SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

cures itching. :—Common throughout the Stale . ulcers.5X2-2. Fl. cooling.—pod. Vidula. Sikkim. leprosy. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. . erysipelas. long. Manda-otte. G. ACACIA CONCINNA DC.-t. aphrodisiac. M. CHAR. :—E. DISTR. Western Peninsula. linear-oblong. Pegu. 7. antidysenteric. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Burma. relaxation of the uvula. tonic. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). anthelmintic.5-12. anti-pyretic.. Sk. overlapping. Himalayas up to 1700 m. given in elephantiasis. It is given in diarrhœa. :—Rajastan. Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sd. Tans. inflammations. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers.-July. Bhuriphena. Khair. Shikekai. M. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Fr.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Soap-pod tree. urinary and vaginal discharges. Phena. Kochi.8 cm. Deccan. wrinkled when dry . mouth troubles. throat diseases. prurigo. heaviness. See—Timbers. FAM.-6-10 . LOC. NS. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea.—bipinnate. Kanara (often on laterite). Dantadhavan. Khandesh Akrani S. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. piles. astringent to bowels. indigestion.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Khadira. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. :—An extensive woody climber. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Charmakusha. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. Country and Gujarat. Yajnika. gums. bronchitis. Lalkhair. COM. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. hypertrophy of tonsils. psoriasis. Kushthari. Dipta. LOC. along the coasts of Konkan and N. Saptata.—in fascicled globose heads. China. K. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). 5-10 cm. Ritha. leucorrhoea. Sk. leaflets 10-20 pairs. boils.. :—Throughout India. H. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. sore-throat and tooth-ache. Chikakai. Kanara forests. Sige-balli or kai. Kath-bole. fleshy when green. M. " Vata ". LOC. measles and other skindiseases. Malay Islands. " Kapha ". :—Common in the Konkan and N. In ulceration of the gums. Saradruma.-Mar. Fl. L. yellow. Shige. strengthens teeth. DISTR. acrid. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils.

LOC. Devababhul. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases.. LOC. piles. Sponge tree. Kari jali. HABITAT :—Moist situations. Kankri. detergent. inflammations. leucoderma. Stinking acacia. PARTS USED :—Bark. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. Arimeda. . tonic. Jheri baval. improves appetite. alexiteric. biliousness. Gum—sweetish. Gums and Resins. leucoderma. DISTR. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. ulcers. Vilavati kikar. cures stomatitis. Sind. often planted . digestible. caries of teeth. externally they are applied to leprous patches. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). not indigenous but naturalised. Gandhbabul. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . Sauna jali. :—E. prurigo. anthelmintic. See—Timbers. blood diseases. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. itching. FAM. Sk.pungent. Marudruma. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. anti-diarrhoeal. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). eczema. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. erysipelas. bronchitis. M. Girimeda. H. deobstruent. COM.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. cooling. expectorant and good emetic. burning sensation. NS. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. stomatitis. often cultivated. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . anti-dysenteric. Cassia flower. purgative. Internally they are aperient.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Pissibabul. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. blood-diseases. Gandhelo khair . ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. buboes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. ascites. G. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. erysipelas. In Philippines decoction. leaves and gum. cardio-tonic. anthelmintic. cures " Kapha. K. LOC. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. causes " Vata". Jali.

:—Annual. high. Apamarga. COM. in lax.-Jany. FAM. one-seeded. :—Throughout India. Chirchira. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. ascending. in elongate terminal spikes. Apang. Chalmari. elliptic obovate. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. Fr. Ksharamadhya. males. :—Common in the Deccan and S. M.—capsule. rounded at base. Khokali. Kharamanjiri. Agheda-di. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. Uttrane .5x2-4. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. Vasira. Sk. G. K..—June-Sept. Kantarika.9 m. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. clustered near the summit of spike. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. tropical Africa. The plant contains acalyphin. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Utranigida. brown.5 cm. oblong-cylindric. females. . enclosed in perianth smooth. hispid. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. small. branches long.—greenish white. NS. Khajoti. Kuppi. :—An erect herb 0. FAM. H. Kuppi-gida. 30-75 cm. about 50 cm. LOC. NS. M.—Nov.3-0. :—G. asthma. L. Fl.—Euphorbiaceæ. H. :—E.—Amarantaceæ.5 cm. Country. Sd. Fr. Ceylon. softly hairy. t. CHAR. angular. pneumonia and rheumatism. ovate or rhomboid-ovate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Prickly chaff-flower. DISTR. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. Arittamanjaria. stem stiff. Latjira . It is used in congestive headache.—monœcious. Chichra. long in fruit.5-4. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Var. M. t. elongate. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.— ovoid. erect herb. L. many. crenate-serrate.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. LOC. K.8-6. Philippines. minute.. 3.—utricle. COM. axillary spikes . few. Fl. Sd. brown. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. CHAR. erect. PROPERTIES AND LOC. perianth 4-5 segments. 2.57. Sk. Fl. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Khokla.3 X 2. Merkati.—truncate at apex. scattered. branches terete or quadrangular striate. pale-brown. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.—opposite. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. high. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. somewhat 3-nerved. Fl. Aghada . Vanchhikanto. smooth. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. and shining sepals with narrow white margins.

Gorbach . it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. blood diseases (Ayurveda). laxative. heating.9-1. epilepsy. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Ceylon. . abdominal pains. COM. kidney troubles. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. acute. long. piles. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. flowers and seeds. Sweet flag . LOC. creeping and branching. anthelmintic. ascites. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. PARTS USED : —Root. good for mouth diseases. thickened in the middle. hysteria. flatulence. America. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. bronchitis.8 X 1. toothache. laxative. 5-10 cm. Baluchistan. Throughout Asia. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. emmenagogue . piles. improves appetite. boils. America. Africa. sepals scarious.—Araceæ.—turbinate. useful in general weakness.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. and is considered useful in dropsy. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. rat-bite. bitter.7-3. fevers. inflammations. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. obtuse. Ugragandha. heating. Vekhand . Vacha. HABITAT :—Marshy places. expectorant. bright-green. Jatila. Fr. etc. stomatitis. throat. voice. Godavaj. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. prismatic. diuretic. top pyramidal. laxative. DISTR. emetic. Australia. green . leaves. LOC. heart diseases. Bitter. Gandhilovaj. improves appetite. anthers yellow. Europe and N. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. carminative. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. dyspepsia. :—Throughout India. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. spathe 15-75 cm. carminative. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. CHAR. G. H. itching. spadix. 0. leucoderma (Yunani). stomachic. liver and chest pains. FAM. tumours. thirst. bronchitis. delirium. slightly curved. brain-tonic. M. :—An aromatic herb . dysentery.8 cm. Baja . alexiterie. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. NS. inflammations. pungent. loss of memory. Bhutnashini. dysentery. carminative. Vekhand. useful in abdominal pains. See—Sacred Plants. Sk. L. skin eruption etc. "Vata".. Bach. Sikkim. K. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. useful in vomiting. margins wavy. Tropical Asia. long.. useful in dyspepsia.

Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism.—Lauraceæ. vomiting. Rukhdo . HABITAT':—Cultivated. LOC. in children. :—E. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children.—Bombacaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. useful in biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. H. Tudgensu . fever. FAM. dysentery. N. Deccan. M. colic. PARTS USED : —Root. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. G. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Kanara evergreen forests. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. LOC. Gorakamali. Goremlichora . COM. DISTR.. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Bukha. anti-pyretic. Monkey-bread tree. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. :—Western Peninsula. DISTR. Powder is very effective insecticide. It is a good remedy in asthma. Sk. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. In small doses it is carminative and nervine.:—Konkan. Gorakhchinch. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Gorakshi. Gujarat.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. K. NS. leaf and fruit. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. African calabash. LOC. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. etc. Haggodgimara. fevers and other maladies. NS. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Gopali. :—Grown in many places in India . Pisa. FAM. :—K. Panch-parnika. Brahmamlika. bark. indigenous in tropical Africa. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . See—Timbers. M. COM. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Baobab. Pichli. Gorakhaamli.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

Kalshish. S. aromatics or honey. diarrhœa. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. LOO. Anedhera. Piloshirish. stem. Ankol. Seeds—cooling. Ankoli. M. Juice—emetic. DISTR. anthelmintic.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. spermatorrhoea. :—Throughout India. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. NS. acute fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Fruit—laxative. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). and fruit. alterative. H. Karnapura. Philippines. carminative. alexipharmic . alexiteric. rat-bite. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . wasting diseases.) FAM. China. Onkla. See—Timbers. Ankola. :—Throughout the State. it is said to stop after-pains. Chinchola. Ankola. Tantia. NS. fish-poison. Ankoli. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). biliousness. useful in worms. Sk. heating. FAM. Kanara. Kullumavu. gleet. lumbago (Yunani). pungent. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Uddanaka. Tamraphala. Garso. Asroli. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Vamaka. leaves (rarely). Gudhapatra. Malaya. M. Kathora. often along banks of nalas in N.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Kalashirish. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Shirish. Dodda-Hombage. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. expectorant. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Sk. blood diseases. Kaloshirish. cures erysipelas. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. blood diseases. :—E. G. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. useful in inflammations. Shirisha. anthelmintic. Sirsul. hydrophobia. Ankola. Sirai. K. Ankota. Dridhakantaka. Root-bark— used in piles. cures " Kapha". dysentery. " Vata "-pain. inflammations. Root-bark poisonous. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Ankora. See—Timbers. LOC. commonly planted along roadsides. lumbago. Shankiniphala. Ceylon. G. Krishnashirisha. K. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Shirish. :—E. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. COM. COM. Kalosadasado. colic. indigestible. inflammations. Sage-leaved alangium. tonic.—Alangiaceæ. Ankotha.—Leguminosæ. H. Shyamala. . Sirisa. burning of body. Akoly. (Mimosaceæ). poisonous bites. aphrodisiac.

tumours. Rochaka. Bengal. B & C. Root—astringent. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. scabies. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. bark. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. Seeds—fattening. FAM. improves taste. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. weakness. and also in skin diseases . M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. occasionally used in fever. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. relieves tooth-ache. cooling. DISTR.—Liliaceæ. Onion. useful in vomiting. anthelmintic. skin-diseases. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). spleen diseases. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. maturant. G. biliousness. boils. catarrh. emollient. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). Bulb—tonic. leaves. ear-ache. Bark and seeds are astringent. LOC. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. piles. LOC. blood diseases. piles. stimulant and expectorant. dropsy. prescribed in ophthalmia. Oil is used in leprosy. Kanda. itching. Bark-bitter. given in piles. asthma. seeds. body pains. cures "Vata". usually planted. useful in malaria. which acts as a diuretic.. COM. ophthalmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR.K. alexiteric. tonic. excessive perspiration. Dungari. and chronic bronchitis . PARTS USED :—Bulbs. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). NS.: —Throughout India. appetiser. See—Vegetables. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. good in rat-bite. strengthens gums and teeth. :—Native country probably Persia. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. aphrodisiac. Burma. Bark— anthelmintic. The plant contains vitamins A. their smell useful in hemicrania. diarrhœa. LOC. . Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. volatile oil. See—Timbers. Ceylon. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. enriches blood. etc. inflammations. leucoderma. bleeding piles. syphilis. vomiting. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. stomachic. bronchitis. cultivated everywhere. Piyaz. Seeds—tonic to brain. flowers. etc. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). seeds. eruptions and swellings. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. deafness. Ulageddi. Leaves—good in night blindness. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy.:—E. scabies. Palandu. Flowers—aphrodisiac. paralysis. Rajapriya. used in leprosy.. erysipelas. epistaxis. Sk. It is an important garden crop.

Indian aloe. oleaginous . The plant contains vitamin C. asthma. lumbago. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. good for lumbago. thirst. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. epileptic fits. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. NS. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. Kanya. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. Bellulli. Korkand. H. LOC. aphrodisiac. alexipharmic. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. Sk. useful in inflammations. leucoderma. Ikshurmallika. Diuretic. M. Kuvarpatha. useful in diseases of eye and heart. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kumari. See—Vegetables. H. " Vata ". ALŒ VERA Linn. Ugragandha. thirst. PARTS USED :—Bulb. M. COM. Sk. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. LOC. leucoderma. NS. anthelmintic. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. troubles of spleen. Lasan. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Lasun. Lahsan. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. clears voice. heating. M. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. carminative. inflammation. thins the blood (Yunani). tonic. voice. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. sciatica. chronic fevers. body and joint pains. digestive. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. tumours. . HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. bronchitis. hemiplegia. Kapila. In Cambodia. Lashuna. fattening. complexion. improves appetite. Country. COM. coughs and other debilitating conditions. piles. It is an important garden crop. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. caries of teeth. Kattali. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. K. :—E. Lolisara. In pulmonary phthisis. Rasonaka. ear-ache (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. G. paralysis. low fevers. Lasan. Garlic. Ghi-kumari. K. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. FAM. Korphad.—Liliaceæ. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Kumari. In cases of diphtheria.—Liliaceæ. liver and lungs .16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. FAM.

Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. planted in Indian gardens . USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. Kadusale. isobarbaloin and emodin. Australia. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. tonic. alexiteric. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. useful in splean inflammation. simple or branched. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. C. purgative. methritis. Fl. scape longer than the leaves. ulcers (Ayurveda). tropical Africa. :—E. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. :—A perennial herb . asthma. used in fevers.—in dense racemes . pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. pale-green. anthelmintic. :—Throughout India. vomiting. Root. biliousness (Yunani). FAM. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Satwin. DISTR. Saptachhada. Jamaica.—sessile. leaves. H. Kaduhale. K. perianth cylindric . :—Wild along the coast in S. bronchitis. alterative. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. strangury. stem short thick. yellow. HABITAT :—Moist forests. digestive. piles. Ceylon. ophthalmia. scaly. L. tonic. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. milky juice. The plant contains aloin. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. common in the rain-forests of N. biliousness. Africa. LOC. skin diseases. liver troubles. Mediterranean. inflammations. Bitter . Kanara. spleen enlargement. lanceolate. Native of S. somewhat divided. also cultivated. NS. useful in eye-diseases. PARTS USED :— . It also acts as a mild purgative. Saptaparna. West Indian Islands. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. Java. aphrodisiac. pendulous. liver complaints. Br. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Chatian. pain in muscles. carminative. gonorrhœa. India. LOC. jaundice. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. fleshy. fattening. LOC. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. COM.—Apocynaceæ. Dita bark tree. Satian. Satwin. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. cooling. emollient and demulcent. wild along the coast. Hale. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. Barbados. margins spiny. purgative. tumours. crowded. E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. M. Sk. lumbago. PARTS USED :—Leaves. and it is largely imported into India. bark. DISTR.

laxative. Sk. diseases of the blood. H. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). heating. G.5 X 1. Kantalo dambho. Prickly amaranth. bitter. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn.— 3. Drug Com. leprosy. galactogogue. obtuse. Mullarave-soppu. piles. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. sudorific and febrifuge. also useful in catarrhal fever.. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. tropical countries. hallucination. alexiteric. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. bristles pointed. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. biliousness. Fr. FAM. boils and burns.). Ceylon. male calyx acute. LOC. :—Throughout India.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. stomachic. Kante math. blood diseases. :—An erect glabrous herb. Root—heating expectorant.8 cm. numerous. See—Timbers. diuretic. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. leucorrhoea. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Tandulibija. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. leucoderma. ovate. DISTR. ovoid. laxative. Apamarisha. K. ulcers. digestible. 30-60 cm. LOC. burning sensation. lanceolate. rat-bite. female calyx oblong. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. appetiser. antipyretic. rugose. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. Cholai. Tandulaja. Kantanu-dant. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. asthma. Bark—acrid. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. " tridosha " pain. often reddish. HABITAT :—In waste places. high. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. L. apiculate. useful in " Kapha ". bronchitis. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Pathyashaka. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. unisexual. tumours. good in diseases of the heart. anthelmintic. entire. rubbish heaps . Tandulja. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic.— capsule. Mulladantu.—Amarantaceæ. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables.2—7. antiperiodic and febrifuge. oleaginous. COM. M. CHAR.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. Fl. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. rubbish heaps and fields. also in fields. improves appetite. Kantanatia. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . . :—E. thickened at the top. NS. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. obtuse.3—3.

M. Jangli mehandi. Konkan rivers.—opposite. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Australia. Kandavardhan. Kurendika. COM. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Vikata. Kanthalla. DISTR. sessile. It is also used as an emmenagogue. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. pungent. Suran.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . laxative. Grows wild on the banks of S." blood troubles. Ceylon. erect or subscandent herb. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. NS. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). Sukaranda. depressed.—Nov. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. strangury . stomachic. Kandala. Deccan. Bharajambhul. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid.:— Konkan. used as an appetiser (Yunani). AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. China. Fr. :—E. Blistering ammania. :—Cultivated widely in the State. CHAR. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. H. tumours. appetiser. aphrodisiac. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. NS. Fl. L.—Lythraceæ. LOC. " Vata. harmful in "Kapha". vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. Sd. Suran. :—Throughout India in moist places. much narrowed at the base. Suran . Suran. FAM. elephantiasis .—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. increases appetite and taste. M. Malaya. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. high. Arshaghna. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. acrid. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Vatari. :—An annual. 8-65 cm. LOC. Gujarat and Kanara. removes " Kapha ". K. H. constipating. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Jalavgiyo. corm. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Tropical Africa. fevers etc. . In the Konkan. globose. Bitter and acrid . DISTR. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. FAM. abdominal pains. the plant.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Kuranti. red. enlargement of the spleen. COM. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. branches usually opposite. asthma. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Afghanistan. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. fresh or dried. useful in piles. stomachic. t. Sk.—capsule. bronchitis. G. G. Elephant's foot. LOC. Sk.—Araceæ. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Kuranda. Fl. causes itching sensation. Dadmari.

Gerubi. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakamari. Prithagbija. :—E. leaves. Sk. Kakamari. Crow-Fish Killer. H. Kakanashika. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. It is supposed to have restorative power. The plant contains Vitamins A.— subcoriaceous. sweet. cordate or truncate. . tumours. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). K.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Bark. Jermic. The seed contains vitamin A. also cultivated. M. leucoderma. dysentery. CHAR. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. bark vertically furrowed . See—Vegetables. USES :—Bark is alterative. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. broadly ovate. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. COM. NS. skin diseases. swollen peduncle of fruit. Kakkisoppugida . ringworm. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Fish-Louse Berry. Kaju. piles. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. G. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy.—in panicles 25-35 cm. corns and obstinate ulcers. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Kajutaka. Agni-krita. DISTR. Kanara. Corm is poisonous. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Sophara. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. COM. Kaju. Gova. Upapushpika. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . Sk. hot.. & A.—Anacardiaceæ. NS. Oils. M. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. digestible. ascites. H. aphrodisiac. :—E. ulcers. Cashew apple-nut. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. Kaju . G. flowers. FAM. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Garalaphala. Kakaphal. :—A native of tropical America.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh.5-12. equal to almond oil. 10-12 X 7. fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. Kakamari. . It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". See—Timbers. LOC. LOC. K. anthelmintic. 5-nerved. Govamba. FAM. many flowered. which is nutritious and emollient. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. and trace of C. L. Kakamari. long. B.—Menispermaceæ. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. Kakamari.

Creat. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests).—Acanthaceæ. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda.—Sept. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. a poison to fish (Yunani). Nelabevu gida. M. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Parvati. smooth. :—E. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. t. it is useful in jaundice. leaves and fruits. Bengal. H. DISTR. Mahateet. Kantak sanjika.—Bromeliaceæ. N. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. E. DISTR. native of Brazil (tropical America). causes cough and biliousness. M. COM. to a certain extent in Gujarat. . See—Fruit Trees. Kiriyata. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. cultivated. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. dioecious. :—E. Sk. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. K. K. Ananas hannu. Olen kirayat. G. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). petals absent. H. G. :—Khasia Hills. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. from Orissa to Ceylon. LOC. FAM. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Kanara. Ananasa. NS. Sk. It acts also as diuretic. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. Ananas. Ananas . FAM. LOC. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. black . Pine-apple . USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Kiryat. Olikiriyat. good expectorant. Ananas . and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. Bhuinimba. PARTS USED :—Roots.-Oct. LOC. Ama.) LOC. Fl. Kirata. also acts as a purgative. :—Konkan. Ananas. Mahatit. removes gases from the intestines . NS. fruits. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic .

Sundara. purple. Fr. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. high. :—E. :—Deccan. lateral lobes small. :—An erect branched annual 0. upper lip 2-toothed.—in dense whorls . Sd. Ceylon. clothed with woolly hairs . Karitumbe. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Plant is useful in general debility.-Nov. COM. dysentery. LOC. forming a spicate inflorescence.—Ghats. rose coloured. and N. oblong-lanceolate. white below. distant. Vaikunth. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. :—Throughout India. alterative. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla.2-1. acute. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. smooth. stem quadrangular. M. Gojivana. Chodhara. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. Fl. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. Br. FAM. Oshthaphala. C—2-lipped. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. acute at both ends . Malay Peninsula. t. Sk. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. PROPERTIES AND LOC. .—lanceolate. Green leaves. L.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Kanara. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.—nutlets.. Malabar Catmint.—Dec. polished brown. and certain forms of dyspepsia. approximate above. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. pale above. :—S. lower 3lobed.—many. pale beneath. Fr.—small.5 cm.—very thick. Fl. high. G. undulate. Fl. C—2-lipped. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . 6. linear-oblong. extensively used in Bengal. made into an electuary. yellowish brown. sometimes cultivated. tonic. CHAR. crenate-serrate. Karnatak. LOC. K. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. and anthelmintic. thickly woolly.9 m. dyspepsia and fever from teething. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. HABITAT. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. solitary. rugosely pitted. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. bracts lanceolate. L. DISTR. lower lip very large and broad . DISTR.-Oct.—Labiatæ. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. NS. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. :—Konkan and Kanara.3-0.— capsule. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. very small.3-10 X 2-4. distant. Sundraphul. Alamoda. 1. t. Fl. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. ellipsoid.8 m. :—An erect shrub.

erysipelas. G. :—E. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. Dabria. K. increases biliousness . Kanara border. K. astringent to the bowels. Dyes. Fruit—sweet. bark. G. bark. (Yunani). Sitaphala. :—A native of West Indies . FAM. improves taste and appetite . Sk. Sitaphala. PARTS USED :—Root. enriches blood .:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Dhavala. stimulant. Bahubijika. increases muscular strength. Sitaphala. Bakla. Dhamora. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. fruit and seeds. LOC. Durangi. Sitaphal. Ata. Ceylon. DISTR. Dhava. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. COM. expectorant. Root—cathartic. Seeds—difficult to digest. sedative to heart. Krishnabija. Sweet-sop. causes fever and furunculosis . LOC. Amritphala. Pitaphala. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. tasty. cooling. NS. Anuram. Custard apple. leaves and fruits. flavoury. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . NS. Damora. Dindala. LOC. good tonic. cooling . useful in liver complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. and eyesores. Dhava. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration.—Combretaceæ. M. Dindiga. enriches blood. H. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . H. produce ulcers in the eye. Bark is bitter. applied to skin-diseases. Sk. Sitaphala.—Anonaceæ. now cultivated throughout India. Bejjalu. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. PARTS USED :—Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. Bark is a powerful astringent. chronic diarrhœa. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. :—E. Anan. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Shushkanga. COM. Dhavada. Sharipha. Sugar apple. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Dohu. Button Tree. FAM. useful in anaemia. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. DISTR. M. abortifacient. :—Throughout the greater part of India. leaves. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). discharges. Dhavada.

" Vata". from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Tennaserim. Sacred Plants. " Kapha". cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Kadam. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Jajpugri. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Kadamb. burning sensation. galactagogue. M. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . It is generally considered tonic. COM. LOC. Kadamb . Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Sk. See—Fruit Trees. Kadamb. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Chandkuda. :—W. Ashokari. sweet. strangury. Sprouts—acrid. Burma. saline. Chandala. bitter. alexiteric. Karnapuraka. PARTS USED :—Seeds.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. common near Yellapur. FAM. M. COM NS. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. PROPERTIES AND LOC. causes biliousness when ripe. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. indigestible. vulnerary. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. PARTS USED:—Bark. Malayan Peninsula. K. Kadamba. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. biliousness.—Rubiaceæ. Kadamb . They are detergent and their powder. Niv. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. LOC. Bairi. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. DISTR. sprouts and fruits. NS. Kadubale. Surabhi. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Nadija. Malay Islands.—Moraceæ. cooling. Sk. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Kanara . astringent to bowels. wild or cultivated. sap of the tree. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac. In eye inflammations. Ceylon. Nipa. H. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. is a good hairwash. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. Valkala. DISTR. Ajjanpatte. See—Timbers. :—G. LOC. K. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. often cultivated. good in uterine complaints. Pegu. Upas Tree. FAM. H. USES:—In the Konkan. . stomachic. Peninsula. Chandkuda. blood diseases. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Fruit—heating. acrid. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. mixed with gram-flour. Fodder Plants. Kaduve.

H. W. Brahmakoshi. Shimbika. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. abdominal pain. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Ajmud. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. used in anasarca and colic. fever with cough. Afghanistan. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). cauline 3-partite. LOC. Bhuchanak.—Umbelliferæ. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. " Vata " . good in ophthalmia. and γ-antiarin. urinary discharges. LOC. Bori ajmud. Sk. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. cure " Kapha ". branching. hiccup. N. DISTR. laxative. Bhuimug. ascites.— radial. See—Vegetables. tonic. Glucoside apiin is present. Abyssinia. COM NS. Nelkadle. Karafs.5-2 mm. Java and Malaya. M. Fr. W. Moda. vomiting. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). H. FAM. cure asthma.—1. rectal troubles. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Mandapi. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. vittae broad. β-antiarin. Monkey-nut. Ajmoda . astringent to bowels .— in umbels.4 m. Fl. rheumatism. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. CHAR. scorpion and other stings. scabies. Ground-Pea-nut.:—Foot of the N. Asia. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Mungphali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Ajamoda. heart and spleen diseases. anthelmintic. apex toothed . Markati. appetiser. Ugragandha. L. chest-pains. Africa. :—E. bronchitis. The plant contains vitamins A. aphrodisiac. amenorrhœa. abortifacient.. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. Europe. pedicels 6-16 . vomiting. M. Seeds—carminative. . Celery. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. high. See—Timbers. K. Fibres. tooth-ache.3-2. :—A biennial plant. nasal catarrh (Yunani). APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. :—E. G. COM. ridges narrow. erect. specially near large cities. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. good for heart. Bhuimug. useful in ophthalmia. improve appetite . Wild celery. 0. traces of B and C. Snehabijaka. rays 5-10. NS. G. segments once or twice trifid. Bhuimug-chana. inflammations. Bodi ajomoda. Chinimung.

—Palmæ. Chikka.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. COM. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Areca palm. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Siam. Betta. aphrodisiac. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. In French Guinea. used for eye-inflammations. G. Pugiphal. Country. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Betel-nut palm. K. DISTR. Adki. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Sopari. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Kanara. improves appetite and taste. Pophal. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Akota. Chhataphala. indigestible. removes pus (Yunani). Poga. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. NS. removes foul breath. Areca-nut palm. Hopari. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. bleeding gums. giddiness. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Seed cooling. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. FAM. Malabar. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. H. digestive. Gum pungent. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Kaungu. :—Madras. leaves (rarely). Assam. :—E. Sk. Oils. cardiotonic. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. USES. M. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Indo-Malaya. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. LOC. Gujarat and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight.. See—Food Plants. Burma. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. gleet. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Supari.:—Extensively grown in N. DISTR. cooling. Tantusara. Supari. LOC. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. PARTS USED :—Root. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. LOC. useful in urinary disorders. Chikkan. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Deccan. . diuretic. fairly largely in the Konkan. Suppiyari. Bengal. LOC. seeds. M. emmenagogue. gum. Nut astringent. Mysore. laxative.

—all the year. prickly. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. branching. oblong-ovoid 2. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. seeds and yellow juice. Juice—used as a collyrium. and in pertussis and asthma. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. high.—Papaveraceæ. India. glaucous herb . spinous. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). . LOC. Svarnakshiri.3-0.5-5 cm. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Fr. L. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. sinuately pinnatifid. Pita-pushpa. H. Datturi. prickly. See—Timbers. M. Plant enriches blood.). stem 0. jaundice and cutaneous affections.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Daruri. yellow. inflammations and bilious fevers. purgative. It is also diuretic. Brahma dandi. Pirangi datturi. Seeds—purgative. cures leprosy. arecaidine. Fl. Bila dhatura. Sd. Srigalkanta. Ind. emetic. 2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. oblong. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. Shialkanta. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. destroys worms . globose. FAM. Fruit Trees. DISTR.— terminal. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. useful is strangury. opening by 4-6 valves.5-18 cm. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated.—capsule. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. Root anthelmintic. veins white. juice yellow. :—E. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. PARTS USED :—Root. arecoline. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. t. relieves blisters. Mexican prickly poppy . CHAR. COM. stem clasping. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph.8 cm. Fl. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Balurakkisa. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. sedative. Indigenous in tropical America. This is said to bring the worm out at once.—thistlelike. G. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. nauseant. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient.—numerous. USES :—Root is an alterative. netted. Sk.12 m. :—A glabrous. 7. Seeds are laxative. Darudi. and guvacine. diam. antidote to various poisons. LOC. K. expectorant and demulcent. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). NS. various skin-diseases. brownish black. Bharbhand.5-3.

Java. Gujarat and S. Kitamari. NS. Dridhadaru. Adumuttadagida. perhaps a native of Bengal. (sometimes even larger). cultivated. peduncles stout.—in sub-capitate cymes.—deltoid with cordate base . Varghoro. K. pubescent outside. Gandali. K. Hastivalli. tubular. t. G. striate. M.5-30 x 6. t. Kiramar. stems stout. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. Ajantri. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Fr. DISTR. Deccan and S.— globose apiculate. In synovitis.8-7. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. gonorrhœa. weak. Sk.5 cm. tube inflated.— Aug. W.— 3. strangury. long and as broad as long. powdered root is given with milk. Samardar sokh. M. :—A slender perennial. :—A very large climber. :—Bengal.—Convolvulaceæ. M. anthelmintic. :—E. useful in " Vata".3-2 cm. infundibuliform. L. COM. bracts large . ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. long. long.—solitary.. Fl. ovate glabrous above.5-4.—Aristolochiaceæ. oblongellipsoid. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. Samudraballi. reniform or broadly ovate. Bracteated Birth-wort. Elephant Creeper. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. white-tomentose. Fl. stems. Dhuma-patra.-Nov. the bands silky pubescent outside. . G. " Kapha" fevers. LOC.-Sept. NS. tropical Africa.— 7. base cordate with wide sinus . HABITAT. perianth 2. FAM. white-tomentose beneath. long. Leaves are maturative. COM. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. M. LOC.5 cm. Kidamari.3 cm. used in gleet.—capsule. :—Throughout India. :—E. H. base cordate. 1. Kidamar. Arabia. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.:—Konkan. See—Ornamental Plants. Sd. Fr. Shyambhuna. glabrous inside. Soge. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. Country. Ganda.3-25 cm. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). LOC. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. Fl. Vridhadaraka. H. DISTR. chronic ulcers (Yunani). painful joints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . white-tomentose L. rose purple. Peninsula. Fl. Sk.—Aug. aphrodisiac. Samudrashok. 12-ribbed . Samudrapatrashoh. FAM. Samandarka phal. with revolute margins. CHAR. Samudrashosh. Country. tip linear dark purple. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. pedicel with a large bract at the base. Krimighni. base subglobose. diuretic . C—5-6. absorptive. prostrate. Konkan. CHAR. Ceylon. Kitakaba.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet.

ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Indian Birth-wort. joint-pains. also useful in dropsy. alexiteric. Ishvari. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. M. CHAR.—Nov. bitter. purgative (Yunani). and is also applied externally to the abdomen. perianth greenishwhite. slender. Country. emmenagogue. Nagduna. Nakuli. Manjipatri. Nilpushpa. 3. Mastaru. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). COM.5x7. M. . Mother or Mugwort. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. M. H.. Sugandha. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Nagdamani. FAM.5 cm. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Nepal. base vaiable. entire with undulate margins. 6-valved. biliousness. Dovana. long with globose inflated base. Ceylon. Seeds useful in inflammation. K.—Compositæ. :—E. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Sk. COM. Stem long. Sk. Dona. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. tonic. DISTR. :—A twining shrub. Bengal. woody at the base. bract opposite the pedicel. dry cough. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. Sapsan. Saraparni.—flat. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. obovate oblong 10-12.3-2. Arkamula. LOC. LOC.—in few flowered axillary racemes. — capsule. The plant contains an alkaloid. L.8-10 X 1. Majtari. Fl.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.—variable linear oblong. Indian wormwood. The plant contains an alkaloid. Arkamula. Fr. PARTS USED :—Roots.5 cm. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. NS. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. t. Flea-bane. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. :—E. globose-oblong. Sd.—Aristolochiaceæ. K. NS. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. G. Fl. Isvara balli beru .. leaves and seeds. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children." pains in the joints. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Ruhimula. dyspnoea of children. useful in " Tridosha. Isharmula.5 cm. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. winged. reaching 4. Gathona. H. :—Western Peninsula.:—Konkan and S. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Dhor-davana. grooved.

:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. Panos. white tomentose beneath. deobstruent and antispasmodic. LOC. Kujja. " Vata".—Jany. Panas. Halasina. Externally it is used in fomentations. " Kapha". The young leaves are used in skin diseases. HABITAT. The unripe fruit is astringent. . Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. Seeds sweet. 3-fid or entire.4 m. oleaginous. LOC.— achene. FAM. Tage. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. COM. appetiser. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. temperate Asia.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. leprosy. deeply pinnatisect. Java. Jack-Orange wood. G. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Chakki. H. DISTR. cooling.-Hilly districts. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. hairy. K.—heads ovoid or subglobose. Kantakaphala. alexiteric.5-5 em. aromatic. asthma. aphrodisiac. Fl. aphrodisiac. Kanthal. "Vata". Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Ceylon. tonic. Thailand (Siam). DISTR. 0. Panesa.:—A perennial shrub. petioled. See—Timbers. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. but rather difficult to digest. fattening. although very nutritious. often planted along roadsides in N. LOC. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. enriches blood. Fl. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. itching (Ayurveda).10x2. t. :—Widely cultivated. oblong ellipsoid. ovate. diuretic. inner hermaphrodite. An infusion is given as a tonic. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Fruit Trees and Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. tonic. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. upper leaves smaller. :—E. Phanas. Vanas. NS. Kanara. fertile. Phanasa. ripe fruit laxative. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. high. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. involucral bracts villous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. minute. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. outer flowers female. L— lower leaves 5. toothed or again pinnatisect. stems leafy. grown in gardens also. :—Konkan. Ghats. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). pubescent above.6-2. Fr. base lobed. fruit and seeds. Jack-fruit tree. aphrodisiac. Skandaphala. solitary or 2.—Urticaceæ. useful in biliousness. M. LOC. asthma and brain diseases. cures "Kapha". The plant contains an essential oil. constipating (Ayurveda). lobes entire. lanceolate. ulcers.

Country. LOC. Indies. Svetmuli. Java and Australia. COM. dark brown.-Feb. lanceolate. appetiser.3-2. K. fragrant. Satamulika. white.—in simple raceme. JAVANICA Baker. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.. L. :—Extremely scandent. PARTS USED:—Root. Sd. valvate in bud. galactogogue. LOC. :—An erect undershrub. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd.5 cm.ovoid. 0. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. :—Introduced from the W. :—Deccan. CHAR. :—E. t. Kuraki. Tropical Africa. . linear. thorn. Fl. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. biliousness. M. undershrub. oblong. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. Svadurasa. A fibre is extracted from the plants.-Dec. tapering at both ends. Satavari.000 m. in the Himalayas. tumours. globose. M. COM. Satavari. spines recurved. M. long. naturalised in many parts of India. oleaginous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. inflammation. blood and eye diseases.5-5 cm. useful in dysentery. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. throat complaints. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.—June-Sept.—orange in axillary umbels. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. Flower is a good styptic. straight. See—Ornamental Plants. common in the Deccan. leaves and flowers. astringent to bowels. Asual Shatavari. L. narrowed at both ends. curved. DISTR. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Fl. indigestible. cladodes in tufts. with coma.—opposite 7. Fl. Fr. tonic.— follicles. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. and moist monsoon forests. S. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . Sk.—Liliaceæ. Kaktundi.5-10 X 1. Fl.—berry. 2.9-1. red when ripe. stomachic. FAM. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. alterative. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. DISTR. Fr. cooling.—linear with a stout spinous spur. up to 1. PARTS USED:—Root.2 m. Siprimuli. erect.5 cm. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. solitary. Satavari. Shatavari. aphrodisiac. NS. abundant round about Poona. root-stock tuberous. :—G. from Kashmir eastwards. high. C. segments. cultivated as ornamental plant. t. 7. Var. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. FAM.—Asclepiadaceæ. thin. NS. CHAR. spinous. H.—lobes reflexed in flower.

applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa.6-1. Leaves good for cough. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. NS. Kolavalike. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . dysentery. anuria.:—Common throughout the State. useful in diarrhœa. sedative to gravid uterus . widely 2-lipped. subquadrangular. tube. 18 X 3-3. thickened at the nodes. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). L. gonorrhoea. M. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. DISTR. Ceylon. long. The root is sweet. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Vishnu Taila. Konkan and Deccan. diuretic. Used in diarrhœa.) LOC.) FAM. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. LOC. hairy. night-blindness (Ayurveda). ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. bracts. Gokhran. K.2 cm. scalding of urine. improve blood (Yunani). LOC. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. Seeds fattening. upper 2-fid. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. aphrodisiac . lower deeply 3-lobed. 4 inner small. Kak-Kokilaksha. and alterative tonic. Fl. 4-8 seeded. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. antispasmodic. leprosy. urinary calculi and discharges. high. abdominal troubles. aphrodisiac. Talamkhana. anæmia.5 cm. H. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. . Kalavankabija. pointed. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. hypnotic. USES :—The root is refrigerant. Vikhara. aphrodisiac. ascites. Narayana Taila. Fl. useful in jaundice and anasarca. lanceolate.—sessile. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. demulcent. tonic.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally.. And. tonic. galactogogue. Ikshura.—June-Jany. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. stems fasciculate.— purple blue. C. expectorant. tropical and S. Fr.— Acanthaceæ. Africa. t. ciliate .—capsule. :—Throughout India. 3. gleet. colic. Phalaghrita.8 cm. Gokhalkanta. inflammations. (Yunani. Vajrakantaka. Gokshura. erect. linear oblong. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. eyediseases. leaves and seeds. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. Seeds cooling. hispid with long hairs. laxative. lips sub-equal. abruptly swollen at the top. and dysentery. thirst. like leaves. Ekharo. tonic. Talamkhan. constipation. 0. :—G. Talim-khana. biliousness.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. USES. aphrodisiac . :—A stout herb. 2 outer large. CHAR. HABITAT:—Swampy places. tonic. Shrigalghant. Sk.

branches many ascending. fruits. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. causes biliousness (Yunani). K. striate. . Tamarak. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. 2-lipped. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. DISTR.. Karmar. Fl. indigestion. acute. Fruits are used in pickles. :—A glabrous. Nirbrahmi. causes biliousness. Bama. leprosy. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). anæmia. Mudgara. Kamaranga. Brahmi. Fr. Kanara villages. Manduki. astringent to bowels. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. emetic. Karmare . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. Kamrang. capsule. tonic. M.5-10 mm. rarely wild. found wild near N. See—Fruit Trees. when fresh. Karuka. fleshy. :—E. obovate-oblong or spatulate. H. H. allays thirst. COM. Thyme-leaved graticula . BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. sessile. Brahmi. with shining dots. t. heats the body (Ayurveda). COM. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. oblong. heating. LOC. Sk. creeping herb. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. FAM. Coromandel gooseberry. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. L. astringent to bowels . "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). C. Sk. Brahmi. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. pale. laxative. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Barambhi. K. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. pungent. solitary. Ceylon and all warm countries. Darehuli. Carambola apple. perhaps a native of Malaya.—Scrophulariaceæ. also used in diarrhœa.:—Konkan and Deccan. Fruit sour. Kirihuli. M. 6-25 X 2. Karmal. useful in bad ulcers. pale blue or white. axillary.—Oxalidaceæ. stems rooting at the nodes.:—Throughout India in wet places. digestible. succulent. LOC. HABITAT :—Damp places. NS. ovoid. Sd. ascites. sour. Fl.:—E. Kamarakha. Soumyalata. NS. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. decussate. Jany-May. enlargement of spleen. "Vata". Jalneam. inflammations. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . lobes equal spangled. Safed-Kammi. DISTR. black dotted : entire. Kamarakh. dried fruit is given in fevers.) FAM. Shiral.

epilepsy and hoarseness. Sk. inflammations. itching. H. Sk. Leaf-juice. H. They are used in dropsy. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Guggula. leaves and seeds. N. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). wounds. Guggul. purgative. Jamalgota. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Devdhup. Dec. alexiteric. anaemia. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. anthelmintic. DISTR. leucoderma. K. the upper small. Peninsula. CHAR. COM. Kanara. M. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. COM. Dantika. is used as a local application in rheumatism. jaundice (Ayurveda). Burma. epilepsy and hoarseness. Sd. L. conjoined with petroleum. enlarged spleen. obovoid. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. LOC. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. mottled. useful in pains. or in monsoon forests.. Bengal. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Danti. Danti. ellipsoid. Dantimul. Rechani. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Hakum. :—Dry open Deccan plains. capsule. :—A stout undershrub. Assam. 2-glandular. LOC. M. Fr. leucoderma. smooth. Chota Nagpur. :—Bihar. W. hairy. all male or with a few females below. yellowish. . Seeds are poisonous. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. useful in insanity. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient.9-1. Fl. Root and leaves are cathartic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Danti. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. K. NS. piles. Guggula. of three 2-valved cocci. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. Vishodhini. aphrodisiac . NS. abundant on the hills of Karanja. purifies blood. 0. :—E. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. sinuate. Malaya. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis.—Burseraceæ. Fl. good in scabies. syphilis . G. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. diseases of skin and abdomen. Gum gugul. Mukul. Uddipta. Gugul. FAM. Danti. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. t. Guggula. branching from the roots. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC.8 m. anasarca and jaundice. in monsoon forests of N. toothed. the lower large. Jatala. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. FAM. Kaduharalu. high. :—G. diuretic.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. often palmately 3-5 lobed.—Euphorbiaceæ.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

used in dry cough. used in strangury. asthma. Bark—astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. FAM. :—E. Budekumbalkai. urinary discharges and calculi. ulcers. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Kumaon.—pod. NS. bark and flowers. t. anthelmintic. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. thirst. Burma.-Feb. Shikhivardhaka. Root. fever. Buds—indigestible. Sd. used as gargle in stomatitis. M. 15-20 X 1. LOC. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fruit—antiperiodic. Seeds— cooling. not indigenous. given' to corpulent persons. leprosy. biliousness. removes foul taste from mouth. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. aphrodisiac. LOC. Kushmanda. cures biliousness. tonic. leprosy. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. heart tonic (Ayurveda). leucoderma. tuberculous glands. menorrhagia. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. DISTR. wounds and ulcers. cough. flat. Kohala. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). thirst. blood diseases. H. in dyspepsia and flatulence. G. astringent. aphrodisiac. Dorokaru.-Apl. burning sensation. Bhuru-koholu. LOC. Fr. dysmenorrhoea. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. seeds. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. cardiac and general tonic. Karkutika. China.8-2. vaginal discharges. Koholu. anal troubles. PARTS USED :—Fruit. See—Ornamental Plants. cough. oil from the seeds. There are two varieties. used in piles. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. enriches blood.10-15. eye diseases. it is also anti-fat remedy. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. blood impurities. cures strangury. USES :—Root-decoction is given. tonic to liver. " Tridosha". :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. . Fl. tuberculous glands. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Sikkim. urethral discharges. diuretic. COM. Golkaddu. blood diseases . :—Cultivated throughout the State.—Cucurbitaceæ. red and white. cures biliousness. Kudimah. K. appetising. dehiscent. Timisha. Kondha. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. tonic. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Ash pumpkin. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. Tallow-White gourd. "Kapha".5 cm. DISTR. asthma.

haemoptysis. pubescent. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. bitter. it is also useful in insanity. with a strong odour of turpentine. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Oil—is soporific. upper subsessile. Bhamurdi. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A.—Compositæ. . densely glandular.—Jany. M. often incised or lyrate. Kakarunda. good for the brain and liver. Kalhar. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. heart diseases.-Apl. :—Annual herb. Fr. LOC. t. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Country. S.-achene. Fl. Kakaronda. Ceylon. BLUMEA LACERA DC. 0. Australia. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. Konkan. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. China. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. Sk. NS. mixed with black pepper. fevers. laxative. L. oblong. cooling. inner bracts with green midrib. it is given in bleeding piles. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. blood diseases. Pilokapurio. sharply serrate-dentate. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). LOC. Kukurbanda.—the lower ones petioled. and diuretic. thirst. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. H. good in syphilis (Yunani). sweetish. asthma. Kanara. Jangali-muli. etc. DISTR. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. stem erect. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. phthisis. catarrh. CHAR. base tapered.:—In plains south of Bombay.3—0. pungent.—heads many. ash colored. Malaya. Deccan. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. high. Kukkurdru. Mriduchhada. Tropical Africa. pappus white. See—Vegetables. FAM. Fruit is made into confections. Tamrachuda. M. :—Throughout plains of India. Fl. elliptic-oblong. finely silky pubescent on both sides. astringent. not ribbed. LOC. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. :—G. anti-pyretic. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. and nutritious tonic.9 m. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. febrifuge. cures bronchitis. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. COM. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot.

H. Fl. green above. Tad. generally found in poorer soils. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . native of tropical Africa. COM. stem prostrate or ascending. India. astringent to bowels . P. and dropsy. Raktakanda. PARTS USED :—Root. Vasu. M. abdominal pains. inflammations. L. Santhikari. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. margins undulate. Talimara. DISTR. Fan Palm. Plant contains large quantities of pot. gonorrhœa. Tad. Burma. blood impurities. CHAR. —Nyctaginaceæ. "Vata". USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. Asavardu. Seeds—tonic. Madhurasa. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). common in S.—Palmæ. Uttar Pradesh. Kolaba and Thana districts. anæmia. K. (Ayurveda). cooling . useful in ophthalmia. FAM. t. G. whitish beneath.3—2 cm. Dholia-saturdo. Desert Palm. cultivated. Indian Archipelago. Shothaghni. FAM. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. DISTR. alexiteric. COM.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. LOC. carminative. pinkish. Punarnava.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. useful in biliousness. Sk. spleen enlargement. asthma. It produces a very marked and persistent. useful in lumbago.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Fl.— Nov. alterative. LOC. sub-orbicular. :—E. Celyon. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Hogweed. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. . Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. heart diseases. in pain of joints. expectorant. Brab tree. Tala. Palmyra Palm. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. Fr.—in unequal pairs at each node. cultivated and self-sown.—in corymbose umbels. H. bluntly 5-ribbed. tumours. scabies. leucorrhoea. Tad. Sk. HABITAT :—A weed. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). :—A diffuse herb. Moto-satodo. 1. Ceylon. It is used in jaundice. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. Persian Gulf. Ghetuli. root large. :—Tropical India. Varshabhu.. LOC. Kommegida.—clavate. K. Dhvajadruma. fusiform. G. "Kapha" heating. Africa and America. Bitter. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. very glandular . Lekhyapatra. M. Leaves— appetiser. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. Baluchistan. NS. :—E. very small. leaves and seeds.

binding. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. fruit and gum. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Liquors. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. K. Loban. Bark-decoction.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. cooling. allays. invigorating. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). tonic. thirst. expectorant. useful in intestinal troubles. also used as antiperiodic. Moddi. LOC. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. " Vata". allays thirst. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. fevers. used for boils. also found in Belgaum District. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Guggali. Vishesha-dhupa. heals wounds . strengthens teeth. leaves. NS. removes "Kapha". Guggula. Dhup. cures dysentery. See—Timbers. Salai. Kundur. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. aphrodisiac. skin diseases. antiglycosuretic. causes " Kapha ". bitter. DISTR. causes headache. purifies blood (Yunani). expectorant. biliousness. laxative. bad throat. antipyretic. Mukulsalai. mouth-sores. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. COM. Sambrani. Dup. Fruit—aphrodisiac. asthma.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. fattening. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. with a little salt added. ulcers . cough. Indian olibanum tree. diuretic . Gum—hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. useful in skin and blood diseases. burning sensation. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. "Vata". useful in biliousness. antibilious . flowers. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. scabies. fruits. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. dry. thirst and scalding of urine. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . Sk. with a good flavour. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. convulsions. :—E. blood complaints . alexiteric. aphrodisiac. H. juice. Salphali. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. FAM. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. purifies blood. Fruit—cooling. Salgond. intoxicating. hot. LOC. antidysenteric. Gums and Resins. allays asthma. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . diaphoresis. Dhupam. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). if taken regularly acts as laxative. PARTS USED :—Bark.—Burseraceæ. . fatigue. fattening. may cause vomiting. flowers.. Sugars. bronchitis. vaginal discharges. M. Salpe. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. Salashi. improves taste. intoxicating. Fermented juice—tonic. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Luban. G. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. tonic. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). Gum is of five kinds . helps delivery.

Sk. Broach. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). G. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. lessen oedema of body. Kaira. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Black-True mustard. Kari Sasive . In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. spleen. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Surat. appetiser. Rajika. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. cause burning . HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. anthelmintic . bechic. India. Seeds-laxative. Seeds— remove cough tumours.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. cure enlargement of spleen. cure skin-dissases. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. spasmodic. . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. good for throat complaints. Gums and Resins. cure nose. if swallowed whole they are laxative. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). dispel fever . The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. FAM. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). vermicide. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. COM. Mohori. NS. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. K. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. and toothache. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Dharwar and Belgaum. Sarshapa. M. See—Timbers. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. increase appetite . used with butter in syphilis . Seeds act as digestive condiment . It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. :—Cultivated in India. See—Condiments and Spices. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. rheumatism. chiefly in Nasik. Asuri. Jwalanti. increase bile. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. good in cough and for inflammations. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. LOC. LOC. Kali-rai. biles. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. DISTR. H. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. kill external parasites. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. Taramira . Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. :—E. Rai. internal congestions.—Cruciferae. eye-troubles. " Vata". stomachic. ear. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. Khandesh.

—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. glabrous . Sk. Shivlingi.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng.—yellowish brown.:—Throughout India. It is used in bilious attacks. Suviraka. FAM. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Philippines. CHAR. bluish green. Lingaja. Fr. ovate-oblong. DISTR. Fl. green and scabrid above. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. COM. Gauli. stem grooved. diam. :—Deccan. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. COM. of Shivaling shape . Asana. Asana. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Ekadivi. Sd.—Euphorbiaceæ. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Australia. and in fevers with flatulence. Kaj. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Patharphoda. streaked with broad vertical lines . LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. corolla as in the male . H. Gunjan. hemiplegia. Mullu-siru Honne. tropical Africa. :—G. Kassi. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. margins sinuate denticulate. 5-lobed. t. S. FAM. female flowers solitary. LOC. H. heating. NS. See—Timbers. bitter.. subsessile. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills..— Aug-Sept. 1 . bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. lobes oblong lanceolate. Sk. 5 cm. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Asana. corolla companulate. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin.— membranous. smooth. Ekalkanto. Kavodi. Mahavira. southward to Ceylon. deeply cordate base. NS. :—An annual scandent herb. M. Ishawara-Shivalingi. Mauritius. long. Chandra. tendrils 2-fid : L. pungent. K. Malaya. :—G. Asana. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. or few or many. bark. 10-15 cm. Apastambhini. globose. Goge.—baccate. hot. Fl. . in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. Gargumaru. Manj. Lingini. useful in "Vata". alterative. 3—2 . 5-partite. Country. M.. LOC. paler and smooth beneath. Shivalingi. M. Khaja. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. lumbago. Shivavalli. Tans. Garige.

—swollen and octagonal at the base. lower usually simple. smooth. Char.—pendant. Char. with opposite branches . K. Charoli.—small. high. astringent to bowels. M. thirst. upper 3-5-7 foliate. Fl. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Leaf-juice digestive. occasionally compound. See—Ornamental Plants. K. the older light-coloured. L. carminative. Country. The bark is bitter and poisonous. constricted in the middle. Paira. CHAR.) FAM. :—Konkan.3-1. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. Lonnahadakana gida. useful in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. seeds. buds with root. purifies blood. leaves. crenate or serrate. Panphuti. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Fl. Deccan. allays . Pyalchar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. Sd. S. M. elliptic. fattening. "Vata" and biliousness. when punctured. Deccan. Char.—variable. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . lobes triangular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda).2 m. alexipharmic. t. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Kolegeru. COM. gum (rarely). Asthibhakshya. decussate. aphrodisiac. Murukali. Charpoppu. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. PARTS USED :—Roots. cardio-tonic. Parnabija. S. expectorant. Cambodia. Lalana. Tapaspriya. inflammations. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. DISTR. bruises. Zakhi-haiyat. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. Dhanu. speckled with white. FAM. C. LOC. binding. Country. Thailand (Siam). ulcers. :—G. laxative. :—H. M. in large panicles. It is a disinfectant. Stems obtusely 4-angled. boils and bites of venomous insects. fevers. cures blooddiseases. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. HABITAT :—Dry. leaflets ovate. DISTR. :—Native of tropical Africa. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). :—Hot and drier parts of India. Piyal. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". analgesic. :—Konkan. Sk. purgative. H. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Sk. Rajadana. reddish purple.—Crassulaceæ. Cochin-China. NS. LOC.. Burma. Panphui. LOC. Charoli. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. COM. deciduous open forests. fruit. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb.—Jany.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. cooling. younger reddish. Gujarat. burning sensation on body. NS. Snehabija. vomiting.—Anacardiaceæ. also wild. Priyal. Fr. M. tonic. the Dangs.

cures excessive perspiration. seeds. M. Dyes. dysmenorrhoea. useful in piles. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Chichra. Fruit and seed—hot. relieves abnormal thirst. dysentery. ascends to 1200 m. Yajnika. lessens lumbago. Gum—astringent to bowels. cure tumours. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). Muttala. useful in syphilis. Tripatrak. eye diseases. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. tonic. lessens biliousness. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. See—Timbers. good in fevers. gonorrhoea. anthelmintic. Khakhrao. diseases of anus. Flowers—cure " Kapha".) FAM. Bark—appetiser. LOC. hydrocele. topically in piles and hydrocele. leaves. India. aperient used in urinary discharges. NS. stomachic. colic. Bastard teak. Kshatadru. pterygium. buboes. Khakera. stomatitis. used in liver disorders. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Palas. burning urine. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds tonic to body and brain. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. piles. LOC. digestible. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Palas. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. :—E. Fruit and seeds—oily. good in biliousness. gum. leprosy. Dhak. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Kinshuk. Khakda. if chewed. laxative. strangury. piles. Ceylon. lessens inflammations. cold and cough. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. tonic to liver. corneal opacities. Leaf—very astringent.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Kuntz. Bark—appetiser. inflammations. Muttuga. carminative. pimples. expectorant. bark. G. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. good in dysentery. emmenagogue. COM. tumours. dry. cough. gout. diuretic . abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Oils. Palash. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. biliousness. flowers. cures ulcers and tumours. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. astringent. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Flower—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. useful in elephantiasis. Gum—acrid. aphrodisiac. useful in bone fractures. Sk. Gums and Resins. Leaves—good for eye diseases. K. LOC. fractures. aphrodisiac. H. remove bad humours. skindiseases. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. purifies blood. cause headache (Yunani). prickly heat and itch. burning sensation. thirst. Kakria. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. worms and piles. tonic. in the Khandesh Akrani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. gonorrhœa. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and .

wounds. densely armed on the faces with prickles. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. flowers and fruit. Sd. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. cures inflammation . Gajaga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . M. prevents contagious diseases . astringent to bowels. heating. Physic nut. Gajga.5 X 4. K. destroys bad odour due to perspiration.5 cm. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Seed—styptic. Deccan hills. long . Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Fl. cures urinary discharges. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. skin-diseases. Fl. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. the tropics generally. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. 5-7. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. lead-colored 1. NS. etc. Fr. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). antiperiodic. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. Dyes. leprosy (Yunani). leaves. LOC. Flowers are astringent. See—Timbers. shortly stalked. L. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. ringworm.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. aphrodisiac and diuretic. 30-60 cm. leucorrhcea. . piles. Fever nut. Gums and Resins. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. strongly mucronate.3 cm.—yellow. very common near the sea-coast. :—An extensive climber. aphrodisiac.—1-2 oblong. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. long. Leaves contain a glucoside. :—E.—abruptly pinnate. sprouts useful in tumours. asthma and colic. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Sind. Gajjige. elliptic-oblong. When made into paste they are used for ringworm.—JulySept. Fruit—acrid. Katkaleja. Gum solution is applied to bruises. anthelmintic . malaria.) COM. Katkaranj. oblong 5-7. H. Sagargota. They are applied to orchitis. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". act as rubefacient. Kakechika. Kuberakshi. anthelmintic.—pod. fevers. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Karanja. G. pinnae 6-8 pairs. useful in colic. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . petioles prickly.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Sk. CHAR. t. Tapasi. DISTR. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places.5 cm. hydrocele. :—Throughout India.

sometimes amplexicaul. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Kshiranga. Polynesia. 2. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. very common in N. . and oil.4-3 m. FAM.. sessile.. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. The gum from wounded branches. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. :—A large shrub. Akdo. elliptic or ovate oblong.. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. PARTS USED :—Bark. Madar. Sk. Rui. improves complexion (Ayurveda). branches stout. LOC. Ceylon. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Akand. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Mandara. M. Sultanchampa. Sk. Australia. often gregarious. :—E.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Vuma. L. covered with cottony pubescence. Kshirparni. much branched. Malaya. Gigantic swallow-wort. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. 10-20 X3. base cordate. Surangi. Madar.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—E. CHAR. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. COM. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Surhonne.H. Ekke. lessens appetite. NS. Purasakeshera.. Ak. Kanara associated with littoral species. both surfaces tomentose. Punnaga. Arka. G. Dholaakdo. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. East African Islands. astringent. LOC. Undi.—Guttiferæ.— opposite. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Arka. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Punnag. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. thick. H. NS. :—Cultivated throughout India. Tungakeshera. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Surpan. M. used in chronic fevers. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. K. Shuka-phala. Ponne. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. high. Mandara. K. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. COM.. FAM. DISTR. gum. Oils. Ark. also cultivated as an ornamental plant.8-10 cm. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Alexandrian laurel. and for its oil. Undi. Br. See—Timbers.

rat-bite. Milk— heating.— Feb. usually 5.5 cm. comose . buds ovoid. corona shorter than the column. Fr. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. comose..:—H. cottony. ascites and anasarca. tumours. LOC. acrid . diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). LOC. very common is S. Malay Islands and S. bark corky. purgative. bark. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. expectorant and anthelmintic.— purplish in umbellate cymes.—broadly ovate. cures asthma and syphilis. apex with two auricles. 9-10 cm. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. C. :—An erect shrub usually 1. China. green. Flowers—stomachic. Flowers—digestive.—in umbellate cymes. diaphoretic. Rajarka. Ceylon. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.5 cm. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. laxative. dropsy. eruption on body. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. NS. painful joints . CHAR. liver and spleen enlargement. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. ovate oblong. heal wounds. Safedak. alterative and purgative properties. Madar. ellipsoid or ovoid. elephantiasis. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. Mandara. also useful in intestinal worms. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.—lobes deltoid-ovate. purplish or white.—Asclepiadaceæ. India. young parts white. ascites. See—Fibres. useful in leprosy. scabies. PARTS USED :—Root. flattened tomentose. spongy. Fl.5-10 X 5-7. Ak. catarrh and loss of appetite. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . cures piles and "Kapha". COM. very common. Ark. Flower—analgesic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. Root-bark is diaphoretic. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin.2 cm. across.. buds globose. piles. tumours. Fl. tonic and stomachic in action. Milk— caustic.. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. back much curved. elliptic or obovate. Sd. broad. ulcers. M. spleen and liver diseases. depilatory.—about 2.4 m. used in cough. oleaginous. Sd:—many. Sk. subglobose. asthma. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. leaves applied to paralysed parts.5-8. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action.-July. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. astringent. DISTR. L.7—15 X 4.—7. cures inflammations. cures leucoderma. lobes usually erect. swellings.—subsessile. C. good for liver (Yunani). In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. ringworm of scalp. Fr. long. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. coughs.8-2. Br.—follicles. high. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Juice—anthelmintic. Mandara. leaves and flowers. cures leprosy. . FAM. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . asthma. t.

long. Arabia.:—Perennial herb . Koshaphala.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). veins arching. Iran. staminodial segments. Sambe. abundant in Sind. G.. cooling. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. Shitarambha. (Chopra). stem 0. 1 linear . Asishimbi. greenish or colored. Indian shot. ulcers (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. biliousness. they are given in cholera. COM.3 cm. bracts oblong. Kamakshi. Sabbajaya. 3 sub-erect.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. CANNA INDICA Linn. Flowers used as detergent. indigestible. P. K. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. tropical Africa. flowers and milky juice.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Nilashimbika. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. Gavria. green. H. narrow. Sarvajaya. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Kardali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. DISTR. erect. Hudingana. H.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Gavara. PARTS USED :—Pods. Fl. Broad—Sword bean. Kadsambu.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. tonic. FAM. Tarvardi. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. NS.2 m. Gigantea.5 cm.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Afghanistan. oval or orbicular. L. CHAR. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Kadavare. FAM. high . The pods contain vitamin A. membranous. K. M. Akalabera. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. spatulate. Waziristan. useful in burning sensations. LOC. Sk. acrid. Devakeli.—segments 2. Warm leaves used as poultice.—Scitaminaceae. Kalehu.9-1. Abai. root-stock tuberous. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. :—E. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. but doubtfully wild.. G. appetiser. Shimbi. Tamateballi. Egypt. See—Vegetables. Paraholiya. LOC. lanceolate to ovate. Sema. See—Fibres. on trees and hedges . COM. LOC. Sarvajaya. :—E. Sk. M. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. NS. hernia and colic. Khadsambal.

CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. PARTS USED :—Roots. CHAR. heating. leprosy. G. flowers and seeds. high in its feral state. Sk. globose. 3-lobed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . female perianth hyaline. Hemp. aphrodisiac. Seeds—carminative. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Fl.—small axillary. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. :—Throughout India. COM. Ganja. inflammations. intoxicating. shining. restlessness. DISTR. useful in convulsions. Siddhapatri. lower 3-8 foliate. Bhang.—Urticaceæ.—many. alterative . echinulate . In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. upper 1-3. oil-good for earache. Sd. excessive use causes indigestion. Mohini. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Unmattini. Bhang. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. intoxication (Ayurveda). :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. useful in " Kapha". L. also wild. Shivapriya. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. usually 0. H. impotence. PARTS USED :—Bark. serrate. Not indigenous. Bark—tonic. soporific. dioecious. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. LOC. t. astringent. See—Ornamental Plants. antidiarrhoeic. Female inflorescence is stomachic. black. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. causes thirst and biliousness. leaves. (3) Charas. Wild in the Himalayas. sepals 5. Fr. cough. LOC. M. abortifacient. :—Widely cultivated in India. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. intoxication. lessen inflammation. piles. They are broken in small pieces. flowers. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—E. NS. Vijaya. melancholia. soporific. water extract anthelmintic. causes thirst. Fl. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). LOC.—achene. hot.5 m. Fr. good for hydrocele. Ganja. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. cause headache. female crowded under convolute bracts. aphrodisiac.—sub-globose or oblong . imbricate. FAM. hallucinations. K. causes biliousness. astringent to bowels. seeds and resin.9-1. male flowers. stomachic. leaves. All these are intoxicating in different degrees.—alternate or the lower opposite. Central Asia. Bhangi. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. Ganja. male fascicled. DISTR. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. insanity.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. Harshini. (2) Bhang. tonic.—more or less throughout the year. dropsy. Leaves—bitter. check vomiting. tonic.

Madana modak used in cough. . dyspepsia. Capsaicin and Solanin. useful in indigestion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Vegetables. erysipelas. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Narcotics. increases appetite. useful in brain complaints. increases biliousness. Menshinkai. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. :—E. DISTR. whooping cough. and is employed by Indian physicians. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. diarrhœa. in the form of electuary. The plant contains cannabinin. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Tivrashakti. PARTS USED :—Fruit. LOC. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. Lalmirchi. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. and flatulence. It is stomachic. and dropsy. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. chronic ulcers.—Solanaceæ. LOC.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. Mirchi. Chillies. acute mania. See—Gums and Resins. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Fibres. G. expectorant. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. :—Extensively cultivated in S. M. See—Condiments and Spices. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. dysuria. cholera. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Tikshna. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. Country in Deccan. FAM. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. COM. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mirchi. K. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. NS. M. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Fruit—pungent. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. H. often found as an escape. weakness of body. Cayenne-pepper. Marichiphala. Sk. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Lanka mirchi. muscular pains. Ujjvala. spermatorrhoea. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. Raktamaricha. asthma. The fruit contains Capsisin. also in gout. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. loss of consciousness. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. :—Cultivated all over India. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. delirium (Ayurveda). produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Marchu .

epileptic fits. stem wiry. deltoid. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. H. HABITAT :—In hedges . Deccan. Daddala. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. NS. Vakambi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. urinary discharges. Sk.—capsule. CHAR. abscesses and ulcers. dyspepsia. Fruit—acrid. Malay Peninsula. Jyotish-mati. Hennumatti. black. diuretic and aperient. Sd. C. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. " Vata ". M. smooth. Kumbha. Fr. Root. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. and is administered in fevers. rounded at the apex. petals 4. DISTR. very acute apex. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. introduced. LOC. ultimate segments lanceolate. hot. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. . Shaundi. NS. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. alexiteric. Agni-erum. :—E. Balloon vine. leaves and seeds. G. bladdery . Kalindi. COM. Sk. Maniju balli. subglobose. Karolio. L. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. LOC. trigonous. LOC.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. The plant contains saponin. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. FAM. Thailand (Siam).—globose. anthelmintic.—Myrtaceæ. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. See—Timbers. Sakralata. dry. K. flowers and fruits. colic. useful in tumours. Kumbhi. Karnasphota. FAM. Ghats. Fl. 2-ternate. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . Kumbhi. common in S. DISTR. G. aphrodisiac. Root is considered diaphoretic.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. Ceylon. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Gavvahannu. it is mucilaginous. Girikarnika. M. bark. when moistened.—white. bark. leucoderma.—Sapindaceæ. :—Most warm countries. Kangu. :—Throughout India. piles. leaves. K. Kapalphodi. inciso-serrate. Kanphuti. skin-diseases. Konkan and W.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. Sind. Fibres. Kumbi. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb.— alternate. :—E. Wild guava . winged at the angles. Blister creeper.

Flower—tonic to liver. :— E. Papayi. enlargement of spleen. Kusumba. Fruit—stomachic. removes urinary concretions . green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Karada. piles. diuretic. Dyer's saffron. Papaya. G.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Oil—indigestible. Papita. "Tridosh". Popayi. made into curries. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. "Kapha". FAM. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. wounds of urinary track. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . See—Fruit Trees. in haemoptysis. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures inflammations.—Caricaceæ. H. cure urinary discharges. it is used to procure abortion. good for eyes. relieves obesity. ringworm. :—E. DISTR. Ahmednagar and Nasik. used. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Pappayi. Seeds—oleaginous. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. . Kusumbha. Nalikadala. cause biliousness. cure "Vata". Papaw. Barre.—Compositæ. H. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. Kardai. bronchitis. Kusumba. K. hypnotic. digestive. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. appetiser. cooling. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. laxative. scabies. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. COM. appetiser . causes burning sensation . Chirbhita. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. seeds and oil. PARTS USED :—Leaves. G. NS. Sk. strangury. Safflower. DISTR. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). LOC. diuretic. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bleeding piles. depilatory. Indies. NS. M. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. bile. unripe fruit. Kamalottama. Pangi. LOC. FAM. removes biliousness . :—Grown extensively in Poona. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Mexico and Brazil. Karrak. cures insanity (Ayurveda). of W. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Kusumba. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. LOC. cures inflammation. White thin latex contains Papain. Guppe. Leaves—hot. diuretic. leucoderma. K. Agnishikha. leprosy. Papaya. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Papaya. Sk. carminative. Chibda. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. M. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. :—Native throughout India. expectorant. flowers. COM. heating. aphrodisiac. Kusumbo.

NS :— E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. LOC. carminative. Owa. cure catarrh. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. inflammation (Yunani). chest pains. cure ascites. COM. Afghanistan. hiccup. and diarrhœa. long. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. diuretic. stimulate intestines. strengthening. carminative. Tivragandha. pungent. abdominal tumours. See—Vegetables. atonic dyspepsia. good in weakness of limbs. rachis . abdominal pain. Omu . Dyes. oblong-obtuse.—Umbelliferæ. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. good for old people. bitter. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). vomiting. DISTR. Baluchistan.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Leaves contain vitamin A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. K. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Dadamardana. purgative. G. Ajamoda. Datka pat. bechic. stomachic. liver. They are administered in flatulence. laxative. Ajamo . carminative. improve speech and eyesight. subsessile. LOC. tonic and carminative properties. pinnate. Ajwain. stimulant. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. anthelmintic. The seeds bitter and hot. See—Condiments and Spices. Egypt. 30-60 cm. K. vomiting. Simyatase. they are used in jaundice . :—E. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. and even in cholera. Ajowan. oblique at the base. Dadrughna. Elgra. leaflets 10-12 pairs. H. COM. NS. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. L. give lustre to eyes. Europe. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. spleen. tonic. enlargement of spleen. kidney troubles. Sk. Oils. Dipyaka. myrabolans and rock salt. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. CASSIA ALATA Linn. M. :—Cultivated extensively in India. aphrodisiac. dyspepsia. H. Dwipagasti. FAM. Sk. good for ear boils. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . Dodda sagate. enrich blood. FAM. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. Bishops' weed . Dadmardan. good for heart and tooth-ache. M. chest and throat pains. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. Iran. Seeds—purgative. Oma. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. mucronate. emmenagogue and sedative. Winged senna. piles. Ringworm shrub. appetiser. CHAR. Oil—good in all diseases. paralysis. downy beneath. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. aphrodisiac . They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida.

—bright yellow with darker veins.-July.. PARTS USED :—Root. Bark has the same properties. bark smooth. . " In eczema. useful in vomiting. DISTR..—in spiciform. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. Sakusina. Fr.5 X 10 cm. cm. useful in thirst. Fl. LOC. anthelmintic. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. long. 20-25. Tarwad. t. rotundate. leaflets 8-12 pairs. Burma. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. LOC. vermicide (Ayurveda).—pod long.6 cm.-50 or more. along the sea coast in laterite region. cure " Vata ". :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. HABITAT :—Planted. asthma. Ceylon. LOC. Sd. reniform.—large.—30-35. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Mukerji). poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). skin diseases. pale beneath. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. Charmaranga. thirst. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. Awal. leprosy. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). diabetes.—7. and throat troubles. M.3-1. alexipharmic . urinary discharges . H. Avarike. skin-diseases. Peninsula.) COM. very likely a native of the W. causes flatulence . M. mucronate. membranous. Country. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Sk. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. Ph. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. G. stipules very large.. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. Avartki. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . K. Tangadi. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. N. obliquely septate. 5 cm. 10-20 X 1.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. :—Introduced into India. Fl. C. Taroda. LOC. FAM. Gujarat and S. rhombohedral. itching. The whole plant. Fl. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. 28-4-88).—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. across. dull green above. good for ulcers.-Oct. reddish brown. cough. Indies. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). CHAR. flowers. DISTR. NS. Tarwad. Madhya Pradesh and W. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. nocturnal emissions. straight. J. buds in yellow bracts. fruits and seeds. Fr. Pitakilaka. Mayahari. :—E. t. ringworm. Fl. Sd. pedunculate racemes . slightly overlapping. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. L. yellow with orange veins. rachis densely pubescent. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Ahmed.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. leaves. cures tumours. asthma .—pod.—Jany. Tanner's cassia. oblong-obovate.

CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Rankasvinda. :—E. Ane sogate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. apex acute. Kasoda.) COM. M. faintly veined with orange . Fr. LOC. In Konkan. NS. Pudding-pipe or stick. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Burma. flowers. yellow. improve appetite. Chakinda. long. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Amaltas. Kasundari. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. PARTS USED :—Root. K. antipyretic. Konde. :—Throughout India. C. Balla. H. Dodda-tagase. griping. leaves. FAM. safe for children and pregnant women. 10—12.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. cooling. Indian laburnum. Tans. often purplish. See—Timbers. Stinking weed. lessens inflammation and body-heat. rheumatism. Kasmarda.—pods. base somewhat oblique. Kasondi. See—Dyes. Negro coffee.—very foetid when bruised. H. throat-troubles. carminative. Kasari. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Leaves—anti-periodic . Flowers—improve taste. Garmala. cause flatulence. Golden shower. purgative. Ornamental Plants. It is a mild laxative. biliousness . heal ulcers . Seeds— oily. branches furrowed. distinctly torulose. shining dark olive-green. K. corymbose. DISTR. long. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub.5 cm. syphilis. . Sk. CHAR. transversely septate. Kacodari. NS. M. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. also planted. cure " Kapha ". Kasonda. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. juice given in erysipelas. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. used in rheumatism.—20-30. Fl. Aragina. Fl. Arimarda. FAM. and Famine Plants. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Chimkani. useful in chest and liver complaints. G. purgative. Flowers—purgative. Sk. Bandartauri.. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Kakka. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). G.—petals 5. Rechana. Leaves lessen inflammation. laxative. Arogyashimbi. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. abortifacient. cures burning sensation. Suvarnaka.) COM.— Jany-March. cooling. t. L. Hema-puspha. Ceylon. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. smooth. LOC. ovate-lanceolate.—in few flowered racemes. demulcent. :—E. leprosy. recurved. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Vyadivata. Bahava. Fruit—antipyretic. Fruit—digestible. Rajataru. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. eye-diseases. 15-20 cm. fruit and seeds. tuberculous glands. (Ayurveda). Sd. hard. astringent.

. Leaves—aphrodisiac. t. :—G. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. lanceolate. elephantiasis.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. alexiteric. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. LOC.. annual or perennial. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). cures ascites.Jany. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). K. Sk. Ran tankala.—30-40 broadly ovoid. Fl. See—Famine Plants. Sd.510 cm. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn.4-3 m. ovate. rachis grooved . :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. mixed with honey. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Kasamarda. are given in diabetes. PARTS USED :—Bark. yellow. See—Famine Plants. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores.— Nov. In many countries root is considered diuretic. leaves and seeds. petals 5. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. :—A shrub 2. Banar. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Fl. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. leaves and seeds. H. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. Kasundari. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. " Vata ". HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. asthma.—pod. obtuse. Baskikasondi. fevers. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic and febrifuge. DISTR. leaflets 6-10 pairs. hiccup. LOC. few flowered corymbose racemes. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. cure " Kapha". high. base rounded. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . and seeds are cathartic. cough. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. L. COM. with a solitary conical gland near the base . At Kotra. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). slightly recurved.—18-23 cm. in Kutch. septate between the seeds . LOC. Talapota. LOC. turgid. opposite. " tridosha " . DISTR. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. dark brown . Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Seeds used in heat of the blood. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. Fr.—in axillary. NS. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. M. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. Kasondi. FAM. leaves. Kasamarda. CHAR. stomachic. heals wounds. 7. long . found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. The bark. C.

5 mm. :—E. :—An annual foetid herb. rachis grooved. Takala. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. branches rough. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda).5-10 cm.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. H. much curved when young. Taragosi. fleshy arillus. CHAR. :—E. high. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. obovate. hot. upper petal 2-lobed . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. Chakramarda. NS. Kanguni. The plant contains glucoside emodin.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. C. laxative. Pamad. crenate. Chakunda. Madras State. Dadrughna. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 18 m. LOC. Chagoche. pale yellow.—after the rains.) COM. DISTR. Fl. covered with lenticels. base oblique. Seeds—bitter. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Intellect tree. Fr. stem upto 23 cm. ovate or obovate.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . bright yellow. small yellowish-green. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Panevar. FAM. brain and liver tonic.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Dadamari. usually unisexual. emetic. Tarota. M.—Celastraceæ. Burma. cause burning sensation. L. Tagache. Fl. Malhangana. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds.8-7. G. capsule. Malkakni. X 4. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat.—pinnate. Sd. K. Climbing-staff plant.5 cm. :—A very common weed all over the State. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. 12. Sd. COM. . 30-90 cm. Black-oil tree. alternate. H.—pod. aphrodisiac. Kangli. globose. Malkangoni. Ceylon. Jyotishmati. Sk. expectorant. Seeds— acrid. t. Foetid cassia. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Velo . leaflets 3 pairs. oblong. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething.. DISTR. Kangodi. unarmed. shining above.. powerful brain tonic. :—Large deciduous climber. high. bitter. in drooping panicles. Taga. CHAR.— petals 5. 6.. 7. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. Sphutabandhani.3-10 X 3. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. leaves and seeds. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. reddish brown. Fr. long. PARTS USED :— Root. 1-6 completely covered with red. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. appetiser.5-20 cm. Svarnalata. Kangani. Sk. L. cure joint-pains. Malkamni. K. in diam. obliquely septate. M. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. LOC. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". opposite (lowest smaller). FAM.

Fl. narrowly oblong . It is used as a substitute for chiretta. FAM. L. :—Throughout India.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. pink. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. . They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. :— E. and is employed for external application.—Feb. C. cloves. Fl.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness.—May-Nov. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. hard-rugose. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic.—Umbelliferæ. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. gout. radical leaves revolute. reniform. persistent. Seeds are hot. Fr. H. Brahmamanduki. Jangli-karayatu. Sk. Barmi. obovate or oblong. M. aphrodisiac and stimulant. long. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. rooting at the nodes. FAM.—3 from each node.—in fascicled umbels. Vondelaga. Deccan and S.—Gentianaceæ. linear-oblong.—capsule. Brahmamanduki. especially in Bengal. :—Konkan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. t. t. CHAR. pink. M. Oil stomachic. base deeply cordate stipulate.). LOC. Mahaushadhi. CHAR. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). spreading star-like . G. ovoid. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. high. Vallari . used in leprosy. M.—opposite. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. LOC. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Jhinkun-kariatum. DISTR. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. elliptic. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. COM.—tubular lobes 5. NS. cauline smaller. paralysis and leprosy. stem creeping with long internodes. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). Mandukparni. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil.—4 mm. L. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. good for cough and asthma. Lahanchirayat. they are also sudorific.-Apl. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm.). Ekpani. H. Country. Fl. :—A slender herbaceous plant. Fr. minute. tonic. orbicular. COM. NS. :—G. Don. Brahmi. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Fl.

thirst. China. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". leaves and seeds). improves appetite (Yunani). Sukanu. and a bitter substance odollin. cures leucoderma. USES :—Bark is purgative. urinary discharges. LOC. cures hiccup. milky juice.—Apocynaceæ. :—K. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. laxative. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. For external use powder. clears voice and brain. nallas. bronchitis. bechic. water courses throughout the State. alterative. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. tonic. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. cooling. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. tonic. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. M.) DISTR. blood diseases. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. fruit. " Kapha ". scalding of urine. fevers. headache . digestible. Malay Archipelago. Honde. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . inflammations. improves appetite. bronchitis. cardio-tonic. anæmia. ointment. Leaves are also diuretic. :—In moist situations (streams. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. asthma. nut is narcotic and poisonous . CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Bark. memory. LOC. DISTR. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stomachic. carminative. NS. used in insanity (Ayurveda). voice. spleen enlargement. diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. See—Timbers. :—South Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. COM. FAM. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. Kanara. . abundant on the Malabar Coast. asthma. sedative to nerves. Plant—bitter. LOC. Leaf-powder. bitter. soporific. small-pox. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. Australia Pacific Islands. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. biliousness. plaster or bath are used. alexiteric. twigs. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. :—Throughout India near the coast. Chanda. Tande.

LOC. :—E. Bathusag. Agralohita. Chandanbedu. M. piles . :—Grown in gardens all over the State. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Chana. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani).—Euphorbiaceæ. Harbara. oleaginous. Chana. Chania. Goose-foot. :—Very common in the Deccan. See—Fruit Trees. acrid. DISTR. vomiting. :—Widely distributed. H.. :—E. Lavali. Harparauri K. "Vata".62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. LOC. Chick pea. DISTR. NS. The plant yields an essential oil. :— E. Rayara nelli. fruit and seeds. . native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. piles. But. Tanko. Bengal—Common-gram. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Country. laxative. sour . Harparrevdi. Skandhaphala. Kanchuki. diseases of blood. Laveni. M. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. heart. G. Sk. Chillika.) FAM. Fruit is very sour . abdominal pains. M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). biliousness. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Chenopodiaceæ. Wild-spinach. constipation. diuretic. M. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Sk. Kari-Kempukadale. useful in biliousness. Vajibhakshya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. USES :— Root is purgative. COM. also cultivated as a pot herb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. LOC. Chunna. Chakravati. H. :—Cultivated in India. COM. useful in thirst. Chanaka. K. Deccan and S. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Kadale. tonic. "Kapha". Sk. anthelmintic. urinary concretions. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. LOC. aphrodisiac. Pandu. tonic to liver. K. Chakwat. COM. Chakravarti. fragrant. H. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. Cheel. Ksharadala. Rai-avala. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Country gooseberry. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The fruit is acrid and astringent. biliousness. Chalmeri. G. NS. LOC. eye-diseases. spleen (Ayurveda). NS. FAM . CICER ARIETINUM Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. improves appetite. FAM. Balabhojya. useful in bronchitis. root and the seed are cathartic. throattroubles.

:—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. parched mouth.—Lauraceæ. K. tonic to hair. pungent. bronchitis. seed and acid exudation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. foul mouth and fever. biliousness. indigenous and cultivated. hiccup. heart. very common in the N. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. DISTR. expectorant. useful in cold. anthelmintic. indigestion. Valkala. It possesses carminative. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. flatulence. Bark—tonic. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. headache. appetiser. Peninsula. refrigerant. See—Condiments and Spices. improve taste and appetite. bronchitis (Yunani). Leaves—purgative. :—W. headache. abdominal pains. Oils. useful in " Vata ". M. biliousness. LOC. anthelmintic . Gudatwaka. vomiting. cures skin diseases. Oil—styptic. piles. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. PARTS USED :—Leaves. strengthens liver. rectum and urinary diseases. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. enriches blood. causes flatulence. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. Seed—stimulant. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. :— Bark and oil. carminative. useful in hydrocele. useful in inflammations. heated brain. anthelmintic. causes flatulence. flatulence. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. Kash. leprosy. chest complaints. etc. aphrodisiac. :—G. vomiting. It checks nausea and vomiting. Darchini. PARTS USED. LOC. diarrhœa. Dalchini. throat troubles. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). Dalchini. H. cold in head. alexiteric. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. thirst. Lavange-hakke. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. tonic. Burma. FAM. COM. Malay Peninsula. abortifacient. itching. Oil—carminative. Leaves contain vitamin A. toothache. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. carminative. Duk. toothache (Ayurveda). Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. Ceylon. Kanara district. useful in loss of appetite. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. NS. good for diseases of liver and spleen. causes salivation. cures thirst and burning. . liver-tonic . Dalchini. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Nisane. blood troubles. Dalchini. Seed—indigestible. pains . diarrhœa and dysentery. See—Food Plants. throat troubles. LOC. emmenagogue. useful in bronchitis. tonic. astringent to bowels . tonic . cure bronchitis.

Pavamekke Kayi. :—E. Fl. Katurasa. heart troubles. stem thick. Uthika. NS. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. warm parts of Asia. Kanara. G. Paharmul. somewhat hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . H. flesh juicy. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. :— E.—Menispermaceæ. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". 3.. upto 25 cm. LOC. solitary. itching . Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. angular . Sk. H. lobes obovateoblong. mucronate. L. greenish. tendrils bifid. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. subglobose. FL t. solitary. Mahendravaruni. LOC. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. skin eruptions. C. Annual Report. or twin. useful in hemicrania. diarrhœa.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. Africa and America. long. uterine complaints. hairy. K. Trapusi.-Jany. 7.8-10 cm. male flowers in axillary cymes. Colocynth. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. DISTR. M. Makal. red. M. young shoots woolly.—July-Sept. (Ind. Velvet-leaf. NS. smooth. Indruk. G. which possibly has a cholinergic action. Pahadvel. Asso. Bitter apple. Nirbisi. has been isolated. piles. waxy coated. branches more or less pubescent. CHAR. axillary racemes . female flowers in elongate.—Cucurbitaceæ. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. drupe. Indraphal. helps parturition. diam. FAM. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. The active constituent of the drug. compressed. sub-globose. L.5-20 cm. peltate. :—In hills. Sk. :—Deccan. orbicular or reniform.—large. red or yellowish white. Fl. 5-nerved. cordate at the base. margins ciliate. dropsy and cough. COM. alleviates vomiting. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). Chitraphala.. dysentery. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. monœcious. Venivalli. . F.—A climbing shrub. 1949). Ghorumba. R. 5-partite. Kaduvrindavan. Sd. subcampanulate. Venivel. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. removes pain. greenish outside. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. Patha.e. Fr. minute. yellowish. COM. Indrayan. Fl. i. in conjunction with aromatics. yellow within. an alkaloid. burning. t. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers.— usually margined. leaves. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. Indrayan. FAM. HABITAT. CHAR. removes intestinal worms. fever. diam. asthma . also for prolapsus uteri. Indrayana. E.—Nov. Tumtikayi. :—An extensively climbing annual.

Ahmednagar and Khandesh). :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. M. Naringi. :—Widely cultivated in India. " Kapha". removes " Vata ". jaundice. DISTR. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. W. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. Tvakasugandha. useful in piles. COM. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. anthelmintic . removes biliousness. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. bronchitis. throat diseases. LOC. Narange. :— E. tonic. In the Konkan fruit and root. anthelmintic. NS. Also indigenous in Arabia. fortifies chest. leuco-derma. purgative. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). constipation. Doddile. enlargement of spleen. and lumbago. asthma. laxative. constipation. carminative. enlargement of spleen. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. pain in joints. DISTR. ulcers. Flower— stimulant. China—Portugal—Sweet orange .—Rutaceæ. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. (Poona. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Santra. Nagaranga. sweet and has agreeable flavour. cooling. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. Fruit—sour. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. Sunthura. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). antipyretic. Sukkare-kanji. dyspepsia. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. ascites. LOC. Narenj. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. sea-shores. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. astringent. Root and fruit cooling. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. tuberculous glands of neck. Sk. cures tumours. with or without nux-vomica. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Gujarat. bowel complaints. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Narangi. FAM. Asia. N. anæmia. urinary discharges. fever and worms. LOC. Cardiotonic. Kittale. useful in biliousness. Deccan. LOC. tonic. Kirmirtvaka. H. good in fevers. Ceylon. relieves vomiting and retching. Rind— anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. chest troubles. :—Konkan. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Naringa. aphrodisiac . elephantiasis . epilepsy. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). removes fatigue . G. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. good in vomiting and skin diseases. relieves colds. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts.

Jambira. Matulunga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. seeds. Adam's apple. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. useful in vomiting. K. cures leprosy. :—Citron rind is hot. Amlakeshara. anthelmintic. flowers. Paharinimbu . rind of the fruit is bitter. oily. said to be wild in W. See—Fruit Trees. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. LOC. relieves sore-throat. the juice allays ear-ache. though there are no regular plantations. Rusaki. relieve vomiting. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. :— E. B and C. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. digestible. HABITAT :—Cultivated. also corrects foetid breath.:—Grown in gardens in the State. According to Theophrastus. bark and fruit. Matalunga. fruits and seeds. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village.—Rutaceæ. H. LOC. NS. Mavalunga. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). the pulp cold and dry. Bijoru. Balank. DoddaGaja-nimba. LOC. Turanj. Devamadala. VAR. Bera nimbu. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Seeds—indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. H. FAM. asthma. Flowers—stimulant. K. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. COM. . Mahaphala. anasarca and chronic fever. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. dry and tonic . PARTS USED :—Root. jaundice. cough. thirst. cough. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. with a sharp taste. :—Roots. Motalimbu . its preserve is used for dysentery. Fruit—sweet and sour. useful in abdominal complaints. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. asthma. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. The fruits contain vitamins A. Madala. Kutla. M. heating. Ghats. Sk. Bijaura. :—E. Idalimbu. Bijapurna. Thora-limbu. aphrodisiac. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . HABITAT :—Cultivated. astringent to bowels . It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. tonic and astringent properties. Mahalunga. removes colic. Harale. used in constipation and tumours. Lemon . leaves and flowers hot and dry.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. anæmia. sharp. Mahanimbu. PARTS USED. Matunga. G. Limonum. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. Mahaphala. hiccup. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Ruchaka. USES. Citron . G. juice refrigerant and astringent. intoxication. NS. stimulant. M. COM. increase appetite. Turanj. flatulence. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. tonic. Sk.

Amlasara. Acid-Sour lime . silky villous. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons.Nov. not good in old age. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Fruit—sour. Shodhana. :—E. measles. Nimbu. :—An extensive climber. Kagadi limbu.—Ranunculaceæ. Rochana. cures abodominal complaints. stomachic. Moravel. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. PARTS USED :—Fruit. improves liver. COM. Limpaka. Limbu. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. appetiser. t. Sk. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Madhulika. lobes mucronate. Nimbuka. burning in the chest. :—G. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Murva. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox.—Sept. fatigue . K. eyes . it helps digestion. vomiting. where there is dry skin and much thirst. brain disorders. Snuva. Churhar. constipation.. CHAR. . relieves vomiting . both as a prophylactic and as a curative. stimulant . leaves (rarely). Nebu. hairy outside. Oil from rind.—simple or once ternate. Lebu. with long feathery tails .5 cm. H. Lebu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Sk. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Morata. heart. LOC. M. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. loss of appetite. Fr. but often found trailing amongst grass. Dhantiate. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Ranjai. FAM. relieves biliousness. plethora.—achenes. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Murhari. petioles twinning. See—Fruit Trees. K. hemicrania. Khatalimbu. with flavour.—petals O. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. white.—in axillary corymbose panicles. VAR. C. H. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. also useful in rheumatism. whole plant tomentose. Fl. anthelmintic. Morhari. Nimbu. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). COM. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Devashreni. long ovate or orbicular. Limbe. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. ovoid. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. blades 2-2. NS. throat trouble. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. Morvel. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nimbe. M. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. L. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. bronchitis . Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. it cures and prevents scurvy. sharp taste. Acida. NS. Fl. scarletina. sepals 4-6.

Hulhul. yellow. hot. . Sk. anthelmintic. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. CHAR. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa.—Capparidaceæ. LOC. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. mixed with oil. K. laxative. H. Nayibela. DISTR. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers.—Verbenaceæ. used internally in thirst. Vatari. :—Throughout the tropics of the world.—petals 4. Sk. and fevers. hairy. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Bharangi. Gantubarangi. Barbara. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. veined. hairy. FAM. :—G. Bharang. Fl. good in malaria. Ghats. 30-90 cm. stems grooved and glandular. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). L. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. petioles of lower leaves longer. in lax racemes. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). externally applied to boils. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. :—G. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. very common in the Deccan. Tinmani. useful in leprosy. bitter taste and a strong odour. H. astringent. Harhuria. COM. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. C. M. Juice— cures ear-ache. Jangali-harhar. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Tilparni.—axillary. Sauri.—brownish black. subglobose. :—W. bitter. Fr. Tilwan. FAM. causes excessive biliousness. Bharangi. Kasaghni. obliquely striate. Phanjika. Talvari. dryness and urethral discharges. :—Annual erect herb. LOC.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. Bharangi. t. Brahmani. stomachic. gradually becoming shorter upwards. and dispel intestinal fermentation. laxative. leaflets elliptic-oblong. COM. K. NS. cooling. Leaves—favour digestion. stimulant.—capsule. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). transversely striate. Sd. LOC. Karnasphota. M. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. Kanphutia. diuretic. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Adityabhakta. Kanphodi. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Fl. DISTR. high. erect. Kiritekki. HABIT :—A common weed. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. tapering towards both ends . :—Common in grass lands. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Konkan. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. oblong-obovate. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. removes " Kapha". stimulates secretion of bile.—3-5 foliate.—Sept-June. NS. terminal the largest. reduces tumours and inflammations .

:—G. L. spreading.— Aug. hiccup. smooth. fleshy. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers.5-15 X 5. epilepsy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. NS. tubercular glands. blood diseases.:—More or less throughout India.— drupe. inflammations. leaves and seeds. pubescent. biliousness. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn.. Fr. leucoderma. Aparajita.—6-10 yellowish brown. acrid.-Oct. :—A perennial twining herb. Root increases appetite. lower one deflexed. long . wounds (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. t. diuretic. Sd. LOC. headache.3 cm. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections.2 m. flat. good for eye-diseases. bronchitis.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Girikarnika. leaves and seeds. Wowatheti. laxative.7-6. HABITAT :—In hedges. Koyala. CHAR. Gokarnika. the larger lower lobe dark purple. leaflets 5-7. in lax dichotomous cymes. high. showy. oblong or elliptic.—ternately whorled. C. LOC. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. fevers (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. There are two varieties :—white flowered. FAM. Ceylon. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. elliptic oblong.9-2.. "Vata". and blue flowered. black. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. Garani. Aparajita. Kalina. Vishnukranta. solitary. 2-2.2 cm. cures "Tridosha". sharply serrate. consumption. fevers. ozœna. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. burning sensation. K.. anthelmintic. heating.—much exerted. anthelmintic. useful in bronchitis. 3.—Shrub. alexiteric. tumours. DISTR. ulcers (Ayurveda).. Girikarniballi. asthma. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. ulcers of the cornea. . stems terete. Fl. COM. stems bluntly quadrangular. tonic to the brain. Kowa. DISTR. collectively forming a terminal panicle. Sk. H. with an orange centre. burning sensation. LOC.—many. 0. tube hairy within. t— June-Jany. elephantiasis.5 X 2-3. also found throughout the State. useful in inflammation.8-5 cm.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. tuberculous glands. pains.—pale blue. obovoid. Fl. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . asthma.—imparipinnate. Root is purgative and diuretic. beaked. M. The plant contains an alkaloid. Fl.—axillary. sometimes opposite. inflammations. Malay Peninsula. C. Fl. 4 lobes flat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. stomachic. standard bright blue or white. 12. Kajli. L. lessens expectoration. useful in ascites (Yunani). Gokarni. hairy. nearly straight.

Vasanvel. Root bark. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Kanduri.—Menispermaceæ. COM. Tondeballi. Vasandi. diseases of blood. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Vevati. Konkan. Parvel. Sk. useful in ascites and fevers. . LOC. Ceylon. asthma. stops vomiting. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Chireta. H. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Tondali. fruit. Flowers cure itching. tropical Africa. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Tundi. Oshthi. & A. HABITAT. " Vata". K. M. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). wild in hedges. Broom-creeper. urinary losses.:—Root cooling. galactagogue. Fruit is aphrodisiac.:—Cultivated in gardens. The fruit contains vitamins A and C.—E. aphrodisiac. Glum. FAM. H. Bimb. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. The plant contains an enzyme. Country. Ink-berry. Bimbika. Galedu.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Tundika. antipyretic . Kambhoja.—Cucurbitaceæ. USES:—In the Konkan. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Malaya. Deccan. given for uterine discharges. See—Vegetables. Tana. allays thirst. M. NS. Seeds are purgative and aperient. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Vevdi. Fruit— indigestible. burning of hands and feet. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Sk. cause flatulence. DISTR :—Throughout India. Bimbi. Leaves—acrid. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. COM. cures leprosy. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Vasantitikta. Gujarat. Hunder. astringent to bowels. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Faridburti. flowers. NS. Bimba. PARTS USED :—Root. G.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). S. :—G. Dirghvalli. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. COCCINIA INDICA W. dried and powdered. Garudi. M. Ghobe. Jamtikibel. K. a hormone and an alkaloid. leaves. consumption. and jaundice. biliousness. LOC.

aphrodisiac. Narial. Pegu. oleaginous. rugose .:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea.8-6.—drupe. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Narikel. Cocoanut palm. K. t. useful in leprosy. Arabia. Common in Konkan and N. India and Ceylon. NS. G.:— A straggling scandent shrub. fattening. It is also used as a refrigerant. tuberculosis. Fl. Mad. aphrodisiac. Deccan. Mangalya. Naral. appetiser. thirst. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. ovate-oblong. "Kapha" and "Vata". burning sensation. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. young parts densely Villous. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. Jataphala. PARTS USED :—Root. Gujarat. good in fractures. tumours. ovate. alexipharmic . In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Fr. useful in biliousness. H. FAM. S. tonic. Nalivar. Toyagarbha. subdeltoid or subhastate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. and put on to sore-eyelids. COM. seed. LOC. dysentery. size of a small pea. it is heating. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". China.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. fattening. it is used for coughs. enriches blood. HABITAT :—In hedges. with a few heads of pepper. DISTR.—3. Seed-cooling.3 X 1. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). S. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. 3-5 nerved. fermented juice. which is taken internally with sugar. tonic. M. Fl. tropical Africa. urinary discharges. In the Konkan. villous . constipation. Tengu. LOC. indigestible.—Palmæ. Tenginmara. female in axillary clusters. :—E. laxative. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . flowers. laxative and sudorific. laxative. LOC. bark. as a cure for gonorrhœa. Mahaphala.. Antipyretic.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. aphrodisiac. biliousness. smells sweetish and pungent. Leaf-juice. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.8 cm. DISTR. cardiotonic. Milk—cooling. blood diseases. Kanara. keeled. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. L.—Dec.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. 2-8 together. India. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). lessens thirst. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Flower-cooling . useful in diabetes. Sk.—dioecious. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance.3-3. Nariyal. oil. causes "Kapha". Konkan. mixed with water. bronchitis. . lessens bile and burning sensation. also in many places in the interior.

L. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. DISTR. t. sheaths long. 6. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. tropical Asia-Africa. polished. ulcers (Ayurveda).—Gramineæ COM. fattening. stem 90-150 cm. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. smooth. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Madhya Pradesh.—broadly ovoid to globose. paralysis. It is also used for burns. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian .—Oct. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. See—Fruit Trees. Oil—indigestible. midrib stout.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Fl. incipient phthisis and cachexia. :—Himalayas. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Madhya Bharat. Oils. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. B and C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. useful in fever. internodes smooth. Kasai. Ran-jondhala. high or more. spinously serrate margins. smooth. bluish grey. asthma. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . stout. it also purifies blood. Gojivha. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. piles . The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. useful in urinary complaints. Gurlu . Rajputana.5-6. bronchitis. Gavedhu. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. above the bract stout. Fl. CHAR. Sk. LOC. China.—monœcious racemes 2. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). fermented juice is intoxicating. piles and scabies (Yunani. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. HABITAT :—Gregarious. lessens inflammations . FAM. increases body weight. Assam.—10-15 x 2. It is refreshing and laxative. Fr. diuretic.. :—E. it promotes growth of hair. polished. S. rachis within the bract slender. Japan. Job's tears. useful in lumbar-pain. Malaya. Polynesia. Fibres. promotes hairgrowth. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. strengthening and agreeable vegetable.6-10 mm. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. enriches blood. Bengal. consumption. Dabha. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Oil—sweet. base cordate. G. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). LOC. NS. tonic. :—A tall leafy grass. H. rooting at the lower nodes.5-5 cm. liver complaints. abundant in standing water. diuretic . America. long. Jargadi.3 cm. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). M. long. India. notched at the nodes . LOC. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution.

also as antiperiodic. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . :—An annual herb. not beaked. t. carminative. G. Hadige. NS. stomachic. Col.5-10 X 2-3. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. laxative.— capsule. diam. leaves and fruit. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. L. Challa.—in short cymes. growing very tall under cultivation. See—Fibres. arginine and coicin. K. Jute . See—Fodder Plants. Fr. wedgeshaped. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Resalla. and dyspepsia. Sebesten plum. Chaunchan . :—Konkan. lysin. M. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. serrate. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice.—Boraginaceæ.—7. 12 mm. FAM. Sk. cultivated in most tropical countries.—Tiliaceæ. Mannadike. buds obovoid. astringent. ridged and muricated. LOC.—few in each cell.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. Bargund. anthelmintic.2 cm. Sk. acute or acuminate. and intestinal antiseptic.—petals 4-5. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. brown. Bhukerbudara. lanceolate. Gujarat. It is also used as a bitter tonic. G. Kalasaka. The plant contains leucin. 5-valved. Lassora. Gondan.— Sept. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. In jutegrowing districts. Bhokar. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. Sd. fever. Patta. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. Bhuselu. C. COM. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. . CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. H. Chhunchh .:—E. yellow. Bhokar. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. tyrosin. Rayagundo. smooth. Fl. M. Pistan. NS. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. :—E. subglobose. histidin. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. DISTR. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Fl. FAM.

Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. Syria. anthelmintic. bronchitis. DISTR. DISTR. diseases of chest and urethra. G. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. bleeding gums. gives appetite. K. Ghats. inflammations. Hivija. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Kothimbir. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. used in syphilis. dyspepsia. Cochin-China. stomachic. . indigestion. LOC. laxative. Kothambri. scabies. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. stomatitis. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. Konphir. piles. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. LOC. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. biliousness. Leaves—hypnotic. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. expectorant. used as an expectorant and astringent. gleet. antipyretic. See—Timbers. analgesic. NS. Seeds—aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. tuberculous glands. often planted. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). Satpudas. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Fibres. M. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. Fruit is aromatic. cooling. burning of throat. biliousness. heart and liver. anthelmintic. bechic. useful in hiccup. widely known from Palestine. prevents coryza and bronchitis. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Bark. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. tropical Australia. tonic to brain. Egypt. also cultivated. Allaka.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Vitunnaka. Kanara. The plant and fruit— acrid. biliousness. :—Cultivated throughout India. thirst. causes suppuration. cures thirst. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors.—Umbelliferæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Mesapotamia and Greece. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit.:—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. jaundice. eye-pains. purgative. pains in joints. Fruit—diuretic. wild and cultivated. stimulant. Kothamir. stimulant. Dharika. diseases of chest. used in dry cough. Kustumburi. removes bad humours. LOC. Ceylon. uterus and urethra. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. vomiting. tooth-ache. highly esteemed in coughs. Coriander. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Fruits are used as spice. carminative and antispasmodic. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Dhania. headache. H. maturant. chronic fevers. vulnerary. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. COM. LOC. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. diuretic. :—Throughout India.:—Throughout the State in W.

sheaths coriaceous . China. hiccup (Ayurveda).—capsule. Varuna. useful in catarrhal fevers. Ajapa. Pushkarmula. H. Khandala. Mahakapittha. Chikke. Varno. CHAR. K. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Castle Rock. subequal. LOC. Barna. Varvunna. Karikuttu.5 cm. Shura. bracts ovate. S. Bitusi. Hadawarna.—15-30 X 5. :—An erect plant 1. Kust. Changalkashta.-Oct. " Kapha". NS. crisped. Bilpatri. mucronate. LOC.:—Konkan ghats. t. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). FAM. oblong. L. fever. globosely 3-gonous. Penva. subsessile. high. :—More or less throughout India. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. NS. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Nervele. India. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Pushkarmula. silky-pubescent beneath. nalas. Keu. PARTS USED:—Root. and " Vata". M. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. :—G. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. anæmia. H. K. and aphrodisiac. DISTR. red. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. LOC. Kumaraka. :—G. Fl. Madhya Bharat.2-2. useful in bronchitis. root-stock tuberous. Pinga. Sd. COM. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos.— in very dense spikes. bright red. S. Kushtha. Ceylon. Malay Islands. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Var. By the earliest writers. It is also astringent and digestive. Country.7-7. lobes ovate-oblong. COM.—Scitamineæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. in moist and shady places.7 m. Sk.—Capparidaceæ. Var. Varuna. Fr.—Aug. C. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. M. also planted near Muslim tombs. Biliana. depurative. Kemuka. Sk.— black with white aril. DISTR. a tonic is prepared from it. Fl.— tube short. Vayavarno. lip white with yellow centre. spirally arranged. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Vayavarna. The plant yields an essential oil. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . See—Condiments and Spices. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. . the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. lumbago. coughs and skin diseases. dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. concave. many. rheumatism. Kashmira. FAM. Pakarmula. stem sub-woody at the base . M. inflammations.

strangury. also wild. stomachic. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . long. Wild or cultivated. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. chest and blood diseases. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. Patra-pushpi.. X 12. carminative. Fr. Visha-Mandalamardini. 0. act as rubefacient and vesicant. laxative.. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. then sweet. lobes 6. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. tuberculous glands. DISTR. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. LOC. H. gonorrhœa. Sd. linear. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). as long as the tube. found wild in North and South Konkan. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. antipyretic. Tonic. Ceylon. anthelmintic. bechic. diuretic.:—G. chest. white. digestive. thin.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. Nag-damani. useful in bronchitis. perianth tube greenish-white. Nagdavana. laxative. heating. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism.5-18 cm.—20-30. bitter. fragrant at night. Sk. diseases of vagina. flowers and fruits. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. Kanda-shalini. expectorant. useful in biliousness.9-1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. good in strangury. lung and spleen diseases. :—Throughout tropical India. Nagadown. leaves. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. diam. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. removes "Vata". lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. vomiting.—15-50 in an umbel. cylindric. toothache. and seeds. bracts 7. The plant contains saponin. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. urinary concretions. linear lanceolate. COM. . beaked. bright green. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). defective vision. Vishamungalli. Kanwal. bulb 5-10 cm. aphrodisiac. "Pitta" and "Kapha". anuria. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. Chindar. FAM. USES:—Root is alterative. with a sheathing base. HABITAT :—Cultivated. detergent. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). flat. Pindar. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. urinary discharges. L. Fl.—Amaryllidaceæ. antilithic. bark. Seeds—purgative. K. CHAR. lumbago. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. Nag-damani. vesicant. tumours. anthelmintic. increases secretion of bile. LOC. emmenagogue. it promotes appetite. vulnerary. night-blindness. Kanmu. scape 45-90 cm.—1 (rarely 2). NS. See—Timbers. expectorant. M.5-10 cm.—subglobose.5 cm. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. leaves. Bark promotes appetite.

Danti. Jamalgota . G. Bengal. convulsions. China. :—Bengal. :—Naturalised in S. Malay Islands. As an application to sprains. useful in mental troubles. Ceylon . insanity. carminative. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. NS. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ieucoderma. Bhutankusam. Burma. Jamalgota. M. Purging croton . See—Ornamental Plants. Konkan. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. bronchitis (Ayurveda). leaves and seeds. COM. Ganasur. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. LOC. Jayapala. in small doses. Jepal..MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. FAM. Madhya Pradesh. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. Oil cathartic. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Nepal. K. Seeds contain an alkaloid. NS. expectorant. . Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. fever. Assam to Malacca. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. it is in great request. Chota-Natpur. Oil from the seed is purgative. :—Sylhet. abdominal diseases. Danti. Japala. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. :—H. tonic. Kanara. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. The plant contains lycorin. Sk. etc. Chucka . Seeds cause burning sensation. good in sore eyes. Nepala . inflammations. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Burma. emetic. naturalised or cultivated. Ceylon. :—Rare in the State. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. :—E. nauseant and diaphoretic. Nepala. COM. excessive phlegm. See—Timbers. bruises and rheumatic swellings. DISTR. cathartic. Sk. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Western Peninsula.—Euphorbiaceæ. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. bark.

:—G. urinary discharges. synovitis. . Sk. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. They are edible. Chibuda. K. Said to be truly wild in India. ascites. brain and body. M. and lock-jaw. DISTR. MELO Var.:—E. NS. Pathira . Sk. Mahanaracha Rasa. Kharbuja. Kalangida. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. diaphoretic. gives headache.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Valungi. fattening. insanity. LOC. Tarkakadi. NS. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. :—In Deccan. Rind—vulnerary. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. chronic fever. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. dropsy. used in liver and kidney troubles. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. fruit and seeds. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. G. Kharbuja. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. Mutrala. obstinate constipation. C. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. biliousness. aphrodisiac. M. Karkali. H. See—Timbers. tonic. cures " Vata ". Valaka. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. may cause indigestion. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. Vrittervaru. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Shadrekha. galactagogue. nutritive and diuretic. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. cures ophthalmia. Melon. Shantanu. convulsions. Fruit—tonic. COM. Karkati. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. laxative. Kharbuja. Kankadi. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. strengthens heart. Seeds—lachrymatory. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. H. Chibdu Shakarteti.—Cucurbitaceæ. bronchitis. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. colic. It is useful in apoplexy. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. It is given internally with great caution. LOC. Lomashi. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Kakni. diuretic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakadi. ascites. laxative. in ascites and anasarca. cooling. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). COM. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. diuretic. LOC. Ripe fruit—sweet. oily. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Sweet melon . thirst (Yunani). &c. insanity. wholesome. Kakri. Kachra. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. allays fatigue.

HABITAT :—Cultivated. female peduncle longer than male. lobes obovate. antipyretic. causes "Vata". Kakari.—yellow segments elliptic. good for brain and body. cooling. melo var. t. NS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. are administered in throat affections. Mrigadani. lobulate or dentate . fruits. strangury. margined . Seeds possess cooling properties. Vishala. fever. stomachic. Khira. Yunani). Kankdi. Sd. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. LOC. Santekayi. Sudhavsa. Sk. M.—monœcious . Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). seeds. tendrils simple. Takamaki. fatigue. Seeds—diuretic.— suborbicular. DISTR. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. they are also used as diuretic. Cucumber. L. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. LOC. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme.—white. Hislambhi. used in thirst.—subglobose or ellipsoid. "Kapha" and flatulence. M. indigestible. Cultivated in all parts of India. Khira. COM. male in clusters. enrich blood. Kakdi. FAM. biliousness. roasted and powdered. H. Tavasa. See-Fruit Trees.—Cucurbitaceæ.—Cucurbitaceæ. cordate at the base. Kothiban. stem slender. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. angled. improve complexion. G. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. B. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. CHAR. Trapusha. :—A perennial climber. pulp bitter. pale yellow when ripe.:—N. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Karit. Chitravalli. . and C. Sk. NS. C. Fruit—fattening . allay thirst. They are nutritive. Fl. utilissimus (Ayurveda. cures thirst. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). rigid. FAM. K. Ripe one tonic. purgative. Tansali. Kumbhakshi. Fr.—June-Sept. Sushitala. LOC. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. dry.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. COM.:—E. hairy. Fl. diuretic. :—G. cures biliousness. India is considered to be the original home. Seed oil used in fever. astringent. PARTS USED :—Leaves. See—Vegetables.

Karkarn. Kushmand. Punyalata. fruit is used to prevent insanity. FAM . Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. :—Cultivated. cultivated in many parts of India. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. The plant contains glucoside saponin. :—E. B and C.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State.—Cucurbitaceæ. improves taste (Ayurveda). Australia. Iran. astringent to bowels . DISTR.—Cucurbitaceæ. Red squash gourd. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Dangari. Kushmand. . COM. See—Vegetables. Mithakaddu. Kaddu. H. Pitakushmand. COM. etc. Kadimah. G. Sk. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Kumbala. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Melon pumpkin.:—Considered to be a native of America. PARTS USED :—Root. allays thirst. indigestible. Afghanistan.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Kumra. increases " Vata ". Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Kumbala. H. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. unhealthy ulcers. HABITAT. NS. Safedkaddu . PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. NS. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. fruits and seeds. G. In Malabar. LOC. Pumpkin. M. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. increases " Vata" . Ceylon. Sk. N. tonic. Dried fruit indigestible . Vegetable marrow. Bhopala. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. DISTR. M. Tambda bhopala. Malaya. Fruit contains vitamins A. Koron. FAM. K. USES. cures cough. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Dudia. K. carbuncles. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. DISTR. Seeds are used as taeniacide. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. LOC. LOC. stomachic.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. : — E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Kashiphala. on hedges. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda).

abortifacient. astringent. anthelmintic. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. relieves hiccup. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Cures " Vata " tumours. LOC. M. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). . COM. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. remove biliousness. COM. vulnerary. haematinic. NS. appetiser. allays thirst. H. also a lactagogue. inflammations. Gaurajerka. fruit and seeds. bronchitis. Fruit astringent. See—Condiments and Spices. cures leprosy. Jiru. FAM. enlargment of the spleen. heals corneal opacities. Seeds—diuretic.—Amaryllidaceæ. Ajjika. astringent to bowels. alexipharmic. cooling. good for teeth. fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. K. analgesic. Kalimusali. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. fatigue. aphrodisiac. carminative. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. leprosy. biliousness. LOC. cures haemoptysis. Dipaka. NS. belching . stomachic. tonic to intestine. scabies.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Cumin. eye-diseases. Leaves—digestible. Jirige. throat and eyes. gonorrhœa. Seeds anthelmintic. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). astringent to bowels. DISTR. tonic. antipyretic. Jira. Kapha " and " Vata ". ft contains vitamins A and C. fattening. thirst. Dirghaka. Seeds are taeniacide. sweet. M. Kalimusali. LOC. increases appetite . Girautmi. Fruit—very cooling. purifies blood (Ayurveda). antidysenteric. Zira. See—Vegetables. :—G. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. carminative. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. G. FAM. and the root for making these more potent. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). asthma. Kalimusali. Neltati gadde. beneficial in consumption. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. PARTS USED :—Fruit. leucoderma. H. diuretic and demulcent. ulcers. Fruit yields an essential oil. Neladati. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. laxative. stops epistaxis . tonic. fever. cure haemoptysis. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. emmenagogue. Sk. K. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Talamulika. :—E.—Umbelliferæ. carminative. Sk. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. uterine stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Jire. Mushalikand . Musali. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa.

HABITAT :—Often cultivated. Malay Archipelago. NS. asthma. ulcers on penis. C—white or very pale-yellow.5-15 X 3. with a beak .8-5 cm. gonorrhœa. emollient. black. very short. Ambahaladara. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. antipyretic.5 cm. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. W.3-2. useful in bronchitis. oblong. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. all skin-diseases. Sk. appetiser. stomatitis (Yunani). bronchitis. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. Kapurahaldi. Fl. yellow. gonorrhœa. distichous. K. Fl. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual.-Sept. DISTR. FAM. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . Assam. useful in inflammations.—sessile or petiolate. clavate . t. during convalescence after acute illness.. aphrodisiac. cylindric or ellipsoid. diarrhœa. tubers thick.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. H. colic. " Vata". shining . antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. appetiser. diuretic.—Scitamineæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. hiccup.5 cm. G. lumbago. sessile. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. alterative. Kanara. causes "Vata". aphrodisiac.— May-June. Java. L. useful in piles. scabies.:—W. COM. ophthalmia.—grooved. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. CHAR. t.— in autumnal spikes 7. 1545 X 1. scape. :—A small herb. Peninsula. useful in biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. oblong lanceolate. . appetising. linear or linear-lanceolate . :—Bengal. LOC. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). diarrhœa. Amragandha.— in racemes. alexiteric. piles. alterative and tonic. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. bitter. Ambahaldi. gleet. jaundice. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . fattening.—capsule. tonic. DISTR. Bitter. fatigue. gleet. inflammations (Ayurveda).:—Sweet. common at the beginning of rains. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. Fr. root stock large. laxative. perianth segments elliptic. :—Stemless herb. tips sometimes rooting. 30-45x7. debility and impotence. Fl. biliousness.—long petioled in tufts. hydrophobia. lumbago. rhizome. Ambehalad. Sd. LOC. antipyretic. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Fl. oblong. M. aphrodisiac. :—Konkan and Gujarat. cooling. :—E. Peninsula. Amhaladi. vomiting. maturant. flowering bract greenish-white. Mango-ginger. L. troubles in the mouth and ear. pale yellow inside . often cultivated. indigestion. Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES. Root—carminative. hairy on the back.5-12. Karpuraharidra. pains in joints (Yunani). expectorant.

NS. CHAR. Bengal. appetiser . t. Halada. 3lobed. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Haridra.-May. See—Condiments and Spices. C. Vanarishta. flowering bracts cymbiform. Sk. It is considered tonic and carminative. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Tubers. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. :—E. FAM. :—E. also stomachic. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . annulate. flowers fragrant. Fl. Halad. Kapur-kachali. palmately branched. variegated above. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. . Sk.5 cm. lip yellow. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. G. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. Harita. lateral lobes oblong. DISTR. Vanhaldara. upper half funnel-shaped. it is seldom used alone .—Scitamineæ. forming pouches for the flowers. sometimes cultivated. K. LOC. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache.—Scitamineæ. H. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Mangalya. long. H. M. Yellow Zedoary. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. Ran-halad. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sometimes cultivated. used as an application for skin-diseases. Sholi. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. root-stock large. Turmeric.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Sholika.—tube 2. Aranyaharidra. COM. biennial. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Fl. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. :—Stemless herb. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). :—Western Peninsula. LOC. green. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. Banharidra. Indian saffron. Halad.. COM. Jayanti. M. NS. G. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Banhaladi. Also cultivated in Konkan. Arishina. base deltoid. appearing before leafing stem. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. sessile. Varnadatri. the dorsal longer. Cochin-Wild turmeric. DISTR. LOC. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. rounded at the tips. long. lobes pale-rose.— flowering stem sheathed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. L. in spikes 15-30 cm. pale green. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger.

boils. lip 3-lobed. anthelmintic. sprains (Ayurveda). Kachuri. The plant contains curcumin. deepyellow.—Scitamineæ. COM. fumes are used during hysteric fits . :—Stemless herb. In small-pox and chicken-pox. useful in " Kapha". jaundice. bronchitis. heating. . annulate tubers. clouded with purple down the middle. small-pox. DISTR. appetiser. good for liver affections. bruises (Yunani). vulnerary. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis.—funnel shaped. Fl. heating. urinary discharges. Fr. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion.—4-6 with long petioles. useful in leucoderma. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Zedoary. odour like camphor. bitter. antipyretic. urinary discharges. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. itches etc. bitter. emollient. Kachora. Bitter. said to be Wild in E. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. used in prurigo. C. appearing before the leaves. Tuber is used as a stimulant. externally applied to leech-bites. coma-bract crimson or purple . :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. 3-gonous. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. maturant. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Narakachora. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . tonic. an alkaloid. FAM . oblong-lanceolate. anthelmintic. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. improves complexion. LOC. long. Jatala. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. H. carminative. Sk. leucoderma. "Vata ". See—Condiments and Spices. Gandhamulaka sara. Shathi.— flowering stem 20-25cm. Karechura. swellings. K. scabies. G. boils and urticaria. lobed . inflammations. oblong. vulnerary. clothed with sheaths. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. bruises. Kachari. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. It contains vitamin A. fragrant. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. flowers yellow in spikes. In coryza. cylindric. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. M. NS. Hakhir. blood diseases. and yields an essential oil.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.—capsule. 30-60 cm. laxative. taste bitterish spicy. Kachora. piles. LOC. pale-yellow inside. alexiteric. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. Himalayas and Chittagong. long. internally administered in blood disorders. scabies.:—E. alexiteric. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. diuretic. flowering bract green tinged with red . destroys foulness of breath. bruises. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. asthma. :—Cultivated in the State. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . L. root-stock of palmately branched.

sheaths of the culm tight. LOC. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. velvety at the nodes. up to over 1. LOC. emmenagogue. Tubers yield an essential oil. gastric irritability. glaucous green. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. Bitter. COM. neuralgia. Lemon grass. leprosy. enlargement of spleen. alexipharmic. M. Sk. G. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). . carminative. and other painful affections. high. DISTR. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). NS. laxative. laxative.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. it is also a good application for ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent.:—E.—Gramineæ. also used as a tonic and depurative. long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. It is also aromatic. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. Bhustrina. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. furunculosis. long. L. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis.8 m. hot. anthelmintic. emetic. sharp hot taste. useful in bronchitis. sprains. K. culm stout. useful in griping of children. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. Purhati hullu. appetiser. nodding. aphrodisiac. FAM. of much use in typhoid fevers. Ligule very short. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. sheaths terete . applied to bruises and sprains. good odour. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. LOC. tonic to brain and heart. H. pains. :—A tall perennial. stimulant and carminative. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. Gandhatrina. and is of great value in cholera. expectorant. sharp. bitter. inflammations. carminative.. others narrow and separating. it is stimulant. chronic rheumatism. Externally it is rubefacient. tuberculous glands of neck. epileptic fits. midrib whitish on the upper side. erect.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Takratrina. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. upto over 90 cm. toothache (Yunani). Lilicha. Gavati-chaha. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. alexipharmic. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. It is an excellent stomachic to children. Putigandha. CHAR. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic.—linear tapering upwards to a point. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Majjige hullu. probably of Indian origin. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago.

DISTR. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). See-Oils. long. and Ceylon ascending to 3. cooling. LOC. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. K. K. prostrate . useful in biliousness. glaucous beneath. Fl. Bujina.—2-10 cm. Vasanchullu. finely acute.5-5 cm.—Gramineæ. hallucinations.-Nov. 1. COM. upto 2. LOC. Fl. :—Cosmopolitan . Rohisha. NS. burning sensation. narrowly linear. Kobbar. Sk. G. sheaths tight. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. scabies. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.t. Country. Sk. leafy. Geramium grass. usually broad. sweet. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. skin .—flat. long. wide below. CHAR. most warm countries. green or purplish. margins scabrid. :—Sourashtra. L. Saugandhika. H.4 m. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Bhutika.3 cm. Afghanistan. bad taste in the mouth. Rhusghas.5-30 cm. leprosy. stem. long. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. CHAR.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf.—throughout the year. Shatamula. X 1 cm. :—E. Bahuvirya. pungent. with erect flowering branches 7. leprosy. epileptic fits. M. t. M. Rohisha. Durva. oblique or divaricate. long. throughout India.:—Grows all over the State. thirst. Durba. high. straw coloured. subcordate or rounded at the base. :—A perennial grass . Fl. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. heart diseases. Gharo. in the Himalayas. :—Punjab. DISTR. Africa to Morocco. PARTS USED :—Whole plant.—Gramineæ. 1 mm. forming matted tufts. vomiting. stem. H. Deccan. slender. Durva. particularly the Deccan trap areas.. Gujarat.000 m. Shyamaka. useful in fevers. LOC. Fr. Konkan.—Oct. Mirchiagand. Roshagavat. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. carminative. bronchitis. Baluchistan.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Shatagranthi.—grain. fatigue. Sind. Fl. G. Harali.—spikes 2-nate. soft. FAM. L. Ghats. FAM. Roshdo. high.5-2. Dhoboghas. :—E. 12-18 mm. Mangala. pains. bitter. Dhro. widely creeping. S. M. W. Burma. smooth. through N. NS. Garikehallu. throat troubles. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils.

82. stolons elongate. expectorant. vulnerary. trigonous. it is diuretic.—Sept-Nov. Tubers yield an essential oil. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. :—Throughout India. 0. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . dyspepsia and stomach complaints. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. Sk Bhadramusta. Bimbal. USES :—Roots are commonly. biliousness. most hot countries. LOC. dysentery. t. appetiser. spikelets 10-50 flowered. H. Koranarigadde. useful in vomiting. :—G. Ceylon. dysentery. Bitterish. pain. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. acrid. Motha. stomatitis. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. cooling. LOC. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Fl. burning sensation. CHAR. juice is used in hysteria. greyish black. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. anthelmintic. useful for ulcers and sores. In Ceylon. FAM. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. DISTR. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. Nagarmotha. epistaxis. PARTS USED :—Tubers. NS. blood diseases. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. K. Tungegaddo. urinary concretions (Yunani). Motha. Nut—broadly ovoid. thirst.— in simple or compound umbel. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Motha. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. epistaxis (Ayurveda). diaphoretic. fever. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. very troublesome weed. erysipelas. L. :—Glabrous herb. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels.. Fl. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm.—shorter or longer than the stem. dyspepsia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. hiccup (Yunani).. They are also diuretic and stimulant. pruritis. stomachic. Mutha. Kachhola.5 cm. Sugandhi-granthila. astringent. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. Mustaka. difficult to eradicate. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. Root— diuretic. fevers. vomiting. narrowly linear. epilepsy. biliousness. See—Fodder Plants. bruises. vulnerary. epilepsy and insanity. erysipelas (Ayurveda). The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. fever. blood diseases. anthelmintic. emmenagogue. ophthalmia. diarrhœa. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding.—Cyperaceæ. diarrhœa. COM. Granthi. M. . useful in leprosy.

Sd. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. a glucoside. :—Deccan. Black-Purple datura. Fl. FAM.g. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. t. HABIT :—A common weed. G. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. somewhat zigzag. LOC. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued.—Solanaceæ. entire or with large teeth or lobes. Kaladhatura. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. outer truncate. packed.. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions.2-7.5 cm. corona outer and inner.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn.2 cm. L. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). subglobose. S. M. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). :—Throughout India in hotter parts. NS. COM. funnel-shapped. 18 cm.—purple outside. C. long. Fl.:—E. M. Ceylon. Utran. Phalakantak. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". Kala-dhotara. covered with straight sharp prickles. :—H. paralytic ileus.—Aug. ciliate. LOC. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. lobes spreading. Rajdhattura.—Asclepiadaceæ. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. acute. CHAR. on curved stalk 3.—many. 30-60 cm. very unequal at the base.—thin. divaricately branched. H. diam. soft spiny.—Sept-Dec. and sub-involution of the uterus. Sd. CHAR. FAM.5 cm. Kanaka. long 10-20. Fr. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also.-Jany. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . :—Annual shrub.5-15 X 3. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. nodding. stem hairy. across. Country. greenish-yellow or dull-white. inner curved high over the staminal column. DISTR. Kaladhatura. Gujarat. Fl. usually pubescent. spur acute. high. velvety pubescent beneath. broadly ovate or suborbicular. .—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. Bhranta. double. Unmatta. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—follicle. e. yellowish brown. Administered after the third stage of labour. afterwards racemose. green.— tubular. solitary. Sk. L. :—A perennial twining herb. Fr. beak long. Sk. t. K: Dhattura. reflexed.—capsule. ovate. glabrous above. Fl. COM. Kariyu-Um-Matta. M. Kanaka. Utarni. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. white inside.—7. Ns. tubular.

Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. Europe. headache. in combination with subja. PARTS USED :—Root. Garjara. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. nosetrouble.—Umbelliferæ COM. ulcers. Leaf-juice is given internally. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. GranthiPinda-Mula. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. with curdled milk. bronchitis. Sk. nodes. :—E. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Leaf poultice. skin-diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. LOC. Cultivated in many parts of India. G. USES :—Out of the two varieties. equal in effect to atropine. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. M. chronic coughs. emetic. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. useful in leucoderma. Gajar. Gajar. H. emetic. Gajra. heating. FAM. biliousness. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Seeds—narcotic. DISTR. K. black (Kala) and white (Safed). tonic. majum. Carrot. Gajjari. :—Throughout the tropics. and antispasmodic properties. jaundice. relieves pain. ganja. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. cause headache (Yunani). in gonorrhœa. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. NS. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. leaves and seeds. digestive and heating. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. bitter. febrifuge.. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. toxic. Shikkikanda. leaves and seeds. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. aphrodisiac. black variety is considered to be more powerful. alexiteric. painful tumours. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. anodyne. PARTS USED :—Roots. (Ayurveda). The plant as a whole has narcotic. piles. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. to increase their stupefying effect. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Gajar. The whole plant is narcotic. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. toddy. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. LOC. febrifuge. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. enlargement of testicles and boils. anthelminitic . mumps etc. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them.

—pod. tropical Africa. nausea (Yunani). asthma. thirst. stomachic. urinary complaints. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. other fevers. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Salpan. asthma. burning sensation. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . COM. K. removes " Kapha". piles. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. M. NS. Root marmalade is refrigerant. Fr. cures biliousness. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). M. Ceylon. Dirghamula. tonic. alexipharmic. Salwan. Deccan and S. chronic affections of chest and lungs. LOC.6-1.. diuretic. Vidarigandha. antidysenteric. Salwan. bronchitis. paler and hairy beneath. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Burma. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. . Root— astringent in diarrhœa.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). high. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. Roots contain vitamins A. It is used in fevers. stems and branches angled. anthelmintic. CHAR. :—A woody undershrub. urinary discharges. 0. used in bronchitis. Darh. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Shaliparni. good for liver. indigestible. upper edge straight.—May-July. aphrodisiac. Salwan. tumours. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. :— G. B and C. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. alterative. Malay Peninsula and Islands . :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. carminative. cures typhoid. sub-falcate. cures leprosy. throughout India.2 m. piles. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. ovate-oblong. prevents death of fœtus in womb . H. dysentery . USES :—Externally. astringent to bowels. DISTR. hairy. Sk. Salparni. L. C—violet or white. Tonic. green and glabrous above. Kitavinashini. :—Konkan and N. LOC. boiled with honey and fermented. standard cuneate at the base .90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. hooked hairy. biliousness. membranous. astringent to bowels. they produce a spirituous liquor. joints 6-8. Philippines. they are also diuretic. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. margins wavy. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. China. pains. thirst. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. inflammations. " Tridosha ". Kanara . Salpani. hiccup.—in terminal or axillary racemes.—onefoliate. vomiting. chest troubles. good for inflammation. Fl. See—Vegetables. vomiting. Ranbhal. fattening. biliousness. cardiotonic. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). expectorant. useful in chronic fevers. Murele-honne. FAM. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. cough. Country. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. " Vata". Fl. t. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). vomiting and asthma.

HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. oleaginous. LOC. covered with shining sheaths. Darbha. Banda. Zeeberwo. Gavandu. in the beds of rivers and streams. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Pavitra. jaundice. Wild mangosteen. diseases of blood. Sacred Plants. biliousness. H. aphrodisiac. G. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. L.—G. flowers. Kalaskandh. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). interrupted. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Kalatendu. Gujarat. Wood cures biliousness. smooth. Temburni. Durva. Sk. Kusha. Thailand (Siam). bark. diuretic. DISTR. branched from the base. Anilsara.8 cm. Gale. stolon very stout. erect. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. vesical calculi. strangury. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. clothed with sessile spikelets. fruit and seeds.:—Saurashtra. CHAR. Nubia. erect pyramidal or columnar. rigid. Dabha. :—E. Makurkendi. long. sheaths glabrous. M. Kanara and the Konkan. Fl. cooling. M.—many.—Ebenaceæ. thirst. Konkan. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. diseases of bladder. skin eruptions. NS. Davoli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—Along the coasts of N. Tendu. Darbha. reaching 50 cm. Dab. Ceylon. :—Throughout India. H. good for lumbago. Malay Archipelago. stems 30-90 cm. stout.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. COM. K. Riber ebony. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. useful in blood diseases.3-3. branches short crowded. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. t.) FAM. vomiting. -panicle 15-45 X 1. PARTS USED :—Wood. Tinduka. heating.—Dec. NS. Timbwini. :—Perennial tall grass. Sphurjaka. DISTR. asthma. Sk. tufted. margins hispid. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. . Fl. Syria. rootstock stout. Tumaki Mara. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. cures ulcers and " Vata". high.. FAM. Fruit—oleaginous. vaginal discharges. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). COM. See—Fodder Plants.—Gramineæ. ligule a hairy line . used in biliousness and blood diseases. creeping. Egypt. astringent to bowels. Tumari. sedative to pregnant uterus. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. the basal fascicled.

It is demulcent in calculus affection. Grains contain vitamin A. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. liver troubles. short. Sitetara. strangury. coughs etc. M. removes stone from kidney. Ashvakatri. Bijapur and Dharwar. K. Kulathi. base decurrent on the stipe. cures hiccup. Kulit. . abdominal complaints. ozoena. hot. urinary discharges. Sk. G.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). grown to a certain extent in S. Country—Belgaum. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. leucoderma. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Kulith. HABITAT :—Cultivated.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. ovate.Gahat. Kalvrinta. LOC. Texture membranaceous to leathery. Kulthi. Horse-Gram. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. fertile ones long stalked. Kulthi. acrid. pain in liver. asthma. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. emmenagogue. anthelmintic. antipyretic. NS. generally on trees and rocks. stout. piles. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. inflammation. dry. FAM. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. COM. COM. "Vata". cures " Kapha". piles. cordate. bronchitis. Sk. Hurali. Konkan— Ratnagiri. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. :—Tropics of the old world.—Polypodiaceæ. improves complexion. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Kulitha. M. Wandar bashing. intestinal colic. FAM. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. H. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. :—E. fattening. DISTR. enlargement of spleen. Tans. causes biliousness (Yunani). CHAR. Diuretic. astringent to bowels. Jurali. :—M. See—Timbers. diseases of the brain and eyes. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. Kulithaka. heart-troubles. hiccup. Sori two in each primary areole. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. tumours. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. Surfaces naked. variously lobed. Nasik. LOC. NS. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). eye troubles. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Basingh. :—Rhizome creeping. See-Food Plants. appetiser.

PARTS USED :—Root and plant. oblong. :—More or less throughout India. bracts 3seriate.— Nov. astringent to bowels . hectic fever. surrounded by strong white bristles. used in ophthalmia. Utakatara. Maka. Utkanto. high. LOC.—sessile.—limb linear. glabrous above. Kalobhangro . spiny. usually oblong-lanceolate. S. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). sessile. DISTR. It is used in hoarse cough. Keshrangana. H. t.—heads white. CHAR. Sk. spines 2. globose. thirst. pain in joints. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. hot.:—Throughout India. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. branches widely spreading from the base. inflammations. intermediate produced in sharp spine. urinary discharges. Shulio. NS. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Bhangra. Utkanta. cottony pubescent. Country. Afghanistan. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. causes " Kapha". used in strangury. hysteria. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. LOC. Utkatara. deeply pinnatifid. M. Plant stomachic. Mochand. CHAR. biliousness. Kadigga-garaga. M. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). subentire.—Compositæ. pappus short.5 cm. densely villous. bitter. diseases of heart.9 m.— opposite. stimulates liver. chronic fever. . 0. long. yellowish. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. COM. involucre. Dadhal. stems and branches strigose and hairy. C. dyspepsia. sinuate and spinescent. improves taste. gleet. :—Konkan. H. Markara. :—G. " Vata".:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. L.-Jany.—achene obconic. :—Kanara. tonic. dyspepsia and cough. DISTR. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). the lobes triangular and oblong. cooling. Kadechubak. :—G. Fl. Bhangra. COM. Bhringraj. useful in brain-diseases. Utkantaka.3—0. increases appetite. LOC. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. analgesic. Pitripriya. Ajagara. Kantalu. Deccan. K. Sk. Seeds—wholesome. Utanti. Root— abortifacient. Kantaphala. Konkan. cottony. often rooting at the nodes. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. Sunilaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. antipyretic. L. Balari. also cultivated to a certain extent. FAM. M. Fl. Garagadasoppu.—Compositæ. strigose and hairy. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. :—A much branched rigid annual. Bhangro. FAM. wooly beneath.

anæmia. anthelmintic. Gourangi.-Dec. t. See—Sacred Plants. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Ceylon. teeth. :—Western valleys of N. Choti-Elachi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. hernia. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. FAM. Bitter . Panjab. asthma. cuneate with a narrow wing. M. night blindness. it is powdered and applied externally. toothache. C—often 4-toothed . solitary or 2 together. leucoderma. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Gandhkuti. pappus 0. "Vata". Velchi. antipyretic. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. cultivated. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Sind. There are two forms erect and prostrate. Elachi. stomachic. liver pain. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. Burma. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Yalakki. Kanara (Siddapur. alexipharmic. eye diseases. Chandrabala. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . disk ones tubular . LOC. Fr.— Oct. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. cures vertigo (Yunani). prevents abortion and miscarriage. axillary. .—in heads. Bahula. stomatitis. good for spleen diseases. fevers. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. tonic. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Sk. good for complexion. a reputed and popular liver tonic. fattening. and for strengthening gums.:—India (Bengal. LOC.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. COM. W. alterative. K. It relieves headache when applied with oil. Madhya Bharat. ray flowers ligulate.—Scitaminaceæ. Peninsula). cures inflammations. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. G. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. heart and skin diseases. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Triputa. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. Veldoda. involucral bracts about 8 . It is given internally in scalding of urine. hemi-crania. improves colour of hair. :—E. Ilaji. Fl. expectorant.—achene. Karangi. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. hair. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. eyes. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . NS. hot. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. syphilis. H. bronchitis. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. internal diseases. Malaya. lustre of eyes. DISTR. "Kapha". Ela.. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda).

Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. Bavato. Sk. Kanisha. Nagali. cooling. PARTS USED :—Grain. Ragi. It is said to be astringent. LOC.:—Western and S.. Varding. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. NS. diuretic. Makra. bronchitis. pruritus. H. consumption. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. most suitable to hard-working classes. COM. Marua. cause biliousness . India. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). fruit is tonic.—Gramineæ. tonic. useful in asthma. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. fragrant. Bhasmaka. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. useful in biliousness. Vayuvitang. Navalo-nagali. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. strangury.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. See-Food Plants. LOC. stimulant and emmenagogue. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. diuretic. Seed—fragrant. Rotka. useful in head. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. CUM. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. Sk. LOC. chest and throat (Yunani). Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. root is laxative and tonic. FAM. bad humours of liver. K. Rajika. NS. Grains contain vitamin B. Bidanga. clear head. kidney. Vidariga. rich or poor. carminative. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. abortifacient. FAM. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). tonic to heart. scabies. Narttaka. It is stomachic. Wavrung. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. DISTR. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. Vavoding. Pavaka. M. ear and tooth ache. Vavading. H. Nachani. cultivated.:—G. In S. . bitter. causes thirst. cooling. lessens inflammation. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. PARTS USED :—Root.—Myrsinaceæ. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. stomachic. fruit and seeds. brain and mouth. pungent. Jantughna. K. alexiteric . piles. See—Condiments and Spices. Boberang. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. diseases of bladder. :— G. laxative.

leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Fr. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours.) FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. good appetiser.—Feb. bark studded with lenticels . useful in burning sensation. Fl. HABITAT :—Rain forests. racemes minute. Adiphala. greenish yellow. leprosy. Malay Islands. erysipelas. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. sweats. slender. alterative. :—Throughout India. " Kapha'. Anola. 42-II-1932). constipation. antipyretic. Seed— acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Sk. dries wound discharges . Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. laxative. bark. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. mental diseases. :—Hilly parts of the State. Fl. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). reddens urine. laxative. anthelmintic . aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Dhatri. Ceylon. Amlika. smooth. coriaceous. tonic. Malaya. vomiting. cures tumours. . L. G. ascites. China. Dadi. urinary discharges. alterative. fruit and seeds. alexiteric. S. branches long. Int. dry. LOC. like a pepper corn when dried. Bhoza . often planted in Konkan. good for plethoric constitution. nearly globose. dyspnoea. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. Kanara. Amlika. DISTR. (Dymock). wild or planted. leaves. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. anuria. Nellika . with a sharp bitter taste. anthelminitic.—in lax panicles. cooling. Ceylon. jaundice. Triphala. Gokhale. analgesic. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. Pharm. Amalaka.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. strangury. et.—alternate. black when ripe. succulent. bronchitis. carminative. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. COM. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. biliousness. urinary discharges. China. carminative. vulnerary. Ambala. Ther. DISTR. LOC. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). t. Avala. useful in asthma. anæmia. many. H. alexiteric. paler and silvery beneath. Western Ghats.—berry. Dhatriphala. shining above. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Paranjpe and G. Embelic myrobalan. LOC. Daula . sour. purgative. NS. Anward. " Tridosha ". Bitter. poisoning. bronchitis. thirst. hemicrania. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. K. :—A large scandent shrub. Deccan. Amla. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . M. piles. :— E. Arch. internodes long. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. K. inflammations. S. cures bronchitis . It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. flexible. Konkan and N. flowers. elliptic-lanceolate. diseases of heart.

Giant's rattle. Fruit Trees. :—E. Fl. Tanavadi. Celyon. Dried fruits. cold in the nose. Ind. S. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. C—infundibuliform.—sessile. stops nasal hæmorrhage. astringent.). M. piles. LOC. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. expectorant. Dyes. Mamejavo . Nahu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. 10—50 cm. LOC. See—Timbers. useful in heart-diseases. sour. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Kadvinayi. :—Throughout the greater part of India. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. LOC. vulnerary. :—Konkan. biliousness. Chhotakirayat. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. used as laxative and astringent. Sk. 3-nerved. DISTR. :—G. in axillary clusters all along the stem. L. Lady nut. Garambi. high. M. mid-nerve strong. tonic. NS. Fruit—acrid.— capsule. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". Tiktapatra.—Gentianaceæ. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. eye troubles. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Doddakampi. rounded apex. K.—Aug.) FAM. CHAR. Saurashtra. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. aperient. purifies body humours (Yunani). stems erect or procumbent. liver complaints. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. variable. Gujarat. sub-quadrangular or terete. improves appetite. M. Grey). Fr. white. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Fl. USES :—Root. t.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. NS. Nagajivha. narrowed at the base. R. bark and fruit are astringent. opposite. Tans. Sind.—sessile. . Mackary bean. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. anthelmintic. Unripe fruit is cooling. H. West Indies. COM. Country. tropical Africa. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. cooling. COM. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. thirst. diuretic and laxative.-Nov. ellipsoid. Hallekayiballi. Garbe. lobes 5. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. Malaya. Madvinashi. Mabhipaka. :—A perennial glabrous herb. FAM. branched from the base.

30-90 cm. DISTR. :—E. Var. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). :—Konkan and N. Indian coral-tree. Dadap. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Pangara. Fr. mixed with spices.7-5x7.3-2 cm.5-5-7 cm. Halivan.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. diam.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. stomachic.— Mar. bark used in dysentery. 4. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. long. wide and 3-8 cm. Arakan. compressed. Paribhadra. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". . Sd. L. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. leaves. in debility and glandular swellings . M. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. C.—yellow. shining and brown. Phandra . Sundribans. t. LOC. inflammations. bark. G.—6-15.. N. hot. indented between the seeds. ORIENTALIS Merr. DISTR. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Tennaserim. Nepal. COM. :—Coast forests of Malabar. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves—bitter. W. Mandara. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Planted as ornament. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. improve appetite.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fl. flowers. Mochi-wood. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril.—pod. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stalked.) FAM. Pegu. slightly curved. branches terete. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. USES :—Powdered kernel. Ceylon.S. dark green. along sea-coast above high-water. Panarvo. they are given internally as an emetic. the tropics generally. glabrous. Kantakinshuka. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. 3. pinnae 2—3 pairs. K. Mullumurige. Salaki. cure urinary discharges.—2pinnate. Hongara. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam.5-10 cm. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. thick. rigidly coriaceous. The plant is used as a fish-poison. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Panderavo. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Mandara. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Andamans and Nicobar. oblong or obovate... Panjira. Sk. Peninsula. woody. Bangaro. Pangara. leaflets 7-5 x 2.-May. orbicular. Planted as support for pepper vines. often along river banks. Raktapushpa. H. smooth. LOC. anthelmintic. long. Fl. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. for grapevines in Nasik district.

HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. LOC. H. M. Sk. Milk hedge. Dudanali. base unequal-sided. 18th Ind.—opposite. with or without a limb. gland minute. :—E. Ceylon.—Euphorbiaceæ. Dudhi. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. L. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Sk. Shirthahar. :—Annual herb. pale beneath.—ovoid-trigonous. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Govardhan. H. Australian asthma herb. NS. Dandalio thora. K. Sc. FAM. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. it is anthelmintic. Bahukshira. Achchegida. dark green above.) FAM. CHAR. . The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Dudhi. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sher. t. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Cong. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Sahud. See—Timbers. G. rugose. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. high. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FL. 15-50 cm. and to relieve pain of the joints. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Dandasruha. COM. G. erect or ascending. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Indian tree spurge. appressedly hairy. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar.—Euphorbiaceæ. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). —throughout the year.—involucres numerous. Mondukalli. K. Vajradruma. Bottugalli. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Sd. serrulate or dentate. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Pusitoa. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. :— E. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Fl. Pill-bearing spurge. Nevli. Duddi. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Paradeshi thora . M. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Dudhi. Milk bush. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. bowel complaints and cough in children.—capsule. Fr. globose. branches often 4-angled. Nagpur 1931). Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. reddish brown. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sendh. COM. Kodukalli.

asthma. carminative. also as an alterative. branches erect. stone in bladder (Yunani). leprosy and leucorrhoea. smooth. high. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. alterative. M. LOC. solitary or sometimes 2. :—A small tree. Juice is purgative. useful in gonorrhœa. brightens intellect. epilepsy. peduncles very long. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). tropical and sub-tropical countries. thin. alexiteric. L. :—G. rootstock woody .-July-Nov. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. axillary. :—Sind. long (appearing in rainy season) . leprosy. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. . Kalisankhavali. and with oil to promote growth of hair. Fr. carminative. Sd— glabrous. :—Throughout the State. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. pungent. thick like quill. The plant contains an alkaloid. tumours. terete. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. cocci velvety. Jhinkiphudardi. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. linear. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Sk. Fr. teething of infants . base acute. Vishnukranta. jaundice. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). useful in abdominal troubles. LOC. elliptic-oblong. Fl.—capsule. tonic. smooth. stems many. CHAR. polished. useful in biliousness. enlargement of spleen.—small. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. Nilpushpi. more than 5 cm. employed to raise blisters. almost leafless.-Sep. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. milk is alexiteric. prostrate. long. naturalised in India. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.-light blue. 4valved. t. L. silky hairy. dyspepsia. usually clothed with long hairs . COM. Shyamakranta . mostly female. colic. H. NS.— capsule. DISTR. branchlets whorled. campanulate. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—A perennial herb. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. :—Native of East Africa. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . globose.—many. anthelmintic. about 6 m. Konkan and Gujarat. whooping cough. LOC. wiry. Sd. 6-13 mm. Vishnugandhi. K. dropsy. LOC. biliousness. t. spreading. leucoderma. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. Fl. useful in bronchitis. Vishnukranta. Vishnukranti.—ovoid. Fl.—Convolvulaceæ. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. DISTR.-Aug. FAM. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets.

Atmamuli. ophthalmia. Arabia. small. NS. C—lobes 4-5. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. ellipsoid. LOC. Cooling. thirst. leaflets linear. smooth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. the middle the largest. pyramidal to the apex. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). DISTR." asthma. NS. flattened. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. Iran. deeply 5-partite. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields.-Dec. 5-nerved. shining.—Gentianaceæ. Dhanavi. reduces tumours. Ghats. . good for liver troubles. emmenagogue.—Zygophyllaceæ. COM. yellowish brown. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . Fr. Barachirayat. Ind. :—Konkan. Deccan hills and S. Mysore. spitting of blood. Fr. M. lower half white.2 cm. stem.-Oct. LOC. in copious terminal cymes . Ustarkhar. Gujarat. sessile. stomatitis. westwards to Afghanistan. N. more or less glandular. quadrangular. t. :— Sind. fever. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn.-Aug. Udichirayat. H. CHAR. L. :— H. also used in chronic fevers. M. FAM. vomiting. Maval. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. CHAR. high. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Dusparsha. glandular hairy. long. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. removes "Vata. Sk. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. LOC. alexipharmic. Dhamasa. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation.— showy. the upper blue. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). ovate. erysipelas. Baluchistan. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks.—capsule. M. L. Coimbatore. cures dysentery. W. Circars. DISTR. :—An erect annual. :—G. root fibrous. obliquely obovate.—solitary.— ovoid. about 1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. asthma. Punjab. 1-seeded cocci. toothache. removes "Vata". t. petioles deeply striate. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. Country. Rajasthan. FL. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Upper Gangetic plains. COM. it has got cooling properties. Sd. reaching 60 cm. of 5. scarcely branched. FAM. elliptic or lanceolate.—opposite.-Nov. acute. in chronic bronchitis. Bark is used in scabies. Mediterranean. :—Madras State. urinary discharges. cooling. 1-3 foliate. Kashaya. Fl. Fl. Waziristan.—very variable in size and form sessile. Dhamaso . arising from between the stipules . pale rose-coloured. smooth. typhoid. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. Hinguna. Prabhodhini.). infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. Fl. purifies blood (Ayurveda).

Byala. Seeds—antidote to poison. Kapipriya. Ceylon. diam. leucorrhoea. Java. Fr. Vata. with spreading branches. ovate to elliptic. LOC. acrid. :—E. Nyagrodha. " Vata ". Vad. M. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Bhringi. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. dysentery. Alada. Jatala. COM. CHAR. Banian tree. Kavitha. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness .5 cm. Balin. Bargad. useful in biliousness. NS. about 2 cm.. Vadlo . antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. cures cough. K. binding diuretic. cordate or rounded base. " Tridosha". tonic to heart. Sk. Kavit. LOC.—Moraceæ. Goli. difficult to digest. S. Grahiphala. Avaroha. Bar. DISTR. alexipharmic. M. consumption. common in the Tapi Valley. Kanara. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. COM. 10-20 X 5-12. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Kapitha. Kait. high. Kotha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. liver and lungs . M. fatigue. FAM. :—Cultivated all over the State. See—Timbers. vomiting . Fruit—sour . Kathel. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. blood impurities. Bargat. L. shining above. G. fruit and seeds. thirst. NS. Monkey fruit. Ala. H. G. often cultivated. refrigerant. Leaves—very astringent. strengthening to gums . country and N.—Rutaceæ. :—Indigenous in S. ophthalmia. removes biliousness. India. Self-sown. Dadhiphala. Kavath. K. Ghats. heart diseases. Fruit Trees. refrigerant .:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Manmadha. H. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. tumours. Malura. PARTS USED :—Leaves. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. Kathinyaphala. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. :— E. astringent. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Kothun. Vad. . FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. aphrodisiac.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Belada. often planted. asthma.— globose. Elephant or wood apple. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. female. hiccup. Sk. good for throat.—coriaceous. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Bahupada. with male. LOC. Vat.

India. Sacred Plants. lithotriptic. vaginal complaints. H. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Anjir. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. useful in syphilis. diuretic. FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark. ringworm. boils and carbuncles. useful in piles. Anjir. Sk. Anjir. Fibres. Cultivated in N. See—Famine Plants. W. leprosy. DISTR. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. FICUS CARICA Linn. seeds and milky juice. India. tonic. bruises. Grown scattered elsewhere. Kakodumbar. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). useful in inflammation . nose-diseases. W. nutritive. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts.—Moraceæ. leprosy (Ayurveda). G. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. LOC. fever. maturant. diseases of head and blood. Bijapur. Fig. M. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. K. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. weakness. NS. Seeds are cooling and tonic. Anjura. vulnerary. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. useful in leucoderma. LOC. biliousness. thirst. aphrodisiac. . Anjir. useful in "Kapha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. COM. Root—tonic. :—Baluchistan. Dharwar. dysentery. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. gonorrhœa. leaves. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Asia and Mediterranean. stimulates hair-growth. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. hill ranges of S. laxative. :— E. alexiteric. Milky Juice—expectorant. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. liver and spleen diseases. demulcent. in rheumatism and lumbago. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. erysipelas. inflammation of liver (Yunani). vomiting. Aerial root is styptic. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. root-fibres. useful in "Vata". inflammations. biliousness. Simeyatu . ulcers. paralysis. lessens inflammations. Afghanistan. pain in chest cures piles.

useful. H. Pippala. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. Demera. (Yunani). Lalka. burning sensation. Bark is cooling. Pipal. LOC. Leaves—astringent to bowels . causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). useful in "Kapha". Shuchidruma. Atti. styptic. galactagogue.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Gular. uterus . is given to cattle in rinderpest. LOC. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. good for gravid uterus. Pipal. DISTR. K. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Arani. good for bronchitis. H. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. nose bleedings. leucorrhoea. FAM. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Udumbara. fatigue. good for foul taste. Sacred Plants. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Bark. Umbar. NS. Umbro. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. DISTR. G. Gular-Country fig. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. diseases of kidney and spleen. acrid. ulcers. Sk. Ragi. urinary discharges. Ashvatha.—Moraceæ. Pipli. leaves. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Rumadi. fruit. cummin. K. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. blood diseases. tonic. leaves and fruits. burning sensation. latex. Bodhidruma. bark. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. NS. Yajnika. menorrhagia. COM. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Umar. :—Throughout the State near villages. leprosy. vulnerary. allays thirst. ground with onions. biliousness. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. . Umar. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. G. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. loss of voice. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Vriksharaj. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Jari. Pipers.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. COM. :—E. in diseases of blood. Pimpal. Hemadugdha. FAM. HABITAT :—Planted. Sk. Peepal tree . M. given in leucorrhoea. Pippala. M. bark. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. planted all over.—Moraceæ. biliousness. Ashwatha mara. See—Timbers. vagina. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Pavitraka. Milk—aphrodisiac. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Fruit—astringent to bowels. :—Widely spread throughout India.

a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Bhuripushpa. Gajale. Sk. Root good for gout. H. Kanara Jungles. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Circars. Khandesh. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. N. LOC. M. Soupa. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. Badisoppu. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Variari. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Hills. Kankod .—Umbelliferæ. promotes granulations. Finkel. cleans ulcers. See—Timbers. Fruit—purgative. DISTR. H. Bhakal. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. . astringent in leucorrhoea. Potika. Fennel. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. Bhanber. checks vomiting (Yunani). Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. LOC. COM. upper Gangetic plain. Katar. Ghats.—Flacourtiaceæ. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. seeds. Tambat. Badishep. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. See—Timber. Sk. G. fruit.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. The juice is employed in hiccup. and produces sterility in women. Swadukantaka. heart diseases. Shateya. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Hettarimullu. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. COM NS. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. :— G. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. FAM. Akrani. M. Hunmunki. appetising and digestive. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. common in the Peninsula. FAM. Burma. Tapaspriya. good for lumbago. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. K. W. Mullutari. bark. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Sacred Plants. K. Country and N. NS. Variali. Handi Kandai. Shalina. S. Paker. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fruits are sweet. gum. SAPIDA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Bilangra . Satpura. Fodder Plants. M.

LOC. dark green. NS. Oils. G. strengthen eyes (Yunani). Ratambi. PARTS USED :—Bark. anthelmintic. Sk. dysentery. USES :—Bark is astringent. L. high. Murjinhalli. carpophore 2-partite. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. fruit and seeds. ultimate segments linear. galactagogue. :—W. amenorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. Kokam . Kanara. cardiotonic. LOC. annual. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. fever. tumours. Kokam. fissures of lips. Atyamla. yellow. Kokam . cough and asthma. DISTR. (Mhaskar and Caius). eye-diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. improves appetite and allays thirst. Tittidika . leaves and seeds. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. Wild mangosteen. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". difficult to digest. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. seeds-carminative. " Vata ".106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. diuretic. FAM. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Amlabija. FL. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments.9 m. aromatic and carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated.— decompound. H.—in large umbels . It is much used as a nutritive. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. Ghats south of Bombay.—ellipsoid. Leaves—improve eyesight. Konkan and N. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. anthelmintic. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. common in S. M. K. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. thirst. aphrodisiac. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. leprosy (Ayurveda). suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. Fr. dysentery. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. PARTS USED :—Roots. LOC. wounds etc.6-0. COM. ridges prominent. furrows vittate. Ghats. lessen inflammations. burning sensation. Mulgala. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. :—Endemic in W. often cultivated. stimulant. alexiteric. in headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". biliousness. . laxative. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. :—E. :—A tall glabrous. appetiser. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. See—Timbers. useful in diseases of chest. cures "Tridosh". leaves (rarely).—Guttiferæ. stomachic. demulcent and emollient. Coorg. :—Apparently a native of S. USES :—used as stimulant. causing constipation . DISTR. Wynaad. spleen. 0. useful in bleeding piles. kidney. Tintidika. LOC. wounds. bracts and bracteoles absent.

vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). first white then changing to yellow. all dry districts of Madras State. Dikamali. Fl. Pinda. about 1. PARTS USED:-Gum. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . :—Common from Konkan southwards. HABITAT :—Open situations. elliptic-obovate. shining. Western Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. Dikkamalli. 1-3 together. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. Dikemali. oblong.5x22. As sold in the bazar it is hard. Burma. Peninsula). NS.5 cm. DISTR. Gums and Resins. Hingu. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. M. opaque. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. high. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. See—Gums and Resins. long. unarmed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. Fl. oblong or ellipsoid. Fr. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. not fragrant. Suvirya. See—Timbers. .. Cambi resin tree. lucida (Ayurveda). common on laterite in southern parts of N. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. lucida. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb.-tubular. -June. Sk.-subsessile. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. :—India. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. The plant yields a gum Dikemali.8 cm. :—A deciduous shrub. Kanara. CHAR. FAM. buds resinous. DISTR. astringent to bowels. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. Dikamari. :—E. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. LOC. relieves pain of bronchitis. same as for G. LOC. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. COM. H. Bikke.8 m. C.—Feb. Dakamali. Dekamari. Northern ghats of Madras State. COM. LOC. :—India (W. 4. NS. Jantuka. FAM. L.-sessile.5-3.—Rubiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Gum. t.—2. G.

used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. Kalikari. given off from young tubers . used to remove placenta from uterus. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. Nangulika. COM. useful in chronic ulcers. 7. laxative. inflammations. expectorant. heating. FAM.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. scarlet. abdominal pains. leprosy. perianth segments reaching 6. Tuber— astringent.-July-Oct. leaves and flowers. axillary . In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. :—G. Malay Peninsula. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. alexiteric. solid. . stems annual.. abortifacient. LOC. branching climber . Fl. LOC. Kalihari. FL. linear oblong. Garbhapatani. Ceylon. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. changing colours from greenish yellow. In case of retained placenta. In Guinea. orange. NS. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. Agnimukhi. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. Khadyanag.—sessile.2 cm. Sivasaktibalb . thirst. bitter. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. t. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.5 X 15 X 2-4. scattered or opposite. itching. linear-lanceolate. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent.—large.—capsule.5 cm. ovate lanceolate. root-stock of arched. Languli. piles.—Liliaceæ. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. anthelmintic. Kulhari. Sk. :—Throughout tropical India. H. Tropical Africa.3 cm. Linn. M. DISTR. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. There are two varieties of the plant. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Tuber. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. K. Fr. Huliyuguru.. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. Akkitang hall. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. L. margins wavy. :—Herbaceous. Dudhio vachhonag. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. Cochin-China. acrid. and crimson from blooming to fading. The former is supposed to be male. tall.. Indai. CHAR. Karianag. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Kathari. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed.5-3. solitary. filaments long spreading. sometimes whorled.

Gambari. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. flowers and seeds.—Malvaceæ. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa.—Verbenaceæ. H. burning sensation. anæmia. COM. strangury. Rajasthan and N. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. aphrodisiac. stomachic. Nurma . anasarca. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Kashmari. Savan. Karpasam. In the Konkan. COM. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. useful in fevers . useful in "Vata". NS. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Coomb teak. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. promotes hair-growth. urinary discharges. G. root is also stomachic and laxative. :— E. Shivan . leaves. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. G. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. White teak. W. Khandesh. DISTR. Sk. common on Satpuda. K.:—E. :— Bengal. . vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). scattered in monsoon forests. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Hanji. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. " Tridosha ". Madhya Bharat. H. indigestible. tonic. Devkapas. scalds etc. piles. abdominal pains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Var. Fruit— diuretic. Shiwan. M. See—Timbers. Sk. consumption. leaves. made into paste. leprosy. Shiwan. useful in hallucinations. thirst. Ceylon. Kumbudi. Mahabhadra. Tree cotton. LOC. ulcers. chronic cystitis. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Sind. M. Gandhari. Bachanige. thirst. fevers. Gupsi. Oils. See—Fibres. K. FAM. Gumbhar. Devakapus. laxative. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. gleet. LOC. FAM. :—Throughout India. Flowers—astringent. Shripani. Karibatti. the root. Root taken with liquorice. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. Philippines. flowers and fruit. Provinces. improves appetite . Deokapas. useful in indigestion. Cashmere tree. catarrh of the bladder etc. anthelmintic . DISTR. :—Throughout the State and about temples. :—Throughout the State. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Gambhari. Shivani. alterative.

COM. :—Sind. S. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. scabies . Arali. restore consciousness. Tadasala.. expectorant. :—E. leaves. increase flow of urine. Pharuah. Parapera. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. :— Cultivated in N. cures inflammations. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds.Phalse. Afghanistan. sour. bark. tonic. Oils. K. removes " Vata ". Sk. Kapas . USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Arabia and Asia Minor.—Tiliaceæ. Roshana. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Seeds are laxative. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. East Tropical Africa. K. LOC. fomentation for burning eyes . Province (Pakistan). FAM. Phalsa. NS. U. Rui. A.. DISTR. fruit. enrich blood. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. extensively in Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Root. in hypochondria. :—G. Country.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. acrid. Seeds— ' galactagogue.—Malvaceæ. tonic. G. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. (Yunani). Sk. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. good for throat . LOC. FAM. F. Baluchistan. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. Iran. cure all ear-troubles. Phalsi. allay thirst. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. M. Leaves remove " Vata " . Cotton . H. Buttiyu-dippa. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. aphrodisiac. poultice applied to burns' scalds. laxative . In India they are used to procure abortion. wild in Deccan. LOC. :—Cultivated in the State. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Parusha. removes " Vata" and biliousness. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. in hills near Poona. Ripe fruit—sweet. expectorant and aphrodisiac. M. probably in N. fevers and consumption. Kupas. Hatti. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. See—Fibres. Egypt. demulcent. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Jana. heart and blood disorders. Rui. Syria. Tula. Mediterranean. Mesapotamia. cooling. leaf-juice good in dysentery. Kapus. DISTR. Gujarat and S. W. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Sutrapuspha. extensively cultivated. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . M. preventing their access to wounds etc. digestible. Karpas. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. fruits and seeds. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . good for all kinds of inflammations. Anagnika. used in orchitis. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Dhamin. Badari. analgesic. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Karihariyale.

Arkapuspika. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. young stems densely pubescent. alterative. DISTR. :—Throughout the State. Br. Karnasphota. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). lanceolate. K. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. cooling. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). Root and bark used in strangury. — Asclepiadaceæ. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). good in heart-diseases. LOC. t.—Capparidaceæ. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Karalia . COM. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Meshashingi. much branched. ovate. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Bundelkhand Saharanpur. SK. Sk. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Mabli. Fruit—sour. relieves thirst and hiccup. Churota. :E. Periploca of the woods. The ease of administration. Kavali. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). H. FAM. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Fl. Ceylon. alexiteric. Bastagandha. G. M. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. base rounded or cordate . Tilparni. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. CHAR. Bedki. anthelmintic. Shrikala. :—Western Peninsula. common in hedges in Dharwar district. Merasingi. stomachic. helps removal of dead fetus. Pandhari tilwan. G. corona of 5 processes . Tropical Africa. yellow . Hulhul. Caravella. H. K. tonic. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Kabari. Kanara coast. FL. biliousness. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste.— companulate . acrid. Sd. Sati talvani. piles. Sannagerse. NS. C. the stomachic stimulant. usually single. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Vishani. Ugragandha. should not be eaten raw. Gurmar.— Apl. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. LOC. bronchitis. See—Fruit Trees. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. M. Vakundi. NS.— with thin marginal wing. Sanngera.—in cymes . FAM. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. Tanmani. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. :— E. strengthens chest and heart. India.— opposite. cornea. S. sweet. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Mahabaleshwar and N. ulcers.—follicle. elliptic. L. Adiyakharan. LOC. leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Kanphodi. asthma.-May. vitreous body) burning sensation. Fr. Hulhul. COM. . :—A large woody climber. Meshavalli. inflammations. Mardashingi.

long . this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. pain. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. hairy. ulcers. Marosi. opposite. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. Kewan. pedicels viscid hairy. NS. FAM. gynophore 2-2. :—G. dark-brown . C. COM. pink . Murudseng. :—Deccan. Murudi. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. glabrous or pubescent above. margins crenate-dentate.—Rubiaceæ. Fr. K.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering.—3-5 foliate.—capsule. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. tumours.—petals 4 with long slender claws. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. Kavargi. PARTS USED :—Root. Gujarat. hills in Supa Taluka. Fr. stem and branches hairy. removes "Vata". L. Fl. producing copious exudation. t. Sd. LOC. viscid. elliptic-obovate. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. stomachic . Murdasing. Sk. Katraj Ghat. with divaricate herbaceous branches . .—many.—rather rigid. hairy on the nerves beneath. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). China. Gidesa Jitasai. stipules triangular. elliptic-lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. leaves and seeds. Avartant. CHAR. FAM.. NS. acute. (Kirtikar and Basu). tapering at both ends.6—1.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. sessile. Sinhgad hills. :—An annual erect herb 0. DISTR. H. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. . Fl.5 cm. hills near Nagothana. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. 5-9 cm. Edamuri. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . earache. S. vesicant. long. Kanara.12. Sd. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . ellipsoid . Fl. Jonkaphal Maraphali. :—A small deciduous shrub. Country. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. COM.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—in dense bracteate racemes. L. LOC. :—Konkan—Karanja Island.—Oct.—Sterculiaceæ. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and.—capsule. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb.-Feb. LOC. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.—June. hairy. Mrigashringa.—muricate.8-9 cm.2 m. M. HABITAT:—Hills. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. :—M.. t.5-20 X 3. good in ascites. high. leaflets subsessile. white or blue. pubescent. Fl. M.

asthma. LOC.5 X 5-10 cm.-biferous. "Vata' dysentery. poisoning.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. lessens griping. Konkan.512. bark and fruit. K. Sd. scabrous above. Fr. CHAR. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. foul body odour. useful in gleet.— with silvery white coma . leucorrhoea. common in hedges. good for brain. often variegated with white above. angular . Root useful in hemicrania. useful in piles.— very variable. See—Fibres. bilabiate. L. Fl. stems thickened at the nodes . Hamadaberu . Utpalashariva. burning sensation. epileptic fits. Anantmula. M. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). 7. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. Ceylon. FAM. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. FL. Stem lessens inflammation. t. :—Large shrub or small tree.—tubular. diuretic. :—Upper Gangetie plain. beaked. NS. Fl. demulcent. fevers. 5-6. Fl. uterine complaints. diarrhœa. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). astringent to bowels. cough. dark-green. red at first fading to lead colour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. Deccan and S. They are demulcent. Sk. greenish outside.—follicle of 5-6. antidiarrhœal. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. astringent to bowels . :—Throughout the State. :— E.. Br. PARTS USED :—Root. mildly astringent. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. LOC. Durivel. stem. anti-galactagogue. eye troubles. Root and stem—laxative. LOC. India. “tridosh". root-Stock woody . tapering . low appetite.—numerous. blood diseases.— in cymes in opposite axils. t — Aug. L. Upalsari.—follicle cylindric. DISTR. Dhaval kashtha. joint-pains. Upalsali. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. Indian sarsaparilla . G. Magrabu. C. cures all skin-diseases. H. Fr. Sugandhi-balli.—Asclepiadaceæ. thirst. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children.3 cm. paralysis. Burma. Kanara ghat forests. Australia and West Indies. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs.Sd.—throughout the greater part of the year. asthma. purplish inside.-Dec. alexiteric. liver and kidney diseases . and leaves. COM. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). "Kapha". Kapurimathuri. obliquely cordate. Malaya.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. syphilis. PARTS USED :—Root. irregularly crowded. Anantmula. . HABITAT :—In hedges. Country. Hindisalse. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. bronchitis. long. ovate orbicular. spirally coiled. DISTR. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. urinary discharges. diaphoretic. rat-bites. M. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes.

Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. It is said to purify blood.5. involucral bracts 5-7. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. red. G. Harivallaba. Jasuva. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. Rudrapushpa. Jasut. useful in loss of appetite. Sk. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Fl. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. H. Dasanihu. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. pedicel jointed above the middle. uterine and vaginal discharges. tonic. It is also diuretic.—axillary. solitary. astringent. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). flowers.—7. demulcent. cooling. Fl. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. bright red. glabrous. :—A perennial shrub. FAM.. Jasavand. t.—short petioled. remove burning of body. CHAR. LOC. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. M. Root roasted in plantain leaves. and mixed with ghee. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. seminal weakness. . C. fevers. bark and petals are demulcent. yellow. PARTS USED :—Root. cm. NS. diam. :— E. Fr. magenta. Dasavala. leaves. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Jasum. etc. piles. Root is valuable in coughs. HABITAT :—Cultivated. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Raktapushpi. petals thrice as long as the calyx. tubular below. In the Konkan. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. L. Shoe flower. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. ovate or ovate lanceolate.—during most of the year. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. irregularly serrate towards the top. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . syphilis and leucorrhoea. skindiseases. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. and as early as 1864. urinary discharges. Kempupundrika. COM. entire near the base. crimson.—Malvaceæ. DISTR. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. Native country probably China.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Japapushpa. See—Ornamental Plants. K. Aruna.—no fruits produced in India.

—coriaceous. COM. Grows abundantly on the W. Lal ambadi. M. 3-winged. NS. elliptic-oblong. hairy. petioles silky. mid-lobe the longest. Fr. Fl. Adimurtte Adirganti. much used in curries. Chandravalli. uppermost petal broader. :—G. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. Sd. calyx fleshy. Fl. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Kampti. NS. Madhumalati. Deccan.5 cm. acuminate. asafoetida and molasses. M. pepper.—1-3. clawed. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Patwa. Ceylon. orbicular. across.2-2 cm. Atimukta.—petals 5. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Fl. Fr. stem and branches purple.5 cm.—axillary. Kanara. Ghats. Konkan. :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Leaves. globose. C.—large. covered with minute hairs . Madhavi. Malati. Fibres. Madhavi. glabrous.—Oct.) FAM.— solitary. flowers. Madhalata. Fl.lobes oblong. Vasantduti. beaked. Lal ambadi. 5th petal yellow at the base. K. long. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Vasanti.3-7. t. Kamuka. PROPERTIES AND LOC. serrate. Rozelle. involucral bracts 10. ovoid. Vasantduti. and adding a little salt. :—E. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. 3-5 lobed. LOC. H. white.-Dec. See—Vegetables. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Madhavi. L. Pundi-bija or soppu.—5-7. Madmalati. Sd. LOC. CHAR. Atimukta.—capsule. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. fragrant. Ragotpiti. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. 1. sedative and refrigerant. K. Red sorrel. Sk. Kempupundrike. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. purple. COM. erect. purple. FAM.—in erect racemes. on the margins. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Madhavi.—Malpighiaceæ. :—Throughout the State. tropics of the old world. 10-18 X 4. :—An annual. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub.-Mar. Lal ambari. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. G.— Jany.—Malvaceæ. (lower leaves sometimes entire). (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Haladvel. HABITAT. C. long. t.—purple with darker centres. fruits and seeds. entire glabrous. young parts silky. black-brown. L. DISTR. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. CHAR. fringed. H. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. base cuneate..

biliousness. colic. astringent to bowels cure pains. t. NS. Kudsalu. often dotted with white spots. thirst. styptic. remove muscular pains . good in erysipelas.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. PROPERTIES. Conessi bark tree. Fr. M. cooling. smoke good for piles. Pandhara Kuda. leaves. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. urinary discharges. diuresis (Yunani). Kura. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Kuda. acrid. Burma.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. PARTS USED :—Bark. anthelmintic. DISTR. bleeding piles. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. cool the brain. FL. Ceylon. tonic. appetiser cure blood diseases. asthma. insecticidal. thirst and inflammation. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. cause "Vata". main nerves conspicuous . Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). Andamans. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. broadly ovate or elliptic. Kodasige. fevers. vulnerary. Assam.. COM. bitter. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. LOC. Kaling. burning sensation. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. piles. " Kapha". Malay Peninsula. Kumaon. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall.-June. vulnerary.5 cm. Dudhi.— in terminal corymbose cymes . hallucinations (Ayurveda). AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Hale. G. given in chest affections. good in headache. Karohi. :—Throughout the State. Siwalik. skin diseases.—follicles 20-48 cm. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. leucoderma . Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines.—10-20 X 5-11. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. biliousness. Kaduoindrajav. Indrayana. heating. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. white. Karnatak. LOC. LOC. skin and spleen diseases. long. wounds. flowers and seeds. Mt. Hath. remove "Tridosh". Seeds—appetiser. fatigue. tonic. Leavesastringent. leprosy. Abu. Seeds—carminative. H. Bark—bitter. cough. Sd.—Feb.. lessens inflammations. K. Sk. Circars. strengthens gums. Thailand (Siam). Kuda. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. good in chronic bronchitis. Kutaja. lumbago. N. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). cures dysentery. CHAR. ulcers. Flowers— acrid. Veppale. diarrhœa. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Kurchi tree. FAM. excessive menstrual flow. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. boils. China.—Apocynaceæ. inodorous. acrid. throat hairy inside. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. :—E. See—Ornamental Plants. Nepal. Karuindrayan. Madras State. cylindric. L. leprosy. branchlets drooping. C—tubular. galactagogue. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Fl.

acrid. asthma. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. Satu. pains in chest. kurchine. —Cultivated chiefly in N. with radicle attached to it. stomachic. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. malt sugar and diastase. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. M. Jav. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. anæmia. 1928). dysentery and intestinal worms. They are astringent. useful in bronchitis. FAM. and kurchicine. G. Jawa. fattening. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. Med. good for ulcers. LOC. Java. :—E.—Gramineæ. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. H. Hayapriya. demulcent and expectorant. The grains contain vitamin B. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Shaktu. Suj. Tasteless. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Ymvah. They are also used after delivery. nor astringent. biliousness. Yava. Knowles. diarrhœa. febrifuge. Divya. LOC. burns. nor styptic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. bronchitis. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. DISTR. sweetish. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. Gaz. COM. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. headache. widely cultivated in temperate regions. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). causes constipation. useful in fevers. aphrodisiac. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. PARTS USED :—Seeds. lowers the pulse. allays thirst. NS. Aug. Ind. fevers (Yunani). K. especially cod-liver oil. improves voice. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Sk. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. inflamed gums. Germinated barley. Barley. useful in biliousness. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. appetiser. See—Food Plants. Jav.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. . Javegodhi. (R. India.

white. For scald-head. Betaga. Gandele. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. M. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. FL. flat. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. tomentose. increases taste and appetite. DISTR. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. :—W.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. :—K.) FAM. Niradivittulu. high. Bandaru. Kowti. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Dondru. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. sometimes along river banks. Country and Kanara. COM. S. COM. t. Kastel. Bihar. common in Travancore.—Rubiaceæ.. Kadukavata.—solitary or in racemes. Garudphala. young parts brown pubescent.—Jany. broadly ovate. pungent. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. acuminate. Kanara evergreen forests. Malabar. Bharnarasalya. Doti.5-23 X 3. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Bhringamallika. DISTR. :—G.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. NS. Phaldu. Garudphala. Bhrijatuaka. M. dioecious . Dondra. more or less coriaceous. Bhanina.8-7.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. bitter. CHAR. FAM. size of small apple. Sd.—Bixaceæ. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Sk. Ghats. H. LOC. Kshiradru. K.—numerous. Southern and Western India. Common in N. camphor and lime-juice.—berry. 12. M. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Bhoswar. sulphur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. Madhya Pradesh. globose or ovoid. L. Amarachala. Sk.—Apl. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Ugragandha. LOC.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . . HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fr. Peninsula. C. Bhutabi. See—Oils. good for the throat. Bhorsal. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.

Siamalata. COM.-Apl. trailing on mud or floating. cordate or hastate. S. Sk. numerous .—Nov. M. rooting at the nodes . Pechuli. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Kantebhovari. pubescent. In Indo-China. . young branches finely fulvous tomentose . cylindric . Country. prostrate. very slender. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. Fr. cooling. Kalmisag. COM. Br. the powdered wood is used for herpes. Sd. Chandangopa. Fodder Plants. :—A large twining shrub . CHAR. L. elliptic oblong. Bhadra. H. M.—5-12. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Gorwiballi. :—G. FAM.—tube with narrow portion below. LOC.—linear. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions.5x 3. Potuasaga. t. Kanara. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda).2 -7.5 cm. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests.— Nov. stalks and leaves. NS. Sariva. C. straight or slightly curved. rusty pubescent. Nadika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Fl. Kalaka. Sk. acute. Kalambika. aphrodisiac. Krishnasariva.—1-5 flowered peduncles . LOC. CHAR.—capsule. very common in Gujarat. Fl. LOC. biliousness. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. Sd. Kalidudhi. :—H. base rounded. 10-15 cm. cures " Kapha ". thirst. t. Kalaghantika. greenish white. L.—Apocynaceæ.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Java. trichotomous cymes. FL. vomiting.—4-5-7 X 2-3. Gopini. Nalichibhaji. :—Annual or biennial herb. :—Throughout the State. fever. :—More or less throughout India. FAM.. hollow. lobes obscure . middle portion much inflated. stems long. Karmi. Nalanibhaji. Common in the evergreen forests of N. DISTR. The outer layer is tasteless. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. M. Shradhashaka.—in axillary and terminal. Fl. Ceylon. thick. :—Konkan. upper constricted. Australia.—4 or 2.—follicle. C. black with white scanty coma. throat and tube dull purple .—Convolvulaceæ. Kanara.-Dec. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. blood diseases. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. PARTS USED :—Root. glabrous above. ovoid . " Vata ". NS. Fr. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Karihambu. K. See—Timbers. X 4 cm.8 cm.

CHAR. pale. useful in syphilis. long. biliousness. alterative. :— E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. glabrous.—10-15 cm. twining. blood diseases. America.—Convolvulaceæ. bronchitis. Nila-kumbala. lessens inflammation. leprosy. In Burma. Ceylon. LOC. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. useful in fever. LOC. galactagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. diuretic. Bilaikand . near sea coast. Fl. COM. stimulant. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. :—Throughout India. dry. lobes 5-7. t. also useful in liver complaints. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. flowers (rarely). Carminative. Giant potato . Africa. galactagogue. FAM. entire. aphrodisiac. enclosed in fleshy sepals. Root—heating. improves voice and complexion. H. indigestible. liver complaints. purple. Bhumikushmanda. Fl. 4-valved. alterative. Bhunichahragadde. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). peduncle solitary axillary. Fr. 3. jaundice.8—6. K. gonorrhœa and inflammation. being regarded as tonic. anthelmintic. tropical Asia. Bhuikohala.3 cm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tonic. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. expectorant. appetiser.—in. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. LOC. . M. vomiting. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. often broader than long. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. (Yunani). Swadu Vidarikand. Flower causes " Vata ".—capsule. Australia in moist climate. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. useful in leucoderma. 4-celled.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. Sk. " Kapha " . anthelmintic . L. ovate-lanceolate. Kanara sea coast. to children in case of emaciation. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . :—Perennial. NS. cures biliousness. leaves. Sd. debility and want of digestive power. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. aphrodisiac.-July-Sept. root large. ovoid. stomachic. thick. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. Africa and Australia. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. DISTR. (Yunani). carminative. deeply palmately divided. tropical Asia. biliousness and fevers. (Ayurveda). demulcent and lactagogue. useful in leprosy.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. See—Gums and Resins. stem long. burning sensation. long. Leaves enrich blood.

:—An annual herb. dries the phlegm.3-2. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. carminative. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. :—G. Fr. The plant contains a glucoside. Purgative. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). anthelmintic. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). subglobose or ovoid. ovate-cordate. H.—capsule. surrounded by ciliate sepals. abdominal diseases. M. pains in joints.5 cm. Fr. :—E. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. K. 3-celled. Fl. long tubular funnel-shaped.— 4-6. bracts linear. Undirkani. K. Country. :—Konkan. leucoderma. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians.—Convolvulaceæ.:—Throughout India. filiform. believed to be of American origin. Nilvel.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . M. Morning glory.— yellow. Kalokumpo. Vrishchikparni. creeping and rooting at the nodes. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. reniform or ovate-cordate. Ganribij.. Deccan. sparsely hairy.5 cm. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. crenate. :—A herb . stems twining. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative.—3. CHAR. useful in liver and spleen diseases. cures inflammations. fevers. petioles hairy. E. Sk. bronchitis (Ayurveda).—capsule.-Oct. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. bechic. headache. Africa. diseases of head. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. NS. DISTR. LOC. . Shyamala-bijak. clothed with long hairs. Indian jalap. COM. Mirchai. blue tinged with pink. broad. Nilpushpa. LOC. C. :—Western Peninsula. COM. Musekani. S.—1. See—Ornamental Plants. NS.) FAM. G. glabrous . Fl.-5-12. diam. scabies and biliousness. PARTS USED :—Seeds.—Sept. Sd. Kaladana. FAM. Krishna—Shyama-bija. DISTR. L. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). S. subglobose. stems many. in the Himalayas. H. CHAR. tropical Africa. deeply three-Iobed. Sk. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. LOC.—Convolvulaceæ. Fl. axillary.8-5 cm. t.—dark chestnut coloured . L. Undirkani. lobes ovate. M. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Kaladanah.

good in pain. Triputi. useful in diseases of kidney. uterus. pungent. useful in bilious tremors of body. laxative. Kalaparni. Indian rhubarb.—in few flowered cymes. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. inflammations. Ceylon. paralysis. like others of the genus . t. Common in southern Gujarat. applied in diseases of eye and gums. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). antipyretic. base cordate or truncate . twining and twisted together. M. Fl. 3. anthelmintic. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. pedicels thickened upwards. Pithori. HABITAT :—Wild . ovate or oblong. useful in loss of consciousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Root with bark should be used. angled and winged. COM. burning sensation and intoxication. often pinkish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. Fr.8-5 cm. Br. brain diseases. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). globose. white variety is a mild cathartic. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).—capsule. bracts large. removes bad humours. much branched. rarely slightly lobed. L. LOC. when used alone . IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Malay Islands. long. Rechani. bladder. tropical Africa and America. It is also alterative. leucoderma. wounds. False-Indian jalap. Nandi.—5-10 X 1. CHAR. :—Throughout India. also in the Konkan and N. inflammations and abdominal diseases . C. useful in bilious fevers. LOC. strangury. lungs. root long. bechic. cooling. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. Fl. urethral discharges. K. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. DISTR. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. fevers. pains of chest and joints. fistula. mucronate. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. NS. purgative. LOC.—white. Nishottara.—Oct. laxative. muscular pains. carminative. Trivrit. useful in spleen enlargement. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. Mauritius. Nahatara. paralysis. G.-Jany. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. sometimes cultivated. :— E. Turbith root. Kanaka. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). bronchitis. acrid. stems very long. expectorant. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. Nishoth. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). enclosed in enlarged sepals . H.—Convolvulaceæ. Root— bitter. heart and abdomen.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Nashotar.3-7 cm. fleshy. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. . Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. good for weakness. Philippines. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. anæmia. FAM. reduces tumours (Ayurveda)..

Fl.—Oleaceæ.. very slender . L. purple when ripe. across. L. obtuse . Bakali. stipules . Flame of the woods . COM NS. K. M.2-6. proximal petiolulate. DISTR.3 cm. very common in Konkan and N. Ajjige.—opposite. Surabhigandha. sessile. intermediate sessile . . 5-12. Fr.2-6. pale when dry. smooth. M. H. wild. Fl. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. G. 3. Pankul. :—Cultivated throughout India. :—Western Peninsula. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. imparipinnate. coriaceous. HABITAT :—Cultivated . in lax axillary and terminal cymes.8 cm. often tinged with pink outside. LOC. Ceylon. FL—numerous. CHAR. petiole and rachis margined.. high. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. sessile. Chambeli. size of a pea. fleshy. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. Jati. :—A large subscandent shrub.— Rubiaceæ. also along river banks. leaflets 7-11. FAM. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Fl. Anemallige. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks.3 coriaceous. :—E. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. Bandhuka. t. pale when dry. oblong. DISTR.9 m. Jajimalle. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range.—July-Sept.—ripe carpels 2. white. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. obtuse. Jai. Sk. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Kisukare. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. LOC. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Raktaka. CHAR. of stems and roots. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. :—E.—throughout the year. Fr. K. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. COM. tube long. See—Ornamental Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.—opposite. NS. Pendgul. stipules with a long rigid point. Guddedasal. distal pair confluent with the terminal. FAM. Chambali. C. Chambeli. :—Bombay southwards . 5-10 X 3. lobes 4 (rarely).—globose. t. terminal rather larger.5 cm. Kepala. Parali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Priyanvada.—3. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. oblong.—tubular. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Sk.

caries of teeth. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. Mogra. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—white. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Arabian Lily. cures headache. brain tonic . variable in shape. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. eyes and ear. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. heating. aphthae. mouth and skin. emetic. Mogara. COM NS. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. base rounded or subcordate. Sambac. very fragrant. soporific. biliousness. vulnerary. rheumatism. otorrhoea. Fr. M. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . softens skin. Banmallika. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. See—Ornamental Plants. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. aphrodisiac. headache and weak eyes. Tuscan jasmine. Leaves are also used in toothache. stomatitis. Sk. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. abundant in April-May.—more or less throughout the year . L. The plant contains an alkaloid. good for pains in joints and ear. CHAR. alexiteric. In Goa. Flower has bitter taste . expectorant. .—Oleaceæ. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. LOC. DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.—ripe-carpels 1-2.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. alexiteric. H. Flowers—tonic. diseases of mouth. :—E. Mogro. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. scarcely climbing. black. teeth. ear. FAM. :—Cultivated throughout India. Iravantige. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Chamba. Pramodini. G. LOC. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. paralysis. good in asthma. entire.—opposite. LOC. Motia. head. Vanchandrika. leprosy. diuretic. Plant—deobstruent. useful in stomatitis. anthelmintic. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. suppurative. and for scabies (Yunani). K. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. given in blood diseases. t. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). flowers and oil. subglobose. Root—purgative. Fl. intoxicating. it is used in cases of insanity. allays fevers . Fl. Mallige. Ananga-mallika. useful in diseases of eye. See—Ornamental Plants. ulcers. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Oil—lessens inflammations. biliousness (Ayurveda). emmenagogue. tonic to brain. membranous. :—A sub-erect shrub. surrounded by calyx-teeth. Navamallika. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess.

3-lobed. long-petioled. NS. The acrid.— alternate. black. Fl. cordate. when applied to boils. Akhuparnika. Sk.—E. NS. Jangali erandi. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Sutashreni. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. stipules capillary. multifid. Simeavadala. 7. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. garden shrub . Kananerand. COM. Coral plant. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). K. Jangali—Pahari erand. Barbados Physic nut. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. have suppurative effect. Sk.5-12. The seeds act as drastic purgative.. Fr. coral-red.—monœcious. Fl. Mogali—Ran-erand. M. French or Small physic nut. PARTS USED :—Wood. thirst. Fr. urinary discharges. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. Virechani. H. Jyotishka. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. 1.8 cm. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu.—in flat-topped cymes. LOC. across. subfleshy. dull brownish black.5 mm. leaves. male flowers. fistula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. Seeds contain active principle curcin. herpes. LOC. long. broadly ovate. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. FAM. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums .—Euphorbiaceæ. 7. Bhadradanti.—ovoid oblong. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. :—Native of tropical America.—capsule. yellow. disk of female flower urceolate. K. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn.— ovoid. L. useful in chronic dysentery. anaemia. biliousness.5 cm. large. COM. corolla lobes 5.—orbicular. abdominal complaints. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. juice sticky opalescent. " Tridosha". Sd. L.—Euphorbiaceæ. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil.5-12. . DISTR. diam. Ratanjot. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. longer than calyx. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. :—E. CHAR:—A handsome. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. Vilayati haralu. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. G. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. FAM. Dundigu. CHAR. villous within. 10-15 X 7. and also promotes healing.5 cm. fruits and seeds. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State.

5-12. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Kala adulsa. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). purgative. heating. . latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. eye diseases (Ayurveda). M. HABITAT :—Shady positions. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . high . COM. hot. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda).—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. aphrodisiac. Karambal. FAM. wounds. native of N. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. branches subterete with raised lines. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. vaginal discharges. clavate glabrous. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. purple within.—Acanthaceæ. In Cambodia.6-1. Fl. causes " Kapha ". wild in Tenasserim. L. all over the State. K.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. rheumatism and dysentery. CHAR. Shindhuka. LOC. LOC.5 cm. dry . Seed— oleaginous. Nilmanjari. useful in bronchitis. in interrupted spikes. Leaves are used in scabies. Krishna-nirgundi.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.—white spotted. skin-diseases. DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. M. LOC. Bhutakeshi. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. " Vata ' and "Pitta". JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. :—H. fevers. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. tympanitis. :—Bomb. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. NS. useful in piles. Bakas.5 cm. America.2 m. inflammations. long. Nachukaddi. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. often met with in Bengal. DISTR. :—A native of China. Kalmashi. 5-12. Sk. fattening tonic . enlarged spleen. 7. dyspepsia. Karinchki. pains. COM.—Ghati pitpapda. Nilinirgandi. NS. Fr. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places.—Acanthaceæ. LOC. bitter. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis.

connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. Western Ghats . Cultivated in gardens.—Scitaminaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. t. COM. diuretic.—2. :—Konkan.—lobes lanceolate. LOC. stops vomiting. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. thirst. Kachchura . :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. constricted between the seeds . Chandramala. Panchgani. Travancore. :—Western Peninsula. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. diaphoretic. :—More or less throughout India. good in spleen diseases. L. spreading horizontally.—variable. FAM. Malaya. pale violet pink.3-12. DISTR. vomiting. HABITAT :—Cultivated. (Yunani). Konkan.:—Stemless herb. Sugandhavachai. Australia. strengthens lungs. expectorant.— June-July. oval. teeth. LOC. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. gives lustre to eyes. Maval in the Deccan. Deccan. deep green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. root-stock tuberous. M. L. K. upper lip notched.—612 from the centre of the plant. :—N. fever. softly pubescent. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. urinary discharges. Tubers yield an essential oil.5-9 cm. ovate or lanceolate. DISTR. obtuse at both ends. removes indigestion. aromatic. biliousness. fugacious.—Oct. Ceylon. burning of body. round. 6. increases " Vata ". fragrant. enriches blood. P. pure-white. wandering of mind. C. LOC. t. Chandramulika. Madras State. tube funnel-shaped .. petioles channelled. elliptic. Fl. Kapurkachri. lying flat on the ground. Malay Islands. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . :— H. . purifies blood in skin diseases. Kachri. oblong shortly pointed. Fl. CHAR. Sd. tired feeling. Fr.—2-lipped. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Sk. constipating ..—finely tuberculate. stomachic.5 X 4. Plant diuretic. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases.-Mar. Fl. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. lower 3-lobed . intoxication.—capsule. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie).—in cylindric terminal spikes. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). NS. South Konkan. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). thin.

Coorg. CHAR. —Feb. Dudhi. . Kadu bhopala. Country. Kaddu. annulate . Kadu—Mithi tumbi.—Scitaminaceæ. creeping. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. petiole as long as blade. furrowed. :—Stemless plant. Sk. Sk. Travancore. Alkaddu. LOC. Cochin. entire. rootstock reaching 5 cm.—15-37. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CHAR. G. H. :—An aquatic herb.—globose 3. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Fl. Fl. female cylindric. anthers crowded. only 1 or 2 opening at a time .5-10 cm.-Apl. Nelasampige .. M. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. LOC. yellow. t.5 X 5-12. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Ceylon. of various shades of purple and white. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Calabash. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. FAM. used in the form of poultice. in many cycles.—Aroideæ.— inflorescence. Dudhya bhopala. Bhuichampa . COM. Kanara. HABITAT :—Marshy places. margins undulate. very poisonous . Bhuichampo . S. Lauka. remedy for itch. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhuichapha. Labuka. :—E..—Cucurbitaceæ. Tubers yield an essential oil. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Vatsanabhi. NS.5 cm. :— G. spathe 7. M. NS. carpels partially dehiscent Sd.—30X7. crowded in a globose bead . elliptic-oblong. Bhuchampaka. :—M. oblong. Halagumbala.— sweetly fragrant. K.. simple. L. Malay Islands. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. diam. semicylindric. t. Tumbaka. M.8-5 cm.—narrowly oblong. H. FAM. The whole plant. Katutumbi. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. K.-Mar. COM. long. Fl. FAM. inflorescence of many ovaries. tubular below.. midrib very stout. Danta-bija. Bottle-gourd. L. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . coriaceous. Dudio Tumbada. thick. DISTR. :—Konkan. N.5-23 cm. COM.. :—Mysore. Fl. promotes suppuration. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps.

sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. ulcers. :—Western Peninsula. leaves. muscular pains. LOC. increases "Vata". inflammations. refrigerant and anti-bilious. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. aphrodisiac. sweet.—Lythraceæ. Nirbendeka: M. bronchitis. fruits and seeds. Malaya. Tarul. COM. Taman. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. Konkan Ghats. antipyretic. There are two varieties. seeds are narcotic. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. piles. leaves. Arjuna. anti-periodic. diuretic. fever. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. cooling. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. improves taste. Bandhara. pains (Ayurveda). bitter variety is diuretic. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. cause haemoptysis. scalding of urine. In the Andamans. Sk. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . cures leucorrhoea. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. . fruits and seeds. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . in many cases only cultivated. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. See—Timbers. cardiac and general tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. LOC. :—H. China. bitter. dry cough. Challa. Arjuna. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. K. bark. Flowers cooling. emetic. wild (rarely). DISTR. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. Fruit good in bronchitis. USES :— Leaves are purgative. earache. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. anti-bilious. styptic. brain-tonic. LOC. Seeds emetic (Yunani). Holematti. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. See—Vegetables. laxative. cures blood diseases. PARTS-USED :—Root. oleaginous. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. Ceylon. Ornamental Plants. flowers. "Vata". Assam. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. earache. wholesome to fœtus. vulnerary. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. alexiteric. causes bronchitis. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. DISTR. flatulence. cures asthma. lessens inflammations. Seeds—good for hot constitution.) FAM. Bark and leaves are purgative. fattening. LOC:—North Kanara and S. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan.

HABITAT :—Cultivated. oblong flat. Triputi. Yavaneshta. CHAR. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. K. LOC. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. piles and wandering of the mind. K. glabrous above. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action.5 cm. silky beneath. . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. causes much flatulence. Peninsula—Ceylon. Mendi. perianth-tube densely silky villous . bark mottled. Kanara. Henna plant. S. Basu). enclosed in the perianth . improves taste. Fr. COM. Sandika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. oblong lanceolate. Latri. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. L. yellow. Gorantha. dense terminal heads 2. DISTR.—ellipsoid-oblong. :—A much branched large shrub. Belgaum hills . The oil from the seeds is a powerful. (Ayurveda). G. :—W. but dangerous cathartic. Grains contain vitamin A. M. FAM.—Thymelaeaceæ. NS. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. NS. Ragangi. :—E. heart-troubles.—Lythraceæ. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. 5-7. t. M. G.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—Dec-May. M. Nakharanjaka.—opposite or scattered. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. N. See—Food Plants.. Khesari. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Chickling—White vetch. pain. NS. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Mukute. :—E. Rami. (B. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . LOC. Rametha. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. tonic. Wooly-headed gnidia. Fl. Medika. Sk. M. :—Konkan southwards.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. cooling. Kukurgal. diam. The bark is used to poison fish. pointed. :—E.8 cm. Madaranga. Mehndi. Lang. Deccan hills. COM. H. Country. burning.5-3. Lakh. Medi. swellings etc. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflammation. lameness. subsessile. lobes 4. DISTR. D. common on the Supa Ghats. COM. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Fl.5 X 2-2. Kassar. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Tree mignonette.—in erect. Sk.. common at Mahabaleshwar. FAM.

stomatitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. many. dysentery. See—Dyes. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. favours hair-growth. LOC. Masur.—angular. COM. vulnerary. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. Lentil. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Gurubija. Sd. pyramidal and panicled cymes. & Gib. Sura. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES. cure insanity (Ayurveda). elliptic or broadly lanceolate. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. planted as hedge. Masur. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. amenorrhœa. Fl. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. K. Gabholika. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. Iran and Baluchistan. diuretic. enriches blood. often ending in spinous point. veined outside. seeds. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in headache. in diseases of heart and of . expectorant. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. cure strangury tumours. bronchitis. diuretic. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. Masura. ulcers. syphilitic sores. Sk.). The plant contains a glucoside.—in terminal. cure leucoderma. DISTR. white or rose coloured . Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. supported by persistent calyx. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. finger nails and hair. G. Masuridal. H. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. globose. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic.—capsule. DISTR. useful. LOC. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). scabies. indigenous in S.—Apl-July. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. truncate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. ophthalmia. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. NS. Ceylon. Belgaum and Poona districts. fragrant. allay burning sensation. flowers. Leaves—bitter. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . E.—opposite. lateral branches 4-gonous. Massur. LOC. HABITAT:—Cultivated. M. FAM. wild in Arabia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. The oil and essence keep the body cool. Asia. diseases of spleen. Flowers are refrigerant. lumbago. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. :—E. boils. Fr. Europe and in temperate W. improve appetite. t. Ragadali. mucronate. Fl. Chanangi. L. :—Grown in Nasik. skin diseases .

—small. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Asia. good for pain in abdomen. aperient. Ahaliva. K. The covering is styptic and astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—Cultivated throughout India. DISTR. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. leaves and seeds. Hot and dry. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. C—petals 2-4 or 0. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Raktabija. Ashalika. Kurutige. CHAR. upper sessile. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). H. very likely indigenous in W. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. They are mucilaginous and laxative. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds contain fatty oil. Allibija. bronchitis. Fr. and muscular pains.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. aphrodisiac . USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). Garden cress . M. often with linear segments . bechic. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. Halim . good in inflammations. enrich blood. LOC. See-Food Plants. cures dysentery . USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. galactagogue. Grains contain vitamins A and B. Halim. tonic. :—An erect glabrous annual. laxative. Hurfi. constipating. L. rheumatism. affections of spleen. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. NS. Fl. They contain vitamin B. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). diuretic. Leaves are used as pot-herb. tumours and injuries. FAM. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. the lower petiolate. PARTS USED :—Root. Suvasura. See—Vegetables.—Cruciferæ. chest complaints. useful in diseases of chest. tonic. :—E. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Seeds—indigestible. bitter. Sk. Asahio. blood and skin diseases.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Chandrashura. Chandrika. bronchitis. white. aphrodisiac. Chavnsar. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). . stomatitis . In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. LOC.

supported by the thickened pedicel. M. aphrodisiac . Maidalakadi. Country. good for cough and kidney troubles. 8-12 together in heads. heal ulcers. FAM. bronchitis. black. Alsi. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. "Pitta".—crowded at the ends of branches. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Fl. Alasi. Alsi. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. causes loss of appetite. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns.. glossy dark-green above. Alashi. flowers. hot. Tisi. bark somewhat corky. :—Cultivated throughout India. DISTR. seeds and oil. Maidelakri. perianth lobes wanting. lead to impotency.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. gouty and rheumatic swellings. PARTS USED :—Bark. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. emmenagogue. LOC. .—Linaceæ. Fr. bad for eyesight. CHAR. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. remove "Vata". Malina. diuretic. Kanara. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. Haimwati.:—E. FAM.. Sk. Fl. Madagandha. Fibres. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda).5 mm. G. usually alternate. Sedhavi. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. M. native country probably Egypt. H. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. used in consumption. H. lenticellate. :—E. NS. dysentery. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Seeds—mucilaginous. Tailottama. Javas . Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. 7. pale beneath. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. K. base narrowed. "Kapha". Sk.— globose. NS. boils. burnt bark styptic and healing. Garbijaur. inflammations. Seeds contain vitamin A. diam. Jivanika. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Alshi. urinary complaints. LOC.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs.:—A small evergreen tree.—May-July. aphrodisiac. back-ache. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. COM. Common tallow laurel. L. remove biliousness. yellowish. cure leprosy. hard to digest. LOC. M. Alashi. Common flax. branchlets densely tomentose. urinary discharges .—Lauraceæ. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. leaves. Medini. COM. See—Oils. colds and throat complaints. Linseed. galactagogue. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. t. Roasted seeds are astringent. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani).

—Lobeliaceæ. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). expectorant. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Wild tobacco. DISTR. leprosy (Ayurveda). Kadvi-turai or ghisodi .—Nov. Narsala. pains in joints. lower much longer. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.—Cucurbitaceæ.—numerous. biliousness.9 cm. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. H. bitter. Sd. Sthulanala. "vata". useful in biliousness. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism.—. lobes linear. Katukoshataki. Bibhishana. L. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. COM. yellowish brown . LOC. Kandele. NS. Fl. FAM. Root—astringent. FAM. Jalini. Mrityupushpa. t. Jhinga. Australia. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. 1. Nali. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.—alternate. all oblong. many. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. overheated brains. K. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Dhamana. H. useful in inflammations. Kahire. AMARA Clarke. Fr. much curved. NS. long. aphrodisiac. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. acrid. erysipelas (Ayurveda).5-3.100 m. COM. vagina.2-3 m. G. Ghontali. It acts as anodyne. heating. stem stout. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Malay Islands. M. Karvituri. branched upwards. M. bronchitis. C—2-lipped. 2. 3 usually connate throughout . Devanala. CHAR. hollow. fever. :—E. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . burning sensation. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. consumption. M. Leaves are mucilaginous. diuretic. SK. strangury. leaves. . fruits and seeds. spleen diseases. aphrodisiac. Narttaka. Dhaval. K. very small. galactagogue. stomachic. Deccan and S. Nal. Sk. Ceylon. finely serrulate. light green. burning sensation. Ranturai. :—E. Devnal.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. cure cough. G. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. LOC.-Mar. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. aphrodisiac. midrib white. Kalahogesoppu. lanceolate. tonic. Country. uterus. Divali. throat troubles. subglobose. paralysis.—capsule. Fl. bark. nearly sessile. white. thirst. :—Konkan. Kadudodka. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. high. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. diseases of blood. Ridge gourd. opening by 2 valves. heart. long.

Fl.—obovoid. diuretic. cures urinary discharges. Mahuda. DISTR. cures "Vata". ascites. females. LOC. USES. jaundice. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. Moha. :—Plant is bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. Doddippa. Fr. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. tonic and diuretic.—Sapotaceæ. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. anæmia. H. uterine and vaginal tumours . Pokka. bronchitis. asthma. stems 5-angled. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. fruit and seeds. Ceylon. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. long and about 2. leaves. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. asthma. tuberculous glands.. thick. tumours. alexiteric. :—E. at first whitish and softly villous. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. L. Madhuka. t. Mhowra. Root-bark is abortifacient. obtusely conical at both ends. Madhusrava. Fl. M. Mahua tree. G. . solitary in the same axil as males. Bengal to the W. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. thrives in Deccan trap. LOC. piles. laxative.—small. cathartic. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. bitter. digestible. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. C. acrid. Fruit cures fever. Mahua. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. piles.—petals yellow with green veins . bitter. Sk. K.) FAM. LOC. 5-10 cm. PARTS USED :—Leaves. hydrogogue. Butter tree. flowers and fruits. Kanara (rare) . haemorrhoids and leprosy. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis.:—A large climber. recommended in splenic enlargement. "Kapha". cough. Mahura. PARTS USED :—Bark. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff).53. base cordate. tonic to intestines. COM. biliousness. leucoderma. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Mowda. W. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda).—monœcious. :—Throughout India. carminative. Hunage. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). palmate. liver complaints. 10-ribbed. Madhya Pradesh.—Sept. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Mahula. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. tendrils usually 3-fid. 5-7 lobed. useful in rat-bite. pale green. Mowa. especially in western Peninsula. Burma. DISTR. also in Konkan and N. NS. Gudapushpa. inflammations. at length scabrid.8 cm.

yields two important products. Oils. Ceylon. Honey tree. There is a trace of alkaloid. Sk. :—E. expectorant. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. good in heart diseases. anthelmintic. Sk. Hullichillu. and Upper Burma. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Kapila. galactagogue. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. PARTS USED :—Bark. M. G. Ippe. Monkey-face tree. COM. fattening. Movaro. LOC. Kapilo. burning sensation.. Mohwa. COM. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. fixed oil and a spirit. Mahuva of S. consumption. Famine Plants. flowers act as a mild purgative.) FAM. Karnatic. thirst. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Shendri. Mysore. causes "Kapha". Kesarimavu. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. bronchitis. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Flower—sweet. DISTR. :—Western peninsula. See—Timbers. Movanuhjad. Liquors. Mahuda. :—-E. Fruit-tonic . USES :—Astringent and emollient. Flowers—oleaginous. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr.—Euphorbiaceæ.—Sapotaceæ. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. M. tonic and nutritive. G. and Kanara. cures biliousness. Kamala. Huli. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. India . tonic. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. H. cures blood diseases. Kambhal Raini.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. NS. Mehua. Kapila. carminative. fatigue . Kampillaka. aphrodisiac. LOC. aphrodisiac. Oil—emollient (Yunani). Oils. heals wounds . K. and appetiser (Sushruta). leprosy. Mohache jhad. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. K. ulcers. cooling. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. H. Flowers are regarded as cooling. See—Timbers. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). NS. Moha. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. used in fractures. Madhuka. often planted. flowers and oil. and also a remedy for itch. astringent. Oil is good for skin-diseases. :—Konkan. FAM.

clears brain. Malay Islands. astringent to bowels. dysentery. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). flowers. hiccup. good in cough. LOC. tumours. anthelmintic. vulnerary. cooling. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. :—E. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. Amra. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. styptic. vermifuge and. Mango tree. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. Ghats and the Satpudas. appetiser. Bihar. Am. fruits and seeds. Cuckoo's Joy. FAM. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. dispels langour and burning of body. vaginal troubles. cure "Vata". wild and cultivated. :—-Throughout the State. Ambo. aphrodisiac. good in heart trouble. alexiteric. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). LOC. purgative. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. heals ulcers. vomiting. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). enriches blood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Sk. detergent. lessen intestinal pains. styptic. Amri. wounds. used in chronic diarrhœa. "Pitta". DISTR. it exudes a pink coloured gum. NS. bad blood. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. Sind. Sikkim. Chuta. cure leucorrhoea. stone in bladder. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. leaves. See—Timbers. Ceylon. Australia. leaves. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. K. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. ulcers. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). improves cough. cause flatulence and constipation. Burma. Introduced. beautifies complexion. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. tonic to body. bronchitis. a good collyrium (Yunani). spleen. :—Throughout tropical India. stomachic. G. carminative. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. laxative. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. sour. Kanara. in "Tridosh". liver pain. H. liver. Bhutan. Amba. M. good in dysentery. tonic. sweet. Fruit—heating. COM. China. Khasia Hills. maturant. improves complexion. improve taste and appetite. :—Tropical Himalayas. purgative. removes bad smell from mouth. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. cooling. diseases of abdomen. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Gum . "Kapha". throat troubles. Kamarasa. thirst. Astringent. cultivated throughout the State. LOC. Mavin-mara. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N.—Anacardiaceæ. Rasala. biliousness. piles. chronic dysentery and gleet. fruits and seeds. aphrodisiac. Mavu. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. useful in skin-diseases. Dyes. Sahakara. urinary discharges.

green or yellowish green. CHAR. M. Nim or Margosa tree.—broadly ovate. cooling. Juss. Paribhadraka.—Meliaceæ. with lenticels and black dots. few glands above the petiole cordate .—6. alexiteric. M. rat-bite (Ayurveda). Madhumalati. Limbada. asthma. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. DISTR.—follicles. aphrodisiac. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. corona lobes large. margined. COM. antipyretic. cures "Vata". Dugdhike . K. long.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. Suparnika. Hari.3-15 X 4. Nimba. Dodi. Khandodi. Hemajyoti-valli. Country. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Assam. overlapping to the right. tumours. LOC. :—Deccan and S. Juice of kernel. :—G. Nimba. Kadulimb. good for dyspepsia. G. pale yellowish brown. Sd. COM. urinary discharges. if snuffed. Fr. Balant nimba. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. LOC.—Apl. Harandori. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. all plains districts of Madras State.5-10 cm. Java. H. NS. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Nakchhikni. useful in diseases of eye. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. coma copious . broadly ovate or suborbicular.—many. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic.. L. Sk. Nim. USES. It is also anthelmintic. Ceylon. Ambri. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. rugosely striate. useful in bleeding piles. Bevu.) FAM. astringent to bowels. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. piles.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Nimbaka. stops nasal bleeding. t. H. Nimla. See—Timbers. Sk. Kharkhodi. burning sensation. :—Bengal. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic.) FAM. K.5-11. M. leucoderma. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. inflammations. Fruit Trees.5 cm. 7. Ripe fruit is laxative. flattened. NS. :—A large twining shrub. C. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic.—rotate with broad lobes. Fl.—Asclepiadaceæ. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Limbra. older branches ash coloured. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. :—-E.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. fleshy. biliousness. Fl. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark.

earache. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. sprains. M. H. Vanmethika. expectorant. insecticidal. useful in syphilitic sores. refrigerant. Burma. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. it is a general vermifuge. alexiteric. asthma. Tonic. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. good in ophthalmia. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. anthelmintic." vomiting. antiperiodic. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. chronic leprosy. bad taste in the mouth. tonic and antiperiodic. LOC. COM. lessens inflammation. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. relieves "Kapha". cough. stomachic. biliousness. resolvant. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . leprosy. :—E. boils. flowers. carminative. burning sensation near heart.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. bruises. See—Timbers. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. swollen glands. thirst. lumbago. maturant. bark. and loss of appetite. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. tonic. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges. piles. toothache. pectoral. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). fatigue. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. stimulant and stomachic. blood complaints. skin diseases. rheumatism . leucoderma. . used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. FAM. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic.. Ranmethi. good for leprosy. Sk. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. "pittadosh. anthelmintic. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). DISTR. tumours. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. for unhealthy ulcers. leaves. astringent. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . The flowers are stimulant. Oils. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. general debility. cures ulcers and inflammations . piles. fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Small melilot. maturant. fruits and seeds. valuable in consumption. convalescence. Banmethi. like a weak solution of carbolic acid.

FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ.—variable in size.—monœcious . oblong-ellipsoid. :—India (tropical zone). :—Common in Deccan. base cordate. Sd. Corn-March mint. Afghanistan. HABITAT :—In hedges. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. "Sikkim. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan .—3-foliate. poultice or plaster for swellings. deltoid-ovate entire. Agamaki. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. introduced into many other regions. M.. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Pudinah. tendrils simple. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. NS. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. at first green and variegated with yellow. S. in spicate close racemes. high. of terminal rather long. north Bengal. finally red. M. Fr. leaflets toothed. DISTR.—one. :—Western Peninsula. Fr. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. stem angular. G. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. females sessile. brown. DISTR. male fascicled on short peduncles. L. Chatinmaragu. COM. H. FAM. young parts white-hairy. ellipsoid. also in S. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed.—small. t. Externally used as a fomentation. :—H. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. Khasia. slightly echinulate. Pudina. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. . Pudina. K.—size of a pea. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Labiatæ. Europe. Iran. tapering at both ends. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. very hispid . rounded. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. Bilari.— Jany. glabrous or slightly hairy. Ghugri. especially in strained back. scabrid. LOC. :—An erect annual herb. Fl. NS. L.—pale yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. Ceylon. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. 30-45 cm.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Country and Gujarat. lobes dentate or serrate . Malaya and Africa. Fl. COM. :—E. truncate at the apex. oblanceolate. leaves and seeds. glabrous. LOC. CHAR. M. Assam.—pod. C. given as a gruel (Murray). standard exceeding the wings and keel. Fl.

lilac. :—E. none at the top. NS. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. :—A perennial erect herb . indigestion and cephalagia. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. HABITAT :—Cultivated. dry. stem short. Nagakeshara. DISTR. used for cough. tonic to kidneys . M. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. cough. smooth. FAM. Nagsampige. LOC. expectorant. diuretic. DISTR. thirst. asthma. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. In N. Kashmir. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Western Himalayas. Gums and Resins. H. E. Carminative. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. . Travancore.-narrowed below. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. headache. infusion is given in fevers. toothed. Nagchapha. China. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. Naghas. C. and stimulant. Nagkesara. Burma Tenasserim. alexipharmic. good in asthma and sweats. flowers and fruits. PARTS USED :—Bark. S. emmenagogue. K. hiccup. foul breath.—sub-equally 4-lobed. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting.—nutlets dry. binding. North and West Asia. small tumours. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. MESUA FERREA Linn. the upper similar and large. Konkan and N. Ceylon Iron-wood. leaves. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. Suvarna. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Fr. Himalayas. biliousness. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. Fl. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. sorethroat. Andamans. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. USES :—Root. sweats. COM. Kanara. Bengal. Assam Iron-wood. Nagkesara. Europe. cardiotonic. hairy. skin diseases. oblong. M. vomiting.—Guttiferæ. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). Country.—in axillary distant whorls. Nagkinjalka. lined with hairs and hairy outside. The plant is used in chutneys. Ceylon. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. blood and heart troubles. digestive. LOC. Sk. stalked.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. useful in liver and spleen diseases. lanceolate. good for fevers. Assam. pains in joints (Ayurveda). LOC. Oils. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. L. :—E. See—Timbers. ovate. LOC. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples.

Champa. Dyes. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. acrid. good in leprosy. Hem-pushpa. H. evergreen rain-forest of N. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). sensative. H. blood affections. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Champo. destroys poisons.—4-merous. Yunnan. cultivated. useful in cough. Sone-chapha. K. Flowers-stomachic. Burma. Sankochini. aphrodisiac. "Vata". M. rheumatism. Fr. in vertigo. glabrous above. clothed with glandular hairs . and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. petioles hairy. diuretic. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. diaphoretic. pinnae 1-2 pairs. "Kapha". Kanara. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Sk. W. Fl. G. leaves. Pivala chapha. See—Timbers.-pod flat. :—Cultivated all over the State. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. S. Champaka. rheumatism. Sampige. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses .—Sept. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Fl. :—E. Muthmurika. Pilochampo. bile. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. LOC. Sk. flowers and fruits. :—A diffuse under-shrub.—Magnoliaceæ.-Oct. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. bark. India. M. ophthalmia. FAM. Raktamula. Fruit. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Champaka. G. IndoChina. Champaka. DISTR. NS. pink. FAM. Lajalu.. rachis bristly. Sparshalajja. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . facilitates micturition. Surabhi.—bipin-nate. Sensitive plant. NS. Lajja. Sonchampo. 45-90 cm. stimulant. Lajjavati. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Humble plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. CHAR. near temples and in gardens. digitate. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Ghats.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Lajalu. Yellow champa . COM. Suvarna champaka. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. in globose heads. gout. Lajari. Flowers— expectorant. remove biliousness. nausea and fevers . stems and branches sparingly prickly. :—E. Lajalu. also used as purgative. L. Nachike-gidda.5 cm. hairy beneath. COM.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. 57. Golden champa. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. high. . LOC. t. Vanamallika. long.. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. slightly recurved. Assam. Risemani. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Lajjika. K. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. removes worms. diuretic.

Anangaka. Mulsari. sweet. cultivated in the tropics. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Bakul. LOC. Kanara and Konkan. Seeds fix loose teeth. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. Fruit causes flatulence. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. :—Naturalised throughout India. jaundice. NS. cooling. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bolsari. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. headache. Flowers—expectorant. teeth and gum diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. alterative. often planted in gardens. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Bakula. vaginal and uterine complaints. alexipharmic. asthma. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. flowers. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. burning sensation. bark. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. anthelmintic. useful in blood and bile diseases. in piles and fistula. Mukul. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. stomachic. cure biliousness. H. Baphuli. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Bakul. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. DISTR. cures "Kapha". It is also resolvent and alterative. oleaginous. smallpox (Yunani). K. leprosy. probably a native of tropical America. cultivated in gardens in pots. leucoderma. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Malaya. Bakul. cures biliousness. Kanara. good for gonorrhœa. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Varsuli. FAM. flowers and fruits acrid. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. Ranjal. piles. fruits and seeds. Vovali. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. Flowers give taste.—Sapotaceæ. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). M. astringent to bowels. Ceylon. inflammations. bilious fevers. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. Kalhala. LOC. Sk. Juice is applied externally. Sharadika. In Brazil root is used as emetic. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. :—G. cure blood diseases. COM. Root is resolvent. Mugule. dysentery. LOC. alexipharmic. Root. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers. Borsalli. fatigue. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. nose diseases. DISTR. cooling. See—Ornamental Plants. acrid. liver complaints. Bark cardiotonic.:—Western Peninsula. vulnerary.

—E. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. G. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Guleaabbas . Karelo.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is also tonic and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. Chandra—Sanjimallige. it is applied to relieve headache. M. Karela. H. yellow. Kandura. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Four o'clock plant. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Hagala. Karela. good for syphilitic sores. K. Fl. NS. Gulbasa . LOC. Hagalkai. Karavalli. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. each one surrounded by an involucre. L. Sk. Marvel of Peru. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. DISTR. blackish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac.—large. high with large perennial tuberous roots. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. FAM. often ribbed or rugose. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape.—continually in bloom. Karli. Fruit Trees. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. LOC. NS. :—E. K. 30-75 cm. and rather fleshy stems . Leaves are maturant.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. lessen inflammations (Yunani). COM. COM. Sk. t. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. . Karala. Kareli. FAM. See—Ornamental Plants.—Nyctaginaceæ. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . HABITAT -Cultivated. :—Grown throughout India. cordate. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Krishnakali. Fl. H.—membranous. M.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Oils. See—Timbers. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. native of tropical America. Carella fruit. Fr. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. :—A herbaceous plant. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. CHAR.

cooling. Kartoli. Fruit— bitter. Golkandra. leprosy. appetiser. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. digestible. piles. anthelmintic. Malaya. M. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. stomachic. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. Kanta. carminative. Fruit—very bitter. H. Karkotaki. Vandhya. also in Malaya. hiccup. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases.—Cucurbitaceæ. K. etc. erysipelas (Ayurveda). MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. leaves and fruit. antibilious. Fruit is tonic. stomachic. fever consumption. "Kapha". M. laxative and authelmintic. B and C. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. . It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. asthma. tonic. urinary discharges. used in syphilis. :—Throughout India. Karehiballi. laxative. urinary calculi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. COM. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. Plant cures diseases of blood. Gid-hagalu. aphrodisiac. ulcers. boils. Country and Gujarat. S. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. piles. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. rheumatism. anthelmintic. Kantolan. tropical Africa. Vishakankini. sparingly in Konkan. leaves and fruit. bronchitis. Beksa. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Leaves act as galactagogue. jaundice etc. :—Cultivated throughout India. rheumatism. :—G. laxative. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. cure "Tridosh". Leaves—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. tumours. Kantoli. lessens expectoration . Sk. DISTR. all kinds of poisoning. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. excessive salivation. cure "Vata". stomachic. urinary discharges. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. hot alexiteric. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. anæmia. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. LOC. NS. LOC. cures biliousness. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). LOC. Fruits contain vitamins A. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Ceylon. HABITAT :—Cultivated. eye and heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. and America. China. burns.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. Fruit—bitter. and externally in ague as an absorbent. antipyretic. longpepper.'. Nagarali. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Vegetables. diseases of spleen and liver. FAM. DISTR. blood diseases. hearttroubles. It is useful in gout.

COM. all "tridosha" fevers. also in the Oudh forests. analgesic. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Cultivated . FAM. tuberculous glands in neck. dyspepsia. stuttering. useful in heart-complaints. Seglo. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Ashyuka. "Kapha". :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. spleen enlargement. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND LOC. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. bark. See—Vegetables. LOC. Murangi. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Mochaka. Ak. tumours. FAM. improves appetite. also wild. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Sajina. fruits and seeds. Shevaga. Guggala. :—E. Indian horse radish . NS. LOC. Achchuka. Saraoji. makes blood impure . Root-tonic to body and lungs. Nuggi. anthelmintic. H. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. inflammations. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous.—Rubiaceæ. NS. Haladipavate. Tagase . :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. K. H.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Indian mulberry. causes burning sensation. Segua. leaves. COM. Ab. removes all kinds of pains. fattening. Drum-stick Tree. DISTR. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. aphrodisiac. Sargavo. China. flowers. Munigha. Ainshi. Mulgule. Famine Plants. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. digestible. Achi. alexiteric. emmenagogue. Sk. Ugra. M. Sk.—Moringaceæ. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. . Tikshnamula. K. PARTS USED :—Root. G. Introduced var. Formosa. astringent to bowels. Burma. cultivated throughout India and Burma. M. eye diseases. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Al. G. biliousness . "Vata". Aal. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . earache. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Rochana. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. Bartondi. See—Dyes. leaves and fruits. DISTR. Mochaka.

diarrhœa. piles. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . cooling. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. COM. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). rheumatism. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. K. Fruit—tonic. Kambali. Tuda. salt and pepper. sour. B and C. spleen. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". :—E. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Seeds yield a fixed oil. sweetish. LOC. good for brain. Leaf paste. internal inflammations and calculous affections. appetiser. laxative. See—Fruit Trees. enriches blood. Kanara. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. enriches blood. Oils. biliousness. loss of appetite. FAM. MORUS INDICA Linn. obstinate asthma. with garlic. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. LOC. anthelmintic. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. carminative. DISTR. enlarged spleen or liver. NS. Tuta. epilepsy and hysteria. diuretic. M. . burning sensation (Ayurveda). and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. expectorant. heart. Root is purgative. Gums and Resins. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. increases biliousness. Siahtut. aromatic and acid flavour. bark. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. lumbago. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. useful in small-pox. urinary discharges. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Ambat. leaves and fruit. Madhu pippali. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. cures gleet. ulcerated intestines. Shetur. stomatitis. fattening. expectorant. H. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Fruits contain vitamins A. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). wounds. turmeric. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. it is cooling laxative. White mulberry. Fibres. diuretic. Peninsula. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. Tutri. PARTS USED :—Root. Root and bark are used to procure abortion.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. The plant contains an alkaloid. gout. lumbago. common about villages in N.—Moraceæ. good for inflammations of throat and chest. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. G. Sk. bronchitis. Tut. aphrodisiac. Tut. See—Vegetables. Karihannu.

148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. pods and seeds. grey-silky beneath. HABITAT :—In hedges. G.3-11. Cowhage. used in powder form in leucorrhcea.—5-6 small. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Kapikachu. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Plantain. COM. M. Root—emmenagogue. FAM. Adam's Fig. Kunth. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Nayi songuballi. with honey is given in cholera. Sk. Turashi. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. DISTR. leaflets membranous. t. H. LOC. :—Punjab plains. Var. K.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Strong root infusion. M. CHAR. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. dark-purple. biliousness . SAPIENTUM O. Kadali.2 cm. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. DISTR. Kivanchha. NS.3 cm. Kavatch. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Atmagupta. terminal smaller.—Scitaminaceæ. laxative.5x1. Goncha. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . They are used as anthelmintic. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. leaves. . Ceylon. Seeds— alexipharmic. Havanch. long. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. Hasaguni. spermatorrhoea etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Kela. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. stem. consumption. Kadvare. Bale. which produce intensa irritation of skin. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Fl.—pod. Fl. Kavach. turgid-shaped. common in hedges.—in drooping racemes. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root.—3-foliate. MUSA PARADISIACA L. Sd. Kuhili. Kivanch. Fruit— aphrodisiac. cures blood diseases. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). :—E. " Vata ".. Tikshna. Fr. Vanari. Kela. petioles 6. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. cultivated. tonic.—Oct-Nov. Kela. Rambha. Urustambha. Dirghapatra. LOC. 6-30 flowered. HABITAT :—Humid areas . flowers and fruit. :—An annual twiner. Banana. Sk. 5-7.. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. G. K. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. improves blood. silky.) FAM. lateral very unequal sided. H. tonic. Maoz kela. Himalaya up to 1200 m. L. covered with tawny stinging hairs. juice given for headache. LOC. COM. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. sometimes cultivated.

M. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. Fr. deep golden yellow. LOC. Kanara. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. flowers and fruit. Lawsat. causes bronchitis . dyspepsia. pubescent. t. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. Assam. Shrivalli. linear. lobes broadly ovate. PARTS USES :—Root. Bhutakes. Fl. astringent to bowels. diabetes. tonic. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stipules twin. menstrual disorders. Fibres.—opposite or 8nately whorled. ear-pain. thickens blood. B and C. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. hairy. COM. L. urinary discharges. Nagavalli. in " Vata". sore-throat. Root-juice. tonic. LOC. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. antidysenteric. kidney troubles (Yunani). leprosy. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills.—Rubiaceæ. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. indigestible . Burnt stem is vulnerary. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. appetiser. DISTR. :—Konkan and N. subglobose.. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. . astringent to bowels. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. heart-burn and colic. and are used in acidity. NS. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. improves complexion (Ayurveda). See—Fruit Trees. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. CHAR. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. FAM. broad at base. leaves.— berry. useful in "Kapha". blood diseases. Bellotti.—tubular. good for dry bronchitis. Hastygida. broadly elliptic. Serwadh. very hairy outside. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. tube slender. Bedina. strangury. Fruit—sweet. C. Fl. diseases of uterus and vagina. consumption and bronchitis. :—S. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Andamans. increases appetite. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. :—A rambling shrub. K. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Ipparati. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. Root-juice is anthelmintic.--in terminal cymes. Tropical Himalayas. anthelmintic. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac.— July-Oct. buds densely hairy. in thirst. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. :—H. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. Sk.

Sk. Malati. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Murad.—Myrtaceæ. emmenagogue. Kamuka. white. COM. Condiments and Spices. diuretic. L. PARTS USED :—Leaves. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Kanage. axillary on slender peduncles. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. LOC. Malabar. small. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. Fr. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). HABITAT :—Rain-forests. especially epilepsy. Vilayantimendhi. all over the State. M. NS. Habules. black when ripe. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. FAM. DISTR. enriches blood. intermittent fevers and dropsy.— solitary. A decoction is employed. FAM. is regarded as.— Myristicaceæ. :—E. K. CHAR. DISTR. :—Western Peninsula. as . PARTS USED:—Seeds. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . Pliny. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Fl. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. allaying pain. :— E. very sweet smelling. common in the Kumta taluka. NS. LOC. Dioscorides.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. It is used as a substitute for true mace. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. COM. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. W. smoke beneficial to piles. They are given in asthma. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. Kaiphal. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. Ram-patri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. It is credited with opposite qualities. ellipsoid. Kanara Ghats . LOC. See—Timbers. promotes growth of hair. False nutmeg. :—A shrub.—berry. Malati. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. Myrtle. applied locally to relieve pain. cures headache. used in stopping vomiting.—small. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Konkan and N. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. M. Himalayas. fruits and oil. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. Galen and the Arabian writers. H. ovate to lanceolate. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn.

with slender. COM.3-0. NS. Kanara. 3-valved. cures asthma. Suriyakamal. Padam. petals 5. COM.-Dec. L. elongate. NS. concave or cupped. Kandalu. Fl. Pitmari. L.6 m. CHAR. Fr. entire. Pundarika. M. high. G. CHAR. Sd. long. Indian sacred lotus. hæmorrhage. cells 2-seeded. 0. glabrous. dysentery. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. in diam. Kapurbhendi. Papra-vel. :—Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. fleshy. leaves. Tavari-bija or gadde. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. & A. spongy. curved. orbicular.—July. K. ovoidglobose. Timpani. Nelanaringa . white or rosy.-Nov.—solitary.—membranous. :—A small branching undershrub. Fl. petioles very long. elliptic. free.—alternate. anthers with clavate appendages. Kamal. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. disk annular. Kamal. t. torus 18 mm. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Pankaja. :—E. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. 10-25 cm. K. C.. Chinese water-lily. erect. ulcers (Ayurveda).—Nymphæaceæ.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. 3-foliate. Sk. peltate. from Iran eastwards to Australia. Kandabahula. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM.—white. LOC. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Kamal.—capsule. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. stem. DISTR. ovoid. top flat.. linear spathulate. solitary or 2 together. t.5 cm. Ambuja.) FAM. rough with distant prickles . M. alexiteric. Fl. Belakanji. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. LOC. :—W. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. :—E. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin.—pendulous. Amlavalli. Sk. radiately nerved. Padma. DISTR. H. petiole winged. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Goanese ipecacuanha. biliousness. axillary. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. diam. . Ambuj. LOC.—Meliaceæ. Kamala. Ripe carpels. vulnerary. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. muricate. bronchitis. Sarasija. Fl.—petals many 5-12. Aravinda. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. :—A large aquatic herb.

throat scaly. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. t. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. 10-15 cm. G. at length separating. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. leaves. Karvira.—Apocynaceæ. Vishavrikshanka. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . removes worms. Waziristan. FAM. cures cough. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Salt Range. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . H. 15-23 cm. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir.—follicles. LOC. chest-pains. C. inflammations and poisoning. gives tone to breast. Fr. stem. Cool. Filaments are astringent and cooling. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. rigid. CHAR. M. . linear-lanceolate. astringent to taste . The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. leaves. aphrodisiac. Baluchistan. LOC. good in throat-troubles. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. Pratihasa. slightly bitter. :—Madhya Bharat. S. seeds. allays thirst. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. DISTR. allays thirst. L. also as a hedge plant. Kaner. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ".152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. also recommended as cardiac tonic. fragrant. strangury. NS. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . COM.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. long. fruit. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant.—red. tapering into short petiole. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. ulcers and sores of mouth. Karber. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. heart and brain tonic . :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . Karvira. good in blood-complaints. useful in burning sensation of the body. Paddali. Fl. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. leucoderma. Sweet scented oleander. menorrhagia. Fl. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Sind. honey. useful in piles. coriaceous. Kanel. biliousness. dark green and shining above. Kaner. also cholera. in fever and liverdiseases. vomiting.—funnel-shaped. lobes rounded. improves watery eyes (Yunani). :—E. planted in gardens throughout the State. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan.—in threes. K. Upper Gangetic Plains. fever. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. long. India. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. Sd.—flowers more or less throughout the year. diuretic. Kanagile. rose or white. diseases of skin and eye . Ashwa-marak. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. spermatorrhoea. flowers. Kanher. flowers. In China and Malaya dried red petals. useful in fevers . small-pox. Cool. See—Ornamental Plants.

:—Native of America. a mental stimulant. laxative. Tamaku. asthma. An ointment made . LOC. disinfectant. carminative.—alternate. headache. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. Bujjarbhang. K. G. NS. water from hookha is diuretic. useful in bronchitis. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. bronchitis. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. wounds. Fl. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Tabak. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. smoke constipating. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. Hoge soppu. also applied in leprosy. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. Tambak. caries of teeth. LOC. useful in caries of teeth. inflammations. L. especially root. The plant contains a glucoside. large (especially lower ones). LOC. oblong or elliptic. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem.8 cm. cultivated in all tropical countries. scabies (Yunani). cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). are poisonous and are used externally. Tamarakuthika. COM. very poisonous. Root—aphrodisiac. USES :—All parts of plant. good for lumbago. the surface is plain or bullate. tubercular glands of neck. across. CHAR. funnel-shaped. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. DISTR. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane.—Solanaceæ. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. Tobacco. conical. Krimighni. emetic. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Dhumrapatrika. Flowers— aphrodisiac. tonic. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. base wedgeshaped . Tamakhu. Tambakhu. Poisonous to fish.—in open corymbose panicles . Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. nervous depression and sleeplessness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Fr. inflammations. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. skin diseases. lobes spreading. C. scabies. Kalanja.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. about 1. anthelmintic. :—E. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda).—capsule. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. FAM. sedative and emetic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. foul nose. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. dimness of sight. sores.—pink or white. tonic.

in terminal trichotomous cymes.— more or less throughout the year. Sephali. stomachic. FAM. Chotakanwal. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Fr. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani).—Nymphæaceæ. G. M. CHAR. Fl. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. H.—Oleaceæ.— fragrant. Prajakta. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Shonapadma. tube orange-coloured. COM. HABITAT :-Cultivated. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. abundant July-Sept. NS. L. Kanval. Assam. Lalkamal. axillary. M. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye.—capsule. hairy. Kanwal. C. Har. Jayaparvati. DISTR. 2-celled. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. southwards to the Godavari. NS. Sk. Parijata . a decoction of root. flowers and seeds. Sephalika.5-6. Madhya Bharat. H. (Ayurveda).3 cm. tonic to hair. Alipriya. Kumuda. :—E. Nilophhal. Nalkumkuma. Nyadale huvu . useful in bilious fevers. :—A large shrub or a small tree. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Parijataka. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. peduncles 4angled. Buds are tonic. :—E. Parijata. Bengal.—lobes white. Kharapatraka. rough above with bulbous hairs. LOC. astringent-to bowels.. ovate acute. densely pubescent beneath. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. leaves. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Lotus. Fl. Har-singhar.) FAM. solitary. Cultivated in many parts of India. It is used with honey in chronic fever. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. Aravind. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . K. t. . :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . COM. young branches quadrangular. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Bilitavarai. lessen inflammation. carminative. compressed. Bark cures bronchitis. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Burma. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. bark. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. cures fevers. Prajakta. Indian Mourner : G. bark. Harsing.—opposite 5-10x2. scalp affections etc. obcordate or merely orbicular. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers.

—2-lipped. removes impurities from blood . irregularly sinuate-dentate. FAM. Barbar. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. "Kapha". flowers and seeds. hot taste. white. H. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. petioles very long. Hungary. DISTR. :—An erect herb 0. leaves and flower. Sabja. Sabzah. long. useful in diseases of heart and brain. anthelmintic. Ajagandhika. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. Surasa. febrifuge. causes burning sensation. Surabhi. biliousness. thyrsiflora. itch. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. glabrous or pubescent. useful in diseases of heart and blood. K. :—Large aquatic herb . Bahari. erect. alexipharmic. allays thirst. "Vata". lessens bile. bitter taste. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. pink or purplish.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. stems and branches green or purplish.. Philippines. Damaro. root stock tuberous. juice gives lustre to .—all the year. high. enlarged spleen. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. acute. See—Ornamental Plants. stamens about 40. entire. COM. diarrhœa and piles . long. fleshy.—nutlets about 2 mm. green. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Sd. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. L. Tukhamariya . Fl. LOC.—ovate. stomachic. bitter. Rihan.6-0. diuretic. emmenagogue. NS. Africa.—petals about 12. and nigropunctate above. globose. short. "Vata". glabrous. Tungi.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. bracts stalked.—Labiatæ. Fr. Fr. pale rose or white. M. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. CHAR. inflammations. 8-13 mm.—3 cm. Fl. oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. filaments dilated at the base . LOC. Barbar. DISTR. L. ripening beneath the water. :—E. Nasabo. cooling . chronic pain in joints.— ovoid. open in the morning only. ellipsoid. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Roots. Java. Plant has a sharp. antipyretic . Burma. cylindric. Manjarki.— in whorled racemes . submerged .9 m. LOC. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). rough. purple stem. C. Sajjebija.5-20 cm. obtuse. Common sweet basil. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. across. Ramkasturi. roundish. asthma. peduncles very long . " Kapha". leaves. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. toothed or lobed. Sabja. 7.—solitary. diameter. C. aphrodisiac . red. deeply cordate at the base. Fl. G. diam. improves taste . :—Var. t. leucoderma. 15-25 cm. black and pitted. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Var.—peltate. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda).

8—5. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. DISTR. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. M. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. young ones pubescent. liver and spleen. diuretic and stimulant.. carminative. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague.2—1. Fr. t. Country. It is also styptic. FAM. headache. alexiteric. " Kapha".3—12. useful in diseases of brain. S. Gujarat. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. often cultivated : Ceylon.5 X 3. LOC. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. Java. aphrodisiac . The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. NS. high. 1. :—Konkan. :—E. in close whorls .—nutlets subglobose. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. Lemon—shrubby basil.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. Plant has bitter. BanMal tulasi. gland-dotted. skin diseases. strengthens gums. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. strangury . coarsely crenate-serrate. Avachi-bavachi. good for toothache. LOC. rugose. pale greenish yellow. fits. :—A perennial shrub. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. The flowers possess. woody below . Deccan.8 m. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. brown. G. rachis quadrangular .—6. earache. L. removes foul breath. Fl. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. During fever when the extremities are cold. :—Throughout India. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. Sumukha. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). CHAR. stimulant. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.— in simple or branched racemes. stems and branches subquadrangular . good for griping and piles (Yunani).7 cm. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. Ram Tulasi. sharp taste . branched. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. COM. useful in vomiting. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka.—2-lipped.-July-Oct. pubescent. heart. Rama-Ran tulasi. they are also aphrodisiac. inflammations. Fl. Ajaka. heating. diuretic and demulcent properties.—Labiatæ. " Vata". On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. . Large basil. Sk. lower lip longer. H. elliptic-lanceolate. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. Rantulasi. C. LOC. M.

Manjari. Sk. stems numerous. . Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Deccan and S. 30-60 cm. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. Parapate. Malay Archipelago. LOC. K. CHAR. margins recurved and scabrous. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). LOC. asthma. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. entire or serrate. usually 2-3 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. :—An annual herb. Vishnuvallabha. t. See—Sacred Plants. of children and in hepatic affections .2 cm. Tulasi. and are given with honey. C.—subsessile.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Tulasi. L.— capsule.:—E. Pavitra. Fl.—2. stomachic. alexiteric. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. Damanpaper. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. CHAR. yellow with black marking. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—2-lipped. M. G. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Fr. Tropical E. " Vata". Australia. DISTR. FAM. useful in heart and blood diseases.— nutlets. globose or pyriform . bitter. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Fr. anthelmintic. DISTR. purplish. Vrinda. varying from 7. long in close whorls . :—Konkan. M. Fl. Parpat. West Asia. Tulasa. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . :—Throughout India. " Kapha". :—An annual plant. lobes acute. pubescent.. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Suravallari. Krishna tulasi. lumbago pains. NS. high. leaves and seeds. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . clothed with soft hairs . minutely gland-dotted. linear or linear-lanceolate. NS.—on filiform pedicels. smooth. Fl. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). bronchitis. Asia to Java and the Philippines. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. hiccup. heating. upper lip pubescent on the back. stems and branches subquadrangular. purulent discharge of ear. strangury. elliptic-oblong.5-5 X 1. stipules with bristles . and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. Sk. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders.—pale brown. purplish. especially in children.—Sept-Nov. high. :—G.—Labiatæ. long. H. LOC. foul smells. Sd. FAM. Tulasi. angular. Arabia. leucoderma. Vranda. H. antipyretic. painful eye. L. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn.5—38 cm. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. HABIT :—A common weed. COM.6— 3. Ceylon. Kala tulasi.—Rubiaceæ. obtuse or acute. vomiting. used in catarrh and bronchitis . Phapti. Country. Papli. cholagogue.

Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. purgative. 3 m. LOC.5 mm.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. rather thin. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. cures inflammations. liver complaints. rusty brown. H. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . perianth rotate. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest.—7. stomachic.—5 cm. Nagaphana. reddish purple when ripe. Hathathoria. loss of consciousness. yellow at the edges. Phadyanivdung. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Sher. leucoderma. piles. reddish at the tips. Prickly pear. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. Fr. inflammations. introduced into India. good for leucoderma. Nagaphani. laxative. urinary complaints. Snuka. carminative. yellow or orange. Plant juice—heating. or more high. vesicular calculi. Zhoratheylo. antipyretic. ascites. long. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. lumbago. NS. recurved. cures bronchitis in children. juice cures earache (Yunani). inner spathulate. CHAR. M. largest 3. Sk. angular or warty.5 cm. used in ophthalmia. spleen enlargement. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Chorhothalo. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. obovate or elliptic. burning. diuretic. carminative. across. Fl. spleen enlargement. Nagdali. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). . FAM. Nagaphana. outer segments ovate red in the centre. LOC. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. Grown as hedge. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. subulate.—Cactaceæ. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Joints variable in size. Slipper thorn. digestive. Mullugalli. flowers and fruits. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. ulcers. K. tumours. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. alexiteric. L.— berry. COM. it is also used in liver complaints. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. Vajrakantaka. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. dull bluish-green. pyriform. " Vata". xerophyte. long. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. :—E. cures biliousness. DISTR. Plant bitter. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. anæmia. Nagadru. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid.S. anthelmintic. anal troubles. Fruit—expectorant. LOC. leucoderma. M. cooling. Sk. stomachic. Ullu. fattening. Malaya. useful in " Vata". K. Akki. LOC. Sk. Dyes. Vrihi. Araluka. sweet. piles. useful in biliousness . DISTR. LOC. tonic. tonic. Ceylon. :—E. biliousness. M. Tetu. Mayarjangha. Shyonaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. It is astringent and tonic. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. M. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Tetu. :—The Konkan and the N. Kanara ghats . Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Bagi. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Tuntaka. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Tetu. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). Cochin-China. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. K. Pharri. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). FAM. Chokha.—Bignoniaceæ. Ghats. Seeds are purgative. COM. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. improves taste. PARTS USED :—Grain. bronchitis (Ayurveda). DISTR. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. See—Timbers. R. good in heart and throat diseases. oleaginous. Alangi. LOC. diuretic. Rice. Ava. Mokka. Shali. Tandula. inflammations. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. :—Widely cultivated. Nivara. Arlu. FAM. NS. aphrodisiac. Indian trumpet flower. K. vomiting. :—E. Podval. H.—Gramineæ.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. intestinal worms. aphrodisiac. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. asthma. Tans. G. NS. Tandula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. H. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Chaval. fevers. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. astringent to bowels . Dirghavrinta. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. G. improves appetite. bronchitis. appetiser. dysentery. Rice . decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Fruit—acrid. Bhat.). COM. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine.

long.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. L. Dugdhike. t. Br. good appetiser . prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. In dysentery. gives great relief. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. COM. It is a pleasant. " Vata " and piles. ovoid. if applied to chest. removes " Kapha ". gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. Kshiravi. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. Dugdhika. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. petioles very slender.—axillary. sub-umbellate . inflamed piles. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections.5 cm. :—E. Dugdhica. dysentery and scurvy.—Asclepiadaceæ. Ambuti. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. Changeri. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. easy to digest. Dudhani. Sk. Dudhialata. rounded at the apex. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Ceylon. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. NS. linear-oblong. beaked. COM.— Oct-May. small-pox. pubescent. margins ciliate. stems rooting. leaflets 1. Dudhatani. FAM.— many. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . Chukrita. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. to which a little lemon juice is added. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. Fl.— capsule. K. Indian Sorrel. FAM. Sk. M. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Sd. LOC. obcordate. DISTR. LOC. Fl. Rice water. CHAR. C. 5-angled. bowels or kidneys. boils. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman).—Oxalidaceæ. H. used externally.—petals 5. oblong. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. Shuklika. transversely striate. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. buboes. Amlalonika. also in burns and scalds. base cuneate subsessile. Amrul. :—G. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. brown. Jaladudhi. K. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts .—palmately 3-foliate. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Fr. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . . Dudhialata. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). See—Food Plants. scarlet fever. H. yellow. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Dudhari. cures dysentery. measles. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. ulcers.2—2. bruised. M. Marudbhava. Ambastha. astringent. Kyirin . :—Throughout the State. diarrhœa. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. The grains contain vitamin C.

scabies. :—Konkan. rarely erect. long. X 3. somniferous. small-pox. Kedige.— large.—very numerous. COM. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. diseases of heart and brain. Kanara. anthelmintic. dry. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. DISTR. 0. much branched.—follicles. Burma. milky juice. DISTR. with flavour. Screw pine. purple veined. Ketgi. anthelmintic. diuretic.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. S.—oblong or globose. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). pale rose or white. PARTS USED :—Plant. aphrodisiac.5 m. Kevada. Sd. pain. high. H. Gogandhul. Fr. CHAR.—deciduous. PARTS USED :-Root. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. Leaves are useful in leprosy. gonorrhœa. Kewoda. Flowers improve complexion.. root. aphrodisiac. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. syphilis. M. Keora. . Giripriya. Sundarbans. black.—Pandanaceæ. Fl. K. LOC.—Dec. bitter. Fl. coma present. Country— Belgaum. expectorant.—glaucous green. laxative. thin.3 cm. useful in strangury and tumours. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. LOC. stem supported by aerial roots . Ceylon. Ketaka.—dioecious. FAM. margins and midrib spiny. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. :—A shrub up to 6 m. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. tonic. mouth with pubescent ring. alexiteric. fruit and oil from bracts. Java. coriaceous ensiform. Poona Sangam. long. aphrodisiac. Dhulipushpika. Umbrella Tree. :—E. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. cough. Andamans. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch.9—1. Anthers useful in pruritus. indigestible. lobes ciliate. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. yellow or red. :—Konkan and N. NS. L. causes flatulence. pain in the muscles. Chama-pushpa. corona staminal. juice is used in gleet. G. Sk. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice.5-9 cm. leaves. Kanara. linear or linear-lanceolate. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. anthers. Gandha-pushpa. fruit. heat of body. Fr. " Kapha ". drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . LOC. palegreen. stems many. L. Fruit—tonic. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Ketaki. C.8-6. 4. leucoderma. Mundige. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Fl. t. Deccan. strikingly handsome. M. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". ovoid-lanceolate tapering. HABITAT :—Usually near water.8 mm. often planted. female flower spadix solitary.

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Khandesh. K. G. Fl. LOC.—6-12. blood diseases. Kherk. L. Sind. burning sensation. DISTR.:—Very common throughout the State. Boichand. Seeds— tonic. Sk. Ranmath. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Fr. good for eyes. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Kashayi. thirst. Shindi. gout. Belgaum. membranous. LOC. petioles grooved. Kurangika.—3-foliate. long. 2. good in fevers.—Palmæ. long. straight subcylindric. throat inflammations. aphrodisiac. Swadi. astringent. " Tridosh". broadly spathulate. mugawana. wiry. Konkan. Kajuri. peduncles 10-23 cm. The grains contain vitamins A and B. slightly recurved. Kolaba and Kanara. Satara. PARTS USED :—Seeds. antipyretic. FAM. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. inflammations. cure biliousness. Ahmedabad.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Food Plants. nose complaints. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Mugani. LOC. Adabanmagi. dry. :—Annual or perennial. anthelmintic. bitter. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative.—Oct. Vanmudga. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. :—Largely grown in. styptic.—in sub-capitate. Malay Islands. Burma. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. astringent to bowels. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Shimbiparni. prostrate. Sk. Trianguli. good for the eyes . K.5 cm. headache. Fl. Khajuri. Koshila. H. and southwards to Ceylon.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). long.3—2. light and astringent. Magavala. Kharjuri. NS. M. Date sugar palm. Adavada. Ahmednagar. Kallu. Tadi. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. :—G. digestible. H. Dharwar. few flowered racemes. Deccan and Gujarat. Afghanistan. piles. layer. DISTR. laxative. Sd.— pod. dysentery. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). Kidney diseases. cough. Kalli-chalu. Kohesaru. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. LOC. glabrous or hairy. Sendhi. Ranmug. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. yellow. wild date palm. Kapila. " Kapha". Ichela-mara. as a kharif crop. bronchitis. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. biliousness. leaflets 1. Abyssinia. Khaji. cures consumption. enrich blood. eye troubles. t. COM. CHAR. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. FAM. COM. Indian wine palm. :—E.5—5 cm. Kharjurika. M. Siyindu.

Fl. Bengal. This is called neera. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). Baluchistan. Fl. Fr. C. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich.—globose. 2-lipped. Vashira.5 m. cardiotonic. Fl. L. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. fruit and juice of the tree. deeply grooved on one side. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. outer Himalayas. Ceylon. cooling. alexiteric. :—A creeping perennial herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. anthelmintic. female spadix and spathe as in the male. rigid.5—3. spiny at the base. CHAR. 3-4.—Jan-Feb. stems rooting at the nodes.2 cm. H. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. Sholapur. male white. rounded at the apex. oblong. Bihar. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Fl. aphrodisiac. Mysore. Siwalik.—sessile. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Sk. vomiting. t. Sd. long. good in heart and abdominal complaints. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions.. lower 3-lobed.—2. clothed with appressed white hairs . PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Jalapimpli.5 m. roundish. Africa. flowers distant. 9-15 m. triangular. large and thick. Okra. L. NS. :—G. 15-45x2-2. sharply serrate in upper part. Fr. Famine Plants. See. angular. Bhuiokra.—rounded at the ends. scented. cooling. t. high. :—Found fairly in Surat. LOC.—Verbenaceæ. crown hemispherical. :—Throughout India.—opposite. oblong-ellipsoid.—Fibres. subsessile. oblique. blood and eye. COM. usually along banks. ensiform. Coromandel Coast. DISTR. useful in diseases of heart. long. fevers. Sharadi. Rohilkhand. DISTR. Jalpippali. Jalapipali. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). much branched. pinnules many. spatulate. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. and in beds of streams and water courses. Langali. Agnijwala. Ratoliya. Toyavallari. spadix 60-90 cm. wild or more often cultivated. Poona and Belgaum districts. flowers very many. :—Tolerably common throughout India.—more or less all the year.— dioecious. fattening. petioles compressed towards the apex. long. :—A tall graceful palm. Ratoliya. M. orange-yellow. oleaginous. greyish-green. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet.) FAM. spinous.—white or pale-pink. densely fascicled. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. LOC. Ratuliyo. constipating. erect.—pinnate. LOC. wandering of mind. . upper 2-lobed. pointed.

very small. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Infusion is a good tonic. Amala. very numerous. :—G. leprosy. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract.— numerous. fruit. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . LOC. Plant—hot. longitudinally ribbed on the back. Tropics generally. alexipharmic . M. Fl. Fr. scabies.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. bronchitis. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. globose. It is valuable in scurvy.. Fl. COM.—3-gonous. Sk. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. thirst. of female. bronchitis. diuretic. males 1-3. urinary discharges. leaves. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers.useful in fevers. Vituntika. lobed. L. asthma. distichous. useful in thirst. angular. Sd. Sukshmadala. disk of the male of minute glands. stem branched at the base. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. smooth. t. Jaramla. hiccup. biliousness. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). milky-juice. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. 30-60 cm. annular.—yellowish. anæmia. elliptic-oblong. Bhumyamalaki. CHAR :—An annual herb. females solitary. except Australia. K. DISTR. Ceylon. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). sores. asthma. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. cooling. :—Konkan and Deccan. scarcely lobed. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). Stomachic. FAM. LOC. wounds. Kiranelligida. PARTS USED :—Root. Ajata. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. Sadahazurmani. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. high . Bhumyamali. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. Bhumyamali.—capsule. wounds. Bhuiavli. ringworm (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani).— July-Aug.—Euphorbiaceæ. good for ulcers. . Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. LOC. anuria. monœcious. dry. NS. :—Throughout India. maturant. axillary. H. and without salt may be applied to bruises. Leaves are stomachic. The whole plant. burning sensation. Bhuianvalah. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver.

form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. Panu. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. G. acrid. purgative. stomachic. Kalamirich. Menasu. throat diseases. FAM. COM. LOC. hot. clears throat. leavs. Nagavalli. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. :—E. Betel pepper. night blindness. anthelmintic. Mensinballi. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). H. Poona. aphrodisiac. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Marich. bechic. Sk. DISTR. Black-pepper. Malimirich . Eleballi. asthma. vulnerary. tonic. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. and fruits (rarely). pains. urinary discharges. Kanara forests. Kalimiri. Kanara. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Sholapur. . alexipharmic. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. tonic and digestive. elephantiasis . leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. increases biliousness. useful in "Kapha". Pan. laxative. K. alterative. ozœna. carminative. Warm leaves. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Sk. Fresh leaves. Vata". strengthens teeth . DISTR. Tikshna. spleen diseases. styptic (Yunani). given with milk in hysteria. FAM. useful in "Vata". LOC. tonic to brain. aphrodisiac. carminative and astringent. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. K. :—E. " Kapha ". Bhakshyapatra. Tambola. generally in Konkan. Menasin-kallu . Satara. Pan. Kaphavirodhi. Tambulavalli. useful in toothache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. It increases saliva. :—Wild in the N. NS. heart and liver. Vidyache-pan. H. Pan. cultivated in Konkan and N. improves voice.—Piperaceæ. Betel leaf vine. Betelleaf. See—Condiments and Spices. smeared with oil. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. LOC. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac.—Piperaceæ. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. ozoena. satyriasis and to allay thirst. foul smell in the mouth. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. heating. It sweetens breath. COM. M. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. removes all foulness from mouth. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. G. Kalaka. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kalamiri. liver and muscular pains. Linn. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. bronchitis. Vileyad-ele. PARTS USED :—Fruits. improves appetite (Ayurveda). M. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. carminative. Golmirch . inflammations. Saptashira.

W. Arcot and Salem. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. ophthalmia and phthisis. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. CHAR. FAM. chronic fevers. chest affections. and possesses narcotic properties . Fl. petiole longer than leaf-blade. Bark contains a glucoside. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. N. piles and some skin-diseases . paralysis . facilitates menstruation. Khandala (pretty common). leprosy. Lahuriya. NS. Vikhari. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. FAM. various forms of cutaneous diseases. M. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. :—E. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. tonic and a local stimulant. L. LOC. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. In physiological action. Khasia Hills.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma.5-12. Externally it is rubefacient. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . sciatica. sprains. See—Timbers. ovate or oblong. dries body humours (Yunani). See—Condiments and Spices. vertigo. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. variable in width. used in chronic bronchitis.— alternate. LOC. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. base tapering into petiole. NS. Vehkali. weakness following fevers. Deccan.—Pittosporaceæ.—lobes 4.—Plantaginaceæ. COM.—capsule. It yields an essential oil. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. lanceolate or greenish . Bartang. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. :—K. long. bruises. coma. entire or toothed. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Burma. It is a good expectorant. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. Greater plantain . PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. Fr.5 cm. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. Konkan.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . Tammata. piperidine and an essential oil. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. ovoid. H. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. lumbago. C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. used as febrifuge. the oil is alterative. . & A. hills of S. COM. Kanara in ghat forests. DISTR. radial 2.

HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. :—Konkan : Deccan. stems herbaceous. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. alterative. Mahang. high. zeylanica. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. NS. M. Lalchita. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Sd. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . afford relief. K. erect. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. C.—large. Palni hills. limb wide. Ceylon. LOC. Ratochatro. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Lalachitraka. Lalchitrak. PARTS USED :—Roots. LOC.-4-8. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. striate .MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Burma. Fire plant. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction.Kempuchitramula. Rosy-coloured leadwort. W.. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels.—throughout the year. lax spikes. Sk. :—Temperate Himalayas. Chitraka. Chitra. Nilgiris. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Lalchitrak. angled.—3-5 cm. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). attenuate. LOC. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani).—Plumbaginaceæ.Sept. leaves. HABITAT :—Along river banks. Agnishikha. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Ghats. FAM. Raktachitraka. Malaya. exauriculate petiole. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. COM. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. LOC. t. CHAR. Fl. dull-black. long in long terminal axillary.—tube slender. Fl. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Fattening. :— E. obtuse.. alterative and diuretic. G. rosy scarlet. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Assam. base passing into amplexicaul. and seeds. DISTR. oblong. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. t. Lead-wort.-Feb. Baluchistan. top coming off as a conical lid. L. :—Cultivated throughout India. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Roots. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic .

terete. Medi. See—Ornamental Plants. ovate. rheumatism. It is used in procuring abortion. ascites. aborti-facient. diseases of liver. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Chitraka. Tropics of the old world. expectorant. lobes 5. Fl. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. diseases of spleen.5 m. scabies. woody. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. stems 0. astringent to bowels. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . it is useful in dyspepsia. leprosy. leaves are caustic. C. vesicant. DISTR. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. stomachic. long. leucoderma. pointed. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Chitaro Chitrak. diarrhœa. LOC. hot. wild in Western Peninsula. Chitranga. Fr. cure intestinal troubles. alexipharmic. spreading. striate. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. cultivated . The use of Pl. Agnishikha. alterative . USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. Sk. rachis glandular . Malay Peninsula. Ceylon. leucoderma. tonic.—in elongate spikes. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). K. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. carminative. FAM. :—E.-Sept. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). entire. stomachic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bengal. Bile-Chitra-mula. Ind. Res. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. Chitramula. G. t. anthelmintic.—Plumbaginaceæ. Vallari.6-1. skin disease. January 1933). . a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. anasarca. oblong.—thin. useful in laryngitis. inflammations. See—Ornamental Plants. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. In S. L. Root—bitter. a paste is made with milk. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. juice. ring-worm.—Aug. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. bechic. COM. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. Fl. Journ. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. Chitra . piles. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Throughout India.—white. root-bark. laxative. M. H. Chitra. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. piles. consumption. Jyotishka. and in leucoderma. a favourite medicine for flatulence. LOC. itching. " Tridosha" . dysentery. attenuated into a short petiole.—capsule. Vahni. NS. Chitrak. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. Chitra . " Vata" and " Kapha".

LOC. G.-Feb. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). Khairchapha. PARTS USED :—Root. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism.—2-lipped. inner face angular. whorls close. H. Sk. white with a pale yellow centre. Fr. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Konkan. COM. Frangipani. t. with an intra-marginal vein. itching. :—M. Kadu-sampige. acute at both ends.—follicles. common. pungent. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.8 m. Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. urinary discharges. NS. DISTR. C.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. 7. abundant from Mar. t. Deccan.—Labiatæ. Fl. 4-lobed. Kanara.-nutlets ellipsoid.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. NS.—practically throughout the year. Fl. entire. cylindrical.—Apocynaceæ. Belchampaka. Fl. carminative. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. Radha-champo. purple.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. Country. Devagangile.— large. Goleurchampa.5-18x3. abundant.—Dec. M. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. rounded. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. . :—E. LOC. DISTR. Phangla. K. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. rarely maturing. :—All throughout the State. Champakam. ascites (Ayurveda). 12 cm. 3-lobed. useful in gleet. L. broadly ovate. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. 15-30 cm. L. heating. many flowered. :—Native of tropical America. leaves and milky juice. S. very fragrant. See—Ornamental Plants. pains. Rhuruchapha. M. Golainchi. stems and branches quadrangular.. shining black.:—More or less throughout India. bark. Pagoda tree. high. C. ulcers. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. CHAR.2—1. upper lip white shot with purple. :—A small shrub 1. laxative . Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. useful in leprosy. shining.—salver-shaped. FAM. FAM. LOC. venereal sores. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. cultivated. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. Root-bark is purgative. divaricate. CHAR. spirally arranged. oblong-lanceolate. long. Pangli. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India.-May. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. lower lip white. acrid. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. smooth. irregularly doubly toothed. Fr. Fl. COM. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. long.8-9 cm.

Karanj. urinary discharges . H. Aran. leaves. itching. " Vata ". along Deccan rivers . cures eye diseases. Arni. FAM. H. " Kapha ". USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Karanja. piles. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. juice is given in colic and fever. Ustabunda . bark. NS. cure earache. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Gracie). Karanjmara. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). DISTR. G. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Ichu. NS. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. K. purify and enrich blood. Sk. leucoderma. wounds (Ayurveda). Kanika. also planted. Pavaka. skin and in keratitis . Oil—styptic. Seeds—acrid . good for tumour.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. alexipharmic . Indian beech. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms.—Verbenaceæ. good in scabies. Agnimandha. Gaura. lumbago. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. bruised. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. fruits and seeds. head and brain diseases. chronic fever and hydrocele. flowers. See—Timbers. Oils. M. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. K. Karanja. COM. wounds. Huligili. chest complaints. piles. M. lumbago. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). LOC. :—G. anthelmintic. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. rheumatic pains. COM. :—E. Agetha. Honge.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Oil—anthelmintic. USES :—The fresh leaves. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. . ascites. useful in diseases of eye. Chamari. carminative. Kanja. Arand. Jayanti. chronic fever. LOC. Naktamala. skin diseases. Kirmal. Karanj. In Satara. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. relieves inflammation. liver pain. cures biliousness. Sk. Arni. J. vagina. leprosy. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. F. Kanaji.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Agnibijaka.

Flowers cool body. bark yellowish. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Piyara. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. DISTR. entire or upper part dentate.— June-July."Vata". lobes 4. Kanara. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. fruits and gum. M. Perala. Fl. high. dyspepsia. smooth.3 cm. Jamphal. NS. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. small. Amrut. used in bronchitis. cylindric. K. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. Andamans.. Peru . cool heated brain. rough-tubercled . PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Vastula. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. stomachic. bronchitis. common about Karwar. Peru. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. as an astringent to bowels. Anthers—dry wound. aphrodisiac . G. Fr. Guava tree.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. good in colic and for bleeding gums. :—Cultivated all over the State. Peruka. Sd. causes "Kapha". Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. C. hairy in the throat. Fl. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. broadly elliptic. It is also employed in scurvy. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. laxative after food. Nicobars and Malaya. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Gum is tonic. cooling. fever. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). inflammations. See—Famine Plants.—hard. piles.2-6. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. It is given in the form of decoction. sour. trunk and branches sometimes thorny.—Myrtaceæ. cooling. Root is laxative. greenish yellow. LOC. . USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. laxative. pungent. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. Jamb. Ceylon. chyluria. Dridhabija. useful in anaemia. Fruit—tonic. for unhealthy ulcers. flowers. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Safedsafari. Young leaves are tonic in the . constipation. blue-black.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). applied to sore eyes. L.—5-9 X 3. LOC. Jamud-rukh. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC.—tubular. Gova. DISTR. diabetes. FAM. heating. H. COM. LOC. Sk. t. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic.— globose. seated on the calyx .MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Perala.

Konkan and S. H. antipyretic. FAM. Sd. alterative.2 m. CHAR. raw one is used in diarrhœa. COM. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. urinary dis charges. high. M. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. anthelmintic. diuretic. leprosy. fruit and seeds. stimulant. L. Sk. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). diaphoretic in febrile conditions. good for leucoderma.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. C. vulnerary.5—5 cm. :—An erect annual. difficulty in micturition. Bukchi. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Country.—one. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. G. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate.—pod. Chandralekha. See—Fruit Trees. stem and branches grooved. Bavachi.—bluish purple . smooth. HABITAT :—Waste places. vomiting. Seeds— refrigerant. skin diseases. inflammation. Bowach-chi. Kalameshi. t. standard orbicular. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. white hairy. cures "Vata". improves hair and complexion. aphrodisiac. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. K. . bitter taste. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). 10-30 flowered racemes . Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. causes biliousness. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. scabies. Fl.6-1.8 X 2. improves appetite. :—E. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. biliousness. Fl. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. anæmia. " Rakta-pitta". nigro-punctate. M. LOC. Fruit—diuretic. ovoidoblong. Babachi. LOC.—in dense axillary. solitary.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). bronchitis. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Bavachi. good for heart troubles. 0. Bhavanj. cures blood diseases . alexiteric. NS. clawed. Kushtaghni. laxative. stomachic. Seed—purgative. mucronate. 3. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. DISTR. nephrites and cachexia. Vanguji. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. Fr. Babachi. closely-pitted. piles.—Aug-Dec. leaves. black. studded with glands and white hairs. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Ripe fruit is a good aperient.—simple. Bakuchi. heals ulcers.

styptic. tonic. good for biliousness. bark. tonic. :—Western Peninsula and S. M. Kabul and Baluchistan. NS.—Punicaceæ. Benga. laxative. leucoderma. fattening. DISTR. FAM. Bija. Bark—astringent. cures " Vata ". Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Sk. prolapsus ani. griping. " Tridosh". anthelmintic. Kanara. G. Bibla. Hirdokhi. earache. anal troubles. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Bijak. Mahakutaj. blood diseases.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fruit-appetiser. Dadima. allays thirst. COM. Malabar kino-tree. gleet. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Dalimba. useful in eye troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. boils. ulcers. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). K. COM. Hulidalimb . NS. Raktabija-pushpa. used in piles. " Kapha ". diuretic. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. leprosy. strengthens gums. PARTS USED:—Root. erysipelas. antipyretic. :—E. useful in all body diseases. somewhat milder in action than catechu. G. H. FAM. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Flowers— improve appetite. LOC. :—E. PARTS USED. See—Timbers. Bio. scattered but not gregarious . LOC. Flowers—check vomiting. flowers and fruits. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. Valka-phala. ophthalmia. DISTR. flowers and gum. Bibla. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. burning sensation. Gum—bitter. Bigsah. applied to hydrocele. Bia. H. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Dadimba. Pitasar. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. LOC. body eruptions. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. stomatitis. Sunila. Anar. M. Gum. heart-disease. useful in biliousness. enriches blood. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). .MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. biliousness. sore eyes brain diseases. Honne. vulnerary. cultivated in many parts of India. used in sore throat. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. anthelmintic. Ceylon. elephantiasis. scabies. Dalimb . Dadam. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. sore-throat. Dhalim. ascends to 1100 m. in Akrani. Bibla. chest troubles. Honi. :—Leaves. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). liver tonic. India. Pomegranate tree. colic. spleen complaints. :—Wild in Iran. thirst. Dharimb . also in Konkan. fever. Indian kino-tree. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Common in N. called kino. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Sk. alterative . useful in vomiting. urinary discharges. laxative. Gums and Resins. Khandesh and Dangs. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Dadima. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. urinary discharges (Yunani).

5 cm.—in axillary and terminal spikes. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. Konkan. dark green. Mindhola. Rangoonkibel. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. glabrous above. In China. Gela. K. Sk. L. LOC. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen.—Rubiaceæ. 7. Fl. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. It is given in the form of decoction. FAM. FAM.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. M. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State.—Combretaceæ. NS. Emetic nut.—opposite. DISTR. Fr. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . C—petals 5. Gelphal. Minkare. :—E. Fl. base rounded. Lalchameli. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Karigidda. numerous. at first white then deep red . LOC. t. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn.-Aug. lanceolate . Barmasinivel. Dharaphal. Mangari-kai. Country and Kanara. S. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. nearly 6 cm. H. Midhola. Fruit contains vitamin C. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Chinese honeysuckle. NS. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. acuminate. . USES :—In Amboyana. Rangoon creeper. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. hairy beneath. :—A strong climber. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery.— ellipsoid. calyx tube long. LOC. widely cultivated all over India. M. Annam. :—E. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. long. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. Pinditak. acutely 5-angled.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. G. Karhar Mainphal. pendant. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. H. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. Madana. Rangoonchavel. CHAR. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. COM. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. COM. M. G. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. jasmine . elliptic.—Mar. The rind of the fruit. See—Ornamental Plants.

emetic. Ceylon. produce alopecia (Yunani). Seeds-sharp. Sumatra. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn.—Cruciferæ. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. ulcers. Hastidanta. skin-diseases. cholera. piles. its action is very safe. fruit and seeds. and all inflammations . LOC. DISTR. E. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. Juice of . Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. anthelmintic. inflammations. binding. useful in chronic bronchitis. carminative. Mula. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. FAM. laxative. Tropical Africa. :—E. G. good in tumours. See—Timber. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. The plant contains glucoside saponin. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. Bili Mulangi. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. tumours. Mula. muscular pains. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. amenorrhœa. Java. LOC. inflammations. flowers. leucoderma (Yunani). good for spleen and in paralysis. Bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. emmenagogue. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. " Vata" and " Kapha". Ruchira. it is equal to it in every respect. tonic. K. paralysis. piles (Ayurveda). bad taste. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. China. :—Throughout India. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. eruptions. carminative. sweet. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. asthma. DISTR. COM. Muro. carminative. antipyretic. bitter. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. leprosy. cures abscesses. hiccup. Mali. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . NS. juice relieves earache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. destroys "Vata". Ksharmula. H. Radish. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. emetic. alexiteric. It is also used to poison fish. Sk. Mulak. leprosy. Muri. certain and regular. useful in diseases of heart. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . aphrodisiac. used in diseases of the brain. boils. heating. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. purgative. Mura. M. It also contains an essential oil. stomachic.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins.

:—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. :—An erect perennial shrub. often tinged with violet. NS. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. CHAR. white. C. lanceolate.— Mar. :—H. L.-May. LOC. sedative. diuretic.-in whorls of 3. Group B — Serpentine. Java. Root contains vitamins A. Harkaichand. shady open places near rain-forests. Harki.—Apocynaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. . with a long. sharp.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Chhotachand.3 cm. ulcers (Ayurveda). 7. K. Chandrika. Fr. LOC. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. :—H. bright red . yellowish root stock. Sivanabhi. Sk. serpentinine. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. seeds are considered peptic. ginger. Nai. black shining. thin. Sk. Fl.—in irregular corymbose cymes. Juipani. acrid. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica... RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. ajamalinine. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. FAM. In the Konkan.—tubular. Doddapatike. corrective and emmenagogue. acute. anthelminitic . It is hypnotic.) FAM. COM. expectorant. M. laxative. Chandrika. t. See—Vegetables. Yuthikaparni. bright green above. heating. leaves (rarely). Andamans. specific for insanity. NS. M. pale beneath. Sarpakshi. Palakjuhi.9 m.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma.—Acanthaceæ. COM. Ceylon. cures " Tridosha ". swollen a little above the middle. Gaja-karni. B and C. Sarpagandha. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. carminative. Western Peninsula. Garudpatala. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. DISTR. Mungusavel. used in hyperpiesis . Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. ajmalicine. K. nodular. Kanara.. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. and black salt. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. Fl. single or didymous.5-18 X 2. pungent.5-6. irregularly. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees.—drupe. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Nakulikand.

. 0. hairy outside . leaves and seeds.—lipped. flowers and seeds. HABITAT :—Hills. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. Mahabaleshwar. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). inflammations. LOC. useful in inflammations. glands. Erand. lumbago. Sholapur). LOC. Arand. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Country (Dharwar. LOC. piles. inflammations. carminative . Seeds and oil have a bad taste. M. lumbago. leprosy. some fevers. typhoid. Divald. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. increase biliousness. t. Ceylon (wild) .—capsule. Chitrabija. hills near Belgaum. Very little in other districts of the State. ascites. Fl. high. leprosy. Vardhaman. Palma christi. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. Fl. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). diseases of rectum and head. asthma. good for burns. widely cultivated in tropical countries. intestinal worms. leaves. Fruit— appetiser. Khandala. tumours. Madagascar (cultivated). Triputiphala. S. pointed. alterative. LOC. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". M. Java. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. useful in heart diseases. boils. earache. :—E. Straits-Settlements. vaginal pains. asthma. purgative. :—Undershrub. anal troubles.5 m.9—1. stems obscurely angled. rheumatism. G. paralysis. Fr. increases "Kapha". ring-worm. amenorrhœa (Yunani). bronchitis.—nearly sessile. Belgaum. Tirki. M. convulsions. Erand. black. Sk. night-blindness. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch).MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Root-bark—purgative. white. Vardhamana. useful in pains. dropsy. piles. Eranda. entire. Seed and oil—cathartic.-Jany. aphrodisiac. Erand. body pains. generally cultivated. fevers. :—Deccan. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. useful in liver troubles. cultivated. Haralu. pains. upper lip bifid . Castor oil plant. Divaligo. Country. solitary. ascites. alterative. velvety hairy Sd. Leaves—galactagogue. pain in back.—5-10 X2-5 cm. ascites. elliptic lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Root. liver and spleen diseases. pubescent: C. useful in skin-disease. strangury. bracts ovate lanceolate. Cattle are fed with leaves for . :—Probably of African origin.—Oct. L. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. glandular. COM.— tuberculate. :—Throughout India. H. NS. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties.—Euphorbiaceæ. DISTR. DISTR. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. eructations. elephantiasis. narrow. tropical Africa. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. K. oil—anthelmintic.

acrid. Lakshmipushpa. Greece and Germany. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . DISTR. stems with stout and hooked prickles. intestinal affections. PARTS USED :—Flowers. France. cardiotonic. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . petioles prickly. . M. NS. kidneys. Shatadala. Flower—bitter.—obovate . cooling. " Vata". See—Ornamental Plants. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. benefits lungs. Fl. H. serrate. ovate oblong. Italy. G. Fr. good for eyes. Punjab and U. :—E. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. head-ache. tooth-ache. laxative. :—A perennial shrub. P. antipyretic. dry. Pannira. aphrodisiac. Fl. LOC. 2. attaining 1. expectorant. astringent when dry (Yunani). Sudburj. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. laxative. liver.5-6. excessive perspiration. aperient removing bile and cold humours. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. stomatitis. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. red. They are also applied to painful joints. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.. In constipation it is used as an enema. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. double. with a good odour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. LOC. cures leprosy. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. tonic. Sk. :—Origin unknown. improves appetite (Ayurveda).— usually corymbose. FAM. sometimes striped . Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. COM.—Rosaceæ. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. CHAR.3 cm.5 m. long. mild and safe purgative. sometimes glandular. chronic fevers. Soumyagandha. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Gulab. Gulab.— all the year. Gulab . removes bad odour from mouth. K. Ati-manjula. L. pink or white. used in heat of body. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. they are cold. hairy. inflammations. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. which is a powerful poison.—pinnate. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . biliousness. cephalic. sweetish. adults. See—Oils. cultivated all over India. Ghazipur is a chief centre. stipules scarcely dilated. much used in lotions and collyria . t. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). seldom griping or causing flatulency. cardiotonic. etc. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. Tarana. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children.

Bladder. inner perianth-segments membranous. laxative. all scabrous with white prickles. heating. roots very long. t-Oct. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. Tamravalli. jaundice. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. :—Root. uterine pains (Yunani). CHAR. Japan. jaundice. the Konkan and S. lethargy. alexiteric. Fl. NS. with a thin red bark. Manjishtha. urine and even bones red. bitter. Root—bitter. greenish. orbicular . PARTS USED. :—Perennial climbing herb.—white or pink. leucoderma. blood. Ambat Chuka. eye. paralysis. valves hyaline. obtuse. elliptic. analgesic. diseases of uterus. Aruna. base cuneate. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. erect glabrous herb. Fr.—in whorls of 4. Sk. lower leaves larger. Fr. antipyretic.. analgestic. Leaves-sweet.5—7. lactagogue. stems very long. piles. Rohini. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. cures " Kapha ". L. spleen-enlargement. CHAR. cordate or hastate. branches quadrangular . shining. :—E. leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. urinary discharges. Malay Peninsula. ulcers and skin-diseases. increase appetite. rheumatism. :—Annual. LOC. Sorrel. ear. leucoderma. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. Fl.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . Chuka. diuretic.—Polygonaceæ. COM. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. paralysis. .—didymous or globose. M. NS. it powerfully affects the nervous system. Decoction tinges blood. five-nerved. L. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. high. Raktasara. one pair with longer petioles ovate. inflammations. Manjit. Java. grooved.—2. petioles triangular. H. anthelmintic. :—E. Majit. Dock. Indian Madder. improves voice and complexion . USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. pains in joints. Gulmketu. tropical Africa. M. LOC. antidysenteric. purplish black when ripe. acrid. DISTR. Manjishtha. and was much used in dropsy. Amlavetasa. Manjishha. Country. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. leaves and fruit.—Rubiaceæ. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Chitralata. K. Fl. Sk. 15-30 cm. prickly. branched from the root. Ceylon. oleaginous . ovate. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). COM. erysipelas. ulcers. emmenagogue. Chukra. cylindric. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. FAM.-Jany. liver complaints. dysentery.—in terminal panicled cymes.5 cm. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. used in eye-sores. FAM. M. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. vagina. smooth.

mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. constipation. M. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens.—white. Khatselio . Deccan. in dysentery. Sk. Konkan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). G. they are prescribed. Persia. Ghati pittapapada . :—E. acute . The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Nagadali. DISTR. K. . blue or pink. pains. useful in heart troubles.—Rutaceæ. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. while fresh they are bruised. pale brown. tonic. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. dyspepsia. FAM. Kanara. hiccup.-Jany. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. diseases of the spleen. tumours. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Country. :—A herb . Fr. N. Africa. bites and stings of poisonous animals.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. bracts elliptic.—capsule. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). COM.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. Sadapaha. t. The juice allays tooth-pain. LOC. NS. LOC. Cooling. :—Western Punjab. Afghanistan. toothache. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC. roasted. Sk. acute. DISTR. Pismarum Sadab. Sadabu. useful in scabies. Fl. leucoderma. oblong lanceolate. L. Kharmor. vomiting. ovoid oblong. analgesic. stems usually decumbent. Vishapaha. alcoholism. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Trans-Indus Hills.—Acanthaceæ. LOC. generally in the Deccan. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. ciliate.—suborbicular. Havananju. :—Common throughout the State. Parpatha. then erect. often rooting near the base.— subsessile. The seeds have the same properties . upper emarginate. lower shortly 3-lobed. See—Vegetables. also considered as a vermifuge. checks nausea and promotes appetite. H. M. S. USES :—Leaves are cooling. stomachic. flatulence. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. with darker spots. Satap. Common—Garden-rue . NS. rugose with furrow. laxative. Fl. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. M. 2-lipped. CHAR.—Nov. FAM. Satapa . piles. Sd. C. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. Satri. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. asthma. :—G. aperient and diuretic.

flawed. C. laxative. DISTR. Naisakar. Kumad. heating to body . Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. aphrodisiac. Rikhu. obtuse . cooling. H. L. leprosy.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. abortifacient. glandulose punctate. useful in fatigue. Sk. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. epilepsy. colic. LOC. . Us . increases mental activity. amenorrhœa. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Madhuyashti. The oil is the best form for administration. Sherdi. yellowish. See—Ornamental Plants. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. There are three varieties .—angled. FAM. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. heats body. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). :—Grown everywhere in India. grown in gardens. tonic. Ikshu.. segments cuneate. particularly Deccan. petioled. oleaginous. emmenagogue.—Gramineæ. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. M. diuretic. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. oblong-obovate. S. K. it may be given internally in hysteria. M. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). Fl. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. cultivated throughout India. spathulate or linear-oblong . PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Satara.—petals 4. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Tanigarbu . Sd. :—A strong smelling herb . The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. decompound. DISTR. Sugarcane. and externally used as a rubefacient. Gudakastha. Rasala. G. Gudatrina. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. Ganna. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. Fr. The plant is tonic. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. digestive. in pots. garden. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. NS :—E. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. Ingotu. Kabbu. Powdered and combined with aromatics. etc. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. LOC. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. indigestible. Poona. :—Egypt and Algeria. HABIT :—Cultivated.-alternate. S. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. The plant contains glucoside glutin. anti-aphrodisiac . LOC. flatulence. forest and mountain. Ukh . thirst. all over the State. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis.

scabies. numerous. Egypt. LOC. piles. Kharijal. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . disorders and wind. Sugar causes " Kapha". Piludi. M. Seeds—purgative. branches numerous. fleshy. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. H. often mucronate at the apex. red when ripe. Leaves—bitter. sometimes it raises blisters. Fl. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. bad for liver (Yunani).". smooth. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. lessen inflammation . dry regions of W. . Khakan Mirjoli. greenish-yellow. pectoral and aphrodisiac. COM. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. leaves. bile. alexiteric. sugar is considered heavy. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant.-Feb. diuretic. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Goni. diam. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Mahaphala. causes " Kapha. purifies blood . In cases of poisoning by copper. LOC. shining. stomachic . G.—Nov.—Salvadoraceæ. globose. Fl.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. laxative. leucoderma. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. FAM. K. C. See—Food Plants. Sind. PARTS USED :—Bark. corrective.—very thin. 3 mm. Pilu. tonic to liver. white. Kanara in littoral forests. t. delirium. tonic and aperient. Cane—sweet. the Konkan and N.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. astringent to bowels. strengthen teeth. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Pilu. ulcers.—drupe. Fr. L. lobes much reflexed. deobstruent. Asia. useful in heat. erysipelas. In the Punjab. finely striate. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. good for lungs . It is good in calculous complaints. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. Abyssinia. improves appetite. oil is digestible. useful in nosetroubles. Pilu. analgesic.. often planted near Muslim tombs. Tooth-brush tree. Pilu. :—E. opposite. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). fattening. near the coasts of Gujarat . Fruits are deobstruent. drooping. fruits seeds and oil. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. NS. Brihat madhu pilu. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. anthelmintic. Jal. anæmia. improve diuresis (Yunani). LOC. useful in biliousness. diuretic. DISTR. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. Ceylon. carminative. useful in biliousness. :—Drier parts of India. aphrodisiac . deeply cleft. carminative and diuretic. :—Dry districts of the State. inflammations. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. Sk. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid.

Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. lumbago. aphrodisiac. Bhogivallabha. Ceylon. Chandan. to allay heat and pruritus. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. Mysore and parts of Madras State. bronchitis. H. exhilarating. useful in diseases of heart. " Kapha ". often planted. FAM. acts as diaphoretic. tubercular glands. Arishtaka. aphrodisiac. Aritha. USES :—Wood. paralysis. Chandal. K. India. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Sandal. chiefly in S. Fruit—bitter. Malayaja. cold in head. diarrhœa. antipyretic. See—Timbers. vaginal discharges. Ritha . Wood—tonic to heart and brain.—Sapindaceæ. fruit and seed. Chandan. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. K. Agarugandha. Oil. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Cultivated elsewhere.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Root—expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. Anthuvala. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. small-pox (Ayurveda). Kumblabijaka. DISTR. cholera. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. :—E. Rishta. :—E. gonorrhœa. LOC. stomachic. . alexiteric. Sandal-wood Tree. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). G. in skin-diseases. Shrigandhalmara. Phenila. Suket. Sk. gleet. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. alexipharmic. M. laxative. head-ache (Yunani). Burugukayi. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. cures "Tridosha". Kugale. strangury. Sukhad . alexiteric. COM. Soap-Nut tree. :—Western Peninsula. useful in inflammations. M. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . :—Indian Peninsula. S. DISTR. emetic. to temples in fever. Oils. useful in chronic dysentery. LOC. is applied to local inflammations. astringent to bowels .. Country and N. PARTS USED:—Wood. Sk. Arithan . burning sensation.—Santalaceæ. Kanara. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. tonic. Phenilu. Bhadrasara. much cultivated. NS. NS. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Mangalya. thirst. Bhadrasri. up with water into a paste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. epileptic fits of children. M. Antharalo. Ritha. COM. allays uterine pains. hemicrania. abortifacient. Ringni. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. biliousness. ground. H. G. Chandan.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

hair-tonic. cure menorrhagia.—standard as broad as long. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. promote hair growth. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). tonic.—pod. spleen troubles. opposite. an emollient poultice is also made from them. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. useful in dry cough. suppurating wounds. anthelmintic. Jayat. burning sensation. Seeds contain vitamin A. slightly torulose. FAM. strangury. etc. long. C. oleaginous. few flowered axillary racemes. gouty joints. Jayanti. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. branches striate. seeds. Jayanti. alterative. L. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. :—G. of eye and ear. applied to ulcers and piles. diuretic. COM. enrich blood. LOC. probably a native of tropical Africa. small-pox. inflammations. yellow. diseases. 4-5 m. aphrodisiac. Fr. useful in sorethroat. syphilitic ulcers. strengthening. Jaya. into claw. galactagogue. Fl. There are three varieties of seeds : black. bleeding piles. Sd. such as dysentery etc. They have been used to procure abortion. oil. diuretic and lactagogue. white and red. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. obscurely angled . CHAR. leaves. applied to gouty joints. 7. Shewari. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. linear-oblong. asthma. urinary concretions. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. PARTS USED :—Root. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Baluchistan. mottled with purple on the outside. bark. Sk. inflammations. seeds. long. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. M. in height. cooling. Seed-oil—fattening. scabies. Jayantika. Raysingani. beaked. PARTS USED :—Root. cures . :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. They are also emmenagogue. removes "Kapha".—20-30. See—Oils. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . NS. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes.. H. LOC. carminative. pendulous. inflammations (Yunani). Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. Jinangi. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. DISTR. lung diseases. Jayanti. K. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. and as an oildressing for ulcers. They are nourishing.5-15 cm. indigestible .— abruptly pinnate. astringent to bowels. Waziristan. useful in diarrhœa. leaves. 15-23 cm. eye diseases . :—Cultivated all over India. Nadeyi. Black variety is common.—in lax. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. septate between the seeds. leaflets 914 pairs. :—A soft-wooded shrub.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic. Janjhan. Rasin.

Hatiya . 2-4 white or red. tumours . Basna. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). biliousness. Kanali. See—Vegetables. t. PARTS USED :—Root. Australia.— flowers at various times. useful in ozœna. rubbed into a paste with water. Indigenous from Malaya to N. night-blindness. high. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). alexiteric. useful in ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). long. Leaves—indigestible. cure itching. Kempagase. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. Agati. LOC. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. maturant. M. leaves. leucoderma. Flowers—cooling. H. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. Fl. LOC.—in racemes . useful In diseases of spleen.8 cm. CHAR. See—Fodder Plants. fevers. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. anthelmintic. cures " Tridosh " pains. C. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Dirghashimbi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. Leaves—purgative. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). leaflets 16-30 pairs. bronchitis. An infusion is given in small-pox. Fr. Sk.— pod. Bak. Agase.—7. Fl. . Agusta. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . very showy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. 6-9 m. linear oblong. Bark—astringent. "Kapha" and inflammation. Agathio. Munidruma.— pinnate. anaemia. DISTR. gout. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". relieves throat-troubles. long. ulcers. Vranari. diarrhœa. stimulant. :—A soft wooded tree . cure quartan fever. long. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. FAM. improves taste. diabetes. The plant contains vitamin A. L. flowers. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. epilepsy. NS. Seeds—emmenagogue. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. anthelmintic. fruits. dysentery and paludism. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. K. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. is applied in painful swellings. 50 cm. Fruit—laxative . COM. 15-30-cm. is applied in rheumatism. Agasta. gout . demulcent. astringent. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. :—G. leprosy. Agasti. LOC.5-8. Ornamental Plants. improve appetite . :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. Bark— astringent. allays thirst.

minutely hairy.—6-8 mm. strongly reticulated. CHAR. Bariara. cooling.—1-2 in each axil. Country. Sk. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Samanga. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. with ginger. :—Hotter parts of India. branches slender. is given . LOC. awns 2. removes " Vata ". dorsal margins toothed. Sd. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Root—cooling. LOC. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. long. pedicel jointed about the middle. COM. NS. long.—Malvaceæ. Chikna. bleeding piles. M.Dec. FAM. Fr. softly hairy all over. useful in blood and throat diseases. Bala.—solitary or few together. awns 2. Hettutti-gida. crenate. astringent.-Oct. strongly reticulated . puberulous.—2. stomachic and tonic. K. M. " Kapha " . linear . Kisangi. Fl. Rajbala. Vatyapushpi. Kumghi.. CHAR. pedicel jointed much above the middle. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.. black. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Prahasa. a weed. Bala. Pata. " Pitta ". USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. Country. L. t. astringent. t.5-6. :—G. H. scabrid-hairy. Fl. aphrodisiac . yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. G. carpels 7-10. diuretic.. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. decoction. LOC.—smooth. diam. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. Gujarat and S. Khareti. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. cordate.—5-6 mm. M.—Nov. NS. digestive. carpels 5-9. :—Konkan.-Nov. sharply serrate. Chittuharatu. emollient. diam.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie).— yellow. Bala. Kharanti. linear. C. dorsal scabrid. glabrous. :—E. M. Kareta. Fl. DISTR. obtuse. Batyalaka. Deccan and S. Chikna. lanceolate. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains.5-5 cm. HABITAT :—Moist places . base rounded. Tukti. bark.3 cm. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda).—2. upper margins ciliate. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. FAM. Barial. Baladana. leaves and seeds. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. LOC. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. Country Mallow. Fl. :—A shrub. useful in fever. Kherati. COM. L. ovate-oblong. K. H.—Malvaceæ. Pata. Sk. Fr. Jayanti. PARTS USED :—Root. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. :—Konkan (common).

LOC. Bala—Sida cordifolia. common.—achene. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. high. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Katampu. 5 inner boat-shaped. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. :—Deccan. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. juice is used for healing wounds. tinged with purple. those of the ray red beneath.—Compositæ.2 m. DISTR. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. t. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. black. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". and head-ache. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Country. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. 0. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Fl.—yellow. NS. Pilibadkadi. S.6—1. all running down wing-like into petiole. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. deeply and irregularly toothed. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". 5 outer clavate. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. Linn. M. It is also used to favour menstruation. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. stem stiff. :—Throughout India. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. cystitis. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Externally.—heads small in leafy panicles . :—A large annual herb. slightly rough. M. erect. Ceylon. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. :—G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. also in colic and tenesmus. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. involucral bracts 2 rows. L.—opposite. triangular-ovate. . stiff-neck. FAM. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. Fl. diaphoretic. facial paralysis. rhomboides Roxb. Fl. Fr. COM. pappus 0.-Dec. CHAR.—Nov. noise in ears. administered in hemiplegia.

Habba-Kirigulla. NS. Vayase. L. eye diseases (Ayurveda). lobed. :—Widely cultivated in India. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". :—E. DISTR. Ceylon. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. COM. Mhotiringni. globose. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. anthelmintic. asthma. Vadikadheri. maturant. . FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. Vartaki. LOC. Bhanta.— berry. Vange.-Aug. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. bad for piles if taken internally. Egg Plant. very. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. petiole prickly. :—E. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. Hinguli. Mahotika. enriches blood. sharp. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). Vrittaphala. K. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. recurved. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. diam.5—7. Ubhi-bhuringni. high. Sk. " Kapha". COM. Hinguli. H. Kadusonde. Baingan. bronchitis.—pale-purple. t. Brinjal. M.5 cm. " Vata". :—Throughout tropical India.—Solanaceæ. loss of appetite. cardiotonic. base unequal-sided.5 m.—minutely pitted: Fl. removes foulness of the mouth.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. causes biliousness. Barhanta. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. useful in leucoderma. China. ovate. Sk. subentire. prickles large. leaves (rarely) and fruits. clothed outside with purple hairs . Root is applied to lessen pain. G. vomiting. laxative.—5—15 X 2. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). It is seldom used alone. pruritus ani. stem stout.. Vantak. LOC. Bhantaki. 8 mm. analgesic.-Oct. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. lessens inflammations. pain. Brihati. Sd. Philippines.. G. fruit and seeds..—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. Ranringni. PARTS USED :—Root. dark-yellow when ripe. PARTS USED :—Root. Badanikai. leaves. Rigana. NS. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. covered with stellate hairs. digestive. fever. M. improves appetite. C. K. FAM. Fl. Malpya. aphrodisiac. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Indian Nightshade. astringent to bowels. Kattarta. LOC. Bhantaki.3—1. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. rarely wild.—Solanaceæ. Vengni. H. or triangular-ovate. Fr. 0. Dorli. Nilaphala. prickly. Fruit—cardiotonic. HABITAT :—Hilly parts.

The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. inflammation. Fl. CHAR. LOC. heating. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. dysuria and asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. Seeds—laxative. urinary discharges. diarrhœa. C. Vayasi. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Tiktika. Gurkamai. Black Night-shade. much divaricately-branched . piles. tapering into petioles. :—E. 3-8 flowered cymes . ear and nose . K. alterative. throat burning.—small. entire or sinuate toothed. subumbellate. Fr. bronchitis.-Jany. :—A variable annual herb . In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). In S. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. smooth. Makoi. shining. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. Ceylon. minutely pitted . FAM. NS. in extra-axillary. " Tridosha". The seeds are used as a stimulant. H. itch.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . Sd. fever. Kamoni. Piludi. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation.—discoid. and used with success in psoriasis. DISTR. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. stem erect. diam. taste. Kakamunchi. eye-diseases hydrophobia. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. gonorrhœa (Yunani). It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. griping. in pains.— berry. chronic fever. Kabaiya. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). Fruit contains vitamins A. Morellel. useful in giddiness. COM. vomiting. LOC.—many. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. Root-bark—laxative .MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. liver inflammation. . useful in diseases of eye. leucoderma. bitter. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. diuretic. aphrodisiac. asthma. laxative. hiccup. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. M. It acts as a hydrogogue. bark. t. tonic.—Solanaceæ. G. bronchitis. improves voice . fever. :—Throughout India. not to be given to pregnant women.—Sept. cathartic and diuretic. worms in ear. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. Kakamachi. 6 mm. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. L. yellow. Katuphala. See—Vegetables. leaves and fruit. improves appetite. inflammation. Kakamachi. dysentery. good for neck ulcers.. ovatelanceolate. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Hound's Berry. B and C. etc. Sk. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. useful in heart and eye-diseases.

causes biliousness (Ayurveda). long. pruritus . appetiser. tropical Australia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Vrittatandula. lobes deltoid. :—Common in the Deccan . heart disease. Leaves—good application for piles. 3-2 cm. laxative. Kantakini. Jowari. FAM. diam. DISTR.. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. Fr. COM. Sind. fevers. surrounded by enlarged calyx . strangury. M. ovate or elliptic. Nidigdhika. Sundia . Jolah. ozoena. biliousness. Kantakari. :—A very prickly diffuse. Brihati. dysuria. Konkan. "Vata" and " Kapha". Sk. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. It is used in asthma. good in inflammation. CHAR. Africa. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Great Indian millet. pains. leaves..— June. sterility in women. catarrhal fever and chest pain.7 cm. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . sinuate or subpinnatifid. Sholapur. Seeds—anthelmintic. Jundri.3 cm. Nirgol. Chikka-sonde. S. Ringni. stems. NS. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. H. Ikshupatraka. straight. hairy outside. lumbago. Sorgho. piles. D. Dirghashara. Dhavani. Nele-Rama-gulla . L. aphrodisiac. Kenjal. NS. E. asthma. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. often exceeding 1. H. :—Throughout India. good for boils and scabies (Yunani).—Gramineæ. muscular pains. stem zig-zag. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. prickles compressed. G. they are used in the burning of feet. LOC. Fl. Kateli. Bijapur and E. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. Basu). Jowar. HABITAT :—Cultivated. t. Jondhala. heating. LOC. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles.-5-10 X 2.5-5.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes .—Solanaceæ. yellow or white with green veins. fruits and seeds. Jonera. & Wendl. hairy on both sides. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . FAM. anthelmintic . Fruit—laxative. chronic bronchitis. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. C. K. urinary concretions. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. fever. bright green perennial herb . Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. asthma. LOC. Sk. flowers. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. yellow and shining. useful in bronchitis. petiole prickly. Yuvanala. base unequal-sided. expectorant and febrifuge. Yengara . K. Durrah.—purple. stone in bladder. M.—berry. Ceylon. :—G. stomachic. Malaya. thirst. Bhui-Kate-ringni. Fl. Shalu. Katai. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. COM. Root—aphrodisiac. Bhoyaringni.

Bastard Cedar. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. NS. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . tumours (Ayurveda). COM. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. general debility. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . :—G. Some. :—Seeds. Sumbi. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. K. leprosy and dysentery . indigestible. Mahamundi. common in Gujarat. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Kumbhala.—sessile. PARTS USED. Khandesh and S. Ruhin. useful in " Kapha". it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. NS. See—Food Plants. bladder and kidney complaints. CHAR. L. with toothed wings. FAM. Aruna. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. high. Rohini. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES. fevers. Vritta. Rohun. cures " Tridosha ". M. :— E. Indian Red-Wood. aphrodisiac. :—The grain is cooling. piles. HABITAT :—Open situations. DISTR. ulcers. anthelmintic. introduced into America and Australia. Rohina. Gums and Resins. improves appetite and taste. :—Dry forests of W. Asia and Africa. while Belgaum. stem and branches cylindric. laxative. on dry stony hills. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Rawtarohan. refrigerant. Bijapur and E. Poona. Swami-mara. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Sk. Ceylon. Agniruha. :—Bark. aphrodisiac. Rohani. FAM: —Compositæ. LOC. K. Munditika.—Meliaceæ. constipating. :—Widely cultivated in India. tonic and antiperiodic . H. Ahmedabad. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Gorakmundi. hairy. G. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Country. vaginal injections and enemas. ulcers. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. good for sore-throat. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Gorakhamundi. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Tans. H. hence used in intermittent fevers. Pravrajita. COM. diseases of blood. Fibres. Grains contain vitamin B. M. Gorakhmundi. Bodiakalara. glandular. LOC. DISTR. biliousness. PARTS USED. M. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. . :—Bark-acrid. Dharwar. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Juss. Karanda-gida.

digestible. alterative. LOC. used also for local application. HABITAT. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. :—E. and tonic (Stewart) . biliousness. DISTR. Tonic. Fl. :—Root. ovate. t. leucoderma.— achene. serrate or dentate. cooling. elephantiasis. :—Throughout India. NS. LOC. peduncles with toothed wings. jaundice. globose ovoid. biliousness. stalked. tonic.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. PROPERTIES AND LOC. irregularly crenateserrate. It is also used as fish and crab poison. alexipharmic. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . HABITAT. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. cools brain. oblong. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate.—opposite. fattening. M. :—Deccan. Ceylon. urinary discharges. laxative. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. :—Root. C. peduncles reaching 10 cm. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in skin diseases. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. with honey they are given in cough. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. :—Common in the Konkan. leaves. bark. ciliate near the ends . scalding of urine. spleen diseases. compressed . involucre bracts linear. anæmia. asthma. hemicrania (Ayurveda). Fl. H.—compound heads. solitary or subpanicled. leaves and flower-heads. PARTS USED. vomiting. PARTS USED. strangury. in cases of worms and indigestion. indigestion. sometimes grown in gardens. Pappuso.—Compositæ. Country and Kanara. S. gives lustre to eyes . Fl. chest diseases. Akkalkara . tuberculous glands. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. ring-worm of waist. They are chewed to relieve toothache. They are given in powder form.—Nov-Jany.—in heads ovoid. Akarakara . gleet. Pellitary . urethral discharges and jaundice. Fl. flowers and seeds.. truncate. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. DISTR. dysentery. stem and branches hairy. Sk. :—Common in rice-fields. Celyon. base usually acute. anthelmintic. emmenagogue. Africa. :—Wild and cultivated. t. COM. laxative.—Nov. good for eyesore. pain in uterus and vagina.. depurative. Australia. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. bronchitis. used in insanity. long. looseness of breasts. M. the latter when present minute. Powdered root is given as tonic. Akara-karava. FAM. . glaborous. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. :—Hot. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). increases appetite. scabies. piles. glandular hairy. all warm countries. Malay Islands. epileptic convulsions. enriches blood . L. rectal pain. Fr. lessens inflammations . USES. :—Annual herb. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative.—Achene. ovate-oblong. :—Throughout India. LOC.—purple. Fr. boils.

Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. COM. :—Cultivated. enriches blood .-usually 1. stone woody. pinkish green. branches nearly horizontal. Kariguddada. K. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. widely planted. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Kapichuta. Konkan. :—Bark. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Giri Hadari. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Ambada. HABITAT. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. Kamduti. LOC. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. bark smooth. Burma. leaves and fruit. good for sore-throat.5 m.—Bignoniaceæ. :—A tree 9-10. oblong. H. Amra. C.— petals 4-5. refrigerant. Sk. Amrataka. L. :—E. Ceylon. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. t. Kanara. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. W.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. ulcers. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. trunk straight. Tungi. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. :—H. ash-coloured . high. M. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. Padiala. NS. hard. biliousness. Country.. Western Peninsula. Amate. Avatekayi. . phthisis. ovoid. Indian Archipelago. Fr. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. cures rheumatism. Gujarat. long.Feb.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Sd. Fl. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. See—Gums and Resins.5-18 x 3. Patala. Andamans. Kumbhi. Patala. Kalavrinta. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Salt Range. Ambodha. appetising.8 cm. Bile Tree. M. Fruit—indigestible. Marahunise. astringent. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative.-Apl. Fl. Indian Hog-Plum. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Pahad. :—Often planted throughout the State. It has been found useful in dysentery. Parur. :—Leaves-tasty. Dr. Hude. M. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Pitana. yellow. Pandri.. S. long. FAM. destroys " Vata ". burning sensation. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. round with furrows and cavities. oblique. K. Padal.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. Wild Mango.5 cm. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Gum is demulcent.. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Ran-amba . Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. entire. tonic. Hongkong. LOC. 3. Ali-vallabha.—drupe. Hulave. DISTR. Padal.8-7. ovate oblong. Toyadhivasini. blood complaints . NS.

fevers. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . LOC. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. anæmia. fruit. cures pains in joints. flowers. pungent. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. asthma. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. sub-Himalaya. :—Wood (rarely). :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . emmenagogue . Kelakutaka. tonic. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Fruit-acrid. Karnatak. K. Kajavara. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. Flowers— acrid . "Vata". ulcers. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. H. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Laos. cures leucoderma. Ittangi. M. Kuchla. leaves. Kangira. Burma. Planted in Ceylon. bitter. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Hemushti. piles. LOC.. :—E. diuretic. Circars. Poison Nut. burning sensation. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). poisonous. "Kapha". :—Root. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. :—In forests south of Bombay. Kajra. ring-worm. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. astringent to bowels. Fruit—useful in hiccup. antipyretic. DISTR. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Kajra. Travancore. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Kanara. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. blood diseases. Ceylon. jaundice. blood diseases. Crow Fig. loss of taste. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". COM. Sk. appetiser. heating. N. LOC. seeds. lumbago. itching. DISTR. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES. diuretic. NS. Fruit—bitter. piles . :—Monsoon-forests. :—More or less throughout tropical India.—Loganiaceæ. heating. G. Indo-China. heating.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Kuchla. PARTS USED. vomiting. useful in bilious diarrhœa. tonic. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . thirst. Visha-druma. Kuchala. Kakatinduka. Kanara. tonic. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Travancore . Nirmal. Kachita. west coast of Madras State. Kupaka. PROPERTIES AND USES. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. FAM. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). :—Root-bitter. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. It is regarded as cooling. Karaskara. inflammation. Vishamushti. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. eructations. See—Timbers.

fruit and seeds. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. diuretic. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. cure strangury. NS. :—E. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. HABITAT. Ambuprasadini. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. astringent to bowels. Chittu bija. FAM. PARTS USED. M. Kanara and Khandesh. . cures inflammations. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. causes biliousness. Kataka. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. emetic. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Shodhanatmaka. Ceylon. :—Root cures leucoderma. :—Western Peninsula. good for liver.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. Aduguchali-bija. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. M. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. increases "Vata". Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. COM. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. diaphoretic. :—Root (rarely). gonorrhœa. hallucinations. jaundice. Burma. head-diseases (Ayurveda).—Loganiaceæ. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Nivali. :—Deciduous dry forests. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Seeds—bitter. kidney complaints. (Rasendrasarasangraha). LOC. lithotriptic. thirst. aphrodisiac. H. Nelmal. See—Timbers. LOC. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. improve eye-sight. alexipharmic. urinary discharges. alexiteric. DISTR. poisoning. also in Konkan.. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Sk. Fruit useful in eye diseases. Nirmali. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. relieve colic (Yunani). See—Timbers. anæmia. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Madhya Bharat. tonic. Seeds—acrid. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Clearing Nut Tree. Country. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison.

throughout N. Country. bleeding gums .9 m. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). Tillaka. C. Tiritaka. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. 2-valved. LOC.-Jany. NS. aphrodisiac. :— E. NS. L. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. astringent to bowels. Bark—bitter. LOC. E. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. Bhilli. :—W.— lobes 4-5. CHAR. Sd. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. Bose). Fr. COM.—Gentianaceæ. dysentery. inflammations. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda).—Symplocaceæ. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. . PARTS USED. C. Burma. Deccan . Fl. FAM. Kadu.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . useful in eye-diseases. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". C. leprosy. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. alexiteric. Lodhra. COM. Deccan. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. Californian Cinchona. digestible. cooling. decussate. :—Hilly parts. FAM. Balaloddujinamara. :—Western Ghats . Dyes.— sessile. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe .. :—The whole plant is bitter.—many. t. Peninsula. 4-winged. diseases of blood. ovoid or oblong. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . See—Timbers. in powder or in fresh decoction. biliousness.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES. Lodh Tree. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. M. etc. useful in abortions . Lodh . 5-nerved . colloturine and loturiaine. 0. Mahabaleshwar. PROPERTIES AND USES. Chota Nagpur.— Oct. :—M. :—Bark. Fl. Peninsula). Shavaraka. HABITAT. LOC. :—Konkan and N. :—Root. M. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Sk. high. :—Bark-acrid. quadrangular. :—An erect herb. winged . Lodh. Lodhra .—capsule. flowers (rarely). acrid. Torna fort.. eye-diseases and ulcers . Lodh is used in raw condition. PARTS USED. K. Loder. S. H. DISTR. DISTR. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. stem densely leafy. Broughton). it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues.3-0. broadly ovate. cures cough. vaginal discharges. emmenagogue. Lodhraka. :—India (W. China Nora. white with blue veins.

:-Black-Java Plum. M. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. carminative . fruit vinegar is tonic. astringent. Gulab-Jamb. Jamburaj. Jambu. LOC. etc. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. enriches blood. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Jambu. Nilphala. increases "Vata". removes bad smell from mouth. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. astringent to bowels. Nerate. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Jambura. Australia. DISTR. very often planted. biliousness. Sk. strengthens gums and teeth. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Jamen. Jambul. :—Throughout India. COM. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. dysentery. gargles and washes . NS. Surabhipriya. both wild and cultivated.—Myrtaceæ. Jambudi. sprouts. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). astringent to bowels. :—Bark. G. H. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. ulcers. digestive. also used in spongy and painful gums. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. cooling.) FAM. asthma. thirst. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. LOC. Ceylon. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Jambu-Nayinerale. See—Timbers. Jambu. fruits and seeds. Shukapriya. good for sore-throat. Neralu. LOC. Pharenda. NS. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). H. good gargle for sore-throat. bronchitis. Malay—Rose apple. sweet. common along river banks. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Malaya. dry. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. useful in spleen diseases. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. Jam. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Fruit Trees. M. Fruit—acrid.—Myrtaceæ. K. blood impurities. also wild. Seeds—diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. anthelmintic. Sk. :—E. carminative and diuretic. Gulabjaman. Jambula. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nenda. common at Mahabaleshwar. :—Bark-acrid. Shukapriya. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. . Jambu. PARTS USED. Kokileshta. Jambul. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Pannerali.) FAM. :—Throughout the State.

Tagar. digestible. LOC. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. pale beneath. :—Bark is sweet. indigestible. margins wavy. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Assam. G. heating. Cultivated in many places. . tonic to brain. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). with milky juice . :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. E. hot. bronchitis. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. strangury. Taggar.—Apocynaceæ. K. :—Bark. used in asthma. purgative. Br." biliousness. PARTS USED. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES. Root—bitter . C—lobes overlapping to the left. salver-shaped. Tagar . cures epilepsy. Trinidad .. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. heavy speech. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. indigestible. and an essential oil. Ananta. HABITAT. Seeds are astringent to bowels. Nandi. PARTS USED. 1-3 ribbed. Khasia Hills. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Sikkim Terai. astringent to bowels.5-15 X 2. Root chewed relieves toothache . Yunnan to Australia. Burma. liver and spleen . used in syphilis (Yunani). The plant contains an alkaloid. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. NS. H. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. Fl. 7. fragrant at night. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. :—Root. dysentery.) FAM. CHAR. weakness of limbs. Maddarasa gida . useful in "Kapha. improves voice. :—Root is acrid. astringent to bowels. fatigue. :—E. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue.5-5 cm. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. Bengal.—rainy season. Ashvathabheda. used in liver complaints. astringent to bowels. wood and oil. double. Kottuhale. lessens pains in limbs and joints .— opposite. t. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. LOC. tonic to brain. L. Garhwal.—snow-white. PROPERTIES AND USES. thirst. Tagara. alexipharmic.—follicles. across. COM. DISTR. Fr. Sk. orange within. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. tonic. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. See—Timbers. removes bad humours. glossy green above.5-5 cm. :—Cultivated in gardens. Fl.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. useful in paralysis. acrid. M. LOC. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. inodorous during the day. . Wax flower. divaricate. bitter. Chandani. fruit and seeds. cultivated in many parts. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. Fruit—sweet and tasty. lobes 5 in single.

Kalaga. K.— tube inflated near the top..4-4. common in rain-forests. Halmeti.5 cm. Makhamal. Maddarssa. Flower—bitter. carminative. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. internally they are said to purify blood. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. HABITAT.—white. lessens inflammation . divaricata. H. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. FAM.—opposite. Sk. Fl. G. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. good for teeth . Makhamala. their juice is given in ear-ache. somewhat boat-shaped. coriaceous. LOC. :—Native of Mexico. Pandarakuda. Sandu. Amli. Chinch. :—E. NS. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. L. H. yellow when ripe. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). stomachic.—surrounded by red pulp. M. : K. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Nagakuda. acrid. oil. 2. Genda. rough. 7. Guljharo. M. Amli. bitter. Zanduga.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Imli. NS. Makhamali.5 cm.—Apocynaceæ. CHAR. Chinch. Kanara. . Nagaskuda.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. Amlika.—Compositæ. LOC. Zendu. grown in gardens all over India. Chinchika. high. muscular pains. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. Tintidika. Travancore up to 7. COM. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. Amala. COM. Leaves—good for piles. astringent. See—Ornamental Plants.000 m. LOC. wood..5-20 X 3. FAM. Sthulapushpa. oblong lanceolate . bark grey. Tintrani. Tamarind. Fl. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. Amla. DISTR. t. :—Rain-forests. NS. DISTR. :—E.. HABITAT. belching.. PARTS USED. Sk. Amlike. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. throughout the Konkan and N. :—Same as T. :—Flower-pungent. G. Sd.5 m. Nuli. Teter. Fr. :—Cultivated. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . HABITAT. kidney troubles. :—Leaves and flowers.2-7. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). M.—follicle. across in pedunculate cymes . :—Root. C.— Mar-Apl. useful in scabies. :—Malabar. FAM. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. Gultora. French Marigold.

causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Arna. See—Timbers. Seeds astringent. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. :—Throughout India. wood. Malay Peninsula. Seeds are good astringent. indigestible. aphrodisiac. Circars. Fruit-sour. COM. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. small-pox. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. laxative. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Tropics generally. Mahapatra. H. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). eye-diseases. thirst. causes cough.—Verbenaceæ. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. heating. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Fruit—sour. Sagun. Teak. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. intoxication &c. costiveness. such as body-burning. carminative. tumours. Kanara. Burma. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Kanara.. and for sizing materials. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. LOC. K. astringent to bowels. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. M. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. heals wounds and fractures. bark. laxative. and laxative.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. DISTR. :—E. Sag. Condiments and Spices. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Anil. Sagwan. sore-throat. Tega. Madhya Bharat. scabies. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. abundant all along the slopes of W. NS. Cultivated also. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties.. anthelmintic. Sag. heals ulcers. flowers and seeds. DISTR. tonic. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. PARTS USED. leaves. boiled they are used as a poultice. . PARTS USED :—Root. vomiting. earache. LOC. FAM. G. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Sagach. tasty. stomatitis. flowers. Bark—astringent. useful in giddiness and vertigo. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Sagwan. fruit and seeds. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. digestive. Flowers— appetising . sweetish. :—Bark. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Sk. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. biliousness. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. tonic to heart. useful in liver-complaints. Sumatra and Java. urinary discharges. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Tegu. Teka.

anthelmintic. oblanceolate. Sharapunkha..—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. cures diseases of liver. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. spleen diseases. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. LOC. heart. Plihari. silkyhairy beneath. syphilis. Kalika. PROPERTIES AND USES. antipyretic. useful in piles. liver. Gujarat. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. NS. Malay Peninsula. branches spreading. 2—2. H. along forest borders.—pod 3—4. Flowers—acrid. leaflets 11—21. root. mucronate. pubescent on the back. Sk. Empali. Sarphoka. :—Plant-digestible. sedative to gravid uterus.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers.5 cm. :—All over India. Deccan. CHAR.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. dry. useful in scabies. :—A perennial herb. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. linear. Bark is an astringent. urinary discharges. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. M. Country. allays thirst. biliousness.—Oct. glabrous above. standard. leprosy. S. Sarpankho. laxative. Wood good for head ache. alterative. . useful in lung and chest diseases. C. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis.8 X 0. ground and made into a pill. blood. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. long. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin.2 cm. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. :-G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. anthelmintic. ulcers. bitter. expectorant. Kogge. Sarphonka. Fr. 30—60 cm. Sharapunkha. LOC. leaves and seeds. Fl. spleen. improve appetite. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. poisoning. Fl. red. Leaves—tonic to intestines ..—5-6 . slightly curved. allays thirst. Wood—acrid. K. HABITAT:—Open situations. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). inflammations. asthma. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). Ghodakan.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). DISTR. Jhila. cultivated lands and roadsides. boils and pimples. :—The whole plant. FAM. cures diarrhœa . increase "Vata". COM. mucronate. tumours. Flowers and seeds are diuretic.-June. useful in bronchitis. good in piles. suborbicular. Phanike. "Root—diuretic. M. See—Timbers. long. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . LOC. asthma. high. Konkan. fresh root-bark. cooling. Sd. gonorrhœa (Yunani). alexiteric. L.—petals clawed. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). enriches Blood . biliousness. Unhali.8—1. PARTS USED. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . Udhadi. burning pain over the region of liver. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. it acts also as a vermifuge. t. useful in bronchitis.

Bera. Ceylon. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. asthma. Arjan. styptic. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Sk. tonic. Arjuna. excessive perspiration. Madras State.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Hela. Arjuna. anæmia. in Khandesh Akrani. Fruit-pungent. Arjuna. tonic. See—Timbers. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Bahara. inflammation. very common in South Konkan. PARTS USED. strangury. except in dry arid regions. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. FAM. heart disease. PROPERTIES AND USES. Belleric Myrobalan. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. leucoderma. Voting. DISTR. K. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. urinary discharges. DISTR. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. Karvirak. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. G. Shantimara. Bedda Nut. in the sub-Himalayan tract. LOC. Aksha. M. The plant contains the glucoside rutin.—Combretaceæ.. aphrodisiac. Vibhitika. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Tari. Chota-Nagpur. Buhura. Vibhata. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). sore-throat. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Expectorant. M. blood-diseases. Bastard Myrobalan. fruit and seed. FAM. Dhanvi. . " Kapha". biliousness. false presentation of fœtus. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. digestible. :—Bark. :—Konkan and Deccan. Madhya-Pradesh. useful in biliousness. Madhya-Bharat. Rajastan and Sind. biliousness. ulcers. intoxication. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Burma. leaves. laxative. Sagona. Behada. Bibhitiki. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. COM. :—Bark. Kakubha. G. :—Alexiteric. PARTS USED.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tara. & A. Bahaza. White Marudah. NS. K. Beheduk. Baire. strangury. Arjun Sadada. :—E. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. anthelmintic . Kushika. H. externally in wounds and fractures. fruit (rarely). COM. Sk. LOC.—Combretaceæ. acrid. Koha. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. diuretic. useful in bronchitis. Kahu.. Karshaphala. :—E. useful in fractures. NS. Arjun-Sadada. Indradruma. anthelmintic. H. tumours. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Sadura. :—Throughout the forests of India. Sadado. with milk. Behedo. LOC. Kalidrum.

Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . biliousness. good in ophthalmia. carminative. Jivanti. Jivantika. PROPERTIES AND USES. diseases of eye. vomiting. cold in head. Ripe fruit—purgative. which is considered a good digestive. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. strengthens brain. bleeding and ulceration of gums. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. antipyretic. Kernel has narcotic properties. useful in caries of teeth. dyspepsia. is used as an application in ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. Gums and Resins. Hirdo . typhoid fever. Burma. attenuant. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. useful in dyspepsia. NS. Kanara. Harade. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. anthelmintic. eye diseases etc. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. piles. LOC. enriches blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. Harara. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. alterative .—Combretaceæ. —E. Haria. H. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. DISTR. ascites. Har. inflammations. nose. stomachic. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. :—Fruit-dry. COM. gout. eyes. Haritaki. heating. vomiting. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. diseases of eye. bilious headache. itching pain. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. applied to eyes. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". Fruit-astringent. elephantiasis. tonic. Abhaya. brain tonic (Yunani). the fully ripe or dried fruit. aperient. mixed with honey. thirst. Sk. useful in asthma. K. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. diarrhœa. used in paralysis (Yunani). LOC. PARTS USED. heart and bladder. tumours. See—Timbers. USES. Haritaki. FAM. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. Dyes. diseases of spleen. leucoderma. delirium (Ayurveda). :—Bark and fruit. gums. in Travancore. strangury. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. LOC. constipation. Hirda. Black myrobalan. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. sore-throat. Alate. bleeding piles. intoxicating. piles and diarrhœa. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. piles. anaemia. heart and bladder. expectorant. hoarseness. carminative. useful in thirst. vesicular calculi. corneal ulcers. Chebulic myrobalan. urinary discharges. hiccup. tonic. common in Khandesh Akrani. Seed—acrid. Ceylon. antidysenteric. M. tonic. G.

Gajadanta. Ranbhendi. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Kanara. also planted as roadside tree. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Burma. Arasi. especially centipedes. Tulip Tree. difficult to digest. Bengal. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Sacred Plants.. Bhend. Paraspiplo. Portia Tree. Parisha. Kandarala. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . K. Parasipu. Bhandi. It is also used in chronic dysentery. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. flowers and fruit. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Paraspipal. G. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. COM. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. . Bhindi. Fibres. NS. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. See—Timbers. leaves. profuse discharge. H. Mhaskar and Issac). :—Districts of Konkan and N. increases " Kapha " . LOC. Suparshuakan. LOC. Phalisha. See—Timbers. burning of body . Tans. Hucerasi. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dyes. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. M. Paras-piper. :—Coast forests of India. :—Bark. Bugari. :—Fruit-sour. FAM. Jogiyarale. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. aphrodisiac . The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. acrid . Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. produces worms in intestines . DISTR. :—E. Gandarati. Sk. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda).—Malvaceæ. Eastern and Western Peninsula. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Kuberaksha.

Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. exocarp fleshy. LOC. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. Gulo. Fl. LOC. grooved . CHAR. useful in urethral discharges. :—Bark.—Menispermaceæ. 1—3. Fr. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. corona in the throat. PARTS USED. Vatsadani. Sk. bright green and shining above. elliptic.—membranous. Amarvel. G. Gulhel. LOC. acrid. cures " Vata " . G. :—E. Pivali kanher. t. 7. Heart-leaved moonseed. :—An extensive climber. male fascicled. :—Often planted. COM. Exile or yellow Oleander. eye-troubles. NS. crowded . yellow. Andamans and Ceylon. ventrally flat. America and W. females solitary. Amrita-Valli. Sk.. FAM.—broadly obovate. C. FAM. leucoderma. . 5 cm. size of a pea . Gado. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). CHAR. virgin uterus. very poisonous (Ayurveda). bladder. with milky juice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. roundish cordate with a broad sinus.—Apl. skin diseases. Fr. HABIT :—In thickets. :—E. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . bark corky. it has no action on digestive enzymes . :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub.—in terminal cymes. DISTR. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. fevers. Gulvel. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. hot. mesocarp bony. and blood vessels . root. Ashvaghna. linear. PARTS USED. Amritvalli. tubular. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.—Apocynaceæ. H. Gulancha. Karvira. endocarp corky. :—Native of S. NS.—in axillary and terminal racemes. lobes 5. throat campanulate. pungent. HABITAT.5 cm. Indies . PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Gurch. H. astringent to bowels. wounds.. worms.-spirally arranged. M. COM. but its use is attended with considerable danger. Sd. DISTR. Gulvel. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. Jwaranashini. bronchitis . :—Stem. Uganiballi. :—Throughout tropical India. L. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. Haripriya. dorsally convex. M. across. yellow.—drupes.5—12. often planted in India. Burma. 5—10 cm. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Shatakumbha. Pila kanir. growing on mango and other trees.. Zard kunel. long. seeds and milky juice. Fl. piles. Fl. L. 7—9 nerved.—generally 4. K. frequently planted. Pila kaner. Pittaghni. red. See—Ornamental Plants.

tonic appetiser. :—E. crenulate. pitted on the rind. stimulates bile secretion. 5-10 X 1. 15 m. allays thirst. vomiting. PARTS USED. size of a large pea. common in S. Macimullu.—in axillary cymes. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. 3-5 grooved. especially acid. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. stigma sessile. also in the Deccan hills. L. DISTR.. ovary rudimentary. China.— alternate. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. intermittent fever and dyspepsia.-Jany. good in cough. bark. piles. M. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. stomachic . coriaceous. fruits. high. cures jaundice. 5-7 lobed. Gangalaki. leaflets sessile. Konkan and Kanara. tonic. USES. LOC. Limri. Fl.—Aug. dark shining green above. enriches blood. Fl. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). vaginal and urethral discharges. Philippines. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. anæmia. NS. Sk. Kaduhakukare. K. HABITAT. stomachic. Lopezroot Tree.—globose.8-3. Mirchi. Kadu-menasu. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. stimulant and anti-periodic. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. burning sensation. diuretic. causes constipation.8. PROPERTIES AND LOC. expectorant. Dahan. Java.—Rutaceæ. Khasia Hills. FT. juice useful in diabetes. COM. Forest Pepper. useful in skin diseases. armed with small hooked prickles . Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. :—Root. orange coloured.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. . fever. LOC. H.—Dehan. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. Stem-bitter. renews blood. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. :—Rain-forests. t. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. Jangali-Mirchi. :—All over the Madras State . antipyretic. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. male flower bud globose. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. jaundice. :—Stem-bitter. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. giddiness. Kumaon to Bhutan. Root-bark is aromatic. digitately trifoliate. unisexual. Ceylon. white. vomiting. FAM. Root and stem are bitter. (Kirtikar). oblong. Manger. leaves. Sumatra. CHAR. female flower buds oblong. tropical Africa. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. diarrhœa. chronic fever.

Sandal Neem. Kuberaka. NS. good for scabies and gleet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Shringa-kanda-taka. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Gums and Resins. Indian Mahogany. PARTS USED. :—E. :—Bark-acrid. Lim. Chota-Nagpur. strangury. Burma. Sk. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout India. LOC. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. expectorant. :—Cooling . It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. cures leprosy. Mahalimbu. COM. FAM. DISTR.—Onagraceæ. leprosy. COM. Water-chestnut.. LOC. Jalakantaka-valli. M. aphrodisiac. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. burning sensation. Kalingi. Nand-vriksha. Dyes. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Shingoda. Mandurike. :—Bark and flowers. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. astringent to bowels. often cultivated. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. :—Fruit. H. Kanara. Waitz). HABIT. :—Throughout the State in tanks. PARTS USED. of India). Lud. cures fevers. Ceylon. astringent to bowels. LOC. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. itching. aphrodisiac. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Trikota. M. Tundu.) FAM. Tun. removes " Kapha ". Kaechaka. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. Toon.—Meliaceæ. cardio-tonic. useful in ulcers. urinary discharges. causes " Vata " . fattening. "Tridosha". very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Chittagong. :—Aquatic (in tanks). Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. Kuruk. burning sensation. Sk. H. Shingada. biliousness. biliousness. Singodi. headache. astringent to bowels. DISTR. Bark—bitter. tonic. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. useful in . Singhara. Trikone-phala. See—Timbers. Apina. tropical Africa. fatigue. G. inflammation. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES. Assam. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Garige. anthelmintic. K. cooling. Tuni. :—E. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). digestible. indigestible. Gandhagarige. Deodari. Tunika. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes " Tridosha". blood diseases. Malaya. NS. antipyretic .

:—Throughout the Konkan and N.—several in each coccus . :—H. Malay Peninsula. H. DISTR. appetiser. The plant contains an alkaloid. Java. useful in chronic fevers. Aphrodisiac.—opposite.—throughout the year. biliousness. See—Timbers. :—E. stems and branches pilose. alexiteric. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. Kadu Kange Kumbala. LOC. G. Gokhru. FAM. each with 2 pairs of hard. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Sumatra.—globose. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Gamhar.. Country. Assam. M. :—A procumbent herb. Seeds abound in starch. Gokshri. Sarata. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Gokhura. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. CHAR. bad-teeth (Yunani). t. thirst. Tumri. solitary. Trikantaka. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—The whole plant. COM. Sk. lumbago. M. LOC. Sd. . Shadanga. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Gokharu. bile and phlegm. Gokshura. sharp spines. Petari . sore-throat. NS. Fl. a common weed of the drier parts. Hussuk. Kanara. See—Food Plants. Pindara. used as food. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn... hairy. antipyretic. PARTS USED. of 5 woody cocci. bronchitis. LOC. yellow. Kurangaha. one of each pair smaller than the other.—Zygophyllaceæ. Karahate. in Kashmir. :—Throughout India. mucronate. Deccan and S. along nalas and in swampy localities. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. improves taste . FAM. young parts silky. M. one pair longer than the other . Sk. Kere Padye. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. L. Kantaphala. Ceylon. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. COM. :—Plant is cooling tonic. Fibres. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. K. Gujarat. Pindara.—Euphorbiaceæ. upto 3300 m. Calthrope. Chhota gokhru. LOC. Fr. Beta-Nahan Gokhru.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). base oblique. abruptly pinnate. NS. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. pain. Negalu .:—Saurashtra. They are also used in the form of poultice. DISTR. Gokhru. K. considered cool and sweet.

diuretic. inflammations. USES :—Fruits are cooling. cures "Kapha". seeds. alleviating burning sensation. bitter. :—Root. Kantapatraphala. alterative . base of the cauline leaves not auricled . :—Western Peninsula. FAM. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). the Deccan.— purple. —achene. Konkan. reduces inflammation . DISTR. faintly ribbed. urinary disorders and impotence. Kanara. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). suppression of urine. lumbago . Brahmadandi. PARTS USED. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. S. improves appetite . piles. Fl. HABITAT.—Compositæ. West Rajastan. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. Talakanto. tonic. S. NS. Central India. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. bloody urine. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. pappus shorter than the achenes. increases menstrual flow. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. :—Cooling . . spinous toothed or serrate. purifies blood . "Vata".—sessile. ovoid. branches angled and ribbed. stem erect. enriches blood . cough. Aja-dandi. L. LOC.— Dec. :—Hot. Brahmadandi. oblong. yellowish brown. Brahmadandi. Fr. LOC. : — G. fattening. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. pain . Physiaran. copious.—heads 6—8 mm. Kanara. asthma. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in strangury. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. M. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). :—The whole plant. Mt. cures strangury. Sk. aphrodisiac. H. Fl. cures skin and heart diseases. Mota-Motachor. :—Wild in places. which is taken in large quantities. Country. ciliate. slender. emmenagogue (Yunani). COM. removes " Tridosha ". Diuretic. urinary discharges. long. gonorrhœa. appetiser. CHAR. fruits. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. LOC. S. gleet. linear-oblong or lanceolate. diuretic. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. stomachic. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. vesicular calculi. tonic . :—A glabrous herb. reduces inflammation. leprosy . good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . M. pruritus ani. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). C. Abu. Brahmadandi. tonic. Brahma-dandi. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED.

Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. pungent. Panduka.—2. deeply 5-lobed. Indrayan. N. long. K. M. H. dark-green above. slightly hairy. Sd.-male in axillary . :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. long. Avagude-hannu. variable. :—A scandent annual. reniform or broadly ovate. burning sensation. useful for boils and intestinal worms. DISTR. :—E. Ceylon. stems 3. male in axillary racemes. cures bronchitis. M. Kiripodla. stem robust. allays thirst.. HABITAT:-In hedges. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. blood diseases. PARTS USED. CHAR. — surrounded with red-pulp .5 m. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Mukal. COM. long as well as broad. eye diseases. slender. K. CHAR. Mahakala. white.3 cm. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta).—monœcious. tendrils 3 cleft. Betlada padaval. scarlet when ripe. NS. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. leaf-juice is emetic. paler beneath. Fl. L. laxative. the Deccan. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . NS. woody below.. Malaya. ulcers.-5-12.5 cm. furrowed. Kadvi-padyal or patola . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Root-juice is very purgative. females solitary. it is given in decoction with ginger. fruit. Kaundal. asthma. Makal. base cordate . LOC. chireta and honey. leprosy. base deeply cordate. orbicular. FAM. alexiteric.—July-Oct. Patola. FAM . PROPERTIES AND USES. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Fr. lobes ovate-oblong. :—Root. distantly denticulate. Wild Snake-gourd. dentate or serrate. Jyotsna.5—7. tendrils 3-fid. Ratan-indrayan. Malay Peninsula. Sk. palmately 3-5 lobed. :—Throughout India. Jangli— Kadu padval. ovoid-fusiform. axillary. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. cures itching.3-12. bitter. COM. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. headache and boils. H. alterative. anasarca and ascites. with a long sharp beak. Katuka. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. oil.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. :—Root-cathartic . leaves. In Bombay. Fl.5 cm. Fruit—hot. —G. long. L.6—4. antipyretic. antipyretic. Jangali chichonda. leucoderma.-6. stomachic. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Australia. Leaves—good for biliousness. G.. Fl. Lal-indrayan. green with white stripes when raw. erysipelas. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. Perula. t.

used in epilepsy. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. :—Wild in hilly parts. Fl. all over the State. acute. peduncles very long. ovate-elliptic. DISTR. PARTS USED. :—Throughout India. glandular. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. stem and branches hairy. :—Leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. abortifacient. Fl. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). boiled with gingelly oil. Country.—Compositæ. Fr. Deccan and S. M. bracts large. PARTS USED. ligules yellow. purgative. diam. L. middle lobe smallest. on the Himalayas. PROPERTIES AND USES.—1. Kirkee. C.. :—Abundant in the Deccan. slender. FAM. ophthalmia. N. LOC. CHAR. Ray flowers ligulate. 30-60 cm. :—A perennial straggling herb. heat of brain.75 X . forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. densely silky hairy. axillary. LOC. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. Ekdandi. which is found abundantly all over the country. COM. Australia. outer involucral bracts ovate.. Fl. 3-partite.—head solitary. very hairy. cures hemicrania. t. rheumatism. Fr. Ceylon. sparsely white hairy.—many . Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic.—globose 3-8. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect.—petals wedge-shaped. leprosy. NS.— Apl. many years ago. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric.. Fruit—carminative.— achene. bruises and wounds. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts.5 cm. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. . :—Fruit is useful in asthma. :—Root and fruit.-July. t. hairy. inner slightly longer than outer. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna.. Japan. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles.75-1 in. black. Sd. Malaya. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. petioles densely hairy. high. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. fringed. lessens inflammations . DISTR. Juice of fruit or root-bark. China. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. white. gargle good for toothache. limbweakness. LOC. :—M. HABITAT. :— Wild in Konkan. female solitary.—throughout the year.

7 cm.—deeply lobed.—Asclepiadaceæ. COM.5—10 cm. :—E. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). roots many. Country. H. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. "Vata". extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. diarrhœa. FAM. and the seeds contain vitamin A. flatulence. tonic and carminative. Muthi. PROPERTIES AND USES. ovate or elliptic oblong. large for the genus. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Janglipikvan. diuretic. bronchitis. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. Konkan. base cordate. K. S. they are also aphrodisiac. useful in dropsy. cures leprosy. greenish-yellow outside. much used in colic. PARTS USED. :—Leaves and seeds. astringent to bowels. :—A twining perennial. NS.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. enlargement of spleen and liver. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. aperient. cultivated in many parts of India. L. LOC. M. also in low and sandy localities. CHAR. appetiser. narrowed at the apex to a free point. 5-10 x 2. Methi . The leaves contain vitamins A and B. corona gibbous below. chronic cough. Jyoti. Antamul. Kashmir. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. See—Vegetables. long.. DISTR. Fl..—Aug. anthelmintic.—follicles. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. dropsy. piles.5-5. t. Chandrika. 7. NS. tonic. removes bad taste from mouth. with coma . :—South of Bombay. Methi. .—opposite. Sk. enlargement of spleen and liver. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. COM. tapering to a fine point at the apex. vomiting. emmenagogue. FAM. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Pitakari (Pitamari). FN. Nepala . Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Sd. Methi. Methi. antipyretic. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.-Nov. :—Cultivated. HABITAT. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. C. suppurative. M. M.— broadly ovate. :—Hot. fleshy. dysentery.—in umbellate cymes . TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. :—H. long. Fl. :—Punjab. Methini. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Pitabija Vedhini. G. purplish within.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fenugreek . Hot and dry. Menthe—palle. K. Kanara. LOC.

20-30 cm.— petals lanceolate. scape erect 30-45 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. PARTS USED. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. 0. Prishna-parni. Burma.—Aug. M. Fl. Ceylon. Ceylon. Malay Islands.—in racemes 15-30 cm. HABITAT. 15-45 x 1. blotched with white above. long. :—Throughout India. tapering to both ends . :—Throughout the plains of India. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. stems downy with hooked hairs. stalks long.. Thailand (Siam). M. NS.-Sept.—appearing after the flowers. KolaPutakand. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Ranganja . . FAM. :—G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Borneo. Chota-Nagpur. joints 3-6. Fl. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. 5-7 (rarely 9)..— imparipinnate. Peninsula. Bihar. CHAR. Rankanda. :—A herb.—capsule.—purple. Sd. DISTR.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. :—Common on sandy shores.. :—E. URARIA PICTA Desv. white. NS. perianth campanulate. :—Bulb. DISTR. drooping.9-1. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). :—Western Himalayas. Shankaraja . H. Fr. tropical Africa. Dabra.3-2. HABITAT. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. :—A perennial shrub. Dried leaves are emetic.— pod.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. Sk. ellipsoid. Philippines. :—Sandy places.5 cm. COM. :—Wild.. Malay Islands. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. black. Sk. LOC. linear. C. flat. glabrous.. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. 10-20 cm. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. t. W. Jaglipiaz. PARTS USED. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. C. long. pale lead-colored. Fr. polished.. G. USES.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Panjala. Pitvan. folded on one another. Jangli-Ran-khanda. found useful in dysentery. high. USES. light-brown . diaphoretic and expectorant.— Liliaceæ. FAM. long. H. :—Roots and leaves. LOC. linear-oblong. COM. L. Fl.— flattened. hairy beneath. :—Konkan. Pitavan . Pithavan. CHAR. Vanapalandu. tropical Africa. Indian Squill.8 m.

K.—capsule. rheumatic pains. stout. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Br. alexiteric. M. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. laxative. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. lip bluish dotted with purple. Ceylon. renal calculi. alexiteric. COM. heating. diseases of the abdomen. and an acute interposed one.. t. Vanda. lessens inflammations . Rasna. Atiras. PARTS USED. CHAR. Rasno. toothache. Gaz. antipyretic. hiccup. good for piles. USES :—Expectorant. HABIT. :—The bulb is pungent. tonic to brain and liver. dropsy. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Vriksharuha. asthma.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Root and leaves. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. scandent by simple or branching roots . The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. Fl. anthelmintic.3-2 cm. 2-lobed. long. :—Konkan. maritima of U. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . acute. stimulant and diuretic. A. Sk. LOC. bronchitis. scilla of Great Britain. obtusely keeled. stem 30-60 cm. complicate. diseases of nose. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7.—Orchidaceæ. :—Root is bitter. Fl. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. Rasna. praemorse. anthelmintic. inflammations. purgative. tip. 1931. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. . W.5—9 cm. useful in paralysis. Banda. LOC. (In Med. Travancore. emmenagogue. column very short. L. Persara. recurved. long. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy.. erect. skin diseases. tremors (Ayurveda). Nakula. heals fractures (Yunani). a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. Chota-Nagpur. Gujarat and Kanara. bronchitis.— July. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. and U. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. boils in the scalp. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. S. diuretic. H. useful in dyspepsia. lumbago. alexiteric. Fr. Peninsula.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid. cardiac. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. Sarpagandha. Root is bitter. Rasna. bronchitis. pollinia ellipsoid. :—G. Bandanike. :—Bengal. :—Epiphyte. NS. internal pains (Yunani). The bulb is stomachic. heating. and was found useful (Koman).. FAM.—thickly coriaceous. :—An epiphyte. Madhya-Pradesh. DISTR. Bihar. rheumatism. long. 15-20 X 1.

Haruge. Sk. ulcers and wounds. globular. NS. also planted.—Rhamnaceæ. anæmia. USES. rheumatism. Dhupa. greenish. fruit. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. Fl. urinary discharges.—Dipterocarpaceæ. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. C. entire or crenate. tuberculous glands. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa.. carminative. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. in chronic bronchitis. alexipharmic. :—Western India. COM. M. FAM. expectorant. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. Safed-damar. eardiseases. diam. also in N.. :—Bark-hot. NS. Lokhandi. tonic and stimulant. Bilidhupa. Ceylon. Kaharub. M. See—Timbers. itch (Ayurveda). bechic. COM. diarrhœa. Tenasserim. K. K.—Dec. 1-nerved wing. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. abundant in S. PROPERTIES AND USES. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn.. detergent. LOC. .-Jany. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Travancore. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. Fl. :—A large much branched woody climber. dysentery. tonic. PARTS USED. H. acrid. FAM. (T.—5-10 X 2. useful in leprosy. LOC.5-3. young branches and panicles pubescent. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Country. Kubbila. Oils. t. Ragatarshado. dark.—in large drooping terminal panicles. good for sore-throat. :—Madras State. PARTS USED. Kanara. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. :—North Kanara. debility and slight cases of fever. with an offensive odour. :—Bark. Mysore. Khandvel. H. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. Gums and Resins. CHAR. whitish). useful in atonic dyspepsia. boils and ringworm. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. :—E. Pitti. Red Creeper. Malamaitra. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Sk. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. :—Bark. resin. Raktavalli. Shandike. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). alexipharmic. :—E. yellowish. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. Poppli. M. Sandras. Shala. Dhupa. Kanara and S. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat.-nut about 5 mm. G.—petals 5. cures cough. Sarjaka. stomachic. Coorg in Ghats. Madidhupa. buds 5-angled. skin eruptions.8 cm. Sekalyel. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . amenorrhœa. piles. DISTR. LOC. hemicrania. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Kundura. deciduous and monsoon-forests.

8 cm. coarsely serrate.6-0. :—G.—Compositæ. FAM. Kalijiri. cure ulcers. HABITAT:-Waste places.. .. Fr. LOC. Vishamushti. stems 60—90 cm. Fl. :—Throughout India. t. Fl. 10-ribbed.2 cm. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. involucre bracts linear. The juice of the whole plant. Bhutakeshi. COM..) FAM. Bakchi. Java . :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. hairy on both sides. Kulhala.—alternate.—oblong. Vapehi. Fl. :—Plant. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. CHAR. DISTR. Afghanistan. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. compound or pinnatisect. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. Country. yellow. L. H. Kulara. hairy. :—E. 5—9 x 2. Fl. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. with purple tips . Sundika. innermost the longest. sub-globose. PARTS USED.—Dec. PARTS USED. H. G. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Kalhara. Somaraj. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled.9 m.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. "Vata" and "Kapha". Sk. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Kadvojiri. stem 0. CHAR. C. rounded. Vanajiraka. Kalejire. on long petioles. warted. NS. K. The juice mixed with mustard oil. astringent to bowels. in equal proportions. about 40-flowered. used in skin-diseases. erect. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda).-rotate. hairy. Sk. Fr. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. ofter cultivated. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Gujarat.Feb. all coarsely dentate. hairy. :—Throughout India . squeezed out by pounding. and leaves. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. LOC. lobes 5.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. lyrate. PROPERTIES AND USES. Purple Fleabane. often cultivated. M. branched near the top. K. L. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. :—Seeds-acrid.-May. Kutki. Agnibija. Deccan . pappus reddish. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Seeds— anthelmintic. lanceolate. Ceylon. Ceylon .—heads subcorymbose. M. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. Kalizhiri.—Scrophulariaceæ. M.5—3. :—An annual herb. NS. truncate. robust.-radical 5-10 x 2-3.. rachis glandular pubescent. Sd. leafy herb . DISTR.-achene oblong cylindric. Gadar-tambaku. COM. Somaraj. China. high. high . t— Jany. anthelmintic. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. :—Annual. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe.—capsule. :—Konkan .

t. 15—75 cm. Kuruvelu. consumption. Panni. DISTR. The plant with quinine. made into a bolus with lime-juice. kidney troubles. Sedardi. astringent. Vala. stomachic. hiccup . . Sk. cures "Tridosha". Osari. :—E. Fl. M. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda).-Feb. Cuscus grass. pubescent. oblong. high.. :—Plant. good for sores and itching of eyes.—Compositæ. LOC.—Gramineæ. seeds. with lime-juice. Sk. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Lavancha. Mudivala. :—Annual. Sahadevi. stem stiff. COM. K. Australia. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. NS. Valo . awned.—simple. Ushira. heads small. pappus white. PARTS USED. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. Sadodi. NS. Sahadevi. silky on the back. Ash-coloured Fleabane . In Ceylon. tonic. The expressed juice is given in piles. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. They are also used as tonic. Ardhaprasadana. Sahadevi. are used in destroying pediculi. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Sadori. bronchitis . Fl. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. Shit-Sugandhi mulak.— pinkish violet. Africa . the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). G. FAM. Dandotpala. :—A common weed throughout the State. a depilatory (Yunani). irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Koosa. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Sind.—Jan. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. L. Bena. remove blood from liver. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. Devika. used for asthma. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). M. Khas. asthma. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. plant is used in fever convulsions. erect herb. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. LOC. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. stomachic and diuretic. striate. :—Throughout India. tropical Asia. flowers. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet.—achene. clothed with white hairs . G. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Fr. :—E. K. H. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Bala. COM. LOC. alternate. FAM. H. cold. Vecrnam. applied in inflammatory swellings .

LOC. :—Root. Sind. bitter. Nirgud. Nirgundi. tonic and vermifuge. bitter. Lakki. M. blood diseases (Yunani). head-ache. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. :—Throughout India. :—Common in Gujarat and N. diuretic. Indrani. K. Philippine Islands. lower ones keeled and fan-like. thirst. bronchitis. strangury. alexiteric. slender. refrigerant. NS. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. L. cephalic.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. The roots contain an essential oil. high. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. Sambhalu. biliousness..8 m. astringent. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. :—Throughout the State. febrifuge. Kanara in damp places. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. also cultivated. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. PARTS USED. astringent. bilious fevers. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. stomachic. Nukki. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. anthelmintic. USES :—Root is tonic. Culms stout. throughout the Malayan regions. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . Sk. sweats. erect. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. up to over 1. LOC. Fl. expectorant and diuretic. margin spinously rough. rachis stout. Sinduvara. Nirgundi. DISTR. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . Nigod. inflammations.. usually sheathed all along. stimulant and tonic. :—Roots. pale green. H. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). leaves. Nirgundi. spleen enlargement. The otto is used as a tonic. heating. Cooling to brain. asthma. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. West-Indies and Brazil. useful in burning sensation. consumption. foul breath. Sessile spikelets. racemes up to 5 cm. useful in eye diseases. leucoderma. :—G.—panicle up to 30 cm. long. :—Cooling. Afghanistan. bitter. useful in spermatorrhoea. Ceylon. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever.-leaf sheaths compressed. long. COM.—Verbenaceæ. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. Nirgari. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. Bilenekki. soporific. DISTR. LOC. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. colour varying from yellowish to black. stomachic. Leaves are aromatic. Nilpushpi. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). FAM. promotes hair-growth. Konkan and Deccan. inflammations and irritability of stomach.

India. stops bleeding from mouth. appetiser. applied in scabies. expectorant. purifies and enriches blood . fattening. :—A native of western Asia. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. cures thirst. FAM-—Vitaceæ. Draksha. :—Cultivated. produces constipation. strangury. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. good for lungs. Ahmednagar. The fruits contain vitamin A. Draksha. hoarseness and consumption. tonic to liver. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. fattening . Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. diuretic . fruits. skin should not be eaten. cooling useful in thirst. . liver and kidney. burning. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. emmenagogue. :—E. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Stem. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. Fruit— digestive. catarrh and jaundice. Yakshmaghni.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. :—Deccan. difficult to digest. stomachic. cooling. Sap of young branches. fever. stones in bladder. Country. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. heat of body. cooling . COM. astringent to bowels. piles. aperient. allays vomiting. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. sparingly in Poona. Darakh. Drakh . Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. produces alopecia. diarrhœa. DISTR. G. Flowers—expectorant. syphilis. testicle swellings and piles. Sk. asthma. seeds. fever. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Fruit is nervine. LOC. Gujarat and S. causes gases in the stomach. laxative. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). The plant contains an alkaloid. cough. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Draksha. There are numerous cultivated varieties. useful in old fevers. Guchaphala. jaundice. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. HABITAT. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Khandesh. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. W. M. a remedy for skin diseases. leaves. spleen inflammation. LOC. Grape-vine. Seeds—aphrodisiac. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. See—Timbers. NS. K. blood diseases. H. Angura. :—Fruit-acrid. laxative. allays vomiting. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. sweet. bad effects of drinking. good for eyes and throat. flowers. and given in coughs. Draksha. and traces of vitamins B and C. M. Madhurasa.. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. good in chronic bronchitis . Angur. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia.

—3-4. leucoderma. Asoda. leaflets 5-7 pairs. :—K. PROPERTIES AND USES.5 m. consumption. dark-green. :—E. Sd. oblong. enclosed in inflated calyx. Vajini. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . 7. Amangura. DISTR. minutely hairy. lumbago. scabies. COM. G. Punir. Fl. Asgundh.—2-pinnate. smooth. oblong. Fl. armed with prickles . Gujarat. chest troubles etc. Kamrupini. Hirimaddina-gadde. 23-30 cm. (not common. Asan. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. bronchitis.. bony Fl. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula.5-5 cm. CHAR.5 cm. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. pinnae 4-6 pairs. ulcers. rachis grooved with soft hairs. diam.-Feb. slightly 5-angled. Drakshasava—used as tonic. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Sogada-beru. USES. LOC. t. Ceylon.-Jany. t. NS. hoary tomentose . :—A robust woody climber. somewhat scurfy. PARTS USED. . inserted on the top of. 6 mm. H. Asgund. emmenagogue . COM.—pod. coriaceous. bronchitis. Fl. HABITAT. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. constricted between them. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Gandhpatri. calyx-tube. :—In the drier regions of India . PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—A branched erect undershrub. Sk. linear oblong. :—Tubers-bitter. long. Canaries. heating. branches terete. main rachis armed with prickles. CHAR. favours constipation (Yunani). Kanchuki. ovate.5-12. swollen above the seeds. See—Fruit Trees. useful in "Vata". hard. entire. Fr. Ashvagandha. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. Fr.. pretty common in the ghats. M. dark-orange.—Solanaceæ.— Sept.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. base dentate. long. abundant in Sind . leaves. :—Deccan. Cape of Good Hope. :—Drier regions. FAM.3-1. anthritis. Sd. Mediterranean regions. NS. K. FAM. senile debility. Ghodasoda. alexipharmic. good in asthma. Deccan.—greenish or lurid yellow. Tuber—bitter. Winter-cherry.—petals 5.. high. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda).) DISTR. LOC. :—Root and bark. seeds. alterative. Wagati.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. asthma. obovate. C. Balada. "Kapha". long. marasmus of children. psoriasis. M. L. Hooliganji.—yellow. Wakeri. tonic.—berry. aphrosidiac. red. Kanara. L. inflammations. tonic. Wagati. 0. acrid. green berries.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). branches armed with recurved prickles . insomnia.—5-10 X 2. inflammations. :—Konkan jungles. spathulate. anthelmintic.

on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. dysentery. L. Dhaiti.5 cm. Dhavani. Sumatra. Swetakutaj. acrid. velvety above. H. COM. :—Pungent. Baluchistan. Hale. Indrajav.) FAM. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. diuretic and deobstruent. smooth. K. blood diseases. long. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Kodamurki. Dhaw. Madhavasini. Dec.—numerous. leprosy. PARTS USED. :—Throughout India. See—Tans. China. USES. toxic. rheumatism. irregularly dehiscent. :—G. leaf-infusion is given in fever. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. :—G. M. common in the Konkan and N. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Phulsatti. Kalakuda. Are. Indrajav. useful in leucorrhoea. Indrajav. on trap in the Akrani. Ornamental Plants. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. DISTR.—mostly opposite. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath .—capsule. Sk. tropical Africa. NS. Dhawai. Fr. anthelmintic . menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Dhawadina. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara).-May. Hallunova. It is narcotic. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Sd. alterative. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb.3-2. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. t. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub.— numerous. Dhateki. scarlet. Madagascar. Santha. HABITAT. erysipelas. alexiteric. Kuda. ovate-lanceolate. COM. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. LOC. 1 cm. Japan. Dhavani. Hayamaraka. Tamrapushpi. debility from old age. Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Monsoon-forests. Fl.—Apocynaceæ. used in thirst. H. simple. ulcers and painful swellings . Kalikari. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Bela. lumbar pains. Dudhi. Vanhishikha. branches long. Fl. 5-9X 1. M. FAM. brown. LOC. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. NS. Java. Kanara near the sea-coast. Br.—Lythraceæ.. K. Madhuindrayava. Ceylon. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. . cooling. emaciation of children. and in derangement of liver . nigro-punctate beneath. wedge-shaped. in 2-15 flowered cymes. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Khirni. uterine sedative. haemorrhoids. :—Bark and flowers. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests.

Shankhahuli. DISTR. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. :—Bark and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES.1-6. :— Throughout India. at the top. fever. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Fl. LOC. Kambu-Vanamalini. long and broad. See—Timbers.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. complexion. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. H. all over the State. NS. epilepsy.achene. DISTR. Clot-Cockle-bur. hairy on both sides. t. rough with short hairs . Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. alexiteric. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. Bur-Weed. Sarpakshi. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. improves appetite. COM. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria.5 cm.-E. involucre of fertile head. In S. :—Annual herb . :—Cooling. barren heads many. ovoid in fruit. Khandesh at 1050 m.. PARTS USED. USES :—Root is bitter.—Compositæ. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin.. cures leucoderma. Fl. fertile heads few. Dutundi. L. compressed .—Jany. Gadrian. antidysenterica (Yunani). antipyretic. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. LOC. the bark is specially useful in piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dumundi. PARTS USED. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. especially root and fruit. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. laxative. LOC.. long. :—The whole plant. 3-lobed. :—Rajastan. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. stout. axillary. Ceylon.Feb. M. stem short. Banokra. Itara. digestive. poisonous bites of insects. tonic. oblong ovoid. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. LOC. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . hard and tough. fattening. Timor. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. 1-3 cm. . West-Peninsula. memory. 5-7. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. CHAR. Aristha. irregularly incisoserrate . tonic. Sankeshwar.—many. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). biliousness. Fr. in W.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. FAM. with 2 erect beaks. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . G. anthelmintic. Sk. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. Madhya Pradesh. salivation. voice.

DISTR. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. COM. Rhizome—pungent. heating. tongue and increases appetite. asthma. loss of appetite and piles. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Alla Adrak. Bogari. Beri. useful in heart and throat diseases. Ginger. :—Rhizome. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Shringavera. Adrate. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. Kuvali. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. M. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). flatulence. vomiting. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. alexiteric.—Scitaminaceæ. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. LOC. K. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Ajapriya. head-ache. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES. Boyedi. gives lustre to eye. G.—Rhamnaceæ. useful in elephantiasis. stomachic. tonic. rheumatism. LOC. eructations. Ada. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. expectorant. pains. lumbago. vomiting. laxative. dyspepsia. NS. It is stimulant. Alen. Badari. appetiser. Egasi. Hasisunthi. Bore. carminative. H. pains (Yunani). colic. Indian Cherry. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. :—Rhizome-pungent. Kandara. it is also given in the form of infusion. Bor. removes pain due to cold. it cleans throat. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Dridhabija. PARTS USED. M. Koli. :—E. good in piles. aphrodisiac. Ber. Bordi. G. "Vata". inflammations. FAM. H. Ipanji. to prevent nausea and griping. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Gulmmula. stomachic. Chinese Date. NS. K. bronchitis. Ber. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. HABITAT. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. "Kapha". carminative. on poor soil and in rocky places. Alen. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Anupama. Sk. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. COM.. . Bor. FAM. and dry situations. Plum. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . :—Cultivated. piles. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Ardraka.

and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . bark. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). allays thirst (Yunani). Afghanistan. cure asthma. :—Root-bitter. . Ceylon. PARTS USED. Australia. Leaves—anthelmintic. removes biliousness. :—Root. Fruit—sweet and sour. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. Bark—causes boils . tonic to heart and brain . Seed—astringent. Root and Bark tonic. Fruit Trees. reduce obesity. indigestible. Burma.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. seeds. causes cough. wounds and ulcers. China. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. See—Timbers. causes diarrhœa in large doses . laxative. useful in fevers. head-ache. LOC. on the laterite near the coast in N. Leaves form a plaster to boils. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Fruits contains vitamin A. frequently planted as a fruit tree. vomiting. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . leaves. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. good in liver complaints. thirst. burning sensation. Kanara. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Africa. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. cooling.. good in consumption and blood-diseases. tonic. fruit. Leaves antipyretic. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. abundant in the Deccan. DISTR. Fruit— cooling. biliousness. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles.

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