SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

5X2-2. Yajnika. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. acrid.—pod. Kushthari. :—E. LOC. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. yellow. Kanara forests. erysipelas. Manda-otte. aphrodisiac. CHAR. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles .—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Ritha. 7. leprosy. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. ulcers. fleshy when green. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Malay Islands. Khandesh Akrani S. Fl. FAM.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. :—Common throughout the Stale . Soap-pod tree. Sige-balli or kai. Fl. Chikakai. DISTR. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. tonic. bronchitis. G. Saradruma. H. boils. Lalkhair. given in elephantiasis. Saptata. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). wrinkled when dry . :—Throughout India. strengthens teeth. Kanara (often on laterite). In ulceration of the gums. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Bhuriphena. Fr.—bipinnate. Pegu. prurigo. Khair. :—An extensive woody climber. Phena. overlapping.-6-10 . indigestion. heaviness. See—Timbers. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Kochi. It is given in diarrhœa. Dipta. :—Rajastan. Dyes. gums. Tans. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). mouth troubles. Vidula. L. cures itching. astringent to bowels.-Mar. COM. LOC. Deccan. Khadira. Western Peninsula. Kath-bole. long. leucorrhoea. psoriasis. Sikkim. throat diseases. 5-10 cm.-July. M. antidysenteric. along the coasts of Konkan and N. ACACIA CONCINNA DC.. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. sore-throat and tooth-ache. hypertrophy of tonsils. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Country and Gujarat.8 cm.—in fascicled globose heads. LOC. cooling. . Himalayas up to 1700 m. Shige. M. relaxation of the uvula. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). anthelmintic. urinary and vaginal discharges.-t. Dantadhavan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. " Kapha ".5-12. Shikekai. DISTR. K. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). inflammations. NS. leaflets 10-20 pairs.. piles. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. measles and other skindiseases. Sd. linear-oblong. M. " Vata ". HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. anti-pyretic. Burma. Charmakusha. Sk. China. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful.

leucoderma. Marudruma. digestible. Gum—sweetish. Jheri baval. K. Pissibabul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. tonic. purgative. ascites. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. . Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. alexiteric. Gandhbabul. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. often planted . Internally they are aperient. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. Sponge tree.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). often cultivated. erysipelas. NS.. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. M. improves appetite. bronchitis. LOC. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. buboes. ulcers. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. anti-dysenteric. stomatitis. burning sensation. prurigo. blood-diseases. Devababhul. Kankri. Gums and Resins. DISTR. piles. anthelmintic. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . cures stomatitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. Cassia flower. HABITAT :—Moist situations. Kari jali. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. expectorant and good emetic. anthelmintic. Girimeda. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. G. cardio-tonic. not indigenous but naturalised. Gandhelo khair . causes " Vata". aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). LOC. Vilavati kikar. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. caries of teeth. anti-diarrhoeal. itching. COM. biliousness. blood diseases. inflammations. deobstruent. leucoderma. Jali. erysipelas. Sind. Stinking acacia. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. leaves and gum. eczema. FAM. H. See—Timbers. externally they are applied to leprous patches. PARTS USED :—Bark. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . :—E. cures " Kapha. LOC. cooling. detergent.pungent. Arimeda. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. Sauna jali. Sk. In Philippines decoction.

many. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. COM. Sk. The plant contains acalyphin. Country. oblong-cylindric. females. Vanchhikanto. males. elliptic obovate. Merkati. LOC. FAM.5x2-4. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. M. asthma. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Latjira . Kharamanjiri. K.—utricle. Philippines. H. stem stiff. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Fl. DISTR. somewhat 3-nerved. Chalmari.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. minute. Sd. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—opposite. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. branches terete or quadrangular striate. brown. clustered near the summit of spike. enclosed in perianth smooth. softly hairy. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Fl. CHAR.—monœcious. in elongate terminal spikes. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. t. Prickly chaff-flower. angular. pale-brown. smooth. high.5-4.-Jany.9 m. CHAR. Uttrane . erect. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.—Nov. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. Apamarga. 2. one-seeded. :—An erect herb 0. Chirchira. erect herb. crenate-serrate. Ksharamadhya. ascending. Utranigida..5 cm. . Fr. Fl. Ceylon. :—Annual. few. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. Khajoti. Kuppi-gida.3 X 2. hispid. small. FAM. :—Throughout India. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Var. Sd. LOC. Agheda-di. G. branches long.—Euphorbiaceæ. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. K. high. rounded at base.—truncate at apex. about 50 cm. :—G. brown. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.57. NS. Sk. axillary spikes . Vasira. M.—capsule. :—Common in the Deccan and S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. L. NS.— ovoid. :—E. tropical Africa. Chichra. It is used in congestive headache. Kantarika. scattered. Aghada . 3.8-6.—June-Sept. t.. Arittamanjaria. Fl. M. Fr.—Amarantaceæ. Apang. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. elongate. Kuppi. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic.5 cm. Khokla. Khokali. pneumonia and rheumatism. H.—greenish white.3-0. 30-75 cm. long in fruit. perianth 4-5 segments. in lax. L. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.

fevers. 5-10 cm. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. Fr. liver and chest pains. heart diseases. DISTR. carminative. piles.9-1. LOC. See—Sacred Plants. Throughout Asia. thickened in the middle. Ceylon. rat-bite. :—Throughout India.. itching. Africa. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. Europe and N. bitter. toothache. LOC. bronchitis. useful in dyspepsia. delirium. useful in vomiting. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. Godavaj. improves appetite. Vekhand. carminative. long. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. etc. loss of memory. FAM. diuretic. and is considered useful in dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. margins wavy. heating.. G. obtuse. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. slightly curved. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. prismatic. Bitter.7-3. HABITAT :—Marshy places. useful in abdominal pains. flowers and seeds. Baluchistan. :—E. bronchitis. COM. leaves. PARTS USED : —Root. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. improves appetite. K. Vacha. America. useful in general weakness. acute. dysentery. hysteria. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. :—An aromatic herb . inflammations. pungent. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). abdominal pains. expectorant.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. alexiterie. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. voice. anthelmintic. leucoderma (Yunani). NS. good for mouth diseases. dyspepsia. Jatila. Bach. piles. Baja . laxative. tumours. Gandhilovaj. Bhutnashini. 0. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. epilepsy. CHAR. ascites. Ugragandha. bright-green. Sweet flag . M. long. creeping and branching. Gorbach . throat. . INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. dysentery. thirst.—Araceæ. anthers yellow. Sk.8 X 1. America. skin eruption etc. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. Sikkim.8 cm. green . "Vata". Tropical Asia. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. stomachic. L. brain-tonic. heating. H. stomatitis. laxative. boils. spathe 15-75 cm. blood diseases (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. spadix. sepals scarious. emmenagogue . kidney troubles. flatulence. Australia. emetic. Vekhand . carminative.—turbinate. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. top pyramidal. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. LOC. inflammations.

:—Konkan. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. Gorakhchinch. Panch-parnika. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. vomiting. It is a good remedy in asthma. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. N. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. :—K. Brahmamlika. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Monkey-bread tree. G. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Gopali. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. FAM. M. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Gorakshi. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. Powder is very effective insecticide. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. African calabash. bark. Baobab. useful in biliousness. etc. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. LOC. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Gorakamali. HABITAT':—Cultivated. K. Pichli. Rukhdo . Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough.. DISTR. Goremlichora . Gorakhaamli. LOC. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . colic. :—Western Peninsula. Bukha. LOC. Sk. Deccan. COM. See—Timbers. :—Grown in many places in India . fever. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth.—Bombacaceæ. anti-pyretic. H. M.—Lauraceæ. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . in children. Gujarat. FAM. :—E. Pisa. COM. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . Tudgensu . Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. NS. indigenous in tropical Africa. leaf and fruit. DISTR. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. Haggodgimara. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. dysentery. fevers and other maladies. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Kanara evergreen forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. PARTS USED : —Root. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Ceylon. COM. Sage-leaved alangium. carminative. cures erysipelas. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Akoly. Gudhapatra. Vamaka. G. lumbago. Ankora. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. inflammations. Ankola. alexipharmic . Dridhakantaka. burning of body.) FAM. LOO. colic. Anedhera. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. useful in worms. Onkla. acute fever. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. it is said to stop after-pains. aromatics or honey. Root-bark poisonous. K.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Ankotha. M. H. cures " Kapha". stem. Sk. aphrodisiac. wasting diseases. Ankoli. Seeds—cooling. Shankiniphala. H. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. S. anthelmintic. G. poisonous bites. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Asroli. Ankol. Kalshish. Sirai. Fruit—laxative. Kalosadasado. Kathora. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. lumbago (Yunani). dysentery. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Kullumavu. rat-bite. DISTR. biliousness. Karnapura. heating. alterative. Piloshirish. indigestible. Philippines. Shirisha. Shyamala. M. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Shirish. Ankola. K. Ankota. spermatorrhoea. blood diseases. inflammations.—Alangiaceæ. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. Ankola. Garso. hydrophobia. :—Throughout India. Malaya. often along banks of nalas in N. Dodda-Hombage. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. :—Throughout the State. and fruit. COM. LOC.—Leguminosæ. :—E. diarrhœa. leaves (rarely). blood diseases. Sk. pungent. LOC. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. (Mimosaceæ). commonly planted along roadsides. Sirsul. Kaloshirish. Ankoli. tonic. " Vata "-pain. Tamraphala. FAM. Uddanaka. Sirisa.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. See—Timbers. Krishnashirisha. Tantia. fish-poison. NS. gleet. Kalashirish. Shirish. :—E. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . alexiteric. expectorant. China. Root-bark— used in piles. Chinchola. Kanara. Juice—emetic. useful in inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. NS.

Kanda. Rochaka. blood diseases. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. Bark-bitter. etc. prescribed in ophthalmia. relieves tooth-ache. bark. appetiser. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. usually planted. good in rat-bite. cures "Vata". . flowers. Flowers—aphrodisiac. inflammations. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. See—Vegetables. itching. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. emollient. tumours. enriches blood. diarrhœa. boils. scabies. epistaxis. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. See—Timbers. bleeding piles. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. weakness. deafness. Burma. LOC. Bark— anthelmintic. It is an important garden crop... and also in skin diseases . volatile oil. Bulb—tonic. stimulant and expectorant. syphilis. strengthens gums and teeth. Dungari. LOC. Ceylon.—Liliaceæ. Seeds—fattening. cooling. alexiteric. Onion. Bark and seeds are astringent.K. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. Leaves—good in night blindness. and chronic bronchitis . catarrh. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. biliousness. spleen diseases. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites.:—E. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. seeds. excessive perspiration. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. Oil is used in leprosy. skin-diseases. aphrodisiac. which acts as a diuretic. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. Root—astringent. B & C. ear-ache.: —Throughout India. piles. ophthalmia. asthma. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. used in leprosy. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. M. etc. Ulageddi. Seeds—tonic to brain. seeds. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. tonic. FAM. body pains. erysipelas. dropsy. piles. paralysis. bronchitis. Rajapriya. their smell useful in hemicrania. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). useful in malaria. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. H. G. useful in vomiting. stomachic. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. LOC. Palandu. given in piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. cultivated everywhere. leucoderma. DISTR. COM. improves taste. scabies. eruptions and swellings. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. leaves. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. Bengal. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). maturant. :—Native country probably Persia. occasionally used in fever. The plant contains vitamins A.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. Piyaz. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani).

Indian aloe. low fevers. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. troubles of spleen. COM. M. . paralysis. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. aphrodisiac. clears voice. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Ugragandha. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. See—Vegetables. chronic fevers. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints.—Liliaceæ. NS. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. " Vata ". FAM. lumbago. sciatica. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Lashuna. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Country. LOC. Lasan. It is an important garden crop. H. Korphad. tonic. Ikshurmallika. FAM. thirst. thins the blood (Yunani). Lasan. good for lumbago. Rasonaka. Lolisara. K. PARTS USED :—Bulb. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Kanya.—Liliaceæ. voice. Kumari. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. caries of teeth. paraplegia and convulsive affections. carminative. COM. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. :—E. inflammation. Kapila. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. M. Kuvarpatha. H. Korkand. Sk. coughs and other debilitating conditions. LOC. useful in diseases of eye and heart. Kattali. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Diuretic. hemiplegia. asthma. digestive. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. K. Kumari. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. liver and lungs . G. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. Lahsan. complexion. aphrodisiac. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. oleaginous . ear-ache (Ayurveda). heating. Lasun. G. :—E.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. M. alexipharmic. In Cambodia. fattening. The plant contains vitamin C. In pulmonary phthisis. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. tumours. useful in inflammations. In cases of diphtheria. thirst. leucoderma. NS. epileptic fits. Sk. ALŒ VERA Linn. bronchitis. body and joint pains. improves appetite. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. Ghi-kumari. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. leucoderma. anthelmintic. Bellulli. Garlic. piles.

mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. milky juice. useful in splean inflammation. spleen enlargement. FAM. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. LOC. Barbados. alterative. Satian. anthelmintic. Ceylon. bark. K. leaves. scape longer than the leaves. piles. :—Throughout India. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Root. aphrodisiac. cooling. Fl. purgative. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. Kadusale. inflammations. gonorrhœa. Native of S. methritis. used in form of paste in pleurisy. purgative. Satwin. NS. :—E. bronchitis. Jamaica. The plant contains aloin. vomiting. biliousness (Yunani). Java. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. Africa.—sessile. Kaduhale. biliousness. India. Bitter . strangury. crowded. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. Saptachhada. Kanara. HABITAT :—Moist forests. digestive. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. tonic. Sk. fattening. yellow.—in dense racemes . jaundice. wild along the coast. pendulous. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. somewhat divided. also cultivated. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. liver troubles. isobarbaloin and emodin. Saptaparna. Br. E. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Dita bark tree. lumbago. H. pain in muscles. ophthalmia. Chatian. Hale. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. planted in Indian gardens . fleshy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. Australia. It also acts as a mild purgative. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. common in the rain-forests of N. LOC. M. C. COM. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. tropical Africa. tonic. tumours. pale-green. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. asthma. margins spiny. Mediterranean. skin diseases.—Apocynaceæ. West Indian Islands. L. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. emollient and demulcent. DISTR. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. DISTR. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. alexiteric. simple or branched. :—Wild along the coast in S. PARTS USED :—Leaves. liver complaints. carminative. PARTS USED :— . :—A perennial herb . scaly. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. perianth cylindric . and it is largely imported into India. lanceolate. used in fevers. stem short thick. Satwin. useful in eye-diseases.

). laxative.3—3. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. See—Timbers. Mullarave-soppu. :—E. rat-bite. Pathyashaka. ovate. digestible. Bark—acrid. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. Tandulaja. Fl. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Drug Com. Mulladantu. galactogogue. hallucination. Kantanatia. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. burning sensation. . Kantanu-dant. bitter. rubbish heaps and fields. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. heating. good in diseases of the heart. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. Cholai. stomachic. L. COM. obtuse. also useful in catarrhal fever. LOC. See—Vegetables. FAM. Kante math. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. thickened at the top. improves appetite. boils and burns. HABITAT :—In waste places. sudorific and febrifuge.—Amarantaceæ. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. biliousness. :—An erect glabrous herb. tropical countries. ulcers. H. oleaginous. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. female calyx oblong. male calyx acute. antiperiodic and febrifuge. entire. Apamarisha. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . bristles pointed.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. Tandulja. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. laxative.2—7. :—Throughout India. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. diuretic. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. diseases of the blood.8 cm. LOC. Fr. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. long. numerous. Sk. often reddish. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. M. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. antipyretic. appetiser. unisexual. apiculate. leprosy.— 3. leucoderma. alexiteric. Ceylon. blood diseases. Prickly amaranth. rubbish heaps . also in fields. lanceolate. obtuse. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). CHAR. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. LOC. anthelmintic. ovoid. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. piles. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. useful in " Kapha ". " tridosha " pain. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. NS. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places.— capsule.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. high. Root—heating expectorant.. asthma. K. rugose. 30-60 cm. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). leucorrhoea. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. Tandulibija. Kantalo dambho. bronchitis. DISTR.5 X 1. G. tumours.

—Lythraceæ. China. Jangli mehandi. elephantiasis . appetiser. Kuranti. fevers etc. DISTR.—Nov. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. :—Cultivated widely in the State. LOC. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Sk. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Vatari. FAM.—Araceæ. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. corm. useful in piles." blood troubles. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. stomachic. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. Gujarat and Kanara. NS. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. erect or subscandent herb. increases appetite and taste. Blistering ammania. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. acrid. abdominal pains. Sd. Sukaranda. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). NS. Fl. stomachic.—capsule. much narrowed at the base. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Elephant's foot. Deccan. depressed. COM. Sk. Dadmari. t. M. harmful in "Kapha". constipating. bronchitis. Kandala. H. Malaya. :—An annual. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. :—Throughout India in moist places. Arshaghna. K. G. LOC. Konkan rivers. enlargement of the spleen. branches usually opposite. Australia. tumours. Grows wild on the banks of S. blood diseases.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Bitter and acrid . aphrodisiac. Tropical Africa. Suran. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. red. strangury . Suran . M. H. high. the plant. globose. vomiting. causes itching sensation. Suran. Kurendika. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Suran.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils.:— Konkan. fresh or dried. LOC.—opposite. :—E. COM. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. Fl. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . L. 8-65 cm. Kuranda. In the Konkan. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. removes " Kapha ". laxative. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. CHAR. Ceylon. Jalavgiyo. " Vata. Fr. It is also used as an emmenagogue. . Kandavardhan. :—E. Bharajambhul. sessile. Vikata. pungent. Afghanistan. asthma. Kanthalla.

10-12 X 7. . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Garalaphala. M. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Oils. also cultivated. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy.—Menispermaceæ. DISTR. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. Kajutaka. H. and trace of C. The plant contains Vitamins A. hot. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. broadly ovate. ascites. digestible. leaves. L. Kakaphal. LOC. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. COM. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Prithagbija. bark vertically furrowed . swollen peduncle of fruit. Cashew apple-nut.5-12. Kaju . Sophara. Gerubi. Gova. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. ringworm. leucoderma. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. tumours.. The seed contains vitamin A. Kaju. See—Timbers. Upapushpika. Jermic. skin diseases. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. dysentery. Kakanashika. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. B. Sk. anthelmintic. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. FAM. :—A native of tropical America. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. It is supposed to have restorative power. G. flowers. & A. ulcers. NS. Crow-Fish Killer.—Anacardiaceæ. CHAR. Kakamari. FAM. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. COM. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . sweet.5 cm. many flowered. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. piles. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Agni-krita. NS. fever. K. :—E. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. Kakamari. Fl. Corm is poisonous. cordate or truncate. . Kakamari. USES :—Bark is alterative. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fish-Louse Berry.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. G. LOC. Sk. Govamba. :—E. 5-nerved. PARTS USED :—Bark.— subcoriaceous. Kanara. long.—in panicles 25-35 cm. Kaju. Kakamari. corns and obstinate ulcers. equal to almond oil. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Kakamari. M. which is nutritious and emollient. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. H. Kakkisoppugida . See—Vegetables.

HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. COM. Kantak sanjika. Ananas . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. . Assam. Bhuinimba. :—E. :—Konkan. cultivated. Kiryat. fruits. It acts also as diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . NS. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. N. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. Ananas . COM. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). :—Khasia Hills. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. causes cough and biliousness. Ananas. DISTR. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). Sk. Olikiriyat. G. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. dioecious. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. K. DISTR.) LOC. Olen kirayat. Mahatit. LOC. Ananasa. LOC.—Acanthaceæ. E. M. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Pine-apple . Mahateet. Ananas hannu. Kanara.—Sept. to a certain extent in Gujarat. Creat. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. PARTS USED :—Roots. Ama. Nelabevu gida. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. a poison to fish (Yunani). and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. K.-Oct. Ananas. FAM. Kirata. Kiriyata. t. petals absent. Fl. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. H. NS. from Orissa to Ceylon. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. FAM. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic .MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Bengal. G. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. LOC. good expectorant. :—E. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. leaves and fruits. M. it is useful in jaundice. smooth. also acts as a purgative. removes gases from the intestines . given with sugar it relieves hiccup. See—Fruit Trees. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). black .—Bromeliaceæ. H. native of Brazil (tropical America). Parvati. Sk.

—nutlets. white below. solitary. L. purple. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. dyspepsia and fever from teething. dysentery. L. Fl. high. polished brown. smooth. pale above.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. stem quadrangular. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. Fl. upper lip 2-toothed.— capsule. DISTR. G. alterative. :—Throughout India. oblong-lanceolate. :—An erect shrub.3-10 X 2-4.9 m. FAM. very small. :—Konkan and Kanara.-Oct.—very thick. thickly woolly.5 cm. Sk. CHAR.2-1. Oshthaphala. acute at both ends . 6. acute. Sundara. Chodhara. . :—An erect branched annual 0. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo .8 m.—small. Fl. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. NS. lateral lobes small. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. 1. Malabar Catmint. high. Green leaves.—Ghats. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. undulate. and anthelmintic. pale beneath. DISTR. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Gojivana. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. linear-oblong. Vaikunth. and certain forms of dyspepsia. made into an electuary. lower 3lobed. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. Karnatak.. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. t. PROPERTIES AND LOC.3-0. yellowish brown. sometimes cultivated. Fr. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. LOC. rose coloured. C—2-lipped. Kanara. Ceylon. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. extensively used in Bengal. Br.—lanceolate. distant. Alamoda. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. tonic. distant. M. Sundraphul.—many. LOC. lower lip very large and broad . clothed with woolly hairs . C—2-lipped. crenate-serrate.—Dec. COM.-Nov. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. and N. bracts lanceolate. HABITAT. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children.—Labiatæ. forming a spicate inflorescence. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. approximate above. :—E. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. :—S. :—Deccan. ellipsoid. stomachic. Plant is useful in general debility. rugosely pitted. Karitumbe. Sd. K. t. Fl. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. Malay Peninsula.—in dense whorls .

produce ulcers in the eye. Amritphala. COM. Seeds—difficult to digest. PARTS USED :—Root. astringent to the bowels. FAM. Dhavada. now cultivated throughout India. M. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. H. Dhamora. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Sitaphala. stimulant. useful in liver complaints. Krishnabija. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. improves taste and appetite . Bejjalu. Sugar apple. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. :—E. chronic diarrhœa. erysipelas. bark. Fruit—sweet. FAM. Dhavada. and eyesores. :—A native of West Indies . Dhava. (Yunani). Sk. NS. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Dabria. LOC. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Sharipha. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Bahubijika. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". K. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Bark is a powerful astringent. Pitaphala. Dhavala. NS. :—Throughout the greater part of India. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Sweet-sop. fruit and seeds. useful in anaemia. COM. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Sitaphala. Bakla. cooling . Dyes. Sitaphala. Kanara border. sedative to heart. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Dindiga. cooling. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. G. Dohu. :—E. bark. Anan. LOC. Anuram. DISTR. Ceylon. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . causes fever and furunculosis . Dindala. Sitaphal. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. discharges. Durangi. Ata. enriches blood. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Root—cathartic. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. See—Timbers. H. good tonic. Button Tree. Dhava. Sk. LOC. DISTR. leaves and fruits. tasty. Shushkanga. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. abortifacient. M. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Sitaphala. G. Custard apple. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. increases muscular strength.—Anonaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. increases biliousness . leaves. K. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Damora.—Combretaceæ. LOC. expectorant. Bark is bitter. flavoury. enriches blood . applied to skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Root.

Kadamb . DISTR. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N.—Moraceæ. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. PARTS USED:—Bark. Surabhi. indigestible. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Ashokari. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Karnapuraka. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. " Kapha". FAM. COM. Valkala. Kadamb. acrid. mixed with gram-flour. See—Fruit Trees. :—Throughout India. saline. biliousness. :—W. Sprouts—acrid. :—E. M. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. It is generally considered tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. galactagogue. Chandkuda. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. LOC. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. LOC. Ajjanpatte. common near Yellapur. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. Pegu. H. Sk. stomachic. K. Chandkuda. causes biliousness when ripe. Burma. H. In eye inflammations. bitter.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. See—Timbers. good in uterine complaints. DISTR. Sk. Upas Tree. Kaduve. Nipa. Kadamb. Niv. wild or cultivated. Sacred Plants. . Chandala. vulnerary. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. NS. USES:—In the Konkan. Nadija. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Jajpugri. sap of the tree. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Bairi. FAM. Malayan Peninsula. astringent to bowels. Fruit—heating. PROPERTIES AND LOC. sprouts and fruits. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. COM NS. cooling. K. " Vata". aphrodisiac. :—G. Ceylon. blood diseases. Tennaserim. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Kadubale. Kadam. M.—Rubiaceæ. Kadamb . sweet. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Fodder Plants. Kadamba. Kanara . alexiteric. is a good hairwash. strangury. They are detergent and their powder. often cultivated. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Malay Islands. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . LOC. Peninsula.

good in ophthalmia. M. vittae broad. good for heart. Bhuimug. Markati. See—Vegetables. Ajamoda. abdominal pain. NS. 0. Fr. Afghanistan. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Ground-Pea-nut. vomiting. astringent to bowels . W. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases.4 m. W. DISTR. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. anthelmintic. and γ-antiarin. Abyssinia. See—Timbers. scabies. scorpion and other stings. Sk. Europe. Ajmud. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. high. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). erect. bronchitis. rectal troubles. COM NS. :—E. hiccup. ridges narrow. Celery. Monkey-nut. :—E. L. appetiser. useful in ophthalmia. cure asthma. H.. Mandapi. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. :—A biennial plant. traces of B and C.3-2. amenorrhœa. Glucoside apiin is present. branching. inflammations. Bori ajmud. Nelkadle. urinary discharges. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. H. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Africa. Mungphali. N. Bhuchanak.:—Foot of the N. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. CHAR. cauline 3-partite. laxative. K. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. Bhuimug-chana. nasal catarrh (Yunani). aphrodisiac. fever with cough. used in anasarca and colic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Moda. Asia. The plant contains vitamins A.5-2 mm. improve appetite . heart and spleen diseases. cure " Kapha ". ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. pedicels 6-16 . Karafs. Java and Malaya. Bhuimug. Sk. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Shimbika. Ajmoda . G. β-antiarin. tooth-ache. Ugragandha. specially near large cities. chest-pains. rays 5-10. Wild celery.—Umbelliferæ.— radial. Chinimung. COM. Brahmakoshi. Seeds—carminative. apex toothed . . APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. ascites. Bodi ajomoda.—1. rheumatism.— in umbels. vomiting. Fl. M. LOC. FAM. G. Fibres. " Vata " . segments once or twice trifid. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. abortifacient. Snehabijaka. LOC.

Chhataphala. digestive. giddiness. FAM. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. LOC. aphrodisiac. bleeding gums. Bengal. Country. diuretic. Mysore. seeds. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. ARECA CATECHU Linn. . removes foul breath. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. fairly largely in the Konkan.. leaves (rarely). Malabar. laxative. :—E. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Kaungu. Suppiyari. gleet. Betta. H. used for eye-inflammations. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. NS. Kanara. Hopari. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. cardiotonic. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Deccan. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Areca-nut palm. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. removes pus (Yunani). Seed cooling. DISTR. Supari. PARTS USED :—Root. Gujarat and S. Adki. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Gum pungent. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. :—Madras. Tantusara. improves appetite and taste. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Areca palm. emmenagogue. G. In French Guinea. Supari. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Siam.:—Extensively grown in N. Indo-Malaya. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. COM. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Chikka. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. gum. DISTR. See—Food Plants. Pophal. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Oils. Sopari. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. USES. Sk. Betel-nut palm. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Akota. useful in urinary disorders. Chikkan. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. LOC. M. Pugiphal. cooling. indigestible. LOC. Assam. Burma. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil.—Palmæ. Poga. K. Nut astringent. M.

PARTS USED :—Root. K. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. stem 0. arecoline. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. juice yellow. destroys worms . and guvacine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. Datturi.—numerous. diam. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda).3-0. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). :—E. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. nauseant. arecaidine. Fruit Trees. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Fl. Root anthelmintic. sedative. prickly.—Papaveraceæ.—all the year. G. and in pertussis and asthma. branching. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. Bila dhatura. sinuately pinnatifid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Seeds are laxative. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Sk. Bharbhand. COM. Mexican prickly poppy . Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. purgative. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. expectorant and demulcent. oblong-ovoid 2. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Balurakkisa.5-5 cm. Srigalkanta. USES :—Root is an alterative. spinous.— terminal. India. Svarnakshiri. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Fl. Darudi. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. :—A glabrous. oblong. This is said to bring the worm out at once.8 cm. It is also diuretic. 7. Plant enriches blood. Juice—used as a collyrium. yellow.). globose.—thistlelike. Sd. NS. useful is strangury. See—Timbers. prickly. LOC. high. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. L. Indigenous in tropical America. M. t. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. various skin-diseases. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. Pirangi datturi.12 m. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani).5-3. 2. Seeds—purgative. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. brownish black. relieves blisters. inflammations and bilious fevers. stem clasping. H. LOC. seeds and yellow juice. glaucous herb . Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. netted. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State .—capsule. emetic. CHAR. opening by 4-6 valves. DISTR. veins white. Ind. Pita-pushpa. cures leprosy. . Brahma dandi. FAM. antidote to various poisons. Fr.5-18 cm. Shialkanta. Daruri.

LOC. Arabia.8-7. glabrous inside. Ajantri. Fl. perianth 2. Samudrashosh. DISTR. DISTR. base cordate with wide sinus . :—E.5 cm. Ganda. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). G. Shyambhuna. the bands silky pubescent outside. Leaves are maturative. long and as broad as long. tube inflated.—deltoid with cordate base .3 cm. Dhuma-patra. CHAR. K. Soge. base cordate. 1. In synovitis.3-25 cm. oblongellipsoid. Fl.— globose apiculate. Country. M. strangury. " Kapha" fevers. H. Sd. Fr. rose purple. Varghoro. Kidamari. striate. Konkan. cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. Vridhadaraka. aphrodisiac. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. stems stout. Samudrashok. FAM. . COM. CHAR. 12-ribbed .:—Konkan. FAM.5-30 x 6. M.5-4. with revolute margins.—Aristolochiaceæ. anthelmintic.—Convolvulaceæ. bracts large . weak. Bracteated Birth-wort. infundibuliform.-Nov. stems. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . tubular. absorptive. gonorrhœa. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. Gujarat and S. Fl. ovate glabrous above.—solitary. LOC. M. Deccan and S. Ceylon. white-tomentose beneath. Samudrapatrashoh. white-tomentose. long. COM. pubescent outside. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Kidamar. L.— 7. :—A slender perennial. tip linear dark purple. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. peduncles stout. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. tropical Africa. long. Kitamari. (sometimes even larger). :—Throughout India. Elephant Creeper. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. Kitakaba. white-tomentose L. Kiramar. NS. pedicel with a large bract at the base. G. t. used in gleet. useful in " Vata". diuretic . LOC. painful joints. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. K.—in sub-capitate cymes. Sk.—Weed of cultivation in black soils.— Aug. Krimighni. prostrate. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Dridhadaru. W. base subglobose. Java. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. Fl. Samardar sokh. Adumuttadagida. long. :—A very large climber. Fr. C—5-6.3-2 cm. Samandarka phal. H. NS.—Aug. Sk. reniform or broadly ovate. Gandali. HABITAT. Samudraballi. M. Hastivalli.5 cm. Peninsula. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Country..— 3. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. :—Bengal.-Sept. perhaps a native of Bengal. :—E. powdered root is given with milk. t.

entire with undulate margins. Sd. Ceylon. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. DISTR. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Ishvari. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. dry cough. Bengal. emmenagogue. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. M. long with globose inflated base. purgative (Yunani). H.) FAM. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. leaves and seeds.5 cm. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. slender. 3. bract opposite the pedicel. Country.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Sk. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Indian Birth-wort. perianth greenishwhite. Sugandha. :—E. Fl. t. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Nagduna.5 cm. Flea-bane. :—Western Peninsula. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. PARTS USED :—Roots. Gathona.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC.—Aristolochiaceæ. Manjipatri.—variable linear oblong. Seeds useful in inflammation. Arkamula. L. M. biliousness. Dovana. Arkamula. Dona. winged.—flat. K. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties." pains in the joints. alexiteric. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. reaching 4. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. M. also useful in dropsy. useful in " Tridosha. globose-oblong. Nepal.—Nov. CHAR. G. Dhor-davana. The plant contains an alkaloid. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Fr. Nagdamani.. K. — capsule.—Compositæ. 6-valved. woody at the base. Ruhimula. LOC. LOC. Stem long. Majtari. . COM. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. tonic. Isharmula. Mother or Mugwort. obovate oblong 10-12. base vaiable.. bitter.5x7. dyspnoea of children. Nilpushpa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Sapsan. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid. Mastaru. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Fl. Plant is used as an abortifacient. :—E.:—Konkan and S.3-2. FAM. Nakuli. grooved. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. NS. Isvara balli beru . COM. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Sk. Indian wormwood.8-10 X 1. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. joint-pains. :—A twining shrub. Saraparni.5 cm. H.

The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. G. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. fertile. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Panas. LOC.—Jany. alexiteric. lobes entire. An infusion is given as a tonic. Fl. "Vata". although very nutritious. HABITAT. hairy. ovate. enriches blood. LOC.-Hilly districts. ripe fruit laxative. M. grown in gardens also. Kanthal. Tage. aromatic. involucral bracts villous. Phanas. asthma.5-5 em. Java. Externally it is used in fomentations. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Fruit Trees and Dyes. outer flowers female. 3-fid or entire. tonic. 0. H. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. deeply pinnatisect. Fl. ulcers. LOC. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Vanas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. The young leaves are used in skin diseases.— achene. . pubescent above. Kujja. :—Konkan. upper leaves smaller. K. Phanasa. itching (Ayurveda). NS. The plant contains an essential oil. :—Widely cultivated. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. Fr. DISTR. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. tonic. Sk. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. asthma and brain diseases. L— lower leaves 5. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State.:—A perennial shrub. Kantakaphala. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. toothed or again pinnatisect. cures "Kapha". fattening.4 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Panesa.6-2.10x2. COM.—Urticaceæ. appetiser. Ceylon. Jack-Orange wood. Thailand (Siam). USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. oleaginous. LOC. Panos. useful in biliousness. minute. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. solitary or 2. white tomentose beneath. Jack-fruit tree. The unripe fruit is astringent. cooling.—heads ovoid or subglobose. See—Timbers. petioled. Kanara. " Kapha". Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. leprosy. but rather difficult to digest. constipating (Ayurveda). Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). diuretic. aphrodisiac. lanceolate. Seeds sweet. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. fruit and seeds.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. base lobed. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. DISTR.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. Skandaphala. aphrodisiac. temperate Asia. Halasina. FAM. often planted along roadsides in N. deobstruent and antispasmodic. oblong ellipsoid. :—E. stems leafy. Ghats. Chakki. inner hermaphrodite. t. " Vata". high.

— follicles. Java and Australia. oleaginous. dark brown. cultivated as ornamental plant. solitary.—in simple raceme. JAVANICA Baker.-Feb. Satavari. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . 2. M. Satavari. L. NS. :—An erect undershrub.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. K. Fl. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. Fr. :—Extremely scandent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. alterative. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. DISTR. in the Himalayas. CHAR. thorn. FAM. segments. t. M. Tropical Africa. up to 1. S. throat complaints. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. Svadurasa. tumours. See—Ornamental Plants.ovoid. PARTS USED:—Root. inflammation. useful in dysentery. and moist monsoon forests. biliousness. spinous. erect. Sd. NS. straight. :—Introduced from the W. t. galactogogue. Fl. valvate in bud. white. DISTR. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. Country. FAM. Var. fragrant.3-2. tonic. 7. COM. blood and eye diseases. cooling. C. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. Fl.9-1..000 m. Siprimuli. Seed hairs are used for stuffing.5-5 cm. Indies. COM. spines recurved. Kuraki. Shatavari. from Kashmir eastwards.2 m.-Dec. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. :—G. naturalised in many parts of India. tapering at both ends.—orange in axillary umbels. Fr. Asual Shatavari. Sk. aphrodisiac. 0. lanceolate. red when ripe. PROPERTIES AND LOC. abundant round about Poona. Satavari. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. Svetmuli. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. cladodes in tufts. curved. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column.5 cm. A fibre is extracted from the plants. stomachic. H. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. oblong. :—E. thin.—linear with a stout spinous spur. root-stock tuberous.—Asclepiadaceæ.5 cm.5-10 X 1. with coma. globose. Satamulika. narrowed at both ends. common in the Deccan.—lobes reflexed in flower. Kaktundi.—opposite 7. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. long.—berry. .—June-Sept. Fl. CHAR. undershrub. LOC. linear. LOC. L. astringent to bowels. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. :—Deccan. M. PARTS USED:—Root. Flower is a good styptic. appetiser. high.—Liliaceæ. leaves and flowers. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. indigestible.

Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy.. DISTR. leprosy.— Acanthaceæ.—sessile. and alterative tonic. anuria. gleet. hypnotic. Africa. Kolavalike. Konkan and Deccan.8 cm.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . tonic. K. And. 2 outer large. Vajrakantaka. and dysentery. Gokhran. C.2 cm. LOC. USES. aphrodisiac. biliousness. long. galactogogue. night-blindness (Ayurveda). When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. (Yunani. HABITAT:—Swampy places. tropical and S. USES :—The root is refrigerant. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine.6-1. tube.—capsule. urinary calculi and discharges. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. . useful in diarrhœa.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. scalding of urine. Ceylon. constipation. aphrodisiac .:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. eyediseases. Vikhara. H. NS. 3. Fl. demulcent. Shrigalghant. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. inflammations. Seeds fattening. The root is sweet. bracts. ascites. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T.) LOC. antispasmodic. LOC. Ikshura. hispid with long hairs. Ekharo. :—A stout herb.5 cm. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). Talamkhan. Gokshura. dysentery. pointed. Seeds cooling. tonic. gonorrhoea. Narayana Taila. like leaves. aphrodisiac. M. Fl. COM. linear oblong. upper 2-fid. t. Used in diarrhœa. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root. Kak-Kokilaksha.:—Common throughout the State. L. widely 2-lipped.) FAM. improve blood (Yunani). Fr. subquadrangular. colic. abdominal troubles. Sk. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. hairy. lower deeply 3-lobed. useful in jaundice and anasarca. anæmia. :—G. tonic. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. CHAR. erect. aphrodisiac . thirst. leaves and seeds. stems fasciculate. lanceolate. 4 inner small. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. 0. sedative to gravid uterus . Leaves good for cough. Talim-khana. laxative. 18 X 3-3. 4-8 seeded. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. aphrodisiac. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. high. lips sub-equal. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. Talamkhana.—June-Jany. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. ciliate . :—Throughout India. Phalaghrita. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita.— purple blue. abruptly swollen at the top. tonic. Kalavankabija. Gokhalkanta. thickened at the nodes. Vishnu Taila.

astringent to bowels. fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. also used in diarrhœa. Thyme-leaved graticula . acute. rarely wild. Karmare . M. Brahmi.:—Konkan and Deccan. G. causes biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Darehuli. inflammations. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Ceylon and all warm countries. Kamarakh. black dotted : entire. leprosy. sessile. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). axillary. Barambhi. Soumyalata.) FAM. Sd. HABITAT :—Damp places. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. succulent. oblong. Kamrang. . Bama. striate. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. Mudgara. Safed-Kammi.:—E. sour. Kamarakha. Kamaranga. Jany-May. dried fruit is given in fevers. M. when fresh. K. emetic. laxative. allays thirst. C. Karmal. Brahmi. tonic. Manduki. H. solitary. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . ovoid. creeping herb. DISTR. NS. See—Fruit Trees. Tamarak. Shiral. capsule. branches many ascending.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. COM. Karmar. LOC. Karuka. Fruits are used in pickles. ascites. enlargement of spleen. Nirbrahmi. stems rooting at the nodes. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. DISTR. causes biliousness (Yunani). H. digestible. K.—Oxalidaceæ. heating. Brahmi. Sk. :—E. pungent. Jalneam. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . useful in bad ulcers. "Vata".. pale. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. COM. perhaps a native of Malaya. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. LOC. Coromandel gooseberry.:—Throughout India in wet places.5-10 mm. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. Fruit sour. :—A glabrous. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. 2-lipped. pale blue or white. found wild near N. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. LOC. Carambola apple. Kirihuli. 6-25 X 2. NS. L. fleshy. anæmia. decussate. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. heats the body (Ayurveda). tumours. FAM. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. t. indigestion. Fr. astringent to bowels .—Scrophulariaceæ. Sk. with shining dots. Fl. Kanara villages. lobes equal spangled. CHAR. obovate-oblong or spatulate. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Fl.

Bengal. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. K. branching from the roots. FAM. Burma. Fr. Fl. syphilis . HABITAT :—Dry open plains. anthelmintic. L. enlarged spleen. wounds. leucoderma. all male or with a few females below. diseases of skin and abdomen. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Guggul. Leaf-juice. high. COM. Danti. Mukul. jaundice (Ayurveda). purgative. in monsoon forests of N. G. useful in insanity. often palmately 3-5 lobed. COM. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. Danti. W. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Hakum. Devdhup. Dantika. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. t. Guggula. M. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Peninsula. aphrodisiac . Guggula. Gum gugul. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. the upper small. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. itching.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. piles. toothed. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma.—Burseraceæ. Sk. of three 2-valved cocci. or in monsoon forests. LOC. :—E. DISTR. ellipsoid. sinuate. NS. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Root and leaves are cathartic. :—A stout undershrub. LOC. Assam. Malaya. the lower large.—Euphorbiaceæ. FAM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K. anaemia. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. H. anasarca and jaundice. CHAR. Guggula. NS. Gugul. leaves and seeds. Kanara. 2-glandular. purifies blood. Chota Nagpur. alexiteric. conjoined with petroleum. good in scabies. epilepsy and hoarseness. Dantimul. Uddipta. hairy. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Dec. leucoderma. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. :—G. Jatala. Seeds are poisonous. inflammations. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Sd. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Vishodhini.9-1. N. Rechani. diuretic. . In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. abundant on the hills of Karanja. yellowish. Sk.8 m. Fl.. 0. Jamalgota. M. Kaduharalu. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. :—Bihar. capsule. They are used in dropsy. epilepsy and hoarseness. mottled. :—Dry open Deccan plains. obovoid. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Danti. useful in pains. H. Danti.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

vaginal discharges. wounds and ulcers.-Feb. See—Ornamental Plants. cures biliousness. M. Fl. tuberculous glands. :—Cultivated throughout the State. ulcers. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. menorrhagia. used in dry cough. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. COM. used in piles. LOC. cures strangury. oil from the seeds. urethral discharges. China. Ash pumpkin. Seeds— cooling. asthma. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. blood diseases. heart tonic (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. " Tridosha". Kudimah. Dorokaru. leucoderma. bark and flowers. used as gargle in stomatitis. enriches blood. thirst.—Cucurbitaceæ. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Kondha. Fruit—antiperiodic. asthma. Bark—astringent to bowels. Root. biliousness. 15-20 X 1. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. blood impurities. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). Sd. cures biliousness. biliousness. diuretic. dysmenorrhoea. USES :—Root-decoction is given. cough. DISTR. aphrodisiac. blood diseases . aphrodisiac. LOC. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards.-Apl. t. Kumaon. flat.10-15. Karkutika. red and white. . Koholu. Bhuru-koholu. it is also anti-fat remedy. used in strangury. fever. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. anthelmintic. Buds—indigestible. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. Budekumbalkai. eye diseases. "Kapha". DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Sk. astringent. tonic to liver. tuberculous glands. tonic. Golkaddu. appetising.8-2. K. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. given' to corpulent persons. G. seeds. burning sensation.5 cm. in dyspepsia and flatulence. LOC. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. There are two varieties. removes foul taste from mouth. Timisha. Kohala. cardiac and general tonic. tonic. NS. cough.—pod. Burma. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Fr. thirst. FAM. urinary discharges and calculi. dehiscent. not indigenous. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Shikhivardhaka. anal troubles. Sikkim. Kushmanda. leprosy. Tallow-White gourd. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula.

etc. Oil—is soporific. pubescent. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. . PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. Tamrachuda. Pilokapurio. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Ceylon. sharply serrate-dentate. Kalhar. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. finely silky pubescent on both sides. elliptic-oblong. astringent.—Compositæ. LOC. Konkan.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Jangali-muli. fevers. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. stem erect. cures bronchitis. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. Mriduchhada. it is also useful in insanity. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. bitter. Kukkurdru.-Apl. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). :—Annual herb. BLUMEA LACERA DC. asthma. DISTR. Fl. epilepsy and other nervous diseases.3—0. ash colored. good in syphilis (Yunani).—heads many. pungent. high. NS. t. upper subsessile. with a strong odour of turpentine. base tapered. haemoptysis. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. anti-pyretic. catarrh. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. burning sensation. FAM. :—Throughout plains of India. L. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. inner bracts with green midrib. cooling. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. mixed with black pepper. laxative. LOC. Fl. oblong. Bhamurdi. LOC. Kakaronda. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Kakarunda. M. S. 0. heart diseases. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. Deccan. phthisis. :—G. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. H. COM. thirst. See—Vegetables. Fr. pappus white. and nutritious tonic. Australia. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Sk. Kukurbanda. densely glandular. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.-achene. blood diseases. often incised or lyrate. Country. China. Fruit is made into confections. Tropical Africa. CHAR. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. febrifuge.:—In plains south of Bombay. sweetish. Malaya. Kanara.9 m. good for the brain and liver.—the lower ones petioled. M. it is given in bleeding piles.—Jany. and diuretic. not ribbed.

green above.—in unequal pairs at each node. Plant contains large quantities of pot.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. FAM. COM. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. DISTR. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. :—A diffuse herb. P. . H. Dholia-saturdo. scabies. and dropsy. —Nyctaginaceæ. Bitter. blood impurities. cultivated. Punarnava. useful in lumbago. Hogweed. Vasu. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. Brab tree. Africa and America. Tad. carminative. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. leucorrhoea. bluntly 5-ribbed. L. It produces a very marked and persistent. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . M. LOC. generally found in poorer soils. cooling . INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. M. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. 1. India. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. pinkish. Lekhyapatra. stem prostrate or ascending. Fl.. Sk. G. abdominal pains. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. heart diseases. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Desert Palm. DISTR. whitish beneath. spleen enlargement. :—Tropical India. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. astringent to bowels . Seeds—tonic. Ghetuli. very glandular . NS. FAM. Madhurasa. useful in biliousness. It is used in jaundice. Ceylon. Tad. Tala. sub-orbicular. cultivated and self-sown. Baluchistan. Sk. Santhikari. NS. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. gonorrhœa. Indian Archipelago. Persian Gulf. K. tumours. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. HABITAT :—A weed. LOC.—Palmæ. asthma.—in corymbose umbels. anæmia. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). common in S. Fan Palm. native of tropical Africa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Burma. LOC. fusiform. useful in ophthalmia. Kommegida. Palmyra Palm. inflammations. Shothaghni. root large. "Kapha" heating. (Ayurveda). Dhvajadruma. leaves and seeds. Uttar Pradesh.— Nov. alterative. K. H.3—2 cm. in pain of joints. CHAR. :—E. :—E. Celyon. Moto-satodo. COM. Kolaba and Thana districts. Fr. Asavardu.—clavate. Talimara. Leaves— appetiser. Tad. "Vata".:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. very small. G. Raktakanda. t. margins undulate. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root. Varshabhu.

Loban. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. bad throat. alexiteric. Indian olibanum tree. purifies blood (Yunani). diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. biliousness. useful in biliousness. astringent to bowels. DISTR. improves taste. Kundur. used for boils. purifies blood. juice. Salpe. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. useful in skin and blood diseases. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Guggali. " Vata". fattening. useful in intestinal troubles. Dhup. H. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy.. helps delivery. tonic. intoxicating. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Salai. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. allays. if taken regularly acts as laxative. ulcers . thirst. aphrodisiac. also found in Belgaum District. causes headache. FAM. fatigue. Moddi. G. cures dysentery. fruits. COM. allays asthma. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). removes "Kapha". fattening. Luban. aphrodisiac. LOC. Gum is of five kinds . Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. cooling. Guggula.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. flowers. may cause vomiting. invigorating. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. tonic. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. LOC. cough. K. with a little salt added. diuretic . its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). dry. laxative. with a good flavour. M. intoxicating. Sk. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. Salashi. heals wounds . Fruit—cooling. also used as antiperiodic. vaginal discharges. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. fevers. antiglycosuretic. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. It is a good antiacid in heart burns.—Burseraceæ. Mukulsalai. skin diseases. Gum—hot. Vishesha-dhupa.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. flowers. antidysenteric. fruit and gum. Sambrani. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Bark-decoction. :—E. Dhupam. See—Timbers. antibilious . asthma. binding. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Salgond. scabies. . expectorant. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . Gums and Resins. burning sensation. Liquors. allays thirst. Dup. causes " Kapha ". PARTS USED :—Bark. "Vata". leaves. blood complaints . slightly fermented is used in diabetes. bronchitis. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. diaphoresis. expectorant. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . hot. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. thirst and scalding of urine. Salphali. antipyretic. mouth-sores. strengthens teeth. Fermented juice—tonic. Sugars. convulsions. NS.

rheumatism. and toothache. vermicide. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Surat. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. " Vata". M. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. good for throat complaints. lessen oedema of body. Kari Sasive . Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. LOC. . appetiser. :—E. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. H. cure enlargement of spleen. DISTR. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Kali-rai. Jwalanti. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. India. anthelmintic . Broach. biles. eye-troubles. Asuri. K. used with butter in syphilis . G. Khandesh. cure nose. Taramira . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean.—Cruciferae. Sk. Kaira. See—Timbers. Gums and Resins. cause burning .MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. increase bile. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. increase appetite . smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). internal congestions. if swallowed whole they are laxative. cure skin-dissases. dispel fever . :—Cultivated in India. Seeds act as digestive condiment . neuralgic and rheumatic affections . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Rajika. See—Condiments and Spices. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Sarshapa. spleen. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. good in cough and for inflammations. spasmodic. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. bechic. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. ear. NS. Black-True mustard. stomachic. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). COM. FAM. chiefly in Nasik. Dharwar and Belgaum. LOC. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. Seeds— remove cough tumours. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Kunder or Mhashaguggula. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. kill external parasites. Seeds-laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Rai. Mohori.

M. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. 10-15 cm. COM. K. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. t. Fl. lobes oblong lanceolate. COM. paler and smooth beneath.—Cucurbitaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. Tans. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Asana.— Aug-Sept. tropical Africa. diam. PARTS USED :—Root. stem grooved. NS. lumbago. .. Ekadivi. Kavodi. :—An annual scandent herb. Shivlingi. Lingaja. smooth. :—G. 1 . Khaja. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. :—G. Chandra. and in fevers with flatulence.—Euphorbiaceæ. It is used in bilious attacks.. tendrils 2-fid : L. NS. streaked with broad vertical lines . HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. ovate-oblong. M. bluish green. See—Timbers. Country. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Philippines. bitter. Sk. Manj. FAM. M. southward to Ceylon. Asana. Ekalkanto. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Fr. Asana. DISTR. H. Sd. Malaya. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Ishawara-Shivalingi.— membranous. Patharphoda. pungent.:—Throughout India. deeply cordate base. Asana. corolla companulate. Garige. margins sinuate denticulate. DISTR. Kaj. glabrous . :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. green and scabrid above. subsessile. Suviraka. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. globose. Apastambhini. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. LOC. long. Mahavira. LOC. S.—yellowish brown. female flowers solitary. heating.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Kassi. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). Australia. Gunjan. Mullu-siru Honne. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. 5-partite. Fl. 3—2 . corolla as in the male . Sk. Gauli. Lingini. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Mauritius. Goge. CHAR. :—Deccan. alterative.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. useful in "Vata". hot. Shivalingi. or few or many. of Shivaling shape .. Shivavalli. H. 5 cm. hemiplegia. 5-lobed. bark. Gargumaru. FAM.—baccate.

Thailand (Siam). Piyal. Zakhi-haiyat. Tapaspriya. useful in diarrhœa. K. C. Char.—small. purgative. LOC. inflammations. fevers. younger reddish. Sk. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. Parnabija. Charpoppu. boils and bites of venomous insects. Cochin-China. Priyal. Country. seeds. Lalana.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Kolegeru. Charoli. cardio-tonic. The bark is bitter and poisonous. DISTR. M.—swollen and octagonal at the base. Leaf-juice digestive. Deccan. occasionally compound. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). fruit. Charoli. Fl. DISTR.3-1. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. Murukali.—variable. Char. Fr. expectorant.—pendant. Panphuti. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. aphrodisiac. Rajadana. when punctured. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . reddish purple.—Crassulaceæ. gum (rarely). leaflets ovate. Fl. constricted in the middle. vomiting. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. tonic. lobes triangular. COM. elliptic. laxative.2 m. It is a disinfectant. See—Ornamental Plants.) FAM. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). :—H. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. :—Hot and drier parts of India. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Roots. Lonnahadakana gida. ulcers. Cambodia. the older light-coloured. Burma. Stems obtusely 4-angled. S. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. burning sensation on body. lower usually simple. LOC. cooling. LOC. bruises. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. :—Native of tropical Africa. :—Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. buds with root. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. crenate or serrate.. Panphui. decussate. Pyalchar. fattening. the Dangs. allays . Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). Sk. smooth. binding. in large panicles. thirst. deciduous open forests. carminative. S. H. Gujarat. analgesic. t. HABITAT :—Dry. alexipharmic. :—Konkan. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. CHAR. Char. Asthibhakshya. high. M. upper 3-5-7 foliate. speckled with white. purifies blood. Deccan. K. NS. "Vata" and biliousness. Country. cures blooddiseases. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". with opposite branches . COM. Dhanu. aphrodisiac. Snehabija. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. leaves. L. M.—Jany. NS. Paira. M. also wild.

It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. LOC. ascends to 1200 m. gout. Bastard teak. Kakria. dry. piles. skindiseases. useful in piles. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. emmenagogue. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. astringent. carminative. Kshatadru. piles. Oils. Khakera. aphrodisiac. buboes. used in diseases of chest and lungs. topically in piles and hydrocele. COM. aphrodisiac. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. pterygium. hydrocele. anthelmintic. cause headache (Yunani). in the Khandesh Akrani. Gum—astringent to bowels. diseases of anus. tonic. Dhak. aphrodisiac. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. Chichra. good in biliousness. Muttala. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. stomachic. LOC. dysentery. seeds. gonorrhoea. Tripatrak. cold and cough. anthelmintic. useful in syphilis. DISTR. Palash. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Palas. strangury.) FAM. digestible. lessens biliousness. corneal opacities.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. diuretic . burning urine.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. aperient used in urinary discharges. G. anthelmintic. lessens lumbago. Sk. if chewed. Yajnika. tonic. Ceylon. K. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . cough. Leaves—good for eye diseases. purifies blood. useful in bone fractures. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. used in liver disorders. Leaf—very astringent. eye diseases. inflammations. expectorant. good in fevers. Seeds tonic to body and brain. stomatitis. good in dysentery. bark. H. Khakhrao. Gum—acrid. Kinshuk. tonic to liver. Fruit and seeds—oily. India. lessens inflammations. colic. thirst. LOC. relieves abnormal thirst. Flower—aphrodisiac. NS. cures excessive perspiration. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). M. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Bark—appetiser. leprosy. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. gum. Khakda. prickly heat and itch. Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. Muttuga. Fruit and seed—hot. dysmenorrhoea. worms and piles. useful in elephantiasis. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Kuntz. fractures. Flowers—cure " Kapha". Bark—appetiser. laxative. remove bad humours. tumours. burning sensation. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. cure tumours. Gums and Resins. anthelmintic. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. :—E. leaves. flowers. cures ulcers and tumours. Palas. pimples. gonorrhœa.

pinnae 6-8 pairs. 30-60 cm.5 X 4. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Sd. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. hydrocele. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. leaves. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. sprouts useful in tumours.—JulySept.—pod. Gajaga. Gums and Resins.—abruptly pinnate. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. CHAR. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Sind. Katkaleja. ringworm. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. leprosy (Yunani). Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Kuberakshi. petioles prickly. LOC. Kakechika. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. strongly mucronate.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. the tropics generally.3 cm. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. anthelmintic . M.—1-2 oblong. Gajga.5 cm. antiperiodic. leucorrhcea. Katkaranj. good in small-pox and elephantiasis.) COM. anthelmintic. lead-colored 1. malaria. L. DISTR. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Deccan hills. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Fever nut. heating. piles. aphrodisiac. long . cures urinary discharges. useful in colic. elliptic-oblong. Fl. Dyes. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. G. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. shortly stalked. Fruit—acrid. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.5 cm. Physic nut. K. wounds. prevents contagious diseases . :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. etc. cures inflammation . FAM. NS. Sk. astringent to bowels. Seed—styptic. aphrodisiac and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . Flowers are astringent. t. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . asthma and colic. See—Timbers. skin-diseases. Fr. very common near the sea-coast. H. act as rubefacient. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Gajjige. Gum solution is applied to bruises. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. 5-7. Sagargota. They are applied to orchitis.—yellow. Karanja. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Fl. fevers. :—E. Leaves contain a glucoside. long. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. :—Throughout India. oblong 5-7. . :—An extensive climber. Tapasi. flowers and fruit.

It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. East African Islands. FAM. very common in N. gum. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Ceylon. Ak. branches stout.—Guttiferæ. NS. sometimes amplexicaul. Br.. both surfaces tomentose. Alexandrian laurel. NS. lessens appetite. Malaya. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. COM. Sk. . Dholaakdo. Shuka-phala. DISTR. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Ponne. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Kshirparni.. Punnaga. Undi. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Gigantic swallow-wort. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Rui. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Ark. K. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Kshiranga. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. LOC.8-10 cm. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Purasakeshera. :—E. Tungakeshera. improves complexion (Ayurveda).H. Undi. :—A large shrub. FAM. See—Timbers. Vuma. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. high. covered with cottony pubescence. Arka. CHAR. Ekke. :—E. Arka. base cordate. Madar. K. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. M. Madar. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Sk. Akand. and oil. Surpan. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia.— opposite. Surhonne. and for its oil. :—Cultivated throughout India.. COM. M. elliptic or ovate oblong. Sultanchampa. Kanara associated with littoral species.. sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. H. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Polynesia.4-3 m. L. Punnag.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. astringent. Australia. PARTS USED :—Bark. much branched. 2. G. The gum from wounded branches. Mandara.. Akdo. mixed with bark strips and leaves. 10-20 X3. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. used in chronic fevers. Surangi. Oils. thick. Mandara. LOC.—Asclepiadaceæ. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. often gregarious.

spongy. very common. tumours. ellipsoid or ovoid. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. Ceylon.. depilatory. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge.8-2.5-10 X 5-7. subglobose.5 cm.— purplish in umbellate cymes. diaphoretic. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). alterative and purgative properties. Fl. ulcers. LOC. Juice—anthelmintic. Madar. Fr. comose. swellings. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R..—in umbellate cymes.:—H. cures asthma and syphilis. astringent. elliptic or obovate. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. corona shorter than the column. tonic and stomachic in action. Malay Islands and S. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. Sd:—many. COM.-July. L. Flowers—digestive. broad. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . ascites and anasarca. coughs. Sd. oleaginous. China. rat-bite. heal wounds. PARTS USED :—Root. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. Mandara. Ak. M. ascites. Sk. Flowers—stomachic. piles. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. bark.5 cm. leaves applied to paralysed parts. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. expectorant and anthelmintic. :—An erect shrub usually 1. See—Fibres. catarrh and loss of appetite. useful in leprosy. long. elephantiasis. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera.7—15 X 4. Fr. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. very common is S. also useful in intestinal worms. Br. Fl. apex with two auricles. FAM. Milk— heating. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places .. lobes usually erect. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. good for liver (Yunani). Root-bark is diaphoretic.—follicles. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. ringworm of scalp.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. buds ovoid. scabies. cures leucoderma.5-8. spleen and liver diseases. t. bark corky. leaves and flowers.—about 2. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. Flower—analgesic. LOC. eruption on body. green.—Asclepiadaceæ. Milk— caustic. 9-10 cm. purplish or white. high. Safedak.—subsessile. dropsy. used in cough.—7. buds globose.4 m. liver and spleen enlargement. Ark. asthma. young parts white. across. acrid . flattened tomentose. C. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. Mandara. . India. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. tumours. asthma.— Feb.—lobes deltoid-ovate.2 cm. DISTR. C. comose . laxative. back much curved. purgative. CHAR. cottony. ovate oblong. cures piles and "Kapha". cures inflammations. cures leprosy. Rajarka. painful joints .—broadly ovate. NS. usually 5.

50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. Fl. indigestible. high . appetiser. CANNA INDICA Linn. Paraholiya. Kamakshi. COM. root-stock tuberous.2 m. Shimbi. narrow. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Asishimbi. See—Vegetables. stem 0.5 cm. COM. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Abai.. Flowers used as detergent. on trees and hedges . Sk. veins arching. ulcers (Ayurveda). Arabia. Sema. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. L. long. K. Sambe. they are given in cholera. H. Hudingana. PARTS USED :—Pods. (Chopra). tropical Africa. flowers and milky juice. :—E. Kardali. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. NS. Gavara. but doubtfully wild. M. FAM. tonic. LOC. cooling. Gigantea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 1 linear . :—E. Afghanistan.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. LOC. Iran. 3 sub-erect. Sarvajaya. Waziristan. Gavria. Sabbajaya. green. Kadavare. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm..—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Sarvajaya. Kalehu. Nilashimbika. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. acrid.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Koshaphala. See—Fibres. spatulate. oval or orbicular. useful in burning sensations. DISTR. Indian shot. M. biliousness.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. hernia and colic. staminodial segments. G. H. Sk. NS. G. membranous. K. Tamateballi. Egypt. bracts oblong. Broad—Sword bean. Akalabera. lanceolate to ovate. abundant in Sind. Devakeli. Khadsambal. Tarvardi. erect.—Scitaminaceae. CHAR. The pods contain vitamin A.9-1. greenish or colored. LOC. Shitarambha. PARTS USED :—Leaves. P.:—Perennial herb . There is an alkaloid present in the pods. Kadsambu. DISTR. Warm leaves used as poultice.—segments 2.3 cm.

:—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. high in its feral state. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. PARTS USED :—Roots. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. aphrodisiac. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Wild in the Himalayas. Mohini. Fl. useful in convulsions. Hemp. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Throughout India. also wild. See—Ornamental Plants. leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. :—E. useful in " Kapha". (3) Charas. globose. soporific. NS. causes thirst and biliousness. astringent.9-1. H. Leaves—bitter. DISTR. excessive use causes indigestion. hallucinations. tonic. Bark—tonic. 3-lobed. Ganja. imbricate. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Ganja. aphrodisiac. intoxication. Harshini. LOC. melancholia. cause headache. piles. stomachic. intoxication (Ayurveda). Fr. CHAR. inflammations. Shivapriya. Fr. dioecious. impotence. PARTS USED :—Bark. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn.—many. female crowded under convolute bracts. G. upper 1-3. sepals 5. soporific. FAM. black. leprosy. LOC. cough. Siddhapatri. Sk. Sd. oil-good for earache. flowers. insanity. echinulate . Bhang. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. restlessness. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. dropsy. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power .—Urticaceæ.—more or less throughout the year. water extract anthelmintic. Central Asia. alterative . seeds and resin. check vomiting. female perianth hyaline. good for hydrocele. Unmattini. COM. usually 0. antidiarrhoeic. shining.—achene. (2) Bhang. Bhangi.—sub-globose or oblong . astringent to bowels. Female inflorescence is stomachic. Bhang. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Not indigenous. abortifacient. Vijaya. lower 3-8 foliate. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. male flowers. flowers and seeds. LOC. heating.—small axillary. causes biliousness. causes thirst. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). Fl. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. DISTR. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions.—alternate or the lower opposite. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). M. hot. serrate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. They are broken in small pieces.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . lessen inflammation. K. :—Widely cultivated in India. Seeds—carminative. intoxicating. tonic. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Ganja. leaves. male fascicled.5 m. L.

Lalmirchi. Vegetables. dysuria. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. useful in indigestion. Marichiphala. Chillies. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. PARTS USED :—Fruit. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. delirium (Ayurveda). it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. . FAM. The fruits contain vitamins A and C.—Solanaceæ. spermatorrhoea. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). K. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. increases biliousness. Cayenne-pepper. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. :—E. increases appetite. Country in Deccan. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. It is stomachic. Madana modak used in cough. weakness of body. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Tivrashakti. G. asthma. acute mania. erysipelas. NS. LOC. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. cholera. Lanka mirchi. Ujjvala. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. See—Condiments and Spices. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. The fruit contains Capsisin. Tikshna. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. loss of consciousness. M. Sk. chronic ulcers. Menshinkai. dyspepsia. and flatulence. M. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Fruit—pungent. and is employed by Indian physicians. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). diarrhœa. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. also in gout. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. H. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Marchu .52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. whooping cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. See—Gums and Resins. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. and dropsy. muscular pains. Mirchi. Raktamaricha. The plant contains cannabinin. in the form of electuary. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Narcotics. useful in brain complaints. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. DISTR. expectorant. HABITAT :—Cultivated. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Mirchi. Fibres. COM. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. often found as an escape. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. Capsaicin and Solanin. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. :—Cultivated all over India. LOC.

Hennumatti. Jyotish-mati. Kumbha. leaves and seeds. :—E. FAM. M. Wild guava . COM. trigonous. abscesses and ulcers. Fl. leaves. H. introduced. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. See—Timbers. and is administered in fevers. petals 4. Sk. inciso-serrate. useful in tumours. Sd. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. epileptic fits.— alternate. DISTR. ultimate segments lanceolate. . Fruit—acrid. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. bark. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. stem wiry. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. Sk. Fibres. Karnasphota. flowers and fruits. L. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. leucoderma. Balloon vine. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. Karolio. :—E. " Vata ". Vakambi. diuretic and aperient. rounded at the apex. Agni-erum. FAM. Sind. Kumbi. piles. LOC. urinary discharges. Deccan. :—Most warm countries. HABITAT :—In hedges . colic. Kapalphodi. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. hot. C. Kanphuti. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. bladdery . CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . when moistened. LOC. Root is considered diaphoretic.—capsule. Daddala. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. deltoid. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Gavvahannu. Fr. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). winged at the angles. Kalindi. smooth. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. 2-ternate.—white. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac. Konkan and W. PARTS USED :—Root. Shaundi.—globose. skin-diseases. DISTR. NS. Kumbhi. The plant contains saponin. K. G. CHAR. M. dyspepsia.—Myrtaceæ. Kangu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. Girikarnika. very acute apex. anthelmintic. COM. Kumbhi. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . alexiteric. K. Ceylon. dry. subglobose. Maniju balli. Blister creeper. bronchitis. black. NS.—Sapindaceæ. Root. it is mucilaginous. bark. Malay Peninsula. Ghats. common in S. Sakralata. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. Thailand (Siam).

unripe fruit. Barre. Fruit—stomachic. digestive. piles. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Kardai. wounds of urinary track. NS. Karada. bile. Kusumba. G. made into curries. cause biliousness. White thin latex contains Papain. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. leprosy. relieves obesity. Indies. fruit and seeds. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. used. M. DISTR. Kusumba. Agnishikha. diuretic. COM. appetiser . depilatory. Oil—indigestible. COM. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. PARTS USED :—Leaves. NS. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. removes urinary concretions . H.—Compositæ. hypnotic. FAM. Chirbhita. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). appetiser. Papaw. Papayi. Kamalottama. Popayi. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. :—Native throughout India. in haemoptysis. diuretic. LOC. cures inflammations. Chibda. Papaya. See—Fruit Trees. cures inflammation. HABITAT :—Cultivated. carminative. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. heating. :—Grown extensively in Poona. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . :— E. Guppe. removes biliousness . Fruits contain vitamins A and C. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cure urinary discharges. Ahmednagar and Nasik. LOC. aphrodisiac. cures insanity (Ayurveda). Kusumbha. expectorant. Flower—tonic to liver. Mexico and Brazil.—Caricaceæ. Dyer's saffron. Sk. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Sk. good for eyes. K. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Seeds—oleaginous. leucoderma. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. flowers. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. G. Kusumbo. . Nalikadala. causes burning sensation . strangury. H. Kusumba. bleeding piles.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. DISTR. laxative. Papita. ringworm. scabies. Safflower. aphrodisiac. M. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. "Tridosh". Pangi. enlargement of spleen. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. diuretic. Papaya. bronchitis. it is used to procure abortion. Karrak. astringent to bowels. FAM. :—E. Papaya. LOC. of W. cure "Vata". seeds and oil. Leaves—hot. Pappayi. cooling. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. "Kapha".

stimulant. CHAR. Leaves contain vitamin A. chest and throat pains. Sk. atonic dyspepsia. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. Ajwain. They are administered in flatulence. dyspepsia. oblique at the base. tonic and carminative properties. Oil—good in all diseases. improve speech and eyesight. Dadrughna. enrich blood. Afghanistan. Owa. vomiting. Dwipagasti. Egypt. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Iran. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. Oils. carminative. Dadamardana. abdominal tumours. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . cure catarrh. Omu . leaflets 10-12 pairs. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. FAM. Baluchistan. aphrodisiac . FAM. :—E. Bishops' weed . cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). The seeds bitter and hot. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. bitter. myrabolans and rock salt. and even in cholera. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. appetiser. Ringworm shrub. NS. COM. COM. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. H. abdominal pain. paralysis. enlargement of spleen. Elgra. NS :— E. Dodda sagate. Dyes. downy beneath. good in weakness of limbs. Ajowan. 30-60 cm. Tivragandha. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. purgative. vomiting. they are used in jaundice . subsessile.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). stomachic. CASSIA ALATA Linn. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. See—Condiments and Spices. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. DISTR. carminative. Ajamo . Seeds—purgative. Simyatase. rachis . good for heart and tooth-ache. :—Cultivated extensively in India. stimulate intestines. Europe. diuretic. inflammation (Yunani). good for ear boils. oblong-obtuse. Winged senna. Ajamoda. M. M. Sk. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. give lustre to eyes. K. carminative. laxative. LOC.—Umbelliferæ. long. Datka pat. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. piles. L. Oma. strengthening. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). mucronate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. aphrodisiac. and diarrhœa. Dipyaka. hiccup. K. cure ascites. pinnate. H. kidney troubles. pungent. chest pains. Dadmardan. LOC. bechic. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. good for old people. emmenagogue and sedative. See—Vegetables. spleen. anthelmintic. liver. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. G.

NS. N. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm.—bright yellow with darker veins. dull green above. Avartki. 5 cm. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. urinary discharges . K. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. cures tumours. diabetes. Tarwad. ringworm.-50 or more.—large. Avarike.—7. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial.. Sk. good for ulcers. rhombohedral. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. and throat troubles. mucronate. Pitakilaka. Country. " In eczema.—pod. Peninsula. FAM. slightly overlapping. very likely a native of the W. HABITAT :—Planted. reniform. DISTR. skin diseases. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . M. Mukerji). cough. LOC. Madhya Pradesh and W. Indies. useful in thirst. Awal.6 cm. Sd. 10-20 X 1. Gujarat and S. thirst. rotundate. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. Burma. Fr. Bark has the same properties. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. Ceylon. C. H.—in spiciform. t. Taroda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. cm. Ph. causes flatulence . L.—30-35. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. pedunculate racemes . 28-4-88). Sakusina.) COM. Sd. Tangadi. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. alexipharmic . DISTR.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Tarwad. Fl. useful in vomiting. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. Fr. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. oblong-obovate.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. skin-diseases. asthma . bark smooth. pale beneath. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. 20-25. .. Tanner's cassia. PARTS USED :—Root. yellow with orange veins. straight. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). Mayahari. The whole plant. itching. obliquely septate. Ahmed. asthma. stipules very large. buds in yellow bracts. Fl.5 X 10 cm. reddish brown. CHAR. membranous. Fl. :—E. vermicide (Ayurveda).-July. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). cure " Vata ". fruits and seeds. nocturnal emissions. leprosy. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). LOC. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day.—Jany. along the sea coast in laterite region.-Oct. leaves. G.—pod long. across. Fl. leaflets 8-12 pairs. M. rachis densely pubescent. Charmaranga. flowers. LOC. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. :—Introduced into India. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. J.3-1. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. long. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. anthelmintic. t..

It has been found to act as a strong purgative. lessens inflammation and body-heat. cause flatulence. t. transversely septate. demulcent. Dodda-tagase. leprosy. Kasondi. Bandartauri. Leaves lessen inflammation. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. often purplish. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Fruit—digestible. Ornamental Plants. shining dark olive-green. Rankasvinda. rheumatism. useful in chest and liver complaints.—petals 5. throat-troubles. Negro coffee. Sk. cures burning sensation. used in rheumatism. :—E. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. (Ayurveda). safe for children and pregnant women. K. Sd. LOC. DISTR. leaves. recurved. H. antipyretic. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. NS.) COM. abortifacient. Seeds— oily. juice given in erysipelas. distinctly torulose. Hema-puspha. 10—12. fruit and seeds. purgative. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. hard. It is a mild laxative. Kasoda. flowers. griping. and Famine Plants. Pudding-pipe or stick. Kasmarda. NS. carminative. also planted. Indian laburnum. M. Stinking weed. K. Arimarda. leaflets 3-5 pairs. :—E. See—Dyes. Tans. Golden shower. Fruit—antipyretic. G. long. laxative. CHAR. Aragina. cure " Kapha ". branches furrowed. Suvarnaka. biliousness . Balla. improve appetite.—very foetid when bruised. Chimkani. eye-diseases. Sk.. Kacodari. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Konde. M. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. G. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Bahava. base somewhat oblique. Fl. H. See—Timbers. ovate-lanceolate. Vyadivata. purgative. cooling. Flowers—purgative. Rechana. corymbose.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Chakinda. In Konkan. Garmala.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.— Jany-March. Flowers—improve taste. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. LOC. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice.—in few flowered racemes. Fl. L.—20-30. FAM.) COM. C. Kasundari. Rajataru.—pods. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. astringent. heal ulcers . Leaves—anti-periodic .5 cm. Kasonda. FAM. Arogyashimbi. Fr. Amaltas. long. smooth. 15-20 cm. faintly veined with orange . Kakka. . Kasari. Burma. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. apex acute. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Ane sogate. :—Throughout India. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. yellow. Ceylon. syphilis. tuberculous glands.

lanceolate. Baskikasondi. with a solitary conical gland near the base . K. :—A shrub 2. Fl. CHAR. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. The bark. and seeds are cathartic. are given in diabetes. Fr. rachis grooved . In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children.4-3 m. Seeds used in heat of the blood. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. septate between the seeds . Kasamarda. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. L. See—Famine Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. elephantiasis. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. dark brown . cures ascites. leaflets 6-10 pairs. " Vata ". heals wounds. turgid. The plant contains glucoside emodin. tonic and febrifuge. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. annual or perennial. Fl. DISTR. 7.— Nov. obtuse. In many countries root is considered diuretic. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). At Kotra. Kasondi. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. in Kutch. Banar.. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. leaves and seeds. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). See—Famine Plants. LOC. opposite. LOC. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. Sd. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State.510 cm. long . cure " Kapha". Kasamarda. alexiteric. slightly recurved. high. PARTS USED :—Bark. Talapota. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. cough. yellow. Sk. M. NS.—in axillary. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). H. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. " tridosha " . base rounded. leaves. . Ran tankala. ovate. FAM. LOC. mixed with honey. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Leaves—aphrodisiac. asthma.—pod. t. stomachic. Kasundari. hiccup..—30-40 broadly ovoid.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . C. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis.Jany.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). DISTR. fevers. :—G.—18-23 cm. few flowered corymbose racemes. LOC. leaves and seeds. petals 5.

M. Dadamari. cure joint-pains. Pamad. usually unisexual. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. H.. aphrodisiac.5-20 cm. fleshy arillus. CHAR. Kanguni. covered with lenticels. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . Fl. Fr. Sphutabandhani. :—E. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. reddish brown.. t. 12.—pinnate. Kangli.) COM. Malkangoni. 1-6 completely covered with red. Black-oil tree. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Velo . base oblique. Chakunda. globose. appetiser. 18 m. stem upto 23 cm. bright yellow. powerful brain tonic. Panevar. Malhangana. emetic. expectorant. high. :—A very common weed all over the State. PARTS USED :— Root. much curved when young.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl.5 cm. branches rough. leaves and seeds. rachis grooved. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. NS. Madras State.8-7.5-10 cm. Takala.. Sk. cause burning sensation. Taragosi. K. :—Large deciduous climber. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. Dadrughna. L. hot. in diam. oblong. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. FAM. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". 6. Taga. DISTR.—Celastraceæ. :—E. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Foetid cassia. Jyotishmati.—after the rains. Malkamni.5 mm. Tarota. Kangani. alternate. brain and liver tonic. obovate. Kangodi. Fr. Fl. FAM. :—An annual foetid herb. Svarnalata. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. Chakramarda. ovate or obovate. Malkakni. NS. 30-90 cm. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. opposite (lowest smaller). Sd. G. DISTR. COM. H. Intellect tree. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. LOC. obliquely septate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.3-10 X 3. LOC. unarmed. leaflets 3 pairs. M. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. 7. upper petal 2-lobed . laxative. Ceylon. Seeds—bitter. L. CHAR. K.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. shining above. Chagoche. high. X 4. in drooping panicles. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. capsule.—pod. Climbing-staff plant. pale yellow. small yellowish-green. C. bitter. Sd. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. crenate. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Tagache. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Sk.— petals 5. . Burma. long. Seeds— acrid.

Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. M. long. LOC. hard-rugose. Don.—in fascicled umbels. high. Fl. K. they are also sudorific. Oil stomachic. especially in Bengal. Barmi. good for cough and asthma. persistent. Fl. cloves.—4 mm. aphrodisiac and stimulant. Lahanchirayat. pink. DISTR. minute. H. H. :—G. paralysis and leprosy. M. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. spreading star-like . pink. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. COM. radical leaves revolute.—tubular lobes 5. NS. cauline smaller. Mandukparni. FAM. L. tonic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Umbelliferæ. :—Throughout India. elliptic.—3 from each node.—Gentianaceæ.). It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell).). ovoid. :—A slender herbaceous plant. LOC.—capsule. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. gout. FAM. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. Fr. rooting at the nodes. Vallari . Kheta-Barik-chirayat. Country. Deccan and S. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. Fl. Sk. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. Fr. base deeply cordate stipulate. NS. Seeds are hot. Fl. Mahaushadhi. t. CHAR. Ekpani. used in leprosy. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). :— E. t. .—opposite.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Vondelaga. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. obovate or oblong. narrowly oblong . L. Brahmamanduki. linear-oblong. C. :—Konkan. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. stem creeping with long internodes. orbicular. Brahmi.-Apl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Jangli-karayatu. COM. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. reniform. and is employed for external application. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium.—May-Nov. CHAR. Jhinkun-kariatum. G. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri.—Feb. M. Brahmamanduki.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. asthma. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. Plant—bitter. China. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. antipyretic. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. used in insanity (Ayurveda). . Leaf-powder. abundant on the Malabar Coast. PARTS USED :—Bark. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. LOC. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. and a bitter substance odollin. bitter. plaster or bath are used. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. clears voice and brain. USES :—Bark is purgative. cures leucoderma. Leaves are also diuretic. See—Timbers.) DISTR. tonic. COM. Tande. sedative to nerves. :—Throughout India near the coast. water courses throughout the State. FAM. Honde. PROPERTIES AND LOC. spleen enlargement. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute.—Apocynaceæ. tonic. DISTR. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. blood diseases. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. improves appetite (Yunani). specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Malay Archipelago. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. soporific. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. cardio-tonic. cooling. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. improves appetite. " Kapha ". diuretic. Chanda. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . fevers. For external use powder. milky juice. nut is narcotic and poisonous . In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. Australia Pacific Islands. anæmia. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. thirst. urinary discharges. :—K. bronchitis. :—In moist situations (streams. ointment. Kanara. memory. nallas. M. leaves and seeds). asthma. digestible.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. headache . laxative. voice. scalding of urine. alterative. cures hiccup. carminative. fruit. bronchitis. bechic. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. :—South Konkan and N. biliousness. Sukanu. LOC. small-pox. LOC. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. inflammations. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. twigs. NS. stomachic.

Skandhaphala. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. vomiting. G. acrid. :—Cultivated in India. :— E. biliousness.. COM. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. improves appetite. DISTR. Agralohita. anthelmintic. "Kapha". Bengal—Common-gram. piles . Chandanbedu. . COM. Wild-spinach. COM. The plant yields an essential oil. NS. Deccan and S. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Vajibhakshya. NS. Chanaka. Harparauri K. sour . aphrodisiac. Cheel. useful in bronchitis. Chakravati.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Chick pea. Harbara. constipation. piles. K. also cultivated as a pot herb. See—Fruit Trees. spleen (Ayurveda). abdominal pains. urinary concretions. Chania. laxative.) FAM. LOC. H. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. Rai-avala. diuretic. G. diseases of blood.—Chenopodiaceæ. Harparrevdi. Sk. root and the seed are cathartic. DISTR. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Chillika. M. Chunna. Goose-foot. Sk. FAM . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. Sk. USES :— Root is purgative. :—Very common in the Deccan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. :—E. M. Ksharadala. Kanchuki. Fruit is very sour . HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. K. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. LOC. tonic. Country. H. :—E. M. Chana. Rayara nelli. Country gooseberry. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). useful in thirst. H. tonic to liver. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Chana. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. eye-diseases. fragrant. :—Widely distributed. LOC. oleaginous. Chakwat. throattroubles. heart. fruit and seeds. Pandu. Balabhojya. NS. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Kadale. Tanko. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Chalmeri. Bathusag. Chakravarti. But. Kari-Kempukadale. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Laveni. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. biliousness.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Lavali.—Euphorbiaceæ. useful in biliousness. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.

toothache. diarrhœa. expectorant. It checks nausea and vomiting. thirst. alexiteric. Dalchini. cure bronchitis. Oil—styptic. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. hiccup. causes salivation. K. COM. heated brain. Peninsula. aphrodisiac. :— Bark and oil. anthelmintic. DISTR. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. See—Condiments and Spices. Darchini. Burma. It possesses carminative. heart. piles. rectum and urinary diseases. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. appetiser. Seed—indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. tonic . biliousness. useful in " Vata ". Oil—carminative. carminative. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Lavange-hakke. causes flatulence. flatulence. PARTS USED :—Leaves. foul mouth and fever. cures thirst and burning. M. abdominal pains. aphrodisiac. etc. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). tonic. NS. Bark—tonic. useful in cold. aphrodisiac. Valkala. cures skin diseases. Oils. abortifacient. Dalchini. anthelmintic. useful in inflammations. indigenous and cultivated. Leaves contain vitamin A. H. very common in the N. pungent. Kash. liver-tonic . emmenagogue. cold in head. Seed—stimulant. useful in loss of appetite. bronchitis (Yunani). bronchitis. :—G. toothache (Ayurveda). seed and acid exudation. refrigerant. Kanara district. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. parched mouth. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. good for diseases of liver and spleen. tonic. headache. astringent to bowels . chest complaints. vomiting. See—Food Plants. diarrhœa and dysentery. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. PARTS USED. useful in bronchitis. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. LOC. strengthens liver. Duk. LOC. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. causes flatulence. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. throat troubles. blood troubles. leprosy. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. useful in hydrocele.—Lauraceæ. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. Malay Peninsula. Nisane. FAM. vomiting. . Leaves—purgative. pains . enriches blood. Dalchini. Ceylon. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. tonic to hair. Dalchini. itching. LOC. biliousness. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. throat troubles. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. headache. flatulence. anthelmintic . HABITAT :—Rain-forests. aphrodisiac. Gudatwaka. :—W. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. indigestion. carminative. improve taste and appetite.

angular . Indrayan. :—E. Kaduvrindavan. FL t. 1949). 5-partite. heart troubles. removes intestinal worms. Africa and America.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. Paharmul. somewhat hairy. greenish outside. Fr. minute. sub-globose. . hairy. i. drupe. mucronate. Venivalli. burning. 5-nerved. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). male flowers in axillary cymes. CHAR.—large. L. Colocynth.. NS. Uthika. M. Annual Report. subglobose. Indruk. NS. Velvet-leaf. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . skin eruptions. :—Deccan. CHAR. 7. yellow within. :—An extensively climbing annual. waxy coated. COM.5-20 cm. t. stem thick. Sk. F. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". :— E. Chitraphala. cordate at the base. G. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. Bitter apple. DISTR. Sd. 3. Nirbisi. Indrayan. Asso. Mahendravaruni. FAM. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. red. H.—Nov.—Menispermaceæ. useful in hemicrania. Fl. Sk. Kanara. long. LOC. compressed. warm parts of Asia. Venivel. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Fl.— usually margined. an alkaloid. subcampanulate.—A climbing shrub. female flowers in elongate. young shoots woolly. flesh juicy. :—In hills. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. lobes obovateoblong. Trapusi. R. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. M. peltate. alleviates vomiting.-Jany. tendrils bifid. dropsy and cough. K. (Ind. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. branches more or less pubescent. margins ciliate. upto 25 cm.e. solitary. also for prolapsus uteri. diarrhœa.8-10 cm. in conjunction with aromatics. uterine complaints. Tumtikayi. monœcious. removes pain. diam. itching . asthma . cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. or twin. LOC. diam. E. piles. HABITAT. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. G. The active constituent of the drug. H. Indraphal. Makal. Ghorumba. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. leaves. C. Katurasa. COM. yellowish. Fl. smooth. dysentery. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed.—Cucurbitaceæ. axillary racemes . CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch.—July-Sept. Fr. FAM. Pahadvel. L. Pavamekke Kayi. greenish. Patha. orbicular or reniform. fever.. has been isolated. Indrayana. red or yellowish white. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. helps parturition. which possibly has a cholinergic action. solitary.

Kirmirtvaka. Doddile. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). :—Konkan. pain in joints. DISTR. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. ulcers. Root and fruit cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. Santra. antipyretic. good in fevers. Sunthura. Gujarat. tonic. DISTR. fortifies chest. constipation. Naringi. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). LOC. constipation. Deccan. dyspepsia. asthma. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. anæmia. tonic. (Poona. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. sea-shores. removes " Vata ". useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). purgative. laxative. bowel complaints. LOC. " Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. sweet and has agreeable flavour. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Nagaranga. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). aphrodisiac. Flower— stimulant. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). M. enlargement of spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. Rind— anthelmintic. Kittale. K. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . useful in biliousness. Cardiotonic. diuretic. bronchitis. with or without nux-vomica. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. tuberculous glands of neck. :— E. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. anthelmintic . Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. cures tumours. Fruit—sour. cooling. G. astringent. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. It is considered to be alexipharmic and .—Rutaceæ. Narangi. FAM. COM. ascites. removes biliousness. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. useful in piles. chest troubles. leuco-derma. enlargement of spleen. epilepsy. and lumbago. Sk. LOC. W. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. Also indigenous in Arabia. removes fatigue . :—Widely cultivated in India. NS. Sukkare-kanji. Narange. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. N. H. LOC. Narenj. carminative. jaundice. Naringa. elephantiasis . In the Konkan fruit and root. urinary discharges. good in vomiting and skin diseases. Ceylon. throat diseases. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. relieves vomiting and retching. fever and worms. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. Tvakasugandha. Asia. relieves colds. aphrodisiac . and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region.

used in constipation and tumours. NS. K. jaundice. with a sharp taste. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. cough. :— E. oily. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The fruits contain vitamins A. heating. Mahalunga. bark and fruit. Sk. Turanj. flatulence. Kutla. anasarca and chronic fever. Rusaki. asthma. dry and tonic . Devamadala. See—Fruit Trees. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Motalimbu . urinary calculus and caries of teeth. though there are no regular plantations. . sharp. Ruchaka. G. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". DoddaGaja-nimba. LOC. Flowers—stimulant. Mavalunga. Sk. said to be wild in W. relieves sore-throat. B and C. useful in abdominal complaints. Matunga. G. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. LOC. digestible. Mahanimbu. COM. Matulunga. LOC. :—Citron rind is hot. Thora-limbu. Matalunga. FAM. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. intoxication. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in vomiting. relieve vomiting. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Mahaphala. astringent to bowels . asthma. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Amlakeshara. Madala. Bera nimbu. Idalimbu. cures leprosy. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). CITRUS MEDICA Linn. leaves and flowers hot and dry. rind of the fruit is bitter. stimulant. Lemon . rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. thirst. the juice allays ear-ache. tonic. Fruit—sweet and sour. Adam's apple. Harale.:—Grown in gardens in the State. the pulp cold and dry. seeds. Citron . M. Limonum. VAR. H. :—Roots. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. According to Theophrastus. Bijoru. cough. Jambira. Bijapurna. M. fruits and seeds. juice refrigerant and astringent. K. PARTS USED :—Root. also corrects foetid breath. hiccup. Bijaura. Ghats. tonic and astringent properties. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Mahaphala. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. anæmia. H. COM. Seeds—indigestible. Turanj. Balank. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. USES. aphrodisiac. :—E. removes colic.—Rutaceæ. increase appetite. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Paharinimbu . its preserve is used for dysentery. flowers.

anthelmintic. Murva. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Dhantiate. heart. Oil from rind. Ranjai.—Sept. relieves vomiting . Nimbu. :—G. L.Nov. Acida. K. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Fl. Madhulika. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. :—E. also useful in rheumatism. Nebu. with long feathery tails . Nimbu. t. it helps digestion. C. loss of appetite. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. hemicrania. . improves liver. Fr. NS. K. but often found trailing amongst grass. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Nimbe. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. stomachic. relieves biliousness. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. blades 2-2.—achenes. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. Limbu. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa.. Churhar. ovoid. Fruit—sour. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Snuva.5 cm. appetiser. constipation. plethora. CHAR. petioles twinning. COM. Fl. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy.—simple or once ternate. NS. sharp taste. whole plant tomentose. where there is dry skin and much thirst. not good in old age. M. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Shodhana. VAR. Morhari. sepals 4-6. M. Morata. Khatalimbu. Sk. Kagadi limbu. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . silky villous. Acid-Sour lime . it cures and prevents scurvy. scarletina. cures abodominal complaints. measles. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. long ovate or orbicular.—petals O. G. bronchitis . Rochana. throat trouble. Sk. See—Fruit Trees. PROPERTIES AND LOC. lobes mucronate. LOC. vomiting. H. FAM. hairy outside. fatigue . Moravel. white. brain disorders. Amlasara. Limpaka. Limbe. eyes . Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough .—Ranunculaceæ. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. with flavour. stimulant . from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. H. Nimbuka. Devashreni. Morvel. Murhari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. burning in the chest.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Lebu. :—An extensive climber. COM. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). leaves (rarely). entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Lebu. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.

DISTR. :—G. Talvari. K. Hulhul. FAM. Fl. They are regarded as an efficient substitute.—petals 4. obliquely striate. . yellow. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bharangi. :—G. dryness and urethral discharges. Kiritekki. stomachic. M. H. :—W. high. LOC. K. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. HABIT :—A common weed. :—Common in grass lands. hot.—brownish black. H.—Capparidaceæ. in lax racemes. subglobose. LOC. Harhuria.—axillary. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting.—capsule. Leaves—favour digestion. Bharang. stimulant. Konkan. bitter. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). L. Phanjika. Bharangi. Sd. COM. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. used internally in thirst. Tilwan. bitter taste and a strong odour. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. laxative. erect.—3-5 foliate. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. t. causes excessive biliousness. Barbara. useful in leprosy. Kanphodi. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. leaflets elliptic-oblong. Ghats. Kasaghni. reduces tumours and inflammations . Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). veined. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. NS. stems grooved and glandular. M. gradually becoming shorter upwards. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. Vatari. Jangali-harhar. transversely striate. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. Tilparni. C. Adityabhakta. oblong-obovate. and dispel intestinal fermentation. terminal the largest. Fr. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. 30-90 cm. very common in the Deccan. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. Juice— cures ear-ache. Tinmani.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT.—Verbenaceæ. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). Plant has penetrating bad smell. Karnasphota. Sk. hairy. astringent. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Sauri. Nayibela. Fl. and fevers. CHAR. laxative. Brahmani. anthelmintic. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. externally applied to boils.—Sept-June. tapering towards both ends . Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Bharangi. DISTR. Gantubarangi. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. mixed with oil. LOC. stimulates secretion of bile. petioles of lower leaves longer. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. removes " Kapha". diuretic. good in malaria. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. NS. Sk. FAM. blood diseases. :—Annual erect herb. Kanphutia. cooling. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. hairy.

LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. inflammations. COM.5 X 2-3. Aparajita. hiccup.—Shrub. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. Koyala. Sd. diuretic. Fl. C. obovoid. also found throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root. leucoderma. pains. solitary. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. The plant contains an alkaloid. beaked. tuberculous glands. :—G. stomachic. 0. long .— drupe. fevers (Yunani). with an orange centre. L. asthma.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). showy. smooth. asthma. Sk. Aparajita.—axillary. anthelmintic. DISTR.—pale blue. blood diseases. heating.. t— June-Jany.2 m. Root increases appetite.3 cm. leaflets 5-7. cures "Tridosha". hairy. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. stems terete. Girikarniballi. M.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm.9-2. DISTR. tonic to the brain.. Kajli. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. headache. tumours. elliptic oblong. nearly straight. fevers. wounds (Ayurveda). spreading. Fl. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. 4 lobes flat. Ceylon. Fr. ulcers of the cornea.2 cm. Fl. tube hairy within.—many. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. stems bluntly quadrangular. standard bright blue or white. 12. Kowa. Gokarni.:—More or less throughout India. LOC. FAM. inflammations.-Oct. :—A perennial twining herb. pubescent.—much exerted. sometimes opposite. Wowatheti. tubercular glands. useful in bronchitis. epilepsy. acrid. Garani. 3. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. the larger lower lobe dark purple. high. oblong or elliptic. leaves and seeds. sharply serrate. CHAR. anthelmintic. useful in ascites (Yunani).7-6. fleshy. lessens expectoration. alexiteric.. lower one deflexed.. Fl. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. LOC. Fr. Root is purgative and diuretic. elephantiasis. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. and blue flowered. K. There are two varieties :—white flowered. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. Gokarnika. leaves and seeds. in lax dichotomous cymes. Girikarnika. biliousness. L. "Vata". Vishnukranta. Kalina. HABITAT :—In hedges.8-5 cm.—6-10 yellowish brown. useful in inflammation.5-15 X 5. black. t. NS.— Aug. Malay Peninsula.—imparipinnate. flat. good for eye-diseases. C. H. . consumption. burning sensation. 2-2. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . burning sensation. collectively forming a terminal panicle. ozœna. bronchitis.—ternately whorled. ulcers (Ayurveda).

dried and powdered. astringent to bowels. H. Bimb. USES:—In the Konkan. . flowers. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Bimbika. Galedu. Kanduri. COM. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. burning of hands and feet. COM. Ink-berry. NS. HABITAT. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Tondeballi. PROPERTIES AND USES. urinary losses. Dirghvalli. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). PARTS USED :—Root. Tondali. Deccan. asthma. Faridburti. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. :—Grown everywhere in gardens.:—Cultivated in gardens. Bimbi. :—G.—Cucurbitaceæ. M. Chireta. Parvel. Sk. " Vata". Broom-creeper. S. cause flatulence. Tundi. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). diseases of blood.:—Root cooling. Fruit— indigestible. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Bimba. NS. useful in ascites and fevers. fruit. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. allays thirst. tropical Africa.) FAM. LOC. Oshthi. DISTR :—Throughout India. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Vasanvel. Hunder. stops vomiting. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania.—Menispermaceæ. Ghobe. Leaves—acrid. Garudi. Kambhoja. Gujarat. M. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". given for uterine discharges. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Malaya. Glum. a hormone and an alkaloid. H. biliousness. leaves. Sk. & A. LOC. Tana. Vasandi. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. The plant contains an enzyme. antipyretic . is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). and jaundice. Jamtikibel. Root bark. consumption. Vasantitikta. Vevdi. Country. Konkan. cures leprosy. wild in hedges. K.—E. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Flowers cure itching. See—Vegetables.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. K. G. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Vevati. M. galactagogue. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. COCCINIA INDICA W. Ceylon. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. FAM. aphrodisiac. Seeds are purgative and aperient. Tundika. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra.

NS. Flower-cooling . DISTR. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. 3-5 nerved. Fl. Cocoanut palm. keeled. Pegu. male in small axillary cymose panicles. LOC.—dioecious. and put on to sore-eyelids. useful in biliousness. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). USES :—A decoction of fresh root. India and Ceylon. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. causes "Kapha". t. S. young parts densely Villous.—Palmæ. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn.—3. S. useful in leprosy. H. fattening. fattening. Fl. DISTR. Mad. aphrodisiac. villous . ovate. LOC. enriches blood. laxative. tonic. :—E. biliousness. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. K. Nalivar. lessens bile and burning sensation. laxative. appetiser. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. constipation. rugose .8 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. it is used for coughs. lessens thirst. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. Antipyretic.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Arabia. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. with a few heads of pepper. HABITAT :—In hedges. It is also used as a refrigerant. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. mixed with water.. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Narikel. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). Konkan. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . FAM. Seed-cooling. "Kapha" and "Vata". subdeltoid or subhastate.—drupe. good in fractures. Kanara. it is heating. Tengu. Nariyal. Common in Konkan and N. M. dysentery. tumours. alexipharmic .:— A straggling scandent shrub. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). Narial. ovate-oblong.8-6.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. burning sensation. which is taken internally with sugar. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. flowers. Fr.3 X 1. Toyagarbha. also in many places in the interior. oil. tropical Africa. Mangalya. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. Milk—cooling. Gujarat. urinary discharges. LOC. as a cure for gonorrhœa. 2-8 together. thirst. Deccan. female in axillary clusters. Naral. bark. L. India. indigestible. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". oleaginous. Mahaphala. bronchitis. In the Konkan.—Dec. tuberculosis. laxative and sudorific.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. fermented juice. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. COM. useful in diabetes.3-3. Tenginmara. Sk. blood diseases. cardiotonic. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. . size of a small pea. Jataphala. G. seed. smells sweetish and pungent. aphrodisiac. China. Leaf-juice.

CHAR. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. promotes hairgrowth. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. fermented juice is intoxicating.5-6. base cordate. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. :—E.. Oil—indigestible. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. sheaths long. Ran-jondhala. :—Himalayas. L. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. S.—monœcious racemes 2. :—A tall leafy grass. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Madhya Pradesh. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). M. tropical Asia-Africa. t. paralysis. lessens inflammations . useful in urinary complaints. Malaya. long. It is refreshing and laxative. tonic. it promotes growth of hair. stem 90-150 cm. LOC. Oils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. polished.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. H. Sk. Japan. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Rajputana. Kasai. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). See—Fruit Trees. consumption.—broadly ovoid to globose. notched at the nodes . Bengal. fattening. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. diuretic. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). rooting at the lower nodes. LOC. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. incipient phthisis and cachexia. NS. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. asthma. smooth.—Oct. China. above the bract stout. ulcers (Ayurveda). G.—10-15 x 2. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. internodes smooth. smooth.6-10 mm. Assam. Jargadi. liver complaints. Fl. it also purifies blood. useful in fevers and urinary disorders.—Gramineæ COM. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. rachis within the bract slender.3 cm. FAM. bronchitis. Gurlu . COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. high or more. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. India.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. Oil—sweet.5-5 cm. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Fibres. polished. stout. LOC. It is also used for burns. spinously serrate margins. 6. DISTR. Fl. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. increases body weight. useful in fever. abundant in standing water. long. HABITAT :—Gregarious. Gojivha. B and C. Fr. midrib stout. America. Gavedhu. Madhya Bharat. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. useful in lumbar-pain. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Job's tears. piles . Dabha. diuretic . enriches blood. piles and scabies (Yunani. bluish grey. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Polynesia.

Patta. M. lysin. Jute . Fr. Col. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. serrate. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. fever. histidin. G. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. ridged and muricated. NS.—in short cymes. FAM. See—Fibres. astringent. anthelmintic. and intestinal antiseptic. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. carminative. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. LOC. Rayagundo. NS. Fl. laxative. smooth. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. Sk. also as antiperiodic. FAM. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. In jutegrowing districts. not beaked. brown. DISTR. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. :—E. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier.—7. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. Fl.— Sept. . M. :—Konkan.—Boraginaceæ.5-10 X 2-3. See—Fodder Plants. Sebesten plum. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CHAR. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Bhokar. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . Bargund. Chhunchh . :—An annual herb. growing very tall under cultivation. yellow. They are also used in lung and chest complaints.—few in each cell. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. COM. G. The plant contains leucin. buds obovoid. Resalla. diam. Chaunchan . Bhuselu. Sd.2 cm. It is also used as a bitter tonic. Challa. Kalasaka. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Gujarat. Lassora. PARTS USED :—Root. and dyspepsia. L. lanceolate. 12 mm. acute or acuminate. Pistan. subglobose.—petals 4-5. Hadige. Gondan. H. Bhokar.— capsule. Bhukerbudara. stomachic. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. tyrosin. leaves and fruit. arginine and coicin. Mannadike. cultivated in most tropical countries. COM. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties.:—E. K. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa.—Tiliaceæ. 5-valved. wedgeshaped. t. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. Sk.

uterus and urethra. DISTR. G. carminative and antispasmodic. used in dry cough. Seeds—aphrodisiac. vulnerary. tropical Australia. biliousness. gleet. The plant and fruit— acrid. tooth-ache. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. antipyretic. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. indigestion. diseases of chest and urethra. laxative. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. anthelmintic. M. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Ceylon. used as an expectorant and astringent.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Kothambri. Bark is used as a mild tonic. often planted. diseases of chest. See—Timbers. Mesapotamia and Greece. inflammations. Ghats. heart and liver. leaves (rarely) and fruit. maturant. LOC. Cochin-China. Satpudas. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. highly esteemed in coughs. Fruit is aromatic. chronic fevers. wild and cultivated. Fibres. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Fruits are used as spice. purgative. FAM. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. . gives appetite. Fruit—diuretic. pains in joints. also cultivated. causes suppuration. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. Dhania. stomatitis. widely known from Palestine. thirst. tuberculous glands. Kothamir. burning of throat. diuretic. used in syphilis. dyspepsia. Kanara. Leaves—hypnotic. aphrodisiac. Vitunnaka. :—Throughout India. DISTR. biliousness. removes bad humours. piles. Hivija. useful in hiccup. Dharika. stimulant. Coriander. PARTS USED :—Bark. H. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. bechic. Kustumburi. anthelmintic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N.:—Throughout the State in W.:—E. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. tonic to brain. vomiting.—Umbelliferæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. cures thirst. eye-pains. scabies. bronchitis. Kothimbir. Egypt. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). good in spleen diseases (Yunani). NS. analgesic. K. stomachic. Syria. bleeding gums. biliousness. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. cooling. headache. LOC. anthelmintic. prevents coryza and bronchitis. stimulant. LOC. jaundice. Konphir. COM. :—Cultivated throughout India. Allaka. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sk. expectorant. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.:—Konkan ghats. L. :—G. Fr. Shura. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. root-stock tuberous. Barna.—15-30 X 5. and aphrodisiac.— tube short. coughs and skin diseases. Malay Islands. bracts ovate. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. M. Varuna. Pakarmula. " Kapha". Ceylon. S. COM. H.7-7. Penva. China.—Capparidaceæ. useful in catarrhal fevers. Country. lip white with yellow centre. K. stem sub-woody at the base . Vayavarno. Var.5 cm. Fl. rheumatism. sheaths coriaceous .-Oct. :—An erect plant 1. S. useful in bronchitis. oblong. Varno. Kust. crisped. subequal. Sk. See—Condiments and Spices. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. The plant yields an essential oil. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests.—capsule. Nervele. Bilpatri. Pinga. high. DISTR. Castle Rock. LOC. LOC. lobes ovate-oblong. Kemuka. lumbago. anæmia. Changalkashta. . PARTS USED:—Root. LOC. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Pushkarmula. FAM. By the earliest writers. Bitusi. Hadawarna. India. and " Vata". red. Mahakapittha. CHAR. K. Kushtha. Keu. NS. Varvunna. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. in moist and shady places.—Scitamineæ. NS. mucronate. concave. Ajapa. also planted near Muslim tombs.— in very dense spikes.7 m. depurative. Chikke. inflammations. C. Pushkarmula. :—More or less throughout India. M. M. a tonic is prepared from it. globosely 3-gonous. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Varuna. COM. Kumaraka. t. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. nalas. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. bright red. FAM. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. Kashmira. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. hiccup (Ayurveda). spirally arranged. subsessile.2-2. Khandala. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Sd. Fl. fever. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Biliana. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. H. :—G. It is also astringent and digestive. Madhya Bharat. Var.— black with white aril. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Vayavarna. Sk. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. many. silky-pubescent beneath. Karikuttu. dyspepsia.—Aug.

L. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. expectorant. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Kanmu. Nag-damani. diam. also wild. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. found wild in North and South Konkan. lobes 6.:—G. antipyretic. The plant contains saponin.—1 (rarely 2). DISTR. Tonic. chest. vesicant. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. stomachic. Kanda-shalini. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bright green. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. laxative.. urinary concretions. leaves.9-1. white.—20-30. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). leaves. and seeds.—Amaryllidaceæ. NS. Fr. act as rubefacient and vesicant. anuria. 0. Wild or cultivated. bark. Nagdavana. flowers and fruits. CHAR. Sd. gonorrhœa.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. with a sheathing base. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. strangury. M. diuretic. removes "Vata". lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. tuberculous glands. LOC. Fl. Nagadown. Nag-damani. diseases of vagina. anthelmintic. toothache. useful in bronchitis. Vishamungalli. increases secretion of bile. perianth tube greenish-white. defective vision. thin.—subglobose. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. See—Timbers. cylindric.—15-50 in an umbel.. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. laxative. then sweet. "Pitta" and "Kapha". Patra-pushpi. fragrant at night. Kanwal.5 cm. emmenagogue. FAM. lumbago. bulb 5-10 cm. Sk. vomiting. anthelmintic. linear lanceolate.5-18 cm. Pindar. Visha-Mandalamardini. bracts 7. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. carminative. expectorant.5-10 cm. chest and blood diseases. heating. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. useful in biliousness. vulnerary. linear. Ceylon. good in strangury. :—Throughout tropical India. night-blindness. tumours. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. Seeds—purgative. urinary discharges. K. antilithic. lung and spleen diseases. digestive. long. as long as the tube. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. USES:—Root is alterative. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. aphrodisiac. bitter. it promotes appetite. LOC. beaked. flat. scape 45-90 cm. X 12. Chindar. COM. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. bechic. Bark promotes appetite. detergent. H.

Chota-Natpur. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. leaves and seeds. M. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. DISTR. K. naturalised or cultivated. useful in mental troubles. it is in great request. PARTS USED :—Root. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. bark. Burma. Burma. Sk.—Euphorbiaceæ. LOC. :—H. Ganasur. Assam to Malacca. DISTR. Ieucoderma. tonic. Danti. Malay Islands. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Madhya Pradesh. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Nepal. LOC. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). good in sore eyes. :—Rare in the State. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. fever. COM. nauseant and diaphoretic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Nepala . emetic. cathartic. Nepala. China. Japala. The plant contains lycorin. Sk. COM. convulsions. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. M. etc. Seeds contain an alkaloid. insanity. . In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Ceylon . near Junnar (Poona Dist). Chucka . Jamalgota. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. Western Peninsula. G. NS. Bhutankusam. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. H. :—Bengal. Bengal.—Euphorbiaceæ. Purging croton . PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Jayapala. Seeds cause burning sensation. FAM. in small doses. excessive phlegm. Jepal. Konkan. :—Sylhet. abdominal diseases. Danti. Oil from the seed is purgative. Ceylon.. Oil cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. See—Timbers. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. carminative. Kanara. :—E. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. expectorant. NS. Jamalgota . inflammations. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. FAM. As an application to sprains. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Naturalised in S.

G. Valungi. M. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. diuretic. Kachra. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Chibdu Shakarteti. Seeds—lachrymatory. H. dropsy. ascites. &c. LOC. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. laxative. galactagogue. cures ophthalmia. Melon. . USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. nutritive and diuretic. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. chronic fever. Kakri. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. MELO Var. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. used in liver and kidney troubles. and lock-jaw. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. allays fatigue. Kharbuja. oily. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. FAM. insanity. It is useful in apoplexy. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic.—Cucurbitaceæ. urinary discharges. NS. LOC. Chibuda. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. gives headache. It is given internally with great caution. :—In Deccan. Lomashi. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Fruit—tonic. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. K. Vrittervaru. obstinate constipation. ascites. diaphoretic. C. fattening. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. synovitis.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Tarkakadi. brain and body. Kharbuja. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people.:—E. biliousness. Said to be truly wild in India. Rind—vulnerary. Karkati. thirst (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. Sweet melon . Ripe fruit—sweet. Valaka. Sk. cooling. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. Shadrekha. Kakadi. convulsions. PARTS USED :—Root. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. strengthens heart. in ascites and anasarca. DISTR. See—Timbers. diuretic. Kharbuja. M. Sk. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. tonic. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Pathira . colic. They are edible. Kakni. fruit and seeds. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. COM. aphrodisiac. Karkali. Shantanu. Mutrala. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. LOC. Kalangida. cures " Vata ". :—G. COM. laxative. H. insanity. Mahanaracha Rasa. may cause indigestion. NS. Kankadi. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. DISTR. wholesome.

—monœcious . margined . Seeds—diuretic. COM. Kumbhakshi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. Sd. FAM. Fr. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. :—A perennial climber. Kakari. M. rigid. t. L. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. cures thirst. Kankdi. utilissimus (Ayurveda. they are also used as diuretic. cooling. :—G. Tavasa. Santekayi. dry. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. Sk. B. roasted and powdered. angled. See—Vegetables. stomachic. NS. causes "Vata".— suborbicular. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. See-Fruit Trees. strangury. LOC. cures biliousness. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Khira. pulp bitter. lobes obovate. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Sudhavsa.—June-Sept. tendrils simple. antipyretic. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. used in thirst. Cultivated in all parts of India. fatigue. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). purgative. hairy. Vishala. indigestible. stem slender. biliousness. DISTR. male in clusters.—subglobose or ellipsoid. fever.—white. diuretic. cordate at the base. Kothiban. with 10 green longitudinal stripes.—yellow segments elliptic. Tansali. Chitravalli. India is considered to be the original home. G. lobulate or dentate . and C. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb.:—N. Cucumber. H. Karit. allay thirst. astringent. CHAR. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. H. fruits. M.—Cucurbitaceæ. Khira. pale yellow when ripe. "Kapha" and flatulence. Yunani). Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). . C. They are nutritive. female peduncle longer than male. Seeds possess cooling properties. Ripe one tonic. Hislambhi. improve complexion. Sushitala. enrich blood. Seed oil used in fever. are administered in throat affections. Takamaki.—Cucurbitaceæ. FAM. Mrigadani. Fruit—fattening . Kakdi. Fl. K. Sk. melo var.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. good for brain and body. seeds. LOC. COM. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. Fl. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh).:—E. Trapusha.

K. :—E. Pitakushmand. DISTR. Kushmand.:—Considered to be a native of America. Sk. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Afghanistan. H. M. Kushmand. Kumra. improves taste (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated. Bhopala. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Dried fruit indigestible . increases " Vata" . LOC. G. Ceylon. Melon pumpkin. NS.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Koron. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. NS. COM. In Malabar. Punyalata. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. Karkarn. Kaddu. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kadimah. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. . LOC. Dudia. Dangari. COM. Kumbala. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Vegetable marrow. Kashiphala. H. N. Malaya. USES. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Fruit contains vitamins A. cures cough.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. DISTR. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. K. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. astringent to bowels . indigestible. B and C. Red squash gourd.—Cucurbitaceæ. unhealthy ulcers. : — E. Safedkaddu . to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Sk. Pumpkin. LOC. increases " Vata ". Australia. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. G. FAM . Tambda bhopala. HABITAT. fruits and seeds. tonic. on hedges. FAM. Kumbala. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. M. LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. cultivated in many parts of India. stomachic. etc. carbuncles. The plant contains glucoside saponin. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Iran. Mithakaddu. allays thirst. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. See—Vegetables. Seeds are used as taeniacide.

analgesic. DISTR. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. antidysenteric.—Amaryllidaceæ. relieves hiccup. G. allays thirst. heals corneal opacities. enlargment of the spleen. haematinic. Kalimusali. COM. Zira. PARTS USED :—Fruit. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). H. Gaurajerka. leucoderma. cures leprosy. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. carminative. thirst.—Umbelliferæ. cure haemoptysis. Ajjika. Fruit yields an essential oil. :—E. Dirghaka. Jiru. laxative. stops epistaxis . and the root for making these more potent. Sk. Seeds anthelmintic. carminative. COM. Sk. good for teeth. fever. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. fattening. Musali. stomachic. vulnerary. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Seeds are taeniacide. LOC. fatigue. Fruit astringent. uterine stimulant. also a lactagogue. ulcers. K. NS. LOC. sweet. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. aphrodisiac. Neladati. cures haemoptysis. Dipaka. astringent to bowels. abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. appetiser. inflammations. Kapha " and " Vata ". M. tonic. eye-diseases. Fruit—very cooling. tonic. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. :—G. leprosy. LOC. H. carminative. cooling. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. FAM. fruit and seeds. anthelmintic. astringent. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. . good for kidney and brain (Yunani). K. asthma. Jire. ft contains vitamins A and C. Talamulika. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. Leaves—digestible. Mushalikand . scabies. remove biliousness. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Jira. Neltati gadde. emmenagogue. NS. See—Condiments and Spices. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. throat and eyes. See—Vegetables. belching . alexipharmic. gonorrhœa. Girautmi. FAM. Jirige. Cumin. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. antipyretic. biliousness. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. increases appetite . tonic to intestine. M. beneficial in consumption. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. Cures " Vata " tumours. Seeds—diuretic. fever. Kalimusali. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. astringent to bowels. Kalimusali. purifies blood (Ayurveda). diuretic and demulcent.

USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . ulcers on penis. antipyretic. oblong. all skin-diseases. C—white or very pale-yellow. debility and impotence. distichous. bronchitis. Assam. K. Malay Archipelago. :—Bengal. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. hydrophobia. appetiser. :—Stemless herb. Fl. jaundice. useful in bronchitis.5-12. emollient.—sessile or petiolate. :—A small herb. useful in inflammations. inflammations (Ayurveda).82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. gonorrhœa.8-5 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. fattening. cylindric or ellipsoid. t. very short. Amhaladi. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres.5-15 X 3. LOC. oblong. " Vata". flowering bract greenish-white. often cultivated. t.3-2. shining .—capsule. Fl. Java. diarrhœa. pains in joints (Yunani). Kapurahaldi. L. Bitter. during convalescence after acute illness. Peninsula.5 cm. appetising. fatigue. indigestion. alterative.. gleet. antipyretic. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. tubers thick. Bengal. Sk. useful in piles. gonorrhœa.:—Sweet. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. antipyretic. stomatitis (Yunani).5 cm. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers.—long petioled in tufts. biliousness. colic. linear or linear-lanceolate . diuretic. diarrhœa. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . gleet. yellow. alterative and tonic. Fl. scabies. DISTR. :—E. rhizome. expectorant. troubles in the mouth and ear. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. hiccup. appetiser. pale yellow inside . perianth segments elliptic. root stock large. CHAR. alexiteric. clavate . LOC. black. oblong lanceolate. Fr. maturant. causes "Vata". bitter. common at the beginning of rains.:—W.-Sept. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. DISTR. asthma. M. useful in biliousness. Kanara. . they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. G. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Peninsula. scape.—Scitamineæ. FAM. aphrodisiac. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). :—Konkan and Gujarat. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. Karpuraharidra. COM. tips sometimes rooting. Mango-ginger. LOC. L. tonic. 1545 X 1. Ambahaladara. aphrodisiac.—grooved. Ambahaldi. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. ophthalmia. with a beak . Amragandha. Ambehalad. Sd.— May-June. W. Root—carminative.— in racemes. lumbago. :—Konkan and N. Fl. vomiting. 30-45x7. lumbago. piles. H. sessile. cooling.— in autumnal spikes 7. laxative. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. hairy on the back.

:—Western Peninsula. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. palmately branched. Harita. Halada. sometimes cultivated. :—E. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). used as an application for skin-diseases. FAM. Haridra. Indian saffron. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. CHAR. COM. green. Banhaladi. forming pouches for the flowers. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Yellow Zedoary. lateral lobes oblong. Also cultivated in Konkan. root-stock large. 3lobed. Vanarishta.— flowering stem sheathed. H.—Scitamineæ. FAM. It is considered tonic and carminative. also stomachic. Mangalya. appearing before leafing stem. COM. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Arishina. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. M. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Halad. base deltoid. Sometimes cultivated. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Sholi. pale green. variegated above. . flowers fragrant. G. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Vanhaldara. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. C. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . long. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. L. NS. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. Halad. Cochin-Wild turmeric. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. Aranyaharidra. H. K.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. lobes pale-rose.. Varnadatri. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. LOC. upper half funnel-shaped. PARTS USED :—Tubers.—Scitamineæ. Turmeric. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. DISTR. sessile. biennial. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Bengal. annulate. :—Stemless herb. Banharidra.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. flowering bracts cymbiform. :—E. Sholika. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. LOC.5 cm. in spikes 15-30 cm. Fl. Sk. it is seldom used alone . combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Ran-halad. t. rounded at the tips. DISTR. lip yellow. Jayanti.—tube 2. the dorsal longer. LOC. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. long. See—Condiments and Spices. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. Kapur-kachali. NS. Sk. appetiser . with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb.-May.

an ointment prepared from the rhizome. sprains (Ayurveda). fumes are used during hysteric fits . G. lobed . lip 3-lobed. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. FAM . boils and urticaria. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. bitter. taste bitterish spicy. swellings. flowering bract green tinged with red . Sk. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa.—4-6 with long petioles. tonic. Shathi. M. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . :—Cultivated in the State. alexiteric. :—Stemless herb. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. bruises (Yunani). urinary discharges. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. diuretic. Kachari. COM. an alkaloid. In coryza. oblong.—Scitamineæ. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. maturant. inflammations. used in prurigo. good for liver affections. scabies. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. heating. clothed with sheaths. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. and yields an essential oil. coma-bract crimson or purple . Kachora. fragrant. leucoderma. 30-60 cm.— flowering stem 20-25cm. useful in leucoderma. appearing before the leaves. Kachuri. H. anthelmintic. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. small-pox. bronchitis.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. LOC.—funnel shaped. blood diseases. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. Gandhamulaka sara. CHAR. anthelmintic. C. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. Fl. said to be Wild in E. scabies. The plant contains curcumin. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. bruises. flowers yellow in spikes.—capsule. internally administered in blood disorders. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. Zedoary. asthma. deepyellow. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . Kachora. Himalayas and Chittagong. clouded with purple down the middle. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. improves complexion. Hakhir. bruises. Karechura. annulate tubers. piles. LOC. vulnerary.:—E. oblong-lanceolate. odour like camphor. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . externally applied to leech-bites. itches etc. NS. laxative. root-stock of palmately branched. Jatala. jaundice. cylindric. long. See—Condiments and Spices. Tuber is used as a stimulant. "Vata ". 3-gonous. bitter. K. It contains vitamin A. urinary discharges. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. boils. heating. pale-yellow inside. destroys foulness of breath. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. L. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. long. emollient. Bitter. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. vulnerary. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. useful in " Kapha". Fr. alexiteric. DISTR. antipyretic. In small-pox and chicken-pox. appetiser. Narakachora.

It is an excellent stomachic to children. and other painful affections. sharp hot taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. useful in bronchitis. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. Putigandha. LOC. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. sprains. M. LOC. bitter. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. FAM. COM. it is stimulant. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. hot. culm stout. of much use in typhoid fevers.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. sheaths terete . tonic to brain and heart. midrib whitish on the upper side. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. antispasmodic and diaphoretic.8 m. aphrodisiac. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. others narrow and separating.:—E. good odour. upto over 90 cm. L. sheaths of the culm tight. nodding. G. erect. high. K. alexipharmic. pains. laxative.. also used as a tonic and depurative. Purhati hullu. NS. expectorant.—Gramineæ. LOC. Lemon grass. chronic rheumatism. velvety at the nodes. toothache (Yunani). gastric irritability. . Sk. Ligule very short. Lilicha. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. anthelmintic. It is also aromatic. and is of great value in cholera. neuralgia. CHAR. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). DISTR. carminative. appetiser. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. emetic. tuberculous glands of neck.—linear tapering upwards to a point. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. Gavati-chaha. useful in griping of children. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Bhustrina. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. up to over 1. enlargement of spleen. Bitter. leprosy.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. furunculosis. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—A tall perennial. Gandhatrina. alexipharmic. stimulant and carminative. epileptic fits. glaucous green. carminative. Externally it is rubefacient. it is also a good application for ringworm. emmenagogue. Tubers yield an essential oil. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. sharp. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). applied to bruises and sprains. Takratrina. long. long. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. Majjige hullu. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. laxative. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. probably of Indian origin. inflammations.

Shyamaka. Konkan. prostrate . Durva. Afghanistan. Deccan. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. :—Sourashtra. Shatamula.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. Dhoboghas. 1. stem. cooling. Geramium grass.5-30 cm.—throughout the year. oblique or divaricate.—flat. skin . Mangala. Africa to Morocco. COM. :—E.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. thirst. Kobbar.—spikes 2-nate. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. FAM. throat troubles. useful in fevers. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. DISTR.5-2. long.. FAM. Harali. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant.5-5 cm. Roshdo. Garikehallu.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. through N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Saugandhika.—2-10 cm. most warm countries. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. Sind. wide below. Bujina. CHAR. narrowly linear. heart diseases. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Fl. LOC. L. Bahuvirya. vomiting.3 cm. widely creeping. leprosy. :—A perennial grass . H. smooth. sheaths tight. Durba. :—E. X 1 cm.—Oct. Durva. See-Oils. stem. bronchitis. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. hallucinations.t. subcordate or rounded at the base. Gharo. pains. Fl. 1 mm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. G. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Gujarat. in the Himalayas. Mirchiagand. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. W. particularly the Deccan trap areas. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Fl. scabies. leafy. S. NS. G.000 m. burning sensation. green or purplish. throughout India. usually broad. M. useful in biliousness. 12-18 mm. Sk. LOC. high. leprosy. glaucous beneath. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Rohisha.:—Grows all over the State. Fr. H. pungent. Rohisha. bad taste in the mouth. fatigue. LOC.4 m. epileptic fits. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. M. Baluchistan. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). K. CHAR. slender. DISTR. Roshagavat.—grain. carminative. Sk. Ghats. Rhusghas. soft. bitter. sweet. with erect flowering branches 7. L. margins scabrid.—Gramineæ. long. :—Punjab. upto 2. Vasanchullu. Bhutika. t. forming matted tufts. Fl. straw coloured. Burma. finely acute. K. Shatagranthi. :—Cosmopolitan . Dhro. Country. M. long.-Nov. long. high. COM. NS. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia.

useful for ulcers and sores. vulnerary. dyspepsia. vulnerary. useful in vomiting. ophthalmia. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. dysentery. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. spikelets 10-50 flowered. epistaxis (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.5 cm. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. 0. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Granthi. Motha. In Ceylon. Sugandhi-granthila. Koranarigadde. anthelmintic. burning sensation. astringent. stomatitis. fevers. very troublesome weed. expectorant. epilepsy. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. blood diseases. erysipelas (Ayurveda). :—Glabrous herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. . LOC.. fever. narrowly linear. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. vomiting. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. Tubers yield an essential oil.—Cyperaceæ. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. it is diuretic. PARTS USED :—Tubers. H. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. L. Nut—broadly ovoid. epilepsy and insanity. M. USES :—Roots are commonly. FAM. diarrhœa. pain. Ceylon. juice is used in hysteria. See—Fodder Plants. anthelmintic. greyish black. Nagarmotha. pruritis. erysipelas. blood diseases. difficult to eradicate. :—Throughout India. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm.82. dysentery. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. thirst. stolons elongate. Root— diuretic. Tungegaddo. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. cooling. K. Sk Bhadramusta. DISTR. Bimbal. emmenagogue. hiccup (Yunani). LOC. They are also diuretic and stimulant. COM. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. Motha. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. most hot countries. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. NS. Kachhola. diaphoretic. :—G. Fl. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. LOC. epistaxis. Mutha. CHAR. Mustaka. biliousness. bruises. Motha. diarrhœa. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever.— in simple or compound umbel. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. useful in leprosy.—Sept-Nov.—shorter or longer than the stem. trigonous. t. acrid. Bitterish.. urinary concretions (Yunani). appetiser. stomachic. Fl. biliousness. fever.

2 cm. :—H. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). M. Fl.g. L. reflexed. green. Bhranta. NS. subglobose.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. Sk. . Phalakantak. broadly ovate or suborbicular. and sub-involution of the uterus. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. L. ovate. Kaladhatura. stem hairy. nodding. greenish-yellow or dull-white. DISTR. corona outer and inner. LOC.—Solanaceæ. Fl. H. funnel-shapped. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued.5-15 X 3.—Aug.—many. very unequal at the base. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. S. K: Dhattura.—purple outside. ciliate. Fl. Sd. Country. covered with straight sharp prickles.:—E. beak long. Kanaka.—Asclepiadaceæ. 30-60 cm. M. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. acute. high.—Sept-Dec. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". entire or with large teeth or lobes. Kala-dhotara. afterwards racemose. t. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus .. Utran. outer truncate. LOC. Administered after the third stage of labour. glabrous above.5 cm. lobes spreading. paralytic ileus. Rajdhattura. COM. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Gujarat. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn.— tubular. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. FAM. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Utarni. diam. e. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. C. Fr. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. CHAR.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn.-Jany. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action.—capsule.—thin. Kaladhatura. Fl. spur acute. t. Sd.—7. across. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. usually pubescent.5 cm. long 10-20. Black-Purple datura. somewhat zigzag. PROPERTIES AND LOC. yellowish brown. Ns. Unmatta. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. divaricately branched. solitary. HABIT :—A common weed. Kariyu-Um-Matta. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Ceylon. inner curved high over the staminal column. CHAR. COM. white inside. soft spiny. long. Kanaka. a glucoside. packed. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. :—Annual shrub. G. FAM. double.2-7. :—A perennial twining herb. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. Fr. velvety pubescent beneath. Sk. 18 cm. on curved stalk 3.—follicle. :—Deccan. tubular.

aphrodisiac. Leaf poultice. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. Gajar. emetic. Seeds—narcotic. toddy. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. in gonorrhœa. toxic. leaves and seeds. emetic. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Carrot. PARTS USED :—Roots. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Gajar. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Cultivated in many parts of India. in combination with subja. Gajjari. LOC. leaves and seeds. biliousness. NS. digestive and heating. bronchitis. febrifuge. skin-diseases. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period.—Umbelliferæ COM. USES :—Out of the two varieties. HABITAT :—Cultivated. equal in effect to atropine. majum. M. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. FAM. alexiteric. ulcers. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. with curdled milk. Garjara. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. anodyne. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna.. piles. Leaf-juice is given internally. GranthiPinda-Mula. febrifuge. cause headache (Yunani). Gajra. K. to increase their stupefying effect. PARTS USED :—Root. nodes. heating. jaundice. enlargement of testicles and boils. tonic. headache. . DISTR. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. :—E. Sk. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. nosetrouble. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. anthelmintic. mumps etc. The plant as a whole has narcotic. Shikkikanda. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. painful tumours. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. anthelminitic . Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. The whole plant is narcotic. useful in leucoderma. :—Throughout the tropics. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Europe. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. ganja. black variety is considered to be more powerful. (Ayurveda). LOC. G. Gajar. relieves pain. H. and antispasmodic properties. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. chronic coughs. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. black (Kala) and white (Safed).

tropical Africa. Salwan. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. cures leprosy. Root marmalade is refrigerant. standard cuneate at the base . CHAR. t. pains. China. vomiting and asthma.—onefoliate. C—violet or white. Kanara . Salparni. asthma. useful in chronic fevers. LOC. M. hooked hairy. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). biliousness. It is used in fevers. K. " Vata". Dirghamula. Salpani. expectorant. tumours. Fl. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). lessens griping and spleen inflammation. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers.—May-July. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . carminative. indigestible. Kitavinashini. Ceylon. L. chest troubles.—in terminal or axillary racemes. used in bronchitis. removes " Kapha". anthelmintic. Tonic. Country. boiled with honey and fermented. Murele-honne. Fl. upper edge straight. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. ovate-oblong. stomachic. piles. Salwan. cough. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. :—A woody undershrub. Sk. Deccan and S. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. cures typhoid. Salpan. H. antidysenteric. LOC.—pod. urinary discharges. they produce a spirituous liquor. they are also diuretic.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. burning sensation. diuretic. green and glabrous above. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. inflammations. good for inflammation. astringent to bowels. dysentery . hiccup. hairy. urinary complaints. alterative. 0.. other fevers. chronic affections of chest and lungs. biliousness. FAM. COM. Philippines. bronchitis. paler and hairy beneath. LOC. DISTR. Darh. thirst. alexipharmic. aphrodisiac. " Tridosha ". membranous. prevents death of fœtus in womb . PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Fr. high. cardiotonic. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. tonic. :— G. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. Vidarigandha. vomiting. throughout India. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Salwan. stems and branches angled. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. astringent to bowels.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—Externally. nausea (Yunani). good for liver. . Roots contain vitamins A. B and C. vomiting. joints 6-8. margins wavy. M. cures biliousness. :—Konkan and N. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. fattening. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. Burma. piles. Ranbhal. thirst. See—Vegetables. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. Malay Peninsula and Islands . asthma.2 m. sub-falcate. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda).6-1. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Shaliparni.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. M. sedative to pregnant uterus. DISTR. Gujarat. stolon very stout. Banda. Tumari. Darbha. See—Fodder Plants. t. creeping. Nubia. Kalaskandh.8 cm. :—E. good for lumbago. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). rigid. erect pyramidal or columnar. long. :—Perennial tall grass. skin eruptions. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. COM.—Gramineæ. :—Throughout India. Ceylon. ligule a hairy line . flowers. asthma. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Gavandu. Sk. NS. Wood cures biliousness. Konkan. Tumaki Mara. cures ulcers and " Vata".—Dec. clothed with sessile spikelets. jaundice. LOC. Dab. diuretic. in the beds of rivers and streams. bark.. useful in blood diseases. astringent to bowels. Darbha. Dabha.—G. Fl. COM. interrupted.3-3. Kusha. Gale.—many. Kalatendu. sheaths glabrous. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Davoli. Tendu. aphrodisiac. Durva. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Wild mangosteen. vomiting. Malay Archipelago.:—Saurashtra. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). diseases of bladder. . NS. margins hispid. high. oleaginous. thirst. Timbwini. M. Fl. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. branched from the base. Kanara and the Konkan. -panicle 15-45 X 1.—Ebenaceæ. vesical calculi. CHAR. :—Along the coasts of N. Thailand (Siam). the basal fascicled. Zeeberwo. DISTR. H. diseases of blood. Riber ebony. Sacred Plants. Sphurjaka. Syria. PARTS USED :—Wood. smooth. Fruit—oleaginous. cooling. Pavitra.) FAM. Egypt. branches short crowded. G. strangury. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Makurkendi. used in biliousness and blood diseases. K. Temburni. tufted. Flowers—aphrodisiac. fruit and seeds. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. rootstock stout. FAM. reaching 50 cm. LOC. erect. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. heating. stout. L. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. covered with shining sheaths. LOC. Tinduka. biliousness. vaginal discharges. Anilsara. H. stems 30-90 cm.

G. Surfaces naked. Sitetara. FAM. Basingh. abdominal complaints. NS. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. ovate.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Tans. acrid. Kulitha. coughs etc. emmenagogue. base decurrent on the stipe. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. short. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. . cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. cures " Kapha". Sk. Diuretic. Kalvrinta. stout. Ashvakatri. K. M. Texture membranaceous to leathery. ozoena. piles. hot. :—M. Sori two in each primary areole. bronchitis. NS. intestinal colic. hiccup. "Vata". It is demulcent in calculus affection. :—Tropics of the old world. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). COM. :—E. Nasik. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. piles. appetiser. dry. M. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. LOC. densely clothed with red-brown scales. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. tumours. grown to a certain extent in S. cordate. DISTR. asthma. See-Food Plants. Kulathi. Konkan— Ratnagiri. antipyretic. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Kulithaka. Kulthi. inflammation. Hurali. cures hiccup. Country—Belgaum. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. strangury. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. improves complexion. removes stone from kidney. PARTS USED :—Seeds. diseases of the brain and eyes. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. Horse-Gram. HABITAT :—Cultivated.Gahat. Wandar bashing. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. pain in liver. fattening. causes biliousness (Yunani). variously lobed. fertile ones long stalked. See—Timbers. Grains contain vitamin A. Sk. H. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Jurali. Kulith. liver troubles. Kulit. FAM. heart-troubles. Kulthi. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). astringent to bowels. :—Rhizome creeping. eye troubles. anthelmintic. Bijapur and Dharwar. generally on trees and rocks. enlargement of spleen. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. LOC. leucoderma. COM. urinary discharges. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa.—Polypodiaceæ. CHAR.

Dadhal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. improves taste. astringent to bowels . C. COM. sessile. LOC. Markara. L. Root— abortifacient. analgesic. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda).-Jany. dyspepsia. used in strangury. long. L. Bhringraj. Ajagara. hectic fever. It is used in hoarse cough. M. used in ophthalmia. Kantalu. Sunilaka. useful in brain-diseases. :—More or less throughout India. Utakatara. :—Kanara. Kantaphala. :—G. FAM. DISTR. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. thirst. NS. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils.—Compositæ. globose. sinuate and spinescent.—heads white. CHAR. gleet. yellowish. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. M. stems and branches strigose and hairy. hysteria. biliousness. . branches widely spreading from the base. Garagadasoppu. K. pappus short. :—G. Deccan. high. often rooting at the nodes. diseases of heart. PARTS USED :—Root and plant.:—Throughout India.—limb linear. deeply pinnatifid.— Nov. Fr. Kadigga-garaga. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Afghanistan. stimulates liver. t. Sk. Utkantaka. :—A much branched rigid annual. Utanti.5 cm. M. tonic. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots.—Compositæ. 0. Bhangra.—sessile. hot. also cultivated to a certain extent. surrounded by strong white bristles. chronic fever. subentire. FAM. Fl. Shulio. Utkanta. cottony pubescent. Bhangra. Plant stomachic.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb.— opposite.—achene obconic. wooly beneath. CHAR. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). S. urinary discharges. antipyretic. Country. DISTR. spiny. involucre. NS. dyspepsia and cough. Bhangro. COM. Kadechubak. Balari. densely villous. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. causes " Kapha". Kalobhangro . " Vata". spines 2. Utkatara. Seeds—wholesome. inflammations. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Mochand. the lobes triangular and oblong. cooling.9 m. Konkan. Pitripriya. cottony. LOC. glabrous above. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. Utkanto. usually oblong-lanceolate. H. bracts 3seriate. strigose and hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. :—Konkan. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Maka. Fl. H. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. bitter. increases appetite. oblong. LOC. pain in joints.3—0. Keshrangana.

good for spleen diseases. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . M. DISTR. :—Western valleys of N. involucral bracts about 8 . Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. FAM.—in heads. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Fr. Choti-Elachi. asthma. Ela. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). Kanara (Siddapur. heart and skin diseases. liver pain. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Veldoda. anæmia. a reputed and popular liver tonic. leucoderma. Peninsula). USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . fevers. alterative. See—Sacred Plants. Sind. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. hernia. teeth. Yalakki.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. NS. good for complexion. disk ones tubular . eyes. Chandrabala. cures inflammations.—achene. eye diseases. Madhya Bharat. internal diseases. bronchitis. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. .— Oct.-Dec. night blindness. alexipharmic. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. expectorant. "Kapha". hemi-crania. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Gourangi. Elachi. Burma. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. anthelmintic.—Scitaminaceæ. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. improves colour of hair. lustre of eyes. t.:—India (Bengal. solitary or 2 together. "Vata". used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). cultivated. fattening. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. :—E. Ceylon. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). prevents abortion and miscarriage. hair. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. Sk. K. Bitter . Fl. cuneate with a narrow wing. toothache. tonic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. ray flowers ligulate. and for strengthening gums. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. It relieves headache when applied with oil. stomachic. stomatitis. cures vertigo (Yunani). LOC. pappus 0. Velchi. antipyretic. C—often 4-toothed . Karangi. COM. it is powdered and applied externally. Gandhkuti. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. Malaya.. hot. axillary. Bahula. Panjab. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. H. Triputa. G. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Ilaji. syphilis. There are two forms erect and prostrate. W. It is given internally in scalding of urine. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis.

Vidariga. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. clear head. In S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. useful in biliousness. Varding. Bhasmaka. Kanisha. CUM. bronchitis. abortifacient. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. tonic to heart.. Pavaka. causes thirst. PARTS USED :—Grain. diuretic. Wavrung. Rajika. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). brain and mouth. Jantughna. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). M. It is said to be astringent. fruit and seeds. Vayuvitang. Marua.:—Western and S. tonic. It is stomachic. strangury. See-Food Plants. PARTS USED :—Root. H. India. Narttaka. fruit is tonic. laxative. lessens inflammation. fragrant. FAM. root is laxative and tonic. LOC. chest and throat (Yunani). Makra. . Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Nagali. useful in head. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic.:—G. carminative. stimulant and emmenagogue. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. Sk. :— G. M. LOC. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. K. cause biliousness . pungent. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. bad humours of liver. most suitable to hard-working classes. FAM. alexiteric . Grains contain vitamin B. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. bitter. rich or poor.—Gramineæ. useful in asthma. cultivated. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. cooling. diuretic. H. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. Vavading. Seed—fragrant. stomachic. Rotka. DISTR. Boberang. Navalo-nagali. NS. NS. COM. Bidanga. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Sk. Vavoding. ear and tooth ache. stomachic. diseases of bladder. See—Condiments and Spices. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. scabies. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Nachani. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. kidney. piles. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil.—Myrsinaceæ. Ragi. Bavato. pruritus. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. consumption. K.

COM. Amlika. Bhoza . alterative. purgative. Deccan. laxative. anthelminitic. Paranjpe and G.—alternate. shining above. LOC. useful in burning sensation. leprosy. Anola. succulent. leaves. Dhatriphala. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. tonic. cooling. carminative. Ceylon. ascites. black when ripe. (Dymock). Sk. Ceylon. slender. Fr. bark.—in lax panicles. Seed— acrid. Gokhale. Amla. :—Hilly parts of the State.—Euphorbiaceæ. hemicrania. urinary discharges.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Adiphala. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. flowers. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. G. " Kapha'. alexiteric. sour. dry. LOC. vomiting. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. bronchitis. strangury. Arch. inflammations. Daula .—Feb. DISTR. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). thirst. good appetiser. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. China. DISTR. flexible.) FAM. Triphala. sweats. erysipelas. smooth. vulnerary. LOC. 42-II-1932). nearly globose. reddens urine. anthelmintic . alexiteric. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. Dhatri. :— E.—berry. with a sharp bitter taste. bronchitis. Amalaka. Fl. Kanara. constipation. Malaya. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Anward. PARTS USED :—Root. carminative. Nellika . coriaceous. K. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. Pharm. urinary discharges. often planted in Konkan. cures tumours. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . alterative. K. PARTS USED :—Fruit. racemes minute. M. branches long. H. good for plethoric constitution. antipyretic. elliptic-lanceolate. aphrodisiac. Amlika. diseases of heart. anæmia. :—A large scandent shrub. NS. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. bark studded with lenticels . anuria. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. many. HABITAT :—Rain forests. Embelic myrobalan. useful in asthma. poisoning. greenish yellow. paler and silvery beneath. dries wound discharges . cures bronchitis . China. S. analgesic. biliousness. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. like a pepper corn when dried. S. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Int. :—Throughout India. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. Ambala. Western Ghats. Malay Islands. mental diseases. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. et. fruit and seeds. Dadi. piles. t. Ther. Avala. . jaundice. " Tridosha ". Fl. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). dyspnoea. L. internodes long. wild or planted. Konkan and N. Bitter.

biliousness. S. Tiktapatra. diuretic and laxative. :—Konkan. M. Malaya. Fr. L. :—Throughout the greater part of India. cooling. white. 10—50 cm. Mamejavo . stops nasal hæmorrhage. COM. aperient. tonic. Chhotakirayat. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. Doddakampi.—Aug. NS. Sk. Garambi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. rounded apex.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Gujarat. sub-quadrangular or terete. high. LOC. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. cold in the nose. NS. Mabhipaka. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). thirst. Saurashtra. Fruit Trees. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Sind. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". Kadvinayi. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. sour. Country.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Fl. Fruit—acrid. Nahu. Giant's rattle. FAM. liver complaints. tropical Africa. LOC.-Nov.—sessile. West Indies. Hallekayiballi. Ind. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Dyes. Nagajivha. LOC.) FAM. Mackary bean.— capsule. eye troubles. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. COM. H. M. Fl. 3-nerved. :—A perennial glabrous herb.). branched from the base. Dried fruits. Madvinashi. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Grey). CHAR. used as laxative and astringent. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. variable. lobes 5. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. bark and fruit are astringent. DISTR. narrowed at the base. Unripe fruit is cooling. mid-nerve strong. :—E. :—G. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Tanavadi. purifies body humours (Yunani). vulnerary. astringent.—sessile. ellipsoid. . expectorant. improves appetite. Lady nut. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. useful in heart-diseases. t. Tans. Garbe. Celyon. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. piles. See—Timbers.—Gentianaceæ. R. anthelmintic. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. stems erect or procumbent. USES :—Root. C—infundibuliform. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. K. opposite.

— Mar. DISTR. COM. :—Coast forests of Malabar. for grapevines in Nasik district. USES :—Powdered kernel. Ceylon.7-5x7.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. dark green. Fl. Pegu.5-5-7 cm. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Panjira. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. leaflets 7-5 x 2. G. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Kantakinshuka. Fl. Indian coral-tree. in debility and glandular swellings .S. Raktapushpa. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Seeds. improve appetite. . anthelmintic. Paribhadra.—6-15. Planted as support for pepper vines. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . cure urinary discharges.. LOC. indented between the seeds. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Planted as ornament. M. often along river banks. bark.5-10 cm. Nepal. Leaves—bitter. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge.3-2 cm. long. diam. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk.) FAM. Kanara. wide and 3-8 cm. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. leaves. :—E. pinnae 2—3 pairs. glabrous. 3. Hongara. Mochi-wood. DISTR. orbicular. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L.—yellow. C. Fr. :—Konkan and N. K. PARTS USED :—Root. compressed.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). along sea-coast above high-water. Andamans and Nicobar. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Dadap. Mandara. Arakan. Phandra . rigidly coriaceous. The plant is used as a fish-poison. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. LOC. Tennaserim. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". hot. the tropics generally. Panderavo. woody. bark used in dysentery. stalked.—pod. Var. 4. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. N.. Salaki. thick. Halivan. Bangaro. Sk. Panarvo. slightly curved. they are given internally as an emetic. Mandara. mixed with spices. L. Pangara. W. inflammations. H. Sd.. ORIENTALIS Merr. 30-90 cm. smooth. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. shining and brown. long. Peninsula.-May.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—2pinnate. branches terete. Sundribans. Pangara. Mullumurige. t. oblong or obovate. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.

Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Plant is chiefly used for worms. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. branches often 4-angled. Ceylon. Sher. Cong. Vajradruma.—opposite. it is anthelmintic. Pill-bearing spurge. Milk hedge. G. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Sd. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Nagpur 1931). Dudhi. H. H. Achchegida. rugose.—involucres numerous. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. and to relieve pain of the joints. Sc. Bahukshira. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Dandasruha. K. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. —throughout the year. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Sahud. bowel complaints and cough in children. Milk bush. :—Annual herb. Dudanali. :— E. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Sk. COM. L. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Bottugalli. high. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Shirthahar. Fl. Mondukalli. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. NS. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. Indian tree spurge. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR.—ovoid-trigonous. :—E. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Nevli. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. erect or ascending. dark green above. FL. globose. with or without a limb. reddish brown. Paradeshi thora . gland minute. Govardhan. Sk. Duddi. base unequal-sided. Kodukalli. Sendh.—Euphorbiaceæ. pale beneath. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. appressedly hairy. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. The plant contains an alkaloid. Pusitoa.) FAM. LOC. obliquely oblong-lanceolate.—capsule.—Euphorbiaceæ. K. Dandalio thora. FAM. M. See—Timbers. Australian asthma herb. Dudhi. Dudhi. NS. t. CHAR. . 15-50 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. 18th Ind. Fr. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. G. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. M. COM. serrulate or dentate. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious.

The plant contains an alkaloid. 6-13 mm. Vishnugandhi. branches erect. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. peduncles very long.-July-Nov. long. tumours. Fr. whooping cough. DISTR. L. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. alexiteric. Sk. epilepsy. mostly female. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Nilpushpi. globose. carminative. enlargement of spleen. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. silky hairy. brightens intellect. Vishnukranta. rootstock woody . PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. wiry. useful in abdominal troubles.-Sep. almost leafless.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Konkan and Gujarat. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. L. Vishnukranti. leucoderma. thick like quill. about 6 m. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). Fl. :—A small tree. FAM. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils.—capsule. Kalisankhavali. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. LOC. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. dyspepsia. anthelmintic. usually clothed with long hairs . naturalised in India. cocci velvety. carminative. Sd. LOC. Ceylon. solitary or sometimes 2. Fl. Juice is purgative. Jhinkiphudardi. long (appearing in rainy season) . campanulate. Sd— glabrous. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. more than 5 cm. jaundice. alterative. :—G. Shyamakranta . also as an alterative. t. axillary. tonic. pungent. base acute. smooth. :—Throughout the State.—small. employed to raise blisters. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. COM. asthma. polished. biliousness. stems many.— capsule. linear. Vishnukranta. DISTR. :—A perennial herb.—Convolvulaceæ. thin. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. stone in bladder (Yunani). :—Native of East Africa. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. branchlets whorled. useful in bronchitis. . prostrate. elliptic-oblong. milk is alexiteric. spreading. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. dropsy. Fr.—ovoid. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. teething of infants . t.-light blue. terete. useful in biliousness. :—Sind. smooth. tropical and sub-tropical countries. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). leprosy. and with oil to promote growth of hair. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. 4valved.-Aug. CHAR. LOC. M.—many. leprosy and leucorrhoea. useful in gonorrhœa. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . Fl. LOC. high. K. colic. H.

pyramidal to the apex. removes "Vata". Iran.-Dec. Gujarat. t. COM. vomiting. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis.). urinary discharges. obliquely obovate. :—An erect annual. shining. M. acute. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. of 5.—Zygophyllaceæ. Waziristan. FAM. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. cures dysentery. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. reduces tumours. Dhanavi. ovate. the middle the largest. westwards to Afghanistan. in chronic bronchitis. Dhamasa. W. Ghats. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. L. Coimbatore. N. Upper Gangetic plains. :—Madras State. Sk. Punjab.—Gentianaceæ. Mysore. 5-nerved. Deccan hills and S. the upper blue. CHAR. cooling. .—very variable in size and form sessile. Hinguna. Arabia. quadrangular. deeply 5-partite. asthma. fever. small. Udichirayat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. CHAR. erysipelas. emmenagogue. Ind. Cooling. L. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . flattened. glandular hairy. Bark is used in scabies. NS. Dhamaso . DISTR. leaflets linear. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. thirst. Prabhodhini. Baluchistan. smooth. in copious terminal cymes . yellowish brown. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. it has got cooling properties. purifies blood (Ayurveda). :—A small spiny erect undershrub.-Oct. NS. Mediterranean. elliptic or lanceolate. Fl. Sd. Dusparsha. reaching 60 cm. C—lobes 4-5. Rajasthan. Fr. :— H. ophthalmia.-Nov. M. H. 1-seeded cocci.—capsule. removes "Vata. ellipsoid. good for liver troubles." asthma. DISTR.—opposite. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). HABITAT :—Pasture lands. smooth. :— Sind. :—G. sessile. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). pale rose-coloured. Barachirayat. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Fl. :—Konkan. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. high. LOC. Country. scarcely branched.-Aug. Circars. Ustarkhar. root fibrous. petioles deeply striate. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. Atmamuli. Fl. spitting of blood. 1-3 foliate.2 cm. also used in chronic fevers. t.— ovoid. FAM. alexipharmic. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. arising from between the stipules . toothache. typhoid.— showy. LOC. Fr. stem. LOC. long. FL. about 1.—solitary. more or less glandular. Kashaya. lower half white. M. stomatitis. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Maval.

Kathel. H. Ala. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. K. 10-20 X 5-12. Balin. Malura. Avaroha. Nyagrodha. shining above. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Fruit Trees. Ceylon. strengthening to gums . reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. refrigerant. Leaves—very astringent.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. M. consumption. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Sk. Alada. hiccup.—coriaceous. with spreading branches. . India. Vat. M. Grahiphala. K. aphrodisiac. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. NS. " Vata ". thirst.—Moraceæ. Self-sown. :—E. Vad. heart diseases. acrid. diam. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Kait. good for throat. Vata. leucorrhoea. Belada. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. vomiting . Vadlo . binding diuretic. COM. DISTR. :— E. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Kanara. Kathinyaphala. Seeds—antidote to poison. astringent. asthma. tonic to heart. female. with male. Fr.. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . common in the Tapi Valley. S. dysentery. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. G. LOC. about 2 cm.—Rutaceæ. L. :—Cultivated all over the State. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Monkey fruit. Java. Jatala. Bahupada. Kavath. Ghats. Goli. Sk. liver and lungs . country and N. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Bar. LOC.— globose. Byala. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Elephant or wood apple. fatigue. COM. difficult to digest. Bhringi. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Kapipriya.5 cm. Vad. Kavitha. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. ophthalmia. useful in biliousness. often cultivated. alexipharmic. Kotha. M. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. blood impurities.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Banian tree. cures cough. removes biliousness. Kavit. Fruit—sour . ovate to elliptic. :—Indigenous in S. FAM. H. G. cordate or rounded base. NS. fruit and seeds. Bargat. refrigerant . See—Timbers. Manmadha. Kapitha. " Tridosha". Bargad. CHAR. Dadhiphala. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. often planted. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. high. Kothun.

stimulates hair-growth. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. COM. Anjir. LOC. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. erysipelas. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. leprosy. Kakodumbar. useful in syphilis. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. root-fibres. bruises. liver and spleen diseases. PARTS USED :—Bark. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Fig. NS. FAM. demulcent. inflammation of liver (Yunani). inflammations. Sk. H. dysentery. India. W. paralysis. Sacred Plants. in rheumatism and lumbago. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). LOC. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Dharwar. lessens inflammations. alexiteric. See—Famine Plants. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit.—Moraceæ. Seeds are cooling and tonic. useful in inflammation . vomiting. . M. Milky Juice—expectorant. Fibres. nose-diseases. boils and carbuncles. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). W. K. Asia and Mediterranean. Afghanistan. pain in chest cures piles. useful in piles. tonic. :— E. LOC. biliousness. diseases of head and blood. thirst. leaves. ringworm. Aerial root is styptic. vulnerary. useful in "Kapha". maturant. gonorrhœa. vaginal complaints. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. seeds and milky juice. Anjir. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. DISTR. laxative. aphrodisiac. Bijapur. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. useful in leucoderma. ulcers. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. Root—tonic. Cultivated in N. Simeyatu . nutritive. India. fever. Anjir. FICUS CARICA Linn. hill ranges of S. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. leprosy (Ayurveda). biliousness. weakness. Anjura. :—Baluchistan. Grown scattered elsewhere. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. Anjir. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. lithotriptic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. diuretic. useful in "Vata".

latex. G. fatigue.—Moraceæ. Ashvatha. K. Fruit—astringent to bowels. burning sensation. good for bronchitis. nose bleedings. given in leucorrhoea. Milk—aphrodisiac. Sk. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Hemadugdha. Pipers. vulnerary. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. K. biliousness. :—Throughout the State near villages. Pipal. cummin.—Moraceæ. Shuchidruma. fruit. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Atti. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Umbro. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Vriksharaj. Leaves—astringent to bowels . ulcers. Bark is cooling. tonic. menorrhagia. M. COM. Lalka. Sacred Plants. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. . galactagogue. good for foul taste. Peepal tree . Ashwatha mara. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. G. useful in "Kapha". useful. M. Pipal. Jari. See—Timbers. :—E. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. (Yunani). H.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. leaves and fruits. NS. Demera. vagina. Pippala. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. good for gravid uterus. blood diseases. Bodhidruma. FAM. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. DISTR. Umar. loss of voice. Bark useful in asthma and piles. LOC. Pippala. in diseases of blood. Pimpal. bark. leaves. Rumadi. LOC. H. LOC. Yajnika. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. uterus . :—E. Umar. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. Umbar. ground with onions. allays thirst. leprosy. diseases of kidney and spleen. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Planted. Bark. :—Widely spread throughout India. Arani. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Pavitraka. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Pipli. Gular-Country fig. acrid. planted all over. bark. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. COM. Sk. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. biliousness. Ragi. styptic. FAM. NS. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Udumbara. Gular. DISTR. leucorrhoea.

SAPIDA Roxb. Tapaspriya. S. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. DISTR. aphrodisiac. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. good for lumbago. FAM. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. heart diseases. cleans ulcers. Badishep. promotes granulations. Satpura. Shalina. Bhakal. Hettarimullu. Akrani. See—Timber. :— G. and produces sterility in women. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. checks vomiting (Yunani). Sacred Plants. bark. Ghats. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). astringent in leucorrhoea. COM. M. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Fruits are sweet. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Katar. Sk. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Bhuripushpa. Hunmunki. K. NS. Badisoppu. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. Bhanber. LOC. Swadukantaka. Finkel. Paker. Kankod . M. appetising and digestive. The juice is employed in hiccup. Handi Kandai. M. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Young bark useful in bone fractures. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. seeds. W. LOC. See—Timbers. . common in the Peninsula. Potika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Bilangra . Burma. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. upper Gangetic plain. PARTS USED :—Root. G. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Shateya. Kanara Jungles. gum. HABITAT :—Hills. Country and N. Fruit—purgative. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. N. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Variari. Circars. Variali. Gajale. H. fruit. H. :—E. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Mullutari. K. Soupa.—Flacourtiaceæ. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Fennel. Fodder Plants. Root good for gout. COM NS. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Sk. Khandesh.—Umbelliferæ. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Tambat.

GARCINIA INDICA Chois.—ellipsoid. Oils. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. dysentery. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. Tittidika . promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". galactagogue.9 m. LOC. FL. See—Condiments and Spices. :—E. fissures of lips. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—W. COM. G. causing constipation . DISTR. USES :—used as stimulant. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. thirst. biliousness. useful in diseases of chest. aphrodisiac. Mulgala. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. lessen inflammations. Ghats south of Bombay. stimulant. " Vata ". useful in bleeding piles. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. strengthen eyes (Yunani). Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. amenorrhœa. fruit and seeds. wounds. Ratambi. Atyamla. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. dark green. Wynaad. M. annual.6-0. DISTR. fever. demulcent and emollient. Ghats. USES :—Bark is astringent. wounds etc. Kokam . seeds-carminative. Murjinhalli. L. tumours. :—Endemic in W. diuretic. H.—Guttiferæ. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. bracts and bracteoles absent. Kanara. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. alexiteric. Tintidika. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". leprosy (Ayurveda). (Mhaskar and Caius). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. Sk. ridges prominent. FAM. cardiotonic. kidney. leaves (rarely). Amlabija. often cultivated. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. . Leaves—improve eyesight. LOC. ultimate segments linear. cures "Tridosh". spleen.— decompound. LOC. carpophore 2-partite. high. difficult to digest. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). improves appetite and allays thirst. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Bark. leaves and seeds. K. Fr. Kokam. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests.—in large umbels . :—A tall glabrous. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. Konkan and N. Kokam . 0. dysentery. NS. :—Apparently a native of S. common in S. anthelmintic. in headache. yellow. furrows vittate. It is much used as a nutritive. aromatic and carminative. stomachic. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. LOC. eye-diseases. anthelmintic. burning sensation. cough and asthma. Wild mangosteen. Coorg.

:—Common from Konkan southwards.-subsessile. See—Gums and Resins. not fragrant.—Feb. Gums and Resins. L.8 cm. astringent to bowels. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. t. 1-3 together. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite.—Rubiaceæ. :—India. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). Suvirya. all dry districts of Madras State. elliptic-obovate. lucida.. Dikemali. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. Fl. common on laterite in southern parts of N. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. :—A deciduous shrub. PARTS USED :—Gum. CHAR. LOC. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. 4. K. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . Dakamali. Fl. Burma. relieves pain of bronchitis. same as for G. H. Cambi resin tree. DISTR.-sessile. Kanara. M. :—E. PARTS USED:-Gum. NS. C. FAM. Jantuka. oblong. .—2. :—India (W.—Rubiaceæ. Hingu. Pinda. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. HABITAT :—Open situations. DISTR. Fr. COM.5x22. G. Dikkamalli. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. As sold in the bazar it is hard. about 1. FAM. Northern ghats of Madras State. shining. Dikamali. Dikamari. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . unarmed. -June. high. buds resinous. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. NS. Bikke.5 cm. Western Peninsula. Dekamari. opaque. See—Timbers. oblong or ellipsoid. first white then changing to yellow.-tubular. long. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. Peninsula). lucida (Ayurveda).8 m.5-3. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. COM. LOC. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G.

ovate lanceolate. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Tuber— astringent. Cochin-China. root-stock of arched. itching. Nangulika. . The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. sometimes whorled. tall. Kalikari. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. heating. useful in chronic ulcers. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. PARTS USED :—Tuber. Khadyanag. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. LOC.—Liliaceæ. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State.-July-Oct. Karianag. L. Dudhio vachhonag. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. and crimson from blooming to fading. scarlet. inflammations. solid.—capsule. Sk. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. alexiteric. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. margins wavy. leaves and flowers.. Huliyuguru. anthelmintic.2 cm. linear-lanceolate. Akkitang hall. linear oblong. branching climber . COM. Kulhari. Agnimukhi. 7. t. scattered or opposite. acrid. thirst.. There are two varieties of the plant. Kalihari. :—Throughout tropical India. used to remove placenta from uterus. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. Sivasaktibalb . K. expectorant. orange. Kathari. FAM. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms.5-3. FL. solitary. The former is supposed to be male. leprosy. Fl. bitter. abdominal pains. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Languli.—sessile. DISTR. NS. H. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Ceylon. M.5 X 15 X 2-4. :—Herbaceous. piles. Garbhapatani.5 cm. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. Indai. filaments long spreading. axillary . abortifacient.—large. stems annual. Tropical Africa. In Guinea. Malay Peninsula.3 cm. Fr. perianth segments reaching 6. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. :—G. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. CHAR. LOC. In case of retained placenta. Linn. laxative. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.. given off from young tubers . changing colours from greenish yellow.

piles. laxative. LOC. thirst. abdominal pains. K. flowers and fruit. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Flowers—astringent. consumption and some catarrhal affections . leaves. Coomb teak.—Verbenaceæ. Bachanige. improves appetite . Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. M. Deokapas.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Philippines. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). K. Gandhari. scattered in monsoon forests. NS. Shiwan. leprosy. H. In the Konkan. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. COM. catarrh of the bladder etc. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Hanji. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. stomachic. Nurma . Provinces. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Kumbudi. See—Timbers. NS. Devkapas. G. DISTR. Devakapus. Kashmari. consumption. DISTR. thirst. LOC. promotes hair-growth. flowers and seeds. See—Fibres. Gambhari. ulcers. Var. FAM. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. Cashmere tree. :— E. Shripani. Savan. G. Tree cotton. scalds etc. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Karpasam. the root. Root extract is bitter and tonic. tonic. useful in fevers . Fruit— diuretic. alterative. Root taken with liquorice. anæmia. made into paste. leaves. fevers. useful in hallucinations. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. Sk. COM. anthelmintic . FAM. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Shivani. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Mahabhadra. strangury. Rajasthan and N. PARTS USED :—Root. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Gambari. useful in "Vata".—Malvaceæ. urinary discharges. Shivan . USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. :—Throughout India. Oils. " Tridosha ". W. LOC. gleet. Karibatti. root is also stomachic and laxative.:—E. M. Sind. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. common on Satpuda. Gumbhar. burning sensation. Gupsi. indigestible. H. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. Sk. Khandesh. anasarca. Malaya. chronic cystitis. :— Bengal. aphrodisiac. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. White teak. useful in indigestion. Madhya Bharat. Shiwan. :—Throughout the State. .

:— Cultivated in N. aphrodisiac. Arali. Rui. :—G. Phalsa. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Phalsi. fruits and seeds. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. U. Seeds— ' galactagogue. restore consciousness. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . G. See—Fibres. Mediterranean. Syria. NS. A. in hills near Poona. Seeds are laxative. expectorant. Anagnika. extensively in Gujarat. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. Buttiyu-dippa. DISTR. fomentation for burning eyes . leaf-juice good in dysentery. heart and blood disorders. cures inflammations. Tula. Parusha. tonic. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Oils.—Malvaceæ. Karihariyale. preventing their access to wounds etc.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. extensively cultivated.. good for throat .—Tiliaceæ. FAM. cure all ear-troubles. leaves. analgesic. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. H. Kapas . Cotton . F. S. :—E. LOC. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. enrich blood. COM. in hypochondria. H.Phalse. poultice applied to burns' scalds. removes " Vata ". W. Tadasala. Jana. fruit. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. digestible. In India they are used to procure abortion. K. Arabia and Asia Minor. Rui. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. scabies . Iran. M. Egypt. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. acrid. Parapera. Leaves remove " Vata " . laxative .. sour. Badari. tonic. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. COM. (Yunani). DISTR. Country. Sk. LOC. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. fevers and consumption. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. demulcent. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Hatti. good for all kinds of inflammations. Kapus. Ripe fruit—sweet. Roshana. Sutrapuspha. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. NS. Pharuah. :—Sind. wild in Deccan. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . M. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Province (Pakistan). Afghanistan. Dhamin. probably in N. M. :—Cultivated in the State. used in orchitis. expectorant and aphrodisiac. Kupas. Baluchistan. East Tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. LOC. Gujarat and S. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. removes " Vata" and biliousness. allay thirst. FAM. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. bark. Seeds—aphrodisiac. increase flow of urine. Mesapotamia. Karpas.

Meshavalli. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. elliptic. G. Karnasphota.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. NS. strengthens chest and heart. DISTR. Kavali. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell).—in cymes . India. Br. :—Western Peninsula.-May. Sanngera. leucoderma. corona of 5 processes . Tropical Africa. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Adiyakharan. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. vitreous body) burning sensation.—follicle. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. The ease of administration. Root and bark used in strangury. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Shrikala. yellow . Bastagandha. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. — Asclepiadaceæ. cooling. Merasingi. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". lanceolate. ulcers. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Mahabaleshwar and N. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). CHAR.— Apl. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. alterative. Kabari. Hulhul. Ceylon. alexiteric. Tanmani. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Kanphodi. H. Bedki. base rounded or cordate . GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. asthma. K. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Fl. biliousness. ovate. young stems densely pubescent. FAM. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Sk. :E. Churota. should not be eaten raw. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions.— opposite. Mabli. FAM. stomachic. common in hedges in Dharwar district. H. Sannagerse. COM. S. K. Gurmar. sweet. Sd. Karalia . Sati talvani. usually single. NS. Arkapuspika. acrid. . Fruit—sour. the stomachic stimulant. FL. M. M. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. helps removal of dead fetus. Periploca of the woods. Caravella. COM. Ugragandha. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). See—Fruit Trees. LOC. cornea. Tilparni. Vakundi. :— E. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. piles.— with thin marginal wing.—Capparidaceæ. relieves thirst and hiccup. t. C.— companulate . Fr. :—Throughout the State. tonic. LOC. much branched. bronchitis. Pandhari tilwan. Mardashingi. Meshashingi. G. L. good in heart-diseases. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Vishani. LOC. Hulhul. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). SK. inflammations. :—A large woody climber. Kanara coast.

—in dense bracteate racemes. pain. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. margins crenate-dentate. Gujarat. pubescent. Fl. M. S. Gidesa Jitasai. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). ellipsoid . C. viscid.5-20 X 3. COM. . Jonkaphal Maraphali.. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. vesicant. elliptic-obovate. LOC.12. Country. stipules triangular. Sinhgad hills. CHAR. China. t. stem and branches hairy.—many. removes "Vata". M. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles .—June. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Fr. Katraj Ghat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles.—muricate. Fl.—rather rigid. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. white or blue.2 m. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar.5 cm. HABITAT:—Hills. hairy. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. tumours. DISTR. leaflets subsessile. :—Deccan. Avartant. Kanara. Murudseng. high. :—A small deciduous shrub. NS. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Mrigashringa. PARTS USED :—Root. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . H. NS.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. :—M. K. hills in Supa Taluka.—Oct. Sk.—Sterculiaceæ.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. LOC.. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. :—An annual erect herb 0.6—1. with divaricate herbaceous branches . glabrous or pubescent above.—3-5 foliate.—capsule. FAM. Murudi. Fl. Edamuri. :—G. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root.8-9 cm. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. hills near Nagothana. earache. COM. producing copious exudation. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. good in ascites. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. hairy. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. pink . long.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. (Kirtikar and Basu).—capsule. dark-brown . Murdasing. t. Sd. ulcers.—Rubiaceæ. Marosi. 5-9 cm. elliptic-lanceolate. Fl. DISTR. pedicels viscid hairy. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. leaves and seeds. Kavargi. L. FAM. opposite. Sd. long . . L. tapering at both ends. gynophore 2-2.-Feb. hairy on the nerves beneath. stomachic . Kewan. LOC. sessile. acute.—petals 4 with long slender claws.

Kanara ghat forests. poisoning. liver and kidney diseases . irregularly crowded. Deccan and S. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. angular . Anantmula. rat-bites. common in hedges. Indian sarsaparilla . joint-pains. spirally coiled. lessens griping. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. urinary discharges. Burma. Australia and West Indies.-biferous. syphilis. Anantmula. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. LOC. Br.— in cymes in opposite axils.Sd. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). K. India. long. Sugandhi-balli. “tridosh". Sk. cures all skin-diseases. Sd.5 X 5-10 cm. Root useful in hemicrania. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. H. asthma. purplish inside. root-Stock woody . ovate orbicular. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. Ceylon. uterine complaints. Stem lessens inflammation. diaphoretic.-Dec. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. 5-6.. antidiarrhœal. Durivel. blood diseases. Root and stem—laxative. Utpalashariva. PARTS USED :—Root. scabrous above. Kapurimathuri. LOC. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). stem. .—Asclepiadaceæ. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. diuretic. obliquely cordate. :— E. FL. t — Aug. eye troubles. paralysis. greenish outside. foul body odour. PARTS USED :—Root.—follicle cylindric.— with silvery white coma . FAM. epileptic fits. L. Dhaval kashtha. Malaya. Country. Hindisalse. G. leucorrhoea. They are demulcent. thirst. M. DISTR. CHAR. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). good for brain. mildly astringent. LOC. beaked. low appetite. burning sensation. COM. Hamadaberu . See—Fibres.512. NS. stems thickened at the nodes . eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR.—throughout the greater part of the year.—tubular.—follicle of 5-6. Konkan. and leaves. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. "Kapha". :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon.3 cm. :—Large shrub or small tree. useful in piles. red at first fading to lead colour. :—Upper Gangetie plain. demulcent. bilabiate. Upalsali. Fr. astringent to bowels. Magrabu. cough. useful in gleet. fevers. Upalsari.— very variable. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. anti-galactagogue. t. astringent to bowels . The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. bronchitis. 7. often variegated with white above. diarrhœa. tapering . alexiteric. C. Fr. bark and fruit. "Vata' dysentery. :—Throughout the State. asthma. DISTR. Fl. dark-green. Fl.—numerous. M. HABITAT :—In hedges.

Japapushpa. Jasavand. skindiseases.—axillary. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. In the Konkan. tubular below.. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. LOC. uterine and vaginal discharges. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). L. Fl. It is also diuretic. yellow. See—Ornamental Plants. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. seminal weakness. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. red.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. irregularly serrate towards the top. ovate or ovate lanceolate. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. DISTR. Jasuva. Native country probably China. cm. Harivallaba. glabrous. . petals thrice as long as the calyx. and mixed with ghee. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . G. astringent. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. leaves. Dasanihu. PARTS USED :—Root. Root roasted in plantain leaves. magenta. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. entire near the base. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). pedicel jointed above the middle. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. bright red.—short petioled. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. syphilis and leucorrhoea. flowers. cooling.—during most of the year. Aruna. CHAR. Rudrapushpa. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—no fruits produced in India. remove burning of body. Jasum.—7. piles.5. H. Raktapushpi. Sk. C. FAM. involucral bracts 5-7. demulcent.—Malvaceæ. :—A perennial shrub. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. tonic. It is said to purify blood. useful in loss of appetite. Fr. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. fevers. bark and petals are demulcent. diam. Jasut. Fl. solitary. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. and as early as 1864. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. NS. Dasavala. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. COM. etc. LOC. K. crimson. Shoe flower. Kempupundrika. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. urinary discharges. :— E. Root is valuable in coughs. t. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra).

In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.—petals 5. 10-18 X 4. NS. Rozelle.-Mar. Madhavi. Vasanti. beaked. base cuneate. DISTR. Konkan. ovoid.. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. globose. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Sk. Grows abundantly on the W. pepper. Fl. clawed. and adding a little salt. Sd.—Malvaceæ. M.—Malpighiaceæ. CHAR. glabrous. Fl.—1-3.—large. Ragotpiti. on the margins. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 1. Vasantduti. Fr. Fl. erect. H. Madhalata. CHAR. elliptic-oblong. t. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Fr. Adimurtte Adirganti. uppermost petal broader. Chandravalli. Atimukta.—purple with darker centres. Patwa. stem and branches purple. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility.lobes oblong. Haladvel. involucral bracts 10. Malati. L. sedative and refrigerant. :—Throughout the State. covered with minute hairs .) FAM. white. long. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. :—Cultivated. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. 3-winged. Madhumalati. . :—G. H. purple.—coriaceous. Sd. Kanara. LOC.—Oct. K. long.— Jany.—axillary. K.-Dec. LOC. fragrant. Lal ambari. young parts silky. NS. Lal ambadi. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Kamuka. orbicular. asafoetida and molasses. tropics of the old world.3-7. HABITAT. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. calyx fleshy. petioles silky. C. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Atimukta. M. C. Madhavi.—5-7. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Madmalati.5 cm. Ceylon. See—Vegetables. serrate. :—An annual. Red sorrel.2-2 cm. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.5 cm. L. Ghats. Fibres. Lal ambadi. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Deccan. 3-5 lobed. COM. fruits and seeds. (lower leaves sometimes entire). mid-lobe the longest. Pundi-bija or soppu. Fl. FAM. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. purple. Vasantduti.—capsule. Kampti. hairy. acuminate. entire glabrous. black-brown. across. often blotched with purple with darker centre. flowers. COM.— solitary. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kempupundrike. :—E. 5th petal yellow at the base. Madhavi. t. much used in curries. Madhavi. fringed.—in erect racemes.

PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. ulcers. cooling. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. galactagogue. LOC. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. long. vulnerary. cures dysentery. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. biliousness. colic. Dudhi. Sk. boils. Flowers— acrid. cool the brain. thirst and inflammation. Kaling.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Kumaon. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. Malay Peninsula. bleeding piles. inodorous. strengthens gums.. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). throat hairy inside. H. insecticidal. N. vulnerary.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . burning sensation. lessens inflammations. L.—follicles 20-48 cm. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Kaduoindrajav. Karnatak. appetiser cure blood diseases. Mt. Assam. Karohi. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Seeds—carminative. good in chronic bronchitis. bitter. :—Throughout the State. hallucinations (Ayurveda). diarrhœa. Kodasige. Madras State. M.—10-20 X 5-11. Kuda. leprosy. K. white. branchlets drooping.—Apocynaceæ. burning sensation. diuresis (Yunani). Karuindrayan.—Feb. cough. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. thirst. Seeds—appetiser. good in headache. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. tonic. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. skin and spleen diseases. Fl. urinary discharges. FL. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Pandhara Kuda.. Ceylon. remove muscular pains . " Kapha". given in chest affections. tonic. Sd. wounds. Andamans. main nerves conspicuous . Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. cylindric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. anthelmintic. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. astringent to bowels cure pains. COM. Kuda. cause "Vata". Leavesastringent. flowers and seeds. Thailand (Siam). :—Throughout hotter parts of India. styptic. leucoderma . common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. acrid. Kutaja. Kudsalu. acrid. Circars. :—E. broadly ovate or elliptic. Hath. Abu. Burma. fevers. Hale. Fr. aphrodisiac. smoke good for piles. Siwalik. lumbago. piles. leprosy. asthma. Veppale. CHAR. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. LOC. fatigue. PROPERTIES. NS. Conessi bark tree. t. FAM. leaves. biliousness. good in erysipelas. DISTR. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . skin diseases. Kura. heating. excessive menstrual flow.5 cm. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. often dotted with white spots. Nepal. See—Ornamental Plants. remove "Tridosh". China. Bark—bitter. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion.-June. G. C—tubular. Kurchi tree. Indrayana. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.

Ind. malt sugar and diastase. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. acrid. fattening. Ymvah. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. appetiser. NS. and kurchicine. Shaktu. Javegodhi. PARTS USED :—Seeds. nor astringent. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. See—Food Plants. LOC. dysentery and intestinal worms. Med. kurchine. The grains contain vitamin B. useful in bronchitis. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. fevers (Yunani). Aug. useful in biliousness. Jav. inflamed gums. Hayapriya. bronchitis. lowers the pulse. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Germinated barley. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. Jav. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. with radicle attached to it. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. headache. FAM. useful in fevers. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Java. especially cod-liver oil. widely cultivated in temperate regions. diarrhœa. —Cultivated chiefly in N. India. demulcent and expectorant. (R. Tasteless. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. anæmia. They are also used after delivery. 1928). Yava. febrifuge. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. M. Sk. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Divya. Knowles. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). . LOC. H. improves voice. Barley. causes constipation. Gaz. :—E. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. good for ulcers. They are astringent. DISTR. Suj. Jawa. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. biliousness. K. sweetish. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. Satu. nor styptic. stomachic.—Gramineæ. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. G. allays thirst. COM. burns. pains in chest.

Malabar. common in Travancore. Sk. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.—Jany. globose or ovoid. sulphur. LOC. Fr. C. DISTR. Madhya Pradesh. dioecious . Kastel. FAM. :—K. COM. :—G. Southern and Western India. Niradivittulu. COM. 12.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. NS.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Bihar. Bharnarasalya. Bhorsal. For scald-head. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. pungent.—Apl. Fl. acuminate. Garudphala.—Bixaceæ. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. FL. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). See—Oils. Bhrijatuaka. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases.—solitary or in racemes. camphor and lime-juice. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. Dondra. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Common in N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.5-23 X 3. size of small apple. Gandele. M. Bhutabi. L.—numerous.5 cm. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. H. M. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Kowti. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Amarachala. Kanara evergreen forests. Kshiradru.8-7. K. :—W. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Ugragandha. high. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Peninsula. Kadukavata. M. young parts brown pubescent. Dondru. sometimes along river banks. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. Sk. Ghats. Garudphala. tomentose. Doti. Bhoswar. S. t. Bhanina. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. flat.. Country and Kanara. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. CHAR.—berry. Sd.—Rubiaceæ. Bandaru. Bhringamallika. bitter. Betaga. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas.) FAM. increases taste and appetite. broadly ovate. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Phaldu. PARTS USED :—Seeds. white. more or less coriaceous. good for the throat. . LOC.

Country. L. thick. See—Timbers. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. :—More or less throughout India.2 -7.8 cm. Nalanibhaji. :—Konkan.—capsule. Kanara. t. COM. t. CHAR. ovoid . USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Kanara.— Nov. M. prostrate. Nadika. M. Ceylon. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda).—1-5 flowered peduncles . Fodder Plants. biliousness. Kantebhovari. Br. M. Fr. Australia. Karmi. The outer layer is tasteless. Krishnasariva. DISTR. trailing on mud or floating. throat and tube dull purple . S.—tube with narrow portion below. L. cures " Kapha ". C. NS. lobes obscure . middle portion much inflated. Shradhashaka. 10-15 cm. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. LOC. . very common in Gujarat. Kalambika. rooting at the nodes . greenish white. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. H. Sk. glabrous above. PARTS USED :—Root. Java. Sd. LOC. Sd. :—Throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. stems long. black with white scanty coma. Pechuli. stalks and leaves. Common in the evergreen forests of N. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests.—5-12. COM. Fl.—4-5-7 X 2-3. Kalaka. aphrodisiac. FAM. Fl. vomiting. CHAR. Karihambu. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. pubescent. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.—in axillary and terminal. trichotomous cymes.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). fever.—Convolvulaceæ. Nalichibhaji. FL. acute. Sariva. Bhadra.—Nov. :—A large twining shrub . " Vata ". elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. numerous . :—Annual or biennial herb. X 4 cm. elliptic oblong. Gorwiballi.—Apocynaceæ. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . Fr. rusty pubescent. Chandangopa. blood diseases. In Indo-China.5x 3. :—H.—follicle.—4 or 2. cylindric . cooling. the powdered wood is used for herpes.. Kalidudhi. FAM. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. C. NS.5 cm. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. Fl. upper constricted.—linear. Potuasaga. very slender. hollow. Siamalata. straight or slightly curved. cordate or hastate.-Apl. K. Sk. Kalaghantika. Gopini.-Dec. base rounded. :—G. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. thirst. Kalmisag.

Flower causes " Vata ". flowers (rarely). biliousness and fevers. leprosy. alterative. NS. bronchitis. 3. America. long. FAM. enclosed in fleshy sepals. deeply palmately divided. stomachic. Bilaikand . USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. Africa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.-July-Sept. H. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. LOC. vomiting. L. Sk. demulcent and lactagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. ovoid. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. " Kapha " . burning sensation. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda).—10-15 cm.8—6. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. glabrous. (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.—Convolvulaceæ. twining. stem long. 4-celled. useful in leucoderma. alterative. gonorrhœa and inflammation. peduncle solitary axillary. Giant potato . tonic. Fl.3 cm. useful in syphilis. See—Gums and Resins. Leaves enrich blood. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. Kanara sea coast. liver complaints. 4-valved.—in. Australia in moist climate. PARTS USED :—Root. to children in case of emaciation. useful in leprosy. Bhunichahragadde. DISTR. Nila-kumbala. galactagogue. improves voice and complexion. CHAR. Fr. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions .—capsule. :—Throughout India. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. . blood diseases. debility and want of digestive power. Bhuikohala. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. appetiser. COM. cures biliousness. Africa and Australia. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. jaundice. Sd. M. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. diuretic. aphrodisiac. biliousness. expectorant. tropical Asia. LOC. galactagogue. leaves. dry. Root—heating. Fl. tropical Asia. stimulant. anthelmintic . Bhumikushmanda.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. root large. useful in fever. Ceylon. In Burma. purple. :— E. LOC. indigestible. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. aphrodisiac. often broader than long. (Ayurveda). ovate-lanceolate. Carminative. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. thick. anthelmintic. :—Perennial. lobes 5-7. long. lessens inflammation. Swadu Vidarikand. also useful in liver complaints. K. entire. carminative. (Yunani). near sea coast. pale. being regarded as tonic. t.

LOC. Undirkani. broad.— yellow.—capsule. Fr.—1. NS. :—Western Peninsula. sparsely hairy. Ceylon. :—An annual herb. filiform. M. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). Vrishchikparni. reniform or ovate-cordate. subglobose or ovoid. carminative. COM. Shyamala-bijak.5 cm. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Mirchai. Indian jalap. LOC. :—Konkan. long tubular funnel-shaped. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative.:—Throughout India. :—A herb . diam. subglobose. The plant contains a glucoside. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu).—Convolvulaceæ. LOC. E. tropical Africa.3-2. Kaladana. blue tinged with pink. stems many.—Convolvulaceæ. dries the phlegm. Country. G. DISTR. K. . FAM. Fl. L.—Sept. Africa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. 3-celled.—capsule. Sd. Fr.-Oct. bracts linear.—3. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Nilvel. leucoderma. Sk. bechic. stems twining. Fl. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. S. diseases of head. L. NS. :—E. Fl. lobes ovate. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. cures inflammations. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. headache. fevers. Kaladanah.-5-12. Sk. Ganribij. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Kalokumpo. surrounded by ciliate sepals. believed to be of American origin. See—Ornamental Plants. crenate. bronchitis (Ayurveda). clothed with long hairs. petioles hairy. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. H. Nilpushpa. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). C. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. M.8-5 cm. abdominal diseases. Undirkani. anthelmintic. CHAR. Purgative. glabrous . Sd.. ovate-cordate.5 cm. pains in joints. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. deeply three-Iobed.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . K. creeping and rooting at the nodes.— 4-6. Morning glory. t. CHAR. DISTR. H. Musekani. Deccan. HABITAT :—Water-logged places.) FAM. in the Himalayas. :—G. scabies and biliousness. axillary. S. useful in liver and spleen diseases. COM.—dark chestnut coloured .

bladder. inflammations. C. useful in loss of consciousness. Malay Islands. uterus. base cordate or truncate . purgative. Rechani. long. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. H.—Convolvulaceæ. good for weakness. pains of chest and joints. Indian rhubarb. Kalaparni. CHAR.—white. paralysis. heart and abdomen. often pinkish. urethral discharges. twining and twisted together. carminative. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). Nishottara.8-5 cm. stems very long. fevers. muscular pains. NS. LOC.—5-10 X 1. fleshy. when used alone . Common in southern Gujarat. anæmia. useful in bilious tremors of body. Root— bitter. much branched. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun).122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. Fl. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic.—in few flowered cymes. L. Br. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. anthelmintic. paralysis. Fl. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). angled and winged. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Root with bark should be used. :— E. inflammations and abdominal diseases . PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. useful in diseases of kidney. cooling. applied in diseases of eye and gums. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. enclosed in enlarged sepals . pungent. acrid. root long. Nashotar. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. laxative. G. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. fistula. tropical Africa and America. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Wild . False-Indian jalap. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. leucoderma. antipyretic. good in pain. useful in spleen enlargement. K. Nishoth. Philippines. bracts large. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. also in the Konkan and N. Black variety should not be used (Yunani).3-7 cm. 3. laxative. FAM. Fr. . Mauritius. useful in bilious fevers. t. globose. Nandi. like others of the genus . sometimes cultivated. Turbith root. Triputi.-Jany. lungs. It is also alterative. Kanaka.. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. burning sensation and intoxication. Trivrit. DISTR. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. Nahatara. M. Sk.—capsule. bechic. LOC. LOC. pedicels thickened upwards. Pithori. rarely slightly lobed. mucronate. Ceylon. ovate or oblong. removes bad humours.—Oct. strangury. wounds. brain diseases. COM. white variety is a mild cathartic. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani).

—tubular. M. COM NS. L. Fl. DISTR. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. Kepala. also along river banks. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. NS. lobes 4 (rarely). Sk. in lax axillary and terminal cymes.—Oleaceæ. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. Fl. Jati. See—Ornamental Plants. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. fleshy. Sk.—ripe carpels 2. distal pair confluent with the terminal. wild.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Chambeli. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. FL—numerous. L. Pankul. petiole and rachis margined. pale when dry. across. :—E. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated . :—A large subscandent shrub. Fr. COM. of stems and roots. purple when ripe. Pendgul. Bakali. often tinged with pink outside. coriaceous.3 cm. :—Cultivated throughout India.2-6. Fl.9 m. imparipinnate.—opposite. oblong. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. leaflets 7-11. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. CHAR. Fr. t. K. Ajjige. M. t. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. 5-10 X 3. stipules with a long rigid point. white. intermediate sessile .—3. Chambali. DISTR. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. 5-12. FAM. sessile. CHAR. stipules . very common in Konkan and N. Bandhuka. Parali.—July-Sept. smooth. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. LOC. Flame of the woods .. C. Guddedasal. proximal petiolulate. very slender . HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. Jai.8 cm. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. size of a pea. tube long.—throughout the year. oblong. Kisukare. :—Western Peninsula.2-6. 3. :—Bombay southwards . :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Anemallige. H. :—E. Jajimalle. high.—globose. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. pale when dry.3 coriaceous. Chambeli. Surabhigandha.. Priyanvada. obtuse. Ceylon.— Rubiaceæ. sessile.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.—opposite. LOC. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. . terminal rather larger. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. obtuse . Raktaka. K. G.

variable in shape. ulcers. flowers and oil. Flowers—tonic. :—E. FAM. ear. Pramodini. leprosy. tonic to brain. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Mogra. Iravantige. soporific.—Oleaceæ. Fl.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Ananga-mallika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. very fragrant. H. Navamallika. LOC. vulnerary. it is used in cases of insanity. K. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. anthelmintic. diseases of mouth. alexiteric. teeth. aphrodisiac. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. LOC. good for pains in joints and ear. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. useful in diseases of eye. :—A sub-erect shrub. cures headache. biliousness (Ayurveda). Chamba. membranous. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. M. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Mogara. Sk. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . Fr. aphthae. useful in stomatitis. Vanchandrika. allays fevers . G. diuretic. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. base rounded or subcordate. mouth and skin.—white. Tuscan jasmine. Leaves are also used in toothache. paralysis. entire.—more or less throughout the year . alexiteric. abundant in April-May. heating. subglobose. The plant contains an alkaloid.—ripe-carpels 1-2. In Goa. COM NS. stomatitis. Banmallika. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. eyes and ear. surrounded by calyx-teeth. emetic. Motia. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). See—Ornamental Plants. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. caries of teeth. LOC. Arabian Lily. suppurative. :—Cultivated throughout India. CHAR. emmenagogue. Root—purgative. rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. otorrhoea. L. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. brain tonic . From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. Mallige. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. head. given in blood diseases. Plant—deobstruent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. black. . See—Ornamental Plants. Flower has bitter taste . softens skin. headache and weak eyes. DISTR. good in asthma. expectorant. intoxicating. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. alexiteric. biliousness. and for scabies (Yunani). fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. Oil—lessens inflammations. t. Sambac. Mogro.—opposite. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Fl. scarcely climbing. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess.

:—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. multifid. :—E. CHAR.— alternate. G. broadly ovate. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. 10-15 X 7. K. FAM.5-12. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. " Tridosha". If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. M. anaemia. H. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. male flowers. Virechani. Jyotishka. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc.—Euphorbiaceæ. Sutashreni.5 mm. biliousness. long. Fl. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. L. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. disk of female flower urceolate. Fr. PARTS USED :—Wood. Fr.5 cm.—in flat-topped cymes. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. . large. thirst. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.5 cm. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). 1. The acrid. 7.. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . Mogali—Ran-erand. K. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. dull brownish black. DISTR. longer than calyx. have suppurative effect. abdominal complaints. cordate. Dundigu. The seeds act as drastic purgative. FAM.—capsule. leaves. LOC. Sk.—Euphorbiaceæ. CHAR:—A handsome. stipules capillary. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Ratanjot.— ovoid. Jangali erandi. coral-red. Simeavadala. across. Akhuparnika. Sd. LOC. COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic.5-12. useful in chronic dysentery. COM. juice sticky opalescent. :—Native of tropical America. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. fistula. urinary discharges. 3-lobed. villous within. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. corolla lobes 5. yellow. black. Coral plant. Bhadradanti. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. long-petioled. Fl. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. subfleshy. fruits and seeds. 7. when applied to boils. L.—monœcious. NS.—orbicular. herpes. Seeds contain active principle curcin. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. Vilayati haralu.—ovoid oblong. diam. Barbados Physic nut. and also promotes healing. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. garden shrub . NS. Jangali—Pahari erand.8 cm.—E. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. Kananerand. French or Small physic nut.

useful in piles. often met with in Bengal. COM. leaves. dyspepsia. Kalmashi. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. in interrupted spikes. Nachukaddi.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. eye diseases (Ayurveda). causes " Kapha ". all over the State. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle .5 cm. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. Sk.5 cm. inflammations. DISTR. NS. COM. Leaves are used in scabies.6-1. . vaginal discharges. high . " Vata ' and "Pitta". In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. aphrodisiac. LOC. Fr. M. NS. wild in Tenasserim. long. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. :—Bomb. America. HABITAT :—Shady positions. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. 5-12. 7. native of N. skin-diseases. clavate glabrous. Nilinirgandi. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. K. Fl. Bhutakeshi.—Ghati pitpapda. LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Karinchki. wounds. bitter. :—A native of China. Karambal. LOC.—capsule. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. Seed— oleaginous. :—H.—Acanthaceæ. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. CHAR.2 m. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania.—white spotted. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). FAM. In Cambodia. Bakas. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. tympanitis. heating. Kala adulsa. Nilmanjari. enlarged spleen. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). hot. branches subterete with raised lines. dry . Shindhuka. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. L. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. purgative. rheumatism and dysentery. fevers. pains. M.5-12. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. purple within. LOC.—Acanthaceæ. FAM. fattening tonic . Krishna-nirgundi.

tube funnel-shaped . upper lip notched. Tubers yield an essential oil. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede).—lobes lanceolate.:—Stemless herb. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Panchgani. LOC. Sugandhavachai. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Kapurkachri.—Oct. Sd. DISTR. :—Konkan. Malaya. :—N.-Mar.—Scitaminaceæ. fragrant. teeth. L. NS.—in cylindric terminal spikes. LOC. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. increases " Vata ". constricted between the seeds . expectorant. softly pubescent. aromatic. stomachic. Sk. PARTS USED :—Tubers.—variable.—2. ovate or lanceolate. pure-white. L. good in leprosy (Ayurveda).5 X 4. Madras State. Kachchura . lying flat on the ground. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it.. Chandramulika. Fl. diuretic. Fl. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. good in spleen diseases.3-12. Maval in the Deccan. FAM. removes indigestion. Fl. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. gives lustre to eyes. burning of body. :— H. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. LOC. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. . root-stock tuberous. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . :—More or less throughout India. Fr. DISTR. vomiting. oblong shortly pointed. fever.—2-lipped. Western Ghats . K. pale violet pink. lower 3-lobed . Chandramala. Konkan. Travancore. stops vomiting. Fl. constipating . USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. t. Australia. thirst.—capsule. urinary discharges. purifies blood in skin diseases. South Konkan. thin. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5-9 cm. oval. Deccan. petioles channelled. 6. enriches blood. t. tired feeling. Plant diuretic.—finely tuberculate. (Yunani). PARTS USED :—The whole plant.— June-July. Kachri. round. Malay Islands. diaphoretic. deep green. M.—612 from the centre of the plant. C. spreading horizontally. fugacious. strengthens lungs. :—Western Peninsula. biliousness. CHAR. P. wandering of mind. elliptic. COM.. obtuse at both ends. intoxication. Cultivated in gardens. Ceylon.

mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . anthers crowded. t.8-5 cm.. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Fr. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. inflorescence of many ovaries.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. .—narrowly oblong. yellow. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. CHAR. Travancore. Bhuichapha.—Scitaminaceæ. N. Ceylon. Bhuichampa . :—M. L. elliptic-oblong.— sweetly fragrant. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. simple. Dudhi. Tumbaka. CHAR. Fl. COM. Fl. used in the form of poultice. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Konkan. semicylindric. oblong.-Apl.5 X 5-12. L. Country. PROPERTIES AND LOC. remedy for itch. G. Bottle-gourd.5 cm.—globose 3. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. H. NS.— inflorescence. of various shades of purple and white. M. Bhuichampo . LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. thick. diam. Nelasampige .. Fl. crowded in a globose bead . :—E.—Aroideæ. coriaceous. t. Coorg. Kadu bhopala. FAM. Danta-bija.5-10 cm. Kanara. female cylindric. petiole as long as blade. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. FAM. spathe 7. rootstock reaching 5 cm.5-23 cm. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Bhuchampaka. margins undulate. tubular below. annulate . NS. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. S. :—Stemless plant.—15-37. Malay Islands. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant.. very poisonous .-Mar. :—Mysore. furrowed. Halagumbala. :— G. Alkaddu. midrib very stout.. COM. LOC. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. Kaddu. M. Tubers yield an essential oil. K. LOC. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. Vatsanabhi. Sk. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. Dudhya bhopala.—Cucurbitaceæ. Katutumbi.. long. Calabash. The whole plant. promotes suppuration. FAM. creeping. DISTR. M. —Feb. NS. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. H. Dudio Tumbada. COM. DISTR. :—An aquatic herb. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. in many cycles. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. entire. Labuka. Cochin. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Lauka.—30X7.

oleaginous. cures asthma. Konkan Ghats. improves taste. Ceylon. USES :— Leaves are purgative. China. wild (rarely). fruits and seeds. fever. Bark and leaves are purgative. in many cases only cultivated. Seeds—good for hot constitution. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. Nirbendeka: M. There are two varieties. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. PARTS-USED :—Root. antipyretic. Sk. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. Arjuna. piles. styptic. anti-periodic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. pains (Ayurveda). Arjuna. alexiteric. Taman.) FAM. Tarul. K. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. vulnerary. ulcers. lessens inflammations. aphrodisiac. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Bandhara. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. seeds are narcotic. earache. LOC. sweet. . Seeds emetic (Yunani). Ornamental Plants. DISTR. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache.—Lythraceæ. muscular pains. bitter variety is diuretic. :—Western Peninsula. inflammations. Challa. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. LOC:—North Kanara and S. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. leaves. dry cough. "Vata". Fruit good in bronchitis. bark. causes bronchitis. bitter. Flowers cooling. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. See—Timbers. wholesome to fœtus. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. cures leucorrhoea. earache. Holematti. cures blood diseases. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . leaves. brain-tonic. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. flatulence. bronchitis. refrigerant and anti-bilious. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. cardiac and general tonic. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. Malaya. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. Assam. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. diuretic. increases "Vata". NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. In the Andamans. :—H. fruits and seeds. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. cause haemoptysis. scalding of urine. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. See—Vegetables. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. laxative. emetic. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. DISTR. COM. fattening. flowers. anti-bilious. LOC. LOC.

Fl. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. (B. Khesari. Wooly-headed gnidia. L. Nakharanjaka. Henna plant. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.—Thymelaeaceæ. improves taste.—opposite or scattered. Lang. NS. :—E. Gorantha. enclosed in the perianth . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. oblong lanceolate. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. G. dense terminal heads 2. Tree mignonette.—in erect. M. Belgaum hills . CHAR. Ragangi. Kukurgal. N. cooling. M. common on the Supa Ghats. Deccan hills. swellings etc. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). (Ayurveda). Basu). The bark is used to poison fish.. pointed. Medi. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. :—A much branched large shrub. Rami. subsessile. causes much flatulence. Fr. COM. COM. Sk.5 cm. Yavaneshta.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. FAM. silky beneath. :—Konkan southwards. Triputi. Peninsula—Ceylon. Kassar. burning. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.. Chickling—White vetch. DISTR. Mendi.—Dec-May. glabrous above. FAM. FAM. but dangerous cathartic.—Lythraceæ. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. 5-7. Medika.5 X 2-2. common at Mahabaleshwar. :—W. yellow. bark mottled. H. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. t. D.5-3. Mehndi.—ellipsoid-oblong. Grains contain vitamin A. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. K. NS. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Mukute. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Country. tonic. :—E.8 cm. S. diam. . K. piles and wandering of the mind. lameness. lobes 4. Sandika. Kanara. Latri. HABITAT :—Cultivated. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . :—E. See—Food Plants. inflammation. perianth-tube densely silky villous . Lakh. pain. NS. heart-troubles. M. M. G. oblong flat. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. DISTR. Madaranga. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. Rametha. COM. LOC.

LOC. Leaves—bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. seeds. Belgaum and Poona districts.—Apl-July. Flowers are refrigerant. pyramidal and panicled cymes. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. amenorrhœa. Masura. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. DISTR. Europe and in temperate W. allay burning sensation. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. many. Fr. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. truncate.—capsule. skin diseases . fragrant. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. lumbago. Lentil. wild in Arabia.). cure leucoderma. veined outside.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Asia. ulcers. syphilitic sores. white or rose coloured . diseases of spleen. M.—opposite. NS. Sd. L. globose. E. LOC. Ragadali. diuretic. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves. See—Dyes.—angular. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. cure strangury tumours. COM. bronchitis. in diseases of heart and of . The oil and essence keep the body cool. finger nails and hair. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Chanangi. scabies. :—Grown in Nasik. diuretic. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. Fl. & Gib. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. Massur. ophthalmia. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. Gurubija. enriches blood. :—E. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. t. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice.—in terminal. PROPERTIES. vulnerary. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. boils. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. Gabholika. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. Fl. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . mucronate. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. Sura. Masur. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. K. H. cure insanity (Ayurveda). lateral branches 4-gonous. stomatitis. Iran and Baluchistan. indigenous in S. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). expectorant. Masur. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. Masuridal. LOC. often ending in spinous point. dysentery. G. useful. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". useful in headache. planted as hedge. supported by persistent calyx.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Ceylon. improve appetite. Sk. favours hair-growth. flowers. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. The plant contains a glucoside. DISTR. HABITAT:—Cultivated.

They are mucilaginous and laxative. aphrodisiac. Hurfi. leaves and seeds. LOC. useful in diseases of chest. CHAR. stomatitis . good in inflammations. Ahaliva. Chandrashura.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). FAM. Kurutige. Suvasura. Chavnsar. K. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. bronchitis. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . . Raktabija. often with linear segments . improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). aperient. :—An erect glabrous annual. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Asia. tonic. Asahio. galactagogue. C—petals 2-4 or 0. LOC. Fl. the lower petiolate. Chandrika. bitter. PARTS USED :—Root. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Sk. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma.—Cruciferæ. tonic. G. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. L. Leaves are used as pot-herb. blood and skin diseases. H. chest complaints. The covering is styptic and astringent. Seeds contain fatty oil.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. Halim. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Garden cress . NS. Fr. aphrodisiac . LOC. bronchitis. See—Vegetables. affections of spleen. good for pain in abdomen. :—Cultivated throughout India. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Hot and dry. and muscular pains. Allibija. Grains contain vitamins A and B. rheumatism. enrich blood. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). very likely indigenous in W. M. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. :—E. bechic. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Seeds—indigestible. cures dysentery . laxative. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. constipating. white. eye diseases (Ayurveda). They contain vitamin B.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. See-Food Plants. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. COM.—small. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Halim . diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. upper sessile. diuretic. tumours and injuries. Ashalika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.

H.5 mm.—crowded at the ends of branches. Fr. gouty and rheumatic swellings. See—Oils. Alasi. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Fibres. M. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark. galactagogue. boils. yellowish. Medini. t. LOC. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. COM. Linseed. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Roasted seeds are astringent. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. black. remove biliousness. diam. Kanara. Maidelakri. COM. Common tallow laurel. "Pitta". elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. colds and throat complaints. Alshi. Javas . Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. seeds and oil.— globose. flowers. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. causes loss of appetite. dysentery. Maidalakadi. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. . Fl. good for cough and kidney troubles. H. aphrodisiac. Tailottama. 7. native country probably Egypt. Sk. base narrowed. FAM. Malina. Haimwati. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. heal ulcers.—Linaceæ. back-ache. LOC. supported by the thickened pedicel. Madagandha. aphrodisiac . urinary discharges . hot. bronchitis. usually alternate. M. lenticellate. Tisi. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. diuretic.:—A small evergreen tree. :—E. used in consumption. branchlets densely tomentose.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. remove "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. glossy dark-green above. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Sk.. CHAR. urinary complaints. inflammations. Alashi. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). 8-12 together in heads. perianth lobes wanting. L. DISTR. M. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. lead to impotency. Fl. Alsi. Country. bark somewhat corky. tonic. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Alsi. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. cure leprosy. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. G. burnt bark styptic and healing. Jivanika. Seeds—mucilaginous. bad for eyesight. pale beneath. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. NS. "Kapha". FAM. Common flax.—May-July. :—Cultivated throughout India. hard to digest. Garbijaur.:—E.—Lauraceæ. Sedhavi. K. Seeds contain vitamin A. leaves.. emmenagogue. Alashi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn.

Sthulanala. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. FAM. Ceylon. COM.—. "vata". H. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . K. long. white. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Jalini. branched upwards. PARTS USED :—Root. K. lanceolate. burning sensation. tonic. very small. hollow. overheated brains. Wild tobacco. spleen diseases. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. yellowish brown . G. heating. C—2-lipped. :—Konkan. lower much longer. L. cure cough. M. Fl. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. aphrodisiac. Deccan and S. Ghontali.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. :—E. Devnal. LOC. diseases of blood. Dhamana. M. acrid. Narttaka. 1. FAM. Ridge gourd. subglobose. M. NS. bitter. diuretic. COM. Sk. much curved. Kalahogesoppu. AMARA Clarke. midrib white. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Kandele. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. many. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. Australia. Katukoshataki.5-3. leaves. Ranturai. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. Country. LOC. Fr. Narsala. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. useful in biliousness. light green. uterus. Divali. strangury. Root—astringent. expectorant. lobes linear. Kadudodka. 3 usually connate throughout .—Cucurbitaceæ. . fruits and seeds.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—E. Nal.—numerous. opening by 2 valves. heart. Malay Islands. aphrodisiac. LOC. It acts as anodyne. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . fever. Karvituri. pains in joints. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. G. paralysis. NS. burning sensation. finely serrulate. bronchitis. thirst.—Nov.—capsule. leprosy (Ayurveda). CHAR. useful in inflammations. t. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . long.100 m. vagina. Leaves are mucilaginous. erysipelas (Ayurveda). all oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. nearly sessile. H. bark. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice.9 cm. Nali. galactagogue. Devanala. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. 2. throat troubles. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Bibhishana. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). aphrodisiac. consumption. high. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.2-3 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. DISTR.—Lobeliaceæ. stem stout. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". Sd. biliousness. Jhinga. Mrityupushpa. SK. Dhaval.-Mar. stomachic.—alternate. Kahire.

tuberculous glands.—Sept. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. digestible. alexiteric. :—E. Mahula. Mahua. Moha. inflammations. Mahuda. LOC. asthma. M. biliousness. uterine and vaginal tumours . Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. fruit and seeds. Mowa. piles. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. cures urinary discharges. jaundice. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). PARTS USED :—Leaves. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils.8 cm. carminative. at length scabrid. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Sk. thrives in Deccan trap. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis.—Sapotaceæ. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. Madhusrava. Madhya Pradesh. Fl. 5-7 lobed. bitter. cathartic. laxative..) FAM. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. tendrils usually 3-fid. bronchitis. obtusely conical at both ends.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. anæmia. Kanara (rare) .—monœcious. tonic to intestines. 10-ribbed. 5-10 cm. Mahura. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. leaves. COM. . The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. thick. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. acrid. Bengal to the W. Madhuka. pale green. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). cures "Vata". H. W. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). Mhowra. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). at first whitish and softly villous. Doddippa. hydrogogue. G. Ceylon. Mowda. cough. leucoderma. asthma.—petals yellow with green veins . bitter.:—A large climber.53.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. :—Plant is bitter. ascites. LOC. palmate. t. DISTR. tumours. Burma. also in Konkan and N. NS.—obovoid. Fr. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. "Kapha". piles. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. liver complaints. :—Throughout India. Fruit cures fever. diuretic. stems 5-angled. Pokka. recommended in splenic enlargement. PARTS USED :—Bark. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Mahua tree. especially in western Peninsula. Butter tree. K. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. C. LOC. L. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Gudapushpa. long and about 2. females. flowers and fruits. USES. Fl. Hunage. DISTR. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. base cordate. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. tonic and diuretic. Root-bark is abortifacient.—small. solitary in the same axil as males. useful in rat-bite.

Oils. K. Sk. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Hullichillu. Ippe. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Western peninsula. PARTS USED :—Bark. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Famine Plants. used in fractures.. Sk. thirst. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Moha. heals wounds .) FAM. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). H. expectorant. Flower—sweet. :—Konkan. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. fixed oil and a spirit. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. aphrodisiac. and Upper Burma. and Kanara. Mohache jhad. Flowers—oleaginous. DISTR. G. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. good in heart diseases. astringent. carminative. M. galactagogue. flowers act as a mild purgative. FAM. There is a trace of alkaloid. India . Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Kesarimavu. Movanuhjad. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Ceylon.—Euphorbiaceæ. G. fatigue . Karnatic. Kapila. COM. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. cures biliousness. :—-E. LOC. . Madhuka. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. fattening. NS. M. Mysore. COM. flowers and oil. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Kamala. tonic. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Shendri. Movaro. NS. Liquors. bronchitis. cooling. Kambhal Raini. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Oil—emollient (Yunani). K. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic.—Sapotaceæ. cures blood diseases. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. H. and appetiser (Sushruta). See—Timbers. often planted. LOC.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Mahuda. Mohwa. and also a remedy for itch. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. Kapilo. Mehua. anthelmintic. Huli. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Honey tree. leprosy. consumption. See—Timbers. burning sensation. yields two important products. Kapila. tonic and nutritive. :—E. ulcers. Fruit-tonic . Mahuva of S. Monkey-face tree. Kampillaka. aphrodisiac. causes "Kapha". USES :—Astringent and emollient. Oils.

LOC. fruits and seeds. bronchitis. throat troubles. Bihar. thirst. FAM. Introduced. urinary discharges. wild and cultivated. :—E. liver pain. M. cause flatulence and constipation. it exudes a pink coloured gum. cooling. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. :—-Throughout the State. beautifies complexion. useful in bronchitis. Ambo. Mavu. Am. LOC. G. removes bad smell from mouth. Cuckoo's Joy. tonic. astringent to bowels. Bhutan. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. diseases of abdomen. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. good in dysentery. Kamarasa. a good collyrium (Yunani). Seeds-astringent to bowels. LOC. useful in skin-diseases. DISTR. "Pitta". hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. aphrodisiac. lessen intestinal pains. "Kapha". Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. liver. Dyes. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Sahakara. tumours. stone in bladder. wounds. :—Throughout tropical India. laxative. piles. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. stomachic. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). purgative. maturant. alexiteric. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. cure "Vata". Rasala. Amba. diuretic. ulcers. tonic to body. PARTS USED :—Root. cultivated throughout the State. cure leucorrhoea. Australia. H. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). :—Tropical Himalayas. vermifuge and. Mavin-mara. dispels langour and burning of body. Sind. enriches blood. appetiser. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. Astringent. biliousness. carminative. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Gum . Fruit—heating. heals ulcers. anthelmintic. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. sweet. improves cough. good in cough. Ghats and the Satpudas. Amra. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. bad blood. purgative. dysentery. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). anthelmintic. Kanara. Mango tree. styptic. Sk.—Anacardiaceæ. leaves. styptic. vaginal troubles. fruits and seeds. spleen. Amri. improves complexion. chronic dysentery and gleet. Sikkim. NS. used in chronic diarrhœa. Chuta. vomiting. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). improve taste and appetite. flowers. DISTR. K. Burma. aphrodisiac. sour. vulnerary. China. COM. Ceylon. clears brain. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. See—Timbers. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. leaves. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. Malay Islands. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. good in heart trouble.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. cooling. Khasia Hills. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. detergent. in "Tridosh".

overlapping to the right.—Apl. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Juss. margined. Bevu. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. piles.3-15 X 4. green or yellowish green. cooling.—many. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Sk. Assam. all plains districts of Madras State.—rotate with broad lobes. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Juice of kernel. Fruit Trees.) FAM. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Nim or Margosa tree. :—-E. K. LOC.—6.—Meliaceæ. burning sensation. if snuffed. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Nakchhikni. Nim. fleshy. Kharkhodi. antipyretic. It is also anthelmintic. H. Madhumalati. DISTR. :—Deccan and S. 7. Ceylon. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. C. useful in bleeding piles. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. stops nasal bleeding. Hari.5-10 cm. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. See—Timbers. tumours. COM. :—A large twining shrub. Paribhadraka. Limbra. Sk. inflammations. Fl. leucoderma. M. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Kadulimb. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. urinary discharges. Sd. Khandodi.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. CHAR.5-11. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Dugdhike .:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. coma copious . Nimla.5 cm. Nimba. H. good for dyspepsia. NS. Ambri. cures "Vata".—follicles. useful in diseases of eye. K. asthma. Nimba. rugosely striate. pale yellowish brown. . biliousness. Harandori.) FAM. with lenticels and black dots. long. NS. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Java. astringent to bowels. Hemajyoti-valli. Fl.—broadly ovate. :—G. M. Ripe fruit is laxative. Limbada. LOC. rat-bite (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet.. Nimbaka. older branches ash coloured. Dodi. corona lobes large. few glands above the petiole cordate . :—Bengal. alexiteric. Country. COM. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Suparnika. USES. t. Balant nimba.—Asclepiadaceæ. Fr. L. flattened. G. M.

Vanmethika. resolvant. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. fatigue. LOC. stimulant and stomachic. and loss of appetite. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. thirst. boils. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. chronic leprosy. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. The flowers are stimulant. tonic. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). M. aphrodisiac. Tonic. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. insecticidal. useful in syphilitic sores. biliousness. expectorant. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. tumours. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. antiperiodic. Ranmethi. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. flowers. valuable in consumption. lumbago. swollen glands." vomiting.. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary discharges. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. cures ulcers and inflammations . stomachic. Banmethi. "pittadosh. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. toothache. skin diseases. DISTR. blood complaints. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. general debility. alexiteric. lessens inflammation. fever. bad taste in the mouth. refrigerant. cough. piles. asthma. astringent. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. carminative. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. tonic and antiperiodic. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. Small melilot. piles. maturant. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. . leprosy. burning sensation near heart. rheumatism . leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. convalescence. sprains. good for leprosy. Oils. fruits and seeds. NS. earache. anthelmintic. Burma. maturant. it is a general vermifuge. See—Timbers. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . for unhealthy ulcers. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). pectoral. FAM. Sk. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. bruises. bark. relieves "Kapha". useful in consumption (Ayurveda). :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. H. LOC. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. leaves. good in ophthalmia. :—E. common in the Deccan and Karnatak.

DISTR. given as a gruel (Murray). COM. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. tapering at both ends. male fascicled on short peduncles. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . Corn-March mint. Agamaki. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. K. ellipsoid.—variable in size.—3-foliate. Assam.—size of a pea. 30-45 cm. "Sikkim. base cordate. glabrous or slightly hairy. :—H. glabrous. Pudina. FAM. finally red. Europe. truncate at the apex..—small. poultice or plaster for swellings. CHAR. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. :—E. leaves and seeds. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. of terminal rather long. Ghugri. LOC. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Fr. Fl.—one. especially in strained back. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. Fl. lobes dentate or serrate . very hispid . MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. standard exceeding the wings and keel. Country and Gujarat. Iran. tendrils simple. H. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. :—Western Peninsula. :—Common in Deccan. leaflets toothed. also in S. NS. north Bengal. LOC. Chatinmaragu. Malaya and Africa. L.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. rounded. Bilari. brown. Fr. COM. females sessile. :—India (tropical zone). :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. deltoid-ovate entire. in spicate close racemes. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. PROPERTIES AND LOC. C. t. Externally used as a fomentation. introduced into many other regions. at first green and variegated with yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. M. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed.—pod. stem angular. FAM. high. oblong-ellipsoid. M. oblanceolate. Pudina. Sd. S. M. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda).—monœcious .—Cucurbitaceæ. Pudinah. scabrid.—Labiatæ. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. DISTR. It has expectorant properties to some extent. young parts white-hairy. . Fl. L. slightly echinulate. NS. HABITAT :—In hedges. G. Afghanistan.— Jany. Khasia. :—An erect annual herb.—pale yellow.

Kanara. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. Carminative. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. binding. lilac. Oils. blood and heart troubles. MESUA FERREA Linn. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Europe. asthma.—Guttiferæ.—nutlets dry. thirst. Suvarna. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Country. pains in joints (Ayurveda). good for fevers. stalked. Nagkesara. . M. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). sorethroat. :—E. Gums and Resins. small tumours. and stimulant. lanceolate. stem short. NS. diuretic. Travancore. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. See—Timbers. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. lined with hairs and hairy outside. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nagakeshara. LOC. M. Naghas. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. FAM. infusion is given in fevers. LOC. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. USES :—Root. Nagchapha. toothed. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S.—in axillary distant whorls. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). used for cough. Assam Iron-wood. Nagkesara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. LOC. :—E. Andamans. digestive. Konkan and N. COM. Nagkinjalka. sweats. C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Fr. The plant is used in chutneys. hairy. In N.-narrowed below. Assam. Kashmir. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Sk. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. expectorant. dry. headache. China. skin diseases. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. K. emmenagogue. Burma Tenasserim. good in asthma and sweats. Fl. DISTR. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. vomiting. North and West Asia. cough. smooth. indigestion and cephalagia. E. :—A perennial erect herb . Himalayas. alexipharmic. flowers and fruits. the upper similar and large. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. cardiotonic. S. biliousness. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. :—Western Himalayas. ovate. useful in liver and spleen diseases. foul breath. none at the top.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Ceylon. Bengal. oblong. Nagsampige. Ceylon Iron-wood. DISTR. H. leaves. hiccup. tonic to kidneys .

clothed with glandular hairs . Lajalu. Lajjavati. DISTR. Sk. Burma. Sonchampo. K. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. COM. facilitates micturition. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Sankochini. Sampige. PARTS USED :—Root. 57.-Oct. Lajja. . flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. leaves. remove biliousness. Risemani.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn.—Sept. :—E. acrid. India. petioles hairy. :—E. Kanara. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Champaka. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence.—bipin-nate. CHAR. Fl. nausea and fevers . See—Timbers.—4-merous.. Sparshalajja. Flowers-stomachic. Yellow champa . FAM. Champa. Champo. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. :—Cultivated all over the State. Fruit. sensative. rachis bristly. Yunnan. gout. flowers and fruits. Assam. bark.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Lajari. slightly recurved. "Kapha". leaflets 15-20 pairs. diuretic. G. stems and branches sparingly prickly. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. L. Lajalu. H. bile.-pod flat. t. rheumatism. S. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Champaka. hairy beneath. Flowers— expectorant. Dyes. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. stimulant. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Surabhi. Muthmurika. NS. high. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . long. aphrodisiac. G. Fl. cultivated. Champaka. near temples and in gardens. in globose heads. Sone-chapha. ophthalmia. "Vata". useful in cough. good in leprosy.—Magnoliaceæ. Golden champa. Nachike-gidda. LOC. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. Lajalu. blood affections. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. pinnae 1-2 pairs. COM. M. pink. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Pivala chapha. FAM. Fr. 45-90 cm. Hem-pushpa. Sensitive plant. glabrous above. Pilochampo. LOC. K. Humble plant. rheumatism. Sk. diaphoretic. IndoChina. in vertigo. :—A diffuse under-shrub. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Ghats. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Lajjika. also used as purgative. Suvarna champaka. diuretic. Raktamula.5 cm. W. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. M.. H. evergreen rain-forest of N. Vanamallika. destroys poisons. NS. digitate. removes worms. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda).

Mukul. Seeds fix loose teeth. smallpox (Yunani). Baphuli. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Flowers give taste. liver complaints. DISTR. cultivated in the tropics. piles. sweet. vulnerary. vaginal and uterine complaints. fatigue. Anangaka. Mulsari. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. probably a native of tropical America. Bolsari. Fruit causes flatulence. cures biliousness. leprosy. acrid. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Bakula. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. anthelmintic.—Sapotaceæ. oleaginous. Malaya. Ceylon. Mugule. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. astringent to bowels. cooling. LOC. It is also resolvent and alterative. teeth and gum diseases. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. DISTR. cultivated in gardens in pots. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Kalhala. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. ulcers. In Brazil root is used as emetic. alterative. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. headache. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bakul. jaundice. COM. biliousness. alexipharmic. Bark cardiotonic. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Kanara and Konkan. Varsuli. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Ranjal. Flowers—expectorant. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. stomachic. H. Kanara. nose diseases. Root is resolvent. asthma. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. cure biliousness. cure blood diseases. leucoderma. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. alexipharmic. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. See—Ornamental Plants. bilious fevers. burning sensation. cures "Kapha". flowers. LOC. often planted in gardens. Bakul. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). leprosy. Vovali. NS. M. fruits and seeds. cooling. bark. dysentery. Juice is applied externally. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). useful in blood and bile diseases. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. Borsalli. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests.:—Western Peninsula. good for gonorrhœa. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Bakul. Sk. flowers and fruits acrid. :—Naturalised throughout India. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Root. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Sharadika. LOC. in piles and fistula.

M. high with large perennial tuberous roots. COM. cordate.—Cucurbitaceæ. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. See—Ornamental Plants. L. Marvel of Peru.—Nyctaginaceæ. Karela. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. FAM. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. HABITAT -Cultivated. each one surrounded by an involucre. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Krishnakali. Guleaabbas . :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Karela. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. It is also tonic and febrifuge. K. Hagala. Karli. Karelo. :—Grown throughout India.—large. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. blackish. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. and rather fleshy stems . Fr. LOC. G. Four o'clock plant. good for syphilitic sores. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. K. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. DISTR. Fruit Trees. M. Karavalli. LOC. Oils. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. :—E. Kandura. Leaves are maturant. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. H. often ribbed or rugose.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal.—continually in bloom. Kareli. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. COM. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . Hagalkai. lessen inflammations (Yunani). See—Timbers. yellow.—E. brightly coloured (dark crimson. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Sk. 30-75 cm. native of tropical America. Gulbasa . Carella fruit. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. . NS.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. :—A herbaceous plant.—membranous. FAM. it is applied to relieve headache. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Sk. Karala. NS. H. CHAR. Fl. Fl. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible.

It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. hiccup. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. laxative and authelmintic. and externally in ague as an absorbent. Fruit is tonic. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. urinary calculi. anthelmintic. LOC. excessive salivation. LOC. used in syphilis. urinary discharges. Plant cures diseases of blood. piles. stomachic. Malaya. B and C. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. etc. leaves and fruit. See—Vegetables. ulcers. anthelmintic. burns.'. FAM. also in Malaya. carminative. bronchitis. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. eye and heart. Kanta. LOC. hearttroubles. Fruit—very bitter. anthelmintic. cure "Vata". urinary discharges. antibilious. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. Karkotaki. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. :—Cultivated throughout India. K. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. rheumatism. antipyretic. digestible. Nagarali. Gid-hagalu. M. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. Kantolan. Beksa. H. Leaves act as galactagogue. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. COM. jaundice etc. and America. Ceylon. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. asthma. boils. Vishakankini. DISTR. cure "Tridosh". stomachic. all kinds of poisoning. :—G. stomachic. . laxative.—Cucurbitaceæ. aphrodisiac. Vandhya. Fruit— bitter. tonic. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. lessens expectoration . "Kapha". Kartoli. Kantoli. M. appetiser. China. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). hot alexiteric. leaves and fruit. :—Throughout India. S. Fruits contain vitamins A. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. fever consumption. Karehiballi. Golkandra. PARTS USED :—Root. tumours. diseases of spleen and liver. Sk. It is useful in gout. piles. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. NS. Leaves—aphrodisiac. asthma. longpepper. laxative. Country and Gujarat. cooling. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. tropical Africa. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. rheumatism. blood diseases. anæmia. cures biliousness. sparingly in Konkan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. erysipelas (Ayurveda). rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Fruit—bitter. leprosy.

Famine Plants. FAM. Mochaka. improves appetite. also wild. Burma. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. stuttering. Munigha. K. emmenagogue. China. ulcers. COM. tumours. earache. Sk. inflammations. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated . analgesic. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. "Kapha". leaves and fruits. astringent to bowels. Rochana. See—Dyes. Aal. useful in heart-complaints. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . internally they are tonic and febrifuge. Murangi. LOC. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. DISTR. makes blood impure . dyspepsia. NS. anthelmintic.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Ab. Haladipavate. Achchuka. DISTR. Bartondi. FAM. NS.—Moringaceæ. causes burning sensation. biliousness . The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Nuggi. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. PARTS USED :—Root. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. bark. Sk. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. also in the Oudh forests. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Mochaka. Saraoji. Segua.—Rubiaceæ. all "tridosha" fevers. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. removes all kinds of pains. Formosa. flowers. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Ashyuka. . Ainshi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. aphrodisiac. Introduced var. H. Al. M. Tagase . "Vata". Seglo. Mulgule. cultivated throughout India and Burma. tuberculous glands in neck. See—Vegetables. G. fruits and seeds. fattening. Guggala. Shevaga. Ak. Sajina. Indian horse radish . Drum-stick Tree. alexiteric. eye diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. leaves. G. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. H. Achi. K. digestible. spleen enlargement. :—E. Indian mulberry. LOC. Sargavo. Ugra. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. M. Tikshnamula.

HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. good for brain. expectorant. Tuta. NS. rheumatism. Madhu pippali. sour. Tutri. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Root is purgative. diuretic. LOC. fattening. Ambat. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. expectorant. LOC. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. enriches blood. Sk. cures gleet. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. lumbago. stomatitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. FAM. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. loss of appetite. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Kanara. lumbago. K. good for inflammations of throat and chest. sweetish. MORUS INDICA Linn. increases biliousness. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. bronchitis. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Kambali. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. See—Fruit Trees. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. White mulberry. epilepsy and hysteria. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. The plant contains an alkaloid. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Oils. See—Vegetables. Tut. leaves and fruit. anthelmintic. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. G. urinary discharges. piles. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. Fruits contain vitamins A. obstinate asthma. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. salt and pepper. common about villages in N. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. gout. Peninsula. with garlic. it is cooling laxative. aphrodisiac. COM. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". enriches blood. Siahtut. Shetur. turmeric. Gums and Resins. heart. laxative. useful in small-pox. :—E. cooling. Tut. . Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. Karihannu. aromatic and acid flavour. Leaf paste. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). Tuda. M. ulcerated intestines. wounds. bark.—Moraceæ. Fibres. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. Fruit—tonic. diuretic. B and C. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. spleen. diarrhœa. burning sensation (Ayurveda). H. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. carminative. appetiser. enlarged spleen or liver. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup.

—Oct-Nov. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated.5x1. turgid-shaped. which produce intensa irritation of skin. t. :—Punjab plains. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. :—E. Kapikachu. dark-purple.—Scitaminaceæ. silky. 5-7. Turashi. tonic. NS.—pod. Kivanchha. cultivated. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda).. Kivanch. Seeds— alexipharmic. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Several forms are cultivated in Western India. L. juice given for headache. Vanari. Maoz kela. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Havanch. petioles 6. COM. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. NS. Hasaguni.—3-foliate. Banana. Ceylon.. Cowhage. Plantain.—in drooping racemes. Kadvare. leaflets membranous. flowers and fruit. LOC. COM. Goncha. grey-silky beneath. Kela. Kunth. DISTR. stem. Sd. Fl. sometimes cultivated. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. lateral very unequal sided. improves blood. common in hedges.2 cm. laxative. Kela. terminal smaller. cures blood diseases. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. They are used as anthelmintic. Dirghapatra. Strong root infusion. Kavatch. Kela. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash.3-11. Var. . CHAR. Sk. DISTR. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Fr. Fruit— aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. :—An annual twiner. Sk. biliousness . M. Kadali. Kavach.—5-6 small. H. with honey is given in cholera.) FAM. LOC. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Bale. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. H. FAM. Tikshna. :—E. " Vata ". Urustambha. Adam's Fig. G. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. tonic. Rambha.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. PARTS USED :—Root. consumption. Nayi songuballi. spermatorrhoea etc. K.3 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 6-30 flowered. Fl. G. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. HABITAT :—Humid areas . PARTS USED :—Root. K. LOC. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. long. leaves. Kuhili. pods and seeds. Himalaya up to 1200 m. M. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Atmagupta. MUSA PARADISIACA L. SAPIENTUM O. Root—emmenagogue. HABITAT :—In hedges.

leprosy. Burnt stem is vulnerary. Sk. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Serwadh. Tropical Himalayas. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. :—H.--in terminal cymes. indigestible . kidney troubles (Yunani). blood diseases. diseases of uterus and vagina. in thirst. menstrual disorders. Fl. subglobose. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. Bhutakes. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. appetiser.— July-Oct. Andamans.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. COM. Bellotti. dyspepsia. Shrivalli. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. useful in "Kapha". Ipparati. increases appetite. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. NS. tube slender. tonic. flowers and fruit. stipules twin. sore-throat. :—S. very hairy outside.— berry. LOC. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. Fl. hairy. B and C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. leaves. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. thickens blood. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. astringent to bowels. PARTS USES :—Root. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. antidysenteric.—Rubiaceæ. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. broadly elliptic. ear-pain. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. Nagavalli. tonic. LOC. lobes broadly ovate. L.. t. broad at base. Fr. Bedina. Root-juice. astringent to bowels. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . anthelmintic. strangury. See—Fruit Trees. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. pubescent. C. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . good for dry bronchitis.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Kanara. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Fruit—sweet. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. consumption and bronchitis. deep golden yellow. aphrodisiac. Hastygida. M. Lawsat. biliousness. DISTR. CHAR. :—A rambling shrub. :—Konkan and N. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Root-juice is anthelmintic. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. aphrodisiac. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. diabetes. Fibres. and are used in acidity. buds densely hairy. in " Vata". K. causes bronchitis . Assam. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes.—tubular. heart-burn and colic. urinary discharges. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. FAM. . linear. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia.

Kaiphal. diuretic.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. K. False nutmeg. black when ripe. :—Western Peninsula. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. FAM. ovate to lanceolate. Fr. L. NS. allaying pain.—small. COM. fruits and oil. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. Galen and the Arabian writers. :—A shrub. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. DISTR. COM. especially epilepsy. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. Kanara Ghats . M. M. small. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates.— solitary. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. W.—berry. cures headache. promotes growth of hair. PARTS USED:—Seeds. all over the State. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. emmenagogue. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. CHAR. very sweet smelling. Ram-patri. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. :—Konkan and N. Kanage. Pliny. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Dioscorides.—Myrtaceæ. LOC. Malabar. It is credited with opposite qualities. Habules. common in the Kumta taluka. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Malati. intermittent fevers and dropsy. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. FAM. smoke beneficial to piles. :— E. It is used as a substitute for true mace. applied locally to relieve pain. LOC. Vilayantimendhi. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children.— Myristicaceæ. Condiments and Spices. DISTR. LOC. axillary on slender peduncles. :—E. Kamuka. as . Murad. Malati. Myrtle. is regarded as. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. enriches blood. white. See—Timbers. Himalayas. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. Fl. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. NS. ellipsoid. H. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). They are given in asthma. A decoction is employed. used in stopping vomiting.

free. H. K. hæmorrhage. Papra-vel. petiole winged. Padam. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Kamal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla.—white. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. CHAR.. See—Ornamental Plants. Kandabahula. Kandalu. anthers with clavate appendages. with slender. white or rosy. Goanese ipecacuanha.—alternate. dysentery.—membranous. elliptic. solitary or 2 together. rough with distant prickles . entire. :—E. 0. Aravinda.—capsule. torus 18 mm. LOC. . stem. Fl. Fr.—solitary.3-0. Suriyakamal. :—E. Tavari-bija or gadde. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Kamala. Pankaja. Fl.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. 10-25 cm. t. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. & A. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Fl. peltate. axillary. Chinese water-lily. Kamal. top flat. LOC. Belakanji. curved. Amlavalli. NS. ulcers (Ayurveda). long. Padma. petals 5. cures asthma. petioles very long. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. K. Fl. COM.—Nymphæaceæ. Nelanaringa . L. L.-Dec. bronchitis. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. M.—pendulous. Sarasija. Ambuj.) FAM. :—A large aquatic herb. leaves. :—Konkan. FAM. t. concave or cupped. Timpani. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. vulnerary. Kamal. Indian sacred lotus. M. G.—Meliaceæ. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. CHAR. fleshy. from Iran eastwards to Australia. C.5 cm. Ambuja. disk annular. :—W.—petals many 5-12. Pitmari. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. NS. radiately nerved. :—A small branching undershrub. erect. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. Pundarika.—July. ovoidglobose. orbicular. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. DISTR. ovoid. linear spathulate. Sk. spongy. high. Sd. glabrous.6 m. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. LOC. Kapurbhendi. DISTR. cells 2-seeded. muricate.-Nov. Sk. elongate. 3-foliate. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas.. Kanara. in diam. 3-valved. alexiteric. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. Ripe carpels. diam.

Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. :—E. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Sweet scented oleander. long. Waziristan. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . at length separating. Fl. Kanher. ulcers and sores of mouth. strangury. astringent to taste . good in throat-troubles. rose or white. spermatorrhoea. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". Kanel. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. inflammations and poisoning. aphrodisiac. Fl. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter.—in threes. chest-pains. lobes rounded. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . fever. H. Karvira. also cholera.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Kaner. diuretic. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). LOC. throat scaly. heart and brain tonic . gives tone to breast. Kanagile. .—funnel-shaped. cures cough. M. honey. Upper Gangetic Plains. See—Ornamental Plants. flowers. FAM. LOC.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. fruit. Sk. in fever and liverdiseases. rigid. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. Sind. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. India. :—Madhya Bharat. Vishavrikshanka. C. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Kaner. useful in fevers . Salt Range. Karvira. tapering into short petiole. fragrant. Cool. menorrhagia. L. Baluchistan. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root.—follicles. also recommended as cardiac tonic. planted in gardens throughout the State. diseases of skin and eye . small-pox. removes worms. dark green and shining above.—red. Paddali. COM. G. S. DISTR. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. leaves. 15-23 cm. also as a hedge plant. CHAR. K. leaves. allays thirst. Cool. Fr. good in blood-complaints. biliousness. flowers. Karber. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . 10-15 cm. vomiting. Pratihasa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. t. stem. In China and Malaya dried red petals. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. NS.—Apocynaceæ. Ashwa-marak. useful in burning sensation of the body. coriaceous. useful in piles. leucoderma. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . long. Filaments are astringent and cooling. allays thirst. slightly bitter. linear-lanceolate. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. improves watery eyes (Yunani). seeds. NERIUM ODORUM Soland.

black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). scabies. headache. :—E. Hoge soppu. Tamaku. useful in bronchitis. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. CHAR. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Tamakhu. conical.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). G. Bujjarbhang. H. disinfectant. carminative. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. nervous depression and sleeplessness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. are poisonous and are used externally.—alternate. COM. very poisonous.8 cm. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). scabies (Yunani). caries of teeth. Kalanja. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Tambakhu. M. smoke constipating. good for lumbago. tubercular glands of neck. Fr. anthelmintic. tonic. Root—aphrodisiac. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. lobes spreading. LOC. a mental stimulant. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. laxative. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. also applied in leprosy. Tobacco. inflammations.—in open corymbose panicles . It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. sedative and emetic. LOC. cultivated in all tropical countries. Fl. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. tonic. inflammations. wounds. large (especially lower ones). INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases.—capsule. :—Native of America. across. useful in caries of teeth. water from hookha is diuretic. dimness of sight. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). C. base wedgeshaped . PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. Tambak. asthma.—Solanaceæ. oblong or elliptic. Krimighni. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. USES :—All parts of plant. FAM. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. Flowers— aphrodisiac. Tabak. M. Poisonous to fish. K. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. sores. emetic. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. about 1. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. especially root. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. An ointment made .—pink or white. foul nose. skin diseases. NS. The plant contains a glucoside. the surface is plain or bullate. Dhumrapatrika. bronchitis. Tamarakuthika. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. DISTR. LOC. funnel-shaped. L.

Kharapatraka. bark. tonic to hair. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. densely pubescent beneath. Aravind. Buds are tonic. 2-celled. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. astringent-to bowels. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Fl.5-6. . H. Sk. leaves. Bark cures bronchitis. K.3 cm. stomachic. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. bark. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Parijataka. M. rough above with bulbous hairs. Alipriya. K. Parijata .) FAM. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Chotakanwal. young branches quadrangular. peduncles 4angled. Madhya Bharat. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. Bilitavarai. Burma. Indian Mourner : G.— more or less throughout the year. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. cures fevers. PARTS USED :—Root. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Nyadale huvu . CHAR. Har. (Ayurveda). Prajakta. Lotus. Bengal. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. Shonapadma. NS.—capsule. Fr. Cultivated in many parts of India. Assam. Har-singhar. Nilophhal. HABITAT :-Cultivated. ovate acute. L. COM. NS. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5.— fragrant. Kanval. C. :—E. t. Kumuda. Sephali.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. hairy. Parijata..—Oleaceæ. LOC. Harsing. M. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. obcordate or merely orbicular. lessen inflammation. Nalkumkuma. Sephalika. Jayaparvati. abundant July-Sept. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). Prajakta. :—E. COM. southwards to the Godavari. See—Ornamental Plants. axillary.—opposite 5-10x2. :—A large shrub or a small tree. scalp affections etc. G. Sk. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. H. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. a decoction of root. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Kanwal. tube orange-coloured. solitary. in terminal trichotomous cymes. carminative. DISTR. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs.—lobes white. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. useful in bilious fevers. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . compressed. It is used with honey in chronic fever. Lalkamal.—Nymphæaceæ. flowers and seeds. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. FAM. LOC.

roundish. asthma. aphrodisiac . green. " Kapha". Nasabo. Common sweet basil. leaves. :—E. FAM. febrifuge. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. Ramkasturi.—solitary. G. pubescent and prominently veined beneath .—peltate. useful in diseases of heart and brain. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. purple stem.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. stamens about 40. rough. Var. 7. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. Barbar. black and pitted. fleshy. submerged . diam. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate).—2-lipped. PARTS USED :—Roots. DISTR. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Tungi. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. improves taste . glabrous. toothed or lobed. glabrous or pubescent. Fl. short. bracts stalked. H. Ceylon. Sabja. petioles very long. "Vata". pink or purplish. Rihan. anthelmintic. DISTR. Tukhamariya . across. LOC. leucoderma. Fr. Fr. Plant has a sharp.. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. diuretic. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). LOC. bitter taste. hot taste. Damaro. oblong. white. C. 15-25 cm. L. cylindric. flowers and seeds. enlarged spleen. Philippines. Sd.—all the year. Burma. Java.—Labiatæ. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda).—nutlets about 2 mm. chronic pain in joints. long. inflammations. t. high. C. Manjarki. pale rose or white. peduncles very long . Sabja. Fl. useful in diseases of heart and blood. CHAR. irregularly sinuate-dentate. alexipharmic. removes impurities from blood . L. :—An erect herb 0. Hungary. ellipsoid. juice gives lustre to . NS. filaments dilated at the base . red. biliousness. K. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. emmenagogue. See—Ornamental Plants. Surabhi. deeply cordate at the base.— ovoid. Barbar. and nigropunctate above. globose. 8-13 mm. root stock tuberous. bitter. entire. Sk. LOC. long.— in whorled racemes . M.9 m. ripening beneath the water.—ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. :—Large aquatic herb . leaves and flower. open in the morning only. thyrsiflora. causes burning sensation. cooling . Surasa. Bahari. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. COM. obtuse. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn.—3 cm. stomachic. Africa. diarrhœa and piles . Fl. erect. lessens bile.5-20 cm. Sajjebija. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. acute. "Kapha". antipyretic . PARTS USED :—Root-stock.6-0.—petals about 12. diameter. allays thirst. Sabzah. itch.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. :—Var. stems and branches green or purplish. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. Ajagandhika. "Vata".

Gujarat. headache. Rantulasi. " Vata". Sk. elliptic-lanceolate. BanMal tulasi.8—5. The flowers possess. Ajaka. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. brown. G. lower lip longer. alexiteric. liver and spleen. strangury . woody below . DISTR. 1.—Labiatæ. aphrodisiac . mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). Ram Tulasi. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve.—2-lipped. Rama-Ran tulasi. earache. LOC.. removes foul breath. often cultivated : Ceylon. NS. Plant has bitter. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. M. pubescent. heart. diuretic and demulcent properties. coarsely crenate-serrate. fits. high. :—Konkan. strengthens gums.3—12. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. rachis quadrangular . Fl.7 cm. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. It is also styptic. :—A perennial shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. During fever when the extremities are cold. good for griping and piles (Yunani). Sumukha. diuretic and stimulant. FAM. M. Fr. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. pale greenish yellow. useful in diseases of brain.— in simple or branched racemes. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. stimulant. good for toothache. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. young ones pubescent. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor.—nutlets subglobose. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective.5 X 3. COM. Java. rugose. CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. C. :—Throughout India. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. in close whorls . sharp taste . t. Fl. inflammations. Country. heating. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. Avachi-bavachi. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. Deccan. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. branched. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. carminative. Lemon—shrubby basil. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). H. skin diseases. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. " Kapha".-July-Oct. useful in vomiting. L. Large basil. stems and branches subquadrangular . . they are also aphrodisiac. LOC.8 m. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm.2—1. LOC.—6. gland-dotted. S. :—E.

Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). of children and in hepatic affections . Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). used in catarrh and bronchitis . cholagogue. Vrinda. Asia to Java and the Philippines.. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State.6— 3. useful in heart and blood diseases. Kala tulasi. antipyretic. DISTR. hiccup. leucoderma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. M. stems numerous. COM. linear or linear-lanceolate. G. globose or pyriform . and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. and are given with honey. elliptic-oblong. anthelmintic.— capsule. CHAR. leaves and seeds. smooth. Manjari. angular. Parpat. L.—pale brown. M. West Asia. 30-60 cm. Tropical E. C. upper lip pubescent on the back. FAM. . minutely gland-dotted. Country. Vishnuvallabha. pubescent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.—Rubiaceæ. :—An annual plant. bronchitis. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. alexiteric. purplish. Fr. usually 2-3 cm. FAM. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. asthma. DISTR.— nutlets. " Vata". HABIT :—A common weed. :—G. L. K. varying from 7. See—Sacred Plants. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. yellow with black marking. Krishna tulasi. :—An annual herb.—on filiform pedicels. Pavitra.5—38 cm. Sd.—Labiatæ. long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. H. Fl. lumbago pains. LOC. stems and branches subquadrangular. especially in children. H. t. Phapti. heating. foul smells. COM.:—E. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. Damanpaper. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent.—2.— in racemes 15-20 cm. lobes acute. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. NS. stipules with bristles . M. Fr. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. CHAR. purulent discharge of ear. stomachic. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . PARTS USED :—Root. Deccan and S. Malay Archipelago. painful eye. NS. vomiting. Fl. Sk. Vranda. Australia. Tulasa.—2-lipped. high.5-5 X 1. Sk. " Kapha".2 cm. LOC. Tulasi. Suravallari. LOC. :—Konkan. obtuse or acute.—Sept-Nov. long in close whorls . Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Tulasi. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. entire or serrate. Arabia. high. purplish. strangury. Parapate. Papli. margins recurved and scabrous. :—Throughout India. bitter.—subsessile. clothed with soft hairs . Ceylon. Tulasi.

Joints variable in size. obovate or elliptic. anæmia. it is also used in liver complaints. rusty brown. largest 3. Snuka. Chorhothalo. 3 m. vesicular calculi. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State.—Cactaceæ. ascites. LOC. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. recurved. yellow or orange. alexiteric. LOC. Plant juice—heating. Fr. ulcers. pyriform. H. Nagaphani. carminative. Nagadru. Hathathoria. COM. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. carminative. loss of consciousness. introduced into India. Sher. NS.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. yellow at the edges. laxative. DISTR. CHAR. long. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. burning. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. leucoderma. Prickly pear. Grown as hedge. spleen enlargement. cures biliousness. Nagaphana.—7. Fl. cures inflammations. antipyretic. flowers and fruits. or more high. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. L. cures bronchitis in children. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration.5 mm. across. reddish at the tips. used in ophthalmia. Phadyanivdung. rather thin. long. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough.5 cm. spleen enlargement. perianth rotate. good for leucoderma. Mullugalli. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). subulate. xerophyte. Plant bitter. Vajrakantaka. diuretic. K. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. stomachic. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. . Sk. :—E. digestive. reddish purple when ripe.—5 cm. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. Zhoratheylo. urinary complaints. inner spathulate. liver complaints. piles. M. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . Nagaphana. Nagdali. purgative. Slipper thorn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . " Vata". outer segments ovate red in the centre. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. tumours. lumbago. G. dull bluish-green. inflammations. juice cures earache (Yunani). angular or warty. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion.— berry. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest.

H. bronchitis (Ayurveda).—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. COM. Tandula. It is astringent and tonic. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. K. intestinal worms. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). LOC. appetiser. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Shali. Mokka. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. tonic. FAM. Indian trumpet flower.S. Seeds are purgative. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. tonic. :—The Konkan and the N. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). H. improves taste. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Mayarjangha. R. inflammations. M. anal troubles. fevers. Sk. PARTS USED :—Grain. Tandula. oleaginous. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Vrihi. Tuntaka. fattening. Araluka. DISTR. :—E. HABITAT :—Aquatic. NS. K. astringent to bowels . Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). useful in biliousness . anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic.). NS. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Fruit—acrid. M. Tetu. LOC. :—Widely cultivated. Dirghavrinta. Cochin-China. Ava. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. :—E. Tetu. Chokha. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Fruit—expectorant. Nivara. dysentery. Akki.—Gramineæ. improves appetite. FAM. K. sweet. Shyonaka. Rice . piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Bhat. aphrodisiac. Kanara ghats . Chaval. good in heart and throat diseases. Pharri. leucoderma. M. Tans. DISTR. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. stomachic. Bagi. Alangi. LOC. asthma. Ceylon. Podval. Sk. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. vomiting. Arlu.—Bignoniaceæ. bronchitis. Rice. G. Ghats. Dyes. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. LOC. Malaya. useful in " Vata". G. COM. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Tetu. Ullu. See—Timbers.

gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. L. cures dysentery. good appetiser . CHAR. Dudhatani. if applied to chest. gives great relief. COM.—Oxalidaceæ. bowels or kidneys.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers .2—2. Dugdhica. beaked. LOC. 5-angled. used externally. Rice water. Dudhialata. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. base cuneate subsessile. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. :—Throughout the State. diarrhœa. obcordate. COM. Dudhani. K. linear-oblong. oblong. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. Fr. dysentery and scurvy. PARTS USED :—Leaves. petioles very slender. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. margins ciliate. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R.—axillary. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach.— Oct-May. See—Food Plants. Amrul.— many. H. buboes. LOC. inflamed piles. Fl. Ambastha. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. also in burns and scalds. sub-umbellate . In chronic bronchitis and coughs. ovoid.5 cm. C. :—E. NS. It is a pleasant. Kyirin . Shuklika. :—G.—Asclepiadaceæ. In dysentery. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India.—palmately 3-foliate. Marudbhava. Ambuti. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . Amlalonika. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Dugdhika. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. Indian Sorrel. long. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . measles. pubescent. rounded at the apex. H. FAM. boils. Dudhialata. Ceylon. removes " Kapha ". Fl. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Dudhari. ulcers. Changeri. Kshiravi. small-pox. DISTR. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Sd. Sk. transversely striate. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). astringent. Br. easy to digest.— capsule. The grains contain vitamin C. K. leaflets 1. Dugdhike. bruised. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Jaladudhi. M. M. . to which a little lemon juice is added. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. t. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. scarlet fever. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). stems rooting. yellow. Chukrita. Sk. brown. NS. " Vata " and piles. :—A small procumbent acrid herb .—petals 5. FAM. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens.

cough. bitter. Fruit is useful in " Vata ".—follicles. Andamans. :—Konkan and N.—dioecious. t. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). M. milky juice. Gogandhul. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. DISTR.5 m. H. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. Dhulipushpika. useful in strangury and tumours. G. yellow or red. K. causes flatulence. Fr. :—E. :—A shrub up to 6 m. somniferous. Ketgi. Kewoda.. anthelmintic. linear or linear-lanceolate. Sk. HABITAT :—Usually near water. Gandha-pushpa. pain. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Keora. Leaves are useful in leprosy. juice is used in gleet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. alexiteric. female flower spadix solitary.8-6. Ketaki. X 3. aphrodisiac. Fl. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. root. Sundarbans. palegreen.5-9 cm. pale rose or white. " Kapha ". Chama-pushpa. anthers. fruit and oil from bracts. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . Deccan.— large. lobes ciliate. PARTS USED :—Plant. diuretic. Sd. high. small-pox. with flavour. CHAR. Kedige. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :-Root. Giripriya. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. long. M. Fruit—tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. COM. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. L. Screw pine. gonorrhœa. pain in the muscles. Java. 4.9—1. leaves. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb.—Dec. indigestible.—glaucous green. black. mouth with pubescent ring. Kevada. Anthers useful in pruritus. Country— Belgaum. anthelmintic. tonic. dry. Kanara. 0. Burma. leucoderma. rarely erect. corona staminal. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. 3.8 mm. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. long.3 cm. coriaceous ensiform. . LOC. Mundige. syphilis.—deciduous. C. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers.—Pandanaceæ. scabies. Flowers improve complexion. coma present. Umbrella Tree. LOC. DISTR. NS. Fl. L. Fr. stems many. heat of body. purple veined. stem supported by aerial roots . FAM.—very numerous. Fl. often planted. aphrodisiac. strikingly handsome.—oblong or globose. Kanara. much branched. :—Konkan. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. thin. LOC. laxative. S. Poona Sangam. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. diseases of heart and brain. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. Ketaka. Ceylon. fruit. expectorant. margins and midrib spiny.

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

FAM. Sk. Swadi. Kidney diseases. broadly spathulate. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Deccan and Gujarat. Boichand. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Burma. membranous. See—Food Plants. Ahmedabad. thirst.—Oct. Abyssinia. Indian wine palm. inflammations. digestible. glabrous or hairy. " Tridosh". Adabanmagi. dry. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). good for eyes. Fl. Sind.:—Very common throughout the State. H. Fl. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Fr. t. The grains contain vitamins A and B. Afghanistan. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. K. good for the eyes . Kherk. good in fevers.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). gout. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. mugawana. :—E. nose complaints.— pod. :—G. bronchitis. Malay Islands. anthelmintic. Satara. Kallu. Dharwar. Tadi. antipyretic. . Khandesh. piles. Mugani. G. Date sugar palm. :—Annual or perennial. Kashayi. Konkan. layer. Shindi. PARTS USED :—Seeds. yellow. H. straight subcylindric. wild date palm. Shimbiparni. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration.—3-foliate. slightly recurved. and southwards to Ceylon. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. Kharjuri. DISTR. M. cure biliousness. as a kharif crop. laxative. Ahmednagar. LOC. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. COM. peduncles 10-23 cm. " Kapha". 2. Vanmudga. astringent. light and astringent. enrich blood. Kohesaru. biliousness. :—Largely grown in. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Khaji. throat inflammations. long.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. Koshila. prostrate. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Siyindu. Ranmath. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Sendhi.5 cm. LOC.—in sub-capitate. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait.5—5 cm. K. COM. dysentery. Kharjurika. Khajuri. petioles grooved. few flowered racemes. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. leaflets 1.—Palmæ. Kurangika. Sk. astringent to bowels. NS.3—2. eye troubles. Kolaba and Kanara. Kalli-chalu. CHAR. styptic. Seeds— tonic. burning sensation. Magavala. Adavada. cures consumption. L. DISTR. bitter. Belgaum. Kajuri. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Sd. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. long. cough. LOC. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. long. headache. M. Trianguli. Ranmug. Ichela-mara. blood diseases. Kapila. wiry. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). LOC.—6-12. FAM.

—sessile. H. ensiform. Vashira. :—Found fairly in Surat. Ratoliya.5 m. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . alexiteric. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Sholapur. Famine Plants. 9-15 m. :—A tall graceful palm.—globose. CHAR. oblong-ellipsoid. long. usually along banks. spinous. Rohilkhand. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Langali. scented. DISTR. :—Tolerably common throughout India. female spadix and spathe as in the male. subsessile. greyish-green. Siwalik.2 cm. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Jalapipali. Fl. male white. 2-lipped. Jalpippali. deeply grooved on one side.—Fibres. Bihar. outer Himalayas. orange-yellow. fattening. Fr. angular. densely fascicled. blood and eye. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). pinnules many. wandering of mind. rounded at the apex. 15-45x2-2. LOC. oblong.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. Fl. fevers.—2.—opposite.—rounded at the ends. t. Sk. COM. Fr. fruit and juice of the tree. L. long. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich.) FAM. . Ratuliyo. aphrodisiac. C. L. t. cooling.—Verbenaceæ. much branched. :—A creeping perennial herb.—more or less all the year. crown hemispherical. Ratoliya. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Sharadi. good in heart and abdominal complaints. LOC. Bhuiokra. vomiting. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. petioles compressed towards the apex. Sd.. flowers distant. This is called neera. See. LOC. upper 2-lobed.— dioecious. :—G. spadix 60-90 cm. Ceylon. and in beds of streams and water courses. Coromandel Coast. wild or more often cultivated. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. rigid. Africa. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. Baluchistan. Jalapimpli. most tropical and sub-tropical regions.5—3. flowers very many. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). constipating. M. high.—Jan-Feb. clothed with appressed white hairs . long. stems rooting at the nodes. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. sharply serrate in upper part. 3-4. lower 3-lobed. Okra. Fl. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. triangular. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. Fl. Mysore. oleaginous. spatulate. roundish.—white or pale-pink. DISTR. spiny at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. aphrodisiac. erect. NS. Bengal. cooling. Toyavallari.—pinnate. oblique. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. Poona and Belgaum districts. large and thick.5 m. Agnijwala. cardiotonic. useful in diseases of heart. pointed.

axillary. :—Konkan and Deccan. except Australia. longitudinally ribbed on the back. CHAR :—An annual herb. useful in thirst. monœcious. angular. Sd. maturant. bronchitis.. Sadahazurmani. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . lobed. leaves.useful in fevers.—capsule. dry. It is valuable in scurvy. :—Throughout India. Vituntika. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. bronchitis. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. elliptic-oblong. urinary discharges.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. K. alexipharmic . LOC. Stomachic. very numerous. Bhumyamali. females solitary. annular.— July-Aug. milky-juice. Infusion is a good tonic. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. FAM. stem branched at the base. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. asthma. Ceylon. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. Sukshmadala. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. wounds. leprosy. high . wounds. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). sores. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. t. scabies. Leaves are stomachic. and without salt may be applied to bruises. smooth. Ajata. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). globose. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. L.— numerous. 30-60 cm. males 1-3. Plant—hot. ringworm (Yunani). The whole plant. H. Fl. Jaramla. :—G. anuria. scarcely lobed. M. Amala. good for ulcers. biliousness. Bhuiavli. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers.—yellowish. LOC.—3-gonous. Tropics generally. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. asthma. Bhumyamali. thirst. fruit. COM. cooling. of female. anæmia. Kiranelligida. disk of the male of minute glands. Fr. Sk. Bhumyamalaki. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. Fl. distichous. Bhuianvalah. very small. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). burning sensation. NS. diuretic. hiccup.—Euphorbiaceæ. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). .

leaf juice and oil are aromatic. M. bronchitis. Pan. It sweetens breath. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. useful in "Vata". LOC. ozoena. inflammations. useful in "Kapha". carminative and astringent. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. spleen diseases. heart and liver. asthma. anthelmintic. Malimirich .MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. urinary discharges. satyriasis and to allay thirst. PARTS USED :—Fruits. Tikshna. Betel leaf vine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. foul smell in the mouth. leavs. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. ozœna. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Betelleaf. Kalimiri. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Poona. elephantiasis . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Menasu. strengthens teeth . LOC. Kalamirich. FAM. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. FAM. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. and fruits (rarely). alexipharmic. :—E. vulnerary. Marich. Golmirch . brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. piles. night blindness. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. Kanara. clears throat. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. alterative. :—Wild in the N. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. removes all foulness from mouth. pains. COM. Tambola. increases biliousness. DISTR. Tambulavalli. carminative. H. heating. tonic. acrid. Eleballi. Black-pepper. Saptashira. liver and muscular pains. carminative. G. K. :—E. Sk. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. bechic. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. H.—Piperaceæ. generally in Konkan. aphrodisiac. smeared with oil. hot. laxative. . It increases saliva. improves voice. stomachic. throat diseases. cultivated in Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Pan. purgative. Kalaka. LOC. G. Warm leaves. Satara. Panu. aphrodisiac. NS. given with milk in hysteria. styptic (Yunani). Kanara forests. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Nagavalli. M. Betel pepper. Fresh leaves. " Kapha ". HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Linn. K. Vileyad-ele.—Piperaceæ. Vidyache-pan. Kalamiri. useful in toothache. Mensinballi. COM. Sholapur. tonic and digestive. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. DISTR. NS. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. Kaphavirodhi. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Sk. Menasin-kallu . Pan. Vata". Bhakshyapatra. tonic to brain.

Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. :—K. Vehkali. paralysis . vertigo. Greater plantain .—Plantaginaceæ. long. coma. LOC. tonic and a local stimulant. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. chest affections. base tapering into petiole. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. See—Timbers. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. M. entire or toothed. and possesses narcotic properties . See—Condiments and Spices. sprains. facilitates menstruation. lumbago. Tammata. hills of S. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. W. Bark contains a glucoside. dries body humours (Yunani).— alternate. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. COM. various forms of cutaneous diseases. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Externally it is rubefacient. ovoid. C. Deccan. NS. Konkan.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. FAM. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . bruises. Khandala (pretty common). as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. CHAR. Arcot and Salem. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. used as febrifuge. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers .—lobes 4. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. Vikhari. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . . :—E. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. DISTR. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. Fr. ovate or oblong. H. & A. ophthalmia and phthisis. Bartang. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. leprosy. In physiological action. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. chronic fevers. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. It yields an essential oil. piperidine and an essential oil. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. piles and some skin-diseases . petiole longer than leaf-blade. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic.—Pittosporaceæ.5-12. N. FAM. Lahuriya. variable in width. sciatica. lanceolate or greenish . weakness following fevers. Khasia Hills. L. Burma. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. used in chronic bronchitis.—capsule. It is a good expectorant.5 cm. the oil is alterative. COM. Kanara in ghat forests. NS. radial 2. LOC.

Fattening.. rosy scarlet. LOC. alterative and diuretic. Chitra. :—Temperate Himalayas. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Baluchistan. oblong. LOC. Assam. Nilgiris. limb wide. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. Lead-wort. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Chitraka. G. Raktachitraka. Fl. Lalchitrak. LOC. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Ratochatro. :—Konkan : Deccan. dull-black.-Feb. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating .—throughout the year. PARTS USED :—Roots. CHAR. afford relief. long in long terminal axillary. Lalchitrak. M. exauriculate petiole. Fl. attenuate. Palni hills. Lalchita. W.—3-5 cm. DISTR. obtuse. Rosy-coloured leadwort. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. :— E. Ceylon. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river.. zeylanica. stems herbaceous.-4-8. Malaya. :—Cultivated throughout India. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. The plant contains glucoside aucubin.—Plumbaginaceæ. base passing into amplexicaul. H. COM. They are used in diarrhœa and piles.—tube slender. FAM. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood.Sept. K. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. high.Kempuchitramula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. alterative. top coming off as a conical lid. erect. and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Mahang. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. t. Fl. C.—large. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). NS. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. t. Fire plant. LOC. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. leaves. Lalachitraka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. lax spikes. Agnishikha. HABITAT :—Along river banks. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). angled. DISTR. Ghats. Sd. L. Burma. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Sk. striate .

itching.5 m. striate. . G. C. spreading. leaves are caustic. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). laxative. pointed. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. bronchitis. NS.—capsule. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). piles. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. K. stems 0. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. diarrhœa. root-bark. Chitra. Fl. alterative . Fl. anasarca. entire. rachis glandular . carminative.6-1. skin disease. oblong. LOC. leprosy. Sk. Chitra . Jyotishka.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. stomachic. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. H.-Sept. juice. Bile-Chitra-mula. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy.—in elongate spikes. Bengal. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. terete. piles. wild in Western Peninsula. " Tridosha" . anthelmintic.—Aug. It is used in procuring abortion.—thin. Medi. tonic. stomachic. diseases of liver. a paste is made with milk. bechic. astringent to bowels. Agnishikha. See—Ornamental Plants. diseases of spleen. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. Chitranga. scabies. Chitaro Chitrak. cure intestinal troubles. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. long. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. a favourite medicine for flatulence. leucoderma. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. L. The use of Pl. :—Throughout India. Chitrak. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. DISTR. Fr. woody. Vahni. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. cultivated . appetiser. t. hot. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Ceylon. rheumatism. alexipharmic. dysentery. aborti-facient. expectorant. ascites. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. and in leucoderma. See—Ornamental Plants. Vallari. Chitramula. Ind. Tropics of the old world. In S. leaves. FAM. Malay Peninsula. Chitra . lobes 5. January 1933). ovate. LOC. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. :—E. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leucoderma.—white. consumption. it is useful in dyspepsia. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. COM. " Vata" and " Kapha". useful in laryngitis. Root—bitter. inflammations. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite.—Plumbaginaceæ. attenuated into a short petiole. PARTS USED :—Root. Chitraka. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. vesicant. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. Journ. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. Res. ring-worm. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles .

Khairchapha. Fr. Fl.—Dec. ulcers. Fl. high.5-18x3. 4-lobed. long. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. See—Ornamental Plants. Kadu-sampige. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. inner face angular. entire. acute at both ends. t. Country. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut.-nutlets ellipsoid. shining. Pagoda tree. acrid. pungent. Devagangile. white with a pale yellow centre. LOC. leaves and milky juice. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. :—All throughout the State. 3-lobed. L. Deccan. M. t. Frangipani. Rhuruchapha. whorls close. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. Kanara. Goleurchampa. 12 cm. irregularly doubly toothed. common.—2-lipped.— large. cylindrical. Root-bark is purgative. stems and branches quadrangular. lower lip white. carminative. cultivated. Phangla. L.8-9 cm. S. CHAR. NS. Sk. useful in leprosy. Mahabaleshwar. :—A small shrub 1.. Pangli.:—More or less throughout India. Radha-champo. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. Golainchi. useful in gleet. K. long. DISTR. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Native of tropical America. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. CHAR. shining black. COM. Champakam.-Feb. oblong-lanceolate. broadly ovate. itching. 7. :—M. very fragrant.—Apocynaceæ.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. many flowered. COM. ascites (Ayurveda). LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. spirally arranged. NS. pains. bark. C. DISTR. Fl. rarely maturing. C.—salver-shaped. :—Konkan. smooth. LOC.-May. Fl.8 m. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. FAM. The plant contains a bitter glucoside.2—1. :—E. upper lip white shot with purple. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch.—follicles. urinary discharges. abundant.—Labiatæ. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. venereal sores. heating. laxative . abundant from Mar. 15-30 cm.—practically throughout the year. . rounded. purple. M. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). with an intra-marginal vein. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. divaricate. FAM.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. Belchampaka. G. H.

wounds (Ayurveda). DISTR. Indian beech. Ustabunda . itching. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). head and brain diseases. Sk. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. cure earache.) FAM. Ichu. " Kapha ". Agetha. Karanja.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). cures eye diseases. Agnimandha. COM. Karanjmara. Chamari. G. Kanaji. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. K. Kanika. Agnibijaka. Aran. carminative. Oil—anthelmintic. Oil—styptic. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Kanja. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. wounds. K. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. bark. Huligili. LOC. skin diseases. USES :—The fresh leaves. vagina. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. chronic fever and hydrocele. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. . rheumatic pains. cures biliousness. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Jayanti. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root. Karanj. relieves inflammation. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. chronic fever. lumbago. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. Karanja. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Gaura. Arni. M. J. ascites. liver pain. Arand. leprosy. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. FAM. H. good in scabies. useful in diseases of eye. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. chest complaints. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Kirmal. Pavaka.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. along Deccan rivers . purify and enrich blood. piles. bruised. flowers. H. In Satara. leaves. skin and in keratitis . Sk. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. COM. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. NS. urinary discharges . Karanj. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. good for tumour. F. Gracie). piles. alexipharmic . leucoderma. Oils. Seeds—acrid . LOC. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores.—Verbenaceæ. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. juice is given in colic and fever. :—E. Arni. " Vata ". fruits and seeds. lumbago. Naktamala. also planted. :—G. anthelmintic. Honge. M.

pungent. Peruka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. applied to sore eyes. Piyara. Peru . lobes 4. G. useful in anaemia.— globose. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. K. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. chyluria. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Flowers cool body. as an astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated all over the State. heating. See—Famine Plants. Ceylon. Jamb. M. . cool heated brain. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Vastula. fever. bark yellowish. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. smooth. Amrut. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Gova. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. PARTS USED :—Leaves. hairy in the throat. DISTR. dyspepsia. greenish yellow. Anthers—dry wound. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. t. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Fruit—tonic. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. Gum is tonic. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Root is laxative. Fl.2-6. seated on the calyx . rough-tubercled . laxative after food. It is also employed in scurvy. constipation. diabetes. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Safedsafari. LOC. piles. :—E. NS. bronchitis. COM. Jamphal. FAM. Young leaves are tonic in the . DISTR. sour. L. stomachic. LOC.—Myrtaceæ. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). for unhealthy ulcers. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America."Vata". Peru. Fl. Dridhabija. Ash—caustic (Yunani). C. cooling. flowers.— June-July. It is given in the form of decoction. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). H. Nicobars and Malaya. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. Guava tree. stomachic. high. cooling. common about Karwar.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. causes "Kapha".—tubular. Andamans. small.. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. used in bronchitis. Sk. aphrodisiac . :—A small tree reaching 9 m. blue-black. Kanara. Jamud-rukh. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. broadly elliptic. fruits and gum. good in colic and for bleeding gums. inflammations. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan.—5-9 X 3. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. entire or upper part dentate. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Sd.3 cm. Fr. Perala. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Perala.—hard. cylindric. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children.

L. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. cures "Vata". H. Fruit—diuretic. inflammation. mucronate. K. Bakuchi. nephrites and cachexia. Fl. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. vomiting. Bukchi. Konkan and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. fruit and seeds. Bavachi. good for heart troubles. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. nigro-punctate. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. alterative.5—5 cm. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. HABITAT :—Waste places.—bluish purple . " Rakta-pitta". leprosy. See—Fruit Trees.8 X 2. good for leucoderma. high. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). ovoidoblong. heals ulcers.—Aug-Dec. Chandralekha. laxative. anthelmintic. t. M. causes biliousness. Country. raw one is used in diarrhœa. C. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. bronchitis. . G. scabies.—pod. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. solitary. Babachi. Sd. Bhavanj. improves hair and complexion. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. :—E. Seed—purgative. stem and branches grooved. Kushtaghni. anthelmintic. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism.—in dense axillary. Fl. DISTR. Kalameshi. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). antipyretic. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. stimulant. 3. Sk. diuretic. standard orbicular. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate.2 m. Seeds— refrigerant. alexiteric. improves appetite. leaves.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. NS. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. studded with glands and white hairs. closely-pitted. COM. Bowach-chi. LOC. urinary dis charges. Fr. CHAR. piles. skin diseases. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). black. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths.—simple. clawed. LOC. smooth. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic.—one. :—An erect annual. Leaves—good for diarrhœa.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). white hairy. rounded and mucronate at the apex. anæmia.6-1. difficulty in micturition. vulnerary. stomachic. Vanguji. M. bitter taste. Babachi. 0. 10-30 flowered racemes . They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. cures blood diseases . biliousness. aphrodisiac. Bavachi.

anal troubles. griping. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Fruit-appetiser. leucoderma. India. used in sore throat. Dhalim. chest troubles. Raktabija-pushpa. Benga. Flowers— improve appetite. NS. ophthalmia. flowers and gum. Gums and Resins. blood diseases. Hulidalimb . thirst. See—Timbers. Dalimba. FAM. Bibla. H. Bigsah. :—Wild in Iran.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). erysipelas.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. diuretic. Pomegranate tree. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). cures " Vata ". DISTR. K. Valka-phala. called kino. Khandesh and Dangs. bark. Dalimb . Sunila. useful in biliousness. allays thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. tonic. Malabar kino-tree. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Flowers—check vomiting. :—Western Peninsula and S. Anar. enriches blood. . LOC. NS. alterative . biliousness. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). antipyretic. sore-throat. stomatitis.—Punicaceæ. body eruptions. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Dadimba. liver tonic. " Kapha ". Dadam. laxative. M. COM. COM. colic. fever. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. used in piles. H. Hirdokhi. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. :—E. good for biliousness. Dharimb . Dadima. cultivated in many parts of India. G. burning sensation. fattening. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. K. anthelmintic. also in Konkan. in Akrani. LOC. strengthens gums. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Pitasar. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. PARTS USED. applied to hydrocele. Bijak. heart-disease. styptic. Bark—astringent. Honi. Bia. Bio. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. prolapsus ani. Bija. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. Bibla. Sk. vulnerary. Bibla. elephantiasis. boils. useful in all body diseases. Ceylon. ulcers. useful in eye troubles. " Tridosh". Gum. FAM. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Gum—bitter. ascends to 1100 m. Dadima. urinary discharges. Common in N. Mahakutaj. G. urinary discharges (Yunani). spleen complaints. laxative. somewhat milder in action than catechu. sore eyes brain diseases. tonic. LOC. scabies. M. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Kabul and Baluchistan. Indian kino-tree. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. useful in vomiting. flowers and fruits. scattered but not gregarious . PARTS USED:—Root. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. DISTR. leprosy. anthelmintic. Honne. :—Leaves. earache. :—E. gleet. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Kanara.

Minkare.—Combretaceæ. Gelphal. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Annam.5 cm. Sk. elliptic. Lalchameli. Fl. :—E. Madana. Rangoonkibel. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. C—petals 5.—in axillary and terminal spikes. The rind of the fruit. Konkan. at first white then deep red . numerous. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. hairy beneath.—Rubiaceæ. USES :—In Amboyana. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Rangoon creeper. Fr. G. :—A strong climber. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. . base rounded. NS. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . L. DISTR. t. Fruit contains vitamin C. :—E. See—Ornamental Plants. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. COM. jasmine . Malaya. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. G.-Aug. It is given in the form of decoction. acuminate. Pinditak. widely cultivated all over India. 7. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Chinese honeysuckle.—opposite.—Mar. Dharaphal. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. long. K. pendant. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. FAM. dark green. Mangari-kai. Country and Kanara. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. S. nearly 6 cm. H. COM. M. M. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. lanceolate . Gela. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Midhola. glabrous above. Fl. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . Mindhola. NS. H. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests.— ellipsoid. LOC. CHAR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. calyx tube long. M. Karigidda. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. In China. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. acutely 5-angled. Barmasinivel. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. LOC. FAM. Karhar Mainphal. Rangoonchavel. LOC. Emetic nut.

" Vata" and " Kapha". Mula. Radish. and all inflammations . heating. tonic. emetic. boils. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Sk. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. Mali. useful in chronic bronchitis. destroys "Vata". Muri. good in tumours. G. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. used in diseases of the brain. hiccup. anthelmintic. Tropical Africa. Ceylon. juice relieves earache. FAM. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. Hastidanta. piles. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. it is equal to it in every respect. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. antipyretic. Bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. stomachic. Seeds-sharp. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. flowers. cholera. The plant contains glucoside saponin. sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. emetic. its action is very safe. It is also used to poison fish. China. leucoderma (Yunani). leprosy. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Juice of . :—E. asthma. DISTR. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). COM. purgative. :—Throughout India. carminative. emmenagogue. skin-diseases. fruit and seeds. M. LOC. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . leaves. S. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. inflammations. carminative. good for spleen and in paralysis. K. certain and regular. Bili Mulangi. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. bad taste. bitter. paralysis. leprosy. Mula.—Cruciferæ. produce alopecia (Yunani). cures abscesses. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. See—Timber.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. Ruchira. H. muscular pains.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. piles (Ayurveda). carminative. E. eruptions. Java. Ksharmula. aphrodisiac. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. ulcers. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. useful in diseases of heart. DISTR. It also contains an essential oil. NS. LOC. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . Mulak. inflammations. tumours. amenorrhœa. laxative. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. binding. Mura. Muro. Sumatra. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Root.

HABITAT :—Moist forests. ajmalicine. swollen a little above the middle.5-6. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. CHAR. used in hyperpiesis . DISTR. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. ginger. Sarpagandha. specific for insanity. diuretic.. Ceylon. Fr. corrective and emmenagogue. bright green above. cures " Tridosha ". Sarpakshi.-May. Harkaichand. with a long. acute. ajamalinine. nodular. Fl. K. Sk. sedative. Nai. Juipani. single or didymous. anthelminitic .—drupe. Chandrika. See—Vegetables. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. Root contains vitamins A. COM.—tubular. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. PARTS USED :—Root. shady open places near rain-forests. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Garudpatala. expectorant. Harki. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. Nakulikand. 7. NS. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Mungusavel.3 cm. white. lanceolate. Yuthikaparni. K. :—H. Gaja-karni. heating. NS.9 m. In the Konkan.-in whorls of 3. LOC. :—An erect perennial shrub. leaves (rarely). black shining. serpentinine. LOC. COM. ulcers (Ayurveda). C. Sk. B and C. yellowish root stock. seeds are considered peptic. Chhotachand. Chandrika. .—Apocynaceæ. Andamans.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. FAM. M. Fl. often tinged with violet. Group B — Serpentine. irregularly.5-18 X 2. pale beneath. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Java. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. bright red . :—H. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea.. L. acrid. Doddapatike. It is hypnotic. Sivanabhi.—in irregular corymbose cymes. Palakjuhi. laxative. sharp.— Mar.) FAM. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis.. t. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. M. thin. pungent. carminative.—Acanthaceæ. Kanara. Western Peninsula. and black salt.

elliptic lanceolate. ascites. Straits-Settlements. Divald. LOC. carminative . Fl. Erand. liver and spleen diseases. LOC. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Sholapur). high. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. cultivated. pointed.—Oct. hills near Belgaum. t. inflammations. :—Probably of African origin. Country (Dharwar. alterative. boils. rheumatism. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. flowers and seeds. pubescent: C. DISTR.—nearly sessile. Ceylon (wild) . inflammations. elephantiasis. purgative. H. asthma. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. increase biliousness. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).—lipped. :—Undershrub. Root-bark—purgative.— tuberculate. Seed and oil—cathartic. COM. Triputiphala. anal troubles. HABITAT :—Hills. K. Seeds and oil have a bad taste.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. generally cultivated. Fl. Vardhamana. typhoid. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. Sk. convulsions. white. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. stems obscurely angled. body pains. M. increases "Kapha". FAM. intestinal worms. leprosy. useful in pains. Cattle are fed with leaves for . fevers. eructations. glands. useful in liver troubles. aphrodisiac. strangury. glandular. :—E. :—Deccan. vaginal pains. Belgaum. narrow. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". Castor oil plant.5 m. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). Erand. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Erand. night-blindness. leprosy. oil—anthelmintic. ascites.—5-10 X2-5 cm. bronchitis. LOC. lumbago. 0. Java. hairy outside . PARTS USED :—Root. solitary. useful in skin-disease. earache. widely cultivated in tropical countries. ascites. ring-worm. diseases of rectum and head. leaves. pains. lumbago. entire. G. useful in heart diseases. Madagascar (cultivated).. LOC. bracts ovate lanceolate. L. upper lip bifid . HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. Haralu. M. Khandala. Leaves—galactagogue. amenorrhœa (Yunani).9—1. Fruit— appetiser. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Vardhaman. Arand. good for burns. black.-Jany. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. S. Divaligo. Eranda. tropical Africa. asthma. alterative. pain in back. Mahabaleshwar. some fevers. Country. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Palma christi. paralysis. :—Throughout India. tumours. leaves and seeds. Very little in other districts of the State.—Euphorbiaceæ. dropsy. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. piles. Fr. velvety hairy Sd. Tirki.—capsule. Chitrabija. useful in inflammations. NS.

P. cultivated all over India. tooth-ache. cardiotonic. cephalic. :—Origin unknown. Greece and Germany. LOC. with a good odour. inflammations. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . stomatitis. Pannira. used in heat of body. attaining 1. France. head-ache. See—Ornamental Plants. intestinal affections. stems with stout and hooked prickles. H. Soumyagandha. They are also applied to painful joints. LOC. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). sometimes striped . red. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. laxative. astringent when dry (Yunani). FAM. they are cold.. mild and safe purgative. tonic. DISTR. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. CHAR. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. Gulab. Flower—bitter. G.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. serrate. Fr. K. Shatadala. M.—Rosaceæ.5-6. excessive perspiration. sometimes glandular.5 m. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. dry. biliousness. etc. Sudburj. Punjab and U. stipules scarcely dilated. Fl. Sk. hairy. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. ovate oblong. which is a powerful poison. . Fl. :—E. removes bad odour from mouth.3 cm. L. Italy. kidneys. benefits lungs. burning sensation. petioles prickly. pink or white. In constipation it is used as an enema. Lakshmipushpa. NS. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. improves appetite (Ayurveda). acrid. double. good for eyes. liver. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . aphrodisiac. cures leprosy. Ghazipur is a chief centre. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . cooling. See—Oils. PARTS USED :—Flowers. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Gulab.— all the year. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. laxative. sweetish. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. COM. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain.—obovate . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Gulab . Tarana. antipyretic. expectorant. Ati-manjula. :—A perennial shrub. much used in lotions and collyria . Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria.— usually corymbose. seldom griping or causing flatulency. adults. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. t.—pinnate. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. chronic fevers. 2. " Vata". cardiotonic.

CHAR.—didymous or globose.5—7. purplish black when ripe. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. t-Oct. liver complaints. five-nerved. heating. Ceylon. diuretic. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. paralysis. LOC.—2. Majit. 15-30 cm. lower leaves larger. L. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). spleen-enlargement. Fl. obtuse.—in whorls of 4. Gulmketu.—Rubiaceæ. Amlavetasa.—Polygonaceæ. inner perianth-segments membranous. Sk. branched from the root. :—Annual. roots very long. oleaginous . inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. ulcers and skin-diseases. greenish. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. elliptic. Tamravalli. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily.—in terminal panicled cymes. diseases of uterus. lactagogue.—white or pink. :—Root. paralysis. base cuneate. inflammations. smooth. :—E. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. LOC.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . CHAR. the Konkan and S. branches quadrangular . NS. leaves and fruit. Bladder. Fl. Chitralata. Root—bitter. Java. uterine pains (Yunani). cordate or hastate. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. Manjishtha. PARTS USED. FAM. all scabrous with white prickles. urine and even bones red. M. Country. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. Ambat Chuka. FAM. Decoction tinges blood. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. leucoderma. COM. blood. jaundice. emmenagogue. antidysenteric. DISTR. increase appetite. analgestic.-Jany. Japan. valves hyaline. used in eye-sores. shining. laxative. Leaves-sweet. high. Sk. acrid. tropical Africa. K. analgesic. eye. piles. Malay Peninsula. and was much used in dropsy. COM. Manjishha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Manjit. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. H. lethargy.. cylindric. erect glabrous herb. M. Fl. alexiteric. stems very long. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. with a thin red bark. M. leucoderma. urinary discharges. ear. Chuka. orbicular . one pair with longer petioles ovate. leucorrhoea. bitter. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. vagina. grooved.5 cm. petioles triangular. erysipelas. Sorrel. rheumatism. it powerfully affects the nervous system. antipyretic. Indian Madder. jaundice. improves voice and complexion . Aruna. :—E. Chukra. pains in joints. Fr. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. Dock. ovate. Manjishtha. . anthelmintic. ulcers. L. H. Raktasara. Rohini. cures " Kapha ". prickly. dysentery. :—Perennial climbing herb. NS.

—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. Vishapaha. oblong lanceolate. LOC. Parpatha. :—A herb . useful in heart troubles. piles. dyspepsia. Satri.-Jany. USES :—Leaves are cooling. Kanara. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). tonic. Nagadali. asthma. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. DISTR. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. :—Common throughout the State. ciliate. often rooting near the base.—Nov. pains. hiccup. constipation. then erect.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Konkan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. ovoid oblong.—capsule. pale brown. Ceylon. Havananju. Common—Garden-rue . RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. acute . Sadabu. diseases of the spleen. CHAR. stomachic. blue or pink. while fresh they are bruised. 2-lipped. FAM. :—G. lower shortly 3-lobed. COM. M. COM. Fr. tumours. Country. toothache. Deccan. t. generally in the Deccan. in dysentery. bracts elliptic. Sk. bites and stings of poisonous animals. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. Satap. bronchitis. L. they are prescribed.— subsessile. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. Sadapaha. checks nausea and promotes appetite. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. with darker spots. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. analgesic. Pismarum Sadab. C. M. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).—Acanthaceæ. Fl. Africa. The juice allays tooth-pain. NS. rugose with furrow. Trans-Indus Hills.—Rutaceæ. leucoderma. DISTR. upper emarginate. Afghanistan. :—E. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. The seeds have the same properties . S. flatulence. Fl. Ghati pittapapada . alcoholism. H. Cooling. Sk. acute. roasted. :—Western Punjab. stems usually decumbent. N. Persia. K. Kharmor. FAM.—white. with scarious faces and hard ridges. aperient and diuretic. useful in scabies. M. Khatselio . Sd. laxative. G. vomiting. .—suborbicular. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. also considered as a vermifuge. See—Vegetables. Satapa . NS. LOC.

M. leprosy. Ikshu. LOC. abortifacient. DISTR. NS :—E. Naisakar. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . LOC. Fl. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). heats body. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. oleaginous. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Satara. Fr. :—Grown everywhere in India. useful in fatigue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). :—A strong smelling herb . segments cuneate. Ukh . Kabbu. The oil is the best form for administration. Gudatrina. spathulate or linear-oblong . Sk. flawed. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Rasala. The plant contains glucoside glutin. anti-aphrodisiac . L. K. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. G. cultivated throughout India. DISTR. indigestible. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. thirst. forest and mountain. Rikhu. tonic. obtuse . grown in gardens. FAM. emmenagogue. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. Us . Sherdi.—petals 4. petioled. etc. oblong-obovate.—Gramineæ. it may be given internally in hysteria. :—Egypt and Algeria. Ganna.. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. C. See—Ornamental Plants.-alternate. Tanigarbu . decompound. diuretic. diuretic. in pots. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. S. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. all over the State. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. particularly Deccan. COM.—angled. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. digestive. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). The plant is tonic. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. epilepsy. aphrodisiac. Kumad. and externally used as a rubefacient. H. cooling. Poona. colic. flatulence. glandulose punctate. Sugarcane. garden. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. increases mental activity. Ingotu. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. HABIT :—Cultivated. Asia is very likely the original home of the species.—capsule. laxative. yellowish. amenorrhœa. Gudakastha.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). . heating to body . The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Powdered and combined with aromatics. LOC. Sd. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. Madhuyashti. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. There are three varieties .

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. often planted near Muslim tombs. causes " Kapha. :—Drier parts of India. carminative. Goni.".. Pilu. delirium. finely striate. Brihat madhu pilu. leucoderma. often mucronate at the apex. scabies. Pilu. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. leaves. Seeds—purgative. Jal. bad for liver (Yunani). Mahaphala. smooth. :—E. the Konkan and N. Fl. Fl.—drupe. M. inflammations. Sind. useful in biliousness. shining. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Kharijal. useful in nosetroubles. oil is digestible. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). dry regions of W. G. C. Kanara in littoral forests.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. branches numerous. laxative. Tooth-brush tree. Cane—sweet. H.—Nov. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. tonic to liver. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. K. corrective. t. L. It is good in calculous complaints. stomachic . Egypt. purifies blood . lobes much reflexed. Fruits are deobstruent. 3 mm. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. greenish-yellow. . cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). numerous. diuretic. white. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark. pectoral and aphrodisiac. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . opposite. LOC. ulcers. analgesic.-Feb. good for lungs . Sugar causes " Kapha". improve diuresis (Yunani). strengthen teeth. Khakan Mirjoli. Asia. fruits seeds and oil. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. red when ripe. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. diam. Ceylon. diuretic. Pilu. astringent to bowels. lessen inflammation . elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. FAM. useful in biliousness. alexiteric. See—Food Plants. sugar is considered heavy. anthelmintic. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. LOC. Abyssinia. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. sometimes it raises blisters. drooping. fleshy. Fr. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. Pilu. COM. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. deobstruent. Sk. In cases of poisoning by copper. Leaves—bitter. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. The juice contains vitamins A and B. LOC. anæmia.—very thin. In the Punjab. aphrodisiac . useful in heat. improves appetite. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. disorders and wind.—Salvadoraceæ. erysipelas. bile. fattening. DISTR.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. Piludi. carminative and diuretic. :—Dry districts of the State. near the coasts of Gujarat . USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. deeply cleft. globose. piles. tonic and aperient.

In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. small-pox (Ayurveda). sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Mysore and parts of Madras State. Soap-Nut tree. Mangalya. Chandal. to temples in fever. Burugukayi.—Sapindaceæ. burning sensation. LOC. cholera. alexiteric. emetic. fruit and seed. acts as diaphoretic. India. tubercular glands. :—E. Bhadrasri. LOC. thirst. NS. :—Western Peninsula. Anthuvala. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. Kumblabijaka. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. gonorrhœa. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Bhadrasara. FAM. epileptic fits of children. Fruit—bitter. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . DISTR. in skin-diseases. FAM. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. useful in chronic dysentery. LOC. Chandan. Kanara. :—E. USES :—Wood. Arithan . tonic. Phenila. COM. alexipharmic. " Kapha ". common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. COM. K. G. ground. biliousness. abortifacient. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. chiefly in S. useful in inflammations. See—Timbers. H. laxative. allays uterine pains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Chandan. useful in diseases of heart. Aritha. PARTS USED :—Root. to allay heat and pruritus. Oil. cold in head. stomachic. Ritha . aphrodisiac. Ceylon. Sukhad . Malayaja. Sandal.. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Agarugandha. Antharalo. antipyretic. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Rishta. DISTR. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. PARTS USED:—Wood. K. exhilarating. Oils. Shrigandhalmara. Kugale. Country and N. up with water into a paste. astringent to bowels . Sk. G. bronchitis. is applied to local inflammations. lumbago. :—Indian Peninsula. Cultivated elsewhere. vaginal discharges. Bhogivallabha. . Suket. hemicrania. Sk. M. paralysis. Ritha. often planted. H. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. cures "Tridosha". aphrodisiac. head-ache (Yunani). Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). gleet. Sandal-wood Tree. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn.—Santalaceæ. Arishtaka. S. Ringni. alexiteric. strangury. M. Phenilu. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. NS. Chandan. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . much cultivated. Root—expectorant.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

:—Throughout the tropics of the old world. asthma. They are also emmenagogue. :—Cultivated all over India. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. into claw. Seeds contain vitamin A. anthelmintic. urinary concretions. strangury. useful in dry cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea.—pod. hair-tonic. Fl. inflammations (Yunani). It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Jayanti. Jayanti. suppurating wounds. slightly torulose. few flowered axillary racemes. branches striate. pendulous. linear-oblong. burning sensation. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. applied to gouty joints. bark. M. spleen troubles. Janjhan. diuretic and lactagogue. lung diseases. Fr. NS. cures . seeds. gouty joints. They are nourishing. inflammations. Sd. in height. LOC. of eye and ear. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. such as dysentery etc. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Jinangi. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets .— abruptly pinnate. eye diseases . Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. leaves. diuretic. long. indigestible .—20-30. septate between the seeds. CHAR. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. aphrodisiac. Sk. cooling. galactagogue.5-15 cm. H. Black variety is common. useful in diarrhœa. :—G. There are three varieties of seeds : black. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. Seed-oil—fattening. They have been used to procure abortion. oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. enrich blood. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. syphilitic ulcers. alterative. FAM. Rasin. leaflets 914 pairs. Jaya. diseases. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. 4-5 m. scabies. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). mottled with purple on the outside. obscurely angled . oleaginous. tonic. 15-23 cm. Jayantika. Waziristan. an emollient poultice is also made from them. K. long. bleeding piles. Jayanti. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. Raysingani. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. tonic. white and red.. useful in sorethroat. cure menorrhagia. yellow. small-pox. Baluchistan. applied to ulcers and piles. promote hair growth. DISTR. removes "Kapha". and as an oildressing for ulcers. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. seeds. beaked. Jayat. carminative.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). strengthening. etc. Shewari. :—A soft-wooded shrub. 7. probably a native of tropical Africa. Nadeyi.—standard as broad as long. C. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. See—Oils. opposite. inflammations. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. L.—in lax.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. LOC.

useful in ozœna. flowers. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. diabetes. See—Vegetables. K.5-8. COM. LOC. C. Hatiya . leaves. Bark—astringent. rubbed into a paste with water. Agathio. stimulant. cures " Tridosh " pains.—7.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Fruit—laxative . high. Fl. useful In diseases of spleen. CHAR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). anthelmintic. Bark— astringent. leucoderma. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). diarrhœa.—in racemes . LOC. improve appetite . In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. gout. anaemia. Sk. Leaves—indigestible. fruits. 6-9 m. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). NS. :—A soft wooded tree . maturant. astringent. is applied in rheumatism. linear oblong. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. :—G. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. Ornamental Plants. cure quartan fever. bronchitis. improves taste. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). 2-4 white or red. relieves throat-troubles. long.— pinnate. Leaves—purgative. DISTR. 50 cm. An infusion is given in small-pox. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. epilepsy. long. useful in ophthalmia. H. L. Fl. Bak. See—Fodder Plants. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. leaflets 16-30 pairs.— pod.— flowers at various times. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). ulcers. LOC. "Kapha" and inflammation. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. night-blindness. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. dysentery and paludism. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin.8 cm. Agase. alexiteric. Agati. tumours . allays thirst. 15-30-cm. Australia. t. Fr. long. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. Kempagase. Agasta. HABITAT :—Cultivated. is applied in painful swellings. Dirghashimbi. Agusta. The plant contains vitamin A. FAM. Seeds—emmenagogue. Flowers—cooling. Kanali. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. . very showy. demulcent. Agasti. Vranari. gout . fevers. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. M. cure itching. biliousness. Indigenous from Malaya to N. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). Munidruma. Basna.

G. pedicel jointed about the middle. COM. leaves and seeds. K. stomachic and tonic. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. glabrous.. :—G. L. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. t.. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. useful in fever. CHAR. useful in blood and throat diseases. strongly reticulated. Fl.—1-2 in each axil. H. lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. sharply serrate.—2. astringent. emollient. astringent.—smooth. strongly reticulated . Chikna. Khareti. scabrid-hairy. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. Kherati. Chittuharatu. carpels 5-9. pedicel jointed much above the middle.— yellow. Bala. diam. Batyalaka. Baladana. Kareta. Fl. diam. Pata.—2. HABITAT :—Moist places . decoction. linear.—Malvaceæ. C. Bariara. linear . " Pitta ". Kharanti. Fl. CHAR. cooling. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Bala.—6-8 mm. yellow.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. Chikna. Jayanti. with ginger. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. Root—cooling. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. Kisangi. carpels 7-10. LOC.3 cm. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. FAM. Fl.5-6. Vatyapushpi. Tukti. digestive. Hettutti-gida. :—Konkan. LOC. " Kapha " . Barial. :—Konkan (common). diuretic. :—A shrub. t. long. crenate. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). puberulous. Fr. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. softly hairy all over. COM. DISTR. long. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . K. NS. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). black. :—E. Kumghi. Country Mallow. bleeding piles. NS. dorsal margins toothed. LOC. removes " Vata ". Rajbala. Sk. Pata. PARTS USED :—Root.—solitary or few together. upper margins ciliate. M. M. bark.-Oct. dorsal scabrid. cordate. Samanga.Dec. L. branches slender. Country. M. Sk.-Nov. H. FAM. ovate-oblong. a weed.—Malvaceæ. :—Hotter parts of India. minutely hairy. Sd. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Deccan and S. Country.. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).5-5 cm. base rounded. DISTR. Bala. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. M.—Nov. is given . Prahasa.—5-6 mm. Gujarat and S. awns 2. LOC. awns 2. aphrodisiac . obtuse.

PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stiff-neck. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. S. common. :—Throughout India. diaphoretic. Linn. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. M. and head-ache. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. those of the ray red beneath. facial paralysis. triangular-ovate. CHAR. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. noise in ears. deeply and irregularly toothed. tinged with purple.—yellow. black.—heads small in leafy panicles . Katampu. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stem stiff. pappus 0.—Compositæ.2 m. Fr. Country. 0. slightly rough. rhomboides Roxb.—achene. Ceylon. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. t. also in colic and tenesmus. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. NS.-Dec. administered in hemiplegia. DISTR. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Leaves are used in ophthalmia.—opposite. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. L. all running down wing-like into petiole. :—A large annual herb. . M. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. Externally. It is also used to favour menstruation. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". LOC. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. :—Deccan. high. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra.—Nov. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. 5 outer clavate. COM. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". juice is used for healing wounds. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Pilibadkadi. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Fl. cystitis. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. erect. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn.6—1. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. involucral bracts 2 rows. Fl. :—G. 5 inner boat-shaped. Fl.

0. Dorli.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. prickly. removes foulness of the mouth... bronchitis. Sk. leaves. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. H. cardiotonic. enriches blood. fever. beneficial in cardiac troubles . " Vata". Vayase. Mhotiringni. Vantak. LOC. Egg Plant. bad for piles if taken internally. Bhantaki. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. G. Kattarta.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. Rigana.5—7. Fl. FAM. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. stem stout. Ubhi-bhuringni. t. diam. China. Malpya. :—Widely cultivated in India. analgesic. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. or triangular-ovate. pain. M. Kadusonde. pruritus ani. COM. astringent to bowels. COM. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). recurved. base unequal-sided. prickles large. M. LOC. lessens inflammations. vomiting. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. very. L. Bhanta. Sd. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. ovate. PARTS USED :—Root. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. . Mahotika. dark-yellow when ripe. aphrodisiac. K. clothed outside with purple hairs . NS. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. sharp. Habba-Kirigulla. LOC. subentire. Indian Nightshade. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). DISTR. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha".—5—15 X 2.—pale-purple. Vartaki. It is seldom used alone. Vadikadheri.— berry.-Aug. Fruit—cardiotonic. :—Throughout tropical India. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root.-Oct. Brinjal. C.5 m. Nilaphala.—Solanaceæ. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. Hinguli. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Sk. Brihati.. useful in leucoderma. fruit and seeds. digestive. DISTR. Vengni.3—1.5 cm. Root is applied to lessen pain. :—E. asthma. Vange. causes biliousness. :—E. globose.—minutely pitted: Fl. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. " Kapha".—Solanaceæ. leaves (rarely) and fruits. Philippines. NS. covered with stellate hairs. Ranringni. Badanikai. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Hinguli. anthelmintic. FAM. Barhanta. 8 mm. Baingan. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. high. maturant. G. laxative. Bhantaki. rarely wild. petiole prickly. Vrittaphala. improves appetite. lobed. Ceylon. loss of appetite.

good for neck ulcers. fever. stem erect. ovatelanceolate. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. urinary discharges. cathartic and diuretic. Tiktika. 3-8 flowered cymes . In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. fever.— berry. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. 6 mm. Fl. leucoderma.—Sept. leaves and fruit. Katuphala. :—A variable annual herb . In S. in extra-axillary. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. NS. throat burning. tonic. laxative. in pains. improves voice . DISTR.—small. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. " Tridosha". dysuria and asthma. t. Hound's Berry. improves appetite. B and C. bitter. subumbellate. hiccup. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). ear and nose . smooth. Piludi. bronchitis. LOC. piles. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. G. K. Kabaiya. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. entire or sinuate toothed. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Black Night-shade. alterative.—many.-Jany. . taste. Gurkamai. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. griping. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. yellow. Seeds—laxative. Sk. itch. See—Vegetables. diam. H. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. Makoi. etc. tapering into petioles. L.—Solanaceæ. Vayasi. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. Sd. diarrhœa. eye-diseases hydrophobia.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . Kamoni. It acts as a hydrogogue. dysentery. The seeds are used as a stimulant. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Fr. not to be given to pregnant women. inflammation. aphrodisiac. much divaricately-branched . C. LOC. COM. asthma. Ceylon. useful in heart and eye-diseases.—discoid. worms in ear. liver inflammation. and used with success in psoriasis. :—E. bronchitis. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. Fl. FAM. inflammation. Fruit contains vitamins A. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation.. :—Throughout India. Morellel. heating. useful in diseases of eye. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. Kakamachi. bark. Root-bark—laxative . vomiting. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). CHAR. diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. minutely pitted . Kakamunchi. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. Kakamachi. chronic fever. shining. M. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in giddiness.

Jolah. NS. ovate or elliptic. expectorant and febrifuge. Sholapur. Ceylon.3 cm. L. stems. Sk. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. Kateli. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). & Wendl. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Seeds—anthelmintic. Katai. good for boils and scabies (Yunani).— June. Bhui-Kate-ringni. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. S. straight. hairy on both sides.. CHAR. Fr. often exceeding 1. Durrah. Sorgho. Jondhala. Ringni. stem zig-zag. Fruit—laxative. strangury. heating. Yuvanala. prickles compressed. Nele-Rama-gulla . PARTS USED :—Root.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Great Indian millet. biliousness. "Vata" and " Kapha". Jundri. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. LOC. asthma. catarrhal fever and chest pain. good in inflammation. stone in bladder. :—A very prickly diffuse. G. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Dirghashara. Yengara . laxative. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. fevers.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . COM. stomachic. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. sinuate or subpinnatifid. NS. Leaves—good application for piles. anthelmintic . Basu). Sundia . :—Throughout India. base unequal-sided. petiole prickly. Chikka-sonde. Africa. pains. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. Kantakari. bright green perennial herb . FAM. Fl. Sind. Konkan. ozoena.—berry. yellow and shining. C. Dhavani. COM. Sk. diam. Kenjal. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B.5-5. fruits and seeds. K. Bhoyaringni. piles. Brihati.—Gramineæ. sterility in women. K. chronic bronchitis. :—E. Jowari. It is used in asthma.. hairy outside. 3-2 cm. :—G. useful in bronchitis. Jowar.-5-10 X 2. Shalu. M. LOC. DISTR. E. flowers. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Kantakini. :—Common in the Deccan . H. Ikshupatraka. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. Vrittatandula. D. LOC. asthma. heart disease. Nidigdhika. tropical Australia. lumbago. they are used in the burning of feet. appetiser. yellow or white with green veins.7 cm. FAM. thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated. dysuria. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. leaves. M. H. Bijapur and E. Fl. fever. long. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Nirgol. Malaya. t. pruritus . Root—aphrodisiac.—purple. muscular pains. lobes deltoid. urinary concretions.—Solanaceæ. surrounded by enlarged calyx . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Jonera.

CHAR. on dry stony hills. COM. Dharwar. :—G. Some. Bodiakalara. L. FAM. diseases of blood. LOC. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . K. Poona. Gorakmundi. Swami-mara. Gorakhmundi. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. K. cures " Tridosha ". in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Food Plants. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. :—Dry forests of W.—sessile. ulcers. Bijapur and E. glandular. general debility. Indian Red-Wood. Juss. Bastard Cedar. M. anthelmintic. improves appetite and taste. PROPERTIES AND USES. bladder and kidney complaints. Vritta. Kumbhala. Rohani. PARTS USED. G. H. :—Seeds. HABITAT :—Open situations. tumours (Ayurveda). Tans. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. H. Munditika. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. tonic and antiperiodic . Gums and Resins. Rohini. Sk. Grains contain vitamin B. Sumbi. biliousness. Gorakhamundi. :— E. Khandesh and S. piles.—Meliaceæ. while Belgaum. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Country. :—Bark-acrid. Ceylon. stem and branches cylindric. Fibres. DISTR. leprosy and dysentery . Ahmedabad. M. ulcers. vaginal injections and enemas. M. aphrodisiac. NS. . USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Karanda-gida. Asia and Africa. constipating. introduced into America and Australia. high. with toothed wings. Mahamundi. NS. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. FAM: —Compositæ. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Rohun. indigestible. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Rawtarohan. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. Aruna. common in Gujarat. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. DISTR. Agniruha. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). :—Widely cultivated in India. PARTS USED. Ruhin. refrigerant. hence used in intermittent fevers. fevers. hairy. Sk. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . See—Timbers. :—The grain is cooling. LOC. Rohina. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. useful in " Kapha". laxative. :—Bark. Pravrajita. good for sore-throat. aphrodisiac. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur.

bronchitis. ciliate near the ends . t. PARTS USED. C. leaves and flower-heads. alterative. gleet. LOC. Dharwar and Belgaum districts.—Nov-Jany. elephantiasis.—Compositæ. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. It is also used as fish and crab poison. laxative. strangury. sometimes grown in gardens. USES. Pellitary . leaves. :—Common in the Konkan.. tuberculous glands. CHAR. They are given in powder form. M. :—Root. jaundice. cools brain. Sk. involucre bracts linear. :—Root. PARTS USED. anthelmintic. COM. ring-worm of waist.—purple. tonic. indigestion. L. laxative.— achene. leucoderma. :—Annual herb. glandular hairy. LOC. Akarakara . :—Throughout India. stem and branches hairy. Country and Kanara. asthma. scabies. the latter when present minute. DISTR. Malay Islands. emmenagogue. H. DISTR. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. . good for eyesore. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. serrate or dentate. cooling. They are chewed to relieve toothache. Fr. alexipharmic. urethral discharges and jaundice. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. S. all warm countries. :—Wild and cultivated. :—Common in rice-fields. gives lustre to eyes . irregularly crenateserrate. t. oblong.—opposite. fattening. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Akkalkara . stalked. pain in uterus and vagina. biliousness. HABITAT. peduncles reaching 10 cm. Fl. peduncles with toothed wings. LOC.—Achene. scalding of urine. globose ovoid. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate.—Nov. :—Throughout India. depurative. compressed . ovate. Powdered root is given as tonic. base usually acute. in cases of worms and indigestion. Pappuso. with honey they are given in cough. piles. flowers and seeds. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. hemicrania (Ayurveda). USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. glaborous. urinary discharges. used also for local application. enriches blood . increases appetite. digestible. Fr.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. Fl. chest diseases.—in heads ovoid. lessens inflammations . anæmia. Fl. ovate-oblong. spleen diseases. truncate. Celyon. Australia. M. long. looseness of breasts. :—Hot. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. Akara-karava. rectal pain. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. epileptic convulsions. Fl. Tonic. solitary or subpanicled. dysentery.—compound heads. Ceylon. boils. used in insanity. HABITAT. NS. :—E. Africa. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . PROPERTIES AND USES. biliousness. and tonic (Stewart) . vomiting. bark. useful in skin diseases. :—Deccan.

SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. hard.8-7.—Bignoniaceæ. Fl. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Gujarat. Kalavrinta. :—A tree 9-10. Pitana. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Hulave. Amate. Giri Hadari. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. oblong. good for sore-throat. M. HABITAT.5-18 x 3. Padal. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. FAM. NS. ash-coloured . Wild Mango. Hongkong. entire. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Konkan. long. destroys " Vata ". t. ulcers. Toyadhivasini. LOC... PARTS USED. Hude. . cures rheumatism. enriches blood . strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. :—H. Salt Range. Kapichuta. Marahunise. pinkish green. blood complaints . :—Often planted throughout the State. aphrodisiac.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. tonic.5 m. burning sensation. Indian Hog-Plum. Ambada. yellow. Pandri. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. Western Peninsula. CHAR. Gum is demulcent. :—Cultivated. COM. 3.—Anacardiaceæ. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Indian Archipelago. H. COM. leaves and fruit. Patala. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. astringent. branches nearly horizontal. Kariguddada. PROPERTIES AND USES. Amrataka. M. :—Leaves-tasty. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm.8 cm. Andamans. :—E. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Avatekayi. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Sk. Kamduti. biliousness.-usually 1. high. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Sk. Patala. long. Ran-amba . Amra. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. Kanara. stone woody. refrigerant.—drupe. K. NS. S. Sd. Tungi.— petals 4-5. Fruit—indigestible. Padal. See—Gums and Resins. W.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Pahad. DISTR. Ambodha. Fl.-Apl. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. phthisis. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. C.Feb. oblique. Dr. It has been found useful in dysentery. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Country.. round with furrows and cavities. Bile Tree. widely planted. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. trunk straight. ovoid. Burma. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. ovate oblong. :—Bark. LOC. Padiala.5 cm. Parur. L. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. bark smooth. K. Fr. Ceylon. Kumbhi. M. Ali-vallabha. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. appetising.

Ceylon. blood diseases. K. tonic. G. Karnatak. itching. Visha-druma. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. Kakatinduka. Hemushti. NS. H. Indo-China. leaves. vomiting. inflammation. aphrodisiac. asthma. cures pains in joints. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Wood (rarely). loss of taste. Kajra. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. diuretic. Kuchla. COM. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. fevers. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . heating. Fruit—bitter. :—Fruit-acrid. useful in bilious diarrhœa. :—In forests south of Bombay. "Kapha". ring-worm. LOC. Kanara. piles . anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES. Planted in Ceylon. astringent to bowels. heating. Kelakutaka. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). from Kashmir to Sikkim . fruit. :—Root. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. :—Root-bitter. cures leucoderma. Ittangi. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. Kangira. heating. fruit. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. Sk. flowers. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". It is regarded as cooling. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). Laos.—Loganiaceæ. FAM. Kuchala. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Karaskara. jaundice. Circars. Poison Nut. Kachita. PARTS USED. Vishamushti. Kajavara. poisonous. Kuchla. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. tonic. :—E. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Travancore . STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. :—Monsoon-forests. Crow Fig. bitter. See—Timbers. :—Very common in Konkan and N. appetiser. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. diuretic. thirst. LOC. burning sensation. eructations. lumbago. pungent.. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . DISTR. west coast of Madras State. Kajra. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Flowers— acrid . ulcers. Burma. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. blood diseases. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. :—More or less throughout tropical India. Kanara. M. emmenagogue . LOC. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Travancore. piles. Kupaka. seeds. N. tonic. "Vata". common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. antipyretic. sub-Himalaya. Nirmal.

PROPERTIES AND USES. poisoning. also in Konkan. astringent to bowels. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. hallucinations. lithotriptic. increases "Vata". Shodhanatmaka. cure strangury. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. urinary discharges. improve eye-sight. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. Burma. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. jaundice. kidney complaints. :—E. thirst. Nirmali. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. tonic. Nivali. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. See—Timbers. (Rasendrasarasangraha). NS. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Country. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. Seeds—bitter. LOC. cures inflammations. . Aduguchali-bija.. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. gonorrhœa. FAM. Kanara and Khandesh. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. relieve colic (Yunani). fruit and seeds. LOC. anæmia. The demand for strychnine is increasing. :—Root cures leucoderma. HABITAT. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. Chittu bija. Sk. Madhya Bharat. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. :—Western Peninsula. causes biliousness. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. K. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa.—Loganiaceæ. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. M. H. PARTS USED. good for liver. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. Kataka. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Ambuprasadini. Fruit useful in eye diseases. alexiteric. COM. :—Root (rarely). emetic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Ceylon. M. diaphoretic. alexipharmic. Nelmal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. head-diseases (Ayurveda). Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. DISTR. diuretic. Seeds—acrid. :—Deciduous dry forests. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Clearing Nut Tree.

:—Bark-acrid. astringent to bowels. ovoid or oblong. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. Balaloddujinamara. LOC. Sk.-Jany. etc. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Kadu. :—India (W. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . Fl. PARTS USED. . Peninsula. emmenagogue. Mahabaleshwar. PROPERTIES AND USES. 0. Bark—bitter. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). :—Western Ghats . inflammations. Bose). Lodhra . dysentery. t. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. COM. in powder or in fresh decoction. :—M. See—Timbers. Lodh Tree. M. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. Torna fort. :—The whole plant is bitter. Lodh . acrid. biliousness. C. useful in eye-diseases. stem densely leafy. Lodh is used in raw condition. E. flowers (rarely). it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . PARTS USED.. diseases of blood. Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES. 4-winged. DISTR.—Symplocaceæ. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Burma.— sessile. Lodhraka. quadrangular. Lodh. L. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Bhilli. :—W. aphrodisiac. Fr. Deccan . throughout N.3-0. Tillaka. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. useful in abortions . Peninsula). high. Broughton). Sd. white with blue veins. Shavaraka. alexiteric. Lodhra. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. 2-valved. :—An erect herb. vaginal discharges. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. H. :—Hilly parts. China Nora. M. K. broadly ovate. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). decussate. digestible. DISTR. Tiritaka.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . cures cough. COM. FAM. cooling. LOC. FAM. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. colloturine and loturiaine. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas.—capsule. Country. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. eye-diseases and ulcers . NS.—many. winged . LOC.— Oct.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. Loder.—Gentianaceæ. C. NS. S. Fl. 5-nerved . HABITAT. Deccan. :—Konkan and N. leprosy. bleeding gums .9 m.— lobes 4-5. Chota Nagpur. Californian Cinchona. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. :—Root. :— E. C. :—Bark. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr.. CHAR.

Jam. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. :—E. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. NS.) FAM. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). Jambura. M. sweet. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. thirst. NS. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. ulcers. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar.—Myrtaceæ. Fruit Trees. asthma. Jambu-Nayinerale. astringent to bowels. Ceylon. both wild and cultivated. Jamburaj. Jambul. Jambul. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. anthelmintic. also wild. H. :—Throughout India. :—Throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES. good gargle for sore-throat.) FAM. Kokileshta. Gulab-Jamb. biliousness. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions.—Myrtaceæ. DISTR. Shukapriya. Jambu. :-Black-Java Plum. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. LOC. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. digestive. Neralu. fruit vinegar is tonic. also used in spongy and painful gums. carminative and diuretic. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Jambu. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. astringent. Malay—Rose apple. LOC. carminative . useful in spleen diseases. K. Jambu. Sk. H. etc. blood impurities. :—Bark-acrid. Nenda. . cooling. LOC. Sk. Fruit—acrid. removes bad smell from mouth. Jambu. astringent to bowels. enriches blood. Jambula. increases "Vata". Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Pannerali. Australia. Seeds—diuretic. Shukapriya. COM. gargles and washes . Surabhipriya. Gulabjaman. M. Malaya. Jamen. Nerate. good lotion for ring-worm in head. COM. bronchitis. Pharenda. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. strengthens gums and teeth. dysentery. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. common at Mahabaleshwar. Jambudi. very often planted. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. :—Bark. fruits and seeds. G. dry. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Nilphala. good for sore-throat. common along river banks. K. sprouts.

Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. Kottuhale.—rainy season. :—Cultivated in gardens. 7.—Apocynaceæ.5-5 cm. Tagar. Root chewed relieves toothache . and an essential oil.) FAM. tonic to brain. Assam. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. tonic to brain. NS. Burma. t. Cultivated in many places. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. bronchitis. LOC. divaricate. liver and spleen . in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2.. L. :—Bark. . fruit and seeds. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. :—Root is acrid. HABITAT. Hills of Visakhapatanam. used in asthma. Maddarasa gida . Chandani. removes bad humours. lessens pains in limbs and joints . fragrant at night. fatigue. CHAR. :—Root. E. Fruit—sweet and tasty. double. indigestible. orange within. Garhwal. across. astringent to bowels. improves voice. DISTR. wood and oil. cures epilepsy. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). cultivated in many parts. Wax flower. digestible. :—Sikkim Terai. . astringent to bowels. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. C—lobes overlapping to the left. bitter. astringent to bowels. Yunnan to Australia. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. indigestible. Tagar . It is very cooling in ophthalmia. Bengal. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. LOC. Br. with milky juice . Root—bitter . blood-diseases (Ayurveda). thirst. glossy green above. Fr. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Bark is sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES. purgative.5-5 cm. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. heavy speech. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Fl. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. useful in "Kapha. Ashvathabheda.—snow-white. useful in paralysis. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. salver-shaped. acrid. tonic. H. hot. K. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue." biliousness. Nandi. strangury. M. Tagara. COM. pale beneath. Trinidad . Taggar.—follicles. G. alexipharmic. PARTS USED. weakness of limbs. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. Seeds are astringent to bowels. lobes 5 in single. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). inodorous during the day. Khasia Hills. used in syphilis (Yunani). LOC.— opposite.5-15 X 2. heating. margins wavy. :—E. Ananta. used in liver complaints. 1-3 ribbed. dysentery.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.

Fr. C. lessens inflammation . yellow when ripe. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Malabar. bark grey. Sandu. LOC.000 m. Tamarind. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. bitter. Teter. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . L. Leaves—good for piles.—surrounded by red pulp. Makhamal. Zanduga. throughout the Konkan and N. Makhamala. somewhat boat-shaped. 7. across in pedunculate cymes . COM. :—Rain-forests. DISTR. LOC. Amli. HABITAT. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Nagakuda.. common in rain-forests. Guljharo. 2. kidney troubles. internally they are said to purify blood. acrid. Halmeti.—opposite... Amlike.4-4. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. :—E. PARTS USED.2-7. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). belching. Amla. NS. carminative. Chinchika. Amli. PROPERTIES AND USES. Amala. M. : K.5 cm. t. LOC. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . astringent. FAM. Sd.5-20 X 3. M. Gultora. high. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda).—white. FAM.—Compositæ. Fl.. Amlika. Makhamali. Zendu. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Flower-pungent. Tintidika. :—E. :—Leaves and flowers. Tintrani. their juice is given in ear-ache.—follicle. HABITAT.5 cm. coriaceous. divaricata. oil. COM. Sthulapushpa. FAM. Nuli. NS.— Mar-Apl. Imli. Maddarssa.— tube inflated near the top. HABITAT. :—Root. Chinch. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). NS. Nagaskuda. Fl. H. :—Native of Mexico. . French Marigold. good for teeth . COM.—Apocynaceæ. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. stomachic. M.5 m. Genda. Travancore up to 7. grown in gardens all over India. oblong lanceolate . Pandarakuda. Sk. PARTS USED. H. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. CHAR. :—Cultivated. rough. G. :—Same as T. Chinch. DISTR. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. muscular pains. wood. Kanara. Flower—bitter. useful in scabies. K. Kalaga. Sk.

earache. :—E. LOC. useful in liver-complaints. PARTS USED :—Root. such as body-burning. Sk. intoxication &c. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Madhya Bharat. wood. Sag. Bark—astringent. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Seeds astringent. Sagwan. FAM. Cultivated also. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Condiments and Spices. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Timbers. Mahapatra. Tega. boiled they are used as a poultice. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. PARTS USED. DISTR. carminative. Anil. flowers and seeds. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. laxative. G. heals wounds and fractures. NS. tasty. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Fruit-sour. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. digestive.—Verbenaceæ. Malay Peninsula. heating. . biliousness. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. DISTR. abundant all along the slopes of W. eye-diseases. LOC. indigestible. tumours. useful in giddiness and vertigo. :—Throughout India. and for sizing materials. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. flowers. Circars. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Tropics generally. Arna. leaves. :—Bark.. Flowers— appetising . Kanara. tonic to heart. causes cough. K. heals ulcers. stomatitis.. fruit and seeds. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. astringent to bowels. Sagach. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. sweetish. Teak. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Teka. anthelmintic. COM. Sagwan. scabies. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". vomiting. Fruit—sour. M. thirst. Sumatra and Java. aphrodisiac. Burma. Sag. sore-throat. laxative. Kanara. H. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Seeds are good astringent. small-pox. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. bark. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. and laxative. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. urinary discharges. Tegu. costiveness. tonic. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Sagun. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C.

—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). syphilis. increase "Vata". Sarpankho. Udhadi. . asthma. cultivated lands and roadsides. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . improve appetite. Phanike. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. M. long. PROPERTIES AND USES. Plihari. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. K. branches spreading. ulcers. antipyretic. Empali. alterative. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). HABITAT:—Open situations. Unhali. tumours. :-G.8—1. :—All over India. Gujarat. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. cooling.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. pubescent on the back. Leaves—tonic to intestines . useful in scabies. glabrous above. silkyhairy beneath.. t. S. cures diarrhœa . LOC. CHAR. poisoning. asthma. H. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. Bark is an astringent. along forest borders. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. mucronate.—Oct. :—A perennial herb. Sharapunkha. biliousness. FAM. Wood good for head ache. Deccan. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . suborbicular. Wood—acrid. Sk. it acts also as a vermifuge. 30—60 cm. root. blood. Fl. alexiteric.8 X 0. DISTR. leprosy. Ghodakan. PARTS USED. heart. laxative. Flowers—acrid. LOC. spleen. :—Plant-digestible. Sarphonka. anthelmintic. dry. COM. allays thirst. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). leaflets 11—21. biliousness. C. See—Timbers. Sarphoka.—pod 3—4. good in piles. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. expectorant. gonorrhœa (Yunani).—5-6 . useful in lung and chest diseases. oblanceolate. M. slightly curved.2 cm. Malay Peninsula. liver.—petals clawed. Fl. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. enriches Blood . fresh root-bark. Country. Kalika. useful in bronchitis. LOC. long. allays thirst. Kogge. standard. "Root—diuretic. urinary discharges. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. linear. Konkan. useful in bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). cures diseases of liver.5 cm. mucronate.. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. 2—2. sedative to gravid uterus. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. Sharapunkha. Sd. useful in piles. ground and made into a pill. leaves and seeds.-June. burning pain over the region of liver. red. spleen diseases. NS. bitter. Fr. anthelmintic. boils and pimples. L. high. inflammations. :—The whole plant. Jhila. It appears to act as tonic and laxative.

strangury. H. styptic. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Aksha. externally in wounds and fractures. FAM. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. :—E. Sk. Arjuna. heart disease. sore-throat. blood-diseases. useful in bronchitis. tonic. Indradruma. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. except in dry arid regions. Sk. Arjuna. Dhanvi. with milk. Fruit-pungent.. & A. Karvirak. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. diuretic. Shantimara. Ceylon. Koha. Expectorant. Vibhitika. biliousness.. LOC. Bibhitiki. Rajastan and Sind. in the sub-Himalayan tract. Behedo. M. :—Bark. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). " Kapha". M. :—Throughout the forests of India. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Buhura. Bedda Nut. acrid. DISTR. Chota-Nagpur. Sadura. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Kahu. aphrodisiac. Baire. excessive perspiration. DISTR. .—Combretaceæ. strangury. NS. Karshaphala. See—Timbers. Arjun Sadada. anthelmintic . Behada. LOC. Voting. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. FAM. anæmia. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Bahara. very common in South Konkan. intoxication. laxative. fruit (rarely). Madhya-Pradesh. K. Arjan. NS. K. digestible. Kalidrum. :—Alexiteric. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Sagona. biliousness. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Bahaza. anthelmintic. Arjuna.—Combretaceæ. PARTS USED. Kushika. urinary discharges. Madras State. Burma. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. G. COM. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Tari.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. :—Konkan and Deccan. Madhya-Bharat. useful in fractures. Sadado. PROPERTIES AND USES. leucoderma. COM. in Khandesh Akrani. fruit and seed. :—E. useful in biliousness. White Marudah. :—Bark. Bera. Arjun-Sadada. G. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Beheduk. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. Belleric Myrobalan. H. Hela. tonic. Bastard Myrobalan.. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Tara. Vibhata. Kakubha. LOC. ulcers. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. false presentation of fœtus. leaves. asthma. tumours.

See—Timbers. Burma. expectorant. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. aperient. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. enriches blood. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. elephantiasis. useful in asthma. tumours. eye diseases etc. antidysenteric. eyes. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. brain tonic (Yunani). FAM. COM. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. :—Fruit-dry. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. Har. NS. Ceylon. antipyretic. which is considered a good digestive. Abhaya. Sk. Haritaki. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. bleeding and ulceration of gums. Harade. itching pain. in Travancore. tonic. —E. DISTR. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. LOC. Kernel has narcotic properties. Jivanti. ascites. cold in head. useful in caries of teeth. Chebulic myrobalan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. diseases of spleen. G. carminative. Hirda. constipation. sore-throat. applied to eyes. Kanara. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . tonic. tonic. piles and diarrhœa. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. thirst. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". H. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. M. Haria. alterative . PARTS USED. carminative. diseases of eye. USES. gums. strengthens brain. bleeding piles. inflammations. bilious headache. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. typhoid fever. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. used in paralysis (Yunani). Jivantika. Fruit-astringent. hoarseness. corneal ulcers. Gums and Resins. useful in thirst. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. LOC. Haritaki. vesicular calculi. Harara. strangury. common in Khandesh Akrani. attenuant. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. Dyes. diarrhœa. gout. vomiting. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). intoxicating. diseases of eye. nose. PROPERTIES AND USES. heart and bladder. Seed—acrid. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. useful in dyspepsia. is used as an application in ophthalmia. the fully ripe or dried fruit. vomiting. piles. Alate. Black myrobalan. leucoderma. K. good in ophthalmia. Hirdo . dyspepsia. :—Bark and fruit. delirium (Ayurveda). :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. hiccup. mixed with honey. heart and bladder.—Combretaceæ. anaemia. stomachic. Ripe fruit—purgative. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. heating. biliousness. LOC. anthelmintic. urinary discharges. piles.

Ranbhendi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. leaves. burning of body . Kanara. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Phalisha. PARTS USED. H. Sk. Dyes. Bugari. Paraspiplo. G. Fibres. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema.—Malvaceæ. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). also planted as roadside tree. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. :—Bark. NS. Paraspipal. profuse discharge. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Hucerasi. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. especially centipedes. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Kuberaksha. Jogiyarale.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Tulip Tree. flowers and fruit.. COM. . Bhend. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. See—Timbers. Paras-piper. Tans. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. M. Sacred Plants. produces worms in intestines . :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Burma. LOC. Kandarala. LOC. Parisha. Bhindi. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. :—Fruit-sour. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Parasipu. Arasi. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Gandarati. DISTR. Gajadanta. PROPERTIES AND USES. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. K. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Portia Tree. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. acrid . Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. See—Timbers. Bengal. Suparshuakan. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Bhandi. Mhaskar and Issac). Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. increases " Kapha " . FAM. Eastern and Western Peninsula. It is also used in chronic dysentery. :—Districts of Konkan and N. :—E. aphrodisiac . removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". :—Coast forests of India. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. difficult to digest. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with.

C. bark corky. NS. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. Pila kaner. PARTS USED. long. H. Sk. Sd. Haripriya. America and W. See—Ornamental Plants. growing on mango and other trees. Ashvaghna.—in terminal cymes. endocarp corky.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. H. male fascicled. frequently planted. Sk. Karvira. tubular. cures " Vata " . grooved . it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). exocarp fleshy. HABITAT. Fl. :—Throughout tropical India.—generally 4. Fl. G. ventrally flat. acrid. bladder.—drupes. Vatsadani. elliptic. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Gurch. often planted in India. DISTR. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. yellow. CHAR.. and blood vessels . Gulancha. bronchitis . Burma. hot. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. Gulo.—Apocynaceæ. Fr. CHAR.—membranous. Uganiballi. leucoderma. but its use is attended with considerable danger. COM. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. very poisonous (Ayurveda). COM. Andamans and Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. t. Gulvel. FAM. :—An extensive climber. 5—10 cm. :—E. fevers. Fr. across.—Menispermaceæ. 5 cm.—broadly obovate. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. Indies . Gulhel. 7—9 nerved. yellow. K. lobes 5. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. crowded .5 cm. seeds and milky juice. Shatakumbha.. skin diseases. astringent to bowels.—in axillary and terminal racemes. with milky juice. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. eye-troubles. DISTR. :—E. Amarvel. virgin uterus. 1—3. L. LOC. M. Pivali kanher. useful in urethral discharges. pungent. Zard kunel. FAM. M.5—12.. LOC. :—Bark. LOC. throat campanulate. Exile or yellow Oleander. Jwaranashini. bright green and shining above. NS. G. Gado.-spirally arranged. Pittaghni. corona in the throat. it has no action on digestive enzymes . females solitary. Heart-leaved moonseed. HABIT :—In thickets. 7. :—Stem. piles. dorsally convex. Amrita-Valli. :—Native of S. :—Often planted. L. Amritvalli. linear. wounds. . said to be antiperiodic in small doses . mesocarp bony.—Apl. PARTS USED. Fl. root. size of a pea . worms. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. red. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. Gulvel. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. Pila kanir.

stigma sessile. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Kumaon to Bhutan. juice useful in diabetes.-Jany.— alternate. crenulate. white. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. dark shining green above. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. LOC. Dahan. FT. leaves. vaginal and urethral discharges. female flower buds oblong. jaundice.. good in cough. high. Limri. leaflets sessile. stomachic . 5-7 lobed. bark. Khasia Hills. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil.8-3. causes constipation. chronic fever. Gangalaki. Ceylon. Manger. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Sk. NS. armed with small hooked prickles . FAM. digitately trifoliate. expectorant. fever. t. Macimullu. Forest Pepper. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. . Root-bark is aromatic. 15 m. H. CHAR. Kaduhakukare. K. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha.—in axillary cymes. tonic. :—Rain-forests. USES. Kadu-menasu. tonic appetiser. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. common in S. Root and stem are bitter. :—An evergreen scandent shrub.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. PARTS USED.—globose. anæmia. cures jaundice. Mirchi. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. Fl. vomiting.8. Sumatra. renews blood. 3-5 grooved. LOC. stimulant and anti-periodic. Jangali-Mirchi. orange coloured. male flower bud globose. Konkan and Kanara. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. piles. :—All over the Madras State .—Dehan. DISTR. also in the Deccan hills. Fl. :—E. giddiness. :—Root. allays thirst. antipyretic. stimulates bile secretion. especially acid. useful in skin diseases.—Aug. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. diuretic. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. oblong. enriches blood. burning sensation. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. ovary rudimentary. Stem-bitter. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. fruits. (Kirtikar). Java. Philippines. 5-10 X 1. unisexual. diarrhœa. L.—Rutaceæ. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. pitted on the rind. size of a large pea. :—Stem-bitter. tropical Africa. China. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. stomachic. Lopezroot Tree. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. coriaceous. vomiting. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State.

inflammation. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. "Tridosha". The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. headache. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. Malaya. Sandal Neem. leprosy. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Kalingi. Assam. Shingoda. Apina. :—Throughout the State in tanks. cardio-tonic. biliousness. LOC. :—Cooling .—Meliaceæ. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. FAM.) FAM. Mahalimbu. Lud. biliousness. often cultivated. Shingada.. causes " Vata " . cures leprosy. NS. digestible. DISTR. COM. Mandurike. Sk. Sk. Trikota. Chittagong. LOC. Garige. K. Kuberaka. Singhara. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. burning sensation. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. Gums and Resins. astringent to bowels. fatigue. Gandhagarige. :—E. :—Bark-acrid. aphrodisiac. cooling. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. Jalakantaka-valli. COM. M. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Dyes. Burma. urinary discharges. Chota-Nagpur. burning sensation. Tun. removes " Tridosha". good for scabies and gleet. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. antipyretic . :—Bark and flowers. LOC. useful in ulcers. G. Indian Mahogany. removes " Kapha ". Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Lim. Deodari. Waitz). Shringa-kanda-taka. H. expectorant. :—E. fattening. Kanara. cures fevers. DISTR. indigestible. See—Timbers. anthelmintic.—Onagraceæ. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Water-chestnut. HABIT. M. astringent to bowels. Trikone-phala. Nand-vriksha. Toon. Tuni. NS. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. Singodi. :—Aquatic (in tanks). Tundu. Kaechaka. strangury. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Bark—bitter. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. aphrodisiac. of India). :—Throughout India. tonic. useful in . tropical Africa. :—Fruit. Tunika. PARTS USED. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kuruk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Ceylon. itching. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb.

Trikantaka. sore-throat. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. LOC. NS. Seeds abound in starch. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. COM. bronchitis. Assam.. bile and phlegm. L. leaflets 3—6 pairs . upto 3300 m. antipyretic. Sk. Fr. Fl.—several in each coccus . useful in chronic fevers. LOC. considered cool and sweet. :—Plant is cooling tonic. abruptly pinnate. appetiser. LOC. M. yellow. Country.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). M. :—H. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. sharp spines. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. See—Timbers. Sumatra. mucronate. H.—Euphorbiaceæ. base oblique. Gokhru. They are also used in the form of poultice. Java. Pindara. of 5 woody cocci. Ceylon. young parts silky. LOC. Tumri. Fibres. Sk. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Pindara. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. COM. :—E. Ceylon. :—The whole plant. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Kadu Kange Kumbala.. lumbago. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. K.—opposite.—globose. NS. G. biliousness. Gokhru. FAM. stems and branches pilose. solitary. Gokshura. PARTS USED. along nalas and in swampy localities. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Hussuk. Calthrope. one of each pair smaller than the other. :—A procumbent herb. alexiteric.. The plant contains an alkaloid. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Kurangaha. Negalu . thirst. pain. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections.—throughout the year. hairy. improves taste . Aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Sd. M. Gokshri. Chhota gokhru. Kantaphala. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Petari . Gamhar.—Zygophyllaceæ. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. one pair longer than the other . Kere Padye. Kanara. DISTR. Sarata. See—Food Plants. Gujarat. CHAR. Malay Peninsula. Gokharu. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. each with 2 pairs of hard. bad-teeth (Yunani). Karahate. in Kashmir. FAM. Gokhura.:—Saurashtra. Deccan and S. Shadanga. :—Throughout India. t. . DISTR. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. oblong. K. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. used as food. a common weed of the drier parts.

Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. pappus shorter than the achenes. inflammations. :—Western Peninsula. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. fattening. Abu.— purple. reduces inflammation . Country.—sessile. copious. Physiaran. LOC. purifies blood . :—Wild in places. —achene. Fr. :—The whole plant. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . reduces inflammation. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. fruits. West Rajastan. leaves. alleviating burning sensation. lumbago . urinary discharges. increases menstrual flow. urinary disorders and impotence. faintly ribbed. Aja-dandi. Talakanto. seeds. gonorrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. S. slender. :—Root. long. FAM. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). bitter. stem erect. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). Sk. diuretic. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. linear-oblong or lanceolate. Brahma-dandi. :—Hot. LOC. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES. "Vata". :—A glabrous herb. diuretic.—Compositæ. t. asthma. S. tonic. C. cough. PARTS USED. : — G. CHAR. cures strangury. ciliate. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. Brahmadandi. DISTR. Brahmadandi. appetiser. useful in strangury.— Dec. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. LOC. cures skin and heart diseases. yellowish brown. Konkan. :—Cooling . cures "Kapha". Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. ovoid.—heads 6—8 mm. leprosy . H. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). pain . emmenagogue (Yunani). Mota-Motachor. Brahmadandi. stomachic. S. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. Mt. PROPERTIES AND USES. improves appetite . L. branches angled and ribbed. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. Kantapatraphala. spinous toothed or serrate. gleet. M. HABITAT. USES :—Fruits are cooling. Kanara. vesicular calculi. bloody urine. aphrodisiac. the Deccan. enriches blood . involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. which is taken in large quantities. COM. suppression of urine. Central India. K. tonic . :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. Kanara. Brahmadandi. pruritus ani. Diuretic. NS. . Fl. Fl. removes " Tridosha ". alterative . good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . piles. tonic.

long as well as broad.5 cm. Fl. Fl. burning sensation. Wild Snake-gourd. oil. PROPERTIES AND USES. Root-juice is very purgative. — surrounded with red-pulp . they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. long.—2. slender. H. NS. lobes ovate-oblong. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. stems 3. females solitary. H. G. woody below. PARTS USED. COM. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.—July-Oct. Makal. CHAR. FAM.5—7. L.. erysipelas. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. dark-green above. with a long sharp beak. leaf-juice is emetic. base cordate . cures bronchitis. :—E. blood diseases. orbicular. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . NS. Jyotsna.—Cucurbitaceæ. useful for boils and intestinal worms. Sk. slightly hairy.5 m. FAM . alterative. anasarca and ascites. chireta and honey. Ceylon. tendrils 3-fid. eye diseases. t. alexiteric.—Cucurbitaceæ. L. long. laxative. Patola. palmately 3-5 lobed. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. ulcers. variable. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Perula. LOC. headache and boils. antipyretic. —G.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. stomachic.. Fr. white. Australia. Mahakala. Avagude-hannu. scarlet when ripe. :—Root.5 cm. Fruit—hot. pungent.3 cm. Ratan-indrayan. green with white stripes when raw. antipyretic. Indrayan. In Bombay. Kadvi-padyal or patola . Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Malaya. COM. HABITAT:-In hedges. allays thirst. it is given in decoction with ginger.-male in axillary . Jangli— Kadu padval. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. Mukal. tendrils 3 cleft. M. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Malay Peninsula. M. Panduka. ovoid-fusiform. paler beneath. stem robust. :—Root-cathartic . Betlada padaval. axillary.6—4. male in axillary racemes.—monœcious. distantly denticulate. long. K.. reniform or broadly ovate.-6. base deeply cordate. leaves. fruit. Leaves—good for biliousness. deeply 5-lobed. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. asthma. K. :—A scandent annual. Kiripodla. Sd. Lal-indrayan. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). :—Throughout India. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. Katuka. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. N. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda).-5-12. the Deccan. LOC. bitter. CHAR. DISTR. dentate or serrate. Jangali chichonda. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan.3-12. Sk. cures itching. leucoderma. Kaundal. leprosy. furrowed.

75 X . Ray flowers ligulate. L. black. M. leprosy. Fruit—carminative. boiled with gingelly oil. 30-60 cm.—globose 3-8. sparsely white hairy. Deccan and S. bruises and wounds. . LOC. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. slender. Fl. lessens inflammations .75-1 in. ovate-elliptic. Kirkee. hairy. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. NS. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. many years ago. t. :—A perennial straggling herb... PROPERTIES AND USES. on the Himalayas.— Apl. HABITAT. abortifacient. :—Throughout India. :—M. cures hemicrania. PARTS USED. glandular. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). diam. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Australia. C. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. COM. stem and branches hairy. peduncles very long. axillary.—Compositæ. all over the State. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . t. very hairy. petioles densely hairy. LOC. Fl. :—Abundant in the Deccan. Sd. densely silky hairy. white.. DISTR. CHAR. :— Wild in Konkan. Ekdandi. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens.—1. female solitary. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. ligules yellow. Malaya. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. :—Wild in hilly parts. high. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. which is found abundantly all over the country. outer involucral bracts ovate. limbweakness. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. inner slightly longer than outer. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. N. :—Leaves. fringed.. rheumatism. 3-partite.—head solitary. bracts large. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. gargle good for toothache. Japan.—petals wedge-shaped.5 cm.-July. purgative. DISTR.—throughout the year. heat of brain. acute. Country.—many . used in epilepsy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. Ceylon. China. middle lobe smallest. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Root and fruit. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. ophthalmia. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. FAM. Fr. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. Fr. LOC. Fl.— achene. Juice of fruit or root-bark. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda).

PARTS USED.—follicles. astringent to bowels. Fl. S. . also in low and sandy localities. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. See—Vegetables. :—Leaves and seeds. Methi. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism.7 cm. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. :—Punjab. Fenugreek . large for the genus. Antamul. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. Kashmir.5-5. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. cultivated in many parts of India. ovate or elliptic oblong. M. Muthi. Chandrika. t. :—A twining perennial. dysentery. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. aperient. purplish within. :—E. flatulence. "Vata". fleshy. Menthe—palle.-Nov. CHAR. diuretic. Jyoti.—in umbellate cymes . Janglipikvan. tonic. narrowed at the apex to a free point. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. HABITAT. Sk. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. vomiting. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Pitabija Vedhini. DISTR. :—Cultivated. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Fl.—Aug.—deeply lobed. M. Nepala . enlargement of spleen and liver. useful in dropsy. corona gibbous below. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. M. roots many. piles. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). much used in colic. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. LOC. long. FAM. 5-10 x 2. anthelmintic. appetiser. they are also aphrodisiac. H. NS.—opposite. Methi. base cordate. LOC. Pitakari (Pitamari).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). tonic and carminative.. :—H. Country. Sd. and the seeds contain vitamin A. G. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. greenish-yellow outside. diarrhœa. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. Methi. Kanara. K.5—10 cm. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. COM. Hot and dry. antipyretic. with coma . :—Hot. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. emmenagogue. suppurative. bronchitis. tapering to a fine point at the apex. L. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. COM. Methi . removes bad taste from mouth. NS. Methini.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. FN. :—South of Bombay. enlargement of spleen and liver.. FAM. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.— broadly ovate. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. dropsy. chronic cough. cures leprosy. 7. Konkan. C. long. K.—Asclepiadaceæ.

—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. folded on one another.5 cm. Sk. Peninsula. long. :—Common on sandy shores. 0. 15-45 x 1. PARTS USED. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. USES..MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. H. URARIA PICTA Desv. Ceylon. ellipsoid. Pithavan. L. Bihar.. C. Shankaraja . Philippines. pale lead-colored.— flattened. Chota-Nagpur. Fl. C. Pitavan . :—Roots and leaves. t. HABITAT. light-brown . FAM. Sk. :—Throughout India. Pitvan. :—Western Himalayas. COM. CHAR. Jangli-Ran-khanda. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malay Islands. :—Konkan. KolaPutakand.—appearing after the flowers. perianth campanulate. Borneo. H.—purple.9-1. PARTS USED.— imparipinnate. FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Panjala. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. Fr. 20-30 cm. . flat. :—G. Dabra.—capsule.. DISTR. Prishna-parni. NS. black. G. W. LOC. :—A herb. CHAR. Ceylon. linear. high. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Thailand (Siam).— petals lanceolate. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. HABITAT. diaphoretic and expectorant.3-2. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). Malay Islands. tropical Africa. :—Throughout the plains of India. polished. :—Bulb. Vanapalandu. :—Sandy places. scape erect 30-45 cm. L.. linear-oblong.— pod.—Aug. :—Wild. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman).8 m. Jaglipiaz. :—E. USES. Sd.. M. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Fr. NS. Chitra—Prishthi-parni.—in racemes 15-30 cm. Indian Squill. Fl.-Sept. white. glabrous. stems downy with hooked hairs. hairy beneath. COM. long. 10-20 cm. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. long. tropical Africa. Dried leaves are emetic. blotched with white above. Burma. LOC. joints 3-6.. DISTR. found useful in dysentery.— Liliaceæ. drooping. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Fl. :—A perennial shrub. 5-7 (rarely 9). rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. stalks long. Rankanda. tapering to both ends . Ranganja .

5—9 cm. recurved. Peninsula. toothache. rheumatism. stout. complicate. long. laxative. M. PARTS USED. Bandanike. tremors (Ayurveda). internal pains (Yunani). useful in paralysis. heals fractures (Yunani). Rasno. acute. anthelmintic. Gujarat and Kanara. boils in the scalp. pollinia ellipsoid.. column very short. Nakula. HABIT. long. Sk. tonic to brain and liver. Bihar. :—The bulb is pungent. and U. Root is bitter. dropsy.— July. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. :—Root and leaves. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system.. W. long. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. stem 30-60 cm. good for piles. renal calculi. Banda. stimulant and diuretic. USES :—Expectorant. Sarpagandha. A. Fl. t. Br. alexiteric. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms.—capsule. :—Bengal. alexiteric. tip. LOC. obtusely keeled.—thickly coriaceous. Rasna. CHAR. rheumatic pains. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. emmenagogue. erect. maritima of U. antipyretic. lip bluish dotted with purple. Vanda.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. bronchitis. (In Med. Fr. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). LOC. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. indica is in no way inferior to the official U.. Travancore. asthma. S. inflammations. H. purgative. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. Ceylon. 2-lobed. diuretic. scandent by simple or branching roots . heating. lumbago.—Orchidaceæ. 15-20 X 1. diseases of the abdomen. bronchitis. scilla of Great Britain. useful in dyspepsia. Rasna. anthelmintic. Chota-Nagpur. heating. Rasna. COM. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. L. NS. Gaz. FAM. Vriksharuha. alexiteric. cardiac. 1931. diseases of nose. DISTR. Persara. :—Root is bitter. hiccup. bronchitis. LOC. . :—Epiphyte. K. and was found useful (Koman). The bulb is stomachic. :—An epiphyte.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. praemorse.3-2 cm. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Atiras. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. lessens inflammations . bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. skin diseases. Fl. :—G. and an acute interposed one. PROPERTIES AND USES.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. :—Konkan. The plant contains an alkaloid. Madhya-Pradesh.

M. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Ragatarshado. acrid. diam. Fl. cures cough. H. dysentery. with an offensive odour.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Kanara and S. dark. Bilidhupa. :—North Kanara. FAM. Sekalyel. prolonged into a linear-oblong. ulcers and wounds. Sandras. K. Country. boils and ringworm. :—E. Shandike. tonic. Safed-damar. Ceylon. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. :—Western India. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. young branches and panicles pubescent. Red Creeper.. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. diarrhœa. Haruge. detergent. Lokhandi. :—E. Raktavalli. USES.-Jany. abundant in S. tuberculous glands. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. stomachic. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. eardiseases. carminative. 1-nerved wing. Pitti.—5-10 X 2. anæmia. Kundura. Kubbila. Sk. Malamaitra. Kaharub. Dhupa. COM. PARTS USED. alexipharmic. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. C. DISTR. Shala. whitish). NS. See—Timbers. yellowish. bechic. Coorg in Ghats. CHAR. Fl. useful in leprosy. t. PARTS USED. Madidhupa. Khandvel.8 cm. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. rheumatism. LOC. . :—Madras State. Poppli. useful in atonic dyspepsia. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. NS. hemicrania. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. M. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . greenish.. :—A large much branched woody climber. COM. skin eruptions. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). good for sore-throat. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani).5-3. Tenasserim. Travancore. itch (Ayurveda). expectorant. FAM. alexipharmic. tonic and stimulant.-nut about 5 mm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. debility and slight cases of fever. G. H. (T.—Rhamnaceæ. Kanara. in chronic bronchitis.. amenorrhœa.—petals 5. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Gums and Resins. fruit.—in large drooping terminal panicles.—Dec. also in N. Fr. buds 5-angled. Oils. DISTR. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Sarjaka. Sk. Mysore. LOC. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. urinary discharges. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. LOC. Dhupa. :—Bark. globular. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. K. :—Bark-hot. piles. entire or crenate. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark. resin. also planted.

t— Jany. M. used in skin-diseases. :—Plant. Fr. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. Gujarat. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. Somaraj.—oblong. Vishamushti. sub-globose. G. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. :—Seeds-acrid. M. branched near the top. NS. Kalhara. :—E. Fl. L. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. stem 0.2 cm.-rotate. hairy. H. yellow. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. Fr. hairy. truncate. Bakchi. Vanajiraka. Kadvojiri. CHAR.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. LOC. FAM. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. Sk. LOC. Kulara. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). involucre bracts linear. Gadar-tambaku. Kulhala. H. lyrate. CHAR.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. M. K. coarsely serrate. robust..8 cm. Kalizhiri.—capsule. The juice of the whole plant.. about 40-flowered. Somaraj. . lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. rachis glandular pubescent. Fl. high . leafy herb . DISTR. C. Kalijiri. lobes 5.6-0. :—G. innermost the longest. Agnibija.—Compositæ. :—Throughout India. hairy. Vapehi. PROPERTIES AND USES. on long petioles. HABITAT:-Waste places. rounded. Purple Fleabane. Country. Ceylon. all coarsely dentate. and leaves. with purple tips . :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. :—Annual.-May. LOC.5—3.—alternate.. t. lanceolate. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. Bhutakeshi.) FAM.9 m. squeezed out by pounding. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS.. PARTS USED. :—Konkan . Kutki. DISTR. 10-ribbed. COM. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. stems 60—90 cm. often cultivated. Fl. astringent to bowels. hairy on both sides. China. high. ofter cultivated. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). 5—9 x 2. "Vata" and "Kapha". pappus reddish. Sundika. Seeds— anthelmintic. Sk.—Dec.—Scrophulariaceæ. The juice mixed with mustard oil. Kalejire.-achene oblong cylindric. PARTS USED. in equal proportions. Sd. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. warted. :—Throughout India .224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Java . cure ulcers. Fl. Ceylon . L. anthelmintic.Feb. Afghanistan.—heads subcorymbose. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. erect. COM. compound or pinnatisect. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. K. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. :—An annual herb. Deccan .

Bena. cures "Tridosha". and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. 15—75 cm. alternate. good for sores and itching of eyes. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). Sadori. hiccup . Sind. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. Osari.. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. erect herb.—achene. used for asthma. K. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. In Ceylon. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. The plant with quinine. clothed with white hairs . kidney troubles.—simple. Kuruvelu. :—E. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. astringent. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. M. oblong. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Sahadevi. :—E. tonic. remove blood from liver. Lavancha. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. CHAR. Sk. :—Throughout India. LOC. Ardhaprasadana. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. t. stem stiff. seeds. awned. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). tropical Asia. Panni. striate. a depilatory (Yunani). Sedardi. Sadodi. consumption. stomachic. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. silky on the back. plant is used in fever convulsions. Valo . NS. flowers. NS. LOC. cold. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda).—Compositæ. pubescent. Dandotpala. Ushira. bronchitis . Sk. Africa . Cuscus grass. Fl. M. :—Plant. LOC. G. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Bala. FAM. Fl. applied in inflammatory swellings . are used in destroying pediculi. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. pappus white. G. Ash-coloured Fleabane . H. H. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. :—Annual. high.—Gramineæ. DISTR. Devika. K. FAM. made into a bolus with lime-juice. Vecrnam. asthma. L. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions.—Jan.— pinkish violet. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. Khas. COM. They are also used as tonic. COM. The expressed juice is given in piles. bruised seeds ground up in paste. heads small. Vala. Sahadevi. :—A common weed throughout the State. PARTS USED. Australia.-Feb. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). Mudivala. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. with lime-juice. . stomachic and diuretic. Sahadevi. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Koosa.

expectorant and diuretic. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. L. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. blood diseases (Yunani). Nilpushpi. LOC. strangury. Sinduvara. Ceylon. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. PARTS USED. NS. febrifuge. DISTR. stimulant and tonic. margin spinously rough. tonic and vermifuge. Sk. Culms stout. K. inflammations. Sambhalu. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. useful in burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. :—Throughout India. astringent. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers.—panicle up to 30 cm. Konkan and Deccan. astringent. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places.8 m. Sind. heating. Nirgari. erect. :—Throughout the State. racemes up to 5 cm. Sessile spikelets. DISTR.. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. Kanara in damp places. stomachic. Nirgundi.-leaf sheaths compressed. bitter. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . alexiteric. Nirgundi. rachis stout. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. consumption. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. Nukki. :—Roots. long. asthma. useful in spermatorrhoea. high. USES :—Root is tonic. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. soporific.. long. :—G. head-ache. throughout the Malayan regions.—Verbenaceæ. lower ones keeled and fan-like. Lakki. colour varying from yellowish to black. useful in eye diseases. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). pale green. COM. usually sheathed all along. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . H. West-Indies and Brazil. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . LOC. spleen enlargement. The otto is used as a tonic. up to over 1. Bilenekki. The roots contain an essential oil. refrigerant.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. foul breath. inflammations and irritability of stomach. bilious fevers. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. promotes hair-growth. bronchitis. Nirgud. diuretic. Fl. anthelmintic. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. LOC. PARTS USED. bitter. slender. :—Root. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. M. Nigod. PROPERTIES AND USES. leucoderma. also cultivated. :—Cooling. leaves. Philippine Islands. stomachic. cephalic. thirst. bitter. Nirgundi. :—Common in Gujarat and N. biliousness. Afghanistan. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. sweats. Indrani. Cooling to brain. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. Leaves are aromatic. FAM.

G. allays vomiting. Draksha. produces alopecia. Gujarat and S. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Sk. difficult to digest. . leaves. Khandesh. PROPERTIES AND USES. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. cooling. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. flowers. Draksha. Flowers—expectorant. Guchaphala. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. cooling useful in thirst. HABITAT. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. NS. See—Timbers. produces constipation. M. Madhurasa. bad effects of drinking. fruits. DISTR. :—Cultivated. purifies and enriches blood . burning. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). M. fattening . stomachic. diuretic. W. cures thirst. Angur. India. useful in old fevers. a remedy for skin diseases. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. Drakh . jaundice. emmenagogue. aperient. astringent to bowels. Yakshmaghni. Seeds—aphrodisiac. appetiser. blood diseases. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Draksha. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. The plant contains an alkaloid. fever. applied in scabies. tonic to liver. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. cooling . Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. :—Deccan. causes gases in the stomach. sparingly in Poona. seeds. Sap of young branches. PARTS USED :—Stem. skin should not be eaten. Darakh. The fruits contain vitamin A. diarrhœa. testicle swellings and piles. cough. catarrh and jaundice. syphilis. stops bleeding from mouth. Draksha. Fruit— digestive. allays vomiting. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. H. heat of body. fever. LOC. good in chronic bronchitis . strangury. good for lungs. diuretic .. K. fattening. Grape-vine. :—E. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. Angura. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). Fruit is nervine. stones in bladder. :—Fruit-acrid. hoarseness and consumption. FAM-—Vitaceæ. LOC. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. Ahmednagar. :—A native of western Asia. piles. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. expectorant. COM. sweet. spleen inflammation. Country. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. laxative. emmenagogue. liver and kidney. good for eyes and throat. There are numerous cultivated varieties. and given in coughs. and traces of vitamins B and C. aphrodisiac. asthma. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic.

Sogada-beru. COM. oblong. Drakshasava—used as tonic. Gujarat. favours constipation (Yunani). Tuber—bitter. H. Wagati. Hirimaddina-gadde. alterative. scabies. seeds. :—A robust woody climber. hard. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. Canaries. :—Drier regions.—berry. senile debility.. calyx-tube. leaves. tonic. aphrosidiac. Balada. Asgund.— Sept. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). Gandhpatri. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. high. Fl. Ceylon. CHAR.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. 6 mm. oblong. consumption. :—Deccan. dark-green.5 m. Fr. hoary tomentose . slightly 5-angled. Fl. ovate. Sd. long. PARTS USED :—Root. dark-orange. Sd.-Jany. armed with prickles . swollen above the seeds. :—E. marasmus of children. enclosed in inflated calyx. heating. psoriasis. good in asthma. :—Tubers-bitter. inserted on the top of. aphrodisiac. CHAR.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). long.—Solanaceæ. USES. obovate. Kanara. ulcers. lumbago. rachis grooved with soft hairs.—petals 5. leucoderma.. inflammations. base dentate. G. coriaceous. Kanchuki. See—Fruit Trees. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. branches terete. :—Konkan jungles.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm.—pod. L.5-12. :—Root and bark. M. Punir. Kamrupini. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. anthelmintic.—greenish or lurid yellow. Asan. bronchitis. FAM. PARTS USED. Cape of Good Hope. branches armed with recurved prickles . K.. PROPERTIES AND LOC. abundant in Sind . 7. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . Sk. Wakeri. bony Fl. tonic. Deccan.5 cm. red. NS. (not common. diam. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . alexipharmic. 23-30 cm. bronchitis. insomnia. Mediterranean regions. Ashvagandha. . HABITAT. main rachis armed with prickles. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. NS. Asgundh. linear oblong. Vajini. Wagati. C. FAM.—yellow. green berries. Winter-cherry. LOC. pinnae 4-6 pairs. chest troubles etc. smooth. t.3-1.—2-pinnate. :—A branched erect undershrub. asthma. somewhat scurfy. :—K. :—In the drier regions of India . WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. Fr. LOC. Amangura.—5-10 X 2. Asoda. Ghodasoda. useful in "Vata". 0. minutely hairy. entire. pretty common in the ghats. constricted between them. long.—3-4. leaflets 5-7 pairs.5-5 cm. acrid. COM. L. DISTR. Fl. M. PROPERTIES AND USES.-Feb. inflammations. anthritis. "Kapha". emmenagogue . t. spathulate.) DISTR. Hooliganji.

emaciation of children. 5-9X 1. :—Root is regarded as tonic. China.—capsule. nigro-punctate beneath. toxic. Dhateki.—numerous. L.—mostly opposite. Kalakuda. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. 1 cm. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Hayamaraka. common in the Konkan and N. and in derangement of liver . USES. Dhavani. ulcers and painful swellings . lumbar pains.3-2. Baluchistan. long. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. :—Pungent. uterine sedative. Br. M. haemorrhoids. Hallunova.—Apocynaceæ. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. FAM. Hale. velvety above. Kanara near the sea-coast. erysipelas. debility from old age. t. Sk. PARTS USED. HABITAT. K. H. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Dhawadina. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Sd. Fr. Indrajav. NS. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. rheumatism. Santha. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Madhuindrayava.. simple. Ornamental Plants. The plant contains an alkaloid. Tamrapushpi. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Khirni. NS. tropical Africa. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. acrid.— numerous. Swetakutaj. Kalikari. LOC. Dhawai. wedge-shaped. COM. :—Throughout India. Are. Fl. leprosy. useful in leucorrhoea. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Dyes. smooth. Dhaiti. :—Monsoon-forests. Bela. :—G. branches long. Java. anthelmintic . Kodamurki. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. Madagascar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. alterative. Dudhi. dysentery. Japan.-May.5 cm. Sk. alexiteric. Indrajav. leaf-infusion is given in fever. ovate-lanceolate. LOC. It is narcotic. Dec. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Sumatra. Kuda. Fl. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Madhavasini. :—Bark and flowers. K. COM. used in thirst. irregularly dehiscent. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. :—G. Dhaw. H.—Lythraceæ. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Phulsatti.) FAM. cooling. on trap in the Akrani. brown. DISTR. blood diseases. . Ceylon. M. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Indrajav. PROPERTIES AND USES. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. See—Tans. Vanhishikha. Dhavani. scarlet. diuretic and deobstruent.

Gadrian. :—Cooling.1-6.5 cm. . LOC. Dumundi. Fl. antidysenterica (Yunani). Fr. CHAR. fattening. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. :—Bark and seeds. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . West-Peninsula. improves appetite.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. Aristha.. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. DISTR. Fl. Bur-Weed. voice. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. rough with short hairs . PROPERTIES AND USES. L. Sankeshwar. Itara. tonic. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. stem short. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. M. Timor. all over the State. salivation. Clot-Cockle-bur. PARTS USED. PARTS USED. biliousness. long. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. :—Rajastan. Banokra.—Compositæ. cures leucoderma. USES :—Root is bitter. 5-7. In S. Kambu-Vanamalini. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. Dutundi. Ceylon. Sk. fever. LOC. oblong ovoid. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests .—many. complexion. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. the bark is specially useful in piles.-E. long and broad. epilepsy. PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. :—The whole plant. laxative. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. COM. LOC. :—Annual herb . memory. axillary.achene.—Jany. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. Khandesh at 1050 m. with 2 erect beaks. 3-lobed. alexiteric. at the top. hard and tough. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. H. Shankhahuli. hairy on both sides. barren heads many. digestive. Sarpakshi. :— Throughout India. antipyretic.. NS. 1-3 cm. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). compressed . The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. DISTR.. irregularly incisoserrate . anthelmintic.Feb. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. in W. t. especially root and fruit. See—Timbers. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. G. involucre of fertile head. ovoid in fruit. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. poisonous bites of insects. Madhya Pradesh. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). fertile heads few. stout. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. LOC. tonic.

Beri. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. Anupama. on poor soil and in rocky places. M. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) .—Rhamnaceæ. pains (Yunani). heating. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. tonic. Plum. loss of appetite and piles. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. vomiting. DISTR. :—E. . Indian Cherry. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. and dry situations. Bor. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Bordi. alexiteric. K. Boyedi. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Ber. useful in elephantiasis. Egasi. Sk. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Dridhabija. PARTS USED. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). "Vata". "Kapha". bronchitis. eructations. good in piles. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. asthma. FAM. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. :—Rhizome-pungent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Ada. NS. Alen. piles. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. removes pain due to cold. inflammations. laxative. G. gives lustre to eye. LOC. flatulence. Adrate. Alla Adrak. :—Rhizome. Sk. head-ache. Koli. appetiser. H. Ardraka. :—Cultivated. HABITAT. :—E. Bore. G. Ginger. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. K. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta).—Scitaminaceæ. Chinese Date. Rhizome—pungent. lumbago. stomachic. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Ipanji. aphrodisiac. NS. Ber. Kuvali. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. anthelmintic. M. to prevent nausea and griping. H. Shringavera. Bogari. Hasisunthi. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. COM. See—Condiments and Spices. aphrodisiac. tongue and increases appetite. rheumatism. carminative. Ajapriya. carminative. FAM. it is also given in the form of infusion. expectorant. it cleans throat. COM. Alen. PROPERTIES AND USES. pains. dyspepsia. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). useful in heart and throat diseases. colic. stomachic. Gulmmula. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.. vomiting. Badari. Bor. Kandara. It is stimulant.

on the laterite near the coast in N. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. burning sensation.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. useful in fevers. Bark—causes boils . . LOC. causes diarrhœa in large doses . reduce obesity. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. seeds. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. tonic to heart and brain . Fruit Trees. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. vomiting. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . good in consumption and blood-diseases. Leaves antipyretic. Fruit—sweet and sour. biliousness. Kanara. Fruits contains vitamin A. Burma. Fruit— cooling. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Root and Bark tonic. allays thirst (Yunani). causes cough. tonic. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Africa. DISTR. head-ache. Leaves form a plaster to boils. cooling. China. fruit. Afghanistan.. removes biliousness. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. See—Timbers. PARTS USED. good in liver complaints. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . Australia. laxative. indigestible. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. PROPERTIES AND USES. aphrodisiac. :—Root. cure asthma. Ceylon. Leaves—anthelmintic. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. bark. thirst. wounds and ulcers. :—Root-bitter. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. leaves. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Seed—astringent. abundant in the Deccan.

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