SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). erysipelas. Country and Gujarat. Sikkim. Kushthari. aphrodisiac. M. Sige-balli or kai. China. M. Western Peninsula. ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Lalkhair. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Himalayas up to 1700 m. wrinkled when dry . Burma.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Kanara (often on laterite). cures itching. leaflets 10-20 pairs. relaxation of the uvula. :—Rajastan. COM. Vidula. piles. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). Phena. bronchitis. Charmakusha. See—Timbers. LOC. strengthens teeth. Manda-otte. :—Common in the Konkan and N. cooling. Deccan.. It is given in diarrhœa. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Sk. Dantadhavan. acrid. leucorrhoea. :—Throughout India. 5-10 cm. M. Soap-pod tree. Saptata. anti-pyretic. linear-oblong.-t. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. fleshy when green.. Tans. Kath-bole. DISTR. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). Kanara forests.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Yajnika. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. indigestion. Fr. " Kapha ". yellow. Malay Islands. Chikakai. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles .—pod.5-12. boils.—bipinnate. Sd. measles and other skindiseases. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Pegu.-6-10 . Saradruma. Fl. " Vata ". psoriasis. Dipta. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion.5X2-2. NS. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. Khadira. prurigo. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). inflammations. Kochi. CHAR. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. .—in fascicled globose heads. LOC.-Mar. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. leprosy. Fl. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. FAM. given in elephantiasis. 7. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. throat diseases. Shikekai. long.8 cm. overlapping. tonic. Sk. mouth troubles. Bhuriphena. DISTR. along the coasts of Konkan and N. :—Common throughout the Stale . gums. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. hypertrophy of tonsils. Shige. L. Dyes. LOC. Khair. In ulceration of the gums. :—E. urinary and vaginal discharges.-July. Khandesh Akrani S. Ritha. H. K. sore-throat and tooth-ache. astringent to bowels. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. :—An extensive woody climber. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. heaviness. antidysenteric. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. G.

buboes. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. leucoderma. Sind. cures stomatitis. blood diseases. Gandhbabul. leucoderma. eczema. detergent. Jali. . not indigenous but naturalised. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. burning sensation. :—E. Stinking acacia. Kankri. cooling. Sk.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). caries of teeth. leaves and gum. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. bronchitis. blood-diseases. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). expectorant and good emetic. cardio-tonic. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . COM. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . Arimeda. Jheri baval. anti-dysenteric.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. biliousness. K. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. DISTR. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. erysipelas. LOC. piles. Cassia flower.pungent. Sauna jali. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. ascites. externally they are applied to leprous patches. ulcers. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. alexiteric. FAM. In Philippines decoction. itching. anthelmintic. Devababhul. causes " Vata". G. Internally they are aperient. Sponge tree. H. LOC. inflammations. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. HABITAT :—Moist situations. Pissibabul. often cultivated. deobstruent. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. improves appetite. anthelmintic. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. stomatitis. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. Gums and Resins. prurigo. erysipelas.. tonic. Vilavati kikar. NS. Girimeda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. often planted . See—Timbers. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). Kari jali. digestible. Gandhelo khair . Gum—sweetish. PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. cures " Kapha. Marudruma. anti-diarrhoeal. purgative.

Apang. NS. L. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. pneumonia and rheumatism. one-seeded. Chalmari. elongate.8-6. FAM. minute. perianth 4-5 segments.—truncate at apex. t. high. Khokali. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. small. many. 3. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. in lax. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. Philippines. Sd. Kantarika. CHAR.—Amarantaceæ. Kuppi-gida. softly hairy. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. axillary spikes . Fr. Agheda-di. Kuppi. L. M. crenate-serrate. in elongate terminal spikes. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.—Nov. Fl.3-0. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.5x2-4.9 m. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. high. Uttrane . The plant contains acalyphin. about 50 cm. :—Common in the Deccan and S. Sk. :—An erect herb 0. Fl. :—Annual. enclosed in perianth smooth.—Euphorbiaceæ. CHAR. K. :—Throughout India. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. Aghada . PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Chichra. 2.. somewhat 3-nerved. Vasira.—monœcious. ascending. K. females. asthma. Sd. clustered near the summit of spike. Fl. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. Fr. FAM.—utricle. H. few. oblong-cylindric. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. Prickly chaff-flower.5 cm.— ovoid. t.. COM.5 cm. It is used in congestive headache. angular. hispid.-Jany. Arittamanjaria. Utranigida. 30-75 cm. Merkati. brown. COM. M. Khokla. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Khajoti.—June-Sept. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Chirchira.—opposite. branches terete or quadrangular striate. Vanchhikanto. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. males. branches long. long in fruit. elliptic obovate. NS. smooth. brown. Ceylon. H. Apamarga. pale-brown.57. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. tropical Africa. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis.—capsule. rounded at base. G. scattered.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Ksharamadhya. erect herb. :—G. DISTR. stem stiff. . Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. LOC. Latjira . Kharamanjiri.5-4. Country. :—E. M. Sk.—greenish white. LOC.3 X 2. Var. erect.

8 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Bitter. Gorbach . piles. itching. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. carminative. Throughout Asia. kidney troubles.8 X 1. abdominal pains. stomatitis. Ugragandha. L. LOC. Bhutnashini. tumours. throat. heart diseases.7-3. prismatic. 5-10 cm. flowers and seeds. piles. voice. Vekhand. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. CHAR. :—An aromatic herb . DISTR. delirium. sepals scarious. heating. bright-green.—turbinate. emetic. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. leaves. Vacha. Europe and N. carminative. Vekhand . anthelmintic. emmenagogue . blood diseases (Ayurveda). Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. long. rat-bite. hysteria. . pungent. dysentery. Baja . COM. Sweet flag . useful in vomiting. anthers yellow. inflammations. America. and is considered useful in dropsy. slightly curved. NS.. stomachic. Godavaj. diuretic. Baluchistan. laxative. brain-tonic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. boils. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. epilepsy. spathe 15-75 cm. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. PARTS USED :—Root. long. "Vata". :—Throughout India. LOC. PARTS USED : —Root. Australia. Africa. inflammations. :—E. leucoderma (Yunani). improves appetite. Sk.9-1. laxative. H. ascites. dyspepsia. useful in abdominal pains. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. M. See—Sacred Plants. creeping and branching. LOC. flatulence. bronchitis. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. Sikkim. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. fevers. useful in general weakness. skin eruption etc. margins wavy. Jatila. FAM. America. thirst. Gandhilovaj. K. useful in dyspepsia. green . 0. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Tropical Asia. toothache. G. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. good for mouth diseases. acute. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. etc.. heating.—Araceæ. expectorant. spadix. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. HABITAT :—Marshy places. bitter. liver and chest pains. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). alexiterie. bronchitis. improves appetite. top pyramidal. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. Fr. loss of memory. obtuse. laxative.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Bach. thickened in the middle. Ceylon. dysentery. carminative.

:—K. Powder is very effective insecticide. Pisa. Haggodgimara. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. leaf and fruit. COM. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Deccan. Gujarat. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. useful in biliousness. vomiting. Sk. Kanara evergreen forests. in children. Monkey-bread tree. In cases of irritation of throat and cough.:—Konkan.—Bombacaceæ. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. Gopali.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. M. Gorakhaamli. indigenous in tropical Africa. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. G. It is a good remedy in asthma. FAM. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. DISTR.—Lauraceæ. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Bukha. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. Pichli. Gorakshi. :—E. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. Panch-parnika. H. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . :—Grown in many places in India . :—Western Peninsula. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. See—Timbers. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. DISTR. etc. fever. HABITAT':—Cultivated. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) .. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Gorakamali. bark. Gorakhchinch. Brahmamlika. NS. African calabash. Baobab. LOC. N. colic. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. M. LOC. anti-pyretic. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Goremlichora .MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. fevers and other maladies. PARTS USED : —Root. Rukhdo . COM. LOC. NS. Tudgensu . dysentery. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. FAM.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

Vamaka. :—Throughout the State. Ankota. :—Throughout India. Shirish. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. G. Ankoli. :—E. M. spermatorrhoea. Root-bark— used in piles. alexiteric. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. Kanara. often along banks of nalas in N. Chinchola. Ankola. inflammations. rat-bite. lumbago (Yunani). Ankoli. inflammations. Kalosadasado. hydrophobia. gleet. Anedhera.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. pungent. useful in worms. COM. dysentery. fish-poison. Shirisha. Ceylon. anthelmintic. cures " Kapha". Piloshirish. Philippines. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . LOO. :—E. useful in inflammations. M. Sirsul. Garso. K. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Karnapura. Akoly. alterative. Kathora. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. NS. biliousness. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). leaves (rarely). Sirisa. aphrodisiac. indigestible. heating. Ankola. Tantia. China. blood diseases. Fruit—laxative. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Ankotha. Shankiniphala. Root-bark poisonous. lumbago. wasting diseases. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. anthelmintic. blood diseases. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). carminative. S. Juice—emetic. acute fever. See—Timbers. Shyamala. FAM. Krishnashirisha. Sk. Ankora. Ankol. cures erysipelas. Seeds—cooling. Sage-leaved alangium. and fruit. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. colic. " Vata "-pain. H. aromatics or honey. it is said to stop after-pains. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Asroli. Dodda-Hombage.) FAM. See—Timbers. Gudhapatra. Sirai. NS. Kalshish. G. commonly planted along roadsides. Sk. DISTR. poisonous bites. COM. H. Tamraphala. burning of body. Kalashirish. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas.—Leguminosæ. Uddanaka. Shirish. Ankola. stem. Malaya. Kaloshirish. Dridhakantaka. Kullumavu. (Mimosaceæ). ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. alexipharmic . diarrhœa. expectorant. Onkla. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic.—Alangiaceæ. tonic. K. . and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. LOC.

Leaves—good in night blindness. appetiser. cures "Vata". Dungari. blood diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. inflammations. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. enriches blood. Bark— anthelmintic. It is an important garden crop. volatile oil. excessive perspiration. Flowers—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. aphrodisiac. Bengal. usually planted. The plant contains vitamins A. syphilis. weakness. maturant. Root—astringent. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. B & C. Ceylon. Seeds—fattening. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. Piyaz.. vomiting. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. boils. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. cooling. Ulageddi. seeds. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. ear-ache. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. ophthalmia. etc. Kanda. Bulb—tonic. COM. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. asthma. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Bark-bitter. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Bark and seeds are astringent. diarrhœa. catarrh. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). seeds. useful in vomiting. tonic. improves taste. Burma. and chronic bronchitis . SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. scabies. DISTR. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. piles. epistaxis. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. deafness. leucoderma. and also in skin diseases . Onion. anthelmintic. See—Timbers. skin-diseases. etc. stimulant and expectorant.:—E. spleen diseases. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). paralysis. prescribed in ophthalmia. Palandu. itching. LOC. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Seeds—tonic to brain. G. . stomachic. cultivated everywhere. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. dropsy. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. bleeding piles. good in rat-bite. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Oil is used in leprosy. used in leprosy. M.. FAM. body pains. :—Native country probably Persia. tumours. scabies. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. their smell useful in hemicrania. occasionally used in fever. bark. given in piles. LOC. which acts as a diuretic. See—Vegetables. piles. useful in malaria. erysipelas. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. emollient. NS. Sk. LOC. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda).—Liliaceæ. biliousness. relieves tooth-ache. eruptions and swellings. flowers. H. strengthens gums and teeth. Rajapriya.K. bronchitis. Rochaka.: —Throughout India.

chronic fevers. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. :—E. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. useful in diseases of eye and heart. FAM.—Liliaceæ. Kattali. sciatica. aphrodisiac. low fevers. LOC. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. digestive. K. Lahsan. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. PARTS USED :—Bulb. LOC. useful in inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Lasun. alexipharmic. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. heating. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. ear-ache (Ayurveda). NS. FAM. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Country. paraplegia and convulsive affections.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. COM. ALŒ VERA Linn. G. inflammation. Rasonaka.—Liliaceæ. improves appetite. Ghi-kumari. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Ugragandha. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. M. It is an important garden crop. tumours. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. caries of teeth. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Kumari. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. leucoderma. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. piles. thirst. In cases of diphtheria. Sk. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. NS. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. carminative. Kapila. complexion. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. H. . epileptic fits. Ikshurmallika. G. fattening. thirst. good for lumbago. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. Lasan. Indian aloe. asthma. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. :—E. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Bellulli. " Vata ". See—Vegetables. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. hemiplegia. Lashuna. Korphad. tonic. COM. oleaginous . In pulmonary phthisis. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. Kuvarpatha. liver and lungs . anthelmintic. lumbago. M. clears voice. Kumari. K. M. Kanya. Diuretic. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. Lolisara. Lasan. thins the blood (Yunani). paralysis. voice. In Cambodia. Korkand. troubles of spleen. Garlic. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. H. Sk. The plant contains vitamin C. body and joint pains. leucoderma.

Kaduhale. NS. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. PARTS USED :— . biliousness (Yunani). The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. methritis. H. E. inflammations. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. K. :—E. cooling. pale-green. vomiting. liver troubles. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Ceylon. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. Bitter . mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. Satwin. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. FAM.—sessile. C. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. bronchitis. anthelmintic. margins spiny. Kadusale. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. purgative. Dita bark tree. DISTR. simple or branched. jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. Africa. Chatian. used in fevers. Saptachhada. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. wild along the coast. ulcers (Ayurveda). spleen enlargement. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. somewhat divided. LOC. Australia. Kanara. Satwin. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. scaly. tumours. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. It also acts as a mild purgative. perianth cylindric . carminative. India. Mediterranean. crowded. DISTR. lanceolate. isobarbaloin and emodin. Root. COM. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. pain in muscles. M. ophthalmia. piles. :—Throughout India. :—Wild along the coast in S. tonic. lumbago. LOC. Sk. emollient and demulcent. aphrodisiac. Jamaica. fattening.—in dense racemes . leaves. :—A perennial herb . bark. PARTS USED :—Leaves. useful in eye-diseases. The plant contains aloin. Saptaparna. pendulous. LOC. yellow. scape longer than the leaves. digestive. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. strangury. Barbados. planted in Indian gardens . alexiteric. and it is largely imported into India. West Indian Islands. asthma. also cultivated. HABITAT :—Moist forests. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. Native of S. skin diseases. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. biliousness.—Apocynaceæ. Java. common in the rain-forests of N. Satian. fleshy. Br. useful in splean inflammation. stem short thick. milky juice. purgative. alterative. tropical Africa. liver complaints. tonic. L. gonorrhœa. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Hale.

INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. sudorific and febrifuge. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. hallucination. FAM. Mullarave-soppu. Apamarisha. leprosy. apiculate. " tridosha " pain. Tandulibija. ovoid. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. lanceolate. 30-60 cm. LOC. Root—heating expectorant. galactogogue.— 3. bitter. Prickly amaranth. leucorrhoea. K. unisexual. diuretic.5 X 1. M. rubbish heaps and fields. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). Kantanu-dant. Ceylon. See—Timbers. Kante math. long. NS.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. antipyretic. Kantanatia. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. tumours. . Cholai. obtuse. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. Kantalo dambho. rubbish heaps . oleaginous. entire. biliousness. Tandulja.). diseases of the blood. piles. thickened at the top. Sk.. often reddish. high. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. stomachic. L. rugose. ulcers. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). obtuse. tropical countries. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. alexiteric. digestible. asthma. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. improves appetite. laxative. heating. CHAR. bristles pointed. appetiser. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . Fl. LOC. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. LOC. Tandulaja. leucoderma. Bark—acrid. HABITAT :—In waste places.3—3. Mulladantu. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. good in diseases of the heart. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. COM. Drug Com. numerous.8 cm. DISTR. antiperiodic and febrifuge. :—Throughout India. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. Pathyashaka. bronchitis. rat-bite.— capsule. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. G. boils and burns. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. also useful in catarrhal fever. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. ovate. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. male calyx acute. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. :—An erect glabrous herb. useful in " Kapha ". anthelmintic. female calyx oblong. :—E. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. H. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. also in fields. laxative. See—Vegetables. Fr. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache.2—7.—Amarantaceæ. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine.

H. constipating.—Araceæ. harmful in "Kapha". LOC. Malaya. :—An annual. LOC. China. Ceylon. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Sk.—Lythraceæ. fevers etc. Kandala. :—E. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. H. PARTS USED :—Leaves. FAM. Konkan rivers. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. L. G. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. stomachic. Gujarat and Kanara. . removes " Kapha ". DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. t. Jalavgiyo. Bharajambhul. stomachic. Grows wild on the banks of S. Suran. branches usually opposite. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume.:— Konkan. Deccan. FAM. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Sukaranda. PARTS USED :—Root. Suran . is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. erect or subscandent herb. NS. vomiting. M. :—Throughout India in moist places. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Suran. Fl. Kuranti. Sk. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. K. NS. red. LOC. LOC. Kandavardhan. Afghanistan.—capsule. Kuranda. :—E. sessile. Kurendika. asthma. Vatari. laxative.—opposite. COM. blood diseases. Jangli mehandi. Kanthalla." blood troubles. much narrowed at the base. bronchitis. Tropical Africa. aphrodisiac. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). It is also used as an emmenagogue. M. depressed. enlargement of the spleen. :—Cultivated widely in the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Fr. strangury . Bitter and acrid .—Nov. abdominal pains. Blistering ammania. COM. G. tumours. used as an appetiser (Yunani). elephantiasis . high. In the Konkan. DISTR. Suran. Dadmari. acrid. fresh or dried. Arshaghna. increases appetite and taste. pungent. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. causes itching sensation. useful in piles. appetiser. Sd. globose. CHAR.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . the plant. Fl. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Elephant's foot. corm. 8-65 cm. Vikata. " Vata. Australia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

Kakanashika. M. G. LOC. L. Kaju. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). many flowered. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. sweet. Sk. See—Vegetables.. H. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. Fish-Louse Berry. USES :—Bark is alterative. flowers. also cultivated. Kakamari.—in panicles 25-35 cm. Jermic. FAM. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. B. :—E. Crow-Fish Killer. ringworm. Kakkisoppugida . skin diseases. Kakamari. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. The plant contains Vitamins A. which is nutritious and emollient. H. The seed contains vitamin A. digestible. COM. Sophara. Corm is poisonous. Govamba. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. M.5 cm. Prithagbija. broadly ovate. anthelmintic. Fl. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. & A.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. swollen peduncle of fruit. . Gerubi. Cashew apple-nut. Kempu— Turkaka geru . LOC. :—A native of tropical America. dysentery. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. FAM. piles. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. NS. COM. equal to almond oil.— subcoriaceous.—Menispermaceæ. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kaju. CHAR. G. Upapushpika. Kajutaka. cures "Vata" and " Kapha".—Anacardiaceæ. NS. aphrodisiac. K. tumours. .5-12. K. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Gova. ulcers. Garalaphala. 10-12 X 7. Kaju . It is supposed to have restorative power. corns and obstinate ulcers. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. leucoderma. hot. DISTR. fever. Sk. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Bark. 5-nerved. Kakamari. leaves. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. cordate or truncate. bark vertically furrowed . See—Timbers. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. Oils. ascites. Kakamari. Agni-krita. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Kakaphal. and trace of C. Kakamari. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids.

cultivated. Ananasa. Sk. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. NS. Bhuinimba. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague.—Bromeliaceæ. Mahateet. causes cough and biliousness. Olikiriyat. PARTS USED :—Roots. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive.—Sept. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. dioecious. Assam. Ananas .MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Creat. :—E.—Acanthaceæ. COM. H. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. from Orissa to Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . also acts as a purgative. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. LOC. it is useful in jaundice. M. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. Ama. black . Mahatit. DISTR. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. removes gases from the intestines . Ananas . Olen kirayat. Kirata. Kanara. Kantak sanjika.) LOC. LOC. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). LOC. Bengal. fruits. FAM. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. t. Fl. a poison to fish (Yunani). Parvati. G. :—Konkan. COM. Nelabevu gida. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. See—Fruit Trees. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). E. K. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. It acts also as diuretic. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. native of Brazil (tropical America). Ananas hannu. M. to a certain extent in Gujarat. good expectorant. :—E. Kiryat. H. FAM. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. Kiriyata. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. DISTR.-Oct. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Ananas. :—Khasia Hills. . Sk. NS. G. leaves and fruits. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). K. smooth. Pine-apple . petals absent. N. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Ananas.

The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. upper lip 2-toothed.2-1. :—Deccan. Fl. high. Sundraphul. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Oshthaphala. L. C—2-lipped. crenate-serrate. lateral lobes small. L. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. solitary. Plant is useful in general debility. rose coloured. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic.3-0. C—2-lipped. FAM. oblong-lanceolate. high. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Sk.5 cm. . DISTR.—lanceolate. distant. t. and N. Malabar Catmint.. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. :—An erect shrub. Malay Peninsula.—Labiatæ. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. extensively used in Bengal. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. and anthelmintic. lower 3lobed. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. white below. dysentery. rugosely pitted. Vaikunth. acute at both ends . with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. COM.-Nov. Ceylon.-Oct. tonic. :—An erect branched annual 0.—small.9 m.—very thick. made into an electuary. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. sometimes cultivated. :—E. Br. Green leaves. undulate. dyspepsia and fever from teething. 1. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. t. Sd. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—many. :—Konkan and Kanara.—nutlets. very small. pale beneath. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. alterative. clothed with woolly hairs . Alamoda.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Kanara. K. Fr. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. distant. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. polished brown. Fl. Fr. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. smooth. HABITAT. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin.3-10 X 2-4. forming a spicate inflorescence.— capsule. NS. :—Throughout India. Karnatak. G. Fl. bracts lanceolate. pale above. thickly woolly. Fl. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. approximate above. stem quadrangular. linear-oblong. :—S. Chodhara. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. LOC.—Ghats. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. 6. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sundara.8 m.—Dec. CHAR. M. yellowish brown. purple. lower lip very large and broad . stomachic. Gojivana. LOC. ellipsoid. and certain forms of dyspepsia. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. DISTR. acute. Karitumbe.—in dense whorls . Roots and leaves are febrifuge.

sedative to heart. Durangi. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. DISTR. K. stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. :—E.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Bejjalu. Root—cathartic. flavoury. applied to skin-diseases. increases biliousness . Dyes. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Sugar apple. K. good tonic. enriches blood . removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". chronic diarrhœa. increases muscular strength. tasty. bark. LOC. Bark is bitter. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. fruit and seeds. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. FAM. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. useful in liver complaints. Custard apple. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Sitaphala. bark. Bakla. Sk. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. H. Dhava. NS. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. M. Seeds—difficult to digest. M. enriches blood. :—E. erysipelas. NS. Dohu. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Dhavada. DISTR. astringent to the bowels. Damora. LOC. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . COM. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. Sweet-sop. LOC. cooling . now cultivated throughout India. Sharipha. G. FAM. Sitaphala. Dhavada. Bahubijika. cooling. Kanara border. abortifacient. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Dhava. Anan. Sitaphala. Dhamora. Pitaphala. leaves and fruits. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Amritphala. Anuram. Sitaphal. COM. Button Tree.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall.—Combretaceæ. Shushkanga. Ata. expectorant. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. causes fever and furunculosis . Krishnabija. Ceylon. and eyesores. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). produce ulcers in the eye. See—Timbers. Dindala. Dabria. Fruit—sweet. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. (Yunani). HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Bark is a powerful astringent. Sitaphala. Sk. discharges.—Anonaceæ. Dhavala. improves taste and appetite . G. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. useful in anaemia. Dindiga. :—Throughout the greater part of India. :—A native of West Indies .

K. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Niv. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Sprouts—acrid. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. LOC. They are detergent and their powder. Chandkuda. Kaduve. Bairi. Karnapuraka. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. sweet. vulnerary. indigestible. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. burning sensation. Peninsula. In eye inflammations. M. Surabhi. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. COM. acrid. Kadamb . fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Kadamb. mixed with gram-flour. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Ajjanpatte. astringent to bowels. Sacred Plants.—Rubiaceæ. Ceylon. Pegu. Ashokari. " Vata". Nipa. FAM. Kadam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Kanara . :—Throughout India. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. LOC. wild or cultivated. It is generally considered tonic. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. good in uterine complaints. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Burma. DISTR. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Jajpugri. FAM. PARTS USED :—Seeds. strangury. saline. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. Kadamba. . from the Himalayas to Ceylon. USES:—In the Konkan. DISTR. often cultivated. causes biliousness when ripe. Sk. :—G. Kadubale. is a good hairwash. Chandkuda. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Nadija. LOC. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. bitter. alexiteric. H. PARTS USED:—Bark. Kadamb. blood diseases. stomachic. Valkala. Fruit—heating. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. Upas Tree. Fodder Plants. Malay Islands. common near Yellapur. Kadamb . Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. K. M.—Moraceæ. " Kapha". H. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. :—E. biliousness. sprouts and fruits. COM NS. Chandala. aphrodisiac. See—Fruit Trees. galactagogue. cooling. Tennaserim. Malayan Peninsula. :—W. sap of the tree. Sk.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. cure " Kapha ". abdominal pain. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). used in anasarca and colic. DISTR. rays 5-10. COM NS. NS. useful in ophthalmia. urinary discharges. LOC. Mungphali. Brahmakoshi. inflammations. Seeds—carminative. Bhuchanak. Bodi ajomoda. Bori ajmud.5-2 mm. improve appetite . vittae broad. See—Timbers. branching. good in ophthalmia. Abyssinia. Ugragandha. Sk. good for heart. G. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Bhuimug-chana. heart and spleen diseases. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Monkey-nut. traces of B and C. fever with cough. Sk. 0. :—A biennial plant. FAM. bronchitis. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. cauline 3-partite. hiccup. W. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. The plant contains vitamins A. aphrodisiac. ascites. ridges narrow. tonic. tooth-ache. :—E. Shimbika. rectal troubles. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Ajamoda.—1. and γ-antiarin. amenorrhœa. high. Ajmud. Wild celery. nasal catarrh (Yunani). Ground-Pea-nut. β-antiarin. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. CHAR. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. scabies. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. vomiting. vomiting. Europe. L. Fibres.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. Snehabijaka. pedicels 6-16 . Ajmoda . laxative. apex toothed . . Celery. Africa.4 m. Fr. K. Bhuimug.— in umbels. W. chest-pains. M.— radial. N. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. See—Vegetables.3-2. G. H. Moda.:—Foot of the N. cure asthma. Bhuimug. specially near large cities. abortifacient. M. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Mandapi. Chinimung. LOC. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. erect.—Umbelliferæ. rheumatism. " Vata " . Markati. COM. Java and Malaya. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. :—E. Asia. Afghanistan. appetiser. Nelkadle. segments once or twice trifid. Glucoside apiin is present. anthelmintic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. H. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Fl.. scorpion and other stings. Karafs. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. astringent to bowels .

:—Extensively grown in N.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Indo-Malaya. Mysore. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. M. Deccan. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. cardiotonic. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. leaves (rarely). diuretic.. Areca-nut palm. Betel-nut palm. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Sk. Hopari. improves appetite and taste. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. :—E. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). ARECA CATECHU Linn. emmenagogue. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. See—Food Plants. Akota. Gum pungent. In French Guinea. Nut astringent. Oils. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Sopari. G. Seed cooling. Bengal. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. used for eye-inflammations. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Gujarat and S. DISTR. Suppiyari. Chhataphala. Pugiphal. removes pus (Yunani). laxative. gleet. NS. K. removes foul breath. Chikkan. Chikka. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Malayan Peninsula and Islands. LOC. Supari. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. LOC. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. aphrodisiac. . In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. seeds. Assam. Supari. Areca palm. giddiness. digestive. useful in urinary disorders. Burma. Adki. Tantusara. Pophal. Betta. FAM. :—Madras. gum. bleeding gums. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. cooling. Poga. DISTR. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. H. indigestible. Kaungu. USES. LOC. Siam. Country. Kanara. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago.—Palmæ. Malabar. LOC. fairly largely in the Konkan. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. COM. M.

Daruri.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Datturi. COM. t. Srigalkanta. H. expectorant and demulcent. Mexican prickly poppy . Brahma dandi. Svarnakshiri. L. LOC. Shialkanta. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. Indigenous in tropical America. cures leprosy. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. spinous. K. This is said to bring the worm out at once. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). sinuately pinnatifid. opening by 4-6 valves. Bharbhand. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. inflammations and bilious fevers. Fl. Sd. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. oblong-ovoid 2. antidote to various poisons. high. Root anthelmintic. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. netted. Bila dhatura. Pirangi datturi. NS. destroys worms . and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. sedative. arecoline. Plant enriches blood.—thistlelike. Pita-pushpa. jaundice and cutaneous affections. prickly. See—Timbers. 7. . :—Found growing as a weed all over the State .12 m. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. arecaidine. Sk. India. 2. CHAR.5-18 cm. prickly.—Papaveraceæ. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. Seeds—purgative. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections.—numerous. globose. Balurakkisa. oblong. stem 0. M. :—A glabrous. and guvacine. Seeds are laxative. veins white. stem clasping. relieves blisters. nauseant. glaucous herb . and in pertussis and asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit Trees.5-5 cm. yellow. Juice—used as a collyrium. brownish black. diam. juice yellow. It is also diuretic. DISTR.—all the year.8 cm.5-3. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds.3-0. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. Fl. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. :—E. G. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India.— terminal. seeds and yellow juice. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. USES :—Root is an alterative. FAM. LOC. Ind. Fr.—capsule.). branching. emetic. useful is strangury. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. Darudi. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. various skin-diseases. purgative.

LOC.3-25 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . strangury. LOC. long. Sd. CHAR. base subglobose. Kitakaba. M. absorptive. Samandarka phal. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. white-tomentose L. " Kapha" fevers.—capsule. tropical Africa. Fl. Country.. DISTR. G.—deltoid with cordate base . pubescent outside. peduncles stout. prostrate.—Aristolochiaceæ.—in sub-capitate cymes. tube inflated.5-4. glabrous inside. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers.-Sept. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). Shyambhuna. Kitamari. useful in " Vata". striate. C—5-6. Fl. NS. ovate glabrous above. Ganda. FAM. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. cultivated. K. perianth 2. :—Bengal. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. gonorrhœa. pedicel with a large bract at the base.— 7. rose purple.—Weed of cultivation in black soils.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. CHAR. white-tomentose beneath. tip linear dark purple. G. :—E. In synovitis. powdered root is given with milk. diuretic . Fr. weak. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. used in gleet. Elephant Creeper. M. t. Arabia. Leaves are maturative. painful joints. NS. Java. (sometimes even larger).— 3. base cordate with wide sinus . LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Peninsula. Konkan. 12-ribbed . M. bracts large .-Nov. :—E. Samudrashok. white-tomentose.8-7. Kiramar. Kidamari. infundibuliform. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. Vridhadaraka. FAM. H. Adumuttadagida. Gujarat and S. Fl. Deccan and S. L.:—Konkan. Fr. with revolute margins.5 cm. t. Samudraballi. Samardar sokh. . the bands silky pubescent outside. Sk. stems stout. K. Dhuma-patra. W. Bracteated Birth-wort. Gandali. Ceylon. Dridhadaru.—Aug. M. Ajantri.—Convolvulaceæ. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. aphrodisiac. Samudrashosh. Country. Fl.5 cm. reniform or broadly ovate.3 cm. Samudrapatrashoh. Kidamar.—solitary. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Krimighni. 1. H. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. oblongellipsoid. stems.— globose apiculate. long and as broad as long. tubular. Hastivalli. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. long. COM. long.3-2 cm. HABITAT. Soge. See—Ornamental Plants. DISTR. :—A slender perennial. perhaps a native of Bengal. Varghoro.— Aug. :—A very large climber.5-30 x 6. COM. Sk. base cordate. anthelmintic.

L. Fl.) FAM. LOC. globose-oblong. obovate oblong 10-12. Indian wormwood.—Nov.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction.5 cm. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. joint-pains. . Manjipatri. PARTS USED :—Roots.—Compositæ. Nakuli. M. Stem long. :—E." pains in the joints.. Country.8-10 X 1. slender. dyspnoea of children. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. LOC. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Nagdamani. — capsule. Nilpushpa. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Fr. also useful in dropsy. Majtari. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. Dhor-davana.5 cm. Mother or Mugwort. Bengal. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Sapsan. :—Western Peninsula. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. M. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. entire with undulate margins. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. H. Arkamula. purgative (Yunani). H. The plant contains an alkaloid. G. M. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. leaves and seeds. tonic. CHAR. bract opposite the pedicel.—Aristolochiaceæ. emmenagogue. Mastaru.—in few flowered axillary racemes.—variable linear oblong. useful in " Tridosha. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. biliousness. Gathona.—flat. Sugandha. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. NS. Isharmula. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Arkamula. Sk. Fl. Nagduna. reaching 4. DISTR. Dovana. COM. long with globose inflated base. woody at the base.3-2.:—Konkan and S. grooved. Ceylon. Nepal. FAM. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Saraparni. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Dona. bitter. Sd. K. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—E. Seeds useful in inflammation. Indian Birth-wort. Isvara balli beru .. winged. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Ruhimula. base vaiable. dry cough. Ishvari. 3. t. 6-valved. K. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. Flea-bane. alexiteric. NS. COM. perianth greenishwhite. Sk. :—A twining shrub.5 cm. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic.5x7.

USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. minute. Tage. tonic. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Sk. LOC. cures "Kapha". pubescent above. aphrodisiac. Kujja. lobes entire.—heads ovoid or subglobose. LOC. leprosy. Jack-Orange wood. Panas. often planted along roadsides in N. ripe fruit laxative. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. fertile. deeply pinnatisect. Panesa. but rather difficult to digest. :—Widely cultivated. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. . Kanara. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. "Vata". 3-fid or entire. oblong ellipsoid. upper leaves smaller. ovate. grown in gardens also. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. HABITAT.6-2. diuretic. fattening. Phanas. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. The unripe fruit is astringent. Kanthal. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Halasina. Fruit Trees and Dyes. outer flowers female. useful in biliousness. aphrodisiac. inner hermaphrodite. base lobed. white tomentose beneath. Java. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. stems leafy. aphrodisiac. 0. temperate Asia. petioled. Phanasa. DISTR. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. Fl. Vanas.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. asthma. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. LOC.10x2. oleaginous. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. alexiteric. appetiser. involucral bracts villous. Fr. Panos. " Vata". DISTR. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. constipating (Ayurveda). t. Thailand (Siam). Externally it is used in fomentations. COM. asthma and brain diseases. Kantakaphala. hairy. :—Konkan. tonic. FAM. L— lower leaves 5. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. Seeds sweet. NS. Skandaphala. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. fruit and seeds. H. high. Ceylon. The plant contains an essential oil. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. enriches blood. cooling. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. An infusion is given as a tonic. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. lanceolate.5-5 em.— achene.4 m. See—Timbers. ulcers. :—E. solitary or 2.:—A perennial shrub. Ghats. itching (Ayurveda). Jack-fruit tree.-Hilly districts. Chakki. " Kapha". G.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall.—Urticaceæ. aromatic. Fl. LOC.—Jany. PARTS USED :—Leaves. K. although very nutritious. toothed or again pinnatisect.

thorn. Kaktundi. Sk. lanceolate. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. inflammation. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. Svetmuli. leaves and flowers. in the Himalayas. Indies. PARTS USED:—Root. naturalised in many parts of India.—opposite 7. C. See—Ornamental Plants. erect. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.3-2. A fibre is extracted from the plants. common in the Deccan. Satavari. L. Fl. Kuraki. biliousness. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. stomachic. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. root-stock tuberous.—Liliaceæ. high.—linear with a stout spinous spur. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Var. useful in dysentery. white. Fr. :—Deccan. fragrant. abundant round about Poona.9-1. red when ripe. cladodes in tufts. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. valvate in bud. with coma. dark brown.5 cm.5-5 cm. segments.—orange in axillary umbels. tapering at both ends. appetiser. Fl. Satavari. t. PARTS USED:—Root. 2.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet.—June-Sept. throat complaints. oblong.—Asclepiadaceæ. blood and eye diseases. :—Introduced from the W. COM. tumours. LOC. FAM. Fr. astringent to bowels. t. :—G. K. and moist monsoon forests.5-10 X 1. up to 1. . solitary. spinous. Satavari. Country. Fl. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. long. galactogogue.. :—E. indigestible. Shatavari. narrowed at both ends. thin. cultivated as ornamental plant. oleaginous.-Dec. from Kashmir eastwards. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. curved.—berry. S. M. Flower is a good styptic. M. NS. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. NS. Siprimuli. DISTR. H. Sd. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. 7. CHAR. globose. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. JAVANICA Baker. tonic. LOC.ovoid. Asual Shatavari. FAM.2 m. spines recurved. Svadurasa. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . cooling. Tropical Africa. Fl. Java and Australia. M.000 m. COM. :—An erect undershrub. 0. DISTR.—lobes reflexed in flower. L. Satamulika. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. :—Extremely scandent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. straight. CHAR.-Feb. PROPERTIES AND LOC. aphrodisiac. undershrub. linear.— follicles. alterative.—in simple raceme. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd.

linear oblong. And. long. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Vishnu Taila. COM. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. Kolavalike.. stems fasciculate. leprosy. colic. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil.5 cm. Gokhalkanta. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. 18 X 3-3. Fl. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. Talamkhana. pointed. aphrodisiac . whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Africa. gleet. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. 4-8 seeded.— purple blue. diuretic. improve blood (Yunani). ciliate . abdominal troubles. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. constipation.) LOC.) FAM. Shrigalghant.—capsule. tonic. :—G. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. lanceolate. anuria.6-1. Seeds fattening.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. Ekharo. Kak-Kokilaksha. lower deeply 3-lobed. widely 2-lipped. antispasmodic. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. Gokhran. Ceylon. USES :—The root is refrigerant. subquadrangular.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . :—Throughout India. bracts. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. tonic.—June-Jany. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. tube. night-blindness (Ayurveda).8 cm. leaves and seeds. useful in diarrhœa. USES. thickened at the nodes.—sessile. . 2 outer large. gonorrhoea. lips sub-equal. inflammations. NS. scalding of urine. H. upper 2-fid. laxative. aphrodisiac. (Yunani. HABITAT:—Swampy places. Fr. eyediseases. Vikhara. tropical and S. and alterative tonic. hispid with long hairs. M. Sk. and dysentery. high. abruptly swollen at the top. Talim-khana. Seeds cooling. ascites. Used in diarrhœa. Talamkhan. aphrodisiac. The root is sweet. t. Phalaghrita. like leaves. expectorant. urinary calculi and discharges. Vajrakantaka. Narayana Taila. Gokshura. erect. galactogogue. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. 4 inner small. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). L. useful in jaundice and anasarca. Leaves good for cough. PARTS USED :—Root. sedative to gravid uterus . K. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. anæmia.2 cm. Konkan and Deccan. tonic. LOC. thirst. DISTR.— Acanthaceæ. :—A stout herb. Fl. Kalavankabija. C. dysentery. LOC. aphrodisiac . CHAR. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour.:—Common throughout the State. tonic. 0. hairy. demulcent. aphrodisiac. hypnotic. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. 3. Ikshura.

) FAM. Fruit sour. sour. CHAR. black dotted : entire. anæmia. 6-25 X 2. Manduki. perhaps a native of Malaya. astringent to bowels. LOC. axillary. Mudgara. LOC. DISTR. Sd. lobes equal spangled. also used in diarrhœa. "Vata". inflammations. solitary. NS. H. Kirihuli. Kamrang. rarely wild. Soumyalata. Barambhi. Kamaranga. heats the body (Ayurveda).. Thyme-leaved graticula . COM. . BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. Shiral. pungent. pale.:—Konkan and Deccan. M. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Kamarakha. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Karmar. C. Karmal. HABITAT :—Damp places. NS. Jalneam. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Brahmi. K. Sk. creeping herb. branches many ascending. H. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). t. astringent to bowels . ascites.—Oxalidaceæ. DISTR. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. sessile. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Karuka. Darehuli.5-10 mm. stems rooting at the nodes. fruits. G. succulent. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Safed-Kammi. M. Karmare . Coromandel gooseberry. 2-lipped. ovoid. Jany-May. :—A glabrous. FAM. Fl. Fruits are used in pickles. L. emetic. striate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. heating. Fl. Root is given in cases of poisoning.—Scrophulariaceæ. See—Fruit Trees. Kamarakh. decussate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. digestible. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. acute. LOC. causes biliousness (Yunani). Ceylon and all warm countries. with shining dots. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. leprosy. tumours. tonic. obovate-oblong or spatulate. K. when fresh. oblong. Kanara villages. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. Nirbrahmi.:—Throughout India in wet places. Brahmi.:—E. Brahmi. pale blue or white. Fr. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. found wild near N. Bama. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . indigestion. COM. causes biliousness. Sk. allays thirst. laxative. useful in bad ulcers. Tamarak. fleshy. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Carambola apple. enlargement of spleen. dried fruit is given in fevers. capsule. :—E.

sinuate. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. conjoined with petroleum. often palmately 3-5 lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Gugul. epilepsy and hoarseness. Kaduharalu. :—Bihar. L. high. the lower large. obovoid. diseases of skin and abdomen.8 m. CHAR. useful in pains. Fl. 2-glandular. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Sk. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. ellipsoid. NS. Assam. NS. Guggula. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. K. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). N. . Guggul. hairy. leaves and seeds. DISTR. Gum gugul. Seeds are poisonous. Rechani. Danti. anaemia. Kanara. toothed. 0. Danti. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. leucoderma.—Euphorbiaceæ. mottled. Root and leaves are cathartic. aphrodisiac . leucoderma. jaundice (Ayurveda). W. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. enlarged spleen. Burma. LOC. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Jatala. branching from the roots. Chota Nagpur. piles.9-1. LOC. H. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. Fr. Devdhup. Guggula. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. inflammations. itching. Guggula. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. in monsoon forests of N. Dantika. diuretic. syphilis . good in scabies. epilepsy and hoarseness. COM.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. :—A stout undershrub. :—G. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. abundant on the hills of Karanja.—Burseraceæ. :—E. Danti. all male or with a few females below. yellowish. LOC. capsule. :—Dry open Deccan plains. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. H. They are used in dropsy. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Danti. the upper small. Dantimul. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in insanity.. purgative. anthelmintic. alexiteric. purifies blood. K. FAM. t. wounds. COM. FAM. anasarca and jaundice. Vishodhini. Uddipta. M. Jamalgota. smooth. Malaya. Leaf-juice. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Peninsula. Sk. M. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. Fl. of three 2-valved cocci. Sd. Hakum. or in monsoon forests. Dec. G. Mukul. Bengal.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

styptic in haematuria (Yunani). FAM. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. Kumaon. USES :—Root-decoction is given. given' to corpulent persons. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. asthma. used in piles. vaginal discharges. astringent. Fr. tuberculous glands. 15-20 X 1. Bark—astringent to bowels. " Tridosha". :—E. PARTS USED :—Fruit. tonic. red and white. aphrodisiac. Sd. cough. leprosy. blood impurities. Sk. dehiscent. appetising. urethral discharges. wounds and ulcers. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. flat. H. Tallow-White gourd. .—pod. thirst. eye diseases. :—Cultivated throughout the State. There are two varieties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. enriches blood. Fl. Sikkim. cures biliousness. Kushmanda. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. China. anthelmintic. tonic to liver. biliousness. heart tonic (Ayurveda). Budekumbalkai. Dorokaru.—Cucurbitaceæ. bark and flowers. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. LOC. NS. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. not indigenous. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. PARTS USED :—Root. it is also anti-fat remedy. dysmenorrhoea. Karkutika. tonic.10-15. oil from the seeds. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. G. cures biliousness. cures strangury. aphrodisiac. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. asthma. Buds—indigestible. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bhuru-koholu. Kondha. Golkaddu.8-2. cardiac and general tonic. cough. leucoderma. thirst. Root. used in strangury. LOC. menorrhagia. Seeds— cooling. Koholu. Burma. M. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. K. Shikhivardhaka. biliousness. See—Ornamental Plants. COM. tuberculous glands. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws.-Feb. diuretic.5 cm. in dyspepsia and flatulence. fever. blood diseases. ulcers. used as gargle in stomatitis. Fruit—antiperiodic. Kudimah. t. Timisha. blood diseases . LOC. removes foul taste from mouth. Ash pumpkin. leprosy. burning sensation. DISTR. "Kapha". anal troubles. used in dry cough.-Apl. DISTR. Kohala. seeds. urinary discharges and calculi.

pappus white. with a strong odour of turpentine. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. catarrh. . it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. often incised or lyrate. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. laxative.-Apl. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. epilepsy and other nervous diseases.9 m. M. fevers. Jangali-muli. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. H. S. oblong. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. Tropical Africa. astringent.—Jany. LOC. densely glandular. Fl. and nutritious tonic. asthma. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. sharply serrate-dentate. t. thirst. Pilokapurio. sweetish. it is given in bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. :—Throughout plains of India. and diuretic. haemoptysis. not ribbed. Tamrachuda. Bhamurdi. Deccan. Kukkurdru. phthisis. Country. cures bronchitis. NS. Kakaronda. elliptic-oblong. Oil—is soporific. base tapered. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. good for the brain and liver. Kukurbanda. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. it is also useful in insanity. pubescent. Kanara. BLUMEA LACERA DC.—the lower ones petioled. blood diseases. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. L. DISTR. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. inner bracts with green midrib. anti-pyretic. China. See—Vegetables. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst.3—0. Ceylon. M. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. high. febrifuge. 0.-achene. Sk. Australia.—Compositæ. cooling. bitter. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. Malaya. :—G. Kalhar. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). stem erect. CHAR. mixed with black pepper. finely silky pubescent on both sides. Mriduchhada. Fr. Fruit is made into confections. upper subsessile. LOC. pungent. good in syphilis (Yunani). :—Annual herb. ash colored. etc.:—In plains south of Bombay. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. COM. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. burning sensation. Fl.—heads many. heart diseases. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. FAM. Konkan. Kakarunda.

gonorrhœa. FAM. Sk. Fan Palm. tumours. COM. useful in lumbago. Uttar Pradesh. native of tropical Africa. Raktakanda. Plant contains large quantities of pot. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. "Vata". "Kapha" heating. It produces a very marked and persistent. L. Varshabhu. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Desert Palm. abdominal pains. whitish beneath. Fl. Kommegida. Brab tree. cultivated and self-sown. very glandular . The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Dhvajadruma. carminative. and dropsy. Baluchistan. blood impurities. asthma. DISTR. COM. —Nyctaginaceæ. astringent to bowels . Tad. M. t. spleen enlargement. 1. It is used in jaundice. Burma. Lekhyapatra. Punarnava. LOC. NS. M. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. green above. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). Dholia-saturdo. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature.—Palmæ. generally found in poorer soils. Persian Gulf. HABITAT :—A weed. LOC. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. common in S. Tad. Ceylon. Vasu. margins undulate.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. in pain of joints. Tala. (Ayurveda). :—Tropical India. K. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. :—E. P. NS. alterative. Hogweed. Africa and America. Palmyra Palm. G.—in corymbose umbels. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). India. Celyon. Madhurasa. leucorrhoea. sub-orbicular. Talimara. DISTR. :—A diffuse herb. scabies. bluntly 5-ribbed. LOC. Tad. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. K. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. H. cooling . alexiteric. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. stem prostrate or ascending. . G.3—2 cm. Fl. leaves and seeds. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Sk. Shothaghni. Santhikari. Seeds—tonic. anæmia. Asavardu. useful in ophthalmia. Moto-satodo.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. tropical and sub-tropical Asia..— Nov. H. Fr. cultivated. useful in biliousness. Ghetuli. Leaves— appetiser. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root. heart diseases. Indian Archipelago. CHAR. root large. :—E.—in unequal pairs at each node.—clavate. Bitter.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. FAM. inflammations. Kolaba and Thana districts. fusiform. pinkish. very small.

Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. invigorating. Loban.. " Vata". Indian olibanum tree. Fruit—aphrodisiac. flowers. aphrodisiac. fevers. antidysenteric. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. bitter. scabies. antiglycosuretic. LOC. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. juice. causes headache. ulcers . may cause vomiting. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. :—E. with a little salt added. G. intoxicating. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . DISTR. Liquors. NS. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. cough. expectorant. antibilious . removes "Kapha". purifies blood (Yunani). hot. thirst. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. allays. LOC. bad throat. Vishesha-dhupa. Moddi. binding. also found in Belgaum District.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. also used as antiperiodic. causes " Kapha ". Gum—hot. fruit and gum. skin diseases. aphrodisiac. diaphoresis. helps delivery. flowers. convulsions. Dhupam. bronchitis. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. fattening. purifies blood. tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). laxative. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. cooling. diuretic . blood complaints . useful in skin and blood diseases. Mukulsalai. dry. astringent to bowels. Fruit—cooling. Sk. useful in intestinal troubles. allays asthma. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). Luban. "Vata". :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. vaginal discharges. used for boils. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Salai. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. useful in biliousness. improves taste. Dup. strengthens teeth. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. fruits. fatigue. cures dysentery. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Salpe. burning sensation. H. with a good flavour. allays thirst. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. K. Gums and Resins. Salgond. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. leaves. COM. Guggula. fattening. asthma. Guggali. expectorant. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Fermented juice—tonic. Gum is of five kinds . heals wounds .—Burseraceæ. M. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Bark-decoction. mouth-sores. Kundur.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. thirst and scalding of urine. antipyretic. intoxicating. alexiteric. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Salphali. biliousness. FAM. . See—Timbers. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Sambrani. Sugars. Dhup. Salashi.

Asuri. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. rheumatism. Sarshapa. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. dispel fever . and toothache. India. lessen oedema of body. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. :—E. FAM. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. cure skin-dissases. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Gums and Resins. Black-True mustard. Mohori. Jwalanti. NS. biles. DISTR. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Sk. if swallowed whole they are laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. ear.—Cruciferae. spleen. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Rai. chiefly in Nasik. LOC. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. " Vata". cure nose. bechic. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . vermicide. good for throat complaints. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. Broach. H. Khandesh. cause burning . internal congestions. anthelmintic . as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. :—Cultivated in India. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. LOC. Seeds-laxative. Kunder or Mhashaguggula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Seeds act as digestive condiment . spasmodic. K. stomachic. appetiser. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Surat. G. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Kari Sasive . Dharwar and Belgaum. Kaira. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). See—Timbers. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. See—Condiments and Spices. eye-troubles. Taramira . good in cough and for inflammations. kill external parasites. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. increase bile. COM. used with butter in syphilis . mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. increase appetite . Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. Kali-rai. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. cure enlargement of spleen. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Rajika. M. .

M. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. H. LOC. Lingini. paler and smooth beneath. tendrils 2-fid : L. heating. Fl. Australia. corolla as in the male . of Shivaling shape . Gunjan. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. glabrous .. ovate-oblong. Asana. t. globose. Suviraka. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. 1 .—Euphorbiaceæ. and in fevers with flatulence. Chandra. diam. female flowers solitary. lobes oblong lanceolate. long. LOC. Ishawara-Shivalingi. 5-lobed. H. M. Fl. corolla companulate. bark. lumbago. Sd. Kavodi. Asana. Ekalkanto. NS. margins sinuate denticulate. Garige. tropical Africa. M. Malaya. bluish green. DISTR. streaked with broad vertical lines . :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Apastambhini. Goge. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Mauritius. 3—2 . The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. It is used in bilious attacks. pungent. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. bitter. Gauli. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. stem grooved. FAM. Shivavalli. hot. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Manj. See—Timbers. deeply cordate base. NS. Lingaja. useful in "Vata".— membranous. or few or many.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. 5-partite. K. LOC. Philippines. :—Deccan. Sk. Sk. Fr. CHAR. Gargumaru. :—G. Country. Khaja.— Aug-Sept. Mullu-siru Honne.:—Throughout India. Asana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Patharphoda.—yellowish brown. southward to Ceylon. Ekadivi. DISTR. green and scabrid above. :—An annual scandent herb. COM. Tans. . PARTS USED :—Root. Shivalingi.. Mahavira. S. 10-15 cm.—Cucurbitaceæ. Shivlingi. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. alterative. Kaj. 5 cm. Asana. COM. smooth. :—G. subsessile.—baccate. Kassi. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. hemiplegia. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn..

elliptic.. Charoli. fevers. thirst. Char. Charoli. PARTS USED :—Roots. fruit. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. COM. "Vata" and biliousness. See—Ornamental Plants. astringent to bowels. Cambodia. Lalana. Sk. :—Hot and drier parts of India. DISTR. reddish purple. Fl. FAM. Sk. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants .—small. alexipharmic. K. seeds. It is a disinfectant. lower usually simple. gum (rarely). Paira. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. H. cures blooddiseases. also wild. NS. high.—variable. :—Konkan. Panphui. expectorant. COM. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). leaves. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Cochin-China. M.—Anacardiaceæ. cooling. DISTR. Lonnahadakana gida. LOC. smooth. K. C. LOC. Tapaspriya. inflammations. NS. decussate. Deccan. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. Asthibhakshya. LOC.—Jany.) FAM. the Dangs. The bark is bitter and poisonous. CHAR. aphrodisiac. burning sensation on body. Char. Piyal. :—H. when punctured. constricted in the middle. S. analgesic. Dhanu.3-1. carminative. :—Native of tropical Africa. :—G. upper 3-5-7 foliate. buds with root. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). t. M. leaflets ovate. Panphuti. Zakhi-haiyat. binding. lobes triangular. Priyal. S. boils and bites of venomous insects. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. purifies blood. occasionally compound. Fr. Snehabija. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". M. allays . astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Deccan. ulcers. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. aphrodisiac. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. Country. in large panicles. Thailand (Siam). HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. HABITAT :—Dry.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Stems obtusely 4-angled. tonic. Char. Country. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. bruises. laxative. younger reddish.—pendant. deciduous open forests. Rajadana. Burma. Sd. Leaf-juice digestive. Pyalchar.2 m. crenate or serrate. Fl.—Crassulaceæ. useful in diarrhœa. Kolegeru. with opposite branches . :—Konkan. L. fattening. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. speckled with white. the older light-coloured. Murukali. Parnabija. Charpoppu. Gujarat.—swollen and octagonal at the base. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. purgative. cardio-tonic.

anthelmintic. used in diseases of chest and lungs. diseases of anus. Kshatadru. hydrocele. dry. tonic. Khakhrao. Bastard teak. See—Timbers. gonorrhoea. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). LOC. Flower—aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. Dyes. Bark—appetiser.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. seeds. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. cause headache (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Gum—acrid. Fruit and seeds—oily. G. Ceylon. cures ulcers and tumours. digestible. :—E. piles. stomatitis. useful in elephantiasis. aphrodisiac. Kinshuk. diuretic . Tripatrak. pterygium. cure tumours. anthelmintic. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. cold and cough. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. carminative. tumours.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Gums and Resins. in the Khandesh Akrani. flowers. leaves. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. K. tonic to liver. Leaf—very astringent. stomachic. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . good in fevers. H. Seeds tonic to body and brain. Muttuga. remove bad humours. COM. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. topically in piles and hydrocele. Dhak. Yajnika. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Sk. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. used in liver disorders. Palash. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Muttala. anthelmintic. astringent. India. Fruit and seed—hot. good in dysentery. M. laxative. corneal opacities. ascends to 1200 m. DISTR. burning urine. leprosy. colic. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. expectorant. Kakria. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. purifies blood. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. Palas. Palas.) FAM. cough. skindiseases. LOC. thirst. fractures. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. relieves abnormal thirst. inflammations. bark. piles. eye diseases. strangury. biliousness. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. anthelmintic. cures excessive perspiration. buboes. dysmenorrhoea. dysentery. Bark—appetiser. lessens biliousness. useful in bone fractures. Flowers—cure " Kapha". lessens inflammations. prickly heat and itch. NS. lessens lumbago. Khakda. good in biliousness. aperient used in urinary discharges. pimples. if chewed. gum. Gum—astringent to bowels. useful in syphilis. gonorrhœa. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. worms and piles. tonic. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Khakera. Kuntz. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Oils. Chichra. gout. burning sensation.

Katkaleja. oblong 5-7. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. shortly stalked. LOC. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin.5 X 4. piles. prevents contagious diseases . oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). :—E. cures inflammation . H. Tapasi. t. Flowers are astringent. act as rubefacient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. hydrocele. etc. Gajjige. Deccan hills. M. Fr.5 cm. Gums and Resins. DISTR. Kuberakshi. ringworm. strongly mucronate. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. very common near the sea-coast. 30-60 cm. Physic nut. CHAR. aphrodisiac.—yellow. astringent to bowels. lead-colored 1. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.—abruptly pinnate. Sind. flowers and fruit. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Katkaranj.—1-2 oblong. Seed—styptic. LOC. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Gum solution is applied to bruises. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. :—Throughout India. They are applied to orchitis. Sd. .3 cm.—JulySept. leprosy (Yunani). Fl.) COM. K. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. 5-7. leaves. asthma and colic. long. leucorrhcea. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . sprouts useful in tumours. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Gajga. antiperiodic. anthelmintic . Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them.5 cm. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. densely armed on the faces with prickles. heating. elliptic-oblong. Karanja. aphrodisiac and diuretic. long . HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. NS. the tropics generally. :—An extensive climber. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Kakechika. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. cures urinary discharges. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. fevers. FAM.—pod. Fruit—acrid. leaflets 6-9 pairs. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Sk. Fl. Fever nut. Leaves contain a glucoside. Gajaga. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. petioles prickly. wounds. useful in colic. skin-diseases. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. See—Timbers. Dyes. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. malaria. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. anthelmintic. G. Sagargota. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.

branches stout. Alexandrian laurel. Arka. East African Islands. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia.—Guttiferæ. 2. Dholaakdo. M. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. :—E. astringent. Surpan. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. 10-20 X3. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. thick. elliptic or ovate oblong. PARTS USED :—Bark. Madar. . COM. Ark. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. FAM. Akand. and oil. Ekke. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Sk. LOC.4-3 m. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Rui. often gregarious. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Punnag. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. sometimes amplexicaul. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. See—Timbers. Surangi. Punnaga. much branched. Ceylon.. and for its oil. H. sessile. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. NS. L. Malaya. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Sultanchampa. Vuma. Undi. G. LOC. Madar. Mandara. covered with cottony pubescence. Oils.. high. Kshiranga. Mandara. :—E. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. :—A large shrub. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. K.—Asclepiadaceæ. Br. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Kanara associated with littoral species.— opposite. Kshirparni.8-10 cm. Gigantic swallow-wort. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. both surfaces tomentose. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Ak. The gum from wounded branches. mixed with bark strips and leaves. base cordate. gum. Ponne. M. NS. Tungakeshera. :—Cultivated throughout India. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Sk. Surhonne. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Akdo. Arka. Australia.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic.. lessens appetite. used in chronic fevers. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". K. FAM. DISTR.. very common in N. Purasakeshera. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin.. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Polynesia. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Undi. Shuka-phala.H. COM.

Mandara.:—H. comose . :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . painful joints . dropsy. Milk— caustic. Fr. Milk— heating.7—15 X 4. asthma.. Sk. cures asthma and syphilis. NS. cures inflammations. ellipsoid or ovoid. comose. usually 5. Rajarka. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. ascites.. used in cough. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. also useful in intestinal worms. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. LOC. green. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. Ceylon. buds ovoid. spongy.-July. acrid . catarrh and loss of appetite.2 cm. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. subglobose.—7. C. bark corky.—subsessile. Flower—analgesic. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. Mandara. PARTS USED :—Root. rat-bite. across. liver and spleen enlargement. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Juice—anthelmintic. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. leaves applied to paralysed parts. purgative.5-10 X 5-7. cures leprosy. Madar. eruption on body. lobes usually erect. ascites and anasarca. M. depilatory. Ark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. scabies. useful in leprosy. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . asthma. astringent. laxative. tonic and stomachic in action. spleen and liver diseases. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. flattened tomentose. Safedak. :—An erect shrub usually 1.—lobes deltoid-ovate. ovate oblong. Flowers—stomachic. corona shorter than the column. back much curved.5-8. CHAR. See—Fibres. tumours. China. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. very common is S. Fl. Ak. young parts white. COM. Br.4 m. Malay Islands and S.— purplish in umbellate cymes.—in umbellate cymes. cures piles and "Kapha". Fl.—Asclepiadaceæ. high. 9-10 cm. cures leucoderma. tumours. broad. Fr. long. swellings. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. good for liver (Yunani). cottony. leaves and flowers. C.—broadly ovate.—follicles. Sd.—about 2. diaphoretic. heal wounds. piles. India. ulcers. oleaginous. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. elephantiasis. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. alterative and purgative properties. FAM. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. expectorant and anthelmintic. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda).— Feb. L.5 cm. apex with two auricles. bark. coughs. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.. elliptic or obovate. DISTR.8-2. Sd:—many. buds globose. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. Root-bark is diaphoretic. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. ringworm of scalp. Flowers—digestive.5 cm. t. LOC. very common. . purplish or white.

biliousness.—segments 2. Milky juice used as a blistering agent.9-1.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Gavria. Kardali. appetiser. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. on trees and hedges . Warm leaves used as poultice.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. FAM. K. The pods contain vitamin A. veins arching. root-stock tuberous. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. G. erect. tropical Africa. Kamakshi. NS. H. 1 linear . Paraholiya. greenish or colored. P. Kalehu. Akalabera. cooling. indigestible. acrid.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India.. See—Fibres. Sambe. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Koshaphala. Arabia. they are given in cholera. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. long..2 m. Shimbi. See—Vegetables. H. tonic.5 cm. Gigantea. Abai.:—Perennial herb . G. lanceolate to ovate. Sarvajaya. PARTS USED :—Leaves. hernia and colic. Iran. ulcers (Ayurveda). Tarvardi. Afghanistan. but doubtfully wild. green. Hudingana. Sk.3 cm. Gavara. 3 sub-erect. L. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. NS. Broad—Sword bean. CANNA INDICA Linn. abundant in Sind.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Shitarambha. COM. (Chopra).50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. DISTR. oval or orbicular. spatulate. CHAR. Waziristan. PARTS USED :—Pods. :—E. bracts oblong. Nilashimbika. Asishimbi. membranous. Sk.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Kadsambu. Sema. staminodial segments. Sarvajaya. DISTR. Khadsambal. stem 0. Egypt. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. LOC. useful in burning sensations. high . Flowers used as detergent. Fl. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. flowers and milky juice. narrow. Indian shot. Kadavare. M. LOC. LOC. FAM. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Sabbajaya. K. M. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics.—Scitaminaceae. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. COM. Devakeli. Tamateballi.

male flowers. high in its feral state. K. G. intoxication. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. Bhangi. excessive use causes indigestion. Hemp.—achene.—alternate or the lower opposite. :—E. leprosy. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. DISTR. Bark—tonic. cough. tonic. Fr. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases.—sub-globose or oblong . female perianth hyaline. :—Widely cultivated in India. intoxication (Ayurveda). M. alterative . causes thirst. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. Ganja. echinulate . Fl. Ganja. tonic. female crowded under convolute bracts. good for hydrocele. aphrodisiac.—Urticaceæ. water extract anthelmintic. Not indigenous. astringent to bowels. (2) Bhang. soporific. LOC. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. melancholia. (3) Charas. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. also wild. flowers. PARTS USED :—Roots. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. L. FAM. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. globose. intoxicating. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . shining. flowers and seeds. imbricate. Unmattini. HABITAT :—Cultivated. seeds and resin. Siddhapatri. Wild in the Himalayas. leaves. Harshini. Vijaya. stomachic. useful in " Kapha". When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. hallucinations.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. inflammations. insanity. heating. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. useful in convulsions.—small axillary. usually 0. They are broken in small pieces. Mohini. dropsy. cause headache. Bhang. :—Throughout India. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). t. CHAR. abortifacient. antidiarrhoeic. restlessness. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. LOC. Central Asia. impotence. Leaves—bitter. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. Female inflorescence is stomachic.—more or less throughout the year. check vomiting. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. astringent. Sk. Sd. soporific. upper 1-3. COM. LOC. male fascicled. hot. sepals 5. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. 3-lobed. causes thirst and biliousness. serrate.9-1. lessen inflammation. Ganja. Bhang. Shivapriya. black. PARTS USED :—Bark. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Seeds—carminative. Fr. piles. lower 3-8 foliate. aphrodisiac. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. PROPERTIES AND LOC. causes biliousness.5 m.—many. oil-good for earache. dioecious. H. leaves.

chronic bowel complaints and impotence. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. and flatulence. increases biliousness. and is employed by Indian physicians. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Narcotics. Sk. Lanka mirchi. See—Condiments and Spices. in the form of electuary. acute mania. . G. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. chronic ulcers. useful in indigestion. Marchu . produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Marichiphala. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). HABITAT :—Cultivated. Lalmirchi. LOC. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. Madana modak used in cough. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Vegetables. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. increases appetite. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. Fruit—pungent. See—Gums and Resins. Fibres. DISTR. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. spermatorrhoea. Mirchi. :—E. The plant contains cannabinin. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Tivrashakti. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. delirium (Ayurveda). cholera. and dropsy. LOC. FAM. whooping cough. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). useful in brain complaints. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Cayenne-pepper. H. Menshinkai. K. Country in Deccan. Raktamaricha. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Ujjvala. Chillies. also in gout. asthma. It is stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. M.—Solanaceæ. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. weakness of body. COM. :—Cultivated all over India. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. often found as an escape. loss of consciousness. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. dyspepsia. The fruit contains Capsisin. M. diarrhœa. Tikshna. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. PARTS USED :—Fruit. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. Capsaicin and Solanin. muscular pains. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Mirchi. expectorant. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. NS. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. erysipelas. dysuria.

CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. " Vata ". diuretic and aperient. black. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Kumbi. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. G. Maniju balli. :—E. Deccan. deltoid. Sk. Vakambi. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. introduced. Gavvahannu. Fr. DISTR. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. M.—globose. bark. Thailand (Siam). Wild guava . Girikarnika. dyspepsia. Kanphuti. petals 4. Sind. 2-ternate. Kangu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent.—capsule. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. COM. smooth. Blister creeper. G.— alternate. Sd. leaves. when moistened. COM. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). flowers and fruits. H. PARTS USED :—Root. L. Root. it is mucilaginous. Kumbhi. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. The plant contains saponin. LOC. rounded at the apex. FAM. piles. Shaundi. :—Most warm countries. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Kapalphodi. M. Sk.—Sapindaceæ. dry. Ceylon. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Malay Peninsula. DISTR. epileptic fits. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. . inciso-serrate. :—E. subglobose. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures .—Myrtaceæ. NS. :—Throughout India. LOC. HABITAT :—In hedges . Karolio. Jyotish-mati. Konkan and W. bladdery .:—Common in hedges throughout the State. aphrodisiac. Karnasphota. hot.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. common in S. alexiteric. useful in tumours. and is administered in fevers. Kumbhi. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Balloon vine. skin-diseases. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . leaves and seeds. winged at the angles. Kumbha. See—Timbers. Daddala. Fibres. K. Kalindi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. LOC. bark. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. Ghats. anthelmintic. Fruit—acrid. Hennumatti. very acute apex. abscesses and ulcers. Agni-erum. Root is considered diaphoretic. C. NS. Fl. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. stem wiry. CHAR.—white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. Sakralata. bronchitis. leucoderma. K. urinary discharges. colic. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. ultimate segments lanceolate. trigonous.

Safflower. Seeds—oleaginous. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. HABITAT :—Cultivated. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. diuretic. cure "Vata". cure urinary discharges. fruit and seeds. Agnishikha. in haemoptysis. cures inflammations. Flower—tonic to liver. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. Chirbhita. FAM. it is used to procure abortion. leucoderma.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Chibda. Nalikadala. DISTR. removes urinary concretions . Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. causes burning sensation . Kusumba. Papaya. :—Native throughout India. Leaves—hot. M. NS. bile. Pappayi. Papaw. K. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. See—Fruit Trees. piles. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. Popayi. H. used. Karrak. diuretic. depilatory. H. flowers. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. Pangi. astringent to bowels. Karada. laxative. heating. "Tridosh". Mexico and Brazil. Papita. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. bronchitis. hypnotic. G. FAM. Dyer's saffron. LOC. appetiser. removes biliousness . appetiser . made into curries. Papayi. Papaya. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. cures inflammation. leprosy. Fruit—stomachic. :—E. Barre. Kusumbo. M. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. cooling. Guppe. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. cause biliousness. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. enlargement of spleen. LOC. carminative. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. wounds of urinary track. scabies. diuretic. relieves obesity. seeds and oil. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Papaya. "Kapha". good for eyes. Ahmednagar and Nasik. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Kusumba. unripe fruit. Sk. ringworm. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Kusumba. aphrodisiac. G. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. :—Grown extensively in Poona. Indies. Kamalottama. Oil—indigestible. White thin latex contains Papain. of W.—Compositæ. bleeding piles. digestive. Sk. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). expectorant. COM.—Caricaceæ. cures insanity (Ayurveda). dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Kusumbha. LOC. Kardai. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. NS. COM. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . . :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). :— E.

CHAR. diuretic. Leaves contain vitamin A. good for ear boils. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. leaflets 10-12 pairs. Ringworm shrub. dyspepsia. Ajowan. Winged senna. stimulate intestines. Ajwain. Oma. and even in cholera. COM. oblique at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. cure ascites. Dadamardana. Datka pat. spleen. chest pains. The seeds bitter and hot. :—E. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. stomachic. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. paralysis. kidney troubles. Simyatase. Seeds—purgative. Ajamoda. downy beneath. stimulant. enrich blood. carminative. vomiting. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. COM. Ajamo . carminative. Iran. Sk. abdominal pain. Omu . appetiser. 30-60 cm. aphrodisiac . mucronate. Dyes. purgative. strengthening. Afghanistan. cure catarrh. H. tonic. good for heart and tooth-ache. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). tonic and carminative properties. give lustre to eyes. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. M. atonic dyspepsia. oblong-obtuse. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). inflammation (Yunani). See—Condiments and Spices. DISTR. LOC. LOC. liver. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. vomiting. long. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. enlargement of spleen. CASSIA ALATA Linn. aphrodisiac. NS.—Umbelliferæ. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Oils. bitter. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. myrabolans and rock salt. L. H. Owa. Dadrughna. G. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. Elgra. subsessile. pungent. Sk. chest and throat pains. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. good in weakness of limbs. Europe.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Bishops' weed . Dipyaka. abdominal tumours. good for old people. Egypt. emmenagogue and sedative. They are administered in flatulence. K. Dodda sagate. Oil—good in all diseases. See—Vegetables. Tivragandha. improve speech and eyesight. piles. M. Baluchistan. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. anthelmintic. Dwipagasti. bechic. NS :— E. and diarrhœa. they are used in jaundice . rachis . :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. hiccup. pinnate. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. carminative. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. FAM. FAM. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. Dadmardan. laxative.

Ph. Burma. LOC. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). vermicide (Ayurveda). leaves. leaflets 8-12 pairs. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. t. ringworm. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. flowers. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Tanner's cassia. Tarwad. rhombohedral. Avartki. asthma. oblong-obovate. :—E. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . :—Introduced into India. Taroda. mucronate. reniform. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. DISTR. cm. " In eczema. Fr. dull green above. good for ulcers. Ceylon. Fl. Ahmed. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. itching.-July. fruits and seeds. Fl. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. very likely a native of the W. The whole plant. J. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day.—Jany. along the sea coast in laterite region.—in spiciform. DISTR..3-1. Peninsula. stipules very large. Charmaranga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. causes flatulence . Fl.—30-35. nocturnal emissions. Bark has the same properties. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb).—pod long. Fr. obliquely septate. C. M. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. L. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.-50 or more. NS. CHAR. useful in thirst. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. Awal. cough. H. Sk. FAM. pale beneath. Madhya Pradesh and W. 10-20 X 1. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. across. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). Sd. 28-4-88). slightly overlapping. LOC.-Oct. membranous. Gujarat and S. Country.5 X 10 cm.—large. Tarwad. useful in vomiting. G. rachis densely pubescent. buds in yellow bracts. cures tumours. t.. yellow with orange veins. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. HABITAT :—Planted. rotundate. reddish brown. Pitakilaka. pedunculate racemes . asthma .—7. K. Mayahari. cure " Vata ". alexipharmic . skin-diseases. M. Mukerji). N.6 cm. anthelmintic. Avarike. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). straight.. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. diabetes. Sd. LOC. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. thirst. 5 cm. . Fl.—bright yellow with darker veins. LOC. 20-25.) COM. urinary discharges . Indies. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. leprosy. Tangadi. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. PARTS USED :—Root. skin diseases. Sakusina.:—Dry regions of Rajputana.—pod. bark smooth. and throat troubles. long.

Tans. Indian laburnum. CHAR.5 cm. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Fruit—antipyretic. . hard. LOC. demulcent. biliousness . Dodda-tagase. G. (Ayurveda). Fl. :—E. Kasari. transversely septate. Sk. Ane sogate. and Famine Plants. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Flowers—improve taste. Stinking weed. Pudding-pipe or stick. Kasmarda. long. leaves. Seeds— oily. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. cures burning sensation.—20-30. tuberculous glands. C.. In Konkan.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. also planted. NS. purgative. Negro coffee. M. Leaves lessen inflammation. antipyretic. H. fruit and seeds. Leaves—anti-periodic . Fruit—digestible. Golden shower. cause flatulence. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Bandartauri. Arimarda. LOC. juice given in erysipelas. astringent. Balla. Kasundari. apex acute. improve appetite. eye-diseases.) COM. long. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. faintly veined with orange . carminative. yellow. Ceylon. Chimkani. useful in chest and liver complaints. It is a mild laxative. :—Throughout India. Ornamental Plants. Rajataru. flowers. Chakinda. purgative. Vyadivata. PARTS USED :—Root. smooth. laxative. Kacodari. Rankasvinda. ovate-lanceolate. G. syphilis. Arogyashimbi. K.—petals 5. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. often purplish. FAM. heal ulcers . Kasonda.) COM. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Kasoda.—in few flowered racemes. shining dark olive-green. Flowers—purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. cooling. Suvarnaka. griping. NS. base somewhat oblique. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. M. :—E. rheumatism.—very foetid when bruised. Bahava.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. corymbose. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Rechana. See—Timbers. abortifacient. branches furrowed. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Fr. distinctly torulose. K. Aragina. Burma. DISTR. L. leaflets 3-5 pairs. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. Hema-puspha. FAM. 15-20 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. Amaltas. Kakka. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. throat-troubles. t. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). used in rheumatism. safe for children and pregnant women. Kasondi. cooling. Sd. H. Sk. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. recurved. 10—12. See—Dyes. Garmala. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani.—pods.— Jany-March. cure " Kapha ". leprosy. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Fl. Konde.

t. Banar. H. fevers. The bark. high. COM. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee .—18-23 cm. Kasamarda. leaves. obtuse. tonic and febrifuge. septate between the seeds . Fr.. ovate. " Vata ". See—Famine Plants. base rounded. with a solitary conical gland near the base . Fl. . In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. leaves and seeds. Baskikasondi. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. leaves and seeds. CHAR. 7.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. are given in diabetes. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. long .4-3 m. Kasondi. lanceolate. In many countries root is considered diuretic. LOC. LOC. cures ascites. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. :—A shrub 2. Fl. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. At Kotra. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Seeds used in heat of the blood. elephantiasis. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. stomachic. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. opposite. M. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. hiccup. LOC. and seeds are cathartic. cough. Kasundari. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. turgid. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. petals 5. in Kutch. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. leaflets 6-10 pairs. DISTR. rachis grooved . C. Ran tankala. Kasamarda. NS. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. FAM. K. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. cure " Kapha". Talapota. annual or perennial. slightly recurved. alexiteric. DISTR. heals wounds. asthma. Leaves—aphrodisiac.510 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. mixed with honey. few flowered corymbose racemes. PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Sd. The plant contains glucoside emodin. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places.Jany.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). :—G. Sk.—30-40 broadly ovoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. yellow. " tridosha " .— Nov..—pod. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. dark brown . LOC. when mixed with sandal-wood paste.—in axillary. L. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). See—Famine Plants.

Madras State. Intellect tree. Panevar. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Chakramarda. Burma. ovate or obovate. Taragosi. Kangli. oblong. Sd. high. obovate. shining above. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Black-oil tree. Dadamari. FAM.5-10 cm. Fr. Malkangoni. M. Malhangana.8-7.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Chagoche. K. t. L. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. L.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. expectorant. Kangani. Seeds— acrid.. Svarnalata. cause burning sensation. Foetid cassia. base oblique. Sd. opposite (lowest smaller). Climbing-staff plant. Kangodi. bitter. in drooping panicles. Malkamni. usually unisexual. . Sk. CHAR. 7. small yellowish-green. high. reddish brown.—pinnate. branches rough. crenate. Chakunda. LOC.. NS.5-20 cm. :—Large deciduous climber. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. PARTS USED :— Root.5 mm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Jyotishmati. Kanguni. 18 m. in diam.—Celastraceæ. brain and liver tonic. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Velo . LOC. long. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. unarmed. powerful brain tonic. NS. Seeds—bitter. globose. :—A very common weed all over the State. Sk. aphrodisiac. DISTR. alternate. cure joint-pains. CHAR. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Takala. Tarota. Pamad. Ceylon. 1-6 completely covered with red. capsule. :—An annual foetid herb. rachis grooved. Fl. emetic. leaves and seeds. laxative. bright yellow. Fl. COM. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm.— petals 5. hot. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". X 4. 30-90 cm. upper petal 2-lobed . Taga.—pod. M. stem upto 23 cm. Dadrughna. :—E. fleshy arillus. G.) COM. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m.3-10 X 3. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. K.5 cm. 12. :—E. FAM. pale yellow. appetiser.. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets.—after the rains. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. DISTR. Sphutabandhani. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. Malkakni. covered with lenticels. C. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. H.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. leaflets 3 pairs. obliquely septate.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . Tagache. 6. H. much curved when young.

Oil stomachic. tonic. paralysis and leprosy. :— E. elliptic.). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—A slender herbaceous plant. long. Ekpani. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Jangli-karayatu. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. H. reniform. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic.—Gentianaceæ. base deeply cordate stipulate. FAM. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. stem creeping with long internodes. Fr. linear-oblong. Fl.—opposite.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. FAM. and is employed for external application. Fl. Sk. hard-rugose. M.—capsule. gout.-Apl. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. cauline smaller. pink.—in fascicled umbels. orbicular. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Don. obovate or oblong. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. pink. t. Seeds are hot. spreading star-like . ovoid. COM. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. Fr. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. CHAR. K.—tubular lobes 5.—Umbelliferæ. Lahanchirayat. Vallari . Mahaushadhi. high. used in leprosy. radical leaves revolute. . LOC.—Feb. t. :—G. CHAR. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. DISTR. Jhinkun-kariatum. Country. narrowly oblong . Kheta-Barik-chirayat. H. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism.—3 from each node. Brahmi. persistent. rooting at the nodes. minute. Fl.—4 mm. Deccan and S. Barmi. good for cough and asthma. C. :—Throughout India. cloves. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). aphrodisiac and stimulant. LOC. especially in Bengal. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. Fl. Brahmamanduki.). G. L. :—Konkan. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. Mandukparni. L. M.—May-Nov. COM. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Vondelaga. NS. they are also sudorific. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. NS. Brahmamanduki.

urinary discharges. bronchitis. See—Timbers. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". improves appetite (Yunani). fevers. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Chanda. LOC. NS. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. USES :—Bark is purgative. DISTR. " Kapha ". inflammations. PARTS USED :—Bark. alexiteric. tonic. . stomachic. bitter. Tande. alterative. improves appetite. plaster or bath are used. leaves and seeds). blood diseases. Australia Pacific Islands. memory. cooling.—Apocynaceæ. Leaf-powder. soporific. :—K. milky juice. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. anæmia. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. Plant—bitter. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. green fruit is employed to kill dogs .) DISTR. ointment. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. China. voice. water courses throughout the State. spleen enlargement. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. antipyretic. Malay Archipelago. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. cures hiccup. laxative. thirst. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. Honde. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. For external use powder. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. carminative. LOC. tonic. :—In moist situations (streams. asthma. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. and a bitter substance odollin. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. Leaves are also diuretic. M. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. :—South Konkan and N. cures leucoderma. LOC. small-pox. Sukanu. sedative to nerves. digestible. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. nut is narcotic and poisonous . bronchitis. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. FAM. nallas. used in insanity (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. clears voice and brain. headache . cardio-tonic. abundant on the Malabar Coast. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. asthma. COM. twigs. diuretic. scalding of urine. fruit. bechic. Kanara. :—Throughout India near the coast. biliousness.

:—Grown in gardens all over the State. aphrodisiac. Fruit is very sour .—Chenopodiaceæ. Rayara nelli. :—E. Bengal—Common-gram. . diuretic. Tanko. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Chakravarti. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. See—Fruit Trees. :— E. Skandhaphala. Chandanbedu. "Vata". M. biliousness. piles . "Kapha". Rai-avala. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. COM. Lavali. Chakravati. :—Very common in the Deccan. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. laxative. Goose-foot. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Kanchuki. Harparrevdi. spleen (Ayurveda). Sk. useful in bronchitis. Agralohita. Kadale. Laveni. diseases of blood. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. G. fragrant. acrid. H. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. piles. useful in biliousness.. root and the seed are cathartic. USES :— Root is purgative. eye-diseases. Sk.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. COM. Vajibhakshya. Harparauri K. oleaginous. FAM. Balabhojya. NS. LOC. :—Cultivated in India. Harbara. But. LOC. urinary concretions. COM. biliousness. H.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Country gooseberry. Kari-Kempukadale. anthelmintic. :—Widely distributed. abdominal pains. M. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Chanaka. Cheel. Wild-spinach. useful in thirst. H. LOC. Chalmeri. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). NS. LOC. tonic. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. M. sour . DISTR. DISTR. Deccan and S. fruit and seeds. also cultivated as a pot herb.) FAM. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. constipation. Chakwat. K. Country. vomiting. Chana. Chick pea. The plant yields an essential oil. heart. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. G.—Euphorbiaceæ. LOC. K. throattroubles. Pandu. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. improves appetite. Chana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chania. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Chillika. tonic to liver. Chunna. FAM . CICCA ACIDA Merr. Ksharadala. Bathusag.

PARTS USED. pungent. Dalchini. M. biliousness. cold in head. useful in " Vata ". useful in bronchitis. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). aphrodisiac. blood troubles. anthelmintic. itching. useful in loss of appetite. FAM. thirst. Kanara district. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). It checks nausea and vomiting. tonic. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. causes flatulence. Peninsula. anthelmintic. cures skin diseases. expectorant. causes flatulence. Sk. Seed—stimulant. aphrodisiac. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. . heart. :— Bark and oil. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. astringent to bowels . USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. rectum and urinary diseases. Leaves contain vitamin A. emmenagogue. Gudatwaka. causes salivation. parched mouth. Dalchini. refrigerant. toothache. Valkala. throat troubles. diarrhœa. Oils. strengthens liver. H. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. NS. useful in cold. chest complaints. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. appetiser. enriches blood. carminative. LOC. Darchini. Oil—carminative. flatulence. hiccup. very common in the N. biliousness. tonic . LOC. Malay Peninsula. Leaves—purgative. leprosy. COM. carminative.—Lauraceæ. abortifacient. :—G. toothache (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. headache. vomiting. useful in hydrocele. DISTR. piles. etc. Bark—tonic. diarrhœa and dysentery. bronchitis (Yunani). flatulence. liver-tonic . Ceylon. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. seed and acid exudation. indigenous and cultivated. bronchitis. tonic. foul mouth and fever. :—W. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Oil—styptic. Lavange-hakke. It possesses carminative. improve taste and appetite. tonic to hair. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. LOC. aphrodisiac. cures thirst and burning. throat troubles. Dalchini. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. alexiteric. Nisane. anthelmintic . indigestion. headache. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. See—Food Plants. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cure bronchitis. heated brain. K. abdominal pains. See—Condiments and Spices. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Kash. pains . vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Burma. Seed—indigestible. Duk. Dalchini. useful in inflammations.

Venivalli. M. Velvet-leaf.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. diam. dropsy and cough. which possibly has a cholinergic action. red. long.e. :—In hills. Paharmul. solitary. Katurasa. compressed. tendrils bifid. cordate at the base.8-10 cm. . diam. FL t. branches more or less pubescent.5-20 cm. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. removes intestinal worms. Fr. DISTR. COM. monœcious. greenish. male flowers in axillary cymes. or twin. Sd. mucronate. hairy. piles. greenish outside. margins ciliate. in conjunction with aromatics. Chitraphala.. flesh juicy. M. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. orbicular or reniform. leaves. sub-globose.—Nov. Venivel. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Indrayan. H. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Sk. Asso.—Menispermaceæ. female flowers in elongate. itching . Bitter apple. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . has been isolated. Colocynth. minute. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed.—Cucurbitaceæ. solitary. COM. asthma . Tumtikayi.— usually margined. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. HABITAT. CHAR. The active constituent of the drug. Kanara. LOC. drupe. Africa and America. diarrhœa. i. warm parts of Asia. 7. Makal. also for prolapsus uteri. removes pain. Indruk. NS. fever. Indrayan. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. F. LOC. waxy coated.-Jany.—A climbing shrub. axillary racemes . E. smooth. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. Annual Report. subglobose. yellow within. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). Uthika. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Trapusi. NS. red or yellowish white. 1949). t. CHAR. burning. C. Nirbisi. 3.—large. L. 5-partite. stem thick. lobes obovateoblong. Patha. young shoots woolly. dysentery. G. FAM. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Fr. Indrayana. :—Deccan. Fl. angular . upto 25 cm. Mahendravaruni. FAM.—July-Sept. :—E. subcampanulate. Kaduvrindavan. R. alleviates vomiting. Fl. H. :— E. heart troubles. Pahadvel. useful in hemicrania. helps parturition. peltate. :—An extensively climbing annual. PARTS USED :—Root. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. L. Pavamekke Kayi. 5-nerved. an alkaloid. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. skin eruptions.. (Ind. K. Ghorumba. Indraphal. uterine complaints. G. yellowish. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. Sk. somewhat hairy. Fl.

removes biliousness. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. fortifies chest. fever and worms. Naringi. Narange. Naringa. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. FAM. N. :—Konkan. Flower— stimulant. constipation. Sk. " Kapha". :—Widely cultivated in India. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . removes fatigue . is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. Tvakasugandha. asthma. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. Sunthura. constipation. throat diseases. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). LOC. LOC. tonic. chest troubles. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. NS. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. anthelmintic. removes " Vata ". LOC. DISTR. pain in joints. sea-shores. tonic. anthelmintic . Ceylon. aphrodisiac. relieves vomiting and retching. purgative. COM. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. Kirmirtvaka. H. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. W. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). LOC. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. leuco-derma. good in vomiting and skin diseases. useful in biliousness. useful in piles. bronchitis. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. K. Also indigenous in Arabia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. enlargement of spleen. diuretic. anæmia. Nagaranga. Narenj. enlargement of spleen. ascites. and lumbago. Sukkare-kanji. sweet and has agreeable flavour. Santra. tuberculous glands of neck. :— E. Doddile. Asia. urinary discharges. cooling. DISTR. good in fevers. Deccan. Kittale. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. relieves colds. In the Konkan fruit and root. aphrodisiac . and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. bowel complaints. carminative. dyspepsia. M. (Poona. Fruit—sour. with or without nux-vomica. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn.—Rutaceæ. Root and fruit cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. ulcers. elephantiasis . epilepsy. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. Cardiotonic. G. antipyretic. cures tumours. Rind— anthelmintic. Gujarat. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. laxative. Narangi. astringent. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases.

HABITAT :—Cultivated. the juice allays ear-ache. Mahanimbu. VAR. anasarca and chronic fever. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda).:—Grown in gardens in the State. Madala. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Adam's apple. Bijoru. astringent to bowels . COM. relieves sore-throat. flowers. said to be wild in W. COM. :—E. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". cough. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. bark and fruit. intoxication. LOC. Harale. Ghats. According to Theophrastus. Rusaki. anæmia. DoddaGaja-nimba. hiccup. B and C. Seeds—indigestible. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Mahaphala. M. stimulant. Balank. G. NS. :—Roots.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. USES. digestible. relieve vomiting. fruits and seeds. K. . G. used in constipation and tumours. Idalimbu. seeds. though there are no regular plantations. Citron . Bera nimbu. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Mahalunga. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Mavalunga. flatulence. Devamadala. sharp. CITRUS MEDICA Linn.—Rutaceæ. Ruchaka. rind of the fruit is bitter. the pulp cold and dry. heating. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. removes colic. LOC. Lemon . Matalunga. Motalimbu . useful in abdominal complaints. Mahaphala. anthelmintic. Thora-limbu. Sk. Paharinimbu . The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. PARTS USED. :—Citron rind is hot. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. tonic. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. oily. cures leprosy. also corrects foetid breath. Bijaura. Kutla. jaundice. Turanj. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. leaves and flowers hot and dry. cough. Matunga. juice refrigerant and astringent. See—Fruit Trees. with a sharp taste. Bijapurna. NS. H. Matulunga. useful in vomiting. increase appetite. M. Limonum. Sk. Jambira. Amlakeshara. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. thirst. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. The fruits contain vitamins A. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Flowers—stimulant. tonic and astringent properties. its preserve is used for dysentery. Turanj. :— E. aphrodisiac. asthma. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. Fruit—sweet and sour. H. FAM. dry and tonic . Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. LOC.

Churhar. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. with flavour. NS. H. ovoid. Morhari. it cures and prevents scurvy. Snuva. petioles twinning. Nebu. Devashreni.—Sept. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. with long feathery tails . :—An extensive climber. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Amlasara. Limbu. Oil from rind. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Fruit. anthelmintic. Morata. eyes . relieves biliousness. Acid-Sour lime . Limbe. throat trouble. :—G. heart. brain disorders. Sk. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. where there is dry skin and much thirst. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Limpaka. Nimbu. The fruits contain vitamins A and C.Nov. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes.5 cm. Khatalimbu. Fl. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Madhulika.—Ranunculaceæ. . Nimbe.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Fr. G. but often found trailing amongst grass. :—E. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant.—simple or once ternate. sepals 4-6. Lebu. burning in the chest. Rochana. whole plant tomentose. stimulant . plethora. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. Ranjai. sharp taste. Nimbuka. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. bronchitis . CHAR. t.. fatigue . VAR. NS. Sk. See—Fruit Trees. improves liver. Murva. M. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. hairy outside. leaves (rarely). Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. stomachic. Fruit—sour. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Acida. K. Nimbu.—petals O. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. Morvel. relieves vomiting . also useful in rheumatism. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. lobes mucronate. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. appetiser. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. white. M. it helps digestion. Moravel. Lebu. C. COM. cures abodominal complaints. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. constipation. Kagadi limbu. long ovate or orbicular. loss of appetite.—achenes. H. not good in old age.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. hemicrania. measles. LOC. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). blades 2-2. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Murhari. scarletina. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. FAM. Dhantiate. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. silky villous. Shodhana. K.

M. Kiritekki. Barbara. bitter. and fevers. Gantubarangi. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. cooling. tapering towards both ends . HABIT :—A common weed. Tilwan. hairy. Hulhul. stimulant. M. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Nayibela. K. transversely striate. :—G. t. anthelmintic. DISTR. laxative. yellow.—3-5 foliate. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa.—axillary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. NS. Jangali-harhar.—Verbenaceæ. Leaves—favour digestion. gradually becoming shorter upwards. LOC. COM. used internally in thirst. petioles of lower leaves longer. Ghats. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Harhuria. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. very common in the Deccan. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. Fr. CHAR. H. veined. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Konkan.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. in lax racemes. useful in leprosy. stems grooved and glandular. Kasaghni. stimulates secretion of bile. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. :—Common in grass lands. astringent. mixed with oil. dryness and urethral discharges. externally applied to boils. laxative. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. . LOC. Juice— cures ear-ache. erect. diuretic. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. H. L.—Capparidaceæ. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. Sd. hairy. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). reduces tumours and inflammations . :—Annual erect herb. DISTR. C.—Sept-June. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. K. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache.—petals 4.—brownish black. Sauri. Kanphodi. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. causes excessive biliousness. 30-90 cm. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. Karnasphota. high. Fl. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). obliquely striate. terminal the largest. oblong-obovate. hot. stomachic. Talvari. Bharang. good in malaria. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Tilparni.—capsule. subglobose. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Kanphutia. Bharangi. Adityabhakta. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Tinmani. removes " Kapha". Phanjika. :—G. leaflets elliptic-oblong. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. COM. Brahmani. Vatari. Bharangi. Fl. Sk. Sk. bitter taste and a strong odour. :—W. and dispel intestinal fermentation. NS. blood diseases. LOC. Bharangi. FAM. FAM. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon.

standard bright blue or white. CHAR. 0. 3. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. anthelmintic.—axillary. COM. hiccup. long . . Sd. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . fevers. leaflets 5-7. anthelmintic. tubercular glands. Fr. fevers (Yunani). ulcers of the cornea. bronchitis.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). acrid. Sk. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. Gokarnika. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. Aparajita. Fl. K. "Vata". :—G. L.8-5 cm. Aparajita. and blue flowered. hairy. Fl.—many. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. spreading.—much exerted. collectively forming a terminal panicle. wounds (Ayurveda). Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. headache. with an orange centre. The plant contains an alkaloid. leucoderma.5 X 2-3. asthma. stems bluntly quadrangular. M. stems terete. black. FAM. DISTR. 2-2. flat. Garani. Gokarni. ozœna. burning sensation. lessens expectoration.2 cm. Kowa. Kajli. Vishnukranta. alexiteric. consumption. elephantiasis.—ternately whorled. leaves and seeds.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. diuretic. cures "Tridosha". fleshy. oblong or elliptic. Girikarnika. epilepsy. elliptic oblong. inflammations.. C. LOC. There are two varieties :—white flowered. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. sharply serrate. Girikarniballi. 4 lobes flat. Root is purgative and diuretic. biliousness. useful in bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root.. LOC. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. asthma. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Kalina.—imparipinnate. high. the larger lower lobe dark purple. pains. blood diseases. solitary. also found throughout the State.2 m. tube hairy within.. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR.:—More or less throughout India. DISTR. C. PARTS USED :—Root. burning sensation. Fr. obovoid. tuberculous glands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling.—Shrub. useful in ascites (Yunani).5-15 X 5.3 cm. tonic to the brain. useful in inflammation. NS. Wowatheti.— drupe. Ceylon.7-6. Fl. heating. sometimes opposite. good for eye-diseases. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. in lax dichotomous cymes.—pale blue. leaves and seeds. smooth. ulcers (Ayurveda). Koyala. L. t. showy.—6-10 yellowish brown. LOC. laxative. nearly straight.— Aug. Malay Peninsula. :—A perennial twining herb. lower one deflexed.-Oct. Root increases appetite. t— June-Jany.. pubescent. stomachic. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. 12. HABITAT :—In hedges. tumours. inflammations.9-2. beaked.

Galedu. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Ink-berry. K. Kambhoja. Sk. useful in ascites and fevers.—Menispermaceæ. given for uterine discharges. Jamtikibel. Malaya. Faridburti. asthma. stops vomiting. diseases of blood. Country. LOC. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. wild in hedges. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. The plant contains an enzyme. Vasantitikta. Seeds are purgative and aperient. astringent to bowels. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. COM. biliousness.—E. Glum. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). allays thirst. cures leprosy. Kanduri. H. Bimbi. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania.—Cucurbitaceæ. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. dried and powdered. H. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Garudi. Fruit is aphrodisiac. urinary losses. & A. Tondeballi. :—G. USES:—In the Konkan. LOC. G. Vevati. Fruit— indigestible. aphrodisiac. antipyretic .) FAM. HABITAT. Oshthi. :—Grown everywhere in gardens.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Ghobe. Chireta. Flowers cure itching. Root bark. Bimba. Vasanvel. S. M. Hunder. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. COM. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. Tundika. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Ceylon. NS. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Konkan. Dirghvalli. Bimbika.:—Root cooling.:—Cultivated in gardens. Gujarat. tropical Africa. M. a hormone and an alkaloid. flowers. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. " Vata". Leaves—acrid. leaves. Bimb. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. M. consumption. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. See—Vegetables. burning of hands and feet. . None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Vevdi. DISTR :—Throughout India. NS. Parvel. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tundi. Broom-creeper. K. cause flatulence. and jaundice. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Tana. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. FAM. COCCINIA INDICA W. Tondali. Vasandi. fruit. galactagogue.

alexipharmic . India.—dioecious. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. Seed-cooling. tropical Africa.. which is taken internally with sugar.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Konkan. seed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. bark. good in fractures. ovate. Pegu. DISTR. and put on to sore-eyelids. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. flowers. Fl. dysentery. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . it is used for coughs. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. . and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). K.—3. PARTS USED :—Root. Narial. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. smells sweetish and pungent.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Milk—cooling. 3-5 nerved. Sk. aphrodisiac. biliousness. Common in Konkan and N. LOC. FAM. aphrodisiac.8-6. mixed with water. oil. Antipyretic. indigestible. NS. size of a small pea.—Dec. also in many places in the interior.:— A straggling scandent shrub. with a few heads of pepper. L. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. enriches blood. villous .—Palmæ. Narikel. tuberculosis. Fl. laxative and sudorific. Deccan. Arabia. young parts densely Villous. Jataphala. S. Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. G. useful in leprosy. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. Nalivar.—drupe. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. appetiser. it is heating. constipation. Toyagarbha. fattening. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ".:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. urinary discharges. as a cure for gonorrhœa. male in small axillary cymose panicles. HABITAT :—In hedges. In the Konkan. tonic. H. Kanara. India and Ceylon. M. burning sensation. Fr. rugose . useful in diabetes. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. DISTR.3-3. Mad. cardiotonic. female in axillary clusters. "Kapha" and "Vata". laxative. Flower-cooling . LOC. subdeltoid or subhastate. COM. causes "Kapha". Mangalya. ovate-oblong. thirst. oleaginous. LOC. Nariyal. laxative. 2-8 together.3 X 1. China. keeled. It is also used as a refrigerant. Tengu. Naral. aphrodisiac. Cocoanut palm. fattening. useful in biliousness. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). tumours. lessens thirst. Mahaphala. fermented juice. Tenginmara. S. tonic. Leaf-juice. blood diseases. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). bronchitis. :—E.8 cm. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. lessens bile and burning sensation.

Bengal. internodes smooth. smooth. America. Fr. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Jargadi. S.6-10 mm. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. t.—Oct. useful in fever.. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . L. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. LOC. smooth. M. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. :—E. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). CHAR. China. LOC. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. high or more.—broadly ovoid to globose. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. diuretic . 6. NS. above the bract stout. tonic. notched at the nodes . Madhya Bharat. FAM. G. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. increases body weight. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. long. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). See—Fruit Trees. DISTR.—Gramineæ COM. Gurlu .72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. long. tropical Asia-Africa. HABITAT :—Gregarious. base cordate. Oil—sweet. consumption. polished. Fl. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. Rajputana. enriches blood. Fibres. stout. spinously serrate margins. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. it also purifies blood. :—A tall leafy grass. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. It is also used for burns.5-6. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. polished. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. Fl.—monœcious racemes 2. asthma. rachis within the bract slender. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. sheaths long. piles . bluish grey. fermented juice is intoxicating. Sk.3 cm. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. rooting at the lower nodes. It is refreshing and laxative. :—Himalayas. ulcers (Ayurveda). Dabha. fattening. B and C. promotes hairgrowth. Gojivha.—10-15 x 2. diuretic. lessens inflammations . Malaya. India. Assam. Polynesia. it promotes growth of hair. useful in lumbar-pain. abundant in standing water. incipient phthisis and cachexia. piles and scabies (Yunani. paralysis. H. bronchitis. Oils. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. midrib stout. liver complaints. Gavedhu. Japan. Kasai.5-5 cm. Job's tears. Ran-jondhala. LOC. Madhya Pradesh. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). stem 90-150 cm. useful in urinary complaints. Oil—indigestible.

2 cm. smooth. t. Sk. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. COM. Bhokar.—Tiliaceæ. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. Bhuselu. leaves and fruit. L. FAM. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . FAM. laxative. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . See—Fibres. :—An annual herb. DISTR. histidin. brown. H. Jute . :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. serrate. arginine and coicin. . Bargund. Sebesten plum. Fr. ridged and muricated. Lassora. fever. Rayagundo.—few in each cell. Chaunchan . In jutegrowing districts. Bhukerbudara. NS. Patta. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. wedgeshaped.— capsule. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Resalla. carminative.—Boraginaceæ. Bhokar. Gujarat. See—Fodder Plants. C. also as antiperiodic. 12 mm. subglobose. Challa. 5-valved. acute or acuminate. lysin.—petals 4-5. Sk. Fl.— Sept. M. yellow. diam.—7. Kalasaka. not beaked. tyrosin. Pistan. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. growing very tall under cultivation. Hadige.—in short cymes. G. Mannadike. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Sd. Chhunchh . and intestinal antiseptic. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. stomachic. G. cultivated in most tropical countries. LOC. Fl.5-10 X 2-3. also efficacious in skin-diseases. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. The plant contains leucin. astringent. CHAR. It is also used as a bitter tonic. and dyspepsia. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China.:—E. Col. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. COM. :—Konkan. Gondan. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. buds obovoid. NS. anthelmintic.

H. Fruits are used as spice. indigestion. Cochin-China. tropical Australia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Satpudas. often planted. biliousness. Kothamir. burning of throat. gives appetite. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). COM. Kustumburi. antipyretic. aphrodisiac. cooling. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. diseases of chest. thirst. laxative. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. dyspepsia. The plant and fruit— acrid. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. DISTR. tonic to brain. stomachic. Ghats. bleeding gums. prevents coryza and bronchitis. G. :—Throughout India. Bark is used as a mild tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. diuretic. LOC. biliousness. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. wild and cultivated. heart and liver. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. gleet. pains in joints. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). Allaka. carminative and antispasmodic. stomatitis. See—Timbers. headache. tuberculous glands. vomiting. Hivija. biliousness. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Ceylon. K. Fruit is aromatic. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. widely known from Palestine. chronic fevers. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. stimulant. expectorant. vulnerary. eye-pains. Leaves—hypnotic. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. FAM. Dhania. PARTS USED :—Bark. also cultivated. M. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. LOC. removes bad humours. useful in hiccup. stimulant. NS. Coriander. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Egypt. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Mesapotamia and Greece. purgative. DISTR. used as an expectorant and astringent. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. Konphir. causes suppuration. " Kapha" (Ayurveda).:—Throughout the State in W. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fruit—diuretic. Dharika. LOC. inflammations. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Kothimbir. used in dry cough. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. anthelmintic. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Kanara. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. maturant. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. tooth-ache. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. jaundice. used in syphilis. Kothambri. highly esteemed in coughs. Vitunnaka. analgesic. anthelmintic. scabies. Syria.—Umbelliferæ. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). bechic. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. anthelmintic.:—E. diseases of chest and urethra. piles. LOC.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Fibres. Sk. cures thirst. . uterus and urethra.

-Oct. COM. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Vayavarna. Hadawarna. LOC. Bitusi. Fl. Var. stem sub-woody at the base . Pinga. Kashmira. :—An erect plant 1. bright red. Penva. lobes ovate-oblong. H. Castle Rock. a tonic is prepared from it. silky-pubescent beneath. CHAR. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. LOC.2-2. M.—15-30 X 5. The plant yields an essential oil. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Biliana. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Madhya Bharat. anæmia. India. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. depurative. and " Vata". disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Kushtha. K. PARTS USED:—Root. Shura. DISTR. red. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. NS. Varuna. Nervele. lip white with yellow centre. :—G. sheaths coriaceous . Barna. S. lumbago. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. inflammations. mucronate. :—More or less throughout India.7-7. China. Fr.— tube short. dyspepsia. It is also astringent and digestive. L. root-stock tuberous. Pakarmula. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. DISTR. high. also planted near Muslim tombs.—Aug. Var. Ajapa. and aphrodisiac. subsessile.— in very dense spikes. Sk. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Kust. useful in catarrhal fevers. Kumaraka.:—Konkan ghats. Malay Islands. By the earliest writers. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Changalkashta. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Sk. oblong. COM. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. concave. crisped.5 cm. M. Varuna. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Fl. FAM. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Karikuttu. nalas. " Kapha". Ceylon. coughs and skin diseases. Bilpatri. Chikke. K. Sd. Pushkarmula. See—Condiments and Spices. Keu. subequal. useful in bronchitis. S. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places.7 m. Country. Pushkarmula. rheumatism. hiccup (Ayurveda). in moist and shady places. fever.—Capparidaceæ. FAM. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Varvunna. spirally arranged.—capsule. C. M. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. LOC.—Scitamineæ. bracts ovate. H. Khandala. NS.— black with white aril. Varno. Mahakapittha. :—G. Kemuka. many. globosely 3-gonous. Vayavarno.

diuretic.:—G. :—Throughout tropical India. . anthelmintic. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. found wild in North and South Konkan. lumbago.—15-50 in an umbel. urinary discharges. useful in biliousness. Nagadown. perianth tube greenish-white. CHAR. vomiting. K. expectorant. X 12. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. bechic. diam. PARTS USED :—Root. Nag-damani. night-blindness. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). laxative. Seeds—purgative.—20-30. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first.5 cm. Sd. COM. beaked.—subglobose. leaves. Fl. vulnerary. DISTR. good in strangury.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.5-10 cm. flowers and fruits. leaves. Ceylon. toothache. expectorant. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. diseases of vagina. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. gonorrhœa. Tonic. and seeds. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). urinary concretions. antilithic. See—Timbers. LOC. bright green. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. lung and spleen diseases. Visha-Mandalamardini.. also wild. then sweet. bracts 7. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. carminative. long. as long as the tube. Patra-pushpi. USES:—Root is alterative. chest and blood diseases. LOC. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). lobes 6. Chindar. Bark promotes appetite. anuria. emmenagogue. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite.9-1. Wild or cultivated. scape 45-90 cm. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. useful in bronchitis. fragrant at night. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. FAM. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. laxative. digestive. linear. antipyretic. Pindar. white. act as rubefacient and vesicant. Vishamungalli. Kanda-shalini. flat.—1 (rarely 2). cylindric. detergent. removes "Vata". stomachic.5-18 cm. with a sheathing base. increases secretion of bile. Sk. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. "Pitta" and "Kapha". vesicant. bitter. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac..—Amaryllidaceæ. Fr. it promotes appetite. strangury. Kanmu. bulb 5-10 cm. anthelmintic. Nag-damani. Nagdavana. M. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. NS. chest. Kanwal. L. linear lanceolate. The plant contains saponin. tumours. bark. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . laxative. tuberculous glands. 0. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. thin. defective vision.

useful in mental troubles. G. Oil from the seed is purgative. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. insanity. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Bhutankusam. tonic. Kanara. it is in great request. China. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. H. :—Sylhet. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. :—H. carminative. Assam to Malacca. Japala. excessive phlegm. LOC. convulsions. expectorant. in small doses.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ceylon . Sk. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Ganasur. Nepal. :—Naturalised in S. near Junnar (Poona Dist). good in sore eyes. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Ceylon. LOC. Danti. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. Jayapala. :—Bengal. Konkan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sk. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. naturalised or cultivated. DISTR. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. FAM. NS. Burma. abdominal diseases. Bengal. See—Timbers. Purging croton .. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Chota-Natpur. cathartic.—Euphorbiaceæ. bark. Western Peninsula. Chucka . :—E. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. M. Danti. nauseant and diaphoretic. Nepala . Burma. FAM. emetic. As an application to sprains. :—Rare in the State. NS. Nepala. Seeds cause burning sensation. Seeds contain an alkaloid. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Jamalgota . bruises and rheumatic swellings. See—Ornamental Plants. leaves and seeds. Oil cathartic. inflammations. bronchitis (Ayurveda). . etc. The plant contains lycorin. fever. M. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Ieucoderma. Jamalgota. Malay Islands. DISTR. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. PARTS USED :—Root. Jepal. K. Madhya Pradesh.

bronchitis. obstinate constipation. It is given internally with great caution. brain and body. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. FAM. Chibdu Shakarteti. NS. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Shantanu. biliousness. thirst (Yunani). diuretic. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. G. diuretic. Sweet melon . Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Vrittervaru. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit—tonic. chronic fever. Said to be truly wild in India. &c. They are edible. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. See—Timbers. M. diaphoretic. :—In Deccan. Kakadi. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. NS. Kharbuja. fattening. Sk. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. convulsions. tonic. insanity. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. laxative. H. Ripe fruit—sweet. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Kachra. LOC. :—G. nutritive and diuretic. Pathira . M. C. fruit and seeds. in ascites and anasarca. Karkati. DISTR. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. Melon. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. dropsy. Valungi. ascites. Rind—vulnerary. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. used in liver and kidney troubles. It is useful in apoplexy. LOC. Kakri. Kakni. gives headache. COM. strengthens heart. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). insanity. DISTR. COM. Shadrekha. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Karkali. ascites. cures ophthalmia. Tarkakadi. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour.:—E. Valaka. K. Mutrala. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. H. laxative. colic. synovitis. cooling. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. . cures " Vata ". Seeds—lachrymatory. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Kharbuja. Kharbuja. galactagogue. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. urinary discharges. wholesome. Kankadi. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Lomashi. Mahanaracha Rasa. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. MELO Var. oily. aphrodisiac. LOC. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. and lock-jaw. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers.—Cucurbitaceæ. allays fatigue. Chibuda. Kalangida. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. may cause indigestion.

fruits. dry. Sudhavsa.—Cucurbitaceæ. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. :—G. Seed oil used in fever. used in thirst. pulp bitter. and C. LOC. Vishala. L. Hislambhi. fever. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. stomachic. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. C. M. male in clusters. Sushitala. Sk. enrich blood. G.—white. allay thirst. NS. FAM. angled. strangury. See—Vegetables. Chitravalli. cures biliousness.— suborbicular. Fr. Tansali. biliousness. H. Ripe one tonic. Kumbhakshi. cooling. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. tendrils simple. NS. are administered in throat affections. Fruit—fattening . Kakdi. Fl. Kakari. diuretic.—yellow segments elliptic. t. Fl.—subglobose or ellipsoid. They are nutritive. lobulate or dentate . they are also used as diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. COM. indigestible. antipyretic. . improve complexion.:—E. pale yellow when ripe.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. :—A perennial climber. roasted and powdered. hairy. Cucumber. India is considered to be the original home. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. FAM. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. K. melo var. Kothiban. Sd. margined . PARTS USED :—Leaves. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. seeds. rigid. M. Yunani). Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). CHAR. Trapusha. B. cordate at the base. LOC. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. fatigue. cures thirst. stem slender. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). Tavasa. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. good for brain and body. astringent. Kankdi.—monœcious . See-Fruit Trees. Cultivated in all parts of India. Khira. "Kapha" and flatulence. Khira.—Cucurbitaceæ. purgative. Seeds possess cooling properties. female peduncle longer than male. H. lobes obovate.—June-Sept. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. Takamaki. LOC. Seeds—diuretic.:—N. Santekayi. Karit. Mrigadani. COM. causes "Vata". utilissimus (Ayurveda. DISTR.

cultivated in many parts of India. H.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Kumbala. Kushmand. NS. Kaddu. Iran. Pitakushmand. Mithakaddu. Karkarn. LOC. LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. : — E. In Malabar. See—Vegetables. M. Red squash gourd. Pumpkin. Bhopala. LOC. Kadimah. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. fruits and seeds. K. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Ceylon. stomachic. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. K. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. cures cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. DISTR. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Malaya. :—E. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. The plant contains glucoside saponin. NS. Melon pumpkin. COM. Australia. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. tonic. DISTR. Punyalata. FAM . Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. unhealthy ulcers. Kashiphala. on hedges. astringent to bowels . B and C. Dudia. Kushmand. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. H. allays thirst. indigestible. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Kumra. Safedkaddu . Tambda bhopala. Fruit contains vitamins A. USES. Dried fruit indigestible . HABITAT. G. :—Throughout the greater part of India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. Vegetable marrow. FAM. N. Afghanistan. M. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. carbuncles. DISTR.—Cucurbitaceæ. .:—Considered to be a native of America. improves taste (Ayurveda). increases " Vata ". Seeds are used as taeniacide. increases " Vata" .80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. LOC. Dangari. Kumbala. fruit is used to prevent insanity. :—Cultivated.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Koron. Sk. COM. etc.

cure haemoptysis. emmenagogue. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). K. Seeds—diuretic. ft contains vitamins A and C. Neltati gadde. LOC. fruit and seeds. alexipharmic. See—Condiments and Spices. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. heals corneal opacities. cures haemoptysis. fatigue. Seeds anthelmintic. tonic to intestine. fattening. thirst.—Amaryllidaceæ. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. astringent to bowels. scabies. DISTR. Kalimusali. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—Fruit. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). astringent. Jiru. . cures leprosy. Sk. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. anthelmintic. throat and eyes. Talamulika. M. carminative. beneficial in consumption. Cures " Vata " tumours. good for teeth. relieves hiccup. sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. COM. LOC. antipyretic. Zira. diuretic and demulcent. Dipaka. Ajjika. inflammations. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. allays thirst. Kalimusali. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. Neladati. H. FAM. cooling. Fruit astringent. Mushalikand . remove biliousness. Cumin. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). ulcers. K. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. vulnerary. also a lactagogue. Leaves—digestible. aphrodisiac. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. :—G. leucoderma. Fruit—very cooling. eye-diseases. Gaurajerka. Jire. NS. FAM. bronchitis. increases appetite . Dirghaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Jirige. carminative.—Umbelliferæ. and the root for making these more potent. tonic. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. antidysenteric. Jira. leprosy. H. analgesic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. See—Vegetables. M. laxative. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. enlargment of the spleen. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. haematinic. uterine stimulant. Musali. :—E. biliousness. Sk. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. LOC. gonorrhœa. fever. carminative. asthma. COM. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. appetiser. NS. fever. Girautmi. belching . stomachic. tonic. stops epistaxis . purifies blood (Ayurveda). G. Fruit yields an essential oil. Seeds are taeniacide. Kapha " and " Vata ". abortifacient. astringent to bowels. Kalimusali.

distichous. W.8-5 cm. aphrodisiac. useful in inflammations.—grooved. alterative. lumbago. piles. :—E. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Root—carminative. vomiting. DISTR. appetiser. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. expectorant. " Vata". tubers thick.—sessile or petiolate. Karpuraharidra. Java. hiccup. Sd.—long petioled in tufts. clavate . scabies. oblong lanceolate. C—white or very pale-yellow. causes "Vata". FAM. gonorrhœa. H. inflammations (Ayurveda). bronchitis. oblong. antipyretic. Kanara. asthma. :—A small herb. hydrophobia. antipyretic. gleet. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. Fl. scape. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. indigestion.— in autumnal spikes 7. gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. alexiteric. . :—Konkan and N. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . DISTR. Ambehalad. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres.—Scitamineæ. diuretic. shining . :—Konkan and Gujarat. biliousness. t.5-15 X 3. Fl. black. colic. rhizome. Sk. Peninsula. lumbago. Bitter.3-2. alterative and tonic. Ambahaldi. G. Peninsula. tonic. fatigue. oblong. bitter. COM. Mango-ginger. :—Stemless herb. aphrodisiac. appetiser.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.5 cm. LOC. emollient. diarrhœa. linear or linear-lanceolate . all skin-diseases.5-12. debility and impotence. Malay Archipelago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. diarrhœa. LOC. L. often cultivated. perianth segments elliptic. L. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . ulcers on penis.:—Sweet. very short.5 cm. pale yellow inside . Fl. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual.-Sept. useful in biliousness. sessile. Assam. 30-45x7. cooling. tips sometimes rooting. aphrodisiac. useful in piles. with a beak . PARTS USED :—Root and tubers.— in racemes. cylindric or ellipsoid. NS. :—Bengal. maturant. flowering bract greenish-white. gleet. appetising. t.— May-June.. Bengal. antipyretic. LOC. Fr. Kapurahaldi. K. CHAR. fattening. yellow. hairy on the back. during convalescence after acute illness. Fl. Ambahaladara. pains in joints (Yunani). bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). useful in bronchitis. root stock large. common at the beginning of rains. laxative. 1545 X 1. ophthalmia. jaundice. Amhaladi. stomatitis (Yunani). Amragandha. M.—capsule. troubles in the mouth and ear. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. PARTS USED :—Root.:—W.

PARTS USED :—Tubers. 3lobed. upper half funnel-shaped. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). NS. lateral lobes oblong. the dorsal longer. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. :—Stemless herb.—Scitamineæ. root-stock large. appetiser . Yellow Zedoary. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. long. Banhaladi. also stomachic. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. it is seldom used alone . COM. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood.— flowering stem sheathed. M. appearing before leafing stem. CHAR. Cochin-Wild turmeric.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. Haridra. lobes pale-rose. Halad. biennial. green. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. :—E.-May. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Halada. Sometimes cultivated. Also cultivated in Konkan. :—E. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. base deltoid. Fl. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. C. Halad. L. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. G. Sk.. DISTR. Vanarishta.5 cm. Sholika. LOC. Sholi. Ran-halad. annulate.—Scitamineæ. Banharidra. M. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. t. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. sessile. rounded at the tips. H. sometimes cultivated. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. Varnadatri. COM. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. FAM. used as an application for skin-diseases.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. forming pouches for the flowers. in spikes 15-30 cm. LOC.—tube 2. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. DISTR. See—Condiments and Spices. Kapur-kachali. It is considered tonic and carminative. Vanhaldara. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. Sk. FAM. K. palmately branched. flowers fragrant. :—Western Peninsula. Jayanti. NS. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. . Mangalya. Fl. lip yellow. Turmeric. Aranyaharidra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. long. flowering bracts cymbiform. pale green. variegated above. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Harita. Bengal. LOC. Indian saffron. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . G. Arishina. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC.

it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. internally administered in blood disorders. heating.—4-6 with long petioles. appetiser. useful in " Kapha". bitter. flowering bract green tinged with red . flowers yellow in spikes. G. long.:—E. Tuber is used as a stimulant. oblong. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. bronchitis. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. Kachora. itches etc. C. M. Bitter. alexiteric. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. Karechura. piles. Fl. externally applied to leech-bites. In small-pox and chicken-pox. K. boils. root-stock of palmately branched. It contains vitamin A. Sk. COM. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. lobed . bruises. Narakachora. "Vata ". swellings. antipyretic. FAM . asthma. lip 3-lobed. CHAR. In coryza. Gandhamulaka sara. clouded with purple down the middle. Jatala. taste bitterish spicy. Hakhir. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. used in prurigo. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. useful in leucoderma. oblong-lanceolate. vulnerary. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. heating. alexiteric. jaundice. urinary discharges. said to be Wild in E. scabies. 3-gonous. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the State. Zedoary. Fr. Kachari.—capsule. See—Condiments and Spices. fumes are used during hysteric fits . USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. inflammations. laxative. L. bruises (Yunani). Himalayas and Chittagong. Shathi. blood diseases. The plant contains curcumin. boils and urticaria. anthelmintic. anthelmintic. :—Stemless herb. annulate tubers. HABITAT :—Cultivated.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. fragrant. carminative.—Scitamineæ. cylindric. destroys foulness of breath. long. clothed with sheaths. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. pale-yellow inside. NS. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. tonic. LOC. Kachora. appearing before the leaves. odour like camphor. sprains (Ayurveda). cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion.— flowering stem 20-25cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. deepyellow.—funnel shaped. maturant. scabies. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . LOC. diuretic. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. emollient. urinary discharges. small-pox. 30-60 cm. H. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. good for liver affections. coma-bract crimson or purple . Kachuri. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. vulnerary. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. an alkaloid. . leucoderma. improves complexion. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. bruises. bitter. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. and yields an essential oil. and inflammatory troubles of the joints .

it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. it is stimulant. high. LOC. Tubers yield an essential oil. It is an excellent stomachic to children. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Bitter. of much use in typhoid fevers. long. bitter. Bhustrina. up to over 1. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane.. Lilicha. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. others narrow and separating. enlargement of spleen. carminative. applied to bruises and sprains. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Majjige hullu. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. long. furunculosis. sheaths terete . pains. M. erect. velvety at the nodes. toothache (Yunani). good odour. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. Gavati-chaha. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. DISTR. sharp. Putigandha. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). G.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. It is also aromatic. probably of Indian origin. upto over 90 cm. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. alexipharmic.:—E.8 m. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. inflammations. gastric irritability. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. LOC. emetic. epileptic fits. also used as a tonic and depurative. useful in bronchitis. expectorant. and other painful affections. chronic rheumatism. emmenagogue. stimulant and carminative. Takratrina. H. glaucous green. nodding. NS. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. CHAR. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. sheaths of the culm tight. Sk. Purhati hullu. Lemon grass. carminative. sharp hot taste. it is also a good application for ringworm. tonic to brain and heart. Externally it is rubefacient. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. laxative. K. and is of great value in cholera. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. sprains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. midrib whitish on the upper side. LOC. laxative. useful in griping of children. Ligule very short. Gandhatrina. anthelmintic. . culm stout. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. L. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. :—A tall perennial. appetiser. aphrodisiac. hot. neuralgia. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. leprosy.—linear tapering upwards to a point. tuberculous glands of neck. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. COM. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins.—Gramineæ.

-Nov. bad taste in the mouth. Fl.—spikes 2-nate. soft.5-30 cm. green or purplish. prostrate . distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Kobbar. G. NS. Durva. X 1 cm. CHAR..—Gramineæ. Geramium grass. L. slender. M. stem. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Shatagranthi. finely acute. burning sensation. Konkan. Mirchiagand. FAM.000 m. Harali. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). t. widely creeping.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. forming matted tufts. Fr. high. most warm countries. oblique or divaricate. sheaths tight. Saugandhika. through N. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. K. Ghats. long. subcordate or rounded at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. upto 2. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Bhutika. Mangala. vomiting.5-2. Rhusghas. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. bitter. :—Sourashtra. LOC.—flat.3 cm. skin . pungent.5-5 cm. Africa to Morocco. narrowly linear. Roshdo. epileptic fits. Fl. Fl. 1. leprosy. thirst. H. in the Himalayas. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. 12-18 mm. Roshagavat. COM. M. throughout India. Dhoboghas. Rohisha. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Durva. Shyamaka. high. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. fatigue. with erect flowering branches 7. NS. particularly the Deccan trap areas. Gujarat. cooling.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. Bahuvirya. straw coloured. leprosy. Fl. pains. sweet. Baluchistan. Sk. long. and Ceylon ascending to 3. :—A perennial grass . 1 mm. Country. Vasanchullu. leafy. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—2-10 cm. stem. LOC. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers.—Gramineæ. throat troubles. M. bronchitis. H. W. Bujina.t. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. L. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. LOC. COM. smooth. Burma. Deccan. DISTR. Durba. scabies. useful in fevers. Shatamula. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. long. DISTR. heart diseases. CHAR. Sind. wide below. margins scabrid. Afghanistan.4 m. hallucinations. useful in biliousness. carminative.—grain. Garikehallu. usually broad.—throughout the year. Rohisha.:—Grows all over the State. Dhro. S. Gharo. :—Cosmopolitan . glaucous beneath. See-Oils. FAM. long. :—Punjab.—Oct. K. Sk. :—E. G.

vulnerary. erysipelas. Fl. Nut—broadly ovoid. LOC. acrid. pain. urinary concretions (Yunani). See—Fodder Plants. bruises.82. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Koranarigadde. useful for ulcers and sores. biliousness. LOC. Motha. ophthalmia. :—Throughout India. Sugandhi-granthila. Mutha. Tubers yield an essential oil. 0. K. most hot countries. very troublesome weed. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. Granthi. appetiser. it is diuretic. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. They are also diuretic and stimulant. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. useful in vomiting. erysipelas (Ayurveda). bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. Root— diuretic. biliousness. Mustaka. dysentery. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds.—Cyperaceæ. blood diseases.—Sept-Nov. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. astringent. CHAR. Sk Bhadramusta. blood diseases. difficult to eradicate. thirst. COM. Fl. DISTR. dysentery. L. LOC. t. :—Glabrous herb. vomiting. vulnerary. epilepsy. fevers. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Tubers. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. USES :—Roots are commonly. diaphoretic. Bimbal. stomachic. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. epistaxis. diarrhœa. anthelmintic. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. trigonous. expectorant.. M. emmenagogue. epilepsy and insanity. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. hiccup (Yunani). stolons elongate. epistaxis (Ayurveda). stomatitis. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. greyish black. In Ceylon. cooling. FAM. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. dyspepsia.. narrowly linear. fever. useful in leprosy. spikelets 10-50 flowered. . diarrhœa. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. H. Motha. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. NS. Bitterish.5 cm. fever.— in simple or compound umbel.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. anthelmintic. Nagarmotha.—shorter or longer than the stem. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. Motha. juice is used in hysteria. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Tungegaddo. Ceylon. pruritis. Kachhola.

outer truncate. t. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. tubular. L. H. across. covered with straight sharp prickles. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. G. funnel-shapped. Black-Purple datura. FAM. L. K: Dhattura. Kala-dhotara. long 10-20. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. usually pubescent.:—E. Country. soft spiny. divaricately branched. Unmatta. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State.2 cm. long.—thin.—Solanaceæ. Fl. COM. on curved stalk 3. Kanaka.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. 30-60 cm. Kanaka.-Jany. FAM. Administered after the third stage of labour. Phalakantak. e. DISTR. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). t.— tubular.g. Fl. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. and sub-involution of the uterus. high. HABIT :—A common weed. Fl. green. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus .5 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—A perennial twining herb. broadly ovate or suborbicular.—purple outside. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Sd. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Sept-Dec. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. diam. yellowish brown. greenish-yellow or dull-white. lobes spreading. CHAR. afterwards racemose.—Asclepiadaceæ. C. ciliate. :—H. white inside. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. M. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. ovate. Bhranta. corona outer and inner. reflexed. :—Deccan. somewhat zigzag.—capsule. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". S. a glucoside. Fr. Ns. Sk. Ceylon. inner curved high over the staminal column. Gujarat. solitary. velvety pubescent beneath. LOC. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding).88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. LOC. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. COM.5-15 X 3.—follicle. Utran. Fr. paralytic ileus.—Aug. very unequal at the base. entire or with large teeth or lobes.—7. Kariyu-Um-Matta. double. CHAR. Utarni. Sd. NS.—many. Kaladhatura.. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine.2-7. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. :—Annual shrub. Fl. subglobose. Kaladhatura.5 cm. . Sk. stem hairy. M. acute. 18 cm. glabrous above. packed. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. M. nodding. beak long. spur acute. Rajdhattura.

Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. piles. toxic. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine.. alexiteric. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. H. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Garjara. LOC. heating. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cause headache (Yunani). The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. FAM. leaves and seeds. black (Kala) and white (Safed). Leaf poultice. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. nosetrouble. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. :—Throughout the tropics. bitter. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. equal in effect to atropine. headache. USES :—Out of the two varieties. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. . K. anodyne. NS. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. black variety is considered to be more powerful. LOC. GranthiPinda-Mula. The plant as a whole has narcotic. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Gajjari. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. jaundice. with curdled milk. Carrot. anthelmintic. Seeds—narcotic. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. ganja. painful tumours. Gajar. biliousness. digestive and heating. Shikkikanda. emetic.—Umbelliferæ COM. nodes. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. in combination with subja. Gajar. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Sk. leaves and seeds. majum. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Europe. emetic. Gajar. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. toddy. ulcers. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. to increase their stupefying effect. Gajra. febrifuge. and antispasmodic properties. :—E. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. anthelminitic . M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. PARTS USED :—Roots. The whole plant is narcotic. in gonorrhœa. tonic. Cultivated in many parts of India. (Ayurveda). chronic coughs. febrifuge. relieves pain. DISTR. Leaf-juice is given internally. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. useful in leucoderma. enlargement of testicles and boils. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. bronchitis. mumps etc. skin-diseases. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk.

Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. C—violet or white. piles. carminative. It is used in fevers. dysentery . " Tridosha ". good for inflammation. :—Konkan and N. cough. NS.—pod. Roots contain vitamins A. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . removes " Kapha". aphrodisiac.6-1.—in terminal or axillary racemes. CHAR. boiled with honey and fermented. DISTR. Kitavinashini. thirst. alterative. H. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. " Vata". joints 6-8. astringent to bowels. . :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. Salpan. See—Vegetables. cures typhoid. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. piles. other fevers. COM. M. :— G. bronchitis. tonic. used in bronchitis. membranous. diuretic. Shaliparni. vomiting and asthma. paler and hairy beneath. vomiting. alexipharmic. upper edge straight. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. Darh. margins wavy. green and glabrous above. standard cuneate at the base . hairy. good for liver. Salwan. biliousness. LOC. FAM. useful in chronic fevers. anthelmintic. K. expectorant. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. throughout India. asthma.—May-July. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. stems and branches angled. aphrodisiac. nausea (Yunani). USES :—Externally. tropical Africa. t. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Malay Peninsula and Islands . Root marmalade is refrigerant. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. sub-falcate. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). inflammations. pains. cardiotonic. Murele-honne. hooked hairy. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. prevents death of fœtus in womb . Salwan. Salparni. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). fattening. ovate-oblong. LOC. Country. M. high. Vidarigandha. B and C. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. chest troubles. antidysenteric.. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. cures biliousness. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). tumours. China. Salpani. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. urinary complaints. asthma. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Fl. 0. Ceylon. vomiting. Salwan.—onefoliate.2 m. Sk. Kanara . burning sensation. cures leprosy. chronic affections of chest and lungs. they produce a spirituous liquor. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Tonic. astringent to bowels. thirst.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. Fl. Burma. urinary discharges. Dirghamula. stomachic. hiccup. Fr. indigestible. Philippines. L. they are also diuretic. Ranbhal. :—A woody undershrub. Deccan and S.

H. COM.—Gramineæ. :—E. aphrodisiac. stout. Tumari. diuretic. CHAR. Wood cures biliousness. PARTS USED :—Wood. Banda. Sk. oleaginous. Dabha. DISTR. Darbha. Gavandu. Sphurjaka. vaginal discharges. Ceylon. ligule a hairy line . DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. M. LOC. :—Along the coasts of N. Dab. erect pyramidal or columnar. Sacred Plants. astringent to bowels. Kanara and the Konkan. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. COM. G.3-3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. erect. Durva. L. clothed with sessile spikelets. reaching 50 cm. flowers. Tumaki Mara. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). interrupted. vomiting. thirst.—many. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. -panicle 15-45 X 1. . long. smooth. stems 30-90 cm. Pavitra. branches short crowded. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Syria. skin eruptions. Darbha. :—Throughout India. Fl. branched from the base. Nubia. stolon very stout.:—Saurashtra. cooling. Wild mangosteen. Gujarat. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. tufted.. rigid. useful in blood diseases. Tinduka. Timbwini. Riber ebony. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. covered with shining sheaths. margins hispid. creeping. Temburni. H. jaundice. sedative to pregnant uterus. DISTR.—G. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). fruit and seeds.) FAM. FAM. Fl. the basal fascicled. Kalaskandh. Konkan. Anilsara. Zeeberwo. :—Perennial tall grass. See—Fodder Plants. Kusha. diseases of bladder. Sk. asthma. t. Kalatendu. LOC. M. cures ulcers and " Vata". used in biliousness and blood diseases. Flowers—aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. high. good for lumbago.—Dec. Gale. Davoli. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters.—Ebenaceæ.8 cm. LOC. strangury. in the beds of rivers and streams. bark. Makurkendi. Fruit—oleaginous. K. rootstock stout. Thailand (Siam). in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Tendu. vesical calculi. biliousness. NS. sheaths glabrous. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Egypt. Malay Archipelago. diseases of blood. heating.

Konkan— Ratnagiri. cures hiccup. diseases of the brain and eyes. Bijapur and Dharwar. M. hiccup. enlargement of spleen. Basingh. cures " Kapha".—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). heart-troubles. fattening. Tans. grown to a certain extent in S. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Grains contain vitamin A. acrid. removes stone from kidney. dry. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. ozoena. H. Kulitha. coughs etc. leucoderma. Kulit. tumours. astringent to bowels. Sk. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. NS. M.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. stout. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. Diuretic. :—Tropics of the old world. Kalvrinta. :—Rhizome creeping. Hurali. K. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. Texture membranaceous to leathery. intestinal colic. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. antipyretic. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. hot. It is demulcent in calculus affection. base decurrent on the stipe. Kulithaka. densely clothed with red-brown scales. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nasik. inflammation. asthma. Country—Belgaum.—Polypodiaceæ. :—E. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. cordate. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Sitetara. generally on trees and rocks. COM. COM. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. "Vata". Sk. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Kulthi. Ashvakatri. Sori two in each primary areole. Jurali. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Horse-Gram. improves complexion. Kulthi. Kulith. causes biliousness (Yunani). removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. appetiser. variously lobed. PARTS USED :—Seeds. strangury. Kulathi. LOC. Wandar bashing. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. short. LOC. NS. piles. urinary discharges. bronchitis. pain in liver. . abdominal complaints. liver troubles. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. ovate. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. CHAR. piles.Gahat. emmenagogue. DISTR. Surfaces naked. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. fertile ones long stalked. FAM. FAM. anthelmintic. See-Food Plants. :—M. eye troubles. See—Timbers. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa.

L. :—More or less throughout India. spiny. LOC. useful in brain-diseases. urinary discharges. the lobes triangular and oblong. thirst.—Compositæ. surrounded by strong white bristles. Sk. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Mochand. DISTR. 0. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Balari. LOC. Pitripriya. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. :—Kanara.—sessile. FAM. analgesic. long. stems and branches strigose and hairy. :—A much branched rigid annual.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. antipyretic.— Nov. used in ophthalmia. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Kadechubak. Shulio. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. hot. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic.:—Throughout India. Garagadasoppu. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. M. Bhangra. Utkanta. " Vata". sessile. bracts 3seriate. Deccan. Bhangro. Kantaphala. LOC. Country. globose. Bhangra. S. COM. improves taste. Utakatara. hectic fever. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. H. Markara. . Afghanistan. used in strangury. pappus short. cottony pubescent. L. gleet. cooling. Utkatara. oblong. Utkantaka.-Jany. sinuate and spinescent. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. DISTR. :—G. wooly beneath.—Compositæ. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Sk. Kadigga-garaga. NS. Dadhal. Sunilaka. involucre. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. high. Maka. Konkan. cottony.— opposite. NS. also cultivated to a certain extent. Ajagara. often rooting at the nodes. Plant stomachic. COM. diseases of heart. Utkanto. inflammations. C. :—G. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Kantalu. increases appetite. biliousness. H. Kalobhangro . bitter. M. stimulates liver. pain in joints. t. yellowish. :—Konkan. Bhringraj. CHAR. dyspepsia. Root— abortifacient. chronic fever. causes " Kapha". deeply pinnatifid. FAM. glabrous above. branches widely spreading from the base.—achene obconic. It is used in hoarse cough. strigose and hairy. astringent to bowels . Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. subentire. spines 2. Utanti. Seeds—wholesome. tonic. Fr. Fl.9 m. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. dyspepsia and cough. Fl. Keshrangana.—heads white. CHAR.3—0.—limb linear. usually oblong-lanceolate. K. densely villous.5 cm. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). hysteria.

Triputa. Lesser—Malabar cardamom.—in heads. K. Peninsula). There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. LOC. G. axillary. . W. Chandrabala. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. Yalakki. cures inflammations. anæmia. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. hemi-crania. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. "Kapha". Gourangi. stomachic. improves colour of hair. LOC. There are two forms erect and prostrate. Veldoda. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . alterative. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. Bahula. Burma. internal diseases.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. hair. Choti-Elachi. night blindness. toothache. eyes. and for strengthening gums. Fl. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. C—often 4-toothed . Elachi. It is also used as an emetic and purgative.—achene.:—India (Bengal. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sk. DISTR. a reputed and popular liver tonic. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. good for complexion. Sind. Bitter . Panjab. eye diseases. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases .. antipyretic. good for spleen diseases. alexipharmic. involucral bracts about 8 . syphilis. Ceylon.—Scitaminaceæ. cuneate with a narrow wing. M.-Dec. :—Western valleys of N. Velchi. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). Fr. anthelmintic. :—E. NS. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. COM. It relieves headache when applied with oil. Gandhkuti. Kanara (Siddapur. fevers. Ela. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). liver pain. heart and skin diseases. disk ones tubular . and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Madhya Bharat. prevents abortion and miscarriage. stomatitis. asthma. Ilaji. it is powdered and applied externally. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Malaya. hernia. expectorant. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Karangi. cures vertigo (Yunani). HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. lustre of eyes. fattening. solitary or 2 together. tonic. leucoderma. H. cultivated. teeth. pappus 0. hot. FAM. See—Sacred Plants. It is given internally in scalding of urine. "Vata". Cosmopolitan in warm climate. ray flowers ligulate.— Oct. t. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers.

pungent. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Boberang. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. LOC. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Sk. clear head. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. root is laxative and tonic. Varding. Narttaka. consumption. COM. most suitable to hard-working classes. :— G. chest and throat (Yunani). diseases of bladder. Wavrung. bronchitis. Bhasmaka. fruit is tonic. Vavoding. Kanisha. . PARTS USED :—Grain. piles. Marua. pruritus. fruit and seeds. It is said to be astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). It is stomachic. bitter. lessens inflammation. diuretic. useful in biliousness. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. H.—Myrsinaceæ. cooling. Bidanga. LOC. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. FAM. useful in asthma. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. Nagali. useful in head. Makra. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. rich or poor. Vavading. M.—Gramineæ. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. stomachic. CUM. tonic. cooling. Jantughna. causes thirst. H. Sk. Navalo-nagali. cause biliousness . bad humours of liver. abortifacient. See—Condiments and Spices. In S. NS. NS. diuretic. Ragi. ear and tooth ache. Seed—fragrant. carminative. tonic to heart.:—G. laxative. India. Pavaka. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn.. DISTR. Vayuvitang. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. strangury. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Grains contain vitamin B. Vidariga. stimulant and emmenagogue. Nachani. stomachic. scabies. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. Rajika. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). alexiteric . externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. LOC. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). fragrant. cultivated. FAM. See-Food Plants. brain and mouth. K.:—Western and S. Rotka. Bavato. kidney.

thirst. Ceylon. Deccan. " Kapha'. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. LOC. :—Throughout India. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. (Dymock). dries wound discharges . Bhoza . Malay Islands. ascites. Anola. Triphala. H. inflammations. Konkan and N. S. nearly globose. biliousness. Dadi. Ambala.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Kanara. flowers. jaundice. many. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. vulnerary. laxative. alterative. Malaya. dyspnoea. sweats. sour. bark studded with lenticels . K. vomiting. :— E. Ceylon. diseases of heart. coriaceous.—berry. good for plethoric constitution. urinary discharges. Sk. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. bark. carminative. Seed— acrid. slender. alexiteric. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. hemicrania. DISTR. fruit and seeds. paler and silvery beneath. Nellika . racemes minute. constipation. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). China. greenish yellow. :—Hilly parts of the State. LOC. strangury. Avala. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. succulent. Paranjpe and G. branches long. dry. internodes long. Arch. anæmia. wild or planted. smooth. anthelmintic . Fl. Amlika. leaves. with a sharp bitter taste. LOC. et. 42-II-1932). PARTS USED :—Fruit. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. L. mental diseases. Amalaka. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. carminative. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). reddens urine. useful in burning sensation. good appetiser. DISTR. cures tumours. erysipelas. M. flexible.—alternate. Dhatri. alterative. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). anuria. Amla.—Euphorbiaceæ. antipyretic. poisoning. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . analgesic. like a pepper corn when dried. urinary discharges. . laxative. S. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. cures bronchitis . HABITAT :—Rain forests. COM. Anward. often planted in Konkan. Dhatriphala. anthelminitic. K. tonic. Western Ghats. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. black when ripe. Gokhale. Pharm. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. " Tridosha ". Bitter. Ther. worms in wounds (Ayurveda).) FAM. :—A large scandent shrub.—in lax panicles. Embelic myrobalan. NS. Adiphala. aphrodisiac. G. t. Int. purgative. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. elliptic-lanceolate. bronchitis. Fl. bronchitis. piles. leprosy. Daula . shining above. useful in asthma. alexiteric. China. Amlika. Fr. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness.—Feb.

biliousness. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. DISTR.—Aug.-Nov. vulnerary. Giant's rattle. Nagajivha. Country. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. anthelmintic.—sessile. useful in heart-diseases. Gujarat.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". used as laxative and astringent. Dried fruits. Sk. Mackary bean. purifies body humours (Yunani). stops nasal hæmorrhage. Malaya. LOC. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Tiktapatra.). USES :—Root. Dyes. Fl. eye troubles. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. opposite. 10—50 cm. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Fl. sub-quadrangular or terete. Fr. Mamejavo . :—A perennial glabrous herb. expectorant. Saurashtra. Hallekayiballi. tonic. bark and fruit are astringent. See—Timbers. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Grey). The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). tropical Africa. aperient. Sind. K. mid-nerve strong. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Fruit Trees. rounded apex. variable. narrowed at the base. piles.— capsule. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. S. R.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. M.—Gentianaceæ. CHAR. :—E. astringent. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. L. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Fruit—acrid. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. Madvinashi. white. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. M. sour. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. M. Chhotakirayat. COM. Garbe. NS. Tanavadi. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. diuretic and laxative. Unripe fruit is cooling. LOC. West Indies. COM. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Tans. ellipsoid. . cold in the nose. stems erect or procumbent. lobes 5. improves appetite. C—infundibuliform. :—Konkan. thirst. FAM. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. liver complaints. Ind. branched from the base. Doddakampi. Kadvinayi. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. high. Lady nut. Mabhipaka. :—G. cooling. 3-nerved.—sessile. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Garambi. NS. Nahu. t. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. H.) FAM. Celyon.

:—Central and Eastern Himalayas. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. anthelmintic. t. LOC. Var.. Mullumurige. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. woody. Raktapushpa. H. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Dadap.— Mar.—yellow. glabrous. slightly curved. Mochi-wood. Peninsula. rigidly coriaceous. Panarvo. Sundribans. Arakan. Kanara. smooth. stalked. Planted as ornament. dark green.5-10 cm. along sea-coast above high-water. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . 3. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Pangara. hot. oblong or obovate. bark used in dysentery. USES :—Powdered kernel. 4. Pegu. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Phandra . Sd. PROPERTIES AND LOC. W. Andamans and Nicobar.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. stomachic. Fr. orbicular.—6-15. flowers. indented between the seeds. diam. leaflets 7-5 x 2. bark. COM. Nepal. often along river banks. Leaves—bitter. M. DISTR.7-5x7. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. Mandara. mixed with spices. L.5-5-7 cm.) FAM. long. Halivan. Planted as support for pepper vines. Mandara. Panjira. cure urinary discharges.. the tropics generally. long.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. Fl. 30-90 cm.—2pinnate. :—Coast forests of Malabar. improve appetite. Ceylon. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. Kantakinshuka. they are given internally as an emetic. for grapevines in Nasik district. in debility and glandular swellings . The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. DISTR. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". Pangara. leaves. shining and brown.—pod. Panderavo. C. G. Salaki. Tennaserim. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Fl. inflammations. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. :—Konkan and N.-May.. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. Sk.S. compressed. thick. PARTS USED :—Root. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). N.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).3-2 cm. . pinnae 2—3 pairs. Paribhadra. Hongara. K. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. LOC. wide and 3-8 cm. ORIENTALIS Merr. Indian coral-tree. :—E. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Bangaro. The plant is used as a fish-poison. branches terete.

:—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. t. Dandasruha. it is anthelmintic. K. 18th Ind. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Nagpur 1931). COM. Sher. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). FAM. Sc. serrulate or dentate. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ. Vajradruma. Fr. branches often 4-angled. Dandalio thora. pale beneath. M. erect or ascending.—Euphorbiaceæ.—capsule. Milk bush. Nevli. LOC. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. H. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. . rugose. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Kodukalli. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. 15-50 cm. Dudhi. Sendh. NS. :—E. The plant contains an alkaloid.—involucres numerous. Govardhan. bowel complaints and cough in children. Bottugalli. Pusitoa. base unequal-sided. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Ceylon. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. high. Indian tree spurge. G. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Plant is chiefly used for worms. K. Pill-bearing spurge. Sd. CHAR. Dudhi. Duddi. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Achchegida. appressedly hairy. Australian asthma herb.) FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. Sk. globose. Mondukalli. Milk hedge. dark green above. :— E. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. COM. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. —throughout the year. Sk. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. H. M. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Paradeshi thora . USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. NS. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Cong.—ovoid-trigonous. See—Timbers. reddish brown. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Fl. with or without a limb. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Shirthahar. and to relieve pain of the joints. Bahukshira. gland minute. L. Dudanali. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. :—Annual herb. Sahud. Dudhi. G. FL.—opposite.

involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. Vishnugandhi. carminative. .—small. thin. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Fl. jaundice. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). tropical and sub-tropical countries. mostly female. base acute. spreading. campanulate. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. Ceylon. Vishnukranta. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. smooth. almost leafless. Jhinkiphudardi. Nilpushpi. more than 5 cm. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. leprosy and leucorrhoea. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. useful in abdominal troubles. branchlets whorled. leprosy. NS. Fr.—Convolvulaceæ. cocci velvety. pungent. Sd— glabrous. L. Shyamakranta . L. Fl. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. alterative. Fr. rootstock woody . FAM. brightens intellect. whooping cough. carminative.— capsule. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. branches erect. Vishnukranta.-Sep. :—Throughout the State. linear. tumours.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—A small tree. :—A perennial herb. alexiteric. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. Kalisankhavali. stems many. axillary. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda).—ovoid. DISTR. t. long (appearing in rainy season) . Juice is purgative. t. globose. CHAR. also as an alterative. colic. naturalised in India. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Sd. useful in biliousness.-July-Nov. employed to raise blisters.-light blue. epilepsy. DISTR. and with oil to promote growth of hair. :—Native of East Africa.-Aug. long. :—Sind. polished. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. enlargement of spleen. silky hairy. solitary or sometimes 2. Vishnukranti. usually clothed with long hairs . anthelmintic. LOC. wiry. dropsy. terete. peduncles very long. 6-13 mm. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. stone in bladder (Yunani). useful in gonorrhœa. K. :—G. dyspepsia. prostrate. smooth.—many. H. teething of infants . LOC. LOC. Konkan and Gujarat. COM. 4valved. thick like quill. useful in bronchitis. M. milk is alexiteric. about 6 m. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . high. LOC. leucoderma. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. tonic.—capsule. asthma. elliptic-oblong. The plant contains an alkaloid.

:—Madras State. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. westwards to Afghanistan. H. the middle the largest. NS. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. cooling. Atmamuli. Dhamasa. petioles deeply striate. Barachirayat. Fr. spitting of blood. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. lower half white. also used in chronic fevers. elliptic or lanceolate. Dhanavi. stomatitis. LOC. Upper Gangetic plains. Deccan hills and S. removes "Vata. ophthalmia. NS. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. DISTR. C—lobes 4-5. 5-nerved. toothache. reduces tumours. typhoid. M.— showy. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. M.—opposite. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. t. CHAR.—Zygophyllaceæ. Ind. Dhamaso . Fl. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. purifies blood (Ayurveda). HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Ustarkhar.-Oct. Baluchistan. L. LOC.2 cm. Maval. CHAR. Fr. it has got cooling properties.-Dec. :— Sind. DISTR. reaching 60 cm. vomiting. erysipelas. good for liver troubles. Coimbatore.— ovoid. smooth. Iran. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . :— H. root fibrous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. small. Prabhodhini. :—An erect annual. quadrangular. Fl. high. more or less glandular. sessile. Udichirayat. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. Ghats. Sk. Hinguna. flattened. Waziristan. cures dysentery. the upper blue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. Kashaya. stem. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. pyramidal to the apex. M. in copious terminal cymes . COM.—Gentianaceæ.—solitary. . long. of 5. L. glandular hairy. Cooling. urinary discharges. acute. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. emmenagogue. Sd. thirst. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). t. deeply 5-partite. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Gujarat. about 1. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns.-Aug. yellowish brown. Arabia. 1-seeded cocci." asthma. Punjab. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. FAM. W. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Mediterranean. in chronic bronchitis. removes "Vata". N.—very variable in size and form sessile. scarcely branched. fever. Dusparsha.). pale rose-coloured.-Nov. shining. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. 1-3 foliate. Bark is used in scabies. Fl. ellipsoid. :—Konkan. leaflets linear. Country. arising from between the stipules . smooth. Circars. FL. LOC.—capsule. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. asthma. FAM. Mysore. obliquely obovate. ovate. Rajasthan. :—G. COM.

Fr. Self-sown. Kotha. shining above.5 cm. leucorrhoea. M. " Tridosha". Kavitha. Kavath. binding diuretic. ophthalmia. fatigue. FAM. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Nyagrodha. :—Indigenous in S. Bahupada. Java. Balin. LOC. Vadlo .:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. often planted. hiccup. S. heart diseases. Malura. H. Vat. tonic to heart.—coriaceous. :—Cultivated all over the State. astringent. COM. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . with male. Alada. Bhringi. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Dadhiphala. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Ceylon. high. . India. Sk. Byala. M. Ghats. COM. ovate to elliptic. diam.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). acrid. Fruit Trees. Kapipriya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. with spreading branches. useful in biliousness.. " Vata ".— globose. blood impurities. Bargat. PARTS USED :—Leaves. removes biliousness. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Grahiphala. Belada. Elephant or wood apple. Kapitha. Kavit. tumours. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. K. G. See—Timbers. female. Kathel. alexipharmic. Jatala. LOC.—Moraceæ. Kathinyaphala. Vad. liver and lungs . Kothun. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. G. Seeds—antidote to poison. vomiting . K. strengthening to gums . Monkey fruit. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. dysentery. good for throat.—Rutaceæ. Goli. refrigerant. Leaves—very astringent. M. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. Vad. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. consumption. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. DISTR. CHAR. Manmadha. about 2 cm. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. Kanara. Kait. thirst. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Bargad. Fruit—sour . L.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Sk. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). LOC. difficult to digest. Ala. NS. fruit and seeds. 10-20 X 5-12. Bar. H. Avaroha. :—E. country and N. asthma. Banian tree. aphrodisiac. common in the Tapi Valley. NS. cures cough. often cultivated. :— E. cordate or rounded base. Vata. refrigerant .

useful in leucoderma. alexiteric. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. FAM. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Anjir. India. vomiting. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. demulcent. Anjir. vulnerary. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. Aerial root is styptic. gonorrhœa. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). erysipelas. Anjir. USES :—Fruit is emollient. COM. Simeyatu . :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. India. inflammation of liver (Yunani). Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. See—Famine Plants. G. ulcers. LOC. LOC. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. maturant. root-fibres. Anjura. K. thirst. lessens inflammations. Anjir. useful in inflammation . Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. useful in "Kapha". Sacred Plants. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. nutritive. useful in piles. vaginal complaints. . W. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). diseases of head and blood. NS. weakness. H. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. W. biliousness. DISTR. Milky Juice—expectorant. biliousness. liver and spleen diseases. diuretic. Dharwar. in rheumatism and lumbago. dysentery. lithotriptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. Fig. laxative. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Cultivated in N. bruises. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Baluchistan. hill ranges of S.—Moraceæ. tonic. inflammations. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. ringworm. pain in chest cures piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. LOC. Fibres. Root—tonic. Grown scattered elsewhere. Afghanistan. nose-diseases. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Sk. :— E. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. FICUS CARICA Linn. M. leprosy. Kakodumbar. Seeds are cooling and tonic. aphrodisiac. Asia and Mediterranean. fever. useful in syphilis. Bijapur. seeds and milky juice. leprosy (Ayurveda). stimulates hair-growth. useful in "Vata". boils and carbuncles. leaves. paralysis.

in diseases of blood. LOC. given in leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. HABITAT :—Planted. Sacred Plants. PARTS USED :—Root. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Jari. Umar. leaves and fruits. FAM. tonic. fatigue. good for gravid uterus. Lalka. Ragi. See—Timbers. nose bleedings. Shuchidruma. G. M. cummin. NS. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Pipli. useful in "Kapha". Gular-Country fig. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. leucorrhoea. Atti. Sk. :—E. Fruit— useful in dry cough. galactagogue. diseases of kidney and spleen. ulcers. vulnerary. Yajnika. Fruit—astringent to bowels. Gular. Rumadi. Bodhidruma. allays thirst. latex. Udumbara. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Pimpal. useful. Bark is cooling. biliousness. COM. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. good for bronchitis. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. leprosy. uterus . burning sensation. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Umbar. LOC. K. :—Throughout the State near villages. acrid. urinary discharges. K. leaves. ground with onions. Pippala. . blood diseases. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. :—Widely spread throughout India. Arani. LOC. Umar. Bark. Vriksharaj. NS. burning sensation. Pipal. good for foul taste. G. Milk—aphrodisiac. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. styptic. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Umbro. Sk. Pippala. Peepal tree . Demera. menorrhagia. PARTS USED :—Root. Pipers. bark. COM. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. bark. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). is given to cattle in rinderpest. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb.—Moraceæ. FAM. fruit. (Yunani). M. vagina. H. Hemadugdha. :—E. planted all over. DISTR. biliousness. Ashvatha. Bark useful in asthma and piles. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. Ashwatha mara. DISTR. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. loss of voice.—Moraceæ. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Pipal. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. H. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Pavitraka.

Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. cleans ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Sacred Plants. Shalina. Swadukantaka. Tambat. Fruits are sweet. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. checks vomiting (Yunani). Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Khandesh. See—Timbers. Sk. Country and N. Soupa. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Paker. S. Shateya. NS. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. COM. Finkel. aphrodisiac. Burma. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. LOC. Fruit—purgative. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. PARTS USED :—Root. Young bark useful in bone fractures. HABITAT :—Hills. Hunmunki. M. Sk. Root good for gout. Hettarimullu. Circars. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. gum. N. promotes granulations. Mullutari. K. Bhuripushpa. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). SAPIDA Roxb. Root-bark—aphrodisiac.—Flacourtiaceæ. Bhakal. FAM. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. appetising and digestive. seeds. common in the Peninsula. Katar. Akrani. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Satpura. Potika. W. H. LOC. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Handi Kandai. Variali. M. COM NS. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Tapaspriya. Variari. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. See—Timber. K. Kanara Jungles. Badishep. FAM. heart diseases. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. astringent in leucorrhoea. . G. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. bark. Fodder Plants.—Umbelliferæ. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. and produces sterility in women. Kankod . Bhanber. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. :— G. Bilangra . Badisoppu. upper Gangetic plain. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ghats. Gajale. good for lumbago. :—E. Fennel. fruit. H. The juice is employed in hiccup. M.

Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. 0. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. Murjinhalli. fever. Sk. causing constipation . :—Endemic in W.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. kidney. FAM. yellow. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. improves appetite and allays thirst. PARTS USED :—Roots. It is much used as a nutritive. LOC. " Vata ". cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter.—Guttiferæ. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. cures "Tridosh". HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—E. eye-diseases. cardiotonic. LOC. annual. biliousness. COM. Ghats south of Bombay. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. useful in diseases of chest. carpophore 2-partite. wounds. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. lessen inflammations. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. Kokam . stimulant. G. dysentery.9 m. USES :—used as stimulant. alexiteric. thirst. DISTR. Coorg. fruit and seeds. strengthen eyes (Yunani). dark green. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. Amlabija. common in S. leprosy (Ayurveda). Mulgala. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. burning sensation. :—Apparently a native of S. appetiser. DISTR. wounds etc. often cultivated. in headache. Kanara. difficult to digest. laxative. cough and asthma. Ghats.—in large umbels . Ratambi. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Bark. dysentery. L. . In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. Tintidika. M.—ellipsoid. H.— decompound. LOC. Kokam. seeds-carminative. K. ultimate segments linear. diuretic. :—W. :—A tall glabrous.6-0. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. Wild mangosteen. bracts and bracteoles absent. high. leaves (rarely). young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. spleen. stomachic. NS. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. useful in bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". USES :—Bark is astringent. Tittidika . aromatic and carminative. tumours. See—Timbers. Wynaad. demulcent and emollient. amenorrhœa. Kokam . FL. (Mhaskar and Caius). Atyamla. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. fissures of lips. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. furrows vittate. Konkan and N. Oils. leaves and seeds. Leaves—improve eyesight. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. galactagogue. aphrodisiac. Fr. ridges prominent.

—Rubiaceæ. DISTR.—Rubiaceæ. Dakamali. PARTS USED :—Gum. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. Bikke. 4. common on laterite in southern parts of N. C. Burma. LOC. Suvirya. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. :—Common from Konkan southwards.-sessile. long. Kanara.5-3. PARTS USED:-Gum. DISTR. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . -June. Sk. K.8 cm. LOC. CHAR.—Feb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. oblong or ellipsoid. unarmed. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . Gums and Resins. about 1. high. :—India (W. Fr. As sold in the bazar it is hard. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). Dekamari. astringent to bowels. same as for G.8 m. lucida (Ayurveda). :—A deciduous shrub. Fl. See—Timbers. shining. :—E. COM. Dikamali. H. oblong. LOC. G. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition.. Dikkamalli. all dry districts of Madras State. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. buds resinous. Pinda. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating.-tubular. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. first white then changing to yellow. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. L. Western Peninsula. lucida. Northern ghats of Madras State. relieves pain of bronchitis. The plant yields a gum Dikemali.5x22. Jantuka. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Cambi resin tree. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. t. Hingu. M. NS. See—Gums and Resins. Dikemali. COM. LOC. Fl. FAM. Peninsula). opaque. 1-3 together. Dikamari. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. elliptic-obovate.-subsessile. not fragrant. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. FAM. . :—India.5 cm. HABITAT :—Open situations. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G.—2.

The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. linear-lanceolate. CHAR. and crimson from blooming to fading. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. Sk. orange. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects.-July-Oct. PARTS USED :—Tuber. Tropical Africa. Karianag. leaves and flowers. :—Herbaceous. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. thirst.—sessile. LOC. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. expectorant. Fl. Tuber— astringent.—capsule.. Linn. ovate lanceolate.. margins wavy. used to remove placenta from uterus.. Kathari. useful in chronic ulcers. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. laxative. tall.—Liliaceæ. acrid. LOC. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. There are two varieties of the plant. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. piles. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. solid. Ceylon. t. Agnimukhi. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. axillary . Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. FAM. sometimes whorled. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. In case of retained placenta. Languli. M. Kalikari. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).5 cm. Fr. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. In Guinea. inflammations. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. Huliyuguru. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. anthelmintic. filaments long spreading. heating. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. Akkitang hall. bitter. NS. stems annual. scarlet. 7.5-3.5 X 15 X 2-4. COM.2 cm. Indai. FL. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Sivasaktibalb . branching climber .—large. leprosy. Kulhari. scattered or opposite. Malay Peninsula. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Nangulika. L. linear oblong. :—G. Cochin-China. DISTR. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. abortifacient. Dudhio vachhonag. perianth segments reaching 6. Garbhapatani. itching. :—Throughout tropical India. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. Kalihari. solitary. root-stock of arched. alexiteric. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). K. Khadyanag. given off from young tubers . abdominal pains. The former is supposed to be male. . H.3 cm. changing colours from greenish yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent.

Karibatti. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. :—Throughout the State. fevers. In the Konkan. FAM. Tree cotton. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. See—Fibres.—Verbenaceæ. stomachic. Gandhari. piles. See—Timbers. NS. chronic cystitis. Hanji. LOC. flowers and fruit. Ceylon. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. K. made into paste. Gumbhar. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Sk. promotes hair-growth. scalds etc.—Malvaceæ. Shivani. FAM. Root taken with liquorice. Gambari. Shripani. Gupsi. anasarca. leprosy. common on Satpuda. DISTR. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Provinces.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Malaya. G. LOC.:—E. Kumbudi. improves appetite . Root extract is bitter and tonic. . :— Bengal. COM. catarrh of the bladder etc. Rajasthan and N. Oils. LOC. anæmia. White teak. Flowers—astringent. Madhya Bharat. W. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. NS. Devakapus. PROPERTIES AND LOC. useful in "Vata". Khandesh. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. Cashmere tree. anthelmintic . ulcers. gleet. M. H. alterative. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. Nurma . useful in hallucinations. :— E. the root. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. useful in indigestion. DISTR. laxative. thirst. Gambhari. Devkapas. aphrodisiac. indigestible. Coomb teak. root is also stomachic and laxative. COM. consumption. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Fruit— diuretic. leaves. H. :—Throughout India. burning sensation. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. tonic. Var. " Tridosha ". Kashmari. Philippines. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. useful in fevers . flowers and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. urinary discharges. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Karpasam. abdominal pains. K. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. Bachanige. scattered in monsoon forests. Shiwan. Sind. Savan. Shivan . vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). thirst. M. consumption and some catarrhal affections . strangury. Shiwan. Deokapas. Mahabhadra. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. G.

FAM. K. LOC. Hatti. DISTR. M. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. tonic. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Country. good for all kinds of inflammations. sour. Seeds—aphrodisiac. extensively cultivated. W. Oils. Anagnika. LOC. fruits and seeds. fevers and consumption. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Pharuah. fomentation for burning eyes . :— Cultivated in N. fruit. Phalsi.Phalse. Karihariyale. removes " Vata" and biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. U. Arabia and Asia Minor. Kapas . All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. NS. Rui. acrid. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. H. Sk. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. H. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Parapera. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Mesapotamia. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Egypt. Roshana. (Yunani). Badari. Seeds— ' galactagogue. Cotton . A. Parusha. expectorant and aphrodisiac. wild in Deccan. Sutrapuspha. leaves. Jana. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. good for throat . heart and blood disorders. Iran. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Baluchistan. S. Buttiyu-dippa. preventing their access to wounds etc. restore consciousness. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. PARTS USED :—Root. Mediterranean. LOC. cure all ear-troubles. :—Cultivated in the State. Arali. enrich blood. Dhamin. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. aphrodisiac. cures inflammations. probably in N. Phalsa. See—Fibres. scabies . dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . allay thirst. bark. removes " Vata ". demulcent.—Tiliaceæ.. increase flow of urine. COM. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Tadasala. expectorant. M. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. laxative . seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. In India they are used to procure abortion. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. :—E. Ripe fruit—sweet. East Tropical Africa. Leaves remove " Vata " .110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. COM. Syria. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Afghanistan. leaf-juice good in dysentery. tonic. Seeds are laxative. :—G. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Tula. Karpas. Province (Pakistan). F. Sk. Kupas. used in orchitis. G. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. :—Sind. FAM. in hills near Poona.—Malvaceæ. Seeds are used as a galactagogue.. in hypochondria. extensively in Gujarat. Rui. M. digestible. Kapus. NS. Gujarat and S. analgesic. DISTR.

corona of 5 processes . H. common in hedges in Dharwar district. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Karalia . good in heart-diseases. yellow . Sk. India. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.— opposite. :—A large woody climber. piles. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. L. FL. Kavali. Shrikala. strengthens chest and heart. acrid. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. asthma. NS. Mardashingi.—in cymes . . The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). should not be eaten raw. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Merasingi. SK. Periploca of the woods. Churota. Arkapuspika. young stems densely pubescent. Fl. Bedki. useful in diarrhœa and fevers.— with thin marginal wing. H. :—Throughout the State. Karnasphota.—follicle. COM. Pandhari tilwan. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. usually single. relieves thirst and hiccup. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Vishani. LOC. the stomachic stimulant. Sannagerse. inflammations. vitreous body) burning sensation. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Meshavalli. M. stomachic.— companulate . Mahabaleshwar and N. — Asclepiadaceæ. cornea. bronchitis. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Fr. :—Western Peninsula. Small Indian ipecacuanha.-May. Sd. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Kanphodi. Hulhul. FAM. leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. :E. The ease of administration. S. cooling. G. See—Fruit Trees. FAM. Fruit—sour. Ceylon. Sati talvani. Hulhul. alexiteric.— Apl. Tanmani. Meshashingi. Tilparni. G.—Capparidaceæ. biliousness. LOC. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Adiyakharan. Ugragandha. Kabari. C. lanceolate. anthelmintic. Br. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. Caravella. Tropical Africa. tonic. :— E. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). alterative. ulcers. NS. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. base rounded or cordate . K. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. much branched. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Sanngera. helps removal of dead fetus. ovate. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. sweet. elliptic. Mabli. K. Kanara coast. LOC. CHAR. COM. t. Vakundi. Root and bark used in strangury. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). M. Bastagandha. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Gurmar.

Murudseng. K. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. DISTR. Edamuri. HABITAT:—Hills.-Feb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle.—Oct. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. :—M. (Kirtikar and Basu). . FAM. Avartant. L. hairy.—June. stem and branches hairy. stipules triangular. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. :—Deccan. PARTS USED :—Root.—capsule. ellipsoid . Fl.—many. Sinhgad hills. China. Gidesa Jitasai. leaves and seeds. opposite. Kavargi. Fr.. Kewan. CHAR.—in dense bracteate racemes. removes "Vata".—Rubiaceæ. acute. DISTR.6—1. L. Katraj Ghat.—petals 4 with long slender claws. Jonkaphal Maraphali. glabrous or pubescent above. with divaricate herbaceous branches . hairy on the nerves beneath. NS. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Sk. Kanara. gynophore 2-2. H. margins crenate-dentate. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. M. dark-brown . Marosi.—capsule. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. viscid. tapering at both ends. pubescent. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. Sd.5-20 X 3.—3-5 foliate. Murdasing. elliptic-obovate. Fl. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . 5-9 cm. Fr. Fl. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil.. C.2 m. tumours. LOC. vesicant.5 cm. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . t.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. Mrigashringa. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. COM. pink . HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. long.12. long . elliptic-lanceolate. high. white or blue. t. sessile. pedicels viscid hairy. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. :—A small deciduous shrub.—muricate. COM.—Sterculiaceæ. leaflets subsessile. . NS. FAM. S.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. hills near Nagothana. Country. hills in Supa Taluka. Murudi. earache. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. :—G. stomachic . the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). :—A common weed in all tropical countries. producing copious exudation. Gujarat. ulcers. good in ascites. LOC.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—rather rigid.8-9 cm. LOC. hairy. pain. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. Sd. M. :—An annual erect herb 0.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.-biferous. low appetite. stem. purplish inside. uterine complaints. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. angular . G. bronchitis. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). often variegated with white above. H. Dhaval kashtha.— in cymes in opposite axils. cures all skin-diseases. Br. blood diseases. C. Stem lessens inflammation.— with silvery white coma . Root and stem—laxative. astringent to bowels. asthma. foul body odour. Australia and West Indies. useful in piles. Upalsari. greenish outside. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. Fl.—follicle cylindric. Konkan. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. asthma. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. LOC. common in hedges. Utpalashariva. K. "Vata' dysentery. Ceylon.—Asclepiadaceæ. Fr. :—Throughout the State.— very variable. L. diaphoretic. “tridosh". useful in syphilis and leucoderma. Fl. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. :—Upper Gangetie plain.-Dec. PARTS USED :—Root. demulcent.—throughout the greater part of the year. poisoning. Magrabu. L. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. antidiarrhœal. obliquely cordate. Sd. bark and fruit. red at first fading to lead colour. good for brain. Sugandhi-balli. fevers. useful in gleet. joint-pains. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. COM. 7. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. "Kapha". stems thickened at the nodes . :—Large shrub or small tree. syphilis. rat-bites. epileptic fits. cough. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. India.. dark-green. They are demulcent. Upalsali. Fr. burning sensation. long. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. FAM. urinary discharges. diarrhœa. 5-6. HABITAT :—In hedges. scabrous above. Sk.512. FL. Indian sarsaparilla . thirst. LOC. paralysis. beaked. DISTR. LOC. spirally coiled.5 X 5-10 cm. leucorrhoea. t. diuretic. Kapurimathuri.—follicle of 5-6. lessens griping. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. t — Aug. ovate orbicular. :— E. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). eye troubles. M. Burma. Hindisalse. Root useful in hemicrania. mildly astringent. Kanara ghat forests. root-Stock woody .Sd. Hamadaberu . Anantmula. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). See—Fibres. PARTS USED :—Root.—tubular. NS. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. Fl. . DISTR.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. Deccan and S. anti-galactagogue. irregularly crowded.—numerous.3 cm. CHAR. Anantmula. tapering . and leaves. alexiteric. liver and kidney diseases . Malaya. astringent to bowels . bilabiate. Durivel.

LOC. LOC. diam. Aruna. seminal weakness. syphilis and leucorrhoea. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. G. Raktapushpi. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. Fl. Jasuva. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. Root is valuable in coughs.—Malvaceæ.—during most of the year. NS. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. Harivallaba. :— E. :—A perennial shrub.5. fevers. uterine and vaginal discharges.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Jasavand. Shoe flower. astringent.—short petioled. useful in loss of appetite. piles. It is said to purify blood. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. CHAR. leaves. Fr. Rudrapushpa. M. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. skindiseases. Root roasted in plantain leaves. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. FAM. remove burning of body. DISTR. etc. K. involucral bracts 5-7. entire near the base. t. COM. cooling.—axillary. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. H. See—Ornamental Plants. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Kempupundrika. cm. urinary discharges. Dasanihu. Fl. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . It is also diuretic. L. and mixed with ghee. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. crimson. Jasut. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. . ovate or ovate lanceolate. Native country probably China. petals thrice as long as the calyx. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup.. tubular below. and as early as 1864. pedicel jointed above the middle. Sk. red. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. Japapushpa. irregularly serrate towards the top. Jasum. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). glabrous. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. C. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers.—7. bright red. solitary. tonic. demulcent. flowers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. yellow. magenta. In the Konkan. bark and petals are demulcent. PARTS USED :—Root.—no fruits produced in India. Dasavala.

—capsule. Madhavi. Lal ambari. Red sorrel. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. 3-winged. Ghats.— solitary. Fl. globose. 1. 3-5 lobed. Madhavi. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. M. K. t. Kempupundrike. Kamuka. covered with minute hairs . t. Madmalati.5 cm.-Dec. Deccan. orbicular. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. much used in curries.3-7. clawed. fringed. Ceylon. Fr.—1-3. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. beaked.—large. K. Fibres. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. Sd. LOC. Sk. DISTR. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Malati. Fl. entire glabrous. Ragotpiti.—Malvaceæ. Sd.lobes oblong. base cuneate. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. L. calyx fleshy. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Vasantduti. 10-18 X 4. Fl.—5-7. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. H. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves. G. Madhavi. glabrous. young parts silky. L.5 cm. long. pepper.. sedative and refrigerant. ovoid. CHAR.-Mar.—Oct. serrate. FAM. Madhumalati. hairy. COM. across. COM. and adding a little salt. white. Rozelle.—in erect racemes. stem and branches purple. Lal ambadi. Kampti. See—Vegetables. Madhavi. tropics of the old world. Atimukta. black-brown. petioles silky. :—An annual. Adimurtte Adirganti. flowers.—petals 5. :—E. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. C. Chandravalli. :—G.2-2 cm. Lal ambadi. :—Throughout the State. 5th petal yellow at the base. purple. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz.— Jany. elliptic-oblong. uppermost petal broader. :—Cultivated. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Haladvel.—coriaceous. involucral bracts 10. C. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. Pundi-bija or soppu. Kanara. Konkan. Grows abundantly on the W.—Malpighiaceæ. purple.) FAM. LOC. erect. often blotched with purple with darker centre. NS. CHAR. . fragrant. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. HABITAT. fruits and seeds. long. Madhalata. Fl. mid-lobe the longest. Atimukta. Vasanti. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Patwa. on the margins. M. Fr.—axillary. asafoetida and molasses. acuminate.—purple with darker centres. Vasantduti.

Kurchi tree. Mt. vulnerary. Thailand (Siam). lessens inflammations. Hale. Seeds—appetiser. piles. branchlets drooping.5 cm. N. cylindric.-June. colic. Kuda. Kodasige. burning sensation. heating. Seeds—carminative. Sk. Madras State. leprosy. wounds. bleeding piles. diarrhœa. given in chest affections. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. galactagogue. Kaling. asthma. Karuindrayan. Fr. PARTS USED :—Bark.. Assam. often dotted with white spots. acrid. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Kuda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. See—Ornamental Plants. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines.—Feb. cooling. vulnerary. excessive menstrual flow. Fl. cures dysentery. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda).—follicles 20-48 cm. broadly ovate or elliptic. biliousness. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. biliousness. skin and spleen diseases. FL.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Nepal. main nerves conspicuous .—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . skin diseases. LOC. Kaduoindrajav. LOC. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. smoke good for piles. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Indrayana. thirst. Andamans. M. :—Throughout the State. :—E. China. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. tonic. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. leucoderma . inodorous. boils. remove muscular pains . Pandhara Kuda.—10-20 X 5-11. aphrodisiac. Kura. good in erysipelas. Dudhi. styptic. diuresis (Yunani). Burma. insecticidal. Kudsalu. DISTR. FAM. LOC. " Kapha". Leavesastringent. tonic. lumbago. NS. throat hairy inside. urinary discharges. cough. Karnatak. Ceylon. H. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. good in headache. flowers and seeds. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. PROPERTIES. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. G. leaves. CHAR. long. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. thirst and inflammation.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—Apocynaceæ. Siwalik. ulcers. Malay Peninsula. Sd. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. fatigue. astringent to bowels cure pains. t. remove "Tridosh". leprosy. cool the brain. fevers. Kumaon. Hath. COM. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Circars. Abu. K. cause "Vata". common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. anthelmintic. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. burning sensation. strengthens gums. good in chronic bronchitis. acrid. Flowers— acrid.. appetiser cure blood diseases. C—tubular. Bark—bitter. Conessi bark tree. Karohi. Veppale. white. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. bitter. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. Kutaja. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. L.

The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. The grains contain vitamin B. fattening. burns. G. Shaktu. pains in chest. nor astringent. improves voice. malt sugar and diastase. and kurchicine. aphrodisiac. useful in biliousness. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). (R. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Java. good for ulcers. Suj. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. appetiser. Divya. useful in fevers. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. Ind. See—Food Plants. India. Med. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. with radicle attached to it. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. 1928). :—E. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Jav. widely cultivated in temperate regions. Knowles. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. Gaz. They are also used after delivery. Aug. PARTS USED :—Seeds. M. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. demulcent and expectorant. Sk. acrid. Germinated barley.—Gramineæ. anæmia. Hayapriya. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. H. Jawa. They are astringent. Tasteless. Yava. . The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. LOC. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. sweetish. DISTR. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. COM. bronchitis. dysentery and intestinal worms. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. Satu. asthma. Barley. Jav. Javegodhi. especially cod-liver oil. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. diarrhœa. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). —Cultivated chiefly in N. nor styptic. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. K. headache. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. stomachic. causes constipation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Ymvah. inflamed gums. biliousness. febrifuge. kurchine. NS. useful in bronchitis. fevers (Yunani). allays thirst. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. lowers the pulse.

—Jany.—numerous. M. Garudphala. Common in N.. S. Country and Kanara. Phaldu. For scald-head. See—Oils. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Bhorsal. Southern and Western India.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn.5-23 X 3. Bharnarasalya. dioecious . Fr. COM. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Kshiradru. L. Ugragandha. Bhutabi. bitter. FAM. high. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. FL. tomentose. Sk. C. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Kanara evergreen forests. Gandele. K. camphor and lime-juice. pungent.—solitary or in racemes. DISTR. M. COM. Dondra. Dondru. NS. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Fl.—Rubiaceæ. Kadukavata. t. Madhya Pradesh. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Bhrijatuaka.—Apl. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . CHAR. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. :—G.—berry. size of small apple. Bandaru. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Peninsula. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Seeds. LOC. M.) FAM. common in Travancore. Niradivittulu. Doti. Kastel. :—W. Bhanina. flat. globose or ovoid. sulphur.5 cm. :—K. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. NS.8-7. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. good for the throat. Sk. Amarachala. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bihar. acuminate.—Bixaceæ. white. H. 12. Kowti. Bhoswar. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. LOC. more or less coriaceous. Fruits are used for poisoning fish.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Sd. young parts brown pubescent. increases taste and appetite. sometimes along river banks. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. broadly ovate. Garudphala. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ghats. Malabar. Betaga. Bhringamallika.

young branches finely fulvous tomentose . middle portion much inflated. H. Country. upper constricted. blood diseases. FAM. Fl. thick. Sariva.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. Nadika.—follicle. Siamalata. rusty pubescent. Kantebhovari. M. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers.—tube with narrow portion below. Kanara. Ceylon. Australia. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. hollow. black with white scanty coma. . M. very common in Gujarat. Gopini. numerous . FAM. thirst. lobes obscure . 10-15 cm. See—Timbers. Fl.—Convolvulaceæ. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. :—H. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). cooling. In Indo-China. Kanara. :—A large twining shrub . NS. Karmi.-Apl.. Fr.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Sd. Kalaka. CHAR. glabrous above. Nalichibhaji. Kalmisag. :—Throughout the State. the powdered wood is used for herpes. The outer layer is tasteless.—4-5-7 X 2-3. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. Kalidudhi. K. Pechuli. elliptic oblong. rooting at the nodes . Fr. Nalanibhaji. cures " Kapha ". trailing on mud or floating. throat and tube dull purple . DISTR.2 -7. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge.—Nov. base rounded. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk.5x 3. Kalaghantika. Shradhashaka. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. COM. Krishnasariva.—linear. C. L. Sd.8 cm. prostrate. S. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Fl. Potuasaga. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. X 4 cm. :—Konkan. Br. Fodder Plants. biliousness.—in axillary and terminal. vomiting. stems long. Karihambu. Gorwiballi. LOC. cylindric . :—G.—1-5 flowered peduncles .—capsule. cordate or hastate. M.-Dec.5 cm. L. :—More or less throughout India. very slender. t. Sk. fever. greenish white. LOC. ovoid . FL. PARTS USED :—Root. t. acute. LOC. C. Chandangopa.— Nov. stalks and leaves. aphrodisiac. Java.—Apocynaceæ. :—Annual or biennial herb. Common in the evergreen forests of N. trichotomous cymes. Sk. Kalambika. pubescent. NS. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Bhadra. straight or slightly curved. CHAR. COM.—5-12. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R.—4 or 2. " Vata ". It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions.

4-valved.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. useful in syphilis. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. entire. . " Kapha " . H. long. gonorrhœa and inflammation. biliousness and fevers. twining. being regarded as tonic. Carminative.—in. Sd. anthelmintic . demulcent and lactagogue.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. Ceylon. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Swadu Vidarikand. purple.3 cm. See—Gums and Resins. America. Fl. FAM. Bhunichahragadde. In Burma. flowers (rarely). stem long. root large. expectorant. tropical Asia. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . blood diseases. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. carminative. (Yunani). alterative. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. useful in leucoderma. galactagogue. glabrous. LOC. leprosy. Giant potato . NS. appetiser. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. aphrodisiac. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. Bilaikand . Africa and Australia. jaundice. Sk. often broader than long. long. lobes 5-7. ovate-lanceolate.—Convolvulaceæ. bronchitis. deeply palmately divided. useful in leprosy. L. thick. galactagogue. useful in fever. stomachic. (Ayurveda). cures biliousness. dry. LOC. leaves.8—6. diuretic.—10-15 cm. t. Bhumikushmanda. also useful in liver complaints. anthelmintic. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. COM. pale. Kanara sea coast. ovoid. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stimulant. near sea coast. Australia in moist climate. lessens inflammation. Bhuikohala. indigestible. enclosed in fleshy sepals. improves voice and complexion. Root—heating. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. tonic. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. DISTR. peduncle solitary axillary. CHAR. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. vomiting.-July-Sept. :— E. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. Fr. M. :—Perennial. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). liver complaints. tropical Asia. alterative. Leaves enrich blood. debility and want of digestive power. burning sensation. 3. biliousness. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. to children in case of emaciation. Flower causes " Vata ". Nila-kumbala.—capsule. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. LOC. 4-celled. (Yunani). Africa.

HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. blue tinged with pink. Fr. believed to be of American origin. t. Nilpushpa. surrounded by ciliate sepals.—Sept. deeply three-Iobed. cures inflammations. L.:—Throughout India. lobes ovate. glabrous .5 cm. anthelmintic. Sd.—Convolvulaceæ. S.—dark chestnut coloured . H. axillary. Undirkani. Purgative. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. headache. subglobose or ovoid. Fl.—capsule. . useful in liver and spleen diseases. LOC. Vrishchikparni. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle.5 cm. M. abdominal diseases. dries the phlegm. :—A herb . :—Western Peninsula.. creeping and rooting at the nodes. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Musekani. in the Himalayas. CHAR. :—Konkan. Deccan. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. Indian jalap. fevers. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). NS. :—G. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. Fl. COM. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Fl. subglobose. bechic. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses.— yellow. Shyamala-bijak. :—E. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. NS.— 4-6. scabies and biliousness. Country.—Convolvulaceæ. :—An annual herb. reniform or ovate-cordate. Mirchai. stems many. DISTR. Fr. LOC. COM. stems twining. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Sk. FAM. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). bronchitis (Ayurveda). Kaladana. ovate-cordate. L. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). G. leucoderma. DISTR. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. CHAR. Africa. K.3-2. long tubular funnel-shaped. clothed with long hairs.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . filiform. H. diam. The plant contains a glucoside. E. M. M. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. broad. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. LOC. Nilvel.—1. petioles hairy.-Oct. crenate. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. Kaladanah. Morning glory.8-5 cm. sparsely hairy. C. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative.—3.-5-12. Sk.) FAM. S. Kalokumpo.—capsule. carminative. Sd. Ganribij. 3-celled. K. tropical Africa. pains in joints. diseases of head. See—Ornamental Plants. Undirkani. bracts linear.

long. LOC. carminative. inflammations.—Convolvulaceæ. laxative. good in pain. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. anthelmintic.—Oct. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. lungs. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. much branched.—white. wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. H. pedicels thickened upwards. LOC. bronchitis. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice.—capsule. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. K. leucoderma.-Jany. Triputi. good for weakness. Kalaparni. paralysis. L. often pinkish. muscular pains. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. HABITAT :—Wild . Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. laxative. globose. base cordate or truncate . False-Indian jalap. brain diseases. rarely slightly lobed. Nishoth. tropical Africa and America. Root with bark should be used.. Nishottara. twining and twisted together. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. heart and abdomen. Nandi. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). applied in diseases of eye and gums. :—Throughout India. white variety is a mild cathartic. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. anæmia. like others of the genus .8-5 cm. bladder. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). It is also alterative. M. Kanaka. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. useful in bilious fevers. NS. expectorant. uterus.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—5-10 X 1. enclosed in enlarged sepals . COM. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. Nahatara. Malay Islands. PARTS USED :—Root. fistula. Mauritius. useful in loss of consciousness. mucronate. urethral discharges. angled and winged. acrid. sometimes cultivated. inflammations and abdominal diseases . Philippines. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Nashotar. useful in bilious tremors of body. bracts large. cooling. when used alone . t. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. Fl. Trivrit. burning sensation and intoxication. fleshy. Fr. LOC. purgative. Turbith root.3-7 cm. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). strangury. pungent. root long. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). Pithori. Fl. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). DISTR. Rechani. useful in spleen enlargement. removes bad humours. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. antipyretic. FAM. Sk.—in few flowered cymes. pains of chest and joints. paralysis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. ovate or oblong. . G. bechic. fevers. Ceylon. CHAR. Root— bitter. Br. also in the Konkan and N. Common in southern Gujarat. :— E. useful in diseases of kidney. C. Indian rhubarb. 3. stems very long. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).

NS.8 cm. leaflets 7-11. smooth. distal pair confluent with the terminal. lobes 4 (rarely). 3. petiole and rachis margined. obtuse . COM NS. :—E. often tinged with pink outside. t. H. fleshy. .. DISTR. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. L. See—Ornamental Plants.—globose. Bandhuka. tube long. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated . pale when dry. in lax axillary and terminal cymes.—opposite. Jai.—ripe carpels 2. COM. imparipinnate. Kepala. sessile.— Rubiaceæ. Fl. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon.—July-Sept.. intermediate sessile . oblong. Guddedasal. L. Fr. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. stipules . white. Bakali. Pendgul. Anemallige. Surabhigandha. Sk. 5-10 X 3. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Pankul. proximal petiolulate. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. DISTR. t.—opposite. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. CHAR. FL—numerous.—tubular. stipules with a long rigid point. M.—3. also along river banks.9 m. LOC. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. FAM. Raktaka.—Oleaceæ. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. size of a pea. Fl. terminal rather larger. :—Bombay southwards . purple when ripe.5 cm. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. K. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. across. wild. CHAR. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. FAM. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. G. Sk. Ajjige. Parali. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Kisukare.2-6. Chambeli. oblong. :—Western Peninsula. :—Cultivated throughout India. Priyanvada. Fr. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. Jajimalle. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. LOC. very slender . Chambali. very common in Konkan and N. C. :—E. pale when dry. Jati. coriaceous.—throughout the year. obtuse.3 cm. Chambeli.2-6.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery.3 coriaceous. :—A large subscandent shrub. M. Ceylon. K. 5-12. high. of stems and roots. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Flame of the woods . sessile.

anthelmintic. flowers and oil.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.—opposite. head. HABITAT :—Cultivated. emetic. otorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. vulnerary. alexiteric. Vanchandrika. aphrodisiac. Motia. LOC. brain tonic . Sk. abundant in April-May. useful in diseases of eye. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Pramodini. CHAR. Mallige. ulcers. LOC. Navamallika. Fr. Flowers—tonic. and for scabies (Yunani). The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. allays fevers . diseases of mouth. teeth. tonic to brain. diuretic. biliousness. base rounded or subcordate. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. Oil—lessens inflammations. rheumatism. biliousness (Ayurveda). The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. eyes and ear.—Oleaceæ. Fl. black. See—Ornamental Plants. in the tropics of both the hemispheres.—ripe-carpels 1-2. heating. paralysis. Banmallika. The plant contains an alkaloid. G. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. cures headache. :—Cultivated throughout India. FAM. Fl. suppurative.—more or less throughout the year . Arabian Lily. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. softens skin. In Goa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. :—A sub-erect shrub. membranous. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). Mogro. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. good for pains in joints and ear. it is used in cases of insanity. H. soporific. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). cures "Tridosh" biliousness. stomatitis. good in asthma. aphthae. Sambac. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. useful in stomatitis. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. . Leaves are also used in toothache. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. Flower has bitter taste . subglobose. Mogara. t. surrounded by calyx-teeth. K. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Mogra. Iravantige. :—E. alexiteric. leprosy. LOC. L. scarcely climbing. very fragrant. expectorant. Ananga-mallika. COM NS. M. caries of teeth. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. mouth and skin. intoxicating. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . headache and weak eyes. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. Plant—deobstruent. Chamba. Tuscan jasmine. ear. given in blood diseases. emmenagogue. entire.—white. variable in shape. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. alexiteric. Root—purgative.

—monœcious. K. Fr. male flowers. thirst. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. CHAR. M. Mogali—Ran-erand. stipules capillary. subfleshy. FAM. long. FAM. Sd. L. Sutashreni.— ovoid. The acrid. Kananerand. Akhuparnika. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. broadly ovate. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. black. across. 10-15 X 7.5 cm. Virechani. yellow. longer than calyx. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. juice sticky opalescent. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. biliousness. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. corolla lobes 5. NS. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Jangali erandi. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. fruits and seeds. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . coral-red. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. Fl. Jangali—Pahari erand. urinary discharges. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic.—Euphorbiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Wood. DISTR.5 cm.5-12. Simeavadala. Seeds contain active principle curcin. The seeds act as drastic purgative. abdominal complaints. long-petioled. " Tridosha". :—Native of tropical America. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. H. Coral plant. 7. anaemia. garden shrub . dull brownish black.— alternate. French or Small physic nut.—ovoid oblong. multifid.5 mm. COM. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. useful in chronic dysentery. Sk. Dundigu. Fl.—in flat-topped cymes.—orbicular. Bhadradanti. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. and also promotes healing. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. leaves. have suppurative effect.8 cm. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. CHAR:—A handsome. Jyotishka. Vilayati haralu. large. herpes. villous within.5-12. LOC. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. cordate. 1.—E. . heartdiseases (Ayurveda). 7. NS. Fr. fistula. when applied to boils. 3-lobed. diam.. Ratanjot. Barbados Physic nut. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. :—E. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn.—capsule. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. disk of female flower urceolate. COM. K. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. Sk. L.—Euphorbiaceæ.

all over the State. M. Nachukaddi. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. high . hot. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. Fl. LOC. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. LOC. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. Nilinirgandi. in interrupted spikes. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). Shindhuka.—Ghati pitpapda. Nilmanjari. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. :—A native of China.5 cm.—Acanthaceæ.6-1. In Cambodia. FAM. wounds. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. skin-diseases. useful in piles. pains. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. Kala adulsa. Kalmashi. . clavate glabrous. heating. dry . latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. L.—Acanthaceæ. Karambal.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate.5 cm. purple within. Leaves are used in scabies.—white spotted. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. dyspepsia. rheumatism and dysentery.—capsule. vaginal discharges. COM. eye diseases (Ayurveda). oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. often met with in Bengal. 5-12. Karinchki. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). wild in Tenasserim. Krishna-nirgundi. Sk. native of N.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. Bhutakeshi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. fattening tonic . :—Bomb. COM. long. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed.5-12. aphrodisiac. LOC. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. HABITAT :—Shady positions. DISTR. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . causes " Kapha ". Seed— oleaginous. DISTR. M. tympanitis. Bakas. NS. branches subterete with raised lines. " Vata ' and "Pitta". fevers. bitter. 7. enlarged spleen. :—H. useful in bronchitis. K. Fr.2 m. inflammations. leaves. purgative. America. NS.

Cultivated in gardens.—Oct. Chandramala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling.—lobes lanceolate. obtuse at both ends. South Konkan. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Sk. FAM. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base.3-12. Travancore. fugacious. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic.-Mar. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. lower 3-lobed . fragrant. Kachchura . K. thin. Malaya. expectorant. 6. Fl.:—Stemless herb. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. DISTR.5 X 4. pure-white. constricted between the seeds . bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . :—Konkan.5-9 cm. purifies blood in skin diseases. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. enriches blood. stomachic. DISTR. softly pubescent. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). lying flat on the ground. t.—finely tuberculate. biliousness. Panchgani. teeth. NS. aromatic. P. LOC. strengthens lungs. t. vomiting. :—N. Maval in the Deccan. :—Western Peninsula.— June-July.. Tubers yield an essential oil. deep green. Kachri. Chandramulika. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stops vomiting. Fl. gives lustre to eyes. Sd. :— H. :—More or less throughout India. upper lip notched. root-stock tuberous. Fr. Konkan. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). Madras State. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sugandhavachai. COM. thirst. C. Fl. round. diaphoretic. diuretic. good in leprosy (Ayurveda).. CHAR. Kapurkachri. (Yunani). tube funnel-shaped . oblong shortly pointed. spreading horizontally. Fl. good in spleen diseases.—2.—in cylindric terminal spikes. increases " Vata ".—Scitaminaceæ. pale violet pink. Western Ghats . Ceylon. Deccan. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. L. LOC. petioles channelled. urinary discharges.—2-lipped. Malay Islands. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. elliptic. ovate or lanceolate. Plant diuretic. M. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. fever. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. wandering of mind. constipating . tired feeling. Australia. intoxication. . LOC.—612 from the centre of the plant. oval. burning of body.—capsule.—variable.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. removes indigestion.

PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant.— sweetly fragrant. Sk. COM. Ceylon. spathe 7. yellow. Malay Islands. :— G. Labuka. NS. . S.5-23 cm. Kaddu. t. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . anthers crowded..-Mar. NS. N. L. DISTR. It is useful to anasarcous swellings.— inflorescence.—Aroideæ. H.. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. Fr. Bottle-gourd..8-5 cm.-Apl. Fl. M. diam. NS. Tubers yield an essential oil. midrib very stout.. margins undulate. Bhuichapha. Fl. Travancore. K. semicylindric. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. M. Kanara. :—M. remedy for itch. oblong. thick. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Vatsanabhi. creeping. petiole as long as blade. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. coriaceous. Tumbaka. DISTR. M. HABITAT :—Marshy places. of various shades of purple and white. Bhuichampo .5 X 5-12. L. Coorg. simple.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. annulate . Fl. elliptic-oblong. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. The whole plant. very poisonous . Sk. Bhuichampa . rootstock reaching 5 cm. promotes suppuration. entire. inflorescence of many ovaries.—globose 3.—narrowly oblong. K. Alkaddu.—30X7. Danta-bija. COM. crowded in a globose bead . PROPERTIES AND LOC.5 cm. CHAR. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. furrowed. FAM. Country. LOC. t. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. COM. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous.—Cucurbitaceæ. Cochin. Nelasampige . :—Mysore. FAM. female cylindric. :—An aquatic herb. Calabash. Katutumbi. G. Kadu bhopala.. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Dudhi. :—E. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. in many cycles. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. H.—15-37. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . Dudio Tumbada. long. CHAR. :—Stemless plant. tubular below. Halagumbala.5-10 cm. Lauka. Bhuchampaka. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. Dudhya bhopala. LOC. used in the form of poultice.—Scitaminaceæ. :—Konkan. —Feb. PROPERTIES AND LOC.

antipyretic. Seeds—good for hot constitution. fattening. muscular pains. sweet. Challa. Seeds emetic (Yunani). useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. DISTR. bitter. PARTS-USED :—Root. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. inflammations. wild (rarely). It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . fruits and seeds. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. anti-periodic. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. In the Andamans. cause haemoptysis. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. lessens inflammations. pains (Ayurveda). in many cases only cultivated. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. Taman. cooling. flatulence. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. LOC. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. LOC. leaves. increases "Vata". . :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. Tarul. cardiac and general tonic. COM. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. emetic. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. Sk. flowers. ulcers.) FAM. LOC:—North Kanara and S. bronchitis. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. brain-tonic. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . Holematti. cures leucorrhoea.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. dry cough. Malaya. causes bronchitis. Fruit good in bronchitis. laxative. refrigerant and anti-bilious. alexiteric. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. USES :— Leaves are purgative. Bandhara. There are two varieties. Konkan Ghats. wholesome to fœtus. Assam. K. Nirbendeka: M. Flowers cooling. Ornamental Plants. Arjuna. DISTR. NS. earache. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. improves taste. See—Timbers. Ceylon. anti-bilious. See—Vegetables. oleaginous. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. styptic. Bark and leaves are purgative. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. :—H. Arjuna. :—Western Peninsula. bark. fever. seeds are narcotic. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. "Vata". scalding of urine. piles. bitter variety is diuretic. fruits and seeds. vulnerary. leaves. China. aphrodisiac. LOC.—Lythraceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. earache. diuretic. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. cures blood diseases. cures asthma.

lameness. Medi. Fl. CHAR. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. improves taste. :—A much branched large shrub. HABITAT :—Cultivated. (B. diam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels.8 cm. COM. COM. Nakharanjaka. silky beneath. Yavaneshta. Basu). Rami. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS.—Lythraceæ.5 cm. N. K. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. COM. Sandika. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. t. Chickling—White vetch. NS. M. . :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. oblong lanceolate. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. lobes 4. Sk. glabrous above. Henna plant. Mendi. FAM. L. K. swellings etc. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. G. M. Mehndi. :—Konkan southwards. DISTR. :—E. dense terminal heads 2. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. :—E. Fl. M. common on the Supa Ghats. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. :—W. oblong flat. causes much flatulence. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Khesari. LOC. Tree mignonette. M. See—Food Plants. yellow. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Country. FAM. Deccan hills.5-3. Lang. Grains contain vitamin A. NS. G. LOC. 5-7. Mukute. inflammation. Wooly-headed gnidia. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Kukurgal. Peninsula—Ceylon.—opposite or scattered. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. H. Kanara. The bark is used to poison fish.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Lakh. Kassar. perianth-tube densely silky villous . burning. tonic. Sk..5 X 2-2. subsessile.—in erect. Triputi. pointed. Belgaum hills . heart-troubles. Gorantha.—Thymelaeaceæ. (Ayurveda).130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. but dangerous cathartic. Medika.—ellipsoid-oblong. pain. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Latri.. Fr. Madaranga. D. Ragangi. S. common at Mahabaleshwar. cooling. FAM. enclosed in the perianth . in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. bark mottled. Rametha.—Dec-May. DISTR. piles and wandering of the mind.

cause pain and diseases due to "Vata".MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. vulnerary. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). fragrant. DISTR.). Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Leaves—bitter.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. finger nails and hair. expectorant. favours hair-growth. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. cure strangury tumours. amenorrhœa. LOC. H. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. allay burning sensation. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands.—angular. Fr. white or rose coloured . enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. NS. DISTR. in diseases of heart and of . Ceylon. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Masur. lateral branches 4-gonous. Chanangi. Sd. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. diuretic. Masur. wild in Arabia. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. lumbago. boils. Massur. flowers. ophthalmia. diuretic. scabies. G. dysentery. Fl. t. enriches blood. See—Dyes. diseases of spleen. cure insanity (Ayurveda). HABITAT:—Cultivated. ulcers. The plant contains a glucoside. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Lentil. LOC. Masura. planted as hedge. cure leucoderma. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . useful. supported by persistent calyx. mucronate.—capsule. globose. pyramidal and panicled cymes. Flowers are refrigerant. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. truncate. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. COM. veined outside. many. E. Fl. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. Masuridal. Belgaum and Poona districts. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. seeds. often ending in spinous point. skin diseases . :—E. indigenous in S. syphilitic sores. M. useful in headache. L. Gurubija. Ragadali. Europe and in temperate W. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. improve appetite. Sk. Gabholika. bronchitis.—opposite.—Apl-July. :—Grown in Nasik. Sura. & Gib.—in terminal. Asia. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Iran and Baluchistan. The oil and essence keep the body cool. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. FAM. PROPERTIES. stomatitis.

PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac . the lower petiolate. FAM. . Hot and dry. :—Cultivated throughout India. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). and muscular pains. C—petals 2-4 or 0. Chavnsar. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Fl. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. Garden cress .—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. See-Food Plants. CHAR. good in inflammations. laxative. leaves and seeds. Grains contain vitamins A and B. Sk. tumours and injuries.—Cruciferæ. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. Ashalika. Halim . very likely indigenous in W. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. good for pain in abdomen. useful in diseases of chest. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. cures dysentery . stomatitis . aphrodisiac. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. G. Fr. COM. M. :—E. Chandrika. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). white. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. chest complaints. LOC. bronchitis. aperient. Chandrashura. tonic. :—An erect glabrous annual. LOC. galactagogue. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Allibija. Ahaliva. constipating. Asia. tonic. DISTR. affections of spleen. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Seeds—indigestible. bechic.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Seeds contain fatty oil. Suvasura. diuretic. bitter. eye diseases (Ayurveda). diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Hurfi. blood and skin diseases. They contain vitamin B. NS. upper sessile. See—Vegetables. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Halim. Asahio. enrich blood. Leaves are used as pot-herb. They are mucilaginous and laxative. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. Kurutige. L.—small. bronchitis. K. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Raktabija. The covering is styptic and astringent. LOC. often with linear segments . good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). rheumatism.

COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. bad for eyesight. pale beneath. black.. Tailottama. Garbijaur.—May-July. glossy dark-green above. Seeds contain vitamin A. good for cough and kidney troubles. Country. usually alternate. . Linseed. DISTR. LOC. Maidelakri. supported by the thickened pedicel.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Kanara. Alsi. perianth lobes wanting. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. bronchitis.— globose. bark somewhat corky. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. 7. Sk. Medini. lead to impotency. Sedhavi. Roasted seeds are astringent. H. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Haimwati. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. Seeds—mucilaginous. back-ache. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Alashi. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda).:—A small evergreen tree. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria.5 mm. "Pitta". "Kapha". urinary complaints. Fr. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. burnt bark styptic and healing. Fl. Jivanika. Alshi. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. PARTS USED :—Bark.—Linaceæ. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. H. galactagogue. Common flax. heal ulcers. urinary discharges . aphrodisiac. LOC. branchlets densely tomentose. Javas .:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Tisi. tonic. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. L. Alashi. yellowish. t. remove biliousness. diam. NS. NS. Fibres. inflammations. causes loss of appetite. Alasi. :—E. native country probably Egypt. LOC.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. diuretic.:—E. M. Madagandha. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. aphrodisiac .—crowded at the ends of branches. Common tallow laurel.. K. Sk. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. CHAR. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. lenticellate. emmenagogue. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. remove "Vata". Alsi. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. See—Oils. Maidalakadi. flowers. leaves. gouty and rheumatic swellings. G. base narrowed.—Lauraceæ. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. :—Cultivated throughout India. M. colds and throat complaints. FAM. M. cure leprosy. used in consumption. FAM. dysentery. boils. hard to digest. Fl. Malina. hot. seeds and oil. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. COM. 8-12 together in heads.

branched upwards. lanceolate. many. Nali. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. Fl. aphrodisiac. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . Ranturai.—. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Fr. pains in joints. LOC. Kadudodka. Kalahogesoppu. Sthulanala. long. acrid. much curved. white.2-3 m. G. bitter. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. consumption. useful in inflammations. cure cough. FAM. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism.—alternate. yellowish brown . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. :—E. diuretic. aphrodisiac. Wild tobacco. Narttaka. stem stout. LOC. t. Dhaval. "vata". Narsala. aphrodisiac. Nal. H. throat troubles.100 m.—Lobeliaceæ. Mrityupushpa. uterus. leprosy (Ayurveda). H. Sd. CHAR. It acts as anodyne. thirst. fruits and seeds. Ghontali. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. Divali. Australia. Katukoshataki. diseases of blood. L. LOC. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. AMARA Clarke. HABITAT :—Western Ghats.5-3. FAM. Fl. hollow. NS. heating. burning sensation. biliousness. bark. useful in biliousness. M. lower much longer.-Mar. COM. G. M. leaves. 3 usually connate throughout . Dhamana. all oblong. midrib white. :—E. Root—astringent. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb .134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—Nov. :—Konkan. Country. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.—numerous. NS. stomachic. K. Jhinga. DISTR. high. opening by 2 valves.9 cm. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. long. strangury. finely serrulate. very small. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. nearly sessile. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Bibhishana. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . paralysis. PARTS USED :—Root. galactagogue. Jalini. subglobose. Karvituri. tonic. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. light green. overheated brains. Malay Islands. Kahire. SK. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. burning sensation. spleen diseases. Devnal. Leaves are mucilaginous. K. Kandele. erysipelas (Ayurveda). 2. fever.—capsule. M. COM. C—2-lipped. heart. Deccan and S.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. expectorant. bronchitis. Devanala. . LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. 1. Ridge gourd. Sk. vagina. lobes linear. Ceylon.—Cucurbitaceæ.

leucoderma.. Root-bark is abortifacient.) FAM. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). hydrogogue. thrives in Deccan trap. stems 5-angled. Madhya Pradesh. piles. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Fl. diuretic. DISTR.—petals yellow with green veins .—Sept. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. long and about 2. at first whitish and softly villous. Mahuda. C.:—A large climber. palmate. Hunage. tumours. Doddippa. DISTR. Butter tree. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. Gudapushpa. Mowda. digestible. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites.—Sapotaceæ. 10-ribbed. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. bitter. Mowa. Kanara (rare) .—monœcious.53. at length scabrid. Mahua. asthma. biliousness. tuberculous glands. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Moha. NS. :—Throughout India. Mahua tree. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. also in Konkan and N. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. leaves. pale green. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). obtusely conical at both ends. Madhusrava. recommended in splenic enlargement. Pokka. solitary in the same axil as males. cures "Vata". PARTS USED :—Leaves. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Mahura.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. :—E. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). :—Plant is bitter. especially in western Peninsula. "Kapha". Ceylon. Fl. flowers and fruits. W. L. LOC. liver complaints. jaundice. laxative. M. LOC. tonic to intestines. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. PARTS USED :—Bark. useful in rat-bite. uterine and vaginal tumours . a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. G. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. thick. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. LOC. Mhowra. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. fruit and seeds. asthma. 5-10 cm. H. K. cathartic. 5-7 lobed. carminative. ascites. bronchitis. bitter. inflammations.8 cm. cough. Sk. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). acrid. cures urinary discharges. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. piles. base cordate. alexiteric. Madhuka. Burma. Mahula.—small.—obovoid. t. females. Bengal to the W. Fr. Fruit cures fever. USES. tonic and diuretic. tendrils usually 3-fid. COM.

Shendri. Kapilo. Kamala. G. often planted. Sk. M. Kambhal Raini. H. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. tonic and nutritive. . PARTS USED :—Bark. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Kampillaka. Huli. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. aphrodisiac. Moha. Mohwa. NS. Flowers—oleaginous. Hullichillu. cures biliousness. K. Oil is good for skin-diseases. COM. H. DISTR. Mehua. NS. See—Timbers. Kesarimavu.) FAM. flowers act as a mild purgative. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Mohache jhad. Karnatic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Liquors. USES :—Astringent and emollient. used in fractures. Flower—sweet. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. cooling. Fruit-tonic . Mahuda. fattening. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. flowers and oil. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. astringent. COM. :—Western peninsula. Sk. Oil—emollient (Yunani).—Euphorbiaceæ. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Famine Plants. Kapila. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats.—Sapotaceæ. Kapila. Ippe. K. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Movanuhjad. India . fixed oil and a spirit. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). carminative. ulcers. G. cures blood diseases. yields two important products. There is a trace of alkaloid. Monkey-face tree. M. and Kanara. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. LOC.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. and Upper Burma. galactagogue. tonic. Movaro. expectorant. Mysore. burning sensation. FAM. and appetiser (Sushruta). causes "Kapha". :—-E. Oils. anthelmintic. good in heart diseases. :—Konkan. Oils. See—Timbers. consumption. leprosy. :—E. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. thirst. Mahuva of S. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating.. Madhuka. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. bronchitis. heals wounds . and also a remedy for itch. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. fatigue . Honey tree. LOC.

a good collyrium (Yunani). improves cough. Mango tree. FAM. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Kanara. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. DISTR. Ghats and the Satpudas. Dyes. Ceylon. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. styptic. K. fruits and seeds. good in cough. enriches blood. liver. LOC. Gum . throat troubles. diseases of abdomen. Bhutan. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. it exudes a pink coloured gum. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). removes bad smell from mouth. cause flatulence and constipation. Rasala. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. good in dysentery. laxative. aphrodisiac. Sahakara. chronic dysentery and gleet. anthelmintic. Amri. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). detergent. flowers. Amra. Introduced. purgative. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Fruit—heating. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. tonic to body. used in chronic diarrhœa. carminative. clears brain. Chuta. LOC. stone in bladder. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. fruits and seeds. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. cure "Vata". Sk. spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. H. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Sind. vermifuge and. :—-Throughout the State. tumours. leaves. sweet. vulnerary. Mavin-mara. Bihar. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). Khasia Hills. liver pain. piles. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. vaginal troubles. purgative. :—Throughout tropical India. heals ulcers. urinary discharges. tonic. Am. useful in skin-diseases. DISTR. thirst. cure leucorrhoea. vomiting. COM. Sikkim. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar).—Anacardiaceæ. sour. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. See—Timbers. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. improves complexion. leaves. good in heart trouble. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. LOC. Burma. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. improve taste and appetite. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. China. Ambo. Mavu. cultivated throughout the State. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. G. Kamarasa. appetiser. alexiteric. hiccup. bad blood. ulcers. wild and cultivated. aphrodisiac. dysentery. useful in bronchitis. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. Amba. NS. cooling. cooling. lessen intestinal pains. styptic. "Kapha". "Pitta". beautifies complexion. in "Tridosh". :—E. Australia. M. biliousness. diuretic. Malay Islands. wounds. bronchitis. :—Tropical Himalayas. Astringent. Cuckoo's Joy. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. dispels langour and burning of body. anthelmintic. maturant.

aphrodisiac. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Limbada.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. Nimla. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits.—broadly ovate. useful in diseases of eye.3-15 X 4. Ceylon.—Asclepiadaceæ. Hari. Sk. M. :—G. Nimba. Country. astringent to bowels. Sd. alexiteric. Hemajyoti-valli. leucoderma. coma copious . fleshy. :—-E. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. :—A large twining shrub. Ripe fruit is laxative. Nim. Nim or Margosa tree. H. few glands above the petiole cordate . margined. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. L. C. Bevu. K. burning sensation.—many. Java. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. DISTR. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Juss. cooling. G. M. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. older branches ash coloured. :—Bengal. It is also anthelmintic. LOC. corona lobes large.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Nimba. K. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth.—follicles. good for dyspepsia. Dugdhike .) FAM.5 cm. NS. t. Dodi. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. urinary discharges. Juice of kernel. with lenticels and black dots. H. useful in bleeding piles. Madhumalati. cures "Vata". Nimbaka. LOC. See—Timbers. flattened. all plains districts of Madras State. broadly ovate or suborbicular.5-11. Fruit Trees. Khandodi. 7.—Meliaceæ. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. rugosely striate. rat-bite (Ayurveda). stops nasal bleeding. Kharkhodi. tumours.) FAM. COM. Fl.. Assam. green or yellowish green. Fl. Suparnika. Harandori. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. :—Deccan and S. piles. overlapping to the right. Balant nimba. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Ambri.—rotate with broad lobes. .—Apl. biliousness. Kadulimb. CHAR.5-10 cm. M. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. pale yellowish brown.—6. if snuffed. USES. Nakchhikni. antipyretic. Paribhadraka. asthma. Fr. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Sk. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Limbra. NS. long. inflammations. Confection made from ripe mango juice.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant.

The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. asthma. thirst. rheumatism . blood complaints. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. piles. good in ophthalmia. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. lumbago. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. swollen glands. cures ulcers and inflammations . Banmethi. M. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. leucoderma. convalescence. insecticidal. bad taste in the mouth. "pittadosh. Vanmethika. valuable in consumption. resolvant. relieves "Kapha". anthelmintic. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). piles. LOC. alexiteric. FAM. lessens inflammation. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. LOC. boils.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. The fruit is markedly antiseptic." vomiting. fruits and seeds. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. refrigerant. DISTR.. flowers. See—Timbers. earache. COM. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. bruises. tonic and antiperiodic. urinary discharges. sprains. Tonic. it is a general vermifuge. Ranmethi. stimulant and stomachic. . Oils. tonic. cough. astringent. tumours. fever. and loss of appetite. fatigue. bark. Small melilot. maturant. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. pectoral. The flowers are stimulant. chronic leprosy. leprosy. general debility. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. stomachic. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. good for leprosy. Burma. toothache. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. biliousness. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. H. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. maturant. aphrodisiac. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. expectorant. skin diseases. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . useful in consumption (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. burning sensation near heart. for unhealthy ulcers. :—E. antiperiodic. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . common in the Deccan and Karnatak. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. useful in syphilitic sores. leaves. NS. carminative. Sk. it is also used internally as anthelmintic.

at first green and variegated with yellow. scabrid. Pudina. HABITAT :—In hedges.—variable in size. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. :—H. "Sikkim. NS. Fl.— Jany. S. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . LOC. standard exceeding the wings and keel. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. leaves and seeds. Assam. in spicate close racemes. Bilari. Externally used as a fomentation. M. t. oblong-ellipsoid. :—Western Peninsula. Corn-March mint. Ceylon. introduced into many other regions. oblanceolate. Agamaki. Country and Gujarat. poultice or plaster for swellings. deltoid-ovate entire. Chatinmaragu. north Bengal. :—An erect annual herb. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). DISTR. Afghanistan. of terminal rather long. Sd. Fl. brown. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. glabrous. Fr. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. LOC. :—E. G. also in S. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. finally red. FAM. COM. male fascicled on short peduncles. Fl. especially in strained back. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. very hispid .—pod. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Iran. glabrous or slightly hairy. L. COM. :—Common in Deccan. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. Europe.. Pudinah. C. Khasia.—monœcious . M.—Labiatæ.—one. K. H. Ghugri. L. ellipsoid.—size of a pea. PROPERTIES AND LOC. truncate at the apex. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. FAM.—3-foliate. lobes dentate or serrate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. . PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. females sessile. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. base cordate. M. slightly echinulate. given as a gruel (Murray). leaflets toothed.—Cucurbitaceæ. tapering at both ends. 30-45 cm. NS.—small.—pale yellow. CHAR. Fr. stem angular. Pudina. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. high. :—India (tropical zone). Malaya and Africa. tendrils simple. DISTR. young parts white-hairy. rounded.

useful in liver and spleen diseases. Nagkesara.—sub-equally 4-lobed. sorethroat. USES :—Root. flowers and fruits. pains in joints (Ayurveda). Fl. stalked. infusion is given in fevers. Oils. lanceolate. COM. Nagkinjalka. Nagchapha. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Bengal. emmenagogue. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. NS. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.—Guttiferæ. China. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). indigestion and cephalagia. leaves.—nutlets dry. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. L.—in axillary distant whorls. C. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Assam. DISTR. :—Western Himalayas. diuretic. :—A perennial erect herb . K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. :—E. good in asthma and sweats. Himalayas. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. Naghas. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. used for cough. tonic to kidneys . smooth. LOC. Burma Tenasserim. Carminative. Nagakeshara. Andamans. PARTS USED :—Bark. toothed. Nagkesara. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. LOC. LOC. oblong. Suvarna. dry. :—E. expectorant. Ceylon. Sk. Fr. vomiting. H. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Assam Iron-wood. alexipharmic. Gums and Resins. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. In N. Kanara. E. lilac. Kashmir. DISTR. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. digestive. cardiotonic. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant.-narrowed below. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. asthma. headache. cough. The plant is used in chutneys. M. Nagsampige. North and West Asia. none at the top. Konkan and N. foul breath. sweats. good for fevers. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. FAM. Ceylon Iron-wood. . hiccup. the upper similar and large. skin diseases. See—Timbers. S. ovate. small tumours. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. lined with hairs and hairy outside. binding. Europe. Travancore. stem short. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). biliousness. hairy. Country. blood and heart troubles. and stimulant. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. LOC. MESUA FERREA Linn.

stimulant. Sk. long. flowers and fruits. DISTR. in vertigo. high. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). FAM. COM. Yellow champa . diaphoretic. Sensitive plant. hairy beneath. LOC. LOC. Vanamallika. pinnae 1-2 pairs. Sk. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. aphrodisiac. bark. Nachike-gidda. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Lajari. sensative. glabrous above. removes worms. Flowers-stomachic. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. blood affections. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . 45-90 cm.. Hem-pushpa. Champaka. Fl.. M. H. Fruit. ophthalmia. diuretic. Champa. clothed with glandular hairs . H. evergreen rain-forest of N. petioles hairy.-Oct. Golden champa.—Magnoliaceæ. rheumatism.5 cm. CHAR. leaves. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani).—bipin-nate. destroys poisons. K. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. S. slightly recurved. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. in globose heads. :—Cultivated all over the State. Sone-chapha. "Kapha". See—Timbers. good in leprosy. stems and branches sparingly prickly. NS. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. :—E. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. PARTS USED :—Root.—4-merous. Pilochampo. "Vata". infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Burma. Suvarna champaka. gout. Kanara. rheumatism. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Champaka. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Assam. Dyes. also used as purgative. India. Muthmurika. Lajalu. Lajalu. Ghats. Sankochini. IndoChina. G.—Sept. bile. t. L. Lajalu. Yunnan. Raktamula. Fr. FAM. K. Risemani. Sonchampo. W. Lajjika. 57. digitate. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas .-pod flat. cultivated. NS. near temples and in gardens. COM. :—E. rachis bristly. nausea and fevers . skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). it is given with honey to relieve colic. Lajja. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Lajjavati. G. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. useful in cough. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. pink. Sparshalajja. Sampige. Flowers— expectorant. Champaka. acrid. Fl. :—A diffuse under-shrub. Humble plant. facilitates micturition. . Surabhi. Pivala chapha. diuretic. remove biliousness. Champo.

alterative. Kanara and Konkan. probably a native of tropical America. often planted in gardens. :—G. cultivated in gardens in pots. useful in blood and bile diseases. DISTR. H. LOC. Bakul. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. LOC. Ranjal. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. vaginal and uterine complaints. Mukul. teeth and gum diseases. cure blood diseases. good for gonorrhœa. NS. vulnerary. flowers and fruits acrid. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Bolsari. ulcers. Mugule. Kanara. Malaya.—Sapotaceæ. alexipharmic. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). oleaginous. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. LOC. smallpox (Yunani). Varsuli. COM. Vovali. leucoderma. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. astringent to bowels. leprosy. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. burning sensation. headache. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. leprosy. jaundice. Juice is applied externally. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. K. In Brazil root is used as emetic. bilious fevers. cures biliousness. sweet. M. fruits and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. Sharadika. cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. cure biliousness. Kalhala. fatigue. liver complaints. Fruit causes flatulence. Ceylon. DISTR. asthma. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Anangaka. FAM. stomachic. flowers. Seeds fix loose teeth. cultivated in the tropics. It is also resolvent and alterative. Flowers give taste. inflammations. bark. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bakula.:—Western Peninsula. Baphuli. in piles and fistula. piles. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. biliousness. Bark cardiotonic. acrid. Bakul. :—Naturalised throughout India. nose diseases. See—Ornamental Plants. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). alexipharmic. cures "Kapha". Mulsari. Flowers—expectorant. Borsalli. cooling. dysentery. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Root. anthelmintic. Bakul. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Root is resolvent.

t. Karavalli. lessen inflammations (Yunani). and rather fleshy stems . Fr. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. native of tropical America. Karala. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Leaves are maturant. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. blackish. LOC.—large. NS.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible.—membranous. Guleaabbas . MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. 30-75 cm. Hagala. high with large perennial tuberous roots. FAM. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Oils. DISTR. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. HABITAT -Cultivated. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. :—A herbaceous plant. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. Fruit Trees. Karli. often ribbed or rugose. Krishnakali. Sk. CHAR. each one surrounded by an involucre. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. M. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. yellow. G. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika.—continually in bloom. Kareli. NS. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. COM. brightly coloured (dark crimson. :—Grown throughout India. Gulbasa . Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. FAM. :—E. M. Fl. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. cordate. It is also tonic and febrifuge. Marvel of Peru. Sandhya-kali or Raga. H.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. K. Karela. good for syphilitic sores. COM.—E. Four o'clock plant. Karela. Kandura. Chandra—Sanjimallige.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.—Nyctaginaceæ. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. it is applied to relieve headache. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . LOC. Fl. Hagalkai. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. K. Karelo. See—Ornamental Plants. See—Timbers. Sk. L. Carella fruit. H. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn.

'. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. M. digestible. used in syphilis. laxative. cure "Vata". Country and Gujarat. urinary discharges. DISTR. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). anthelmintic. cure "Tridosh". juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). Fruit is tonic. H. lessens expectoration . the whole plant mixed with cinnamon.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. appetiser. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. boils. FAM. piles. leaves and fruit. also in Malaya. Beksa. :—G. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. antibilious. See—Vegetables. all kinds of poisoning. asthma. B and C. cures biliousness. Golkandra. hiccup. Leaves act as galactagogue. anæmia. S. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . burns. stomachic. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. K. diseases of spleen and liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. excessive salivation. longpepper. erysipelas (Ayurveda). carminative. hearttroubles. urinary calculi. Fruit— bitter. tumours. . The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. Sk. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. and externally in ague as an absorbent. Plant cures diseases of blood. tonic. Vandhya. laxative. DISTR. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Root. Karehiballi. Kartoli. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. eye and heart. COM. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. fever consumption. anthelmintic. Nagarali. PARTS USED :—Root. It is useful in gout. China. rheumatism. :—Cultivated throughout India. LOC. and America. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. antipyretic. Kanta. ulcers. cooling. rheumatism. LOC. anthelmintic. Kantolan. jaundice etc. urinary discharges. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. hot alexiteric. "Kapha". NS. piles. Leaves—aphrodisiac. etc. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Throughout India. leaves and fruit. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. Vishakankini. Fruit—bitter. Fruit—very bitter. M. bronchitis. Kantoli. stomachic. laxative and authelmintic. leprosy. Karkotaki. LOC. sparingly in Konkan. asthma. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. Ceylon. Malaya. tropical Africa. Fruits contain vitamins A. Gid-hagalu. blood diseases.

Nuggi. bark. . In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . eye diseases. Burma. Sargavo. Haladipavate. G. all "tridosha" fevers. astringent to bowels. fattening. ulcers. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. cultivated throughout India and Burma. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. digestible. "Kapha". Indian mulberry. H. Bartondi. H. Ashyuka. biliousness . Ab. fruits and seeds. flowers. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. See—Vegetables. Sk. :—E. Mulgule. Tagase .—Moringaceæ. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. aphrodisiac. "Vata". Aal. makes blood impure . Mochaka. FAM. M. dyspepsia. DISTR. China. LOC. tumours. leaves. FAM. earache. removes all kinds of pains. Formosa. Segua. alexiteric.—Rubiaceæ. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. tuberculous glands in neck. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. G. Rochana. Murangi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. improves appetite. K. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Famine Plants. useful in heart-complaints. leaves and fruits. HABITAT :—Cultivated .146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Ainshi. K. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. NS. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. causes burning sensation. Seglo. Sajina. emmenagogue. Drum-stick Tree. also wild. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. DISTR. Saraoji. Achi. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. :—E. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. COM. anthelmintic. Shevaga. Ugra. spleen enlargement. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Mochaka. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Indian horse radish . stuttering. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Ak. COM. LOC. Tikshnamula. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Guggala. See—Dyes. Munigha. Al. Introduced var. Achchuka. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. M. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. also in the Oudh forests. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). analgesic.

sweetish. appetiser. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. bronchitis. epilepsy and hysteria. diarrhœa. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Tuta. obstinate asthma. See—Fruit Trees. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. good for inflammations of throat and chest. carminative. Leaf paste. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. COM. anthelmintic. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). enriches blood. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Shetur. Peninsula. with garlic. White mulberry. piles. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. spleen. burning sensation (Ayurveda). leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. LOC. Tut. Fruits contain vitamins A. aromatic and acid flavour. DISTR. M. increases biliousness. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. gout. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanara. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. lumbago. cures gleet. The plant contains an alkaloid. Ambat. salt and pepper. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. wounds. good for brain. aphrodisiac. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. heart. NS. Fruit—tonic. internal inflammations and calculous affections. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. it is cooling laxative. G. enlarged spleen or liver. Kambali. lumbago. :—E. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. See—Vegetables. Tutri. enriches blood. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. sour. FAM. useful in small-pox. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). expectorant. LOC. laxative. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Fibres. urinary discharges. Root is purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. biliousness. diuretic. loss of appetite. bark. H. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. Sk.—Moraceæ. Madhu pippali. . MORUS INDICA Linn. B and C. Gums and Resins. fattening. expectorant. common about villages in N. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. turmeric. leaves and fruit. Siahtut. Karihannu. Tut. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. rheumatism. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. K. cooling. Tuda. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. diuretic. Seeds yield a fixed oil. stomatitis. ulcerated intestines.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. Oils. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers.

improves blood.5x1.) FAM. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Kivanchha.3 cm.. tonic. Seeds— alexipharmic. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. cultivated. Sk. Banana. Kavatch. DISTR. Kunth. petioles 6. Kela. H. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. L. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). which produce intensa irritation of skin. SAPIENTUM O. flowers and fruit. Kela.—pod. Plantain. juice given for headache. Himalaya up to 1200 m. turgid-shaped.—3-foliate. PARTS USED :—Root. silky. Vanari. with honey is given in cholera. Fl. pods and seeds.—Scitaminaceæ. FAM. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. biliousness . USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Kadali. LOC. Ceylon. Dirghapatra. common in hedges. Var. NS. K. Fl. Sd. t. Atmagupta. Sk. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. consumption. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). :—E. NS. Bale. Kivanch. Cowhage. DISTR. Hasaguni. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Goncha. dark-purple. leaves. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . lateral very unequal sided. leaflets membranous. COM. Kapikachu.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. MUSA PARADISIACA L. 6-30 flowered. terminal smaller. Kela. long. G. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. HABITAT :—In hedges. Nayi songuballi. :—Punjab plains. sometimes cultivated. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. PARTS USED :—Root. Kadvare. H. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Tikshna. spermatorrhoea etc. . :—E. HABITAT :—Humid areas . Root—emmenagogue. Maoz kela. Kavach. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. M. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Havanch. Turashi. Urustambha. G. Adam's Fig. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . They are used as anthelmintic. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Fr. M.2 cm. cures blood diseases. Rambha. Kuhili. laxative. CHAR. stem. 5-7. tonic. K..—Oct-Nov. LOC.3-11. " Vata ". :—An annual twiner. Strong root infusion. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. grey-silky beneath.—5-6 small. Fruit— aphrodisiac.—in drooping racemes. COM.

HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. t. Andamans. diseases of uterus and vagina. biliousness. DISTR. . stipules twin. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. Assam. consumption and bronchitis. :—A rambling shrub. strangury.--in terminal cymes. leaves. Sk. urinary discharges. Ipparati. Tropical Himalayas. increases appetite. broadly elliptic. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. tonic. LOC. M. linear. COM. Serwadh. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. Hastygida. Fr. PARTS USES :—Root.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Burnt stem is vulnerary. thickens blood. astringent to bowels. kidney troubles (Yunani). causes bronchitis .MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. subglobose. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. B and C. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. sore-throat. dyspepsia. Lawsat. :—S. menstrual disorders. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. aphrodisiac. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. diabetes. hairy. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. :—Konkan and N.—Rubiaceæ. C. Fruit—sweet. FAM. blood diseases. aphrodisiac. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Root-juice. LOC. in " Vata". NS. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. ear-pain. L. improves complexion (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels.—tubular. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. leprosy. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. CHAR. Fl. pubescent.— berry. Fl. and are used in acidity. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. tonic. broad at base. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. very hairy outside. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. indigestible . :—H.. anthelmintic. K. flowers and fruit. Shrivalli. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . antidysenteric. Root-juice is anthelmintic. Bellotti.— July-Oct. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Kanara. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. good for dry bronchitis. See—Fruit Trees. heart-burn and colic. tube slender. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. Bhutakes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bedina. in thirst. Nagavalli. Fibres. lobes broadly ovate. buds densely hairy. useful in "Kapha". gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. deep golden yellow. appetiser.

Galen and the Arabian writers. Kanara Ghats . ovate to lanceolate. COM. fruits and oil. as . NS.—small. FAM. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Himalayas. H. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. LOC. is regarded as. intermittent fevers and dropsy. :—E. promotes growth of hair. especially epilepsy. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. small. It is used as a substitute for true mace. LOC. It is credited with opposite qualities. Habules. A decoction is employed. Kamuka. See—Timbers. very sweet smelling. Kaiphal. applied locally to relieve pain. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. PROPERTIES AND LOC. black when ripe.—berry.— Myristicaceæ. FAM. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. Dioscorides. Fl. NS. False nutmeg. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Kanage. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. LOC. emmenagogue. Malati. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. :—A shrub. DISTR. Malati. axillary on slender peduncles. ellipsoid. common in the Kumta taluka. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn.— solitary. used in stopping vomiting. M. PARTS USED:—Seeds. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. COM. :—Konkan and N. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. Sk. Ram-patri. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. diuretic. Fr.—Myrtaceæ. cures headache. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. Condiments and Spices. L. Myrtle. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. DISTR. allaying pain. smoke beneficial to piles. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Pliny. all over the State. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. :—Western Peninsula.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. They are given in asthma. enriches blood. K. M. :— E. white. Vilayantimendhi. W. Malabar. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Murad. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism.

NAREGAMIA ALATA W. solitary or 2 together. glabrous. concave or cupped.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. :—Konkan. ovoid. Sd. K. Nelanaringa . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. diam.—capsule. petals 5. biliousness. FAM. stem. petiole winged. Amlavalli. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. axillary. CHAR. C.3-0. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. free. NS. . bronchitis. petioles very long. fleshy. Fl.) FAM. elongate. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. peltate. elliptic. Kamala. long. See—Ornamental Plants.—petals many 5-12.—solitary. Pundarika. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. :—A small branching undershrub. 3-valved. :—E. muricate. Timpani. LOC. Kapurbhendi. :—E. Fl. Sk.—Nymphæaceæ. cures asthma. Belakanji. Fl. Kamal. Kandabahula. linear spathulate. Papra-vel. torus 18 mm. & A. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. white or rosy. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. from Iran eastwards to Australia. curved. 3-foliate.5 cm. 0. vulnerary. creeping stem rooting at the nodes.—alternate. Fr. Sk.—white.6 m. Kamal. DISTR. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin.-Dec. G. M. in diam. PARTS USED :—Root. t. entire. Aravinda. Ambuja. Padma. COM.—membranous. Tavari-bija or gadde. ulcers (Ayurveda). Ambuj. disk annular. Padam. Fl. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. cells 2-seeded. high. NS.—pendulous. orbicular. leaves. M. alexiteric. L. Suriyakamal. Chinese water-lily. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn.—Meliaceæ.. Pankaja. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. radiately nerved.-Nov. 10-25 cm. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd.. COM. Indian sacred lotus. Sarasija. Kamal. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Pitmari. H. K. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. Kanara. Ripe carpels. with slender. DISTR. rough with distant prickles . LOC. top flat. L. anthers with clavate appendages. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. :—W. CHAR. Kandalu. spongy. ovoidglobose. t. dysentery. Goanese ipecacuanha. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean.—July. erect. hæmorrhage. :—A large aquatic herb. LOC.

large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. fruit. coriaceous. seeds.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs.—red. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Karber. M. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Karvira. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. 15-23 cm.—Apocynaceæ. Waziristan. Sk. Cool. flowers. Cool. FAM. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Filaments are astringent and cooling. LOC. aphrodisiac. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. Paddali. COM. Fl. dark green and shining above.—follicles. . removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". spermatorrhoea. Upper Gangetic Plains. H.—funnel-shaped. L. allays thirst. Ashwa-marak. LOC. Fr. leaves. slightly bitter. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. biliousness. chest-pains. ulcers and sores of mouth. Kanagile. good in throat-troubles. Sind. honey. Karvira.—in threes. useful in piles. Salt Range. See—Ornamental Plants. Baluchistan. PARTS USED :—Root. Kaner. flowers. cures cough. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. also recommended as cardiac tonic. inflammations and poisoning. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . tapering into short petiole. lobes rounded. at length separating. long. strangury. C. NS. linear-lanceolate. fragrant. G. heart and brain tonic . 10-15 cm. vomiting. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . in fever and liverdiseases. leaves. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. In China and Malaya dried red petals. t. small-pox. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. removes worms. useful in burning sensation of the body. also as a hedge plant. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . planted in gardens throughout the State. throat scaly. diuretic. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. also cholera. allays thirst. Kanher. useful in fevers . diseases of skin and eye . rose or white. S. leucoderma. DISTR. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. good in blood-complaints. Pratihasa. stem. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. Kaner. Sd. menorrhagia. Fl. improves watery eyes (Yunani). rigid. astringent to taste . extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. gives tone to breast. K. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. Sweet scented oleander. long.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Vishavrikshanka. CHAR. :—E. Kanel. :—Madhya Bharat. fever.

HABITAT :—Cultivated. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Tambakhu. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. wounds. FAM. very poisonous. good for lumbago. tonic. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). especially root. Fr. across. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. conical. Hoge soppu.—alternate. scabies (Yunani). Tamarakuthika. the surface is plain or bullate. are poisonous and are used externally. USES :—All parts of plant. LOC. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. Root—aphrodisiac.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. Dhumrapatrika. :—E.—pink or white. :—Native of America. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). emetic. C. anthelmintic. LOC. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. Tobacco. also applied in leprosy. L. M. sedative and emetic. funnel-shaped. tonic. dimness of sight. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. CHAR. Poisonous to fish. base wedgeshaped . cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. useful in caries of teeth. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. oblong or elliptic. COM. Tabak.—capsule. disinfectant. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Tamakhu. cultivated in all tropical countries. The plant contains a glucoside. laxative. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. asthma. An ointment made . useful in bronchitis. lobes spreading. Bujjarbhang. bronchitis. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. M. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. sores. inflammations. Sk. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. Krimighni. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). DISTR.8 cm. about 1. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Flowers— aphrodisiac. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. carminative. K. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. inflammations. Tambak.—in open corymbose panicles . Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. water from hookha is diuretic. G. headache. nervous depression and sleeplessness. tubercular glands of neck. skin diseases. scabies.—Solanaceæ. a mental stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. H. smoke constipating. large (especially lower ones). caries of teeth. See—Ornamental Plants. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. LOC. Fl. foul nose. Kalanja. Tamaku. PARTS USED :—Leaves.

Chotakanwal. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Fl. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. a decoction of root. Jayaparvati. LOC. Prajakta. obcordate or merely orbicular. NS. HABITAT :-Cultivated.. K.3 cm. H.—Nymphæaceæ. in terminal trichotomous cymes. 2-celled. C. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. K. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Har-singhar. t. PARTS USED :—Root. M. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Indian Mourner : G. Parijata . DISTR. Sephali.—capsule. Parijata. bark. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. NS. (Ayurveda).— fragrant. . tonic to hair. Sephalika. Fr. densely pubescent beneath. Parijataka.5-6. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. young branches quadrangular. Shonapadma. Bark cures bronchitis. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. flowers and seeds. H. useful in bilious fevers.— more or less throughout the year. Sk. Nilophhal. solitary. Madhya Bharat. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. LOC. Harsing. L. stomachic. Buds are tonic. Assam. leaves. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. It is used with honey in chronic fever.—opposite 5-10x2. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Har. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Prajakta. COM. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Sk. Lalkamal. rough above with bulbous hairs. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. scalp affections etc. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. FAM. :—E. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. Kanwal. Kanval. Cultivated in many parts of India. Lotus. Bengal. carminative. Alipriya. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. axillary. Nalkumkuma. Kumuda.—lobes white. Kharapatraka. :—A large shrub or a small tree. See—Ornamental Plants. M. ovate acute. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Fl. peduncles 4angled. Aravind.) FAM. CHAR. lessen inflammation. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. compressed. cures fevers. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). Bilitavarai. COM. abundant July-Sept. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. southwards to the Godavari. Nyadale huvu . :—E. G.—Oleaceæ. Burma. astringent-to bowels. tube orange-coloured. hairy.

NS. stamens about 40. roundish. acute. DISTR. diameter. stems and branches green or purplish. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. H. red. entire. LOC. and nigropunctate above. ripening beneath the water. " Kapha". stomachic. submerged . 15-25 cm. Var. L. Sabja. "Vata". green. Ramkasturi. Sd. See—Ornamental Plants. alexipharmic. C. aphrodisiac . Manjarki. Sabzah. C. Tukhamariya . emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. COM. open in the morning only. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . causes burning sensation. long. Tungi. filaments dilated at the base . deeply cordate at the base. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Fl. LOC. diuretic. :—Large aquatic herb . OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. lessens bile. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. thyrsiflora. CHAR. root stock tuberous. Surasa.— in whorled racemes . FAM. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. Common sweet basil. febrifuge. peduncles very long . biliousness. glabrous or hispidly pubescent.. Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots. inflammations.9 m. K. flowers and seeds. enlarged spleen. Java. bracts stalked. Barbar. 7. itch. purple stem. white.—petals about 12. diam.—solitary.5-20 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR.—Labiatæ. :—E. allays thirst.—3 cm. t.—peltate.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. asthma. "Kapha". globose. Barbar.— ovoid. Plant has a sharp. useful in diseases of heart and blood. ellipsoid. Fl. cylindric. Nasabo. black and pitted. Ajagandhika. G. removes impurities from blood . hot taste. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. glabrous. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root-stock. leucoderma.—2-lipped. fleshy. irregularly sinuate-dentate. oblong.—all the year. juice gives lustre to . "Vata".6-0. Surabhi. Hungary. :—Var. Damaro. bitter. Bahari. toothed or lobed. Fr. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. short. erect. obtuse. glabrous or pubescent. 8-13 mm. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. cooling . Burma. Philippines. pale rose or white. pink or purplish. anthelmintic. improves taste . Ceylon. Fr. Sabja. leaves.—ovate. Fl. across. DISTR. petioles very long. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. L. Rihan. useful in diseases of heart and brain. diarrhœa and piles . M. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. Sk.—nutlets about 2 mm. long. LOC. Sajjebija. rough. bitter taste. chronic pain in joints. antipyretic . high. :—An erect herb 0. leaves and flower.

coarsely crenate-serrate. useful in vomiting. skin diseases. BanMal tulasi. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. LOC. LOC. Sumukha. Plant has bitter. earache. aphrodisiac . sharp taste . diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. fits. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. alexiteric.-July-Oct. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. Rama-Ran tulasi. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. G.—2-lipped. Gujarat. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. strangury . high.8 m. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. elliptic-lanceolate. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm.—nutlets subglobose. S. rugose. :—Konkan. " Vata". Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. pale greenish yellow. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. young ones pubescent. During fever when the extremities are cold. FAM. It is also styptic. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). branched. stimulant. in close whorls . stems and branches subquadrangular . :—A perennial shrub. lower lip longer. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). Fl. C. Sk. LOC. M. brown. gland-dotted. NS.5 X 3. H.—Labiatæ. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing.8—5. Ajaka. often cultivated : Ceylon.7 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. removes foul breath. COM. The flowers possess. DISTR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Rantulasi. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. good for toothache. woody below . for which the juice warmed with honey is given. Fr. " Kapha".156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. Deccan. headache.3—12. diuretic and stimulant. t. diuretic and demulcent properties. rachis quadrangular . :—E.—6. heart. liver and spleen. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. good for griping and piles (Yunani).. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. :—Throughout India. Lemon—shrubby basil. Fl. M. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. Ram Tulasi. Country. Large basil. useful in diseases of brain. CHAR.— in simple or branched racemes.2—1. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. heating. Avachi-bavachi. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. they are also aphrodisiac. . Java. L. 1. pubescent. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. carminative. strengthens gums. inflammations.

LOC. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. " Vata".—Labiatæ. usually 2-3 cm. antipyretic. used in catarrh and bronchitis .. LOC. H.— in racemes 15-20 cm.—2-lipped. Fl. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. minutely gland-dotted. Damanpaper.5-5 X 1.6— 3.—on filiform pedicels. M. globose or pyriform . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. stomachic. clothed with soft hairs . Tropical E. " Kapha". anthelmintic. FAM. DISTR. NS. entire or serrate.—2. upper lip pubescent on the back. Papli. painful eye. foul smells. Tulasi. lobes acute. :—An annual plant. M. FAM. Parapate.5—38 cm. bitter. CHAR. linear or linear-lanceolate. M. CHAR. See—Sacred Plants. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. :—Konkan. 30-60 cm. C. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. :—An annual herb. . cholagogue. Fl. asthma. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. vomiting. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. long in close whorls . COM. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. obtuse or acute. G. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). useful in heart and blood diseases. purulent discharge of ear. of children and in hepatic affections . they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Kala tulasi. Fr. L. and are given with honey.—pale brown.—Sept-Nov. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. Krishna tulasi. COM. L. alexiteric. long. HABIT :—A common weed. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Vrinda. high. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Vranda. bronchitis. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. high. Fl. Sd. Parpat. DISTR. yellow with black marking. Phapti. angular.2 cm.—Rubiaceæ.—subsessile. :—G. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Manjari. Arabia. Ceylon. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. Country. varying from 7. stems and branches subquadrangular. Tulasi. Asia to Java and the Philippines. leaves and seeds. Suravallari. purplish. t. :—Throughout India.— nutlets. hiccup. Vishnuvallabha.:—E. H. Australia. elliptic-oblong. K. Tulasa. Malay Archipelago. Tulasi. heating. PARTS USED :—Root. NS.— capsule. especially in children. Deccan and S. stipules with bristles . stems numerous. strangury. leucoderma. margins recurved and scabrous. Sk. pubescent. purplish. Pavitra. Fr. smooth. lumbago pains. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sk. LOC. West Asia.

— berry. used in ophthalmia. Prickly pear. NS. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. Phadyanivdung. loss of consciousness. inner spathulate. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. " Vata". Sk. Plant juice—heating. LOC. :—E. carminative. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. . good for leucoderma. piles. ulcers. recurved. Nagaphana. Slipper thorn. reddish purple when ripe. obovate or elliptic. Joints variable in size. H. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest.5 cm. introduced into India. 3 m. alexiteric. LOC. antipyretic. Fr. G. dull bluish-green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . :—A woody shrub branched from the base. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. rather thin. anæmia. laxative. Nagaphana. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. M. leucoderma. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . inflammations. Grown as hedge. across. largest 3. Zhoratheylo. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. cures bronchitis in children. Sher.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Chorhothalo. rusty brown. spleen enlargement.—Cactaceæ. lumbago. perianth rotate. yellow or orange. diuretic. Nagdali. pyriform. DISTR. urinary complaints. Vajrakantaka. flowers and fruits. long. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Mullugalli.—7.5 mm. Snuka. it is also used in liver complaints. xerophyte. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). cures inflammations. Fl. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. Hathathoria. digestive. reddish at the tips. L. Plant bitter. subulate. stomachic. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. spleen enlargement. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. or more high. FAM. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. long. ascites. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. Nagadru. purgative. K. liver complaints.—5 cm. CHAR. Nagaphani. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). tumours. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. angular or warty. burning. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. COM. carminative. yellow at the edges. juice cures earache (Yunani). cures biliousness. vesicular calculi. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma.

Sk. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). anal troubles. K. DISTR.—Bignoniaceæ. Chokha. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Shyonaka. Mayarjangha. COM. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Ullu. Nivara. improves appetite. Chaval. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. bronchitis (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. tonic. NS. Ghats. R. Vrihi. Pharri. fattening. Podval. Tetu. Indian trumpet flower. H. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). ORYZA SATIVA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. M. :—The Konkan and the N. bronchitis. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. oleaginous. Sk. stomachic. Fruit—expectorant. Mokka. Araluka. Bhat. LOC. aphrodisiac. vomiting. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area.). COM. Tans. Alangi. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. It is astringent and tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Bagi. leucoderma. appetiser. piles. LOC. aphrodisiac. NS. See—Timbers. Seeds are purgative. G. K. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Tandula. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Tetu. HABITAT :—Aquatic. :—E. LOC. Tuntaka. useful in " Vata". Dyes.S. Tetu. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. K. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Fruit—acrid. M. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. PARTS USED :—Grain. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. H. G. diuretic. anthelmintic. Ceylon. useful in biliousness . Rice . DISTR. Tandula. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea.—Gramineæ. inflammations. good in heart and throat diseases. Shali. cooling. intestinal worms. tonic.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Ava. biliousness. improves taste. Arlu. FAM. Dirghavrinta. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. sweet. M. FAM. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. :—Widely cultivated. fevers. Malaya. astringent to bowels . Kanara ghats . dysentery. Rice. Akki. asthma. LOC. Cochin-China.

NS. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. Changeri. rounded at the apex.5 cm. FAM. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. brown. gives great relief. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. transversely striate. good appetiser . dysentery and scurvy.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Dudhatani. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. if applied to chest.—Asclepiadaceæ. also in burns and scalds. Fr. The grains contain vitamin C.—palmately 3-foliate. FAM.2—2. long. bowels or kidneys. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). COM. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . Kshiravi. to which a little lemon juice is added. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. H. beaked.— capsule. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. Sd. :—Throughout the State. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. bruised. Fl.— many. It is a pleasant. 5-angled. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . diarrhœa. Fl. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. cures dysentery. K. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. In dysentery. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. inflamed piles. CHAR. M. COM. ovoid. DISTR. petioles very slender. buboes. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. Ambuti. Jaladudhi. margins ciliate. pubescent. Dugdhica. Rice water. " Vata " and piles. Dudhialata. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Chukrita. small-pox. scarlet fever. :—G. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . H. C. leaflets 1. Dudhani. Dudhialata. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. removes " Kapha ". used externally. Dugdhika. PARTS USED :—Leaves. measles. easy to digest. Ceylon. yellow.—petals 5. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. Dugdhike. t. Amrul. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. L. NS. linear-oblong. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. It is an excellent application to abscesses. LOC. M. ulcers. Br. LOC. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. :—E.—Oxalidaceæ. Ambastha. See—Food Plants. base cuneate subsessile. stems rooting. Indian Sorrel. astringent.—axillary. boils. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. Sk. Kyirin . Amlalonika. sub-umbellate . Dudhari. Shuklika. obcordate. . Marudbhava. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu.— Oct-May. oblong. Sk.

Screw pine. Giripriya. :—Konkan. strikingly handsome. :—A shrub up to 6 m. bitter. Gandha-pushpa. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. mouth with pubescent ring. NS. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). " Kapha ". Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. long. useful in strangury and tumours. cough. COM. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Sk. stems many. heat of body.—glaucous green. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. Fl. DISTR. often planted. DISTR. Kanara. H. Dhulipushpika.8 mm. Fl. purple veined. Poona Sangam. dry. aphrodisiac. small-pox. Mundige. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. HABITAT :—Usually near water. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. M. rarely erect. Flowers improve complexion. female flower spadix solitary. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. coriaceous ensiform. Deccan. laxative.—oblong or globose. leaves. gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—Plant. palegreen.—deciduous. Ketgi. . leucoderma. 3. Umbrella Tree. syphilis. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. fruit and oil from bracts. coma present.—follicles. Kanara. C. corona staminal. X 3. anthelmintic. Keora. LOC. CHAR. PARTS USED :-Root. aphrodisiac. Gogandhul. yellow or red. expectorant. Burma. Fr. alexiteric. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. margins and midrib spiny.—dioecious. t. black. anthelmintic. pain in the muscles. milky juice. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". scabies. Country— Belgaum. Kevada. much branched. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. pale rose or white. high. diuretic. stem supported by aerial roots . Kedige. Anthers useful in pruritus. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn.8-6. lobes ciliate. :—Konkan and N. root.3 cm. somniferous. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. indigestible. Kewoda. Chama-pushpa. Sundarbans. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). :—E. with flavour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR.—very numerous. M. S. Sd. fruit. diseases of heart and brain. pain.— large. Fruit—tonic. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. juice is used in gleet. L. 4. Ketaka. linear or linear-lanceolate. thin.9—1.—Dec. Ketaki.5-9 cm. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . FAM. 0. long. L. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. aphrodisiac. Fr. Leaves are useful in leprosy. causes flatulence. roots fibrous from the lower nodes.—Pandanaceæ. LOC. LOC. Andamans. Java.. anthers. tonic. Fl. Ceylon.5 m.

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

Burma.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. astringent. DISTR. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. eye troubles. enrich blood. . commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Ichela-mara. styptic. LOC. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Sk. Fl. Ranmug. prostrate. :—Largely grown in. cures consumption. headache. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. mugawana. inflammations. G. " Tridosh". bitter. Kharjuri. aphrodisiac. wiry. Date sugar palm. long. Kolaba and Kanara. LOC. leaflets 1. PARTS USED :—Seeds.—Oct. Kurangika. Indian wine palm. blood diseases. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. cure biliousness. Ahmednagar. Boichand. L. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. astringent to bowels. layer.—in sub-capitate. Trianguli. Khajuri. Kalli-chalu. COM. t. Ahmedabad. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. cough. Seeds— tonic. Shimbiparni. dry. K. membranous. Sind. H.5 cm.:—Very common throughout the State. peduncles 10-23 cm. few flowered racemes. Adavada. LOC. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. K. petioles grooved. digestible. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. " Kapha".—6-12. Sd. Satara. COM. H. Dharwar. good in fevers. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. glabrous or hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Kallu. Adabanmagi. yellow.3—2. Shindi. See—Food Plants. Kapila.— pod. slightly recurved. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Ranmath. good for eyes. NS. Konkan. anthelmintic. 2.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). The grains contain vitamins A and B. dysentery. Koshila. Khaji. Magavala. Fl. antipyretic. nose complaints. as a kharif crop. Belgaum. gout. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. :—G. good for the eyes .—Palmæ. straight subcylindric. Kohesaru. burning sensation. Afghanistan. biliousness. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. FAM. Sk. Tadi. long. Kashayi. Kidney diseases. :—E. M. Deccan and Gujarat. Kajuri. Swadi. Sendhi. bronchitis. LOC. M.—3-foliate. and southwards to Ceylon. NS. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. Kharjurika. :—Annual or perennial. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. Siyindu. throat inflammations. CHAR. Kherk. laxative. thirst. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). light and astringent. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Vanmudga. Fr. DISTR. Mugani. Khandesh. Malay Islands. broadly spathulate.5—5 cm. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. wild date palm. Abyssinia. FAM. piles.

. :—A creeping perennial herb. ensiform. orange-yellow. :—G. aphrodisiac. fevers. rigid. stems rooting at the nodes. H. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. flowers very many. Ratuliyo. spinous. LOC. CHAR. usually along banks. large and thick. pointed. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. fattening. erect. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). wandering of mind. cardiotonic. cooling.5 m. Bengal.—Jan-Feb. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . oblong-ellipsoid. densely fascicled. Fr. alexiteric. Bhuiokra. deeply grooved on one side. t. Sharadi. useful in diseases of heart. Siwalik.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. Jalapipali. L. angular. spiny at the base. :—A tall graceful palm. high. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Poona and Belgaum districts. Fl. Bihar. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. roundish.) FAM. vomiting. :—Tolerably common throughout India. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. t. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat.—2. rounded at the apex. Ratoliya. This is called neera. Vashira.—sessile. aphrodisiac.—Fibres. sharply serrate in upper part. oblong. lower 3-lobed.5 m. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Famine Plants. :—Throughout India. M.—rounded at the ends. blood and eye. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. Jalapimpli. constipating. DISTR. 2-lipped. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich.—pinnate. Fl. LOC. Jalpippali. Ceylon. Sd. DISTR. 3-4.—white or pale-pink. good in heart and abdominal complaints. oleaginous. 9-15 m. . Agnijwala. scented. Africa. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene.2 cm.—Verbenaceæ. Ratoliya. Langali. subsessile. :—Found fairly in Surat. petioles compressed towards the apex. oblique. Sk. crown hemispherical. Baluchistan. Coromandel Coast. 15-45x2-2. Fl. greyish-green. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. long. female spadix and spathe as in the male. C. and in beds of streams and water courses. Mysore. upper 2-lobed. Rohilkhand. outer Himalayas. flowers distant. Okra. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). LOC. spadix 60-90 cm. Fl. NS. male white.—globose. long. pinnules many. anthelmintic. triangular. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. wild or more often cultivated. fruit and juice of the tree. Sholapur.—opposite.5—3. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. Fr.— dioecious. much branched. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. spatulate. L. Toyavallari. See.—more or less all the year. long. clothed with appressed white hairs . cooling.

Bhumyamali. Bhuiavli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. DISTR. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. Ceylon. Fr. K. bronchitis. axillary. scarcely lobed. Sk. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Fl. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. disk of the male of minute glands. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. COM. diuretic. ringworm (Yunani). loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). :—Konkan and Deccan. wounds. Vituntika. lobed. NS. LOC. LOC. hiccup. cooling. high . males 1-3. smooth. :—Throughout India. milky-juice.— numerous.. Sd. Tropics generally. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. asthma. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. The whole plant. leaves. Sadahazurmani.—yellowish. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. scabies. FAM. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. sores.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. It is valuable in scurvy. Stomachic. Leaves are stomachic. biliousness. very numerous. Bhuianvalah. L. H. annular. elliptic-oblong.useful in fevers. very small. asthma. CHAR :—An annual herb. Bhumyamali. t. Bhumyamalaki. 30-60 cm. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Plant—hot. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. fruit. of female. Amala. except Australia. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. distichous. wounds. Infusion is a good tonic. . females solitary. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. monœcious.—3-gonous. useful in thirst. burning sensation. thirst. Sukshmadala. alexipharmic . PARTS USED :—Root. dry. leprosy. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . bronchitis. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). good for ulcers. urinary discharges. anuria. stem branched at the base. LOC. :—G. Ajata. and without salt may be applied to bruises. Kiranelligida. longitudinally ribbed on the back.—capsule. M.—Euphorbiaceæ. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. Fl. maturant.— July-Aug. Jaramla. angular. globose. anæmia.

generally in Konkan. Saptashira. tonic to brain. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. carminative. H. H. useful in "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. It contains an aromatic essential oil. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). clears throat. Marich. ozœna. liver and muscular pains. Tikshna. DISTR. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Kalamiri. tonic. Eleballi. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. styptic (Yunani). :—E. strengthens teeth . :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Sk. pains. anthelmintic. Kalimiri. alterative. laxative. ozoena. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. :—Wild in the N. aphrodisiac. and fruits (rarely). elephantiasis . given with milk in hysteria. Golmirch . improves appetite (Ayurveda). Kalamirich. M. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Tambola. piles. COM. Tambulavalli. Malimirich . PARTS USED :—Fruits. heating. K. G. Kanara forests. Fresh leaves. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. alexipharmic. leavs. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. inflammations. Betelleaf. hot. Vileyad-ele. NS. Black-pepper. heart and liver. asthma. improves voice. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. :—E. FAM. Bhakshyapatra. removes all foulness from mouth. useful in toothache. It sweetens breath. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent.—Piperaceæ. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. LOC. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. satyriasis and to allay thirst. throat diseases. cultivated in Konkan and N. COM. It increases saliva. Nagavalli. smeared with oil. " Kapha ". Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Kaphavirodhi. FAM. aphrodisiac. vulnerary. purgative. Vidyache-pan. night blindness. Vata". :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. Sholapur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. Panu. carminative. Betel pepper. Pan. Betel leaf vine. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. G. Linn. . Kalaka. LOC. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. tonic and digestive. acrid. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. foul smell in the mouth. Mensinballi. bechic. Sk. Menasu. carminative and astringent. spleen diseases. Menasin-kallu . Satara. urinary discharges. NS. Pan. useful in "Kapha". increases biliousness. Warm leaves. stomachic. Poona. Pan. Kanara. See—Condiments and Spices. K.—Piperaceæ. bronchitis.

Burma. See—Timbers. . Deccan. dries body humours (Yunani). It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. various forms of cutaneous diseases. piles and some skin-diseases . bruises. petiole longer than leaf-blade. N. Khandala (pretty common). C. Fl. Konkan. used as febrifuge. chest affections. W. base tapering into petiole. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. It is a good expectorant. Lahuriya.—lobes 4. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. COM. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. long. variable in width. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. COM. L. radial 2. It yields an essential oil.5 cm. CHAR. Vehkali. weakness following fevers. Vikhari. paralysis . facilitates menstruation. chronic fevers. :—E. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. hills of S. See—Condiments and Spices. & A. Bartang. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. lumbago. vertigo. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. Greater plantain . :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . used in chronic bronchitis. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tammata. H. LOC. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. Khasia Hills. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. In physiological action.—Plantaginaceæ. sprains.—capsule. :—K. leprosy. piperidine and an essential oil. ovate or oblong. Externally it is rubefacient. ovoid.— alternate. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. NS. Kanara in ghat forests. Arcot and Salem. NS. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . FAM. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste.—Pittosporaceæ. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. and possesses narcotic properties . FAM. coma. Fr. tonic and a local stimulant. ophthalmia and phthisis.5-12. lanceolate or greenish .170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Bark contains a glucoside. LOC. the oil is alterative. sciatica. entire or toothed. M. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim.

—tube slender. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. :—Temperate Himalayas. Ceylon. limb wide. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Assam. FAM. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). :—A shrub 60-90 cm. cures leprosy (Ayurveda)... CHAR. :—Cultivated throughout India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Fl. Lalachitraka. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. C. DISTR.Kempuchitramula. afford relief. exauriculate petiole. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. attenuate. LOC. HABITAT :—Along river banks. M. erect. K. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. G. Lead-wort. PARTS USED :—Roots.-Feb. oblong. LOC. LOC.—throughout the year. angled. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . The plant contains glucoside aucubin. rosy scarlet. Palni hills. Agnishikha. Fl. stems herbaceous. striate . Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers.Sept. alterative. Fl. H. Ghats. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers.-4-8. leaves. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. COM. Chitra. W. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. NS. Chitraka. long in long terminal axillary. Malaya. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections.—large.—3-5 cm. base passing into amplexicaul. Sd. Fire plant.—Plumbaginaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. obtuse. Raktachitraka. high. L. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. and seeds. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. lax spikes. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Lalchitrak. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). Sk. t. Ratochatro. alterative and diuretic. t. Fattening. Nilgiris. Lalchitrak. :— E. top coming off as a conical lid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. LOC. Burma. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. dull-black. :—Konkan : Deccan. Baluchistan. PARTS USED :—Roots. zeylanica. Mahang. Rosy-coloured leadwort. Lalchita. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating .

COM. LOC. Ceylon. In S. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. aborti-facient. The use of Pl. expectorant. spreading. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. juice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. M. January 1933). ascites. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Chitra . diarrhœa. . pointed. See—Ornamental Plants. alterative . FAM. NS.-Sept.—in elongate spikes. long. vesicant. PARTS USED :—Root. ovate. K. consumption.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. Sk. diseases of liver. Fl.—Aug. leaves are caustic. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. Journ. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. L. Fl. :—E. bronchitis. bechic. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. itching. Bile-Chitra-mula. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). Fr. alexipharmic. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). inflammations. Res. laxative. See—Ornamental Plants. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . Root—bitter. dysentery. and in leucoderma. piles. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. " Tridosha" . scabies. cultivated . ring-worm. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cure intestinal troubles. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. a favourite medicine for flatulence. Chitra .—Plumbaginaceæ. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. useful in laryngitis. C. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. :—Throughout India. hot.—thin. DISTR.6-1. entire. Chitraka. Chitrak. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. It is used in procuring abortion. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. LOC. Chitaro Chitrak.—capsule. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. piles. skin disease. Agnishikha. rachis glandular . it may be used in chronic skin diseases. Vahni. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leucoderma. Tropics of the old world. Chitra. rheumatism. it is useful in dyspepsia.—white. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. root-bark.5 m. diseases of spleen. attenuated into a short petiole. " Vata" and " Kapha". leaves. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. H. G. appetiser. Chitranga. striate. a paste is made with milk. wild in Western Peninsula. carminative. stomachic. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Chitramula. Ind. Bengal. stomachic. astringent to bowels. Jyotishka. stems 0. anthelmintic. tonic. lobes 5. terete. Vallari. woody. oblong. anasarca. Medi. t. leucoderma. Malay Peninsula. leprosy.

M.—2-lipped. carminative. M. Pangli. divaricate. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kadu-sampige. Radha-champo. :—Native of tropical America. Rhuruchapha.—practically throughout the year. Fl. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir.:—More or less throughout India. smooth. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. very fragrant. L.—Apocynaceæ. shining. abundant. laxative . Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. lower lip white.8 m. shining black. 4-lobed. stems and branches quadrangular. C. Root-bark is purgative. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. Goleurchampa. bark. CHAR. purple. Deccan.—Dec. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). pains. leaves and milky juice. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. rarely maturing. :—Konkan. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut.— large. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. heating. :—E. inner face angular. common. PARTS USED :—Root. cylindrical. long. LOC. Phangla. 3-lobed. 7.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. LOC. useful in leprosy. 12 cm. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. Frangipani. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. upper lip white shot with purple. Golainchi. entire. Kanara. FAM. long.5-18x3.. G. COM.-May. ascites (Ayurveda). t. 15-30 cm. :—A small shrub 1. K. DISTR. Fr. Fr.2—1. C. many flowered.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. Belchampaka. itching. irregularly doubly toothed. See—Ornamental Plants. white with a pale yellow centre.8-9 cm. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. H. L. with an intra-marginal vein. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. acute at both ends. S. high. Sk. :—All throughout the State. Country. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. t. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Fl. spirally arranged. Khairchapha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. abundant from Mar.-nutlets ellipsoid. cultivated. urinary discharges. broadly ovate. LOC. Fl. Devagangile. whorls close.—follicles. venereal sores. Mahabaleshwar. NS. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. ulcers.—Labiatæ. . pungent. FAM. oblong-lanceolate. useful in gleet. Champakam. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—M. acrid. DISTR. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. Pagoda tree.—salver-shaped. COM. rounded. CHAR.-Feb.

cures eye diseases. Agnimandha. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. relieves inflammation. skin diseases. leaves. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. piles. Huligili. Indian beech. " Vata ". Kanika. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. head and brain diseases. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Pavaka. NS. bark. In Satara. Agnibijaka. Karanja. H. Karanjmara. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Kanaji. along Deccan rivers . chronic fever. H. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. Gaura. Oil—anthelmintic. piles. alexipharmic . leprosy. Gracie). Kanja. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). wounds (Ayurveda). USES :—The fresh leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers. bruised. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. vagina. Kirmal. Agetha. wounds. J. DISTR. G. K. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. NS. fruits and seeds. Ichu. skin and in keratitis . Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. M. LOC. urinary discharges . anthelmintic. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. . M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Karanj. Arni. Seeds—acrid .174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ustabunda . Oil—styptic. Naktamala. FAM. chronic fever and hydrocele. Sk. cures biliousness. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. ulcers. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Arand. Jayanti. chest complaints. cure earache. lumbago. good for tumour. rheumatic pains. Sk. LOC. F. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. purify and enrich blood. lumbago. also planted. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. itching. K. Karanja. See—Timbers. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. Chamari. ascites. good in scabies. :—G.—Verbenaceæ. useful in diseases of eye. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Honge. COM. Aran. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. " Kapha ". Oils.) FAM. :—E. liver pain. Arni. Karanj. COM. leucoderma. juice is given in colic and fever. carminative. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores.

K. LOC. cooling. piles. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Peru . :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. cool heated brain. L. stomachic."Vata". Fr. Nicobars and Malaya. Ceylon. laxative after food. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Gum is tonic. LOC.— June-July. Fl.— globose. G.—Myrtaceæ. cooling. greenish yellow. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. as an astringent to bowels. causes "Kapha".—in paniculate corymbose cymes. bark yellowish. Young leaves are tonic in the . . constipation. Piyara. See—Famine Plants.—5-9 X 3. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). Vastula. applied to sore eyes. PARTS USED :—Leaves. good in colic and for bleeding gums. Fruit—tonic. :—Cultivated all over the State. hairy in the throat. Flowers cool body. broadly elliptic.—hard. pungent. cylindric. Peru. good for liver complaints (Yunani). It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Safedsafari. small. M. C. sour. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. diabetes.3 cm. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. It is given in the form of decoction. Kanara. Andamans. H. seated on the calyx . Ash—caustic (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Guava tree. LOC. DISTR. Jamb. Amrut. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Sd. Jamphal. Jamud-rukh. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. aphrodisiac . Perala. lobes 4. blue-black. Dridhabija. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. DISTR. rough-tubercled . smooth. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. fever. Anthers—dry wound. It is also employed in scurvy. t. Peruka. heating. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. chyluria. FAM. Perala. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. useful in anaemia. COM. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Root is laxative. flowers. for unhealthy ulcers. laxative.. stomachic. Gova. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. high. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). bronchitis. Fl. entire or upper part dentate. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. LOC. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. Sk.—tubular.2-6. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. used in bronchitis. fruits and gum. dyspepsia. NS.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). inflammations. common about Karwar.

5—5 cm. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. 3.—bluish purple . standard orbicular. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root.—pod.—Aug-Dec. urinary dis charges. :—An erect annual. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. bitter taste. Seed—purgative. Fr. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Fruit—diuretic. Bakuchi. stimulant. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Bhavanj. high. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. skin diseases. Seeds— refrigerant. t. Bavachi. rounded and mucronate at the apex. heals ulcers. vomiting. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. Sd. anthelmintic. Chandralekha. Konkan and S. black. Fl. " Rakta-pitta". causes biliousness. :—E. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. M. good for leucoderma. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Sk.8 X 2. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. See—Fruit Trees. COM.—in dense axillary. HABITAT :—Waste places. M. CHAR.2 m. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. G. improves hair and complexion. good for heart troubles. 10-30 flowered racemes . alexiteric. solitary. cures "Vata". diuretic. cures blood diseases . :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. H. smooth. Kalameshi. inflammation. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. anæmia. NS. Fl. Country. laxative.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. . anthelmintic. Kushtaghni. stem and branches grooved. LOC. biliousness. closely-pitted. vulnerary. aphrodisiac. K. Vanguji.—one. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). leaves. DISTR. Babachi. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). bronchitis. antipyretic. stomachic. mucronate. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. raw one is used in diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. C. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". difficulty in micturition. Babachi. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin.—simple. Bavachi. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. Bowach-chi. FAM. 0. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). L. leprosy. improves appetite. white hairy. piles. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. studded with glands and white hairs. alterative. fruit and seeds.6-1. scabies.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). nigro-punctate. Bukchi. nephrites and cachexia. clawed. ovoidoblong.

Dadam. heart-disease. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Pitasar. used in sore throat. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Gums and Resins. elephantiasis. flowers and gum. biliousness. urinary discharges. LOC. Sk. tonic. useful in all body diseases. Dadimba. ascends to 1100 m. spleen complaints. enriches blood. Valka-phala. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). cultivated in many parts of India. anthelmintic. styptic. LOC. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. Hulidalimb . Anar. K. diuretic. useful in eye troubles. H. :—E. DISTR. in Akrani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. PARTS USED. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). Bija. anthelmintic. stomatitis. Dadima. India. useful in vomiting. Bia. called kino. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. thirst. COM. used in piles. Bark—astringent. laxative. prolapsus ani. Flowers—check vomiting. fever. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. :—Western Peninsula and S. Dalimb . vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Gum—bitter. Bibla. LOC. tonic. useful in biliousness. liver tonic. Indian kino-tree. H. Gum. Pomegranate tree. Sunila. good for biliousness. Honi. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). laxative. anal troubles. " Tridosh". Honne. M. ulcers. Bio. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. " Kapha ". Bibla. allays thirst. . flowers and fruits. PARTS USED:—Root. colic. M. Common in N. blood diseases. cures " Vata ". Kabul and Baluchistan. scattered but not gregarious . erysipelas. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. applied to hydrocele. See—Timbers. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Dadima. FAM. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Mahakutaj. vulnerary. leucoderma. Raktabija-pushpa. boils. K. G. NS. gleet. :—E. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Ceylon. urinary discharges (Yunani). Dhalim. chest troubles. fattening. body eruptions. scabies. Flowers— improve appetite. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. Bibla. Sk. G. Malabar kino-tree. Hirdokhi. ophthalmia. alterative . cause flatulence (Ayurveda). is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. griping. sore-throat. NS. Benga. Khandesh and Dangs. Bigsah. leprosy. Kanara. :—Wild in Iran. antipyretic. strengthens gums. Dharimb . burning sensation. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. bark. Dalimba. Bijak. Fruit-appetiser. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. FAM. COM. earache. :—Leaves. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. somewhat milder in action than catechu.—Punicaceæ. also in Konkan. sore eyes brain diseases.

Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Barmasinivel. See—Ornamental Plants. Fr. Malaya. jasmine . Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. :—E. FAM. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm.—in axillary and terminal spikes. .5 cm. L. :—E. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. G. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. USES :—In Amboyana. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. acuminate. It is given in the form of decoction. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. dark green. 7. Chinese honeysuckle. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. calyx tube long. Lalchameli. Emetic nut. Madana. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Rangoonkibel. elliptic. pendant. Gelphal.—opposite. Mindhola. DISTR. Rangoonchavel. nearly 6 cm. LOC. FAM. Dharaphal.—Mar. hairy beneath. The rind of the fruit. glabrous above. :—A strong climber. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Pinditak. Konkan. Rangoon creeper. NS. long. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. at first white then deep red . acutely 5-angled. Karigidda. Karhar Mainphal. LOC. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. NS. Minkare. G. CHAR. M. M. Country and Kanara. widely cultivated all over India. t. H. H. numerous.-Aug. Fl. COM. COM. M. In China. Mangari-kai.— ellipsoid. C—petals 5. LOC. Fruit contains vitamin C.—Combretaceæ.—Rubiaceæ. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. Sk. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Gela. base rounded. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Annam. S. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Fl. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. K. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Midhola.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. lanceolate .

G. cholera. tumours. flowers. aphrodisiac. Bili Mulangi. H. leaves. COM. useful in diseases of heart. See—Timber. PARTS USED :—Root. Java. destroys "Vata". " Vata" and " Kapha". it is equal to it in every respect. Mura. Mali.—Cruciferæ. used in diseases of the brain. cures abscesses. carminative. The plant contains glucoside saponin. juice relieves earache. K. Hastidanta. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. anthelmintic. M. Ruchira. sweet. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . leprosy. leprosy. Muro. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . LOC. piles (Ayurveda). China. laxative. skin-diseases. Bitter. Sumatra. Tropical Africa. bad taste. heating. emmenagogue. leucoderma (Yunani). emetic. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. tonic. fruit and seeds. Mula. certain and regular. hiccup. Ceylon. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. alexiteric. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. LOC. Juice of . binding. antipyretic. NS. Seeds-sharp. and all inflammations . Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. ulcers. paralysis. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. amenorrhœa. Mula. inflammations. FAM. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. stomachic. DISTR. muscular pains. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. It is also used to poison fish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Sk. produce alopecia (Yunani). boils. piles. purgative. its action is very safe.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. eruptions. :—Throughout India. useful in chronic bronchitis. It also contains an essential oil. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. Ksharmula. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. Muri. Mulak. DISTR. E. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. emetic. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. inflammations. good in tumours. Radish. good for spleen and in paralysis. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. bitter. carminative. carminative. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. asthma. S.

9 m. bright green above. Sarpagandha.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative.. specific for insanity. ginger. used in hyperpiesis . leaves (rarely).—Apocynaceæ. Mungusavel. lanceolate. NS. Sarpakshi. K. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels.—drupe.-May.— Mar. pale beneath. Chandrika. See—Vegetables. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees.3 cm. FAM. Gaja-karni. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. :—H.5-18 X 2.—tubular.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. thin. M. Group B — Serpentine. diuretic. Kanara. Sk. DISTR. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. NS. swollen a little above the middle. shady open places near rain-forests. COM. Western Peninsula. Fl. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Andamans. often tinged with violet. pungent. ajamalinine. with a long. Doddapatike. sedative. It is hypnotic. ulcers (Ayurveda). It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. B and C. nodular. acute. and black salt. heating.-in whorls of 3.—Acanthaceæ. Yuthikaparni. :—An erect perennial shrub. ajmalicine. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. cures " Tridosha ". carminative. Java.5-6. expectorant. Sivanabhi. C. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil.) FAM. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Juipani. irregularly. PARTS USED :—Root. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Sk. yellowish root stock. L. acrid. :—H. K. Palakjuhi.. 7. Root contains vitamins A. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. laxative. LOC. Harki. In the Konkan. white. seeds are considered peptic. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Fl. sharp. Garudpatala. . single or didymous. Nakulikand. Nai. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. LOC. Chandrika.—in irregular corymbose cymes. HABITAT :—Moist forests. anthelminitic . corrective and emmenagogue. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. bright red . Ceylon. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N.. CHAR. Chhotachand. Harkaichand. Fr. M. black shining. serpentinine. t.

Ceylon (wild) .—lipped. Seed and oil—cathartic. Fruit— appetiser. H. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. lumbago. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. Vardhaman.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Country. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). amenorrhœa (Yunani). Very little in other districts of the State. generally cultivated. M. Country (Dharwar. pubescent: C. HABITAT :—Hills. useful in pains. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". useful in liver troubles. Fl. leprosy. boils. dropsy. Tirki. ascites. :—Throughout India. useful in heart diseases. aphrodisiac. LOC. Root-bark—purgative. S. elephantiasis. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. ascites. PARTS USED :—Root. velvety hairy Sd. Fr. Palma christi. Haralu. :—Undershrub. night-blindness. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Khandala. leaves and seeds. inflammations. increases "Kapha". or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. elliptic lanceolate. pain in back. rheumatism. ascites. glands.. L. pains. Erand. bronchitis. fevers. piles. Fl. Java.—nearly sessile. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. bracts ovate lanceolate. LOC. increase biliousness. 0. useful in inflammations. good for burns. leaves. Divald. cultivated. M. G.-Jany. tumours. Triputiphala. piles. vaginal pains. Belgaum. pointed. typhoid. anal troubles. inflammations. COM. DISTR. DISTR. Straits-Settlements. carminative . perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. body pains. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. white. liver and spleen diseases. ring-worm.— tuberculate. LOC. high. K. :—Deccan. Leaves—galactagogue. eructations. Erand. Eranda. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. useful in skin-disease.—capsule. solitary. Sk. hills near Belgaum. asthma. Arand. paralysis. widely cultivated in tropical countries.—Euphorbiaceæ. Chitrabija. oil—anthelmintic.9—1. intestinal worms. glandular. PARTS USED :—Root. alterative. asthma. black.—5-10 X2-5 cm. :—Probably of African origin. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). some fevers. Madagascar (cultivated). Erand. t. hairy outside . NS. diseases of rectum and head. lumbago. flowers and seeds. narrow. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative.—Oct. Mahabaleshwar. alterative. Cattle are fed with leaves for . M. entire. stems obscurely angled. purgative. leprosy. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Vardhamana. earache. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. LOC. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). upper lip bifid . tropical Africa. Castor oil plant. strangury. convulsions. FAM. Divaligo. Sholapur).5 m.

they are cold. good for eyes. long. CHAR.—obovate . used in heat of body. chronic fevers. See—Ornamental Plants. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. biliousness. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. ovate oblong. Gulab. DISTR. removes bad odour from mouth. France. cures leprosy.5-6. aphrodisiac. sometimes striped . L. In constipation it is used as an enema. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Sk. P. t. Fr. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. stems with stout and hooked prickles. burning sensation. LOC. :—E. sweetish. adults. laxative. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. improves appetite (Ayurveda). etc. cardiotonic. Greece and Germany. Flower—bitter. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . Tarana. See—Oils. seldom griping or causing flatulency. Pannira. acrid. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. cooling. which is a powerful poison. Punjab and U. PARTS USED :—Flowers. cephalic. H. much used in lotions and collyria . antipyretic. attaining 1. serrate. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . Fl. tooth-ache. excessive perspiration. 2. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. Fl. laxative. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. sometimes glandular. COM. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. with a good odour. Sudburj. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. mild and safe purgative.— usually corymbose. M. . expectorant. head-ache. K. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). Italy. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. Ati-manjula. :—A perennial shrub. kidneys. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . FAM. dry. benefits lungs. petioles prickly. Shatadala. Ghazipur is a chief centre. stipules scarcely dilated. :—Origin unknown. intestinal affections. G.3 cm. inflammations. Lakshmipushpa. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Gulab.—Rosaceæ. hairy.. Soumyagandha. double. " Vata". tonic. LOC. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. liver. astringent when dry (Yunani). stomatitis.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect.—pinnate. They are also applied to painful joints.5 m.— all the year. Gulab . cultivated all over India. NS. cardiotonic. red. pink or white.

dysentery. CHAR.5 cm. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Chuka.—Rubiaceæ. and was much used in dropsy. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. FAM. Fl. cures " Kapha ". Aruna. diseases of uterus. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. leaves and fruit. heating. analgestic. Fr. valves hyaline. leucoderma. M. Chukra. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin.—2. Sk. M. high. lower leaves larger. Ambat Chuka. petioles triangular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. :—Annual. :—Root. acrid. erect glabrous herb. :—Perennial climbing herb. Root—bitter. cordate or hastate.. :—E.—Polygonaceæ. rheumatism. Chitralata. M. COM. greenish. it powerfully affects the nervous system.-Jany. used in eye-sores. L. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. shining. paralysis. erysipelas. K. Decoction tinges blood. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. NS.5—7. :—E. ear. all scabrous with white prickles.—in whorls of 4. Dock. bitter. piles. H. laxative. emmenagogue. leucoderma. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. PARTS USED. Rohini. jaundice. LOC. Fr. eye. elliptic. Manjit. tropical Africa. liver complaints. roots very long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Manjishha. Manjishtha. Tamravalli. lethargy. Leaves-sweet. Fl. prickly. one pair with longer petioles ovate. grooved. uterine pains (Yunani). cylindric. 15-30 cm. inner perianth-segments membranous. branches quadrangular . Malay Peninsula. ulcers. antidysenteric. Amlavetasa. oleaginous . USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. Fl. Country. urinary discharges. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. ovate. Java. Sorrel. NS. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . L. lactagogue. Ceylon. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). jaundice. branched from the root. Manjishtha. stems very long. the Konkan and S. blood. analgesic. Indian Madder. anthelmintic. Gulmketu. antipyretic. Majit. LOC. FAM. improves voice and complexion . leucorrhoea. obtuse. H. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. five-nerved. diuretic. vagina.—in terminal panicled cymes. paralysis. urine and even bones red.—didymous or globose. increase appetite. orbicular . alexiteric. inflammations. Raktasara.—white or pink. Bladder. pains in joints. Sk. DISTR. base cuneate. COM. t-Oct. . purplish black when ripe. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. Japan. smooth. with a thin red bark. CHAR. ulcers and skin-diseases. spleen-enlargement.

Sd. Ceylon. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Satri. NS. Khatselio . alcoholism.—Nov. Cooling. DISTR. Sk. constipation. Common—Garden-rue . The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. The juice allays tooth-pain. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. in dysentery. Parpatha. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. See—Vegetables. t. Deccan. with darker spots. Sadabu. C. Konkan. useful in scabies. N. pains. Afghanistan. Country. Trans-Indus Hills. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Fl. LOC. bracts elliptic. Sadapaha.—capsule. Nagadali. FAM. dyspepsia. while fresh they are bruised. 2-lipped. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. acute . then erect. LOC. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. ovoid oblong. leucoderma. often rooting near the base. bites and stings of poisonous animals. bronchitis. stomachic. piles. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. Satap. upper emarginate. toothache.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. flatulence. checks nausea and promotes appetite. M. Kanara. M. Sk.—suborbicular. .—white. Ghati pittapapada . tonic. vomiting. Havananju. USES :—Leaves are cooling.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. S. H. DISTR. Fl. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. oblong lanceolate. aperient and diuretic. NS.—Acanthaceæ. they are prescribed. Vishapaha. ciliate. lower shortly 3-lobed. laxative. analgesic.—Rutaceæ. Africa. K. roasted. generally in the Deccan. FAM. useful in heart troubles.— subsessile. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. Pismarum Sadab. COM. G. L. blue or pink. stems usually decumbent. Satapa . :—Common throughout the State. asthma. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). pale brown. :—E. COM. The seeds have the same properties . Fr. CHAR. M. H. :—Western Punjab. tumours. hiccup. LOC.-Jany. also considered as a vermifuge. rugose with furrow. Kharmor. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. :—A herb . acute. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. diseases of the spleen. Persia. :—G.

cultivated throughout India. diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. HABIT :—Cultivated. COM. The oil is the best form for administration. garden. M. colic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. Ingotu. Us . S. Sk. flawed. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. Ganna. S. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Ukh . thirst. it may be given internally in hysteria. Ikshu. yellowish. obtuse . The plant is tonic. Powdered and combined with aromatics. Gudakastha. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. useful in fatigue. petioled.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. heating to body . Kabbu. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State.—angled. oleaginous. FAM. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. diuretic. Poona. glandulose punctate. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women.. Sd. Rasala. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. Fl. DISTR. LOC. Tanigarbu . Madhuyashti. G. Rikhu. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. The plant contains glucoside glutin. spathulate or linear-oblong . aphrodisiac. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. See—Ornamental Plants. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . . increases mental activity. Kumad. LOC. Sherdi. Naisakar. flatulence. K. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. C. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar.—capsule. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Satara. etc. Sugarcane. forest and mountain. digestive. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). emmenagogue. tonic. oblong-obovate. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar).—petals 4. DISTR. Gudatrina. grown in gardens. abortifacient.-alternate. particularly Deccan. epilepsy. and externally used as a rubefacient. Fr. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. heats body. amenorrhœa. :—Grown everywhere in India. H. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). indigestible. :—Egypt and Algeria. M. :—A strong smelling herb . all over the State. NS :—E. laxative. in pots.—Gramineæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. L. There are three varieties . cooling. anti-aphrodisiac . decompound. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. segments cuneate. LOC.

-Feb. alexiteric. improve diuresis (Yunani). lobes much reflexed. FAM. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant.—Salvadoraceæ. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. useful in heat. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. G.. DISTR.—Nov. lessen inflammation . Egypt. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. deobstruent. scabies. C. Asia.—drupe. improves appetite. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Leaves—bitter. L. bad for liver (Yunani). stomachic . fleshy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. Cane—sweet. Piludi.—very thin. pectoral and aphrodisiac. anæmia. In cases of poisoning by copper. In the Punjab. fruits seeds and oil. Fl. LOC. Pilu. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. white. analgesic. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . tonic and aperient. red when ripe. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Bark. Brihat madhu pilu. Sugar causes " Kapha". SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. shining. strengthen teeth. :—Drier parts of India. H. greenish-yellow. Khakan Mirjoli. Kanara in littoral forests. :—E. bile. 3 mm. numerous. smooth. useful in biliousness. Fl. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. useful in nosetroubles. It is good in calculous complaints. erysipelas. delirium. . Mahaphala. Jal. Tooth-brush tree. LOC. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). disorders and wind. astringent to bowels. Fr. leaves. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Pilu. globose. leucoderma. often planted near Muslim tombs. NS. Sind. laxative. sometimes it raises blisters. M. drooping. Pilu. diuretic.". causes " Kapha. diuretic. opposite. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. COM. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. Ceylon. useful in biliousness. Kharijal. diam. often mucronate at the apex. anthelmintic. tonic to liver. good for lungs . Abyssinia. deeply cleft. sugar is considered heavy. finely striate. Sk. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. K. Seeds—purgative. Goni. purifies blood . t. inflammations.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. LOC. aphrodisiac . Pilu. dry regions of W.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. near the coasts of Gujarat . carminative. corrective. oil is digestible. fattening. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. carminative and diuretic. :—Dry districts of the State. ulcers. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. the Konkan and N. See—Food Plants. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. branches numerous. piles. Fruits are deobstruent.

Suket. FAM. G. M. head-ache (Yunani). Arishtaka. :—Western Peninsula. Bhadrasri. Fruit—bitter. alexipharmic. exhilarating. DISTR. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Mangalya. See—Timbers. Ceylon. Soap-Nut tree. S. Chandan. :—E. strangury. lumbago. Chandan. PARTS USED:—Wood. Kanara. Root—expectorant. Sk. Chandan. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. hemicrania. NS. gleet. Phenila. Ringni. USES :—Wood. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Mysore and parts of Madras State. astringent to bowels . COM. Cultivated elsewhere. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. M. FAM. LOC. Bhadrasara. thirst. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. M. Country and N. gonorrhœa. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). cholera. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Sukhad . Ritha . cures "Tridosha". :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Sandal-wood Tree. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. paralysis. ground. Aritha. burning sensation.—Santalaceæ. antipyretic. allays uterine pains. to temples in fever. Phenilu. Shrigandhalmara. up with water into a paste. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. aphrodisiac. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. abortifacient. emetic. fruit and seed. Bhogivallabha. vaginal discharges. NS. useful in inflammations. LOC. " Kapha ". Kumblabijaka. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. alexiteric. H. Kugale. K. laxative. DISTR. :—Indian Peninsula. K. useful in diseases of heart.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Ritha. in skin-diseases. H. COM. Malayaja. chiefly in S. much cultivated. epileptic fits of children. tubercular glands. PARTS USED :—Root. Anthuvala. Burugukayi.. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Sandal. Chandal. is applied to local inflammations. G. stomachic. useful in chronic dysentery. acts as diaphoretic. Agarugandha. :—E. often planted. . LOC. Oils. Sk. bronchitis. Arithan .—Sapindaceæ. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. cold in head. to allay heat and pruritus. small-pox (Ayurveda). tonic. diarrhœa. Rishta. aphrodisiac. Antharalo. alexiteric. Oil. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. biliousness. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

They are nourishing. Fr. COM. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. Jaya. tonic. branches striate. urinary concretions. 7. an emollient poultice is also made from them. in height. They are also emmenagogue. probably a native of tropical Africa. They have been used to procure abortion. strangury. of eye and ear. Waziristan. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). gouty joints. NS. cures . applied to ulcers and piles. leaves. Seeds contain vitamin A. leaves. seeds. Janjhan. strengthening. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. removes "Kapha". Raysingani. Jinangi. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Rasin. small-pox. LOC. astringent to bowels. :—A soft-wooded shrub. long. M. burning sensation. cure menorrhagia. Seed-oil—fattening. etc. H. bleeding piles. diuretic and lactagogue. galactagogue. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. suppurating wounds. yellow. opposite. Jayantika. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. Fl. eye diseases . C.—pod. diseases.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. lung diseases. useful in dry cough. and as an oildressing for ulcers. slightly torulose. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. bark. linear-oblong. 4-5 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. applied to gouty joints. white and red. pendulous. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. syphilitic ulcers.—in lax. oleaginous. asthma. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. K.— abruptly pinnate. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. seeds. oil. :—G. few flowered axillary racemes. long. alterative. See—Oils. such as dysentery etc. tonic. Nadeyi. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. biliousness. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. inflammations (Yunani). useful in sorethroat. scabies. Sd.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). There are three varieties of seeds : black. anthelmintic. Black variety is common. promote hair growth. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . spleen troubles. 15-23 cm. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. septate between the seeds. beaked. Jayat. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated all over India. Shewari. Baluchistan.—20-30. hair-tonic. useful in diarrhœa.. indigestible . carminative.5-15 cm. into claw. FAM. Sk. Jayanti. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. DISTR. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil.—standard as broad as long. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. Jayanti. leaflets 914 pairs. LOC. cooling. Jayanti. mottled with purple on the outside. L. enrich blood. obscurely angled . CHAR. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections.

t. alexiteric. useful in ozœna. improves taste. 50 cm. LOC. diabetes. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. fruits. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. biliousness. Agasti. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Munidruma. Indigenous from Malaya to N. leprosy. astringent. improve appetite . Ornamental Plants. Agasta. cure quartan fever. bronchitis. Agati. LOC. is applied in painful swellings. cures " Tridosh " pains. Sk. 15-30-cm. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers.— pod. diarrhœa. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Agase. flowers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. :—A soft wooded tree . relieves throat-troubles. Basna. linear oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". K. DISTR. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. LOC. allays thirst. night-blindness. The plant contains vitamin A. gout. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. long. gout . tumours .—in racemes .8 cm. fevers. useful in ophthalmia. cure itching. anthelmintic. is applied in rheumatism. high. Seeds—emmenagogue. Vranari. Leaves—purgative. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. long. anaemia. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises.— pinnate. Bark— astringent. Hatiya . Kempagase. epilepsy. FAM. . Fl. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. "Kapha" and inflammation. See—Vegetables. 6-9 m. Australia. maturant.—7. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful In diseases of spleen. Bak. Agusta. Kanali. NS. ulcers. rubbed into a paste with water. An infusion is given in small-pox. Flowers—cooling. C. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). dysentery and paludism. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa.— flowers at various times. Bark—astringent. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). anthelmintic. leaves. Agathio. stimulant. leucoderma. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). Leaves—indigestible. Dirghashimbi. CHAR. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. M. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. Fr. very showy. 2-4 white or red. :—G. L. COM. Fruit—laxative . long.5-8. demulcent. See—Fodder Plants. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root.

Kharanti.— yellow. LOC. CHAR. obtuse. G. diuretic.—2. yellow. black. K. diam. awns 2.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.3 cm. carpels 7-10. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. L. leaves and seeds. Chittuharatu. crenate.—smooth. Barial. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. Rajbala. minutely hairy. Jayanti. Sd. Vatyapushpi. useful in fever. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. M. C. Country Mallow. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Bala. Kherati. Kareta. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). PARTS USED :—Root. :—G. Fl. long. pedicel jointed much above the middle. LOC. pedicel jointed about the middle. astringent. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. H. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. softly hairy all over. Pata. Sk. Fl.5-6. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).—5-6 mm. with ginger. DISTR. Prahasa.—2. linear. strongly reticulated . :—Hotter parts of India. cooling. K. PARTS USED :—Root. digestive. emollient. diam. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'.-Oct. " Pitta ". NS. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. t. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres.—1-2 in each axil. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. NS. sharply serrate. dorsal margins toothed. Bala..Dec. Hettutti-gida. M.—Malvaceæ. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.—Malvaceæ. carpels 5-9. Kisangi. puberulous. Chikna. Deccan and S. Batyalaka. removes " Vata ". COM. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. upper margins ciliate. Sk. strongly reticulated. awns 2.-Nov. Fr. Country. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . HABITAT :—Moist places . cordate. Pata. M. Khareti. Fl. t. bark. Bariara. :—A shrub. a weed. useful in blood and throat diseases. Chikna. Tukti. bleeding piles. H. Country. :—E. decoction. astringent. glabrous.—solitary or few together. long. Gujarat and S. M. branches slender. " Kapha " . LOC. FAM. ovate-oblong. COM. aphrodisiac . :—Konkan. Kumghi. L. Fl. DISTR. lanceolate. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda).5-5 cm. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils.—6-8 mm. Baladana. dorsal scabrid. Samanga.—Nov. FAM. Root—cooling. scabrid-hairy. CHAR. base rounded.. :—Konkan (common). stomachic and tonic. Bala.. Fr. linear . is given .

HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. deeply and irregularly toothed. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. It is also used to favour menstruation. M.-Dec. S. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. LOC. :—Deccan. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. tinged with purple. L. Ceylon. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. 5 inner boat-shaped. :—Throughout India. M. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". facial paralysis. . Externally. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. common. cystitis. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. pappus 0. involucral bracts 2 rows. COM. 0. Pilibadkadi. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. juice is used for healing wounds. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. diaphoretic.—yellow. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. 5 outer clavate.2 m. erect.—Compositæ. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. rhomboides Roxb. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. also in colic and tenesmus. Fl. those of the ray red beneath. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above.—opposite. :—G. slightly rough. high. all running down wing-like into petiole. NS. :—A large annual herb. Linn. triangular-ovate. Fl. noise in ears. t. Country. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Fl. FAM. administered in hemiplegia.6—1. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. stem stiff.—heads small in leafy panicles .—Nov. Katampu. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. Fr. stiff-neck. black. DISTR.—achene. CHAR. and head-ache. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha.

stem stout. Vayase. enriches blood. H. leaves (rarely) and fruits. Brinjal. Barhanta.—pale-purple. aphrodisiac. DISTR. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. clothed outside with purple hairs . increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda).—minutely pitted: Fl.— berry. 8 mm. lessens inflammations. Ranringni. Sd. cardiotonic. Root is applied to lessen pain. bronchitis. Vadikadheri. pain. high. H. Vartaki. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. It is seldom used alone.—Solanaceæ. subentire. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. G. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub.3—1.-Aug. eye diseases (Ayurveda). beneficial in cardiac troubles . Egg Plant. loss of appetite. China. bad for piles if taken internally. vomiting. rarely wild.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes.—Solanaceæ. asthma.. Philippines. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). Kadusonde. very.. Fruit—cardiotonic. useful in leucoderma. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. petiole prickly.5—7. Mahotika. Kattarta. Badanikai. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. fruit and seeds. LOC. Vange. maturant. Vantak. Brihati. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. covered with stellate hairs. anthelmintic. Hinguli. . Malpya.-Oct. " Kapha". USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. leaves.—5—15 X 2. lobed. " Vata". causes biliousness. Indian Nightshade. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. Ubhi-bhuringni. 0. Ceylon. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. laxative. Habba-Kirigulla. Fl. or triangular-ovate. LOC. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. M.5 cm. recurved. Dorli. prickly. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. :—E. NS. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. ovate. :—Widely cultivated in India. globose. Bhantaki. G. prickles large. pruritus ani. astringent to bowels. Mhotiringni. K. Baingan. fever. Vrittaphala. COM. LOC. dark-yellow when ripe. Nilaphala. NS. improves appetite. PARTS USED :—Root.. removes foulness of the mouth. Sk. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". K. Vengni. Bhantaki. C. sharp. Rigana. :—Throughout tropical India. L. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria.5 m. DISTR. analgesic. t. base unequal-sided. Hinguli. Fr. Bhanta. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. M. :—E. FAM. diam.

Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. stem erect.—Solanaceæ. heating. CHAR. laxative. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. griping. Tiktika. etc. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. B and C. It acts as a hydrogogue. in extra-axillary. Kabaiya. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. Fl. Gurkamai. Seeds—laxative. diam. improves appetite. yellow. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. smooth. L. tapering into petioles. Kakamunchi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. LOC. aphrodisiac. not to be given to pregnant women. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. bark. Vayasi. Sd. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. 3-8 flowered cymes . Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). Makoi. H. subumbellate. In S. chronic fever. Hound's Berry. asthma.—discoid. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. leucoderma.— berry. itch. vomiting. minutely pitted . PARTS USED :—Root. hiccup. fever. taste. favours conception and facilitates delivery . It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints.-Jany.. fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. Ceylon. in pains. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine.—many. Piludi. :—E. inflammation. throat burning. NS. urinary discharges. useful in diseases of eye. M. liver inflammation. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. much divaricately-branched . Katuphala. dysuria and asthma. leaves and fruit. diuretic. bitter. Morellel. dysentery. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. DISTR. C. K. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. ovatelanceolate. Fr. :—Throughout India. Root-bark—laxative . " Tridosha". bronchitis. . ear and nose . The seeds are used as a stimulant. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). 6 mm. bronchitis. Sk.—Sept. Kamoni. Kakamachi. COM. Kakamachi. t. tonic. useful in heart and eye-diseases. shining. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . gonorrhœa (Yunani). good for neck ulcers. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. See—Vegetables. inflammation. cathartic and diuretic. Black Night-shade. Fruit contains vitamins A. and used with success in psoriasis. useful in giddiness. entire or sinuate toothed. improves voice . LOC. G. :—A variable annual herb . worms in ear. diarrhœa. eye-diseases hydrophobia.—small. alterative. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. Fl. FAM. piles.

—berry. sinuate or subpinnatifid. hairy outside. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). useful in bronchitis. muscular pains. Sorgho. Seeds—anthelmintic. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. fruits and seeds. strangury. piles. Jonera.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. PARTS USED :—Root. H. sterility in women. Nele-Rama-gulla . t. Fl.. heart disease. Root—aphrodisiac.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Konkan. Kenjal. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. FAM. COM. Fruit—laxative. D. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic.—purple. M. FAM. Bhui-Kate-ringni. good in inflammation. Brihati. Nidigdhika. Jowari. dysuria. surrounded by enlarged calyx . Katai. stems. Shalu. It is used in asthma. base unequal-sided. they are used in the burning of feet. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Basu). expectorant and febrifuge. Sholapur. yellow and shining. yellow or white with green veins. fever. Kantakari. DISTR. Bijapur and E. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers.7 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS.5-5. Ringni. :—Throughout India. stomachic. 3-2 cm. LOC. prickles compressed. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. bright green perennial herb . Yuvanala. tropical Australia. Jowar. diam. ovate or elliptic. long. & Wendl. laxative. stem zig-zag. petiole prickly. biliousness. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . :—E. Jondhala. ozoena. Sk. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. stone in bladder. Leaves—good application for piles. straight. :—G. Sind. Kantakini. Bhoyaringni. Kateli. Chikka-sonde. fevers. hairy on both sides. Ikshupatraka. M. Jundri. Great Indian millet. leaves. asthma. pains. Dirghashara. Dhavani.— June. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. K. Yengara .. lumbago. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. LOC. "Vata" and " Kapha". appetiser. pruritus .-5-10 X 2. S. flowers.3 cm. C. Sundia . Jolah. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Ceylon. Vrittatandula. Nirgol. catarrhal fever and chest pain. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. anthelmintic . LOC. E. Fl. asthma. often exceeding 1. NS. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. :—A very prickly diffuse. :—Common in the Deccan . K. Sk. G. CHAR. thirst. Fr. Africa. heating. Malaya. lobes deltoid. chronic bronchitis. urinary concretions.—Solanaceæ. aphrodisiac. H. Durrah.—Gramineæ. L. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa.

Asia and Africa. Gorakmundi. PROPERTIES AND USES. vaginal injections and enemas. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . indigestible. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. while Belgaum. See—Food Plants. Khandesh and S. M. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. high. Pravrajita. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. PARTS USED. Some. :—Seeds. HABITAT :—Open situations. K. COM. LOC. Munditika. FAM: —Compositæ. improves appetite and taste. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. :—Widely cultivated in India. Ahmedabad. Aruna. Kumbhala. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. :— E. Ceylon. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. introduced into America and Australia. DISTR. general debility. L. common in Gujarat. fevers.—sessile. tumours (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. . Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Gorakhamundi. Vritta. stem and branches cylindric. tonic and antiperiodic . SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Agniruha. Grains contain vitamin B. Ruhin. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. ulcers. Karanda-gida. laxative. Bodiakalara. H. Rohani. anthelmintic. on dry stony hills. diseases of blood. :—Dry forests of W. Sk. Gorakhmundi. M. Fibres. Bastard Cedar. :—G. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). hairy. COM. FAM. cures " Tridosha ". Sk. M. See—Timbers. NS. ulcers. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. :—The grain is cooling. Country. NS.—Meliaceæ. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. CHAR. Bijapur and E. Rawtarohan. biliousness. :—Bark-acrid. Swami-mara. bladder and kidney complaints. Rohina. piles. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Indian Red-Wood. hence used in intermittent fevers. refrigerant. Dharwar. aphrodisiac. with toothed wings. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Rohun. Juss. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. useful in " Kapha". Tans.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. K. Rohini. Gums and Resins. G. :—Bark. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). good for sore-throat. H. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. leprosy and dysentery . glandular. Poona. Sumbi. LOC. Mahamundi. DISTR. constipating.

DISTR. useful in skin diseases. biliousness. indigestion. M. Akarakara . base usually acute. scabies.. alexipharmic. ovate. leucoderma.. long. glandular hairy. in cases of worms and indigestion. biliousness. L. Sk. peduncles with toothed wings. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. LOC. emmenagogue. irregularly crenateserrate. increases appetite. :—Root. Pellitary . peduncles reaching 10 cm. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. serrate or dentate. :—E.—opposite. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . Tonic. stem and branches hairy. glaborous. :—Root. Celyon. Africa. flowers and seeds. jaundice. lessens inflammations .—Nov-Jany. hemicrania (Ayurveda). :—Deccan. Country and Kanara. rectal pain. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. ciliate near the ends . ring-worm of waist. scalding of urine. pain in uterus and vagina. looseness of breasts. :—Hot. :—Common in rice-fields.—in heads ovoid. boils. used in insanity. :—Throughout India. dysentery. C. all warm countries. Fl. S. solitary or subpanicled. gives lustre to eyes . urinary discharges. leaves and flower-heads. cooling. t. asthma. strangury.—compound heads. Akara-karava. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. LOC. bark. globose ovoid. oblong. truncate. epileptic convulsions. gleet. LOC. :—Wild and cultivated. t. Fl. tuberculous glands. CHAR. Powdered root is given as tonic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. urethral discharges and jaundice.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. piles. Akkalkara . Australia. alterative.— achene. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. They are chewed to relieve toothache. PARTS USED. NS. FAM. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). USES. elephantiasis. with honey they are given in cough. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. laxative. M. compressed . good for eyesore. HABITAT. It is also used as fish and crab poison.—Achene. tonic. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. Fr. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. Malay Islands. ovate-oblong. spleen diseases. .—purple. sometimes grown in gardens. leaves. cools brain. depurative. the latter when present minute. Fl. HABITAT. :—Throughout India. used also for local application. anæmia. bronchitis. Pappuso. enriches blood . involucre bracts linear. chest diseases. COM. DISTR. Ceylon. Fr. :—Common in the Konkan. anthelmintic. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. vomiting. :—Annual herb. digestible. laxative. and tonic (Stewart) . fattening. They are given in powder form.—Compositæ. stalked. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. Plant is also used in glandular swellings.—Nov. PARTS USED. Fl.

Fr..—Anacardiaceæ.Feb. It has been found useful in dysentery. LOC. :—Often planted throughout the State.-usually 1. Wild Mango. COM. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Burma. appetising. Pandri.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. ash-coloured . Kapichuta. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. NS. Hongkong. Ambada. Country. Hulave. refrigerant. ulcers. Toyadhivasini. Giri Hadari. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Kanara. widely planted.—Bignoniaceæ. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Marahunise. Pitana. Andamans. CHAR. Konkan. destroys " Vata ". oblique. HABITAT. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. Sk. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. t. :—A tree 9-10.8-7. Western Peninsula. Kumbhi. high. Fl. S. long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. burning sensation. cures rheumatism. :—Leaves-tasty. tonic. Pahad. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. K. Salt Range. Gujarat. Indian Archipelago. aphrodisiac. See—Gums and Resins. NS. :—H. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Tungi. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. oblong. M. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. W. C. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. PARTS USED. . Kamduti. bark smooth. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism.5-18 x 3.-Apl. Padiala. DISTR. phthisis. Avatekayi. leaves and fruit.— petals 4-5. M. hard. ovate oblong. good for sore-throat. Kalavrinta. Bile Tree. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM.5 m. FAM. Ran-amba .—drupe. astringent. long. Padal. Gum is demulcent. PROPERTIES AND USES. Padal. M. COM. Patala. enriches blood . Indian Hog-Plum. H.8 cm. Parur. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). ovoid.. pinkish green. Amate.5 cm. :—E. Ambodha. yellow. Sd. Hude. blood complaints . Sk. round with furrows and cavities. entire. Ali-vallabha. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. :—Cultivated. Ceylon. Fl. branches nearly horizontal. L. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. LOC. Patala. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Amrataka. K. Amra. biliousness. Dr. trunk straight.. 3. Fruit—indigestible. stone woody. Kariguddada. :—Bark.

thirst. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. tonic. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. Travancore . COM. leaves. DISTR. Nirmal. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kupaka. cures leucoderma. heating. NS. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. eructations.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. flowers. fevers. Hemushti. fruit. N. LOC. piles. Kakatinduka. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Vishamushti. G. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. jaundice. tonic. DISTR. Travancore. diuretic. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. lumbago. :—In forests south of Bombay. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". piles . The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. itching. :—Fruit-acrid. See—Timbers. astringent to bowels. Indo-China. Ittangi. anæmia. poisonous. Kangira. inflammation. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Laos. LOC. Kuchala. diuretic. Burma. :—Monsoon-forests. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed.—Loganiaceæ. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . ring-worm. :—Root-bitter. M. :—E. :—Root. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . It is regarded as cooling. H. Kanara. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. Kachita. tonic. appetiser. LOC. useful in bilious diarrhœa. Visha-druma. Kajra. Flowers— acrid . :—More or less throughout tropical India. Kanara. Fruit—bitter. Poison Nut. Kajavara. "Vata". urinary discharges (Ayurveda). K. antipyretic. FAM. vomiting. cures pains in joints. Karnatak.. loss of taste. Kajra. emmenagogue . Planted in Ceylon. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Kuchla. Kuchla. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. fruit. :—Very common in Konkan and N. PARTS USED. heating. LOC. bitter. Circars. "Kapha". seeds. sub-Himalaya. ulcers. blood diseases. pungent. heating. PARTS USED. :—Wood (rarely). Crow Fig. Ceylon. asthma. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Kelakutaka. burning sensation. Karaskara. west coast of Madras State.

USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. :—Deciduous dry forests. alexipharmic. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Fruit useful in eye diseases. hallucinations. poisoning. head-diseases (Ayurveda). emetic. cures inflammations. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Nelmal. aphrodisiac. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Loganiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. Chittu bija. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. good for liver. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. urinary discharges. NS. Nivali. Country. also in Konkan. Madhya Bharat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. gonorrhœa. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. kidney complaints. Kataka. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. fruit and seeds. M. causes biliousness. Seeds—acrid. :—Root (rarely). astringent to bowels. relieve colic (Yunani). . jaundice. lithotriptic. H. The demand for strychnine is increasing. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. tonic. Shodhanatmaka. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. K. diaphoretic. FAM. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. M. Ambuprasadini. HABITAT. Seeds—bitter. Clearing Nut Tree. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. LOC. anæmia. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. :—E. See—Timbers. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium.. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. diuretic. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Root cures leucoderma. cure strangury. thirst. increases "Vata". :—Western Peninsula. alexiteric. improve eye-sight. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Nirmali. Ceylon. Aduguchali-bija. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. Burma. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. (Rasendrasarasangraha). DISTR. LOC. PARTS USED. Kanara and Khandesh. COM. See—Timbers.

astringent and useful in bowel complaints. Tiritaka. :—An erect herb. LOC. Balaloddujinamara. See—Timbers. cooling. Peninsula).— sessile. emmenagogue. K. L. digestible.—many. 0. China Nora. Chota Nagpur. bleeding gums .204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. aphrodisiac. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani).— Oct. Californian Cinchona. dysentery. :—Bark. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Lodhraka. quadrangular. DISTR. Lodhra. Lodh. :—The whole plant is bitter. Lodhra . PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. Fl. CHAR. DISTR. 2-valved. Deccan . :—Western Ghats . :—Bark-acrid. :—M. Broughton). Fl. C. LOC. diseases of blood. NS. winged . biliousness. E. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. Dyes. high. Mahabaleshwar. :—Hilly parts. :—Konkan and N. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". COM. COM. leprosy. Country. ovoid or oblong. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Lodh . 4-winged. Sd. inflammations. Burma. H. colloturine and loturiaine. white with blue veins. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. FAM. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. PARTS USED. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Lodh Tree.—Gentianaceæ.9 m. Sk. broadly ovate. stem densely leafy. Shavaraka. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda).-Jany. Bose). LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. Lodh is used in raw condition.—capsule. Deccan. Tillaka. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . astringent to bowels. C. M. vaginal discharges. Bhilli. :—Root. :—India (W.. useful in abortions . flowers (rarely). :— E. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling.—Symplocaceæ. decussate. cures cough. eye-diseases and ulcers .— lobes 4-5. Fr.. in powder or in fresh decoction. t. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Loder. . SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. acrid. Bark—bitter. FAM.3-0. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. 5-nerved . Kadu. Peninsula. etc. Torna fort. :—W. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. M. S. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. NS. throughout N. useful in eye-diseases.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . C.

fruits and seeds. Gulabjaman. Fruit—acrid. Sk. DISTR. M. strengthens gums and teeth. M. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. also wild. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Shukapriya. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). ulcers. bronchitis. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). very often planted. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions.—Myrtaceæ. Malay—Rose apple. cooling. Seeds—diuretic. carminative and diuretic. :—Bark. Shukapriya. fruit vinegar is tonic. Jambudi. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. sweet. digestive. Kokileshta. good for sore-throat.—Myrtaceæ. useful in spleen diseases. Malaya. :-Black-Java Plum. common along river banks. H. both wild and cultivated. Neralu. COM. etc. Jamburaj. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. PARTS USED. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. thirst. good lotion for ring-worm in head. gargles and washes . good gargle for sore-throat. NS. Jambu. Jambul. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. Jamen. Nilphala. Ceylon. Fruit Trees. enriches blood. Jambu. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. LOC. astringent to bowels. sprouts. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. LOC. removes bad smell from mouth. Jambu-Nayinerale. Pharenda. astringent. Jambu.) FAM. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. dry. :—Throughout the State. increases "Vata". astringent to bowels. :—E. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. blood impurities. Nerate. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. biliousness. Pannerali. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Sk. Nenda.) FAM. Australia. Jambula. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. COM. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Jambul. dysentery. . NS. Gulab-Jamb. :—Throughout India. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. common at Mahabaleshwar. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Jambura. PROPERTIES AND USES. Surabhipriya. H. :—Bark-acrid. carminative . G. LOC. Jambu. Jam. also used in spongy and painful gums. anthelmintic. asthma. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. See—Timbers.

acrid. glossy green above. Hills of Visakhapatanam.5-5 cm. E. C—lobes overlapping to the left. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. :—Bark. . improves voice. strangury. and an essential oil. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. lobes 5 in single. NS. double. COM. emmenagogue. :—Root. Tagar. :—Root is acrid. K. Fr. LOC. :—E. useful in paralysis. Cultivated in many places. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. dysentery. tonic to brain.—follicles. :—Sikkim Terai. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. indigestible. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. used in syphilis (Yunani). Assam.) FAM. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation.— opposite. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. bronchitis. DISTR. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. M. Tagara. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant.. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. Ananta. pale beneath. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Cultivated in gardens. LOC. Bengal. H. . :—Bark is sweet. useful in "Kapha. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. Maddarasa gida . tonic. used in liver complaints. with milky juice . indigestible. LOC. Khasia Hills. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. L. thirst. heavy speech. fruit and seeds. orange within. removes bad humours. inodorous during the day. bitter. salver-shaped. Nandi. PROPERTIES AND USES. divaricate. Br. Fl. Taggar.—rainy season. cultivated in many parts. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). fragrant at night. See—Timbers. wood and oil. Root—bitter . digestible. tonic to brain. 1-3 ribbed. Seeds are astringent to bowels. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). purgative. Tagar . across. Garhwal. weakness of limbs. used in asthma.—snow-white. 7. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate.—Apocynaceæ. Fruit—sweet and tasty. Trinidad . Kottuhale. aphrodisiac. fatigue. Wax flower. PARTS USED. G. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. Root chewed relieves toothache . astringent to bowels. Ashvathabheda. alexipharmic. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. cures epilepsy. PROPERTIES AND USES.5-5 cm. astringent to bowels. Chandani. HABITAT. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. heating.5-15 X 2. liver and spleen . astringent to bowels. hot. PARTS USED. Burma.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. margins wavy. CHAR. Yunnan to Australia. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. lessens pains in limbs and joints ." biliousness. t.

5 cm. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. belching.4-4. Imli. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. Fl. FAM. divaricata. Chinch. Makhamal. Kalaga. Teter.2-7. coriaceous. Fr. bitter. Flower—bitter. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. FAM.5 m. :—E. Gultora.—Compositæ. NS. Amlika. Genda. acrid. H. :—Root. C. Maddarssa. good for teeth . Sd. 2. stomachic. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . wood. bark grey. oil. Nagakuda. Amla. COM. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . PARTS USED. PARTS USED. HABITAT. common in rain-forests. 7. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. Tintidika. Halmeti. LOC. French Marigold. DISTR. DISTR. muscular pains. M. M. G. Amlike. somewhat boat-shaped. rough.. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. :—Cultivated. grown in gardens all over India. :—Native of Mexico. throughout the Konkan and N. CHAR. : K. Zanduga.—surrounded by red pulp. Makhamali.—white. Sthulapushpa.— tube inflated near the top. :—Malabar. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nuli. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. kidney troubles. COM. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. yellow when ripe. Fl. internally they are said to purify blood. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). useful in scabies. H. Zendu. G. Amli. Sandu. HABITAT. Chinchika. astringent. NS. across in pedunculate cymes . HABITAT. . Amli. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. NS.000 m. Chinch.—Apocynaceæ.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). oblong lanceolate . Makhamala. See—Ornamental Plants. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers..—opposite. LOC. Tamarind. carminative. :—Rain-forests. Pandarakuda. their juice is given in ear-ache. Kanara.5-20 X 3. Tintrani. :—Leaves and flowers. L. M.5 cm. lessens inflammation . t. :—E. Nagaskuda.. Sk. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. :—Flower-pungent. COM.. Leaves—good for piles. Amala. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. K.— Mar-Apl.—follicle. :—Same as T. LOC. high. Travancore up to 7. Guljharo.

H. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Kanara. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. sore-throat. wood. Madhya Bharat. Malay Peninsula. bark. Kanara. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. heals wounds and fractures. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Mahapatra. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani).. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. aphrodisiac. and for sizing materials. Sag. PARTS USED :—Root. such as body-burning. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. small-pox. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Tropics generally. :—Throughout India. K. stomatitis. Sagun. Flowers— appetising . Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. :—Bark. flowers and seeds. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. useful in liver-complaints. anthelmintic. laxative. LOC. PARTS USED. fruit and seeds. G. Bark—astringent. Fruit—sour. urinary discharges. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Sk. Fruit-sour. and laxative. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Burma. Tega. DISTR. Condiments and Spices. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. laxative. causes cough. Seeds are good astringent. vomiting. FAM. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. scabies. eye-diseases. Tegu. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. leaves. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. LOC. flowers. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. heals ulcers. thirst. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. costiveness. See—Timbers. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Cultivated also. boiled they are used as a poultice. Sagwan. COM. astringent to bowels. Circars. tonic to heart. Anil. intoxication &c. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. tumours. carminative. DISTR. Arna. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. abundant all along the slopes of W. indigestible. Teka. Seeds astringent.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. :—E. heating.—Verbenaceæ. NS. Teak. biliousness. sweetish. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. tonic. useful in giddiness and vertigo. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. digestive. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). earache. Sumatra and Java. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C.. M. Sagwan. . tasty. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Sag. Sagach.

leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). asthma. leaves and seeds. oblanceolate. poisoning. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . alterative. boils and pimples. alexiteric. cultivated lands and roadsides. cures diarrhœa . expectorant.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . it acts also as a vermifuge. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. Sharapunkha. Konkan. . :—A perennial herb. Sd. Sarphonka. C. CHAR. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. :—All over India. Phanike. useful in bronchitis. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. pubescent on the back. HABITAT:—Open situations. 2—2. Malay Peninsula. Kalika. standard. leprosy.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). leaflets 11—21. asthma. M. allays thirst. laxative. Sk. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. Fl.-June. Unhali. PARTS USED. "Root—diuretic. enriches Blood . K. Country. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. liver. :—The whole plant. Jhila. LOC. useful in lung and chest diseases. Leaves—tonic to intestines . along forest borders. inflammations. gonorrhœa (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. Sharapunkha. See—Timbers. ulcers. Fr. Kogge. syphilis. S. long. useful in bronchitis. linear.—Oct.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. L. spleen diseases. urinary discharges..—pod 3—4. LOC.2 cm. Wood good for head ache. mucronate. improve appetite. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. heart. Sarphoka. root. Plihari. M. burning pain over the region of liver. DISTR. blood. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). Udhadi. antipyretic. Bark is an astringent. COM. :—Plant-digestible. Wood—acrid. fresh root-bark. long. Ghodakan.8—1. increase "Vata". dry. FAM. good in piles.5 cm.8 X 0..—petals clawed. 30—60 cm. cures diseases of liver. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. suborbicular. branches spreading. biliousness. mucronate. useful in scabies. t. LOC. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. Sarpankho. allays thirst. cooling.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. biliousness. Empali. red. Gujarat. useful in piles. anthelmintic.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. tumours. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. ground and made into a pill.—5-6 . sedative to gravid uterus. bitter. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). silkyhairy beneath. Deccan. NS. slightly curved. high. Flowers—acrid. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. H. glabrous above. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Fl. spleen. anthelmintic. :-G.

digestible. very common in South Konkan. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. Aksha. Bahaza. sore-throat. Madhya-Bharat. in Khandesh Akrani. Vibhitika. biliousness. Behada. leucoderma. Arjuna. Dhanvi. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Kalidrum. Indradruma. DISTR. except in dry arid regions. blood-diseases. H. M. Arjuna. PROPERTIES AND USES. Arjun Sadada. Belleric Myrobalan. :—Bark. Sk.. with milk. diuretic. :—Bark. anthelmintic. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Tara. anæmia. aphrodisiac. Buhura. urinary discharges. " Kapha". It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. See—Timbers. Bibhitiki. Sadado. Behedo. leaves. Arjun-Sadada. tonic. & A. Rajastan and Sind. useful in biliousness. :—Konkan and Deccan. LOC. intoxication. Karvirak. Arjuna. PARTS USED. strangury. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. K. fruit (rarely). Chota-Nagpur. :—E. useful in fractures. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. FAM. inflammation. G. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. Sagona. Shantimara. Vibhata. PROPERTIES AND USES.. Beheduk. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Koha. PARTS USED. LOC. Bera.—Combretaceæ. anthelmintic . Burma. :—Alexiteric. DISTR. Voting. LOC. Karshaphala. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani).. excessive perspiration. NS. FAM. :—E. Sadura. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. fruit and seed. tonic. useful in bronchitis. biliousness. M. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. COM. Hela.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. H. false presentation of fœtus. Madhya-Pradesh. styptic. laxative. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams.—Combretaceæ. tumours. Bahara. Kushika. in the sub-Himalayan tract. Expectorant. . K. Ceylon. Bedda Nut. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). Kakubha. Kahu. Madras State. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. White Marudah. Bastard Myrobalan. acrid. G. :—Throughout the forests of India. externally in wounds and fractures. strangury. ulcers. COM. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Tari. Arjan. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Baire. Sk. NS. heart disease. asthma. Fruit-pungent.

Haritaki. LOC. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. sore-throat. carminative. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. tonic. COM. Fruit-astringent. antipyretic. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. gums. useful in thirst. in Travancore. bleeding and ulceration of gums. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. PARTS USED. strangury. DISTR. heart and bladder. diseases of eye. Hirda. antidysenteric. diseases of eye. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. mixed with honey. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . attenuant. H. Hirdo . bleeding piles. thirst. Ceylon. Kernel has narcotic properties. Jivantika. inflammations. carminative. Sk. eyes. anaemia. Jivanti. stomachic. heart and bladder. K. eye diseases etc. Haritaki. vomiting. Burma. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". Black myrobalan. alterative . is used as an application in ophthalmia. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Gums and Resins. cold in head.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. useful in caries of teeth. gout. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. useful in asthma. useful in dyspepsia. elephantiasis. expectorant. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. good in ophthalmia. delirium (Ayurveda). piles and diarrhœa. :—Bark and fruit. LOC. used in paralysis (Yunani). vesicular calculi. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. Haria. biliousness. applied to eyes. typhoid fever. USES. tonic. Har. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. constipation. See—Timbers. tumours. Seed—acrid. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. :—Fruit-dry. —E. Kanara. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. Alate. Chebulic myrobalan.—Combretaceæ. intoxicating. vomiting. G. which is considered a good digestive. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. Abhaya. Harara. hiccup. enriches blood. piles. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). tonic. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. nose. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. piles. M. diarrhœa. heating. brain tonic (Yunani). USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. diseases of spleen. hoarseness. ascites. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. Harade. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. Dyes. NS. the fully ripe or dried fruit. urinary discharges. Ripe fruit—purgative. leucoderma. aperient. bilious headache. anthelmintic. LOC. corneal ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES. strengthens brain. FAM. itching pain. common in Khandesh Akrani.

burning of body . PROPERTIES AND USES. Bengal. Kandarala. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Burma. Mhaskar and Issac). increases " Kapha " . Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. :—Bark. aphrodisiac . See—Timbers. leaves.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Tans. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Jogiyarale. FAM. Ranbhendi.—Malvaceæ. Bugari. H. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Hucerasi. Bhandi. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. :—Fruit-sour. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. COM. Gajadanta. especially centipedes. :—Coast forests of India. . Paraspiplo. :—E. flowers and fruit. Bhend. Suparshuakan. difficult to digest. M. Bhindi. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. produces worms in intestines . Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. NS. Kuberaksha. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Fibres. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). K. acrid . leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. LOC. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Parisha. Dyes. LOC. Parasipu. Arasi. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. DISTR. Paraspipal. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. also planted as roadside tree. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Tulip Tree. Sacred Plants.. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. G. Gandarati. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Portia Tree. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Kanara. profuse discharge. Paras-piper. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Phalisha. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). See—Timbers.

across. grooved . The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.—broadly obovate. Zard kunel. throat campanulate.. Fr. :—Throughout tropical India. See—Ornamental Plants. exocarp fleshy. red. :—An extensive climber. piles. elliptic. Gurch. virgin uterus. fevers. Sk.—generally 4. Fl. pungent. :—Native of S. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. Haripriya. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). Andamans and Ceylon. bark corky. L. Gulo. HABIT :—In thickets. it has no action on digestive enzymes .—Apl. 5—10 cm. Burma. Sd.—Apocynaceæ. . CHAR. Ashvaghna. LOC. LOC. G. FAM. Vatsadani. Indies . Pila kanir.—in terminal cymes. useful in urethral discharges. male fascicled. root. eye-troubles. yellow. C. frequently planted. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. L. Amarvel.—in axillary and terminal racemes. dorsally convex. Gulvel. seeds and milky juice. tubular.. Uganiballi. K. Fl. Amrita-Valli. PARTS USED. NS. and blood vessels . FAM. Gulhel. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . often planted in India. NS. females solitary. cures " Vata " . The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. 7—9 nerved. long. 1—3. corona in the throat. mesocarp bony. hot.. skin diseases. Amritvalli. ventrally flat.—membranous. :—Stem. t. Exile or yellow Oleander.—drupes. :—Bark. Pivali kanher.-spirally arranged. Pittaghni. M. Pila kaner. Gulvel. Gulancha. wounds. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. M. COM. :—E.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. LOC. size of a pea . growing on mango and other trees. H. yellow. H. :—Often planted. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. Sk. astringent to bowels. Jwaranashini. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. America and W. 7. HABITAT. Fl. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. crowded . DISTR. COM. bright green and shining above. but its use is attended with considerable danger. very poisonous (Ayurveda). lobes 5. Heart-leaved moonseed. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter.5—12. leucoderma. DISTR. CHAR. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. Karvira. endocarp corky.—Menispermaceæ. bladder. bronchitis . acrid. :—E. G. Shatakumbha. linear. with milky juice. Fr. worms. PARTS USED. Gado. 5 cm.

Dahan. . crenulate. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. Fl. giddiness. Kaduhakukare. 3-5 grooved. (Kirtikar). Kumaon to Bhutan. Gangalaki. vomiting. Stem-bitter. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. cures jaundice. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. M. dark shining green above. Lopezroot Tree. Konkan and Kanara. LOC. 5-10 X 1. Sk. burning sensation. common in S. enriches blood. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine.-Jany. Philippines. orange coloured. K.8.—in axillary cymes. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. leaves. female flower buds oblong. stimulant and anti-periodic. :—Stem-bitter. antipyretic. fruits. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. :—Rain-forests. Ceylon. coriaceous. Sumatra. Root-bark is aromatic. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). juice useful in diabetes. causes constipation. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. :—All over the Madras State . leaflets sessile. jaundice.—Dehan. Mirchi. oblong. stigma sessile. tonic. Limri. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. allays thirst. chronic fever. piles. tonic appetiser.— alternate. digitately trifoliate. vomiting. Fl. USES. HABITAT. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. Java. 5-7 lobed. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. :—Root. size of a large pea.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. DISTR. useful in skin diseases. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. LOC. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. China. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. especially acid. Root and stem are bitter. PARTS USED. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Forest Pepper. Kadu-menasu.—Rutaceæ. male flower bud globose. stimulates bile secretion. COM. vaginal and urethral discharges. diarrhœa. expectorant.—Aug. renews blood. stomachic . TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. bark. Manger. H. tropical Africa. ovary rudimentary. also in the Deccan hills. stomachic. anæmia. unisexual. Khasia Hills. 15 m. pitted on the rind. t. :—E. CHAR. FT. diuretic. white. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. fever.8-3.—globose. L.. armed with small hooked prickles . Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. Macimullu. good in cough. high. Jangali-Mirchi.

LOC. Toon. aphrodisiac. Sk. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. burning sensation. tonic. Deodari. Kuruk. H.—Onagraceæ. Shingada. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. Dyes.) FAM. Kaechaka. NS. Shingoda. leprosy. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. cardio-tonic. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). useful in ulcers. COM. M. Tun. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Singhara. M. K. See—Timbers. urinary discharges. DISTR. digestible. tropical Africa. removes " Tridosha". Gums and Resins. Sandal Neem. strangury. good for scabies and gleet. astringent to bowels. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. removes " Kapha ". Singodi. Shringa-kanda-taka. inflammation. HABIT. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Water-chestnut. Chittagong. :—E. "Tridosha". fattening. H. Nand-vriksha. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. anthelmintic. Jalakantaka-valli. Assam. Ceylon. Trikone-phala. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. LOC. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Malaya. biliousness. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Mandurike. Gandhagarige. headache. cooling. PARTS USED. Kanara. expectorant. DISTR. astringent to bowels. :—Cooling . of India). burning sensation. Tuni. Kalingi. Lud. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. biliousness. COM. fatigue.. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Fruit. LOC. Chota-Nagpur. blood diseases. astringent to bowels. Garige. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. Indian Mahogany. Sk. Apina. Kuberaka. Tundu. :—Bark and flowers. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. itching. G. Trikota. Burma. often cultivated. :—Bark-acrid. Lim. :—E. indigestible. useful in .—Meliaceæ. Tunika. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. cures leprosy. Waitz). causes " Vata " . aphrodisiac. cures fevers. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. NS. antipyretic . :—Aquatic (in tanks). :—Throughout the State in tanks. Bark—bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES. Mahalimbu.

M. useful in chronic fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES. thirst. stems and branches pilose. See—Timbers. Pindara. They are also used in the form of poultice. Country. one pair longer than the other . Beta-Nahan Gokhru. Sd. The plant contains an alkaloid. bronchitis. Sk. t. improves taste . removes biliousness (Ayurveda).—several in each coccus . :—Throughout the Konkan and N. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. Negalu . Fl. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. along nalas and in swampy localities. Gamhar. FAM.. :—The whole plant. Calthrope. oblong. Kantaphala. Hussuk. COM. :—A procumbent herb. Malay Peninsula. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. considered cool and sweet. Tumri. DISTR. K. Gokhru. :—E. pain.. one of each pair smaller than the other. bad-teeth (Yunani). LOC. upto 3300 m.—Zygophyllaceæ. NS. sharp spines. of 5 woody cocci. in Kashmir. Gokshura. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. biliousness. CHAR. appetiser. G..—opposite. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. :—Plant is cooling tonic. each with 2 pairs of hard.:—Saurashtra. bile and phlegm. lumbago. NS. Shadanga. Seeds abound in starch. base oblique. Gokharu. sore-throat.—globose. used as food. PARTS USED. yellow. M. FAM. Gokhru. . mucronate. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Gokhura. Java. M. a common weed of the drier parts. abruptly pinnate. L. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Kanara.—Euphorbiaceæ.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Kere Padye. See—Food Plants. young parts silky. Gokshri. :—Throughout India. Trikantaka. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. leaflets 3—6 pairs . K. hairy. Gujarat. Assam. Karahate. Ceylon. LOC. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Chhota gokhru. COM. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. :—H. Fibres. Sumatra. Pindara. Ceylon. alexiteric. Fr. Kurangaha. Deccan and S. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Sk. LOC. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. antipyretic. solitary. Aphrodisiac. DISTR. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. LOC.—throughout the year. Sarata. H. Petari .

LOC. reduces inflammation. appetiser. pain . Central India. Kanara. leprosy . Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. West Rajastan. gonorrhœa. diuretic. HABITAT. LOC. inflammations. suppression of urine. stomachic. Diuretic. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). linear-oblong or lanceolate. :—Root. emmenagogue (Yunani). Abu. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. pruritus ani. NS. long. USES :—Fruits are cooling. alleviating burning sensation. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh).—sessile. Fl. urinary disorders and impotence. M. alterative . branches angled and ribbed. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections.—Compositæ. tonic . cures strangury. ciliate. stem erect. slender. Talakanto. pappus shorter than the achenes. Mt. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. S. H. C. leaves. urinary discharges. tonic. vesicular calculi. DISTR. reduces inflammation . bloody urine. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. oblong. improves appetite . Brahmadandi. L. useful in strangury. —achene. COM. PARTS USED. cures skin and heart diseases. removes " Tridosha ". Brahma-dandi. piles. cures "Kapha". ovoid. diuretic. :—Wild in places. fattening. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). copious. bitter. Brahmadandi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. LOC. Sk. Country. fruits. Brahmadandi. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. : — G. :—Western Peninsula. S. which is taken in large quantities. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. CHAR. purifies blood . Kanara. cough. . involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Aja-dandi. spinous toothed or serrate. Physiaran. :—Hot.— Dec. faintly ribbed. Mota-Motachor. tonic. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Kantapatraphala. Fl. increases menstrual flow. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. "Vata".— purple. enriches blood . M. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. :—The whole plant. yellowish brown. lumbago . Brahmadandi. :—Cooling .—heads 6—8 mm. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). aphrodisiac. gleet. :—A glabrous herb. the Deccan. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. seeds. S. Konkan. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. asthma. FAM. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED.

male in axillary racemes. chireta and honey. Panduka. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. Perula. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Sd. antipyretic. bitter. paler beneath. cures bronchitis. N.—Cucurbitaceæ. alterative. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda).6—4. —G. the Deccan. Root-juice is very purgative. ovoid-fusiform. leaf-juice is emetic.5—7.—Cucurbitaceæ. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. H.-6. lobes ovate-oblong.. — surrounded with red-pulp . it is given in decoction with ginger. LOC. M. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. Sk. G.—monœcious. DISTR. Malaya. :—A scandent annual.-male in axillary . Kadvi-padyal or patola . Patola. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. distantly denticulate. Australia. anasarca and ascites. stomachic. leaves. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. laxative. Fl. Malay Peninsula. orbicular. furrowed. long. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). Fruit—hot. pungent. alexiteric. long. H. Fl. t. :—Root. Jangli— Kadu padval. dentate or serrate. COM. CHAR.5 m. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. variable. FAM. Fr. stem robust. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. eye diseases. CHAR. useful for boils and intestinal worms. burning sensation.5 cm. slender. :—Root-cathartic .—July-Oct. long as well as broad. FAM . ulcers. COM. Wild Snake-gourd. :—E. antipyretic. Katuka. Makal. white. PARTS USED. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kaundal. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. allays thirst. Betlada padaval. L. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.5 cm. Jangali chichonda. HABITAT:-In hedges. K. Fl. stems 3.3-12.-5-12. green with white stripes when raw. Lal-indrayan. axillary. tendrils 3 cleft. woody below. L. Indrayan. tendrils 3-fid. Sk. dark-green above. leucoderma. cures itching. deeply 5-lobed. Avagude-hannu. headache and boils. Leaves—good for biliousness. blood diseases. In Bombay. Ratan-indrayan.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. M. LOC. asthma.—2. base cordate . USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. leprosy. oil. base deeply cordate. Mahakala. Mukal. K. Ceylon. with a long sharp beak. reniform or broadly ovate. :—Throughout India. slightly hairy.3 cm. NS. palmately 3-5 lobed. Kiripodla. fruit. Jyotsna. long.. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. females solitary. NS. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. PROPERTIES AND USES.. erysipelas. scarlet when ripe.

white. Fruit—carminative. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. high.—petals wedge-shaped. axillary.. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect.—Compositæ. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. t.-July. peduncles very long. very hairy. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. all over the State. bruises and wounds. Malaya. used in epilepsy. slender.—many . This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. Fl. COM. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. 3-partite. HABITAT. hairy. CHAR. L. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. FAM.— Apl.75-1 in. DISTR. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. leprosy. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. Juice of fruit or root-bark. 30-60 cm. C. ligules yellow. Fr. Kirkee. fringed. Ray flowers ligulate. :—Abundant in the Deccan. glandular. limbweakness. outer involucral bracts ovate. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. black. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. lessens inflammations . :—Leaves.—throughout the year. :—Root and fruit. cures hemicrania. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Throughout India. .. rheumatism. Fl. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . LOC. PARTS USED. Australia.75 X . purgative. middle lobe smallest. diam. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. ophthalmia. Ceylon. M. China. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. heat of brain. which is found abundantly all over the country. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. Japan. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani).—globose 3-8. bracts large. female solitary. LOC. ovate-elliptic. t. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. Sd. NS. many years ago.— achene. densely silky hairy.. Country. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). on the Himalayas. Ekdandi. gargle good for toothache. :—A perennial straggling herb. N. Deccan and S. PROPERTIES AND USES. stem and branches hairy. petioles densely hairy.. :—M.5 cm. DISTR. inner slightly longer than outer. boiled with gingelly oil.—head solitary. :—Wild in hilly parts. acute. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. abortifacient. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. Fr. Fl.—1. :— Wild in Konkan. sparsely white hairy. LOC. PARTS USED.

aperient. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. LOC. purplish within. COM.. chronic cough. base cordate. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. NS. piles. M. Methi. 5-10 x 2. diuretic. COM. Kashmir. narrowed at the apex to a free point. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State.—deeply lobed. with coma . See—Vegetables. dropsy. cures leprosy. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Menthe—palle. suppurative. appetiser.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. antipyretic.—follicles. anthelmintic. G. bronchitis.5—10 cm. Muthi. LOC. Country. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. large for the genus. Nepala . useful in dropsy. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. :—A twining perennial. K. and the seeds contain vitamin A. Pitabija Vedhini.—in umbellate cymes . greenish-yellow outside. DISTR. enlargement of spleen and liver. Konkan. :—Leaves and seeds. diarrhœa. roots many. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. also in low and sandy localities. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. emmenagogue. much used in colic. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. they are also aphrodisiac. "Vata". applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. CHAR. . S. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). C.—opposite. corona gibbous below. Fenugreek . :—Punjab. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. Methi. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. dysentery. H. long. Fl. fleshy.—Asclepiadaceæ. cultivated in many parts of India.. Jyoti. FAM. :—H. Sk.5-5. :—Cultivated.—Aug. tonic and carminative. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). PARTS USED. Methi . extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. FN. enlargement of spleen and liver. Janglipikvan. NS. astringent to bowels. L. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Methi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Kanara. LOC. flatulence. Methini. long. M. vomiting. :—South of Bombay. :—E. M.7 cm. HABITAT. removes bad taste from mouth. Fl. tapering to a fine point at the apex.— broadly ovate. Sd. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Chandrika. t. Antamul. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. 7. Pitakari (Pitamari).-Nov. Hot and dry. :—Hot. FAM. ovate or elliptic oblong. K.

polished. PARTS USED. :—Konkan. Rankanda. Sk. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Ranganja . :—Wild. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. t. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). tropical Africa.. hairy beneath. CHAR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). blotched with white above. :—Western Himalayas.—in racemes 15-30 cm. Ceylon. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). Fr.— Liliaceæ. COM. Peninsula. :—E. Philippines. pale lead-colored. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Vanapalandu. :—A herb. long. Borneo.—Aug. found useful in dysentery. L. linear. H. Malay Islands. stalks long. M. LOC. 0.— pod.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. :—Common on sandy shores. H. :—Sandy places. Fl.—purple.9-1. Jangli-Ran-khanda. :—Throughout the plains of India. Ceylon. M. Dabra. white. Malay Islands. URARIA PICTA Desv. :—A perennial shrub. LOC. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. Burma. black.—appearing after the flowers.— imparipinnate. ellipsoid. :—Throughout India. Pitvan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. drooping. DISTR. light-brown .5 cm. USES. Bihar. CHAR. long. joints 3-6..—capsule. folded on one another. Sk. Sd. high. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. FAM. KolaPutakand. C. 5-7 (rarely 9). Chota-Nagpur. perianth campanulate. Pithavan. Shankaraja .. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.. W. DISTR.— petals lanceolate. Prishna-parni. NS.. Pitavan . URGINEA INDICA Kunth. C. 15-45 x 1. Fr. L. 20-30 cm. PARTS USED. stems downy with hooked hairs.3-2.-Sept. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. 10-20 cm. tropical Africa. Fl. tapering to both ends . FAM. USES. linear-oblong. . HABITAT. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. long. G.8 m. flat.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Dried leaves are emetic. Fl. diaphoretic and expectorant. :—Bulb. HABITAT. Jaglipiaz. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Panjala. :—Roots and leaves. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. :—G. glabrous. NS.— flattened.. Thailand (Siam). scape erect 30-45 cm. Indian Squill.

:—Konkan. K.3-2 cm. Sarpagandha. cardiac.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. stimulant and diuretic. alexiteric. Nakula. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. antipyretic. Ceylon.. Fr. skin diseases. Root is bitter. lessens inflammations . LOC. Fl. pollinia ellipsoid. Fl. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. recurved. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. NS. acute. stem 30-60 cm. W. Chota-Nagpur.—capsule. heals fractures (Yunani). toothache. 15-20 X 1. CHAR. heating. Atiras. 2-lobed. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. PROPERTIES AND USES. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. erect. rheumatism. asthma. scilla of Great Britain. USES :—Expectorant. Gujarat and Kanara. diseases of nose. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. FAM. dropsy. complicate. scandent by simple or branching roots . diuretic. anthelmintic. long. long. :—Root and leaves. (In Med. tip. M. A. hiccup. Rasno.. S. Sk.—thickly coriaceous. Br. laxative. 1931.— July. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). inflammations. renal calculi. long. bronchitis.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. t. Rasna. diseases of the abdomen. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. LOC. The bulb is stomachic. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Peninsula. maritima of U. :—G. Travancore. rheumatic pains. The plant contains an alkaloid. useful in dyspepsia. Madhya-Pradesh.5—9 cm. bronchitis. PARTS USED. COM. DISTR. Bandanike. obtusely keeled. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes.. alexiteric. boils in the scalp. Gaz. :—An epiphyte. Banda. good for piles. bronchitis. H. . :—The bulb is pungent. column very short. tonic to brain and liver. stout. Rasna. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Rasna. alexiteric. tremors (Ayurveda). praemorse. HABIT. Vriksharuha. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . :—Bengal. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. Bihar. heating. L. emmenagogue. :—Root is bitter. lip bluish dotted with purple. lumbago. internal pains (Yunani). and was found useful (Koman).—Orchidaceæ. useful in paralysis.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. and an acute interposed one. LOC. Persara. anthelmintic. :—Epiphyte. Vanda. and U. purgative.

H. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. ulcers and wounds. K. LOC. :—Madras State. dark. amenorrhœa. with an offensive odour. :—Western India. carminative. Khandvel. NS. acrid.—5-10 X 2. stomachic. :—Bark-hot. Dhupa. Oils. debility and slight cases of fever. Sarjaka. tonic. detergent. Sandras. See—Timbers. diam. Fr. K. Coorg in Ghats. FAM. M.—in large drooping terminal panicles. hemicrania.—Dec. bechic.—petals 5. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES. Pitti. Kanara and S. FAM. useful in atonic dyspepsia. Bilidhupa. useful in leprosy. Travancore. Haruge. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). tuberculous glands. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. M. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . :—Bark. L. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. C. expectorant. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. tonic and stimulant. G. DISTR. t. COM. buds 5-angled. PARTS USED. entire or crenate. Dhupa. dysentery. resin. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. also in N.. alexipharmic. whitish). Madidhupa. Kaharub. Lokhandi. Safed-damar. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. good for sore-throat. 1-nerved wing. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Malamaitra. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. young branches and panicles pubescent. prolonged into a linear-oblong.5-3. also planted. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. diarrhœa. CHAR. PARTS USED. Ragatarshado. Sk. :—Bark. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. globular. piles. Sk.8 cm. rheumatism. USES. cures cough. Tenasserim. M. Shala. Fl. Red Creeper. Kanara.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Mysore. boils and ringworm. urinary discharges. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul.. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. H. :—A large much branched woody climber. Gums and Resins. anæmia. COM. itch (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. Country. Shandike. Sekalyel. deciduous and monsoon-forests. skin eruptions. Raktavalli. Fl. . in chronic bronchitis. :—North Kanara. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. abundant in S.—Rhamnaceæ. (T. :—E. LOC. LOC. Poppli. Ceylon.-Jany. DISTR. fruit. greenish.. eardiseases. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. :—E. yellowish. NS. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil.-nut about 5 mm. Kubbila. Kundura.

-achene oblong cylindric. CHAR. H. :—Konkan . PARTS USED. Sk. :—E. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. Fr.) FAM. branched near the top.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. L.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. :—Annual. rounded. Agnibija. Somaraj. involucre bracts linear. stem 0. G. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. COM. Sundika. Vapehi. Fl. anthelmintic.. Country. K. M. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. t. ofter cultivated. Purple Fleabane. DISTR. hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bhutakeshi. Ceylon . yellow. LOC. :—Seeds-acrid. lyrate. 5—9 x 2. used in skin-diseases. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Seeds— anthelmintic. NS. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. HABITAT:-Waste places.. lobes 5. China.—heads subcorymbose. L. truncate. Sk. Kalhara. on long petioles. Afghanistan. Gujarat. "Vata" and "Kapha". often cultivated. Kalejire. M. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. Kulhala. Gadar-tambaku. t— Jany.. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. pappus reddish. Fr. :—Plant. Kadvojiri. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES.5—3. LOC. Kalijiri. squeezed out by pounding. high . C.—Compositæ. The juice mixed with mustard oil. astringent to bowels. . warted. lanceolate. LOC. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. :—Throughout India.—alternate. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. leafy herb . erect. Ceylon. 10-ribbed. COM. Kutki. filament densely bearded with purple hairs.2 cm. Vanajiraka.—Dec.—capsule. about 40-flowered.8 cm. Kalizhiri. K.9 m. robust. PARTS USED. high.—Scrophulariaceæ. The juice of the whole plant. Somaraj.Feb.-rotate. DISTR.-May. M. :—G. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Kulara. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. sub-globose. Sd. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. with purple tips . Java . compound or pinnatisect. Fl.. innermost the longest. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. coarsely serrate. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. H. Fl. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. Bakchi. cure ulcers. all coarsely dentate. hairy on both sides. rachis glandular pubescent.—oblong. Fl. in equal proportions. CHAR. :—An annual herb. stems 60—90 cm. :—Throughout India . hairy. and leaves. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. Vishamushti. Deccan .6-0. FAM. hairy.

H. remove blood from liver. LOC. Sedardi. Cuscus grass. Fl. Ushira. a depilatory (Yunani). VERNONIA CINEREA Less. Sadodi. They are also used as tonic. FAM. asthma. pubescent. stomachic and diuretic. CHAR. Sadori. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. Osari. alternate. Koosa. :—A common weed throughout the State. Sk. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Dandotpala. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. L. Sahadevi. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. are used in destroying pediculi. Bena. Vecrnam. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. The expressed juice is given in piles. Valo . erect herb. M. t. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). clothed with white hairs . Kuruvelu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. PARTS USED. LOC. good for sores and itching of eyes. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. with lime-juice.—Jan. pappus white. hiccup .—achene. tonic. tropical Asia. used for asthma. :—Plant. In Ceylon. high. Panni. Mudivala. consumption. 15—75 cm. seeds. flowers. FAM. stem stiff. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). The plant with quinine.. Lavancha.— pinkish violet. NS. K. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Devika. Ardhaprasadana.—simple. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. NS. applied in inflammatory swellings . Khas. Vala. awned. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. heads small. . Sk. COM. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses.—Gramineæ. :—Throughout India. cures "Tridosha". :—E. :—E. Africa . G. :—Annual. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. astringent. bruised seeds ground up in paste. DISTR. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. silky on the back. oblong. kidney troubles. COM. M. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. made into a bolus with lime-juice.—Compositæ. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. cold. Sind. K. Fl. Ash-coloured Fleabane . fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle.-Feb. H. Fr. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. G. plant is used in fever convulsions. bronchitis . Australia. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Bala. stomachic. Sahadevi. Sahadevi. striate. LOC.

bilious fevers. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism.8 m. Bilenekki. usually sheathed all along. The otto is used as a tonic. long. Sk.—Verbenaceæ. Lakki. soporific. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. :—Common in Gujarat and N. strangury. bronchitis. Cooling to brain. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. Leaves are aromatic. inflammations and irritability of stomach. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. PARTS USED. DISTR. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. Kanara in damp places. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. useful in eye diseases. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . LOC. Culms stout. leucoderma. up to over 1. Nigod. Nilpushpi. :—G. Fl. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. leaves. asthma. bitter. :—Throughout India. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. West-Indies and Brazil.-leaf sheaths compressed. M. astringent. :—Root. The roots contain an essential oil. Nirgud. Sessile spikelets.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—Roots.. refrigerant. anthelmintic. lower ones keeled and fan-like. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. erect. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. bitter. heating. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . alexiteric. Indrani. Afghanistan. Nirgari. useful in spermatorrhoea. useful in burning sensation. foul breath. slender. colour varying from yellowish to black. expectorant and diuretic. head-ache. Sind. :—Throughout the State. thirst. PARTS USED. Nirgundi. LOC. also cultivated. astringent. Konkan and Deccan. margin spinously rough. consumption. blood diseases (Yunani). stomachic. throughout the Malayan regions. spleen enlargement. biliousness. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). inflammations. stimulant and tonic. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. :—Cooling. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. promotes hair-growth. diuretic. pale green. L. Ceylon. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . Nirgundi. LOC. USES :—Root is tonic. Philippine Islands. febrifuge. K. high. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. long. racemes up to 5 cm. Nukki. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Sambhalu. cephalic. Sinduvara. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. COM. H. Nirgundi. tonic and vermifuge. NS. sweats..—panicle up to 30 cm. DISTR. rachis stout. stomachic. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge.

jaundice. H. a remedy for skin diseases. allays vomiting. syphilis. fruits. FAM-—Vitaceæ. stops bleeding from mouth. Draksha. Sk. . The fruits contain vitamin A. applied in scabies. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. fever. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. :—A native of western Asia. Country. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. DISTR. LOC. Angur. sweet. Sap of young branches. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Guchaphala. produces constipation. Flowers—expectorant. expectorant. M. stones in bladder. stomachic. hoarseness and consumption. tonic to liver. cooling useful in thirst. LOC. aperient. Madhurasa. produces alopecia. laxative. India. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. and given in coughs. causes gases in the stomach. cures thirst. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. PARTS USED :—Stem. cooling. Draksha. cough. NS. astringent to bowels. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. Gujarat and S. purifies and enriches blood . bad effects of drinking. sparingly in Poona. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. fattening . Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. strangury. liver and kidney. :—Fruit-acrid. useful in old fevers. fever. Fruit is nervine. asthma. seeds. catarrh and jaundice. fattening. :—E. COM. G. allays vomiting. skin should not be eaten.. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Leaf-juice cures head-ache. testicle swellings and piles. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. W. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. appetiser. laxative. Angura. good for eyes and throat. Fruit— digestive. blood diseases. Grape-vine. emmenagogue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. :—Cultivated. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. diarrhœa. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. burning. piles. diuretic. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. Draksha. See—Timbers. good for lungs. HABITAT. diuretic . cooling . Seeds—aphrodisiac. flowers. :—Deccan. Draksha. Khandesh. heat of body. K. Yakshmaghni. Ahmednagar. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. The plant contains an alkaloid. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). Darakh. Drakh . and traces of vitamins B and C. M. good in chronic bronchitis . difficult to digest. spleen inflammation.

alterative. Tuber—bitter. abundant in Sind . minutely hairy.-Jany. main rachis armed with prickles.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. Ghodasoda. slightly 5-angled. Fl.5-5 cm.5 m. :—Konkan jungles. Canaries. emmenagogue . Sk. favours constipation (Yunani). Mediterranean regions. useful in "Vata". K. :—Root and bark. Gandhpatri.) DISTR. tonic. FAM. HABITAT. base dentate. M. branches terete. insomnia. hoary tomentose .5 cm. COM. NS. DISTR.. aphrosidiac.. (not common. senile debility. LOC. alexipharmic. Fr. psoriasis. chest troubles etc. red. Cape of Good Hope. lumbago. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaflets 5-7 pairs. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kamrupini. Wagati. Asoda. enclosed in inflated calyx. . Fl. ulcers. inflammations. :—Deccan. G. long. linear oblong. :—E. Vajini. heating. high. Drakshasava—used as tonic. LOC. tonic. long. CHAR. Winter-cherry. H. green berries. ovate. diam. acrid. somewhat scurfy. Ceylon. 6 mm. Asgundh. L. USES. oblong. entire. :—A robust woody climber. anthelmintic. seeds. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). dark-green. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests.—greenish or lurid yellow. NS.—5-10 X 2. pinnae 4-6 pairs. swollen above the seeds. rachis grooved with soft hairs. COM. Amangura. See—Fruit Trees. leucoderma. C. Kanchuki.—Solanaceæ. calyx-tube. :—Tubers-bitter. 23-30 cm. "Kapha". ghats near Mahabaleshwar. good in asthma. asthma. Deccan. Wagati. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . bony Fl.— Sept. PARTS USED :—Root. Punir. Sd. scabies. Ashvagandha.-Feb. t. Asan. obovate. constricted between them. PARTS USED.. bronchitis. oblong. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. :—Drier regions. aphrodisiac. Asgund. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. anthritis.—3-4. Sd. :—A branched erect undershrub.—2-pinnate. dark-orange. Hooliganji. 7. consumption. armed with prickles . spathulate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Fr. Wakeri. FAM. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. long.—yellow.3-1. leaves. bronchitis.5-12. inflammations. inserted on the top of. branches armed with recurved prickles . Hirimaddina-gadde. hard. CHAR. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme .—petals 5. M. pretty common in the ghats. L. coriaceous.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption.—pod. Gujarat. Sogada-beru.—berry. 0. Kanara. :—K. t. marasmus of children. Balada. Fl. smooth. :—In the drier regions of India .

:—Throughout India. Madagascar. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. tropical Africa.-May. Dhaiti. M. Kuda. Kodamurki. Dyes. Dhavani. cooling. Japan. Indrajav. t. Dhaw. K.—mostly opposite. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. acrid. 5-9X 1. Dudhi. Kanara near the sea-coast. ovate-lanceolate. velvety above. :—G. alexiteric.) FAM.3-2. :—Pungent. Sk. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. DISTR. used in thirst.—capsule. Swetakutaj. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Hayamaraka. alterative. Khirni. . Fr. smooth. FAM. China. common in the Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES. diuretic and deobstruent. simple. nigro-punctate beneath. COM. Dhawadina. :—Bark and flowers. Vanhishikha. The plant contains an alkaloid. useful in leucorrhoea. K. HABITAT. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath .5 cm. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. blood diseases. Madhuindrayava. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. USES. Sk. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. See—Tans. Ornamental Plants. NS. scarlet. leprosy. Kalakuda. Dhavani. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Br. L. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. irregularly dehiscent. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Indrajav. Kalikari. NS. Madhavasini.—Apocynaceæ. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Baluchistan. M. branches long. anthelmintic . H. and in derangement of liver . It is narcotic.—Lythraceæ. emaciation of children. wedge-shaped. Java. toxic. LOC. Dhateki. LOC. Hallunova. Ceylon. Dhawai. Phulsatti. lumbar pains. haemorrhoids. :—Monsoon-forests. erysipelas.— numerous. Indrajav. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Sumatra. rheumatism. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. leaf-infusion is given in fever. 1 cm. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. :—G. Tamrapushpi. H. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. Fl. Fl. dysentery. Sd.. on trap in the Akrani. Santha. uterine sedative. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). debility from old age. Dec. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Bela. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Hale. Are. long. PARTS USED. brown.—numerous. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. ulcers and painful swellings .

. fertile heads few. tonic. irregularly incisoserrate . Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. CHAR. axillary. Fl. ovoid in fruit. Kambu-Vanamalini.-E. FAM. stem short. 3-lobed. Aristha. Gadrian. long. stout..1-6. Sarpakshi. LOC. anthelmintic. at the top. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. LOC. PARTS USED. memory. PARTS USED. COM. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). involucre of fertile head.—many. See—Timbers. L. M.. NS. Fl. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Rajastan. long and broad. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. digestive. salivation. Itara. H. t. especially root and fruit. poisonous bites of insects. the bark is specially useful in piles. DISTR. epilepsy. laxative.achene. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. In S. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. Shankhahuli. antipyretic. Fr. fever.—Jany. cures leucoderma. fattening. hard and tough. complexion. with 2 erect beaks. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). Khandesh at 1050 m. :—Bark and seeds. USES :—Root is bitter. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. hairy on both sides. biliousness. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Dutundi. 1-3 cm. Madhya Pradesh. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. Sankeshwar. voice. Dumundi.5 cm. DISTR. Ceylon.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. Banokra. all over the State. West-Peninsula. :—Annual herb . The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin.—Compositæ. LOC. :—Cooling. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . PROPERTIES AND USES. :—The whole plant. LOC. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. in W. improves appetite. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. antidysenterica (Yunani). tonic. . Sk. oblong ovoid.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. Clot-Cockle-bur. 5-7. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . :— Throughout India. rough with short hairs . Timor. compressed . barren heads many. G. Bur-Weed. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. alexiteric.Feb.

Egasi. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. on poor soil and in rocky places. M. Ber. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. colic. Bor. M.—Rhamnaceæ. LOC. pains. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Beri. useful in elephantiasis. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). . and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Hasisunthi. dyspepsia. flatulence. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Bogari. Ada. Sk. "Vata". It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. :—E. FAM. LOC. good in piles. H. it cleans throat. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Ginger. "Kapha". Ber. Kuvali. Bor. NS. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. piles. Shringavera. Badari.—Scitaminaceæ. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. G. vomiting. loss of appetite and piles. :—E. and dry situations. lumbago. carminative. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Alen. tonic. :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES. gives lustre to eye. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. NS. stomachic. Anupama. Bordi. head-ache. alexiteric. to prevent nausea and griping. Indian Cherry. HABITAT :—Open dry forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. expectorant. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Alla Adrak. stomachic. Ajapriya. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Chinese Date. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. carminative. heating. FAM. Koli. Dridhabija. rheumatism. pains (Yunani). Ipanji. inflammations. Kandara. DISTR. HABITAT. It is stimulant. eructations. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. PARTS USED. appetiser. G. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Adrate. Ardraka. COM. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Sk. it is also given in the form of infusion. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). useful in heart and throat diseases. H. K. Bore. :—Rhizome. K. tongue and increases appetite. Rhizome—pungent. See—Condiments and Spices. asthma. vomiting. removes pain due to cold. Boyedi. laxative. bronchitis. Gulmmula. Alen. aphrodisiac. :—Rhizome-pungent. COM.. Plum.

. DISTR. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. Fruit—sweet and sour. Fruits contains vitamin A. indigestible. Afghanistan. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. cooling. :—Root. aphrodisiac. reduce obesity. Root and Bark tonic. useful in fevers. bark. burning sensation. tonic. Africa. on the laterite near the coast in N. Bark—causes boils . abundant in the Deccan. causes diarrhœa in large doses . thirst. Kanara. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. cure asthma. Ceylon. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. biliousness. Leaves—anthelmintic. Burma. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. seeds. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Leaves antipyretic. head-ache. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . causes cough. allays thirst (Yunani). abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. good in consumption and blood-diseases. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. China. See—Timbers. fruit. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . tonic to heart and brain . good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). :—Root-bitter. leaves. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Australia. vomiting. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. Leaves form a plaster to boils. LOC. Seed—astringent. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. wounds and ulcers. good in liver complaints. Fruit— cooling.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.. removes biliousness. Fruit Trees.

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