-Oct. NS. pruritus ani. globose. high. Bhantaki. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. LOC. DISTR. very. Sk. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Root is applied to lessen pain. ovate. improves appetite. lessens inflammations. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Malpya. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. PARTS USED :—Root. K. bad for piles if taken internally. aphrodisiac. Ranringni. " Kapha".-Aug.5 m. or triangular-ovate. LOC. It is seldom used alone. dark-yellow when ripe. Ubhi-bhuringni.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn.3—1. COM. Vadikadheri. useful in leucoderma. Philippines. :—E. bronchitis. subentire. C. M. Sd. sharp. covered with stellate hairs. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. base unequal-sided. LOC. Hinguli. vomiting. pain. Indian Nightshade.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Bhantaki. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Fr. Nilaphala. G. cardiotonic. Kadusonde. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections.—5—15 X 2.—Solanaceæ. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Badanikai. t. prickly. astringent to bowels. removes foulness of the mouth. 8 mm. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. " Vata". Dorli. Mahotika. FAM. K.—Solanaceæ. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha".5 cm. enriches blood. petiole prickly. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine.. H. laxative. lobed. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. maturant.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. China. rarely wild. G. prickles large. Vange. loss of appetite. FAM.—minutely pitted: Fl. NS. Baingan. Egg Plant. Hinguli. Rigana. clothed outside with purple hairs . stem stout. :—Throughout tropical India. Vrittaphala. Vengni. Vartaki. leaves. Fl. Mhotiringni. H. L. 0. Bhanta.
subumbellate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. eye-diseases hydrophobia. useful in giddiness. Fruit contains vitamins A. Kakamachi. in extra-axillary.—many. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. smooth. It acts as a hydrogogue. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. itch. dysentery. Fr. minutely pitted . Piludi. diarrhœa. inflammation. bitter. chronic fever. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. H.—Sept. asthma. t. Fl. vomiting. Tiktika. See—Vegetables. :—Throughout India. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. leucoderma. NS. Makoi. Ceylon. Vayasi. Black Night-shade. Fl. " Tridosha". Hound's Berry. DISTR. B and C. Sk. improves voice . useful in diseases of eye. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. L. shining. :—A variable annual herb . ovatelanceolate. alterative. and used with success in psoriasis. Katuphala. C. :—E.—Solanaceæ. laxative. heating. LOC. throat burning. piles.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . stem erect. Kakamunchi. favours conception and facilitates delivery . FAM.-Jany. COM. worms in ear. fever. dysuria and asthma. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. bronchitis. griping. urinary discharges. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). G. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. good for neck ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. The seeds are used as a stimulant. leaves and fruit. Sd. gonorrhœa (Yunani). The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. bark. entire or sinuate toothed. Gurkamai. . K.— berry. M. taste. aphrodisiac. liver inflammation. LOC. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. inflammation. In S. not to be given to pregnant women. diam. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. hiccup. Kakamachi. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. ear and nose . tonic. much divaricately-branched . cathartic and diuretic. Morellel. useful in heart and eye-diseases. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. 3-8 flowered cymes . Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. Kabaiya. 6 mm. Kamoni.—small. in pains. fever. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. tapering into petioles. etc. Seeds—laxative. diuretic.. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. yellow. CHAR.—discoid. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. improves appetite. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. Root-bark—laxative .MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC.
Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Kantakari. H. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic.—berry.—Gramineæ.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . D. :—Common in the Deccan . ovate or elliptic. straight. yellow or white with green veins. Sholapur. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. strangury. Dirghashara.—Solanaceæ. C. Bhui-Kate-ringni. expectorant and febrifuge. lobes deltoid. L. petiole prickly. Katai.5-5. ozoena. stems. flowers. Sk. Fr. tropical Australia. Ringni. Nirgol. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Bhoyaringni. "Vata" and " Kapha". Seeds—anthelmintic. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Nidigdhika. diam. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Yuvanala. Kateli. sterility in women. Shalu..—purple. COM. Ikshupatraka. stone in bladder. Fl. bright green perennial herb . G. CHAR. t. good in inflammation. M. Basu). K. Sorgho. E. Kantakini. heating. PARTS USED :—Root. often exceeding 1.. Konkan. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. NS. Root—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Malaya. Sk. surrounded by enlarged calyx . biliousness. stem zig-zag. :—A very prickly diffuse. asthma. useful in bronchitis. thirst. Fruit—laxative. laxative. 3-2 cm. Jowar. asthma. pains. piles. LOC. Jonera. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. urinary concretions. base unequal-sided. Vrittatandula. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. stomachic. Jundri. NS. Bijapur and E. prickles compressed. hairy outside. hairy on both sides. LOC. aphrodisiac. muscular pains.— June. fruits and seeds. heart disease. H. COM. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. dysuria. HABITAT :—Cultivated. S. Fl.7 cm. Africa. Brihati. Great Indian millet. fever. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. yellow and shining. Chikka-sonde. anthelmintic . Nele-Rama-gulla . Leaves—good application for piles. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . FAM.-5-10 X 2. Durrah. fevers. sinuate or subpinnatifid. leaves. :—G. long. Sind. K. Ceylon.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Jowari. M. chronic bronchitis. & Wendl. DISTR. Yengara . Jondhala. :—E. LOC. It is used in asthma. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Jolah. Dhavani. lumbago. Kenjal. Sundia . FAM. they are used in the burning of feet. appetiser. :—Throughout India. pruritus .3 cm. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B.
:— E. G. :—Bark-acrid. indigestible. glandular. :—Bark. Kumbhala. Rohun. improves appetite and taste. K. good for sore-throat. See—Food Plants. Ruhin. M. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. ulcers. aphrodisiac. LOC. Sumbi. bladder and kidney complaints. H. Bodiakalara. Asia and Africa. Rohina. fevers. Vritta. Khandesh and S. Tans. :—The grain is cooling. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. HABITAT :—Open situations. NS. Poona. COM. FAM: —Compositæ. FAM. Indian Red-Wood. Aruna. NS. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. common in Gujarat. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. useful in " Kapha". PARTS USED. L. Sk. :—Widely cultivated in India. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Gorakhamundi. Rawtarohan. PARTS USED. Karanda-gida. introduced into America and Australia. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. biliousness. Bastard Cedar. hairy. tumours (Ayurveda). Ceylon. piles.—Meliaceæ. with toothed wings. stem and branches cylindric. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gorakmundi.—sessile. tonic and antiperiodic . SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. COM. constipating. Grains contain vitamin B. ulcers. on dry stony hills. . Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. leprosy and dysentery . Gorakhmundi. H. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Mahamundi. Munditika. Juss. refrigerant. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Dharwar. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. :—G. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. hence used in intermittent fevers. Rohani. Ahmedabad. Agniruha. K. Rohini. laxative. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Some. DISTR. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Country. :—Seeds. Swami-mara. diseases of blood. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . :—Dry forests of W. Gums and Resins. DISTR. M. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Bijapur and E. vaginal injections and enemas. general debility. M. LOC. while Belgaum. Pravrajita. Fibres. See—Timbers. high. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. cures " Tridosha ".
ovate. sometimes grown in gardens. pain in uterus and vagina. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. :—Throughout India. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. :—Deccan. peduncles with toothed wings. gives lustre to eyes . ring-worm of waist. Australia. laxative. scalding of urine. Fl. ciliate near the ends . in cases of worms and indigestion. They are chewed to relieve toothache. :—Root. biliousness. :—Throughout India. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. leaves and flower-heads. :—Root. S. jaundice.—Compositæ. DISTR. bronchitis. stalked.—Nov. Fl. oblong. truncate. emmenagogue. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).—compound heads. LOC. glandular hairy. Ceylon. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. solitary or subpanicled. cools brain. Tonic. elephantiasis. spleen diseases. fattening. epileptic convulsions. Malay Islands.—Achene. enriches blood . LOC. anthelmintic. ovate-oblong. biliousness. laxative. LOC. M. leaves. base usually acute. urethral discharges and jaundice. HABITAT. FAM.. Akarakara . digestible. H. Akkalkara . alexipharmic. Akara-karava. :—Common in rice-fields. C. hemicrania (Ayurveda). depurative. flowers and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. CHAR. DISTR. :—E. and tonic (Stewart) . HABITAT. compressed . PROPERTIES AND LOC. gleet. long. Plant is also used in glandular swellings.—purple. Africa. leucoderma. stem and branches hairy. . COM. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. tuberculous glands. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . serrate or dentate. Celyon.—opposite.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. t. alterative.— achene. the latter when present minute. useful in skin diseases. t. M. looseness of breasts. Pappuso. asthma. involucre bracts linear. USES. Pellitary . anæmia. all warm countries. chest diseases. tonic. Country and Kanara. increases appetite. irregularly crenateserrate. It is also used as fish and crab poison. globose ovoid. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. :—Annual herb. rectal pain. :—Wild and cultivated.—Nov-Jany. L. They are given in powder form. PARTS USED. :—Common in the Konkan. glaborous.—in heads ovoid. cooling. urinary discharges. used also for local application. Fl. :—Hot. with honey they are given in cough. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. dysentery. Fr.. piles. Powdered root is given as tonic. strangury. bark. peduncles reaching 10 cm. vomiting. lessens inflammations . indigestion. used in insanity. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. boils. scabies. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. Sk. good for eyesore. Fr. Fl. NS. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate.
Ali-vallabha. Ran-amba . :—Bark. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. M. oblique. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Ceylon.—drupe. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic.-usually 1. H. Bile Tree. Kumbhi. leaves and fruit. Hulave.8 cm. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). W. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. refrigerant. tonic. Indian Archipelago. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache.—Bignoniaceæ. FAM. Burma. ovate oblong. :—H. Patala. LOC. S. Wild Mango. Padal.5 cm. COM. long. phthisis. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. LOC. Amra. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Hongkong. pinkish green. Parur. PARTS USED. ovoid. M. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Kalavrinta.— petals 4-5. long. Fruit—indigestible. L. Kapichuta. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Western Peninsula. appetising. Pitana. . :—Often planted throughout the State. round with furrows and cavities. ash-coloured . Salt Range. Pandri. Giri Hadari. K. NS. Hude. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis.. Marahunise. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Andamans. trunk straight. biliousness. :—A tree 9-10. Amate. Toyadhivasini.8-7. :—Cultivated. HABITAT. cures rheumatism. DISTR. NS. Avatekayi. COM. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards.-Apl. Konkan. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. blood complaints . —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Gum is demulcent. It has been found useful in dysentery. See—Gums and Resins. Sd. widely planted. Padal. Ambodha. oblong. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. :—Leaves-tasty.5-18 x 3. stone woody. bark smooth. yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Kanara. burning sensation. branches nearly horizontal.Feb. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. good for sore-throat. Amrataka. Patala. Padiala.. enriches blood . K. destroys " Vata ". Pahad. entire. C. Kariguddada. Ambada. Fl.. CHAR. Sk.—Anacardiaceæ. Kamduti. M. Tungi. aphrodisiac. Dr. Gujarat. hard. :—E. high. astringent. Country. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Fr.5 m. Sk. t. Indian Hog-Plum. 3. ulcers.
astringent to bowels. diuretic. "Kapha". poisonous. useful in bilious diarrhœa. Laos. asthma. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. DISTR. Kakatinduka. :—Root-bitter. FAM.—Loganiaceæ. Kachita. anæmia. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. LOC. heating. Fruit—bitter. Kanara. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). PARTS USED. LOC. N. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES. heating. Kanara. burning sensation. west coast of Madras State. leaves. :—Wood (rarely). G. tonic. lumbago. K. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :—More or less throughout tropical India. Kajavara. tonic. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Circars. Ittangi.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. blood diseases. COM. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. M. Kajra. LOC. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Planted in Ceylon. fevers. Kupaka. Kuchla.. Ceylon. bitter. seeds. ulcers. :—Fruit-acrid. loss of taste. blood diseases. fruit. PARTS USED. from Kashmir to Sikkim . piles. "Vata". :—Monsoon-forests. Flowers— acrid . diuretic. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. Sk. cures leucoderma. aphrodisiac. antipyretic. ring-worm. Travancore . flowers. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. sub-Himalaya. thirst. Karnatak. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". itching. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. :—In forests south of Bombay. inflammation. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Visha-druma. Hemushti. fruit. Vishamushti. vomiting. pungent. Travancore. Burma. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. Indo-China. eructations. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Poison Nut. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . :—E. :—Root. Kelakutaka. heating. jaundice. Kajra. cures pains in joints. piles . Fruit—useful in hiccup. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Kuchala. LOC. H. Crow Fig. Nirmal. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Kuchla. emmenagogue . See—Timbers. It is regarded as cooling. appetiser. Kangira. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. tonic. Karaskara.
:—Western Peninsula. LOC. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. good for liver. The demand for strychnine is increasing. hallucinations. relieve colic (Yunani). Nelmal. :—E. jaundice. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES. anæmia. Country. diuretic. Madhya Bharat. fruit and seeds. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Kataka. gonorrhœa. emetic. Chittu bija. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. causes biliousness. DISTR. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. H. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. Aduguchali-bija. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. cures inflammations. Ambuprasadini. NS. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. Shodhanatmaka. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. M. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. M. Burma. increases "Vata". tonic. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. :—Root (rarely). also in Konkan. aphrodisiac. :—Deciduous dry forests.. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Seeds—bitter. head-diseases (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. :—Sand-stone hills of S. . :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. Fruit useful in eye diseases. HABITAT. Sk. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. cure strangury. Nirmali. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. poisoning. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. See—Timbers. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. kidney complaints. thirst. lithotriptic. urinary discharges. diaphoretic. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Kanara and Khandesh. PARTS USED. Ceylon. :—Root cures leucoderma. alexipharmic. K.—Loganiaceæ. LOC. improve eye-sight. FAM. Nivali. COM. astringent to bowels. Clearing Nut Tree. Seeds—acrid. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
Tillaka. PROPERTIES AND USES. diseases of blood. :—Bark-acrid. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. FAM. Fl. Sk. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. biliousness. DISTR. K. :—Bark. COM. S. leprosy. Lodhra.. FAM. in powder or in fresh decoction. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. aphrodisiac. :—An erect herb. inflammations. Peninsula). Peninsula. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Kadu. Fr. quadrangular. PROPERTIES AND USES. Broughton). 5-nerved . :—W. eye-diseases and ulcers . Deccan.— lobes 4-5. COM. vaginal discharges. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Lodh. Lodh is used in raw condition. See—Timbers.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. decussate. LOC. digestible. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. Bhilli. LOC. M. HABITAT. throughout N.— Oct. white with blue veins.—many. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . :—India (W. DISTR.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . LOC.. cooling. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda).—Symplocaceæ. Mahabaleshwar. L. bleeding gums .—capsule. NS. colloturine and loturiaine. 4-winged. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. NS. :—The whole plant is bitter. Lodhraka. ovoid or oblong. stem densely leafy. E. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. Balaloddujinamara. PARTS USED. alexiteric. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. t. CHAR. .—Gentianaceæ. Lodh Tree. Lodh . Torna fort. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). C.— sessile. Sd. Country. cures cough. useful in abortions . :—Konkan and N. Deccan . :—Root. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. :—M. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. Californian Cinchona. Fl. PARTS USED. Bose).3-0. useful in eye-diseases. C. Chota Nagpur. emmenagogue. 2-valved. Dyes. Loder. China Nora. :—Hilly parts. Lodhra . Bark—bitter. astringent to bowels. broadly ovate. winged . acrid. Shavaraka. C.9 m. H. dysentery. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb.-Jany. Tiritaka. :—Western Ghats . 0. high. Burma. etc. flowers (rarely). M. :— E. The plant contains alkaloids loturine.
good gargle for sore-throat. good for sore-throat. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. M. astringent to bowels. :—E. Jambura. :-Black-Java Plum. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. useful in spleen diseases. :—Bark. Jamburaj. Shukapriya. :—Throughout India. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Ceylon. DISTR. H. anthelmintic. strengthens gums and teeth. Surabhipriya. cooling. Malay—Rose apple. Jambu. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. etc. Jambu. NS. PARTS USED. LOC. sprouts. M. ulcers. Jambudi. Jambu. Pannerali. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). asthma. Nerate. fruit vinegar is tonic. carminative and diuretic. Jambula. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. dysentery. enriches blood. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Neralu. carminative . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Jambul. increases "Vata". fruits and seeds. removes bad smell from mouth. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. Pharenda. H. LOC.) FAM. Shukapriya. Malaya. Jam. biliousness. COM. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. gargles and washes . Nenda. Jambul. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Jambu. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Australia. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. G.—Myrtaceæ. good lotion for ring-worm in head. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. digestive. Jambu-Nayinerale. :—Throughout the State. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Gulab-Jamb. Fruit Trees. . used in diarrhœa and dysentery.) FAM. Sk. Fruit—acrid. common along river banks. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. also used in spongy and painful gums. also wild. blood impurities. common at Mahabaleshwar. Jamen. Kokileshta. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. very often planted. Sk. K. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. dry. both wild and cultivated. astringent to bowels. Nilphala. See—Timbers. sweet. thirst. NS. Gulabjaman. K. :—Bark-acrid.—Myrtaceæ. Seeds—diuretic. bronchitis. astringent.
useful in "Kapha. K. fruit and seeds. heavy speech. Khasia Hills. LOC. DISTR. bronchitis. COM. Cultivated in many places. :—Root. liver and spleen . cures epilepsy. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. E. Fl. See—Timbers. H. tonic to brain. 1-3 ribbed. astringent to bowels. :—Bark. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. CHAR. inodorous during the day. Br. digestible.5-15 X 2. salver-shaped. Maddarasa gida . . M. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). strangury. Trinidad .—rainy season. Tagar . astringent to bowels. LOC. fragrant at night. glossy green above. tonic. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Sk. :—Bark is sweet. :—Cultivated in gardens. useful in paralysis. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. PARTS USED. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. emmenagogue. G. improves voice. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. Ashvathabheda. indigestible. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub.—snow-white. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes.5-5 cm. lessens pains in limbs and joints . double. Taggar.5-5 cm. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. bitter. NS. L. cultivated in many parts. :—E. Nandi. LOC. used in asthma. indigestible. Wax flower. The plant contains an alkaloid. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. alexipharmic. tonic to brain.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. HABITAT. fatigue. astringent to bowels. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. with milky juice . used in syphilis (Yunani). Root chewed relieves toothache . Ananta. used in liver complaints. Tagar. Yunnan to Australia. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Tagara. removes bad humours. divaricate. across." biliousness. Fl. Seeds are astringent to bowels. pale beneath.— opposite.) FAM. hot. Chandani.—follicles. purgative.. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. lobes 5 in single. Fr. Fruit—sweet and tasty. orange within. PARTS USED. Burma. acrid. :—Sikkim Terai. dysentery. wood and oil. heating. Kottuhale. 7. thirst. margins wavy. See—Ornamental Plants. C—lobes overlapping to the left. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. aphrodisiac. Garhwal. :—Root is acrid. and an essential oil. Assam. Root—bitter . . weakness of limbs.—Apocynaceæ.
:—Same as T. HABITAT. carminative. H.— tube inflated near the top. COM. M. :—E. useful in scabies.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). HABITAT. high. yellow when ripe. Nagakuda. NS. :—Native of Mexico. Zanduga. H.— Mar-Apl.. :—Rain-forests. divaricata.—follicle.5 cm. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. good for teeth . coriaceous. CHAR. muscular pains. Maddarssa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. their juice is given in ear-ache. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Sd. Halmeti. Zendu. Chinch. Amlike.—Compositæ. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. :—E. G. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. See—Ornamental Plants.. :—Leaves and flowers. bark grey. Fl. PARTS USED. :—Malabar. LOC. across in pedunculate cymes . kidney troubles. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. M. wood. FAM. Kalaga. t. :—Cultivated. HABITAT.—surrounded by red pulp. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). grown in gardens all over India. French Marigold. Tamarind. Makhamali. Nuli.5-20 X 3.. Amli. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. Fr. Amli. L. Sk.—Apocynaceæ. COM.—white. bitter.—opposite. 2. astringent. : K. Sk. :—Flower-pungent. DISTR. LOC. oblong lanceolate . Leaves—good for piles. G. FAM. Makhamal. Sthulapushpa. Flower—bitter. Travancore up to 7. lessens inflammation . with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . C.4-4. NS. Tintrani. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. belching. . throughout the Konkan and N. Sandu.. K. 7. Amala. stomachic. COM. internally they are said to purify blood. Imli. acrid. Fl. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. oil. FAM. Chinchika. Nagaskuda. NS. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. Kanara. Makhamala. Guljharo. Pandarakuda. Chinch. Gultora. common in rain-forests. DISTR. M. PARTS USED. rough.000 m. somewhat boat-shaped. Amlika. Teter. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Tintidika. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani).5 m. Amla.2-7. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Root.5 cm. Genda.
sweetish. Circars. Sagun. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. Seeds are good astringent. flowers and seeds. tumours. Sk. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Teka. astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. thirst. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. abundant all along the slopes of W. heals wounds and fractures. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. eye-diseases. intoxication &c. COM. small-pox. heals ulcers. Burma. carminative. aphrodisiac. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. K. boiled they are used as a poultice. causes cough. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Sumatra and Java. leaves. NS. Cultivated also. indigestible. laxative.—Verbenaceæ. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Fruit-sour. Sagwan. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Bark—astringent. such as body-burning. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula.. Sag. :—Throughout India. FAM. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. useful in giddiness and vertigo. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. digestive. Flowers— appetising . and laxative. biliousness. Tropics generally. Madhya Bharat. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. heating. laxative. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Sagach. Fruit—sour. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani).. See—Timbers. :—Bark. flowers. tonic. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. bark. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Kanara. M. DISTR. :—E. Condiments and Spices. scabies. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. LOC. G. Sag. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. . and for sizing materials. Kanara. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. costiveness. Sagwan. wood. H. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. stomatitis. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. tasty. useful in liver-complaints. tonic to heart. Anil. urinary discharges. Tega. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). earache. fruit and seeds. Arna. LOC. Malay Peninsula. Teak. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Seeds astringent. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. sore-throat. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. PARTS USED :—Root. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. vomiting. Mahapatra. Tegu. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling.
high. NS. H. good in piles. 2—2. K. allays thirst. glabrous above. leaflets 11—21. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. :—A perennial herb.-June. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight.. Sd. Wood—acrid. blood. useful in bronchitis. LOC. C.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. fresh root-bark. urinary discharges. pubescent on the back. Fl. Sharapunkha. Deccan.—pod 3—4. PARTS USED. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. Sarpankho. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. S. alexiteric. red.—5-6 . poisoning. heart. increase "Vata". . Gujarat.. biliousness. M. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. oblanceolate. sedative to gravid uterus. Bark is an astringent. linear. enriches Blood . expectorant. spleen. cultivated lands and roadsides. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. root. alterative. mucronate.5 cm. Kalika. Sarphoka. boils and pimples. See—Timbers. Sarphonka. dry. spleen diseases. useful in lung and chest diseases. CHAR. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). :-G. long. silkyhairy beneath. Phanike. :—Plant-digestible.2 cm. asthma. slightly curved. Leaves—tonic to intestines . t. standard.—Oct. long. Jhila. ulcers. branches spreading. tumours. Fr. ground and made into a pill. burning pain over the region of liver. Konkan.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. it acts also as a vermifuge. 30—60 cm. Ghodakan. laxative. useful in piles. Flowers—acrid.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. inflammations. FAM. leaves and seeds. M. Plihari. leprosy. L. Malay Peninsula. Wood good for head ache.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. allays thirst. bitter. HABITAT:—Open situations. cooling. Udhadi. improve appetite.—petals clawed. asthma. anthelmintic. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). DISTR. Unhali. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. along forest borders. Empali. antipyretic. useful in bronchitis. :—All over India. Sharapunkha. suborbicular. Country. useful in scabies. Fl. Flowers and seeds are diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. liver.8 X 0. Sk. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . anthelmintic. LOC. syphilis. cures diarrhœa . Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. biliousness. :—The whole plant. LOC. gonorrhœa (Yunani). "Root—diuretic. mucronate.8—1. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Kogge. cures diseases of liver.
strangury. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. Fruit-pungent. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. NS.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. in Khandesh Akrani. tonic. LOC. anthelmintic . Arjuna. fruit (rarely). M.—Combretaceæ. Sagona. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Vibhitika. biliousness. Aksha. biliousness. Bibhitiki. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark. Kahu.. asthma. Burma. Behada. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES. Madras State. DISTR. externally in wounds and fractures. LOC. PARTS USED. Tari. :—Throughout the forests of India. " Kapha". K. false presentation of fœtus. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres.. digestible. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. H. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. PARTS USED. sore-throat. COM. Chota-Nagpur. Bedda Nut. Kakubha. laxative. tonic. Indradruma. intoxication. White Marudah. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Beheduk. Sadura. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. urinary discharges. G. Tara. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Baire. Expectorant. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. acrid. useful in biliousness. useful in bronchitis. anæmia. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). inflammation. & A. Hela. excessive perspiration. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). blood-diseases. See—Timbers. Kalidrum. Rajastan and Sind. COM. Dhanvi. leaves. DISTR. tumours. heart disease.—Combretaceæ. styptic. Arjun-Sadada. Arjan. :—Alexiteric. NS. K. H. useful in fractures. Arjuna. Bahara. Madhya-Bharat. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Koha. in the sub-Himalayan tract. Karshaphala. very common in South Konkan. Ceylon. LOC. Madhya-Pradesh. Bahaza. leucoderma. Sk. M. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. strangury. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Arjuna. Sadado. Behedo. Bera. :—E. Kushika. FAM. G. Belleric Myrobalan. Shantimara. Karvirak. Buhura. with milk. Sk. . Voting. aphrodisiac. Arjun Sadada. Vibhata. Bastard Myrobalan.. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. ulcers. anthelmintic. :—Konkan and Deccan. except in dry arid regions. :—Bark. FAM. fruit and seed.
Kanara. heart and bladder. stomachic. Ceylon. aperient. good in ophthalmia. —E. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. itching pain. useful in dyspepsia. Alate. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. intoxicating. carminative. antidysenteric. Hirdo . Harara. diseases of eye. NS. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). Black myrobalan. LOC. piles. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. Jivanti. COM. ascites. enriches blood. See—Timbers. Haria. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. brain tonic (Yunani). elephantiasis. H. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. useful in thirst. Dyes. alterative . Haritaki. Chebulic myrobalan. DISTR. K. bilious headache. hoarseness. Jivantika. PARTS USED. is used as an application in ophthalmia. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. common in Khandesh Akrani. in Travancore. LOC. LOC. expectorant. strangury. heart and bladder. used in paralysis (Yunani). tonic. the fully ripe or dried fruit. G. FAM. useful in asthma. thirst. Fruit-astringent. vomiting. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. eyes. bleeding and ulceration of gums. biliousness. strengthens brain. gums. Har. piles and diarrhœa. eye diseases etc. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. Ripe fruit—purgative. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. delirium (Ayurveda). tonic. Kernel has narcotic properties. Abhaya. diarrhœa. M. Hirda. corneal ulcers. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. Haritaki. Burma. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. cold in head. which is considered a good digestive. diseases of spleen. applied to eyes. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. hiccup. useful in caries of teeth. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. tumours. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. sore-throat. dyspepsia. Harade. anaemia. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. nose. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. carminative. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. :—Fruit-dry. attenuant. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. Gums and Resins. typhoid fever. USES. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. piles. :—Bark and fruit.—Combretaceæ. urinary discharges. mixed with honey. vesicular calculi. inflammations. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. constipation. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. Sk. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. diseases of eye. bleeding piles. heating. leucoderma. gout. Seed—acrid. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". vomiting. antipyretic.
Paras-piper. :—Bark. produces worms in intestines . H. Paraspipal. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. :—Fruit-sour. See—Timbers. K. Mhaskar and Issac). Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Portia Tree. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. :—Districts of Konkan and N.—Malvaceæ. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. COM. Suparshuakan. Kuberaksha. Jogiyarale. Bugari. difficult to digest. Tulip Tree. . Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Bhandi. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Gandarati. acrid . :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Ranbhendi. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". also planted as roadside tree. flowers and fruit. M. :—E. Bhindi. FAM. burning of body . profuse discharge. leaves. Kandarala. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Tans. Burma. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Phalisha. Bengal. DISTR. G. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Parisha. Hucerasi. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Bhend. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Dyes. PARTS USED. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. especially centipedes. :—Coast forests of India. LOC. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Gajadanta. It is also used in chronic dysentery. aphrodisiac . Sacred Plants. Parasipu. Paraspiplo. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties.. Fibres. NS. Kanara. Arasi. increases " Kapha " . The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Sk. See—Timbers. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema.
bark corky. K. LOC.—in terminal cymes. :—E. CHAR. across. Sk. :—Bark. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). 5—10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. COM. Gulvel. CHAR. 7. Vatsadani. size of a pea . Shatakumbha. America and W. Fr. PARTS USED. Pivali kanher. 1—3. root. Pittaghni. crowded . :—Stem. COM. HABITAT. endocarp corky. Jwaranashini. NS. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers.—in axillary and terminal racemes. grooved . with milky juice.—drupes.—broadly obovate. See—Ornamental Plants.5 cm. tubular. cures " Vata " . Amrita-Valli. NS. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . Amarvel.-spirally arranged. ventrally flat. fevers.. long. Fr. skin diseases. Amritvalli.—membranous. Uganiballi. FAM. wounds. Gulo.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. leucoderma. worms. :—E. Karvira. pungent. linear. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State.. red. DISTR. frequently planted. lobes 5. Gado. yellow. yellow. bladder. Pila kanir. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. useful in urethral discharges. Gulancha. piles. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub.—Menispermaceæ. bright green and shining above. Heart-leaved moonseed. elliptic. :—An extensive climber. Andamans and Ceylon.—generally 4. . bronchitis . Gulvel. male fascicled. L. LOC. Sk. G. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. Zard kunel. M. Burma. mesocarp bony. t. seeds and milky juice. it has no action on digestive enzymes . eye-troubles. but its use is attended with considerable danger. H. Indies . females solitary. H. exocarp fleshy. Exile or yellow Oleander. FAM. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. corona in the throat. throat campanulate.—Apocynaceæ. Sd. HABIT :—In thickets. PARTS USED. acrid.. :—Throughout tropical India. Pila kaner. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. C. hot. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. and blood vessels . Gurch. LOC. dorsally convex. Haripriya. DISTR. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. G. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. Fl. Gulhel. Fl. L.5—12. virgin uterus. very poisonous (Ayurveda). growing on mango and other trees. M. 5 cm. :—Often planted. Ashvaghna. astringent to bowels. :—Native of S.—Apl. Fl. 7—9 nerved. often planted in India.
Limri. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism.-Jany. 5-7 lobed. CHAR. K. coriaceous. vomiting. dark shining green above. Sk. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). LOC.—Dehan. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. Konkan and Kanara. Macimullu. L. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. stimulant and anti-periodic. :—All over the Madras State . Fl. expectorant. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. female flower buds oblong. antipyretic. male flower bud globose. USES. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. bark.—Aug. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. LOC. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. juice useful in diabetes. white. Lopezroot Tree. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. stomachic . unisexual. Root-bark is aromatic. Root and stem are bitter. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Sumatra. tonic appetiser. Ceylon. DISTR. Philippines. vomiting. Manger. stomachic. anæmia. Kaduhakukare. :—E. giddiness. Kadu-menasu. PARTS USED. jaundice. Kumaon to Bhutan. H. digitately trifoliate. also in the Deccan hills. . :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. oblong. Jangali-Mirchi.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. 3-5 grooved. renews blood. PROPERTIES AND LOC. diuretic. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. pitted on the rind. burning sensation. China. chronic fever. size of a large pea. M. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. :—Rain-forests. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. 5-10 X 1. FAM. :—Stem-bitter. crenulate. high. tonic.—in axillary cymes.—globose. good in cough. Stem-bitter. Mirchi. Gangalaki. 15 m. HABITAT.— alternate. useful in skin diseases. t. leaves. Java. NS. Fl. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers.—Rutaceæ. Khasia Hills. (Kirtikar). causes constipation. especially acid. FT. leaflets sessile. fruits. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. stigma sessile. piles. vaginal and urethral discharges. COM. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. enriches blood. stimulates bile secretion. diarrhœa. tropical Africa. orange coloured. Forest Pepper. common in S. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). allays thirst.. cures jaundice. ovary rudimentary. :—Root. fever.8.8-3. armed with small hooked prickles . Dahan.
Garige. See—Timbers. Singhara. Ceylon. Singodi. Assam. Dyes. fattening. Kanara. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Apina. Mahalimbu. :—Bark and flowers. astringent to bowels. Shingoda. Toon. fatigue. Trikota. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Kalingi. Sandal Neem. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. COM. PARTS USED. often cultivated. cardio-tonic. DISTR. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Shringa-kanda-taka. M. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin.—Meliaceæ. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. H. aphrodisiac. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. tonic. headache. astringent to bowels. Jalakantaka-valli. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Tundu. strangury. Kuberaka. useful in ulcers. Shingada.—Onagraceæ. Burma. NS. good for scabies and gleet. Lud. burning sensation. Chittagong. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Trikone-phala. leprosy. Gums and Resins. Bark—bitter. :—Fruit. biliousness.) FAM. HABIT. cooling. removes " Kapha ". Tuni. Mandurike. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. Waitz). blood diseases. G. Sk. cures fevers. Deodari. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Kaechaka. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. expectorant. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. :—E.. "Tridosha". removes " Tridosha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Kuruk. Malaya. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Water-chestnut. aphrodisiac. K. Chota-Nagpur. :—Cooling . itching. anthelmintic. burning sensation. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. urinary discharges. LOC. PARTS USED. :—E. inflammation. antipyretic . Nand-vriksha. Indian Mahogany. :—Aquatic (in tanks). astringent to bowels. H. COM. Gandhagarige. Lim. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. :—Bark-acrid. digestible. aphrodisiac. of India). tropical Africa. indigestible. Tun. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. LOC. useful in . biliousness. causes " Vata " . cures leprosy. FAM. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Tunika. Sk. :—Throughout India. NS.
FAM. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Fr.:—Saurashtra. stems and branches pilose. in Kashmir. Gokshri. useful in chronic fevers. LOC. pain.—globose. each with 2 pairs of hard. abruptly pinnate. Country. Ceylon. bile and phlegm.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda).—Zygophyllaceæ. COM. CHAR. L. Gokshura. one pair longer than the other . Hussuk. Gokhura. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. LOC. See—Timbers. hairy. COM. mucronate. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. :—H. antipyretic. DISTR. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Sk. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Gokhru. H. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. Sarata. Beta-Nahan Gokhru.. Gamhar. Sumatra. of 5 woody cocci. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Gujarat. thirst. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. NS. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . M. Java. FAM. along nalas and in swampy localities. improves taste ..—throughout the year. Trikantaka. DISTR. a common weed of the drier parts. M. Assam. M. Calthrope. :—Throughout India. upto 3300 m. The plant contains an alkaloid. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. bad-teeth (Yunani). Malay Peninsula. G. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. They are also used in the form of poultice. :—The whole plant. :—E. See—Food Plants. Shadanga. base oblique. :—A procumbent herb. :—Plant is cooling tonic. NS.. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa.—Euphorbiaceæ. K. Pindara. Ceylon.—several in each coccus . lumbago. solitary. Tumri. Kere Padye. Gokhru. alexiteric. considered cool and sweet. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. used as food. yellow. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Seeds abound in starch.—opposite. LOC. Petari . oblong. Fibres. sharp spines. t. leaflets 3—6 pairs . K. young parts silky. Aphrodisiac. biliousness. Sk. Negalu . Karahate. sore-throat. . Kurangaha. bronchitis. Fl. one of each pair smaller than the other. Pindara. Kanara. Gokharu. Chhota gokhru. Kantaphala. Deccan and S. Sd. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. appetiser.
stem erect. Brahmadandi. emmenagogue (Yunani). K. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. Kanara. leaves. seeds. gonorrhœa. copious. DISTR. linear-oblong or lanceolate. Mt. :—Hot. vesicular calculi. yellowish brown. West Rajastan. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. enriches blood . LOC. Fr. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). faintly ribbed. ciliate. tonic. S. oblong. :—The whole plant. cures skin and heart diseases. long. Talakanto. useful in strangury. L. :—Root. Brahmadandi. LOC. branches angled and ribbed. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. alleviating burning sensation. Country.—Compositæ. Physiaran. "Vata". :—A glabrous herb. PROPERTIES AND USES. asthma. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. fruits. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). fattening. piles.— Dec. PARTS USED. reduces inflammation. t. Brahma-dandi. tonic . aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. Mota-Motachor. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . H. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. lumbago . gleet. Brahmadandi. pain . Coorg and the hills of Mysore. Aja-dandi. S. Sk. S. Central India. spinous toothed or serrate. suppression of urine. bitter. —achene. Abu. urinary discharges. cures "Kapha". C. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . purifies blood . . removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. urinary disorders and impotence. PROPERTIES AND USES. leprosy . : — G. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. FAM. pappus shorter than the achenes. appetiser. Kanara. CHAR. cough. :—Cooling . improves appetite . M. diuretic. Kantapatraphala. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. COM. ovoid. pruritus ani. which is taken in large quantities.—sessile. Fl. reduces inflammation . Diuretic. M. NS. inflammations. removes " Tridosha ". LOC. the Deccan. Brahmadandi. :—Western Peninsula. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). slender.—heads 6—8 mm. tonic. USES :—Fruits are cooling. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition.— purple. HABITAT. stomachic. :—Wild in places. bloody urine. Konkan. increases menstrual flow. cures strangury. alterative . diuretic. Fl.
long as well as broad.-5-12. reniform or broadly ovate. asthma. Fl. COM. Jangli— Kadu padval. cures itching. :—Root-cathartic . H. stems 3. base cordate . M. Leaves—good for biliousness. scarlet when ripe. Fl. Wild Snake-gourd. Avagude-hannu. headache and boils. allays thirst. distantly denticulate. Lal-indrayan. it is given in decoction with ginger. dentate or serrate. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. CHAR. :—E. Indrayan. tendrils 3-fid. alexiteric. burning sensation. —G. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. long. long. cures bronchitis. H. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. K.-6.6—4. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. long.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. L. L. LOC. woody below. Kadvi-padyal or patola . Mahakala. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. lobes ovate-oblong. white. DISTR.. Sd. paler beneath. base deeply cordate. Betlada padaval. eye diseases. Sk.5 m. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. alterative. antipyretic. HABITAT:-In hedges.5—7. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Fruit—hot. bitter. leprosy. tendrils 3 cleft. FAM .—July-Oct. CHAR. furrowed. Panduka. slender. Jangali chichonda. ovoid-fusiform. females solitary. Malaya.. leaves. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Fr. Katuka. stem robust.—2. NS. Kaundal. Patola. palmately 3-5 lobed. dark-green above. stomachic. M. LOC. laxative. ulcers.3 cm. chireta and honey. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. K.. blood diseases.—monœcious. Ratan-indrayan.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaf-juice is emetic. — surrounded with red-pulp .3-12. Sk. fruit. t. NS.—Cucurbitaceæ. Makal. Mukal. Fl. variable. erysipelas. :—Root.5 cm. Root-juice is very purgative. the Deccan. green with white stripes when raw. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Ceylon. Malay Peninsula. COM. anasarca and ascites. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). The seeds are good for stomach disorders . axillary. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. pungent. G. :—Throughout India. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. Australia. FAM. antipyretic.—Cucurbitaceæ. useful for boils and intestinal worms. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Kiripodla. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. oil. In Bombay. PARTS USED. deeply 5-lobed. orbicular. N.-male in axillary . male in axillary racemes. :—A scandent annual. slightly hairy. Perula. leucoderma. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. with a long sharp beak. Jyotsna.
leprosy. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. Japan. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. stem and branches hairy. Country. Juice of fruit or root-bark. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. China.—many . Fruit—carminative.. ligules yellow. COM.-July.— Apl. ovate-elliptic. t. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. Australia. :—Root and fruit.5 cm. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. CHAR.75 X . red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . Fl. . Deccan and S.—petals wedge-shaped. Sd. t. purgative. bracts large. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures hemicrania. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. :—M. acute. Malaya. PARTS USED. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. very hairy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. LOC. limbweakness. middle lobe smallest.—globose 3-8. gargle good for toothache. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. PROPERTIES AND USES. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). :—Abundant in the Deccan. rheumatism. on the Himalayas. heat of brain. glandular. M.75-1 in. outer involucral bracts ovate.— achene. which is found abundantly all over the country. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. N.—head solitary. :—A perennial straggling herb. :— Wild in Konkan. Kirkee. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). axillary. :—Leaves. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. LOC. :—Throughout India. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. lessens inflammations . 3-partite. PARTS USED.—1. inner slightly longer than outer. diam. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. NS. Ceylon. 30-60 cm. Fl.—Compositæ. abortifacient. densely silky hairy. used in epilepsy.. bruises and wounds. :—Wild in hilly parts. HABITAT. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. hairy. DISTR. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. Fr. FAM. female solitary. white. Ray flowers ligulate. DISTR. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. slender. high. sparsely white hairy. C. LOC. fringed. boiled with gingelly oil. Ekdandi. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. petioles densely hairy. L.. ophthalmia. all over the State. many years ago. Fl. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. Fr. peduncles very long. black.—throughout the year..
M. Fenugreek . anthelmintic. Sk. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. piles. C.—in umbellate cymes . bronchitis. fleshy. :—Cultivated. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. long. diuretic. G.—Aug.5-5. and the seeds contain vitamin A. tonic and carminative. dysentery. dropsy. LOC. Fl. astringent to bowels. 5-10 x 2. suppurative. :—South of Bombay. Kanara. appetiser. PARTS USED. t. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). ovate or elliptic oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES. flatulence. roots many. H. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. LOC. large for the genus. Methi. Janglipikvan. Nepala . FAM. Country. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. Chandrika. purplish within. Menthe—palle. CHAR. HABITAT. tapering to a fine point at the apex. FAM. emmenagogue.. Kashmir. S. 7. COM. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. Methini. "Vata". cures leprosy.. chronic cough. long. :—A twining perennial. M. :—E. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. Sd. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Hot and dry. vomiting. COM. K. cultivated in many parts of India. Pitabija Vedhini.—opposite.—follicles. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. M. corona gibbous below. Konkan. K. Muthi. NS. See—Vegetables. antipyretic. The leaves contain vitamins A and B.5—10 cm. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). DISTR.-Nov. Jyoti. with coma . :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. LOC. Methi .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). much used in colic. L.—deeply lobed. Methi. :—Leaves and seeds. narrowed at the apex to a free point. diarrhœa. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—H. enlargement of spleen and liver.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. removes bad taste from mouth. base cordate. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. FN. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. Methi. useful in dropsy. enlargement of spleen and liver.—Asclepiadaceæ. greenish-yellow outside. they are also aphrodisiac. :—Punjab. NS. . Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. Pitakari (Pitamari). tonic. aperient. Antamul.— broadly ovate. Fl.7 cm. :—Hot. also in low and sandy localities.
Rankanda. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Pithavan.. Fr. Fl. Ceylon. blotched with white above. URARIA PICTA Desv.. FAM. CHAR. :—Sandy places. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. :—A perennial shrub. Borneo. PROPERTIES AND LOC. flat. :—Roots and leaves.. Dried leaves are emetic.— pod. 15-45 x 1. L. Dabra. COM. long. joints 3-6. 5-7 (rarely 9).9-1.—purple. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. :—A herb. Panjala. PARTS USED. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. long.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. ellipsoid. Sk. NS. polished. Sk. HABITAT. DISTR. LOC. FAM. 20-30 cm. :—Konkan. Chota-Nagpur.—in racemes 15-30 cm. tropical Africa. :—Common on sandy shores. Shankaraja . C. PARTS USED. NS. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Pitvan. L. 10-20 cm. DISTR. white. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. diaphoretic and expectorant. Peninsula.8 m. scape erect 30-45 cm. Thailand (Siam). catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. Indian Squill. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—capsule. stems downy with hooked hairs. :—Wild. HABITAT. linear. drooping. black.3-2.. Ranganja . Ceylon. Fl. Pitavan . found useful in dysentery. :—Throughout India. tropical Africa. C. :—Throughout the plains of India. Sd. folded on one another. stalks long. :—G. hairy beneath. Malay Islands.— flattened. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. Philippines. tapering to both ends . M. :—Western Himalayas. Vanapalandu. H. KolaPutakand. t.— petals lanceolate. Fl.. COM. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion).— imparipinnate. G. M. glabrous. high.-Sept.—appearing after the flowers. Jangli-Ran-khanda. Burma. 0. light-brown . leaflets on the upper part of the stem. CHAR.5 cm. Jaglipiaz.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—Aug. Prishna-parni. long. Bihar.— Liliaceæ. USES.. LOC. W. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. :—E. pale lead-colored. linear-oblong. . Fr. :—Bulb. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. perianth campanulate. USES. H. Malay Islands. URGINEA INDICA Kunth.
5—9 cm. cardiac. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. Travancore. Atiras. Sarpagandha. Fl. Persara. rheumatism. :—The bulb is pungent. stimulant and diuretic.—thickly coriaceous. M. dropsy. useful in dyspepsia. scilla of Great Britain. L.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. H. anthelmintic. Fl. pollinia ellipsoid. NS. :—Epiphyte. internal pains (Yunani). good for piles. obtusely keeled. tremors (Ayurveda). COM.— July. praemorse. 1931. complicate. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. Sk. Bihar. Bandanike. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. Peninsula. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. acute. Vanda. alexiteric. laxative. heals fractures (Yunani). and U. toothache. diseases of the abdomen. antipyretic. heating.—capsule. asthma. inflammations. lessens inflammations . rheumatic pains. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. Banda. bronchitis. recurved. useful in paralysis. The bulb is stomachic. :—Root is bitter. stout. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. diuretic. Madhya-Pradesh. long. Rasna. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Gujarat and Kanara. alexiteric. Root is bitter. lumbago.. LOC.. :—Bengal. HABIT. Gaz. :—G. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. bronchitis. Rasna. LOC. :—Konkan. renal calculi. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. purgative. tip. diseases of nose. hiccup.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. Br. DISTR. Vriksharuha. 2-lobed. CHAR. A. maritima of U. boils in the scalp. USES :—Expectorant. tonic to brain and liver. alexiteric. :—An epiphyte. heating. LOC.3-2 cm. stem 30-60 cm. emmenagogue. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains an alkaloid. W. 15-20 X 1. skin diseases. long. column very short. Ceylon. Fr. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. :—Root and leaves. Rasna. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. . erect. bronchitis. K. and an acute interposed one. and was found useful (Koman)..222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. Nakula. lip bluish dotted with purple. Chota-Nagpur. S. Rasno. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). scandent by simple or branching roots . long. indica is in no way inferior to the official U.—Orchidaceæ. (In Med. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system.
:—Madras State. tonic. in chronic bronchitis. M. Tenasserim. :—Bark. Red Creeper. bechic. also in N. LOC. useful in leprosy. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. fruit. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Khandvel. NS. DISTR. M. anæmia. PARTS USED. Sandras. Kundura. Raktavalli. Mysore. yellowish. dysentery. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Fr. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. itch (Ayurveda). Fl. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC.. alexipharmic. acrid. :—North Kanara. LOC. dark. young branches and panicles pubescent. NS. cures cough. 1-nerved wing. :—A large much branched woody climber. :—E. eardiseases. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. t.—petals 5. abundant in S. Oils. Malamaitra. Sarjaka. :—Bark. :—E. tonic and stimulant. Kubbila. globular. :—Western India. (T. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. deciduous and monsoon-forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. COM.5-3. DISTR. detergent. Kanara and S. hemicrania. tuberculous glands. L.-nut about 5 mm. COM. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES.. whitish). K. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. diam. FAM. Lokhandi. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. PARTS USED. Shala. FAM. Dhupa. Poppli. G. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Gums and Resins. Ceylon. Kaharub.8 cm. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. greenish. USES. :—Bark-hot. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. also planted. urinary discharges. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). .—Dec. Shandike. boils and ringworm. good for sore-throat. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. Sekalyel.—Dipterocarpaceæ. carminative. Fl. debility and slight cases of fever. Dhupa. Ragatarshado. C.—Rhamnaceæ. Madidhupa. H. useful in atonic dyspepsia.—in large drooping terminal panicles. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . CHAR.. skin eruptions. Kanara. Coorg in Ghats. piles. entire or crenate. Pitti. alexipharmic. resin. Safed-damar.-Jany. See—Timbers. Sk. M. prolonged into a linear-oblong. ulcers and wounds. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. K. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. buds 5-angled. LOC. diarrhœa. expectorant. stomachic. Haruge. Travancore.—5-10 X 2. amenorrhœa. Country. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. with an offensive odour. Bilidhupa. rheumatism.
—Scrophulariaceæ.. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. often cultivated. and leaves. hairy. branched near the top. L. NS. PARTS USED. sub-globose. hairy on both sides. truncate. :—G. HABITAT:-Waste places. with purple tips . pappus reddish. Deccan . Purple Fleabane. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. G. LOC. LOC. M. FAM. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. hairy. The juice mixed with mustard oil. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. erect. Ceylon . cure ulcers.8 cm.9 m. robust. Country. The juice of the whole plant. stem 0. Kadvojiri. CHAR. PARTS USED.-achene oblong cylindric. Java .5—3. H. lyrate. M. DISTR.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Bhutakeshi. China. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. Seeds— anthelmintic. :—E. Somaraj. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Fl.—Dec. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.-rotate. about 40-flowered. :—Konkan . Ceylon. Kutki.Feb. . rachis glandular pubescent.—alternate. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled.—Compositæ. H. Kulhala. Kalhara. Somaraj. :—Throughout India . Fr. Sk.—heads subcorymbose. leafy herb . t. lobes 5. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. astringent to bowels. stems 60—90 cm. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. M.-May. Bakchi. Sundika. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. Vapehi. used in skin-diseases. warted.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Vishamushti. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Annual. Kalizhiri. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. coarsely serrate. Fl. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. anthelmintic. on long petioles. 5—9 x 2. t— Jany. :—An annual herb. Fl. "Vata" and "Kapha". Kadu-Kala Jiriga. Kalejire.—capsule. Agnibija. high.) FAM. LOC. innermost the longest. hairy. Kalijiri. K. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Sd. involucre bracts linear. Afghanistan. :—Seeds-acrid. Sk. 10-ribbed.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. Fl. NS. Vanajiraka.. COM. squeezed out by pounding. ofter cultivated. rounded.. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. all coarsely dentate. L. COM. DISTR. Kulara. yellow. C. high . Fr. Gujarat. :—Throughout India. lanceolate.6-0. :—Plant. Gadar-tambaku.2 cm. CHAR.. compound or pinnatisect.—oblong. in equal proportions.
Sind. with lime-juice. Dandotpala. . G. bronchitis . H. :—Plant. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. G. pubescent.—Gramineæ. CHAR. NS. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. good for sores and itching of eyes. alternate. t. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). silky on the back.—simple. are used in destroying pediculi. seeds. Sahadevi. Ardhaprasadana. In Ceylon. Koosa. clothed with white hairs .—Jan. The plant with quinine. Australia. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. hiccup . striate. erect herb. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. cures "Tridosha". Bena. awned. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. LOC.— pinkish violet. Vala. Fl. Panni. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Sedardi. Sahadevi.—achene. :—E. M. Lavancha. Devika. heads small. Bala. Sadori. COM. oblong. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. stomachic. DISTR. :—A common weed throughout the State. astringent. FAM. Sahadevi. plant is used in fever convulsions. COM. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils.—Compositæ. remove blood from liver. bruised seeds ground up in paste. tropical Asia. Vecrnam. Ash-coloured Fleabane . Khas. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Sadodi. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). M. cold.-Feb. Africa . Ushira. :—Throughout India. The expressed juice is given in piles. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). H. consumption. tonic. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. :—E. stem stiff. applied in inflammatory swellings . Kuruvelu. Valo . stomachic and diuretic. made into a bolus with lime-juice. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. :—Annual. 15—75 cm. Sk. They are also used as tonic. Osari. K. Sk. L. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). flowers. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. K. a depilatory (Yunani). kidney troubles. used for asthma. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. NS. Cuscus grass. Mudivala. FAM. PARTS USED. pappus white. Fr. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. high.. LOC. Fl.
HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). lower ones keeled and fan-like. long. anthelmintic. astringent. Nirgud. Sessile spikelets. strangury. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. :—Throughout India. Nukki. soporific. Cooling to brain. high. stomachic. Ceylon. Nirgundi. head-ache. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. long. :—Root. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). foul breath. diuretic. racemes up to 5 cm.. up to over 1. colour varying from yellowish to black. febrifuge. Lakki. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. also cultivated. throughout the Malayan regions. Culms stout. :—Throughout the State. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Leaves are aromatic. promotes hair-growth. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. LOC. Sinduvara. leaves. erect. cephalic. Nirgari. Nigod. PROPERTIES AND USES. sweats. leucoderma. Nirgundi. bitter. bilious fevers. FAM. :—Cooling. Afghanistan. Sk. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. :—G. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. heating. LOC. useful in spermatorrhoea. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . stimulant and tonic. Sambhalu. K. Indrani. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. :—Roots. biliousness. useful in eye diseases. astringent. Konkan and Deccan. L. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. USES :—Root is tonic. bitter.—panicle up to 30 cm.8 m. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Sind. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. COM. The otto is used as a tonic. PARTS USED.—Verbenaceæ. usually sheathed all along. stomachic. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. Nilpushpi. expectorant and diuretic. spleen enlargement. West-Indies and Brazil. alexiteric. rachis stout. The roots contain an essential oil. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. PARTS USED. margin spinously rough. pale green. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. useful in burning sensation. refrigerant. asthma. M. inflammations and irritability of stomach. thirst. H. tonic and vermifuge. Kanara in damp places.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. blood diseases (Yunani). Bilenekki. Philippine Islands. DISTR. bronchitis. consumption. NS. Fl. DISTR. Nirgundi. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations .. LOC. bitter. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . inflammations.-leaf sheaths compressed. slender.
:—E. leaves. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. :—Deccan. Khandesh. There are numerous cultivated varieties. See—Timbers. emmenagogue. Draksha. Ahmednagar. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. diuretic . The plant contains an alkaloid. burning. skin should not be eaten. allays vomiting. emmenagogue. produces constipation. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. G. Draksha. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. . LOC. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. and traces of vitamins B and C. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. fattening. and given in coughs. piles. Country. allays vomiting. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. W. Fruit— digestive. Gujarat and S. sparingly in Poona. fever. laxative. Angura. syphilis. good for eyes and throat. bad effects of drinking. heat of body. produces alopecia. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. HABITAT. Guchaphala. H. stops bleeding from mouth. :—A native of western Asia. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. LOC. Draksha. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. DISTR. The fruits contain vitamin A. fattening . applied in scabies. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. astringent to bowels. cooling. Flowers—expectorant. fruits. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). causes gases in the stomach. asthma. stones in bladder. laxative. useful in old fevers. Drakh . spleen inflammation. sweet.. catarrh and jaundice. Madhurasa. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. M. COM. testicle swellings and piles. blood diseases. diuretic. NS. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). good in chronic bronchitis . In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. stomachic. hoarseness and consumption. aperient. Darakh. aphrodisiac. strangury. cough. India. purifies and enriches blood . liver and kidney. flowers. cures thirst. FAM-—Vitaceæ. Sk. Yakshmaghni. Sap of young branches. cooling . appetiser. Fruit is nervine. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. jaundice. Angur. Grape-vine. K. PARTS USED :—Stem. :—Cultivated. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. diarrhœa. seeds. cooling useful in thirst. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". :—Fruit-acrid. difficult to digest. tonic to liver. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. a remedy for skin diseases. expectorant. M. Draksha. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. good for lungs. Seeds—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. fever.
Gandhpatri. obovate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). :—K. Balada. anthelmintic. Sk. Fl. branches armed with recurved prickles . ghats near Mahabaleshwar. somewhat scurfy. chest troubles etc. G. 0. insomnia. L. hard. Asgund. minutely hairy. alexipharmic. rachis grooved with soft hairs. t. Kanara. :—Drier regions. calyx-tube. Gujarat.5-12. Hirimaddina-gadde. See—Fruit Trees. PARTS USED. Ghodasoda. good in asthma... Deccan. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). t. :—Root and bark. constricted between them. marasmus of children. :—E. Wakeri. 7. Hooliganji. acrid. Sogada-beru. Asoda. Cape of Good Hope. :—A branched erect undershrub. Tuber—bitter. scabies. favours constipation (Yunani).—yellow. oblong. CHAR. Kamrupini. pretty common in the ghats. slightly 5-angled. DISTR. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. "Kapha". oblong. Fl. LOC. inserted on the top of. red. :—Konkan jungles.5 m. seeds. LOC. senile debility. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC.— Sept. aphrodisiac. abundant in Sind .—5-10 X 2. anthritis. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. FAM. lumbago. long. L. Canaries. aphrosidiac. K. Asan. PARTS USED :—Root. dark-green. Wagati. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . :—The roots are given in pneumonia . Wagati. base dentate. COM. inflammations.—pod. hoary tomentose . COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. armed with prickles . Drakshasava—used as tonic. Ceylon. spathulate. Sd. Vajini. Fr.5-5 cm. Fl. HABITAT. green berries. pinnae 4-6 pairs. useful in "Vata". tonic. 23-30 cm. FAM. M. Amangura. . inflammations.. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. :—Tubers-bitter.—2-pinnate. linear oblong. Ashvagandha. M. heating.3-1. long. Winter-cherry. diam. smooth. (not common.—Solanaceæ.) DISTR. leaflets 5-7 pairs. USES. main rachis armed with prickles. asthma. NS. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. ulcers. :—In the drier regions of India .—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. Mediterranean regions.—berry. swollen above the seeds. 6 mm.—greenish or lurid yellow. Asgundh. alterative. NS.—3-4. Punir. Kanchuki. H. high.5 cm. enclosed in inflated calyx. bronchitis. Fr. entire. leaves.-Feb. consumption.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. long. branches terete. psoriasis. C. bony Fl. tonic. ovate.—petals 5. :—A robust woody climber. :—Deccan. Sd. dark-orange. CHAR. leucoderma. coriaceous.-Jany. emmenagogue .
Japan. wedge-shaped. Fl. Hale. Santha. diuretic and deobstruent. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz.—mostly opposite. leaf-infusion is given in fever. :—Throughout India. Fl. M. The plant contains an alkaloid. COM. Indrajav. :—Bark and flowers. Hayamaraka. H. Indrajav. Dhaiti. Madhavasini. debility from old age. Vanhishikha. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. irregularly dehiscent. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Dyes. :—G. toxic. COM.—numerous. NS.3-2. HABITAT. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Dhateki. tropical Africa. common in the Konkan and N. anthelmintic . alterative. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. nigro-punctate beneath. Dhavani. 5-9X 1.) FAM. PARTS USED. Sumatra. Dec. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . . smooth. Dhavani. 1 cm. Fr. :—Monsoon-forests.5 cm. leprosy.. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. used in thirst. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. erysipelas. useful in leucorrhoea. Indrajav.— numerous. Madagascar. Swetakutaj. Sk. Baluchistan. Are. blood diseases. Ceylon. Tamrapushpi. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. and in derangement of liver . M.—capsule. See—Tans. Sk. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Br. Sd. :—Root is regarded as tonic. lumbar pains. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. China. Phulsatti. emaciation of children. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Dhawadina. Kalakuda. long. Kodamurki. Kuda. Dhawai. on trap in the Akrani. Khirni.—Lythraceæ. Ornamental Plants. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. K. rheumatism.-May. Bela. Kalikari. brown. Java. NS. DISTR. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Hallunova. H. :—Pungent. simple. Kanara near the sea-coast. cooling. scarlet. L. USES. Dudhi. haemorrhoids. K. It is narcotic. FAM. t. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. ulcers and painful swellings . ovate-lanceolate. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . uterine sedative.—Apocynaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. Madhuindrayava. LOC. alexiteric. :—G. LOC. branches long. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. velvety above. acrid. Dhaw. dysentery. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC.
:—Cooling. memory. Fr. hairy on both sides. Dumundi. :—Rajastan. fever. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. long. Shankhahuli. ovoid in fruit. Fl. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. CHAR. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. See—Timbers. Kambu-Vanamalini. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. PARTS USED. Dutundi. Banokra.achene. 3-lobed. epilepsy. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. Ceylon. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. Itara. Sarpakshi.-E. Gadrian. LOC. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures leucoderma. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. West-Peninsula. the bark is specially useful in piles. :—Bark and seeds. Sk. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. tonic.—Jany. at the top. :— Throughout India. Madhya Pradesh. L.. compressed . G. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. NS. USES :—Root is bitter.1-6. digestive.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. involucre of fertile head. COM. complexion. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac.—Compositæ. stout. biliousness. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . improves appetite. LOC. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). Clot-Cockle-bur. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts.. In S. oblong ovoid. fattening. hard and tough. antidysenterica (Yunani). Bur-Weed. alexiteric. Aristha. all over the State. salivation. DISTR. LOC. PARTS USED. barren heads many. with 2 erect beaks. 5-7. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. :—The whole plant. . Fl. Timor. fertile heads few.5 cm. voice. LOC. in W. M. :—Annual herb . stem short. FAM. axillary. laxative. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES.Feb. antipyretic. especially root and fruit. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. Khandesh at 1050 m. irregularly incisoserrate . Sankeshwar. anthelmintic. rough with short hairs . poisonous bites of insects. 1-3 cm. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H.—many. t. DISTR. long and broad..
removes pain due to cold. :—Rhizome-pungent.—Rhamnaceæ. eructations. Kandara. FAM. flatulence. it cleans throat. alexiteric. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). inflammations. Ginger. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. :—Cultivated. Rhizome—pungent. Plum. aphrodisiac. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. Boyedi. tonic. Chinese Date. :—E. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. COM. LOC. carminative. lumbago. to prevent nausea and griping. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). asthma. Koli. HABITAT. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Anupama. rheumatism. vomiting. good in piles. PARTS USED. Egasi. "Kapha". Hasisunthi. Sk. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. colic. Sk. FAM. H. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ajapriya. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. aphrodisiac. Alen. on poor soil and in rocky places. Shringavera. laxative. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. G. Beri. expectorant. NS. bronchitis. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ber.. Ardraka. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. piles. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Gulmmula. Dridhabija. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. K. Alen. head-ache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. G. stomachic. :—Rhizome. H. Indian Cherry. useful in heart and throat diseases. DISTR. "Vata". pains (Yunani). Alla Adrak. Kuvali. It is stimulant. loss of appetite and piles. vomiting. M. anthelmintic. K. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. appetiser. NS. COM. . Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . useful in elephantiasis. Bore. stomachic. gives lustre to eye. carminative. Bordi. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. Bor. pains. Ada. Ber. See—Condiments and Spices. Badari. M. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Bogari. LOC. Ipanji.—Scitaminaceæ. tongue and increases appetite. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). and dry situations. dyspepsia. Bor. Adrate. it is also given in the form of infusion.
bark. removes biliousness. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Fruits contains vitamin A. laxative. indigestible. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. causes diarrhœa in large doses . useful in fevers. Leaves form a plaster to boils. Kanara. thirst. biliousness. frequently planted as a fruit tree. :—Throughout the State in dry situations .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Seed—astringent. on the laterite near the coast in N. good in consumption and blood-diseases. burning sensation. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. causes cough. See—Timbers. Leaves—anthelmintic. Bark—causes boils . LOC. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. wounds and ulcers. tonic to heart and brain . abundant in the Deccan. :—Root-bitter. cure asthma. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. seeds. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. reduce obesity. Root and Bark tonic. China. Australia. :—Root. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Afghanistan. Leaves antipyretic. DISTR. good in liver complaints. PARTS USED. Africa. Ceylon. head-ache. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . Burma. cooling. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES. fruit. vomiting. leaves. Fruit— cooling. tonic. allays thirst (Yunani). Fruit—sweet and sour. . Fruit Trees. good in dysentery and diarrhœa.. aphrodisiac. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury.
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