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Section i Medicinal Plants

Section i Medicinal Plants

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  • ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn
  • (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn)
  • ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik
  • (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
  • ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn
  • ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn
  • ACACIA ARABICA Willd
  • ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var.SUNDRAPrain
  • ACACIA CONCINNA DC
  • ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd
  • ACALYPHA INDICA Linn
  • ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn Var.PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.
  • ACORUS CALAMUS Linn
  • ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis
  • ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn
  • ADHATODA VASICA Nees
  • ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm
  • ÆGLEMARMELOS Corr
  • ÆRUALANATA Juss
  • AGAVE AMERICANA Linn
  • AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb
  • ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang
  • (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw.)
  • ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth
  • ALLIUM CEPA Linn
  • ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn
  • ALŒ VERA Linn
  • ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Br
  • AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn
  • AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn
  • AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume
  • ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn
  • ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. & A
  • ANANAS SATIVUS Schult
  • ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees
  • ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Br
  • ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall
  • ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn
  • ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq
  • ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch
  • APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn
  • ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn
  • ARECA CATECHU Linn
  • ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn
  • ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet
  • ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz
  • ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn
  • ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp
  • (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn.)
  • ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn
  • ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn
  • ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd Var.JAVANICA Baker.
  • ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees
  • (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. And.)
  • AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn
  • BACOPA MONNIERI Penn
  • (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth.)
  • BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell
  • BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f
  • BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss
  • (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
  • BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn
  • BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn
  • BASELLA RUBRA Linn
  • BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn
  • BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn
  • BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav
  • BLUMEA LACERA DC
  • BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn
  • BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn
  • BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb
  • BRASSICA NIGRA Koch
  • BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng
  • BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn
  • BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng
  • BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. Kuntz
  • (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb.)
  • CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi
  • CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn
  • CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Br
  • CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. Br
  • CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC
  • CANNA INDICA Linn
  • CANNABIS SATIVA Linn
  • CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn
  • CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn
  • CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb
  • CARICA PAPAYA Linn
  • CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn
  • CARUM COPTICUM Benth
  • CASSIA ALATA Linn
  • CASSIA AURICULATA Linn
  • CASSIA FISTULA Linn
  • CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn
  • CASSIA SOPHERA Linn
  • CASSIA TORA Linn
  • CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd
  • CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce
  • (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Don.)
  • CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn
  • (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn.)
  • CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn
  • CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn
  • CICCA ACIDAMerr
  • (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell.)
  • CICER ARIETINUM Linn
  • CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume
  • CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn
  • CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch
  • CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn
  • CITRUS MEDICA Linn
  • CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne
  • CLEOME VISCOSA Linn
  • CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon
  • CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn
  • COCCINIA INDICA W. & A
  • COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels
  • (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC.)
  • COCOS NUCIFERA Linn
  • COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn
  • CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn
  • CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd
  • CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn
  • COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm
  • CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham
  • CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn
  • CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb
  • CROTON TIGLIUM Linn
  • CUCUMIS MELO Linn
  • C. MELO Var.OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller
  • CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn
  • CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb
  • CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch
  • CUCURBITA PEPO Linn
  • CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn
  • CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn
  • CURCUMA AMADA Roxb
  • CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb
  • CURCUMA LONGA Linn
  • CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose
  • CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf
  • CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf
  • CYNODON DACTYLON Pers
  • CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn
  • DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn
  • DATURA FASTUOSA Linn
  • DAUCUS CAROTA Linn
  • DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC
  • DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf
  • (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv.)
  • DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers
  • DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn
  • DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory
  • ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb
  • ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn
  • ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton
  • ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn
  • EMBELIA RIBES Burm
  • EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn
  • (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn.)
  • ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume
  • ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr
  • (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth.)
  • ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L., Var.ORIENTALIS Merr
  • (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam.)
  • EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn
  • (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn.)
  • EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn
  • EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn
  • EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb
  • FAGONIA ARABICA Linn
  • FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn
  • FICUS CARICA Linn
  • FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb
  • FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn
  • FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var.SAPIDA Roxb
  • FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn
  • GARCINIA INDICA Chois
  • GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn
  • GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb
  • GLORIOSA SUPERBA, Linn
  • GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb
  • GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn
  • GREWIA ASIATICA Linn
  • GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Br
  • GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC
  • HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb
  • HELICTERES ISORA Linn
  • HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. Br
  • HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn
  • HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn
  • HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz
  • (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn.)
  • HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall
  • HORDEUM VULGARE Linn
  • ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENSR. Br
  • IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk
  • IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn
  • IPOMŒA NIL Roth
  • (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq.)
  • IPOMŒA RENIFORMISChois
  • IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Br
  • IXORA COCCINEA Linn
  • JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn
  • JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait
  • JATROPHA CURCAS Linn
  • JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn
  • JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm
  • JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn
  • KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn
  • KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn
  • LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz
  • LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser
  • LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers
  • (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz.)
  • LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene
  • LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn
  • LAWSONIA ALBA Lam
  • LENS ESCULENTA Moen
  • LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn
  • LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn
  • LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam
  • LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne
  • LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var.AMARA Clarke
  • MADHUKA INDICA Gmel
  • (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb.)
  • MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr
  • (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn.)
  • MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell
  • MANGIFERA INDICA Linn
  • MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke
  • (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth.)
  • MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn
  • (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juss.)
  • MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf
  • MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn
  • MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn
  • MESUA FERREA Linn
  • MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn
  • MIMOSA PUDICA Linn
  • MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn
  • MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn
  • MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn
  • MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb
  • MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn
  • MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam
  • MORUS INDICA Linn
  • MUCUNA PRURITA Hook
  • (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak.)
  • MUSA PARADISIACA L. Var.SAPIENTUM O. Kunth
  • MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn
  • MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk
  • MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn
  • NAREGAMIA ALATA W. &A
  • NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn
  • (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd.)
  • NERIUM ODORUM Soland
  • NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn
  • NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn
  • NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd
  • (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn.)
  • OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn
  • OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn
  • OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn
  • OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn
  • OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw
  • OROXYLON INDICUM Vent
  • ORYZA SATIVA Linn
  • OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn
  • OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Br
  • PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn
  • PAVETTA INDICA Linn
  • PAVONIA ODORATA Willd
  • PEDALIUM MUREX Linn
  • PEGANUM HARMALA Linn
  • PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth
  • PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn
  • PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn
  • PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait
  • PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb
  • PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene
  • (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich.)
  • PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn
  • PIPER BETLE, Linn
  • PIPER NIGRUM Linn
  • PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. &A
  • PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn
  • PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn
  • PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn
  • PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir
  • POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth
  • PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre
  • (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent.)
  • PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn
  • PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn
  • PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn
  • PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb
  • PUNICA GRANATUM Linn
  • QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn
  • RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk
  • RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn
  • RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth
  • RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz
  • (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees.)
  • RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn
  • ROSA DAMASCENA Mill
  • RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn
  • RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn
  • RUNGIA REPENS Nees
  • RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn
  • SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn
  • SALVADORA PERSICA Linn
  • SANTALUM ALBUM Linn
  • SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn
  • SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth
  • SARACA INDICA Linn
  • SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr
  • (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
  • SCILLA INDICA Baker
  • SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax&Hoff
  • (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
  • SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn
  • SESAMUM INDICUM Linn
  • SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir
  • SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers
  • SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn
  • SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn
  • SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn
  • SOLANUM INDICUM Linn
  • SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn
  • SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn
  • SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. & Wendl
  • SORGHUM VULGARE Pers
  • SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Juss
  • SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn
  • SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr
  • SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd
  • STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji
  • (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC)
  • STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn
  • STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn
  • SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo
  • SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb
  • SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel
  • (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan.)
  • SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston
  • (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn.)
  • TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. Br
  • (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd.)
  • TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall
  • TAGETES ERECTA Linn
  • TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn
  • TECTONA GRANDIS Linn
  • TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers
  • TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. & A
  • TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb
  • TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz
  • THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland
  • THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss
  • TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers
  • TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers
  • TOONA CILIATA Roem
  • (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb.)
  • TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb
  • TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn
  • TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn
  • TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC
  • TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn
  • TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb
  • TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn
  • TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn
  • TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A
  • URARIA PICTA Desv
  • URGINEA INDICA Kunth
  • VANDA ROXBURGHII R. Br
  • VATERIA INDICA Linn
  • VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn
  • VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. K
  • (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall.)
  • VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd
  • VERNONIA CINEREA Less
  • VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf
  • VITEX NEGUNDO Linn
  • VITIS VINIFERA Linn
  • WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz
  • WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal
  • WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz
  • (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb.)
  • WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Br
  • XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn
  • ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc
  • ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk

SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

,
ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. Saradruma. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Chikakai. Soap-pod tree. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. 7. Shikekai. Sk. urinary and vaginal discharges. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. 5-10 cm. M. In ulceration of the gums. anti-pyretic. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. Charmakusha. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Sige-balli or kai. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. fleshy when green.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). " Kapha ".-Mar. Kanara (often on laterite). NS. linear-oblong.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Kanara forests.. measles and other skindiseases. DISTR. FAM. Deccan. relaxation of the uvula. " Vata ". CHAR. :—Throughout India. L. hypertrophy of tonsils. ulcers. :—An extensive woody climber. :—Rajastan.-6-10 . acrid. Sk. Saptata. Western Peninsula. H.—bipinnate. Shige. Manda-otte.—in fascicled globose heads. LOC. anthelmintic. overlapping. Fl.5-12. M. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. sore-throat and tooth-ache. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. long. Dantadhavan. cooling. Malay Islands.—pod. boils. See—Timbers. Kath-bole. . Yajnika. piles. throat diseases.. yellow. G. astringent to bowels. LOC. It is given in diarrhœa. M. :—Common throughout the Stale . LOC. Khandesh Akrani S. Country and Gujarat. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). Khadira. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. indigestion. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Bhuriphena.8 cm. wrinkled when dry . given in elephantiasis. Ritha. Lalkhair. :—Common in the Konkan and N. leucorrhoea. Fr. Tans. Pegu. Dyes. tonic. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. prurigo. heaviness. along the coasts of Konkan and N. leprosy. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. antidysenteric. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Himalayas up to 1700 m. :—E. gums. Dipta. erysipelas. DISTR.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. strengthens teeth. Kochi. COM. Vidula. psoriasis. Sikkim. Kushthari. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Burma.-t. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands.-July. mouth troubles. K. Sd. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. China. Khair. Phena.5X2-2. cures itching. bronchitis. leaflets 10-20 pairs. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). inflammations.

tonic. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. blood diseases. buboes. blood-diseases. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. anti-diarrhoeal. leucoderma. Gandhelo khair . HABITAT :—Moist situations. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. often planted . erysipelas. anthelmintic. expectorant and good emetic.pungent. M. Marudruma. . anthelmintic. H. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Bark. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. NS. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). K. Sauna jali. In Philippines decoction. itching. digestible. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. Stinking acacia. leucoderma. eczema. Gandhbabul. Jali. Vilavati kikar. bronchitis. FAM. cooling. Kari jali. DISTR. purgative. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Sk. cardio-tonic. cures " Kapha. Sind. Internally they are aperient. leaves and gum. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). prurigo. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . burning sensation. Gum—sweetish. caries of teeth. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . cures stomatitis.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Girimeda. anti-dysenteric. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. erysipelas. biliousness. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. often cultivated. LOC. Gums and Resins. stomatitis. Devababhul.. LOC. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Arimeda. Pissibabul. Cassia flower. alexiteric. ascites. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. not indigenous but naturalised. causes " Vata". :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. ulcers. LOC. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. G. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. deobstruent. Kankri. detergent. externally they are applied to leprous patches. piles. Sponge tree. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. Jheri baval. COM. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent.

scattered.—Amarantaceæ.— ovoid. Ceylon.—Nov. Fl. t. Merkati. LOC. M. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Apang. Chirchira. PROPERTIES AND LOC. erect. M.-Jany. branches long.5-4. FAM.—June-Sept. enclosed in perianth smooth. about 50 cm. softly hairy. rounded at base. It is used in congestive headache. Country.—capsule. NS. perianth 4-5 segments. brown. 2. DISTR. G. Sk. one-seeded. minute. females. COM. Vanchhikanto. in lax. Khokali. Fl. erect herb.—greenish white. long in fruit. elliptic obovate. Utranigida. Chichra. H. Kharamanjiri. Apamarga. branches terete or quadrangular striate. . pale-brown. males. small. Kantarika. Aghada . Kuppi. :—G.5x2-4.—truncate at apex.5 cm. L. K. elongate. Var. asthma. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Philippines. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. Chalmari. :—Common in the Deccan and S. LOC.57. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. COM. Fr. hispid. H. angular. Agheda-di. smooth. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. ascending. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. Fr.5 cm. axillary spikes . t. Khajoti. high. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. pneumonia and rheumatism. :—E. Vasira. Sk. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.3-0.—opposite. 3. high. stem stiff. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. :—An erect herb 0.—monœcious. FAM. Fl. somewhat 3-nerved. few.—utricle. brown. Ksharamadhya. Uttrane . also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Sd. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Annual. Latjira . CHAR. Sd. Fl. K.8-6. tropical Africa. :—Throughout India. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases.. NS. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Prickly chaff-flower.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. L. 30-75 cm. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Arittamanjaria. crenate-serrate.9 m.3 X 2. clustered near the summit of spike. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. many. oblong-cylindric. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. in elongate terminal spikes.. The plant contains acalyphin. CHAR. Khokla. M. Kuppi-gida.

flatulence. heart diseases. acute. useful in vomiting. heating. bitter. :—An aromatic herb . epilepsy. 0. DISTR. Sweet flag . improves appetite. throat. emetic. prismatic. toothache. H. heating. slightly curved. spadix. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. liver and chest pains. Ugragandha. Europe and N. green . bright-green. NS. Fr. tumours. Vacha.—Araceæ. obtuse. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. kidney troubles. dysentery. LOC. dyspepsia. thickened in the middle. PARTS USED : —Root. expectorant. useful in dyspepsia. rat-bite. laxative. 5-10 cm. long. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. America. . laxative. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. Australia. voice. Ceylon. dysentery. Sikkim. carminative. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. leaves. :—E. LOC. See—Sacred Plants.7-3. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. piles.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. laxative. inflammations. L..9-1. bronchitis. flowers and seeds. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. anthers yellow. FAM. inflammations. Tropical Asia. creeping and branching. PARTS USED :—Root. Bhutnashini. M. Gorbach . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. stomatitis. "Vata". top pyramidal. diuretic. CHAR. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. America. margins wavy. carminative. useful in abdominal pains. good for mouth diseases. skin eruption etc. Bitter. Bach. sepals scarious. Sk. Baluchistan.8 X 1. ascites. long.8 cm. emmenagogue . Godavaj. blood diseases (Ayurveda). it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Vekhand. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. improves appetite. Jatila. bronchitis. useful in general weakness. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. delirium. boils. Baja . hysteria. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. K. spathe 15-75 cm. and is considered useful in dropsy. carminative.. Africa. etc. alexiterie.—turbinate. thirst. HABITAT :—Marshy places. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. Vekhand . COM. itching. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. G. Throughout Asia. brain-tonic. stomachic. abdominal pains. piles. anthelmintic. pungent. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. Gandhilovaj. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. loss of memory. fevers. leucoderma (Yunani). USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints.

ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. useful in biliousness. Gopali. M.—Bombacaceæ. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. Pisa. Panch-parnika. :—Grown in many places in India . Deccan. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. Tudgensu . Gorakhaamli. African calabash. fevers and other maladies. COM. Powder is very effective insecticide. colic. Gujarat. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). fever. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. PROPERTIES AND LOC.. dysentery. NS. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Gorakhchinch. LOC. N. Brahmamlika.—Lauraceæ. HABITAT':—Cultivated. LOC. Goremlichora . The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. :—K. vomiting.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . NS. LOC. Gorakshi. :—E.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. bark. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. DISTR. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. G. M. Monkey-bread tree. Bukha. FAM. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. indigenous in tropical Africa. leaf and fruit. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. Kanara evergreen forests. Haggodgimara.:—Konkan. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. etc. K. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. DISTR. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. :—Western Peninsula. PARTS USED : —Root. in children. FAM. Gorakamali. anti-pyretic. See—Timbers. It is a good remedy in asthma. H. Pichli. Rukhdo . Baobab. Sk. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. COM.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

lumbago. H. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. S. Kalshish. aromatics or honey. Sirsul. rat-bite. G. Asroli. K. LOC. Kalashirish. burning of body. commonly planted along roadsides. Ankoli. indigestible. Sage-leaved alangium. Juice—emetic. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Fruit—laxative. Malaya. it is said to stop after-pains. hydrophobia. anthelmintic. COM. pungent. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Ankora. Krishnashirisha. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Ankoli.) FAM. Shirisha. expectorant. biliousness. Piloshirish.—Alangiaceæ.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. :—E. Garso. Seeds—cooling. NS. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). leaves (rarely). See—Timbers. China. Ankol. fish-poison. Root-bark— used in piles. Tamraphala. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Dodda-Hombage. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses.—Leguminosæ. Akoly. Ankola. heating. Kanara. LOC. NS. cures " Kapha". Shirish. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. tonic. :—E. Dridhakantaka. dysentery. colic. G. carminative. Vamaka. inflammations. useful in inflammations. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. alexiteric. Shirish. Kalosadasado. :—Throughout India. Chinchola. Shyamala. LOO. Ceylon. Ankotha. M. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. poisonous bites. inflammations.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. K. cures erysipelas. alterative. and fruit. (Mimosaceæ). FAM. Ankola. " Vata "-pain. spermatorrhoea. blood diseases. useful in worms. Kullumavu. gleet. Root-bark poisonous. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. DISTR. COM. Ankota. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Onkla. Anedhera. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Gudhapatra. anthelmintic. Kathora. M. Sirai. Sk. H. stem. Tantia. diarrhœa. Philippines. often along banks of nalas in N. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Sirisa. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. blood diseases. Karnapura. alexipharmic . :—Throughout the State. lumbago (Yunani). Kaloshirish. Sk. Uddanaka. Ankola. aphrodisiac. Shankiniphala. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. wasting diseases. See—Timbers. acute fever. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra).

Root—astringent. their smell useful in hemicrania.: —Throughout India.. weakness. catarrh. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). M. etc. piles. body pains. DISTR. and also in skin diseases . Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. H. Leaves—good in night blindness. See—Vegetables. . bleeding piles. Seeds—fattening. COM. itching. etc. Ulageddi. inflammations. The plant contains vitamins A. leucoderma. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. It is an important garden crop. Rajapriya. ophthalmia. stomachic. ear-ache. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. boils. Kanda. Flowers—aphrodisiac. and chronic bronchitis . appetiser. piles. Palandu. volatile oil. diarrhœa. FAM. used in leprosy. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. Bark— anthelmintic. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. scabies. anthelmintic. Bulb—tonic. Burma. useful in malaria. deafness. which acts as a diuretic. useful in vomiting. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. syphilis. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. cultivated everywhere. cures "Vata". Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. Ceylon. Sk. good in rat-bite. alexiteric. skin-diseases.:—E. Bark and seeds are astringent. Bark-bitter. Piyaz. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. prescribed in ophthalmia. Bengal. dropsy. seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. strengthens gums and teeth. enriches blood. Oil is used in leprosy. blood diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Dungari. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. aphrodisiac. occasionally used in fever. maturant. LOC. stimulant and expectorant. asthma. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. Seeds—tonic to brain. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. eruptions and swellings. cooling.—Liliaceæ. tumours. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. paralysis. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. leaves. emollient. tonic. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat.K. :—Native country probably Persia. B & C. NS. See—Timbers. biliousness. Onion. excessive perspiration. bark. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. LOC. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani).. LOC. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. given in piles. relieves tooth-ache. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). improves taste. scabies. vomiting. usually planted. epistaxis. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. erysipelas. bronchitis. seeds. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. flowers. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. Rochaka. spleen diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR.

Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. COM. Lasan. G. . See—Vegetables. Kuvarpatha. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. In cases of diphtheria. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. useful in diseases of eye and heart. paralysis. chronic fevers. Lahsan. Lasan. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Lolisara. clears voice. H. Korkand. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. leucoderma. piles. sciatica. hemiplegia. tumours. thirst. H. inflammation. Kumari. M. complexion. LOC. Lashuna. low fevers. tonic. paraplegia and convulsive affections. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. improves appetite. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. G. Garlic. Ugragandha. carminative.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea.—Liliaceæ. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. bronchitis. :—E. Bellulli. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. anthelmintic. K. ear-ache (Ayurveda). lumbago. Ghi-kumari. ALŒ VERA Linn. voice. Sk. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. heating. In pulmonary phthisis. Indian aloe. digestive. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Country. asthma. oleaginous . FAM. FAM. thirst. Lasun. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Korphad. troubles of spleen. leucoderma. aphrodisiac. fattening. It is an important garden crop. alexipharmic. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. Ikshurmallika. The plant contains vitamin C. Kumari. epileptic fits. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever.—Liliaceæ. Kattali. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. liver and lungs . thins the blood (Yunani). Kapila. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. " Vata ". HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. aphrodisiac. Diuretic. Kanya. caries of teeth. NS. body and joint pains. Rasonaka. M. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. LOC. Sk. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. NS. PARTS USED :—Bulb. good for lumbago. In Cambodia. M. K. useful in inflammations. COM. :—E.

tropical Africa. biliousness. scape longer than the leaves. Africa. It also acts as a mild purgative. ophthalmia. :—Wild along the coast in S. L. :—E. aphrodisiac. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. Australia. milky juice. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Java. COM. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. fattening. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Kanara. Saptachhada. scaly. vomiting. anthelmintic. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. emollient and demulcent. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. E. bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. Saptaparna. purgative. gonorrhœa. tonic. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. skin diseases. The plant contains aloin. inflammations. Dita bark tree. planted in Indian gardens . Mediterranean. Chatian. K. FAM. margins spiny. digestive. Satwin. cooling. Hale. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. useful in eye-diseases. Satwin. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Native of S. alexiteric.—in dense racemes . Kaduhale. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. lanceolate. isobarbaloin and emodin. spleen enlargement. Satian. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. common in the rain-forests of N. carminative. PARTS USED :— . Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. and it is largely imported into India. PARTS USED :—Leaves. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. H. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. C. lumbago. pain in muscles. Sk. Jamaica. India. DISTR. LOC. wild along the coast. useful in splean inflammation. perianth cylindric . M. Ceylon. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Fl. methritis. yellow. Kadusale. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. tonic. Barbados.—sessile. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. crowded. bronchitis. leaves. pendulous. ulcers (Ayurveda). West Indian Islands. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. jaundice.—Apocynaceæ. piles. somewhat divided. :—A perennial herb . LOC. tumours. LOC. Bitter . :—Throughout India. NS. asthma. also cultivated. liver troubles. simple or branched. DISTR. Root. fleshy. Br. stem short thick. liver complaints. alterative. biliousness (Yunani). strangury. purgative. pale-green. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. used in fevers.

Kantalo dambho. Kantanu-dant. COM. bristles pointed. H.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. leucorrhoea. M. Pathyashaka.— 3. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. obtuse. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. Mulladantu. rat-bite. stomachic. thickened at the top. See—Vegetables. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn.3—3. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. :—Throughout India. also useful in catarrhal fever. galactogogue. bitter. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . Tandulibija.8 cm. Bark—acrid. rubbish heaps and fields. 30-60 cm. :—An erect glabrous herb. G. piles. long. antiperiodic and febrifuge. DISTR. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. oleaginous. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. LOC. unisexual. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever.2—7. numerous. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. leucoderma. Kantanatia. NS. Mullarave-soppu. FAM. Fr. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. apiculate. antipyretic.). Root—heating expectorant. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. ovate.— capsule. tumours. asthma. laxative. See—Timbers. female calyx oblong. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. . blood diseases. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. L. " tridosha " pain. Apamarisha. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. lanceolate. rubbish heaps . :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. ulcers. often reddish. laxative. sudorific and febrifuge. improves appetite. LOC. leprosy. useful in " Kapha ". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. Prickly amaranth. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. :—E. good in diseases of the heart. diseases of the blood. CHAR. obtuse. entire. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. Tandulaja.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). Drug Com. Tandulja. hallucination. heating. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. Fl. diuretic. ovoid. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). anthelmintic.—Amarantaceæ. HABITAT :—In waste places. Sk.. K. alexiteric. rugose. bronchitis. digestible. Ceylon. Kante math.5 X 1. male calyx acute. Cholai. burning sensation. appetiser. high. tropical countries. also in fields. boils and burns.

t. aphrodisiac. FAM. Bharajambhul. much narrowed at the base. Deccan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Jangli mehandi. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. Malaya. pungent. high. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Fl. " Vata. Tropical Africa. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. vomiting. It is also used as an emmenagogue. sessile. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. Afghanistan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Suran. tumours. enlargement of the spleen.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . increases appetite and taste. Fl. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Fr. red. M. LOC. 8-65 cm. :—Cultivated widely in the State. M. Australia. harmful in "Kapha". CHAR.:— Konkan. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Kanthalla. COM. Vikata. strangury . Kuranti. laxative. Bitter and acrid . Gujarat and Kanara. DISTR. Suran. Sk. G. H. H. Kurendika. Sk. bronchitis.—Nov.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. K. Dadmari. PARTS USED :—Leaves. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). blood diseases. . Kandala. removes " Kapha ". G. Blistering ammania. NS. FAM. Grows wild on the banks of S. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils.—Araceæ. appetiser. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Vatari.—capsule. Suran. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. asthma. Kandavardhan. branches usually opposite. :—E. In the Konkan. :—E. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Sd. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—opposite. Jalavgiyo. elephantiasis . Ceylon. constipating. acrid. causes itching sensation. abdominal pains. :—Throughout India in moist places. LOC. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. NS. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Sukaranda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. DISTR. stomachic. the plant. erect or subscandent herb. corm. fresh or dried. Arshaghna. Elephant's foot. Kuranda. useful in piles. LOC. fevers etc." blood troubles. Suran .—Lythraceæ. Konkan rivers. depressed. China. L. stomachic. :—An annual. LOC. COM. globose.

Kakanashika. flowers. Agni-krita. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". The seed contains vitamin A. Crow-Fish Killer. M. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. B. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. Sk. skin diseases. Kakaphal. It is supposed to have restorative power. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. K. cordate or truncate. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. Upapushpika. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. Garalaphala. Corm is poisonous. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal.5-12. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. hot.—Anacardiaceæ. Fl. many flowered. Sophara. & A. Kaju.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. Kakamari. Kajutaka. COM. also cultivated. fever. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . :—A native of tropical America. 5-nerved. Kaju.5 cm. corns and obstinate ulcers. Gova. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. ascites. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kakkisoppugida . Kempu— Turkaka geru . sweet. M. PARTS USED :—Bark. Sk. ulcers. . HABITAT :—Coastal regions. swollen peduncle of fruit. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. NS. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. FAM. digestible. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Prithagbija. long.—in panicles 25-35 cm. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Kakamari. LOC. Oils. The plant contains Vitamins A. Kakamari. Fish-Louse Berry.— subcoriaceous. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. Jermic. which is nutritious and emollient. Govamba. NS. leucoderma. K. G.—Menispermaceæ. COM. LOC. :—E. L. CHAR. bark vertically furrowed . H. USES :—Bark is alterative. equal to almond oil. G. 10-12 X 7. Kakamari.. Kaju . FAM. Kakamari. Cashew apple-nut. and trace of C. . Kanara. H. dysentery. leaves. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ringworm. anthelmintic. tumours. Gerubi. broadly ovate. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. aphrodisiac. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. See—Timbers. DISTR. See—Vegetables. :—E.

COM. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. :—Khasia Hills. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. E. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. LOC. good expectorant. DISTR. Kantak sanjika. NS. black . PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Fl. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Mahateet. Ananas hannu. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.) LOC. diaphoretic and refrigerant. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. from Orissa to Ceylon. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. M. Ananas. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. H. :—E. fruits. Sk. causes cough and biliousness. FAM. to a certain extent in Gujarat. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. COM. NS. Ananasa. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. M. K. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. G. LOC. also acts as a purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . . Ananas.—Sept. Ama. Sk. Olen kirayat. Kiriyata. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). Ananas . Nelabevu gida.—Bromeliaceæ. smooth. cultivated. Kiryat. LOC. it is useful in jaundice. Pine-apple . a poison to fish (Yunani). Olikiriyat. Kirata. :—E.—Acanthaceæ.-Oct. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. G. native of Brazil (tropical America). Bengal. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. leaves and fruits. FAM. Creat. t. :—Konkan. See—Fruit Trees. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. dioecious. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Bhuinimba. PARTS USED :—Roots. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Mahatit. Kanara. K. DISTR. Ananas . removes gases from the intestines . It acts also as diuretic. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. N. petals absent. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. H. Parvati. also allays gastric irritability in fevers.

t. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.9 m.8 m. M. Fl. acute.3-10 X 2-4. Sd. COM. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . C—2-lipped. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Oshthaphala. FAM. dyspepsia and fever from teething. K. :—An erect branched annual 0. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Deccan. clothed with woolly hairs .—many.—small.— capsule. white below. :—E.—very thick. L. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. Fl. :—Konkan and Kanara. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. alterative. made into an electuary.-Nov. Sundara. and certain forms of dyspepsia. Malabar Catmint. Br. lateral lobes small. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. ellipsoid. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes.—nutlets.-Oct. CHAR. high. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. forming a spicate inflorescence.5 cm. and N. very small. lower 3lobed. Vaikunth. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. sometimes cultivated. Fr. solitary. rose coloured. distant. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. and anthelmintic. . Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. undulate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sundraphul.—Ghats. Malay Peninsula. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.—Labiatæ. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. bracts lanceolate. acute at both ends . dysentery. Kanara. oblong-lanceolate. :—S. approximate above. NS. distant. LOC.—in dense whorls . branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. Chodhara. yellowish brown. LOC. linear-oblong.—Dec. tonic. Karnatak. Alamoda. Sk. Gojivana. :—Throughout India. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. pale beneath. Fr. DISTR. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. polished brown. extensively used in Bengal. lower lip very large and broad . purple. high. thickly woolly. C—2-lipped. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. stomachic. Karitumbe.2-1. pale above. stem quadrangular. 6. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. G. L. upper lip 2-toothed. Plant is useful in general debility. smooth. 1. Ceylon. Fl. Green leaves. DISTR. HABITAT.3-0. crenate-serrate. t. :—An erect shrub.—lanceolate. Fl.. rugosely pitted.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.

leaves and fruits. H. bark. LOC. expectorant. and eyesores. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. sedative to heart. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . stimulant. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Dhavada. chronic diarrhœa. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . LOC. improves taste and appetite . fruit and seeds. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . cooling . astringent to the bowels. DISTR. NS. Fruit—sweet. FAM. Dhava. Sitaphala.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Button Tree. FAM. abortifacient. See—Timbers. G. Dhava. Damora. enriches blood. M. Shushkanga. applied to skin-diseases. tasty. enriches blood . cooling. Pitaphala. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. M. Anan. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. :—E. Krishnabija. H. Dyes. useful in liver complaints. Bahubijika. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Dhamora. Dindiga. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. flavoury. Bark is a powerful astringent. increases biliousness . COM. increases muscular strength. Bejjalu. Sk. K. now cultivated throughout India. Dindala. Dohu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. leaves. Dhavada. discharges. Sitaphal. Sharipha. Amritphala. Sitaphala. COM. produce ulcers in the eye. useful in anaemia. PARTS USED :—Root. Durangi. Root—cathartic. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". :—E. erysipelas. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Custard apple. NS. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Sitaphala.—Anonaceæ.—Combretaceæ. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Sweet-sop. Sk. Sitaphala. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. K. causes fever and furunculosis . Dhavala. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Bark is bitter. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Sugar apple. :—A native of West Indies . domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Ata. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Bakla.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. Ceylon. Dabria. G. good tonic. bark. :—Throughout the greater part of India. LOC. (Yunani). ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Seeds—difficult to digest. Kanara border. Anuram. DISTR.

Burma. PARTS USED:—Bark. Kadamb. Ajjanpatte. Upas Tree. Sacred Plants. Ashokari. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. saline. Ceylon. Chandkuda. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Seeds yield an oil and resin. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . often cultivated. :—Throughout India. It is generally considered tonic. Sprouts—acrid. PARTS USED :—Seeds. astringent to bowels. K. from the Himalayas to Ceylon.—Moraceæ. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. Tennaserim. good in uterine complaints. Nipa. K. Chandala. M. NS. acrid. is a good hairwash. Niv.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Malay Islands. Kadamb. LOC. sprouts and fruits. FAM. bitter. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. Chandkuda. See—Fruit Trees. wild or cultivated. " Vata". the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. sap of the tree. " Kapha". The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid.—Rubiaceæ. COM NS. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. They are detergent and their powder. Jajpugri. strangury. Malayan Peninsula. aphrodisiac. Kadam. Kadubale. vulnerary. H. common near Yellapur. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. FAM. Kadamb . Kanara . COM. Surabhi. stomachic. :—E. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Pegu. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. :—W. aphrodisiac. Fruit—heating. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Sk. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Karnapuraka. Fodder Plants. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. indigestible. alexiteric. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. USES:—In the Konkan. Valkala. M. Sk. Kadamba. In eye inflammations. :—G. LOC. causes biliousness when ripe. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. sweet. Nadija. DISTR. Peninsula. H. . burning sensation. Bairi. See—Timbers. LOC. DISTR. galactagogue. mixed with gram-flour. cooling. Kadamb . ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Kaduve. biliousness. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). blood diseases.

Fr. amenorrhœa. cure asthma. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. heart and spleen diseases. Nelkadle. Fl. The plant contains vitamins A. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. ridges narrow. Ajmud. Moda. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. good for heart. K. Ground-Pea-nut. Markati. ascites. abortifacient. appetiser. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. erect. Bodi ajomoda. vittae broad. DISTR.— radial. high. improve appetite . Abyssinia. hiccup. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. COM NS. tooth-ache. Glucoside apiin is present. :—A biennial plant. Sk. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. COM. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Snehabijaka.— in umbels. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. inflammations. Seeds—carminative. chest-pains. β-antiarin. W. Java and Malaya. segments once or twice trifid. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. bronchitis. aphrodisiac.5-2 mm. branching. pedicels 6-16 . W. See—Vegetables. and γ-antiarin. L. Europe. urinary discharges.4 m. H. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Mungphali. scorpion and other stings. nasal catarrh (Yunani).:—Foot of the N. Bhuchanak. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. LOC. rheumatism. Bhuimug. anthelmintic. :—E. Karafs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. rays 5-10. H. laxative. Brahmakoshi.. apex toothed . cure " Kapha ". Ajamoda. Bhuimug. fever with cough. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Chinimung. Ugragandha. Celery. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. LOC. M. used in anasarca and colic. abdominal pain. Bhuimug-chana. vomiting. Afghanistan. Bori ajmud. . CHAR. Monkey-nut. NS. Africa. vomiting.—Umbelliferæ. good in ophthalmia. 0. Asia. :—E. M.3-2. useful in ophthalmia.—1. tonic. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. Ajmoda . Mandapi. Shimbika. cauline 3-partite. rectal troubles. G. traces of B and C. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. G. Wild celery. " Vata " . Sk. specially near large cities. Fibres. FAM. N. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. scabies. astringent to bowels .

:—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. PARTS USED :—Root. improves appetite and taste. Supari. Suppiyari. Chhataphala. NS. emmenagogue. Pophal. Assam. Tantusara. Betta.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. gleet. Oils. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. DISTR. useful in urinary disorders. . causes biliousness (Ayurveda). It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. indigestible.:—Extensively grown in N. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. See—Food Plants. used for eye-inflammations. laxative. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Hopari. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. bleeding gums. DISTR. diuretic. digestive. In French Guinea. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. fairly largely in the Konkan. leaves (rarely). they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). cooling. Bengal. Gum pungent. Chikka. Burma. Akota. removes pus (Yunani). Seed cooling. Adki. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. M. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Kanara. Siam. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. Nut astringent. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. cardiotonic. Country. Malabar.. Supari. LOC. LOC. removes foul breath. USES. :—E. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. LOC. FAM. LOC. K. M. Areca-nut palm. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. COM. Kaungu. gum. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. Chikkan. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. seeds. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Mysore. Gujarat and S. Areca palm. H. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia.—Palmæ. Poga. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Pugiphal. G. Sk. Indo-Malaya. Sopari. giddiness. Betel-nut palm. :—Madras. Deccan.

It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. nauseant. CHAR. See—Timbers.—thistlelike. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. oblong-ovoid 2. purgative. opening by 4-6 valves. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. glaucous herb . seeds and yellow juice. . India. Fl. relieves blisters. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. netted. Svarnakshiri. This is said to bring the worm out at once.5-3. useful is strangury.—Papaveraceæ. Seeds—purgative. Darudi. NS. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. Mexican prickly poppy . Fruit Trees. and in pertussis and asthma. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. :—E. antidote to various poisons. brownish black. stem clasping. USES :—Root is an alterative. :—A glabrous. DISTR.3-0.—capsule. arecaidine. destroys worms . useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Juice—used as a collyrium.5-18 cm.—all the year. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. Sk. G. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. Root anthelmintic. inflammations and bilious fevers. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. M. Srigalkanta. Indigenous in tropical America. oblong. K.12 m. Plant enriches blood. prickly. high. Seeds are laxative. expectorant and demulcent. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. t. various skin-diseases. Pita-pushpa. 2. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. cures leprosy. Shialkanta. Fl. Pirangi datturi. LOC. Bharbhand. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Datturi. Balurakkisa. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. and guvacine. Fr. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. Bila dhatura.— terminal. branching. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. sedative. veins white. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda).8 cm.—numerous. Ind. globose. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy.). they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. sinuately pinnatifid. stem 0. It is also diuretic. Daruri. H. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. 7. juice yellow. COM. spinous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. yellow. arecoline. L. prickly. jaundice and cutaneous affections. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic.5-5 cm. Brahma dandi. emetic. FAM. diam.

Samudrashok.—Aristolochiaceæ. Krimighni. Kiramar. useful in " Vata". long. DISTR. Country.5 cm. Gandali. Samudrapatrashoh. DISTR. Ganda. H. the bands silky pubescent outside. perhaps a native of Bengal. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Adumuttadagida. Java. stems. NS. FAM. L. tropical Africa.-Nov. pubescent outside. 1. cultivated. LOC.— Aug. absorptive. Gujarat and S. :—A very large climber. rose purple.3-25 cm. Samandarka phal. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. . ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet.5-30 x 6. striate. Sd. FAM. COM. tip linear dark purple. painful joints. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan.—deltoid with cordate base . Fl. G. base cordate with wide sinus .3 cm.5 cm. Deccan and S. Ceylon. Samudraballi.—capsule. :—Throughout India. CHAR. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. prostrate. Dhuma-patra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . white-tomentose. Shyambhuna. Sk. reniform or broadly ovate. white-tomentose L. perianth 2. Elephant Creeper. oblongellipsoid. Soge. long and as broad as long. stems stout. long. anthelmintic. (sometimes even larger). used in gleet.3-2 cm. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. 12-ribbed . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. H. LOC. Leaves are maturative. Fr. W. Konkan.— 3. LOC. C—5-6. M. Samardar sokh. Samudrashosh. In synovitis. tubular. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). :—E. gonorrhœa. glabrous inside. base subglobose. Sk. :—A slender perennial.—Aug. Vridhadaraka. base cordate. Kitakaba. pedicel with a large bract at the base. t. Fr. K.8-7.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. HABITAT. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth.5-4.—in sub-capitate cymes. M. CHAR. Hastivalli. Kidamari. Fl. Kitamari. :—E.— globose apiculate. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. COM.-Sept. weak. Fl. Kidamar. diuretic . Fl. Peninsula. K. t. with revolute margins. infundibuliform. M. See—Ornamental Plants. Ajantri. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. peduncles stout.:—Konkan. long. tube inflated.—Convolvulaceæ. M. Dridhadaru. Country. strangury. Varghoro. :—Bengal.. ovate glabrous above. white-tomentose beneath. bracts large .— 7. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Arabia. G.—solitary. " Kapha" fevers. Bracteated Birth-wort. powdered root is given with milk.

Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. bitter. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Seeds useful in inflammation. Country. M.—flat. bract opposite the pedicel. biliousness. 6-valved. Stem long. Arkamula. globose-oblong. Isharmula. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Gathona.5 cm. t. Nilpushpa. Indian Birth-wort. obovate oblong 10-12.—Compositæ. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Nepal. Dona. :—E. reaching 4. Nakuli.. Flea-bane. Nagdamani. winged. Fl. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Sapsan. COM.—variable linear oblong. — capsule.5 cm. Mastaru. H. Nagduna. Isvara balli beru .5 cm. alexiteric. CHAR. Bengal. Indian wormwood. purgative (Yunani). G. Ishvari. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Fl. Ruhimula. woody at the base. M. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Roots. Sk. grooved. K. dyspnoea of children. slender.8-10 X 1. K. :—E." pains in the joints. perianth greenishwhite.—Nov.5x7. Sugandha. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Sk. H.3-2.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Majtari. Fr.:—Konkan and S. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. useful in " Tridosha. entire with undulate margins. emmenagogue. :—Western Peninsula. DISTR. FAM. Saraparni. L.. joint-pains. . Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children.) FAM. leaves and seeds. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. 3. Manjipatri. LOC. long with globose inflated base. Dovana. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. The plant contains an alkaloid. NS. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Dhor-davana. also useful in dropsy. dry cough. LOC. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). M. Mother or Mugwort. COM. :—A twining shrub. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid. Arkamula.—Aristolochiaceæ. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. and is also applied externally to the abdomen.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. base vaiable. Sd.

NS. Kanara. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. Fruit Trees and Dyes. " Kapha". LOC. aphrodisiac. enriches blood. FAM.—heads ovoid or subglobose.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Jack-Orange wood. solitary or 2. Chakki. Skandaphala. fattening. See—Timbers. deobstruent and antispasmodic. cooling. base lobed. HABITAT. " Vata". The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. oleaginous. hairy. alexiteric.:—A perennial shrub. :—Widely cultivated. COM. cures "Kapha". An infusion is given as a tonic. diuretic. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Seeds sweet. upper leaves smaller. Thailand (Siam). tonic. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. PARTS USED :—Leaves.-Hilly districts.4 m. Java. Kantakaphala. asthma and brain diseases.— achene. asthma. pubescent above. inner hermaphrodite. K. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Halasina. H. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. The unripe fruit is astringent. Phanasa. grown in gardens also. Tage. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. often planted along roadsides in N. deeply pinnatisect. oblong ellipsoid. :—E. DISTR. stems leafy. constipating (Ayurveda). fertile. Ghats. involucral bracts villous. Kanthal. itching (Ayurveda). USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Panos.—Jany. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent.6-2. Fl. Externally it is used in fomentations. ovate. lobes entire.—Urticaceæ. "Vata". Phanas. The plant contains an essential oil. toothed or again pinnatisect.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall.10x2. 0. although very nutritious. :—Konkan. Jack-fruit tree. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. minute. G. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. ripe fruit laxative. aphrodisiac.5-5 em. Vanas. tonic. aphrodisiac. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. useful in biliousness. t. LOC. petioled. Panas. . Sk. but rather difficult to digest. L— lower leaves 5. Fl. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. LOC. temperate Asia. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. 3-fid or entire. Kujja. outer flowers female. Ceylon. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. appetiser. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. leprosy. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Fr. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. LOC. aromatic. high. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. ulcers. M. white tomentose beneath. lanceolate. Panesa.

Svetmuli. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. Fr. oblong. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. NS. 2. cultivated as ornamental plant. Indies. thorn. C.—opposite 7. fragrant. Fl. astringent to bowels. Kuraki. COM. H. solitary. . oleaginous. S. indigestible.9-1. leaves and flowers. DISTR. in the Himalayas. Fl. galactogogue.—Asclepiadaceæ. blood and eye diseases.2 m. CHAR. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. A fibre is extracted from the plants. useful in dysentery.-Dec. LOC. curved. :—G. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet.—June-Sept.3-2. alterative. inflammation. naturalised in many parts of India. :—An erect undershrub. PARTS USED:—Root. FAM. with coma. Satamulika. :—Introduced from the W. t. straight. L. M. long. cooling. white. appetiser. globose. stomachic. M. Satavari. and moist monsoon forests. erect. high. t. NS.5 cm. from Kashmir eastwards. valvate in bud.. Country. Siprimuli. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Seed hairs are used for stuffing.—linear with a stout spinous spur. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. Var. Fl. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. tonic.000 m. root-stock tuberous. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . Fr. Flower is a good styptic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tumours.—Liliaceæ. Java and Australia. spinous. Asual Shatavari. Sk. :—E. 7. linear. Satavari. Kaktundi. narrowed at both ends. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. CHAR. thin. Shatavari. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent.—berry. JAVANICA Baker. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. dark brown. 0.—lobes reflexed in flower. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. COM.— follicles. Sd. aphrodisiac. red when ripe.—orange in axillary umbels. up to 1. common in the Deccan.—in simple raceme.5-10 X 1. FAM.-Feb. undershrub. Tropical Africa. throat complaints. PARTS USED:—Root. :—Deccan. :—Extremely scandent. K.ovoid.5-5 cm. cladodes in tufts. spines recurved. M. LOC. lanceolate. segments. abundant round about Poona. L. DISTR. Satavari. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd.5 cm. Svadurasa. tapering at both ends.

tonic. and dysentery. lanceolate. Gokshura. Africa. long. anuria. C.—June-Jany. lower deeply 3-lobed. Seeds cooling. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. Gokhran. high. ciliate . K. hairy. Talamkhana. eyediseases. hypnotic. leprosy. aphrodisiac . 0. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. expectorant. LOC. And.8 cm. t. Fr. COM. sedative to gravid uterus . Talamkhan. scalding of urine. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. and alterative tonic. tonic. Phalaghrita. Kalavankabija. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. tonic. anæmia. :—Throughout India. galactogogue. L. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. constipation. tonic.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node .) LOC. Kak-Kokilaksha. NS. like leaves. subquadrangular. M. 3. ascites. bracts. upper 2-fid. pointed.— purple blue.) FAM. HABITAT:—Swampy places. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. erect. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. laxative. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. :—A stout herb. Fl. useful in jaundice and anasarca. Talim-khana. DISTR. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. The root is sweet. abdominal troubles. Fl. Gokhalkanta. widely 2-lipped. useful in diarrhœa. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). lips sub-equal. Leaves good for cough. demulcent.—sessile. Used in diarrhœa. night-blindness (Ayurveda). abruptly swollen at the top. USES. colic. (Yunani.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. tropical and S.— Acanthaceæ. biliousness. USES :—The root is refrigerant. diuretic. aphrodisiac. Konkan and Deccan. leaves and seeds. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. 4-8 seeded. 4 inner small. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. PARTS USED :—Root. :—G. Narayana Taila. 2 outer large. aphrodisiac. tube. Ekharo. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Seeds fattening. H. urinary calculi and discharges. stems fasciculate. Vikhara.. antispasmodic. Ikshura. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. Sk. thirst. LOC. CHAR. 18 X 3-3. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. aphrodisiac . linear oblong. gonorrhoea. thickened at the nodes. dysentery. gleet. inflammations.—capsule.6-1. improve blood (Yunani). Vajrakantaka.:—Common throughout the State. Ceylon. Vishnu Taila. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. Kolavalike. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. .5 cm. hispid with long hairs. Shrigalghant.2 cm.

Jany-May. Mudgara. K. creeping herb. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. useful in bad ulcers. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics.:—Konkan and Deccan. :—A glabrous. Brahmi. NS. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). when fresh. Carambola apple. Jalneam. Fruits are used in pickles. also used in diarrhœa. astringent to bowels. branches many ascending. decussate. pungent. Kamarakha. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. heats the body (Ayurveda). Shiral. 6-25 X 2. digestible. COM. inflammations. Thyme-leaved graticula . leprosy. Karuka. oblong. H. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. black dotted : entire. Fl. heating. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. t. obovate-oblong or spatulate. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . COM. Darehuli. Fr. Bama. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. allays thirst.5-10 mm.. ovoid. solitary. G. succulent. found wild near N. anæmia. "Vata". Sk.) FAM. CHAR. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. Karmare . pale blue or white. HABITAT :—Damp places. causes biliousness. Soumyalata. Tamarak. LOC. Kamarakh. ascites. Kirihuli. :—E. indigestion. Fruit sour. DISTR. dried fruit is given in fevers. NS. Brahmi.:—E. Kamrang. fleshy. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . DISTR. LOC. C. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Karmal. Coromandel gooseberry. Brahmi. Barambhi. Safed-Kammi. sessile. Sk. Ceylon and all warm countries.—Oxalidaceæ. tumours. fruits. Root is given in cases of poisoning. LOC. Fl. tonic. Kanara villages. lobes equal spangled. Karmar. pale. FAM. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. with shining dots. rarely wild. stems rooting at the nodes. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. M. L. causes biliousness (Yunani).:—Throughout India in wet places. laxative. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). enlargement of spleen. sour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. Kamaranga. 2-lipped. K. axillary. See—Fruit Trees. Manduki. acute. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nirbrahmi. Sd. emetic. capsule. striate.—Scrophulariaceæ. perhaps a native of Malaya. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. M.

Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. :—G. capsule. Hakum. Danti.—Burseraceæ. leaves and seeds. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. L. Uddipta. purgative. Dantimul. FAM. G.8 m. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. anthelmintic. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Danti. t. Guggul. branching from the roots. Gum gugul. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. itching. K. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. ellipsoid. Gugul. NS. Kanara. Assam. in monsoon forests of N. Malaya. hairy. Sd. of three 2-valved cocci. Dec. piles. the upper small. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. all male or with a few females below. PARTS USED :—Root. Rechani. toothed. Jamalgota. leucoderma. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Kaduharalu. Peninsula. inflammations. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. H. purifies blood. Sk. Burma. M. Guggula.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). Root and leaves are cathartic.9-1. anasarca and jaundice. yellowish. COM. K. the lower large. wounds. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. or in monsoon forests. enlarged spleen. Dantika. often palmately 3-5 lobed. smooth. alexiteric. Sk.—Euphorbiaceæ. Guggula. H. good in scabies. Fr. high. LOC. FAM. M. . mottled. leucoderma. syphilis . NS. jaundice (Ayurveda). anaemia. Guggula. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. :—Dry open Deccan plains. conjoined with petroleum. Chota Nagpur. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. N. diseases of skin and abdomen. Fl. CHAR. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. LOC. LOC. Jatala. useful in insanity. Mukul. W. sinuate. Danti. epilepsy and hoarseness. Bengal. DISTR. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Fl. 2-glandular. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Leaf-juice. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Vishodhini. aphrodisiac . useful in pains. Devdhup. They are used in dropsy. 0. epilepsy and hoarseness. :—Bihar. Danti. obovoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. abundant on the hills of Karanja.. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. :—E. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. COM. diuretic. Seeds are poisonous. :—A stout undershrub.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

red and white. blood diseases . oil from the seeds. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. removes foul taste from mouth.8-2. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State.—Cucurbitaceæ. tonic. M. dysmenorrhoea. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. it is also anti-fat remedy. tonic to liver. urinary discharges and calculi. burning sensation. tonic. anal troubles. H. Kondha. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. K. China.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. G. There are two varieties. aphrodisiac. Root. Bhuru-koholu. tuberculous glands. dehiscent. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. leucoderma. :—Cultivated throughout the State. seeds. LOC. Tallow-White gourd. Seeds— cooling. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. thirst. Kudimah. Timisha. appetising.-Feb. Karkutika. used as gargle in stomatitis. Kohala. bark and flowers. diuretic. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. cures strangury.—pod. not indigenous. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. PARTS USED :—Root. menorrhagia. used in dry cough. Shikhivardhaka. Burma. Sikkim. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. LOC. tuberculous glands. . Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. wounds and ulcers. biliousness. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. used in strangury. heart tonic (Ayurveda). blood impurities. DISTR. astringent. thirst. See—Ornamental Plants. asthma. cough. leprosy. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. cough. FAM. urethral discharges.10-15. given' to corpulent persons. NS. blood diseases. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Sd. Sk. Kumaon. ulcers. DISTR. vaginal discharges. used in piles. Golkaddu. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). biliousness. Dorokaru. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Fl. enriches blood.5 cm. flat. cures biliousness. USES :—Root-decoction is given. leprosy. anthelmintic. fever. "Kapha". 15-20 X 1. cures biliousness. PARTS USED :—Fruit. aphrodisiac. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Ash pumpkin. Fr. :—E. Koholu. " Tridosha".-Apl. in dyspepsia and flatulence. cardiac and general tonic. Kushmanda. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Buds—indigestible. Fruit—antiperiodic. eye diseases. Bark—astringent to bowels. Budekumbalkai. COM.

in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. cures bronchitis. laxative. L.—Compositæ. thirst. Jangali-muli. Kukkurdru. good in syphilis (Yunani). mixed with black pepper. S. and nutritious tonic. blood diseases.—heads many. etc. 0. sharply serrate-dentate. Kakaronda. oblong. upper subsessile. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. finely silky pubescent on both sides. LOC. haemoptysis. good for the brain and liver. LOC. Pilokapurio. :—Throughout plains of India. Kalhar. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. BLUMEA LACERA DC. Fruit is made into confections. pubescent. Fr. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. Tamrachuda. Australia. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. :—Annual herb. sweetish. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. with a strong odour of turpentine. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. pungent. it is given in bleeding piles. base tapered. M. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. Kanara. not ribbed. pappus white. astringent. febrifuge. stem erect. FAM. DISTR. :—G. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. often incised or lyrate.9 m.—the lower ones petioled. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). NS. Malaya. anti-pyretic. H. bitter. M. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. See—Vegetables. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. ash colored. CHAR.3—0.-Apl. Tropical Africa. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Mriduchhada. Konkan. t. Fl. China. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia.-achene. elliptic-oblong. burning sensation. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. phthisis. cooling. COM. Bhamurdi. Deccan. . heart diseases.:—In plains south of Bombay. asthma. LOC. Ceylon. Oil—is soporific. it is also useful in insanity. Fl. Country. Sk. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. high. and diuretic. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. fevers. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. inner bracts with green midrib.—Jany. densely glandular. catarrh. Kakarunda. Kukurbanda.

t. sub-orbicular. Brab tree. fusiform. green above. Bitter. Leaves— appetiser. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. "Kapha" heating. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. :—Tropical India. in pain of joints. Ghetuli. generally found in poorer soils. Kommegida. Fl. H. It produces a very marked and persistent. Varshabhu. . DISTR. alexiteric. very small. CHAR.3—2 cm. Tad. —Nyctaginaceæ. anæmia. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. It is used in jaundice. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . asthma. M. abdominal pains. H. useful in lumbago. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. Plant contains large quantities of pot. FAM. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma.—in corymbose umbels. alterative. and dropsy.. NS. leucorrhoea. Sk. COM. very glandular . K. 1. LOC. gonorrhœa. Lekhyapatra. Desert Palm. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. LOC. native of tropical Africa. Tad. common in S. (Ayurveda). Tad. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. DISTR. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. useful in ophthalmia. Punarnava. root large. "Vata". Kolaba and Thana districts. Shothaghni. Fr. India. Fan Palm. Uttar Pradesh.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Raktakanda. Dhvajadruma. cultivated and self-sown.—clavate. tumours. leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. Vasu. expectorant. Moto-satodo. Talimara. scabies. NS. whitish beneath. :—E. spleen enlargement. G. Africa and America. useful in biliousness. margins undulate. Asavardu.—Palmæ. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. HABITAT :—A weed. cultivated. Hogweed. :—E. cooling . Celyon. L.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. blood impurities. Santhikari. astringent to bowels . P. Seeds—tonic. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. LOC. inflammations. Indian Archipelago. Dholia-saturdo. M. Baluchistan. :—A diffuse herb. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). carminative. Fl.—in unequal pairs at each node. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. heart diseases. Tala. FAM. pinkish. Palmyra Palm. K. Sk. Persian Gulf. G. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. stem prostrate or ascending. COM. Burma.— Nov. Madhurasa. bluntly 5-ribbed.

K. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. improves taste. laxative. Fermented juice—tonic. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. fruit and gum. Gums and Resins. binding. causes headache. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Dhupam. PARTS USED :—Bark. Indian olibanum tree. flowers. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. skin diseases. Sugars. NS. Fruit—cooling. cures dysentery. purifies blood. used for boils. hot. thirst and scalding of urine. Mukulsalai. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). dry. thirst. Salai. LOC. See—Timbers. H. Sk. with a good flavour. Loban. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Luban. antibilious . biliousness. strengthens teeth. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Flower— good for spleen enlargement. diuretic . bitter. cough. . :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Salpe. also used as antiperiodic. also found in Belgaum District. Dhup. allays thirst. allays asthma. leaves. mouth-sores. antiglycosuretic. aphrodisiac. Bark-decoction. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Gum is of five kinds . antidysenteric. G. ulcers . expectorant. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Kundur. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb.. fruits. juice. COM.—Burseraceæ. diaphoresis. scabies. M. asthma. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Guggula. fattening. bad throat. Dup. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. fevers. useful in intestinal troubles. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. helps delivery. useful in biliousness. Fruit—aphrodisiac. convulsions. cooling. Salphali. Salashi. Gum—hot. if taken regularly acts as laxative. expectorant. Sambrani. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. invigorating. Moddi. intoxicating. removes "Kapha". antipyretic. fatigue. :—E. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. LOC. heals wounds . fattening. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. allays. Liquors. burning sensation. FAM. may cause vomiting. Salgond. aphrodisiac. flowers. vaginal discharges.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. causes " Kapha ". useful in skin and blood diseases. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . tonic. Vishesha-dhupa.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. purifies blood (Yunani). bronchitis. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. blood complaints . tonic. Guggali. " Vata". "Vata". Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. DISTR. with a little salt added. astringent to bowels. intoxicating. alexiteric.

G. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. Mohori. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Kari Sasive . Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Sk. Kaira. cause burning . cure nose. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). Seeds— remove cough tumours. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Jwalanti. stomachic. and toothache. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. " Vata". Seeds act as digestive condiment . Seeds-laxative. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. spleen. dispel fever . (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. used with butter in syphilis . chiefly in Nasik. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. :—E. COM. Rai. Sarshapa. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Kali-rai. Rajika. biles. increase appetite . Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. ear. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. . Surat. :—Cultivated in India. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. DISTR. India. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. K. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. cure skin-dissases. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Black-True mustard. anthelmintic . given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Dharwar and Belgaum. appetiser. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. M. NS. internal congestions. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. vermicide. Gums and Resins. H. lessen oedema of body. spasmodic. LOC. good for throat complaints. Khandesh. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Asuri. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Taramira . increase bile. rheumatism. bechic.—Cruciferae. kill external parasites. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). LOC. good in cough and for inflammations. eye-troubles. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. cure enlargement of spleen. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Broach. FAM. See—Timbers. See—Condiments and Spices.

—Euphorbiaceæ. female flowers solitary. Fl. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). alterative. deeply cordate base. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Sd. stem grooved. glabrous . NS. M.—yellowish brown. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. 5-lobed. NS. PARTS USED :—Root.. It is used in bilious attacks. margins sinuate denticulate. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. of Shivaling shape . Kavodi. Ishawara-Shivalingi.. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Garige. 1 . Ekadivi. Tans. FAM. LOC. Asana.—Cucurbitaceæ. 5-partite. tendrils 2-fid : L. Chandra. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. DISTR. pungent. hot. useful in "Vata". subsessile. LOC. corolla companulate. Asana. 3—2 . Shivavalli. :—G. S. Patharphoda. heating. Khaja. :—G. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). Sk. Asana. hemiplegia. K. Sk. Suviraka. smooth. or few or many. Manj. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Gargumaru. COM.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. COM. Fl. CHAR. Fr. Gauli. bitter. Lingini. Apastambhini. t. globose. Gunjan. paler and smooth beneath. Mahavira. LOC. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. DISTR. lumbago. Philippines. Lingaja. Australia. tropical Africa. lobes oblong lanceolate. M. Kaj.— membranous. diam.. H. streaked with broad vertical lines . Ekalkanto. M. Asana. :—An annual scandent herb.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. Kassi. Mauritius. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. FAM. ovate-oblong. Shivalingi.— Aug-Sept.:—Throughout India. :—Deccan. 10-15 cm. Country. Goge. green and scabrid above. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. bark. . southward to Ceylon. Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. long.—baccate. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. and in fevers with flatulence. H. corolla as in the male . Shivlingi. bluish green. See—Timbers. 5 cm. Mullu-siru Honne.

Stems obtusely 4-angled. Sk. PARTS USED :—Roots. NS. DISTR. the Dangs. COM. seeds. alexipharmic.—pendant. leaflets ovate. M. decussate.—small. upper 3-5-7 foliate. younger reddish. LOC. S. Priyal. Rajadana. binding. gum (rarely). (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. inflammations. cooling. expectorant. allays . Char. lobes triangular. CHAR. occasionally compound. Leaf-juice digestive. Dhanu. useful in diarrhœa. crenate or serrate. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). Zakhi-haiyat. M. purgative. ulcers. Murukali.. NS. Tapaspriya. LOC. :—Native of tropical Africa. Gujarat. leaves.—variable. Parnabija. Panphuti. C.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. cardio-tonic. Piyal. with opposite branches . Char. "Vata" and biliousness. reddish purple. Burma. Deccan. Country. Lonnahadakana gida. speckled with white. K. :—H.—swollen and octagonal at the base. aphrodisiac. Pyalchar. the older light-coloured. Cambodia. thirst.) FAM. Fl.—Jany. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. K. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. fruit. astringent to bowels. burning sensation on body. HABITAT :—Dry. tonic. lower usually simple. in large panicles. carminative. fevers. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . Asthibhakshya. high. Cochin-China. Sk. fattening. Snehabija. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. M. t. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. Fl. Lalana. M.3-1. Deccan. buds with root. analgesic. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Charpoppu. S. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". vomiting. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. Thailand (Siam). :—Hot and drier parts of India. smooth. when punctured. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Kolegeru.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. laxative. Fr. purifies blood.—Anacardiaceæ. H. FAM. DISTR. elliptic. deciduous open forests. Sd. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). also wild. LOC. It is a disinfectant. Char. boils and bites of venomous insects. Charoli. L. :—Konkan. cures blooddiseases. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Charoli. :—Konkan. Paira. constricted in the middle. The bark is bitter and poisonous. bruises. :—G. Country.—Crassulaceæ.2 m. aphrodisiac. Panphui.

cough. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. LOC. anthelmintic. Muttuga. leprosy. K. topically in piles and hydrocele. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. eye diseases. Flowers—cure " Kapha". prickly heat and itch. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. useful in piles. Seeds tonic to body and brain. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. flowers. Kinshuk. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Khakda. Oils. Flower—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. burning urine. diseases of anus. useful in bone fractures. India. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. good in dysentery. inflammations. skindiseases. useful in elephantiasis. pimples. worms and piles. gonorrhœa. colic. astringent. tumours. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . Gums and Resins. gonorrhoea. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. piles.) FAM. stomatitis. lessens lumbago. piles. good in fevers. H. Bark—appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Dyes. used in liver disorders. Kshatadru. Bark—appetiser. COM. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. cold and cough. Sk. in the Khandesh Akrani. cures excessive perspiration. Muttala. tonic. aphrodisiac. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. gum. buboes. Leaves—good for eye diseases. anthelmintic. cause headache (Yunani). remove bad humours. Dhak. LOC. Gum—acrid. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. DISTR. fractures. pterygium. M. dry. Khakera. Fruit and seed—hot. Khakhrao. NS. G. relieves abnormal thirst. aperient used in urinary discharges. strangury. tonic to liver. gout. lessens inflammations. Fruit and seeds—oily. bark. Yajnika. purifies blood. emmenagogue. Palas. Ceylon. anthelmintic. digestible. burning sensation. carminative. :—E. cure tumours. Palas. seeds. thirst. Bastard teak. Leaf—very astringent. Gum—astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. if chewed. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. laxative. diuretic . dysmenorrhoea. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. lessens biliousness. expectorant. Palash. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. ascends to 1200 m. aphrodisiac. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Tripatrak. tonic. good in biliousness. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Kakria. Kuntz. corneal opacities. stomachic. biliousness. hydrocele. Chichra. useful in syphilis. dysentery. cures ulcers and tumours. leaves.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst.

wounds. CHAR.) COM. heating. L. very common near the sea-coast. Sagargota. 30-60 cm. Gajga. Deccan hills. long . long.—JulySept. elliptic-oblong.5 cm. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ".—pod. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. malaria. Kakechika. Gajaga. 5-7. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. Dyes. Fl. strongly mucronate. oblong 5-7. Fever nut. the tropics generally. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Katkaranj. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.—1-2 oblong. hydrocele. NS. t.—abruptly pinnate. sprouts useful in tumours. Sd. useful in colic. cures urinary discharges. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. LOC. LOC. asthma and colic. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Fruit—acrid.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder.—yellow. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. DISTR. Leaves contain a glucoside. leaves. aphrodisiac and diuretic. See—Timbers. piles. Kuberakshi. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. prevents contagious diseases . ringworm. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. leaflets 6-9 pairs. aphrodisiac. Fl. anthelmintic . fevers. Katkaleja. cures inflammation . FAM. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. G. leucorrhcea. :—Throughout India. They are applied to orchitis. M. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. anthelmintic. Gum solution is applied to bruises. Tapasi. flowers and fruit.5 X 4. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. etc. act as rubefacient. leprosy (Yunani). . Seed—styptic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Physic nut. lead-colored 1. :—An extensive climber.5 cm. antiperiodic. Flowers are astringent. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). shortly stalked. Karanja.3 cm. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. petioles prickly. :—E. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. astringent to bowels. Sind. pinnae 6-8 pairs.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. Fr. skin-diseases. H. Sk. K. Gums and Resins. Gajjige. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin.

and oil. Mandara. Arka. Undi. East African Islands. M. Madar. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). gum. Oils. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. FAM. Ark. Ekke. :—E. The gum from wounded branches.. K. lessens appetite. astringent. Br.. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Ak. Kshirparni. Arka. Mandara. FAM. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Punnag. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Malaya. L. Kshiranga. much branched. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—A large shrub. :—E. Kanara associated with littoral species. base cordate. Purasakeshera. Alexandrian laurel.. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma.— opposite. 10-20 X3. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Australia. NS. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet.—Asclepiadaceæ.. very common in N. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Surangi. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Gigantic swallow-wort. COM. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Surpan. Rui. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. M. thick. CHAR. Akand.8-10 cm. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Sk. used in chronic fevers. sessile. DISTR. often gregarious. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.—Guttiferæ. Surhonne. 2. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. :—Cultivated throughout India. sometimes amplexicaul.. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Akdo. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Shuka-phala. elliptic or ovate oblong. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Ponne. branches stout. both surfaces tomentose. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Punnaga. covered with cottony pubescence. Undi. H. . Tungakeshera. Vuma. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Sk. Dholaakdo.H. See—Timbers. LOC. Sultanchampa. Madar. high. Ceylon.4-3 m. Polynesia. COM. and for its oil. improves complexion (Ayurveda).48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. K. NS. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. LOC. G.

. liver and spleen enlargement.4 m. comose. Rajarka. Ark. Flower—analgesic. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin.5-10 X 5-7.-July. 9-10 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. Milk— caustic. painful joints . Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. cottony. Madar. China. t. :—An erect shrub usually 1. See—Fibres. comose . CHAR. cures piles and "Kapha". usually 5. asthma. LOC. ulcers. NS. Malay Islands and S. tumours. also useful in intestinal worms. C.— purplish in umbellate cymes. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. ringworm of scalp. M. Juice—anthelmintic. oleaginous.—follicles. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. cures leprosy. Sd. Fl.—broadly ovate. diaphoretic. Sk. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . corona shorter than the column.—Asclepiadaceæ. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. young parts white. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. green. Mandara.—in umbellate cymes. cures leucoderma.7—15 X 4. across. purgative. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. dropsy. Safedak.5 cm. bark. piles. ovate oblong. Fl.. Ceylon. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. laxative. rat-bite.:—H. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. very common is S. purplish or white. elliptic or obovate. LOC. good for liver (Yunani).8-2.5 cm. useful in leprosy. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. subglobose. India. FAM. apex with two auricles. cures inflammations. COM.—lobes deltoid-ovate. long. used in cough. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. broad. Ak. catarrh and loss of appetite. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion.5-8. alterative and purgative properties. ascites and anasarca. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Br. scabies. spleen and liver diseases. Root-bark is diaphoretic. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . ascites. astringent. C. elephantiasis. bark corky. back much curved. DISTR. depilatory. lobes usually erect. heal wounds. cures asthma and syphilis. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. buds globose.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. Fr. very common. leaves applied to paralysed parts.. spongy. high. Milk— heating. swellings. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.—7.—subsessile. coughs. buds ovoid. Flowers—digestive. Fr. expectorant and anthelmintic. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action.— Feb. tumours. asthma. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. Mandara. leaves and flowers. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. acrid .—about 2. . tonic and stomachic in action. ellipsoid or ovoid. Sd:—many. eruption on body. Flowers—stomachic. L. flattened tomentose.2 cm.

Kamakshi.:—Perennial herb . high . narrow. Hudingana.9-1. Shitarambha. DISTR. Sk. H. tropical Africa. they are given in cholera. See—Fibres. flowers and milky juice. Iran. lanceolate to ovate.—segments 2. Asishimbi. L. Waziristan. ulcers (Ayurveda). :—E. abundant in Sind. oval or orbicular. LOC. See—Vegetables. long. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. Sk. Flowers used as detergent. Khadsambal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Kadsambu. P. greenish or colored. Abai. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C.2 m. COM. Sarvajaya. erect.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. The pods contain vitamin A. K.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Nilashimbika. indigestible. CANNA INDICA Linn. acrid. Sabbajaya. useful in burning sensations. Devakeli. NS. :—E. G. Tamateballi. Indian shot. but doubtfully wild. appetiser. cooling. Gavria. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Warm leaves used as poultice. M. LOC.. Broad—Sword bean. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Tarvardi.—Scitaminaceae. Sema. FAM.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. tonic. root-stock tuberous. Shimbi. membranous. biliousness. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. M. Arabia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). on trees and hedges . Egypt. NS. LOC. K. COM.5 cm.. Kalehu. Afghanistan. Gigantea. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Kadavare. 3 sub-erect. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. veins arching. G. hernia and colic. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. PARTS USED :—Pods. H. Akalabera. Kardali. Koshaphala. Sambe. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Fl. bracts oblong. (Chopra). CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. 1 linear . FAM. staminodial segments. Sarvajaya. DISTR. Paraholiya. stem 0.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. spatulate. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Gavara.3 cm. green.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6.

Sk. Siddhapatri. Unmattini. imbricate. oil-good for earache. Fl. COM. Shivapriya. male flowers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. high in its feral state. female crowded under convolute bracts. Harshini.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . abortifacient. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling.—more or less throughout the year. globose. restlessness. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). flowers. intoxication (Ayurveda). hallucinations. water extract anthelmintic. soporific. leaves. Ganja. astringent to bowels. female perianth hyaline. inflammations. Bhang. K. Not indigenous. cause headache. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. antidiarrhoeic. dioecious. seeds and resin. (2) Bhang. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. lower 3-8 foliate. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. Seeds—carminative. leaves. Bhangi. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). useful in " Kapha". aphrodisiac.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. (3) Charas. melancholia. :—Throughout India. excessive use causes indigestion. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. lessen inflammation.9-1. Ganja. :—E. usually 0. intoxication. Ganja. male fascicled. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. causes thirst. shining.—small axillary. sepals 5.—many. G. causes thirst and biliousness.—sub-globose or oblong . PARTS USED :—Bark. Bhang. LOC. t. LOC. Mohini. They are broken in small pieces. Female inflorescence is stomachic. 3-lobed.—achene. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn.—Urticaceæ. useful in convulsions. H. CHAR. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . Wild in the Himalayas. black. leprosy. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury).5 m. Leaves—bitter. aphrodisiac. Fr. Bark—tonic. Central Asia. stomachic. :—Widely cultivated in India. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. echinulate .—alternate or the lower opposite. tonic. flowers and seeds. piles. hot. causes biliousness. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. LOC. astringent. PROPERTIES AND LOC. serrate. Fl. Sd. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. Vijaya. M. DISTR. good for hydrocele. soporific. intoxicating. impotence. heating. PARTS USED :—Roots. check vomiting. Hemp. alterative . NS. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Fr. cough. also wild. FAM. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. upper 1-3. insanity. dropsy.

as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. LOC. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. cholera. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. weakness of body. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Menshinkai. Chillies. delirium (Ayurveda). Mirchi. erysipelas. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. H. acute mania. Marichiphala. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Tivrashakti. :—Extensively cultivated in S. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. increases biliousness. Fruit—pungent. The fruit contains Capsisin. G. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. and is employed by Indian physicians. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. also in gout.—Solanaceæ. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). Narcotics.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Capsaicin and Solanin. NS. Lanka mirchi. increases appetite. Tikshna. dysuria. K. Country in Deccan. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. loss of consciousness. muscular pains. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. chronic ulcers. PARTS USED :—Fruit. expectorant. FAM. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Lalmirchi. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. dyspepsia. LOC. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. often found as an escape. See—Gums and Resins. Sk. M. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. and flatulence. whooping cough. Ujjvala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. The plant contains cannabinin. in the form of electuary. asthma. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. M. Fibres. Cayenne-pepper. :—Cultivated all over India. Vegetables. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Mirchi. spermatorrhoea. DISTR. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. useful in brain complaints. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. :—E. diarrhœa. Raktamaricha. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. useful in indigestion. Marchu . indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). See—Condiments and Spices. Madana modak used in cough. and dropsy. . their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. It is stomachic.

FAM. Kangu. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Kalindi. " Vata ". bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. very acute apex. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Kumbhi. Daddala. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations.—white. Kumbi. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. useful in tumours. rounded at the apex. Ceylon. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . Kapalphodi. trigonous. Blister creeper. Karnasphota. ultimate segments lanceolate. petals 4. diuretic and aperient. K. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. Sd.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. leaves. Karolio. subglobose.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. flowers and fruits. bark.—Sapindaceæ. The plant contains saponin. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Gavvahannu. aphrodisiac. Wild guava . Agni-erum. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. :—Throughout India. LOC. :—Most warm countries. Girikarnika. Jyotish-mati. Maniju balli. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—E. G. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . Kanphuti. dyspepsia. Fr. hot. Malay Peninsula. COM. Sk. when moistened. leucoderma.— alternate. LOC. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. C. Fruit—acrid.—Myrtaceæ. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. M. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Vakambi. Root. FAM. bladdery . colic. smooth. urinary discharges. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. G. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Kumbha. Fl. deltoid. Hennumatti. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. winged at the angles. Sakralata. PARTS USED :—Root. abscesses and ulcers. :—E. NS. Fibres. Kumbhi. . epileptic fits. common in S. bark. black. it is mucilaginous.—capsule. Balloon vine. stem wiry. 2-ternate. Sk. L. HABITAT :—In hedges . Root is considered diaphoretic. bronchitis. piles. M. DISTR. alexiteric. Deccan. Thailand (Siam). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. See—Timbers. H. Sind. inciso-serrate. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. introduced. COM. NS. and is administered in fevers. Konkan and W. CHAR. Shaundi. skin-diseases. leaves and seeds. dry. K.—globose. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. Ghats.

ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. removes urinary concretions . carminative. NS. COM. expectorant. "Tridosh". Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. of W. . DISTR. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. relieves obesity. Papaya. G. seeds and oil. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chibda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. in haemoptysis. digestive. Safflower. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Nalikadala. fruit and seeds. strangury. Kamalottama. LOC. NS. Papayi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Native throughout India. heating. astringent to bowels. Agnishikha. bleeding piles. Papita. cures inflammation. bile. Papaya. Indies. M. cooling. K. diuretic. depilatory. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Sk. Kardai. LOC. DISTR.—Compositæ. COM. "Kapha". M. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. scabies. ringworm. made into curries. Pangi. H. Oil—indigestible. used. Flower—tonic to liver. cures insanity (Ayurveda). cure urinary discharges. Papaya. Kusumbo. G. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . cure "Vata". unripe fruit. flowers.—Caricaceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kusumbha. aphrodisiac. Kusumba. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Fruit—stomachic. diuretic. Sk. leprosy. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. enlargement of spleen. Karrak. FAM. Dyer's saffron. Chirbhita. piles. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). wounds of urinary track. aphrodisiac. Barre. White thin latex contains Papain. Leaves—hot. appetiser. :—Grown extensively in Poona. Karada. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Mexico and Brazil. Seeds—oleaginous.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. diuretic. good for eyes. K. :—E. Kusumba. :— E. LOC. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. FAM. Guppe. leucoderma. Pappayi. appetiser . it is used to procure abortion. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. bronchitis. Kusumba. H. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. causes burning sensation . hypnotic. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. cures inflammations. removes biliousness . Popayi. cause biliousness. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Papaw. See—Fruit Trees. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa.

appetiser. oblong-obtuse. pinnate. liver. Ajamoda. The seeds bitter and hot. improve speech and eyesight. good for old people. H. See—Vegetables. long. and diarrhœa. pungent. rachis . bechic. Owa. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). Oil—good in all diseases. Sk. anthelmintic. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. Oma. Dodda sagate. carminative. Baluchistan. abdominal pain. abdominal tumours. Simyatase. NS :— E. Leaves contain vitamin A. Dyes. Dadmardan. Datka pat.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Tivragandha. cure catarrh. Iran. chest pains. enlargement of spleen. See—Condiments and Spices. 30-60 cm. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. L. inflammation (Yunani). Winged senna. purgative. enrich blood. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. carminative. FAM. subsessile. downy beneath. mucronate. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. aphrodisiac. Elgra. carminative. spleen. kidney troubles. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. they are used in jaundice . CHAR. M.—Umbelliferæ. Ajowan. Dadrughna. vomiting. tonic and carminative properties. Dwipagasti. atonic dyspepsia. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. piles. paralysis. K. good for heart and tooth-ache. leaflets 10-12 pairs. Sk. They are administered in flatulence. give lustre to eyes. stomachic. good in weakness of limbs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. bitter. G. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. strengthening. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. LOC. myrabolans and rock salt. Ajamo . K. Dipyaka. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. Seeds—purgative. Europe. good for ear boils. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. COM. tonic. COM. stimulant. hiccup. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . H. Afghanistan. Oils. CASSIA ALATA Linn. Ringworm shrub. laxative. aphrodisiac . NS. DISTR. M. :—Cultivated extensively in India. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. emmenagogue and sedative. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. :—E. stimulate intestines. Omu . Egypt. LOC. diuretic. and even in cholera. oblique at the base. FAM. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. vomiting. Bishops' weed . dyspepsia. chest and throat pains. cure ascites. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. Dadamardana. Ajwain.

CHAR. 28-4-88). NS. Tanner's cassia. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. Sk. Fr. Charmaranga.-50 or more. USES:—Bark is considered astringent.—in spiciform. Fr. J. reddish brown. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie).6 cm. Peninsula. along the sea coast in laterite region. Tarwad. :—E. asthma. DISTR. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. useful in thirst. rotundate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. Gujarat and S. buds in yellow bracts. leaves.—large. :—Introduced into India. anthelmintic. Ahmed.—7. cm. Avartki. Sd. leprosy. Fl. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. slightly overlapping. stipules very large. Mukerji). The whole plant. " In eczema. asthma .—bright yellow with darker veins. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). and throat troubles. good for ulcers. Pitakilaka. oblong-obovate. useful in vomiting.. yellow with orange veins. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. 10-20 X 1. L. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). Indies. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. straight. causes flatulence . Madhya Pradesh and W. M.—Jany. Country. urinary discharges . leaflets 8-12 pairs. cough. Sakusina. ringworm. skin diseases. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration.5 X 10 cm. skin-diseases. Fl. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. t. Ph. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . H. bark smooth. K. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. Mayahari. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. C. pale beneath. obliquely septate. Sd. membranous. Burma. very likely a native of the W.. N. mucronate. nocturnal emissions. FAM.-Oct. G. flowers. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. reniform. Ceylon. t.—pod. M. LOC. Tangadi. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub.. across. alexipharmic . fruits and seeds.—30-35.) COM. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. LOC. long.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. 5 cm. Fl. vermicide (Ayurveda). . Taroda. rhombohedral. cure " Vata ". LOC. LOC. In cases of bronchitis and asthma.-July. Tarwad. Fl. DISTR. Avarike. Awal. itching. rachis densely pubescent. dull green above. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). 20-25.—pod long.3-1. diabetes. Bark has the same properties. HABITAT :—Planted. pedunculate racemes . cures tumours. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers.

apex acute. also planted.—in few flowered racemes. Flowers—purgative. C. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. cooling. ovate-lanceolate. Burma. In Konkan. FAM. corymbose. lessens inflammation and body-heat. cooling. DISTR. Leaves lessen inflammation. Vyadivata. See—Dyes. See—Timbers.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Arogyashimbi. Kasundari. cures burning sensation. faintly veined with orange .—very foetid when bruised. distinctly torulose. Arimarda. Fl. purgative. Golden shower. griping. recurved. long.—petals 5. K. Suvarnaka. G. Bandartauri. carminative. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. NS. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Balla. K. demulcent. and Famine Plants. Bahava. Hema-puspha. smooth. M. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Negro coffee. yellow. flowers. Fruit—antipyretic.—pods. CHAR. LOC. Sk. throat-troubles. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Sk. improve appetite. Flowers—improve taste. Konde. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. abortifacient. hard. branches furrowed.. cure " Kapha ". heal ulcers . M. Fr. Ornamental Plants. H.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. fruit and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. leprosy. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. tuberculous glands. Kasoda. . Sd. Rechana. Tans. biliousness . safe for children and pregnant women. :—E. Garmala. NS. laxative. Chakinda. H. Ceylon.5 cm. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. base somewhat oblique.) COM. transversely septate. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Leaves—anti-periodic . Fruit—digestible. Amaltas. FAM.— Jany-March. leaves. juice given in erysipelas. Rajataru. Rankasvinda. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. Kasonda. Pudding-pipe or stick. used in rheumatism. LOC. syphilis. Indian laburnum. rheumatism. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Kasondi. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Aragina. cause flatulence. G. shining dark olive-green. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. purgative.—20-30. Kasari. It is a mild laxative.) COM. Ane sogate. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. L. Seeds— oily. Stinking weed. long. Chimkani. Fl. Kacodari. :—Throughout India. eye-diseases. astringent. antipyretic. Dodda-tagase. PARTS USED :—Root. often purplish. (Ayurveda). t. :—E. 10—12. useful in chest and liver complaints. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. 15-20 cm. Kakka. Kasmarda.

for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). H. :—A shrub 2. . LOC. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. 7. cure " Kapha". CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani.. Leaves—aphrodisiac. stomachic. lanceolate. heals wounds. " Vata ". hiccup. Baskikasondi. high. mixed with honey.4-3 m. Fr. At Kotra. DISTR. Sd. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. leaves and seeds. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. K. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. Kasundari. yellow. PARTS USED :—Root. fevers. t. LOC.Jany. leaves and seeds. asthma. slightly recurved. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller).. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. elephantiasis. COM. Seeds used in heat of the blood. petals 5. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. The bark. cough. NS. LOC. obtuse. Sk. with a solitary conical gland near the base . Kasamarda. long .—pod. alexiteric. dark brown . The plant contains glucoside emodin. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—30-40 broadly ovoid.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. " tridosha " . Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. leaves. Fl. M. few flowered corymbose racemes. C. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm.—in axillary. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. ovate. In many countries root is considered diuretic. Talapota. and seeds are cathartic. cures ascites. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. Fl. turgid.510 cm.—18-23 cm. :—G. Kasondi. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . See—Famine Plants. annual or perennial. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. L. LOC. leaflets 6-10 pairs. PARTS USED :—Bark. Banar. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. in Kutch. base rounded. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. septate between the seeds .— Nov. are given in diabetes. Ran tankala. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. DISTR. See—Famine Plants. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. rachis grooved . tonic and febrifuge. opposite. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Kasamarda.

bright yellow. Kangli. Sk. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. Kanguni. hot. Panevar. in drooping panicles. emetic. :—E. Black-oil tree. Fr. branches rough. crenate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. cause burning sensation. M. 30-90 cm. L. obovate. Fl.. t.5-10 cm. leaves and seeds. Tarota. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Foetid cassia. 12. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Dadrughna. Svarnalata. COM. capsule. usually unisexual. Seeds—bitter. Malhangana. 6. :—An annual foetid herb. Chakramarda.5 cm. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. DISTR. Dadamari. X 4.— petals 5. Pamad. leaflets 3 pairs. upper petal 2-lobed .—pinnate. alternate.) COM. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Fr. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Jyotishmati. opposite (lowest smaller). NS. Climbing-staff plant. 1-6 completely covered with red. Madras State. Chakunda.5 mm. NS. covered with lenticels. Seeds— acrid. . bitter. Malkakni. Malkamni. fleshy arillus. high. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Fl. powerful brain tonic. oblong.8-7. high. PARTS USED :— Root. base oblique. Sphutabandhani. The plant contains glucoside emodin. laxative. shining above. DISTR. obliquely septate. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". ovate or obovate. stem upto 23 cm. cure joint-pains. Ceylon. small yellowish-green. unarmed. brain and liver tonic. M. G. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. L.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Malkangoni. expectorant. long. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. globose. Taga.—Celastraceæ. CHAR. Velo .—pod. Kangodi. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. K. appetiser. H. reddish brown. LOC..—in pairs in the axils of leaves . USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm.3-10 X 3. K. Intellect tree. Sk. FAM. Takala. Tagache. FAM.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. 18 m. C. much curved when young. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.. H. pale yellow. Kangani. Sd. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. rachis grooved. Burma. :—A very common weed all over the State. Sd. :—E. LOC. aphrodisiac.—after the rains. 7. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. in diam. Taragosi. Chagoche.5-20 cm. CHAR. :—Large deciduous climber.

—4 mm. H.—Feb. C. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. L. long. L. Lahanchirayat. elliptic. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. hard-rugose. pink. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Brahmi. narrowly oblong . :—Konkan. M. DISTR. cauline smaller. Fl. tonic. base deeply cordate stipulate. Ekpani. M. Fl. high. used in leprosy. they are also sudorific. stem creeping with long internodes. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Jangli-karayatu. FAM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. cloves. LOC. NS. M. Fl.—in fascicled umbels. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. aphrodisiac and stimulant. persistent. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. . Vondelaga. radical leaves revolute. :—Throughout India.—capsule. :— E. t.—tubular lobes 5. paralysis and leprosy. gout. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields.). :—A slender herbaceous plant. Mandukparni. Brahmamanduki.—May-Nov. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil.—Umbelliferæ. Barmi. CHAR. Fl. Mahaushadhi. Fr. COM. :—G. LOC. ovoid. Kheta-Barik-chirayat.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness.). reniform. good for cough and asthma. spreading star-like .—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork.—3 from each node. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin.-Apl. H. t. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. Don. Fr. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. obovate or oblong. Deccan and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic.—Gentianaceæ. minute. Brahmamanduki. linear-oblong. Vallari . NS. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. FAM. orbicular. especially in Bengal. COM. rooting at the nodes. Seeds are hot. CHAR. Jhinkun-kariatum. K. Country. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. Oil stomachic.—opposite. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. pink. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). and is employed for external application. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. G. Sk.

asthma. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. COM. Leaf-powder. diuretic. bechic. LOC. . :—Throughout India and Ceylon. carminative. clears voice and brain. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. USES :—Bark is purgative. alexiteric. blood diseases. thirst. fevers. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. bronchitis. improves appetite (Yunani). CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. sedative to nerves. and a bitter substance odollin. scalding of urine. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. twigs. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. soporific. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". small-pox. abundant on the Malabar Coast. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. asthma. digestible.) DISTR. Malay Archipelago. tonic. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. China. " Kapha ". headache . green fruit is employed to kill dogs . cures leucoderma. urinary discharges.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. fruit. cures hiccup. alterative. Plant—bitter. Chanda. nut is narcotic and poisonous . bitter. voice. For external use powder. bronchitis. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. stomachic. inflammations. Leaves are also diuretic.—Apocynaceæ. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. Kanara. used in insanity (Ayurveda). anæmia. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. PARTS USED :—Bark. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. water courses throughout the State. Sukanu. spleen enlargement. See—Timbers. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. memory. cardio-tonic. Australia Pacific Islands. laxative. M. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Tande. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. :—South Konkan and N. ointment. nallas. tonic. plaster or bath are used. Honde. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. LOC. antipyretic. cooling. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. milky juice. :—K. DISTR. leaves and seeds). FAM. :—Throughout India near the coast. LOC. :—In moist situations (streams. biliousness.

piles . :—E. H. acrid. Sk. also cultivated as a pot herb. urinary concretions. spleen (Ayurveda). LOC. biliousness. Harparauri K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. Chillika. Cheel. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. Ksharadala. K. Kanchuki. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. H. FAM . M. Agralohita.—Chenopodiaceæ. . COM. Chana. LOC. NS. Chalmeri. piles.) FAM. Rayara nelli.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). improves appetite. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). used in the form of pot-herb in piles. diseases of blood. throattroubles. Chick pea. Chandanbedu. Skandhaphala. useful in thirst. Lavali. HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. Chakwat. Harbara. Wild-spinach. "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root. H. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Chakravati.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Country gooseberry. biliousness. Sk. tonic. K. M. abdominal pains. sour . aphrodisiac. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. :—Widely distributed. Fruit is very sour . Bengal—Common-gram. :—Very common in the Deccan. heart. Rai-avala. vomiting. root and the seed are cathartic. Kadale. The plant yields an essential oil. FAM. tonic to liver. Sk. Pandu. USES :— Root is purgative. Chania. useful in bronchitis. :—E. fragrant. But. fruit and seeds.—Euphorbiaceæ. :— E. Tanko. :—Cultivated in India. G. M. Bathusag. eye-diseases. constipation. Chunna. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. See—Fruit Trees. Country. Vajibhakshya. useful in biliousness. LOC. diuretic. The fruit is acrid and astringent. COM. oleaginous. Harparrevdi. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Balabhojya. Laveni. anthelmintic. laxative. LOC. NS. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CICCA ACIDA Merr. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. "Vata". Kari-Kempukadale. NS. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chanaka. Goose-foot. M. DISTR. COM. Chakravarti. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Chana. Deccan and S.. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). DISTR.

:—W. thirst. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. tonic. cure bronchitis. flatulence. aphrodisiac. carminative. parched mouth. expectorant. etc. tonic. aphrodisiac. useful in " Vata ". Ceylon. M. Peninsula. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. Leaves contain vitamin A. anthelmintic. hiccup. :—G. heart. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. See—Food Plants. indigenous and cultivated. FAM. Sk. NS. Nisane. seed and acid exudation. improve taste and appetite. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. DISTR. Dalchini. cures thirst and burning. throat troubles. abortifacient.—Lauraceæ. Bark—tonic. itching. very common in the N. foul mouth and fever. Oil—styptic. It possesses carminative. chest complaints. bronchitis. bronchitis (Yunani). toothache. :— Bark and oil. Seed—stimulant. enriches blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. Kash. Valkala. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. astringent to bowels . :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. pains . tonic . good for diseases of liver and spleen. toothache (Ayurveda). LOC. heated brain. Dalchini. Gudatwaka. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. LOC. pungent. useful in hydrocele. aphrodisiac. See—Condiments and Spices. Leaves—purgative. causes flatulence. tonic to hair. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Burma. strengthens liver. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). rectum and urinary diseases. useful in cold. liver-tonic . Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. K. useful in bronchitis. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. Duk. appetiser. Dalchini. cures skin diseases. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. biliousness. leprosy. alexiteric. Darchini. anthelmintic . piles. useful in loss of appetite. causes flatulence. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. carminative. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. headache. Oils. anthelmintic. diarrhœa. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. cold in head. Lavange-hakke. causes salivation. Malay Peninsula. Seed—indigestible. biliousness. headache. PARTS USED :—Leaves. refrigerant. PARTS USED. Kanara district. It checks nausea and vomiting. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. vomiting. LOC. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. indigestion. useful in inflammations. COM. diarrhœa and dysentery. blood troubles. abdominal pains. Oil—carminative. Dalchini. throat troubles. . vomiting.

long. HABITAT. L. also for prolapsus uteri. Fl. burning.-Jany.—Nov. Fr. H. or twin. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). yellow within. itching . 3. The active constituent of the drug. Africa and America.5-20 cm. 5-partite. FL t. LOC. flesh juicy. LOC.—Menispermaceæ. Indrayan. uterine complaints. somewhat hairy. PARTS USED :—Root. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Indraphal. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. has been isolated. diam. Paharmul. G. Patha. i. Annual Report. alleviates vomiting. orbicular or reniform. Katurasa. cordate at the base. Nirbisi. Mahendravaruni. Makal. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Indruk. angular . piles. Fl. Bitter apple. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. NS. G. dysentery. M. Venivel. dropsy and cough.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. Kanara. :—E. :—In hills. Sk. red or yellowish white. drupe. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Pavamekke Kayi. . greenish. CHAR. solitary. upto 25 cm. CHAR. :— E. removes pain. female flowers in elongate. in conjunction with aromatics. Tumtikayi. K.. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. leaves. diarrhœa. C.e.. skin eruptions. minute. which possibly has a cholinergic action. Indrayan. Trapusi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . smooth. FAM. mucronate. axillary racemes . useful in hemicrania. DISTR. Sd. Chitraphala. removes intestinal worms. compressed. yellowish. R. Uthika. Ghorumba. Pahadvel. greenish outside. (Ind. diam. Venivalli. peltate. helps parturition. Velvet-leaf.—large. 7. 1949).8-10 cm. heart troubles. warm parts of Asia. H. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia.—July-Sept. Asso. subglobose. 5-nerved. Colocynth. waxy coated. margins ciliate. male flowers in axillary cymes. Kaduvrindavan. stem thick. Sk. L. monœcious. sub-globose.—Cucurbitaceæ. red. branches more or less pubescent. COM. subcampanulate. Fl. :—An extensively climbing annual. NS. FAM. an alkaloid. :—Deccan.—A climbing shrub. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". COM. fever. solitary. Fr. tendrils bifid. young shoots woolly. M. lobes obovateoblong. t. F. Indrayana. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. asthma . hairy. E. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure.— usually margined.

The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. :—Widely cultivated in India. :— E. Narenj. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Sukkare-kanji. jaundice. Naringa. removes " Vata ". Sk. throat diseases. anæmia. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. laxative. tonic. removes biliousness. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Also indigenous in Arabia. relieves vomiting and retching. cures tumours. fever and worms. antipyretic. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). good in vomiting and skin diseases. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. enlargement of spleen. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. Gujarat. constipation. Sunthura. Root and fruit cooling. bowel complaints. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). bronchitis. Narange. FAM. :—Konkan. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Narangi.—Rutaceæ. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. constipation. H. diuretic. W. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. Ceylon. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. K. relieves colds. useful in piles. urinary discharges. anthelmintic . pain in joints. LOC. Rind— anthelmintic. Tvakasugandha. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. DISTR. removes fatigue . dyspepsia. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . aphrodisiac. NS. anthelmintic. G. In the Konkan fruit and root. epilepsy. Kittale. Kirmirtvaka. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. Flower— stimulant. aphrodisiac . asthma. Asia. Nagaranga. ulcers. LOC. DISTR. with or without nux-vomica. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. N. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. sea-shores. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. astringent. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. " Kapha". ascites. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. Santra. chest troubles. sweet and has agreeable flavour. Naringi. Fruit—sour. leuco-derma. Doddile. Cardiotonic. tuberculous glands of neck. M. carminative. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. and lumbago. enlargement of spleen. COM. cooling. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). purgative. Deccan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. useful in biliousness. fortifies chest. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. tonic. good in fevers. (Poona. elephantiasis .

HABITAT :—Cultivated. Jambira. Amlakeshara. cures leprosy. Sk. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Seeds—indigestible. PARTS USED. used in constipation and tumours. Lemon . stimulant. LOC. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. heating. G. COM. Limonum. Paharinimbu . Thora-limbu. FAM. G. Bijaura. relieves sore-throat. intoxication. cough. H. Kutla. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Flowers—stimulant. leaves and flowers hot and dry. also corrects foetid breath. the juice allays ear-ache. See—Fruit Trees. Devamadala. seeds. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. Ruchaka. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. useful in abdominal complaints. Mahaphala. :—Roots. thirst. Bijoru. astringent to bowels . aphrodisiac. oily. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Citron . though there are no regular plantations. DoddaGaja-nimba. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). sharp. Sk. B and C. useful in vomiting. bark and fruit. :—E. Harale. jaundice. removes colic. Motalimbu . The fruits contain vitamins A. flatulence. K. LOC. tonic and astringent properties. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. According to Theophrastus. fruits and seeds. juice refrigerant and astringent. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Bera nimbu. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. LOC. NS. Idalimbu. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Turanj. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Matalunga. anthelmintic. digestible. Rusaki. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mahalunga. its preserve is used for dysentery. K. M. dry and tonic . rind of the fruit is bitter. Matulunga. PARTS USED :—Root. Mahanimbu. increase appetite. :—Citron rind is hot. M. :— E. . Fruit—sweet and sour. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Mahaphala. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. relieve vomiting. the pulp cold and dry.:—Grown in gardens in the State. USES. Ghats. asthma. Madala. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Matunga. COM. anasarca and chronic fever. NS. Mavalunga. asthma. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative.—Rutaceæ.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Adam's apple. said to be wild in W. Turanj. cough. VAR. Balank. flowers. H. Bijapurna. with a sharp taste. tonic. anæmia. hiccup.

—in axillary corymbose panicles. brain disorders. eyes .—Sept.—Ranunculaceæ. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. K. stimulant . with long feathery tails . long ovate or orbicular. NS. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. not good in old age. :—E. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. NS. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Nimbe. anthelmintic. H. blades 2-2. cures abodominal complaints. improves liver. G. relieves biliousness. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Lebu. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". relieves vomiting . PARTS USED :—Fruit. it cures and prevents scurvy. loss of appetite. Fl. Morata. Morvel. hemicrania. M. :—G. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). whole plant tomentose. heart. constipation. Amlasara. K. measles. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . COM. Acid-Sour lime . also useful in rheumatism. VAR. Khatalimbu. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Snuva. Limpaka. but often found trailing amongst grass. Fruit—sour.—simple or once ternate. Fl. :—An extensive climber. fatigue .Nov. t. Nebu. Madhulika. CHAR. petioles twinning. sharp taste. white. LOC. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. Limbe. Dhantiate. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Shodhana. ovoid. vomiting. Limbu. COM. Sk.—achenes. Murva. sepals 4-6. Ranjai. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Nimbu. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. Nimbuka. M. bronchitis . Devashreni. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. lobes mucronate. . stomachic. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. leaves (rarely). HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. plethora.—petals O. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Kagadi limbu. Sk. scarletina.. Moravel. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. throat trouble. where there is dry skin and much thirst. hairy outside. Churhar. C. Rochana. it helps digestion. H. Fr. Nimbu. Oil from rind. See—Fruit Trees.5 cm. appetiser. silky villous. Lebu. Acida. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. burning in the chest. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Morhari. FAM. with flavour. Murhari.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC.

causes excessive biliousness. removes " Kapha". petioles of lower leaves longer. DISTR.—Sept-June. erect. Bharangi. high. astringent. :—Common in grass lands. K. Gantubarangi. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. reduces tumours and inflammations . NS. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. LOC. hot. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. bitter. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. hairy. and dispel intestinal fermentation. Brahmani. K. Kanphutia. obliquely striate. externally applied to boils. veined. Sauri. Juice— cures ear-ache. gradually becoming shorter upwards. hairy. t. Nayibela. H.—3-5 foliate. Ghats. FAM.—axillary. Hulhul. NS. CHAR. :—G. yellow. very common in the Deccan. stems grooved and glandular. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. stimulates secretion of bile. Fr. useful in leprosy. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). stomachic. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Bharang. HABIT :—A common weed.—Verbenaceæ. leaflets elliptic-oblong. L. DISTR. Tilparni. Sk. Bharangi. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. blood diseases. Leaves—favour digestion. transversely striate. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Kiritekki. M. tapering towards both ends . C. 30-90 cm. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. Sk. diuretic. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. oblong-obovate. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant.—petals 4. and fevers. cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. anthelmintic. in lax racemes. Phanjika. Harhuria. LOC. dryness and urethral discharges. Vatari. :—G. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. FAM. COM. Jangali-harhar. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Konkan. stimulant. .—Capparidaceæ. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Adityabhakta. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear.—capsule. M. Fl. mixed with oil. Bharangi. good in malaria. :—Annual erect herb. subglobose.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Talvari. LOC. Barbara. Tilwan.—brownish black. Karnasphota. used internally in thirst. Kasaghni. laxative. :—W. bitter taste and a strong odour. Sd. H. Kanphodi. Tinmani. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. terminal the largest. COM. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. Fl. laxative.

fevers (Yunani). acrid. tumours. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. biliousness.:—More or less throughout India. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. Sd. Fl. Root is purgative and diuretic.5 X 2-3. leaves and seeds. LOC. with an orange centre. Kajli. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Girikarniballi. tuberculous glands. good for eye-diseases. 3. hairy. t— June-Jany.. :—G. elliptic oblong. leaflets 5-7.2 cm. standard bright blue or white. Gokarni.—pale blue. burning sensation. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. stems bluntly quadrangular. . LOC. anthelmintic. obovoid. fevers. anthelmintic. solitary. Koyala. Vishnukranta. COM. lessens expectoration.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR.. elephantiasis. spreading. C.—imparipinnate. asthma. Malay Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. Gokarnika. sharply serrate. Kalina. and blue flowered. inflammations. L. PARTS USED :—Root. beaked. blood diseases. consumption. heating. in lax dichotomous cymes. epilepsy. collectively forming a terminal panicle. Kowa. Fr. H. leaves and seeds.. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork.—axillary. Fl.5-15 X 5. Aparajita. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. DISTR. sometimes opposite. The plant contains an alkaloid.— Aug.-Oct. 4 lobes flat. the larger lower lobe dark purple. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. Wowatheti. 12. tonic to the brain.—Shrub. Fr. useful in inflammation. wounds (Ayurveda). FAM. :—A perennial twining herb. long . diuretic. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. alexiteric. lower one deflexed. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. C. bronchitis. smooth. useful in bronchitis. "Vata".8-5 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—In hedges.7-6.—many. Ceylon.—much exerted. 2-2. high. leucoderma. nearly straight. stomachic. oblong or elliptic. hiccup. burning sensation. Sk. headache. Garani.2 m. LOC. Aparajita.—6-10 yellowish brown. 0. L. CHAR. showy.—ternately whorled. ulcers of the cornea. cures "Tridosha". tube hairy within. also found throughout the State.— drupe. Root increases appetite. Girikarnika. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. K. black. ulcers (Ayurveda). tubercular glands. pains. Fl. M.3 cm. stems terete. pubescent. Fl. laxative. There are two varieties :—white flowered. flat.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. useful in ascites (Yunani).9-2. NS. asthma. fleshy. DISTR.. ozœna.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). t.

Jamtikibel. biliousness. useful in ascites and fevers. H. G. M. Tondali. Ink-berry. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Oshthi. K. Bimbika. aphrodisiac. Faridburti. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Hunder. Sk. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. wild in hedges. Glum. cause flatulence. leaves.—Menispermaceæ. Bimba. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. fruit. urinary losses. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda).:—Cultivated in gardens. Tana. COM. Bimbi. Leaves—acrid. cures leprosy. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Konkan. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". COM. COCCINIA INDICA W. Country. LOC.—E. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Vasandi. antipyretic . PARTS USED :—Root. tropical Africa. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. USES:—In the Konkan. stops vomiting. Vasanvel. Tundika. Chireta. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. H. Vevdi. & A. Tondeballi. Galedu. FAM. DISTR :—Throughout India. Ghobe. a hormone and an alkaloid. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Garudi. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). See—Vegetables. allays thirst. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).) FAM. diseases of blood. Malaya. M. Seeds are purgative and aperient. K. Fruit— indigestible. . Kambhoja. asthma. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. PROPERTIES AND USES. Vasantitikta.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. dried and powdered. Broom-creeper. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. NS. galactagogue. Root bark. " Vata". S. NS. Deccan.:—Root cooling. Parvel. Kanduri. Sk. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions.—Cucurbitaceæ. consumption. astringent to bowels. burning of hands and feet. LOC. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Dirghvalli. :—G. Bimb. given for uterine discharges. Flowers cure itching. Vevati. The plant contains an enzyme. flowers. HABITAT. Gujarat. Tundi. Ceylon. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. M. and jaundice.

it is heating. burning sensation. Cocoanut palm. laxative. villous . blood diseases. indigestible. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Narikel. cardiotonic. NS. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Jataphala. aphrodisiac. LOC. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). Naral. Tengu. rugose . China. Mad. Pegu. S. Nalivar. aphrodisiac. as a cure for gonorrhœa. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. tonic. COM. H. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. Fl.—Palmæ.3-3. oil. Deccan. tonic. LOC. Antipyretic. Flower-cooling . . Tenginmara. Konkan. useful in leprosy.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. oleaginous. "Kapha" and "Vata". Milk—cooling.—3. fattening. India and Ceylon. LOC. Fl. Sk. Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. causes "Kapha". S. bronchitis.—drupe. useful in diabetes.8-6. lessens bile and burning sensation. fermented juice. t. urinary discharges. subdeltoid or subhastate. bark. and put on to sore-eyelids. lessens thirst. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . Toyagarbha. India. laxative and sudorific.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR.3 X 1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. tumours. DISTR. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Seed-cooling. 2-8 together. Arabia. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S.8 cm. 3-5 nerved. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. young parts densely Villous. Narial.—Dec. constipation. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. In the Konkan. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. good in fractures. enriches blood. Mangalya. tuberculosis.:— A straggling scandent shrub. it is used for coughs. appetiser. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). useful in biliousness. Fr. female in axillary clusters. fattening. M. FAM. flowers. Leaf-juice. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Mahaphala. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. laxative. tropical Africa. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda).. biliousness. aphrodisiac. alexipharmic . Nariyal. It is also used as a refrigerant. seed.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. PARTS USED :—Root. also in many places in the interior. HABITAT :—In hedges. which is taken internally with sugar. :—E. DISTR. L. Kanara. size of a small pea. thirst. mixed with water. with a few heads of pepper. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". smells sweetish and pungent. keeled. G. ovate-oblong. ovate. K. Common in Konkan and N.—dioecious. male in small axillary cymose panicles. dysentery.

See—Fruit Trees. China. Bengal. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. Gojivha. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. :—E. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. :—Himalayas. Assam. smooth. polished. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. incipient phthisis and cachexia. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). NS.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. G. bluish grey. LOC. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. Dabha. 6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body.5-6. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . consumption. Rajputana. CHAR. internodes smooth. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. spinously serrate margins. Oil—indigestible. HABITAT :—Gregarious. S. long.. rachis within the bract slender. LOC. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. stem 90-150 cm. Kasai. tonic. Job's tears. It is also used for burns.—Gramineæ COM. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. diuretic. tropical Asia-Africa. LOC. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). It is refreshing and laxative. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. lessens inflammations . Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Japan. Fr.6-10 mm. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. Sk. Oil—sweet. diuretic . midrib stout. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. piles . India. promotes hairgrowth. Gavedhu. Ran-jondhala.—10-15 x 2. Fl. Oils. useful in urinary complaints. abundant in standing water. asthma. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. ulcers (Ayurveda). USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. fermented juice is intoxicating. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. Polynesia. L. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. Malaya. useful in lumbar-pain. long. liver complaints.3 cm. Gurlu . DISTR. FAM. t. above the bract stout.5-5 cm. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. B and C. useful in fever. polished. bronchitis. M. rooting at the lower nodes. America. high or more. Madhya Pradesh. sheaths long. it also purifies blood. Madhya Bharat. :—A tall leafy grass. stout. notched at the nodes .—Oct.—monœcious racemes 2.—broadly ovoid to globose. smooth. H. it promotes growth of hair. base cordate. Fl.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. piles and scabies (Yunani. fattening. enriches blood. increases body weight. paralysis. Fibres. Jargadi.

LOC. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Bhuselu. and dyspepsia. Gujarat. Gondan. laxative. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. leaves and fruit. G. also efficacious in skin-diseases. In jutegrowing districts. COM. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Chaunchan . FAM. histidin. serrate. :—Konkan. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. C.—7. The plant contains leucin. Col. Patta. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. not beaked. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice.—few in each cell. lysin. subglobose. Resalla. 5-valved.— Sept. wedgeshaped. G. ridged and muricated. Pistan. :—An annual herb. brown. carminative. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn.:—E. arginine and coicin. Sebesten plum. L. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. 12 mm.—Tiliaceæ. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. Sk. growing very tall under cultivation.5-10 X 2-3. NS. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. yellow. stomachic. diam. Lassora. Jute .— capsule. Hadige. astringent. COM. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. NS. Bhokar. H. Mannadike. Kalasaka.—Boraginaceæ. buds obovoid. M. fever. Bargund.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . lanceolate. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. smooth. Challa.—petals 4-5. Bhukerbudara. also as antiperiodic. Sk. FAM. See—Fodder Plants. DISTR.—in short cymes. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. It is also used as a bitter tonic. Rayagundo. . anthelmintic. K. Fr. acute or acuminate. M. Chhunchh . See—Fibres. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Bhokar. t. PARTS USED :—Root. and intestinal antiseptic.2 cm. cultivated in most tropical countries. Fl. :—E. CHAR. Sd. Fl. tyrosin. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd.

eye-pains. heart and liver. Syria. LOC. Allaka. diseases of chest and urethra. tropical Australia. anthelmintic. Konphir. inflammations. Bark is used as a mild tonic. biliousness. expectorant. pains in joints. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. uterus and urethra. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. M. maturant. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Egypt. . Fruits are used as spice. anthelmintic. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Kothamir. stimulant. bronchitis. Ghats. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). cooling. G. also cultivated. tuberculous glands. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). carminative and antispasmodic. H. Fibres. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Coriander. Kustumburi. bechic. Leaves—hypnotic. cures thirst. used in dry cough. anthelmintic. LOC. analgesic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. LOC. Hivija. FAM. DISTR. Fruit is aromatic. causes suppuration. leaves (rarely) and fruit. :—Cultivated throughout India. often planted. See—Timbers. stomachic. jaundice. diseases of chest. used as an expectorant and astringent. diuretic. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). tooth-ache. Sk. :—Throughout India. antipyretic. vomiting.:—E. Kothambri. Satpudas. PARTS USED :—Bark. The plant and fruit— acrid. Fruit—diuretic. thirst. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. Dharika. Vitunnaka. piles. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. tonic to brain. vulnerary. K. highly esteemed in coughs. gives appetite. Kanara. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. Seeds—aphrodisiac. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. stomatitis. dyspepsia. widely known from Palestine. headache. laxative.:—Throughout the State in W. DISTR. bleeding gums. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. burning of throat. LOC. removes bad humours. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. wild and cultivated. gleet. Kothimbir. scabies. Mesapotamia and Greece. chronic fevers. used in syphilis. Dhania. Cochin-China. biliousness. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. purgative. aphrodisiac. COM. Ceylon. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut.—Umbelliferæ. biliousness. indigestion. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. useful in hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. stimulant.

root-stock tuberous. Malay Islands. high. Sd. fever. COM. Sk. CHAR. red. It is also astringent and digestive. M. The plant yields an essential oil.—Aug. Pinga. Keu. Penva. NS. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Chikke. anæmia. :—Almost all over India (Assam. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Kushtha. NS. Pakarmula.—capsule. t. L. inflammations. Fl. in moist and shady places. LOC. hiccup (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. COM. globosely 3-gonous. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. " Kapha". Khandala. :—More or less throughout India. Changalkashta. Sk. K. Varuna. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. S. India.—Capparidaceæ. M. Barna. silky-pubescent beneath. spirally arranged. useful in catarrhal fevers. Vayavarno.2-2. nalas. Varvunna. K. Vayavarna. Madhya Bharat. bright red. many. Var. Nervele. LOC. a tonic is prepared from it. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . lobes ovate-oblong. China. :—An erect plant 1. and aphrodisiac. sheaths coriaceous . coughs and skin diseases. Fr. Fl. FAM. lip white with yellow centre. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. M.:—Konkan ghats. Biliana. LOC. H. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Var. concave. bracts ovate. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. By the earliest writers. USES:—Root is anthelmintic.7-7. mucronate. Mahakapittha. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. lumbago.—Scitamineæ. Bilpatri. Varuna. rheumatism. depurative. Varno. subequal. Hadawarna.— tube short. Castle Rock.7 m. subsessile. crisped. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Bitusi. Shura. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. FAM. . Country. dyspepsia. PARTS USED:—Root. :—G. and " Vata". Kashmira. also planted near Muslim tombs.-Oct. Kust. DISTR. Pushkarmula. See—Condiments and Spices. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Ceylon. useful in bronchitis. :—G.5 cm. oblong. Kumaraka. DISTR. Pushkarmula. Kemuka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. H. stem sub-woody at the base . Karikuttu. Ajapa.— black with white aril.—15-30 X 5.— in very dense spikes. S. C.

heating. aphrodisiac.5-10 cm. Wild or cultivated. bark. defective vision. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. bright green. lumbago. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. diuretic. carminative. Bark promotes appetite. L. as long as the tube. linear lanceolate. flowers and fruits. Fl. linear. USES:—Root is alterative. Nagdavana. Seeds—purgative.5 cm. "Pitta" and "Kapha". removes "Vata". Nag-damani. also wild.. diam. beaked.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used.9-1. and seeds. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. H. bechic. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm.—20-30.. fragrant at night. Sd. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. anthelmintic. anthelmintic. Fr. vesicant. Pindar. Kanwal.—subglobose. vomiting. toothache. lobes 6. good in strangury. DISTR. Kanmu. tuberculous glands. antilithic. emmenagogue. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin.—1 (rarely 2).—Amaryllidaceæ. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. lung and spleen diseases. K. expectorant. urinary concretions. leaves. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. useful in bronchitis. antipyretic. Sk. anuria. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. The plant contains saponin. expectorant. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. X 12. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . vulnerary. found wild in North and South Konkan. bulb 5-10 cm. scape 45-90 cm. detergent. LOC. LOC. Visha-Mandalamardini. :—Throughout tropical India. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. night-blindness. gonorrhœa. urinary discharges. then sweet. CHAR. perianth tube greenish-white. chest and blood diseases. . bitter. strangury. digestive. M. with a sheathing base. Tonic. cylindric. Chindar. COM. diseases of vagina. Kanda-shalini. leaves. Ceylon.—15-50 in an umbel. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. useful in biliousness. Nagadown. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nag-damani. white. 0. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). NS. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). bracts 7. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated.:—G. it promotes appetite. Patra-pushpi. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. flat. laxative. chest. laxative. See—Timbers. tumours. act as rubefacient and vesicant. thin. increases secretion of bile.5-18 cm. long. stomachic. Vishamungalli. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda).

PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. G. :—Naturalised in S. useful in mental troubles. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. Bhutankusam. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. insanity. NS. :—Rare in the State. abdominal diseases. Japala. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. leaves and seeds. good in sore eyes. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). China. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Sk. expectorant. Oil cathartic. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. FAM. fever. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Jamalgota . Oil from the seed is purgative. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. M. bruises and rheumatic swellings. nauseant and diaphoretic. Chucka . . K. H. naturalised or cultivated. carminative. Nepal. bronchitis (Ayurveda). In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever.. M. cathartic. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. See—Ornamental Plants. Jepal. Burma. See—Timbers. Konkan. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. emetic.—Euphorbiaceæ. etc. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. NS. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Danti. :—Sylhet. Ganasur. Ceylon. bark. Purging croton . Jamalgota. Seeds cause burning sensation. Nepala . Sk. it is in great request. DISTR. near Junnar (Poona Dist).—Euphorbiaceæ. Madhya Pradesh. :—Bengal. Burma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. The plant contains lycorin. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. inflammations. Assam to Malacca. Kanara. in small doses. Jayapala. COM. Ceylon . Nepala. FAM. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Bengal. :—H. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Ieucoderma. tonic. :—E. excessive phlegm. LOC. convulsions. Danti. Malay Islands. LOC. Western Peninsula. Chota-Natpur. DISTR. As an application to sprains. COM. USES:—Fresh root is emetic.

fruit and seeds. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. galactagogue. Kalangida. cures " Vata ". laxative. Kharbuja. It is given internally with great caution. Chibdu Shakarteti. M. See—Timbers. strengthens heart. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. used in liver and kidney troubles. Seeds—lachrymatory. Karkati. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. They are edible. H. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. &c. K. tonic. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. LOC. gives headache. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Kachra. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Sk. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Valungi. diaphoretic. LOC. brain and body. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. chronic fever. LOC. Sk. Kharbuja. Ripe fruit—sweet. wholesome. .:—E. Fruit—tonic. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. Tarkakadi. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. Rind—vulnerary. Shantanu. DISTR. Pathira . urinary discharges. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Mutrala. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. Kakni. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. biliousness. allays fatigue. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. nutritive and diuretic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. dropsy. oily. H. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. may cause indigestion. Sweet melon . FAM. insanity. cooling. G. :—G. diuretic. C. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Kankadi. Kakri. M. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. MELO Var. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. thirst (Yunani). insanity. Chibuda. Melon. Lomashi. Mahanaracha Rasa. synovitis.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. Shadrekha. It is useful in apoplexy. Vrittervaru. obstinate constipation. COM. in ascites and anasarca. NS. bronchitis. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. cures ophthalmia. Karkali. convulsions. fattening. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. laxative. and lock-jaw. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. diuretic. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. :—In Deccan. Kharbuja. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. ascites. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Valaka. Said to be truly wild in India. NS. ascites. COM. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Kakadi. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. colic.

See-Fruit Trees. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fruit—fattening . rigid. Khira. Tansali. L. FAM. fruits. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. :—A perennial climber. cooling. G. Sk. strangury. Sudhavsa. COM. Chitravalli. good for brain and body. Sd. Sk. hairy. and C. Kakari. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). astringent. enrich blood. NS. fever. pulp bitter. antipyretic. Ripe one tonic. "Kapha" and flatulence. lobulate or dentate . Seeds—diuretic. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn.:—N. purgative. Karit. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world.:—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. M. CHAR. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed.—white. dry. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. H. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. diuretic. t. Cucumber. COM. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. H. See—Vegetables. M. cures biliousness. Khira. Vishala. roasted and powdered. . Fl. :—G. melo var.—subglobose or ellipsoid. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). Seed oil used in fever. fatigue. Cultivated in all parts of India. stem slender. improve complexion.—yellow segments elliptic. cordate at the base. LOC. male in clusters. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Yunani). CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. lobes obovate. LOC. cures thirst. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. Kothiban. allay thirst. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Tavasa. LOC. causes "Vata". Seeds possess cooling properties. Fr. NS.— suborbicular. indigestible. B. FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. stomachic. Kankdi.—monœcious . Mrigadani. K. female peduncle longer than male.—June-Sept. angled. Sushitala. utilissimus (Ayurveda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. DISTR. are administered in throat affections. Hislambhi. biliousness. tendrils simple. Santekayi. Kakdi. Fl. margined . they are also used as diuretic. seeds. used in thirst. Kumbhakshi. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). They are nutritive. India is considered to be the original home. C. Takamaki. Trapusha. pale yellow when ripe.

Afghanistan. carbuncles. tonic. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. HABITAT. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. HABITAT :—Cultivated. on hedges. See—Vegetables. COM. cures cough. K.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kumra. :—E. increases " Vata ". fruits and seeds. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Kadimah. unhealthy ulcers. Pumpkin. DISTR.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. In Malabar.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. Pitakushmand. Kumbala. H. Kushmand. Seeds are used as taeniacide. LOC. COM. NS. Kaddu. Koron. H. Sk. M. NS. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Kushmand. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Dried fruit indigestible . CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. Dudia. : — E. M. Iran. G. Safedkaddu . Tambda bhopala. Melon pumpkin. Red squash gourd. cultivated in many parts of India. Malaya. B and C. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. Karkarn. Kashiphala. :—Cultivated. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. LOC. increases " Vata" . stomachic. Fruit contains vitamins A. Dangari. indigestible. Bhopala. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Australia. Sk. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . LOC. Punyalata. Mithakaddu. The plant contains glucoside saponin. improves taste (Ayurveda). G. . DISTR. etc.:—Considered to be a native of America.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. FAM. allays thirst. Kumbala. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. N. LOC. USES. Vegetable marrow.—Cucurbitaceæ. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. PARTS USED :—Root. astringent to bowels . Ceylon. LOC. fruit is used to prevent insanity. FAM .

stomachic. NS. FAM. good for teeth. Neltati gadde. thirst. belching . Kapha " and " Vata ". Girautmi. Cures " Vata " tumours. antipyretic. leucoderma. inflammations. gonorrhœa.—Umbelliferæ. M. carminative. . throat and eyes. emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. tonic. Musali. Mushalikand . heals corneal opacities. Gaurajerka. remove biliousness. Neladati. and the root for making these more potent. See—Condiments and Spices. vulnerary. abortifacient. uterine stimulant. FAM. fever. Kalimusali. PARTS USED :—Fruit. ft contains vitamins A and C. also a lactagogue. increases appetite . good for kidney and brain (Yunani). Dirghaka. :—G. Seeds—diuretic. antidysenteric. NS. astringent to bowels. astringent to bowels. cure haemoptysis. tonic to intestine. LOC. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. Sk. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Sk. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). LOC. Kalimusali. cures haemoptysis. bronchitis. LOC. fatigue. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. appetiser. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. fattening. Fruit astringent. Jiru. Seeds anthelmintic. Zira. cooling. purifies blood (Ayurveda). :—E. DISTR. anthelmintic. leprosy. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. stops epistaxis . astringent. beneficial in consumption. G. haematinic. relieves hiccup. COM. Seeds are taeniacide. ulcers. carminative. tonic. scabies.—Amaryllidaceæ. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. H. H. Leaves—digestible. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. laxative. K. carminative. enlargment of the spleen. See—Vegetables. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Kalimusali. Ajjika. Fruit yields an essential oil. Cumin. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. Fruit—very cooling. analgesic. fruit and seeds. Jire. cures leprosy. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. sweet. Jirige. Talamulika. Jira. biliousness. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. allays thirst. Dipaka. COM. M. K. fever. eye-diseases. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. diuretic and demulcent. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. scorpion sting (Ayurveda).

L. common at the beginning of rains. clavate . CHAR. L. scape. flowering bract greenish-white. NS. t. vomiting. all skin-diseases.:—Sweet. black. aphrodisiac. debility and impotence. with a beak . " Vata". expectorant. fatigue. useful in piles. Kapurahaldi. W. diarrhœa. COM. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. Java. hydrophobia. diarrhœa. blood-diseases (Ayurveda).:—W. . colic. bitter. alterative and tonic. Fl. tonic. M. causes "Vata". t.. FAM. lumbago. bronchitis. Bitter. asthma. aphrodisiac. hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES. oblong. Sd. scabies. H.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—A small herb. Peninsula.—sessile or petiolate. Karpuraharidra. stomatitis (Yunani). LOC. :—Bengal. very short. emollient.— May-June. Bengal. aphrodisiac.5 cm. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. Fl. Amragandha. gonorrhœa. gonorrhœa. pains in joints (Yunani). tips sometimes rooting. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. cooling. LOC. Fr. yellow. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. useful in bronchitis. :—Konkan and N. gleet. Ambahaladara.—Scitamineæ.—capsule. laxative. appetising. Ambahaldi. Sk. Peninsula. sessile.8-5 cm. biliousness. useful in inflammations. ophthalmia. DISTR. antipyretic. DISTR. rhizome. ulcers on penis. 1545 X 1. :—Konkan and Gujarat. gleet. appetiser. shining . C—white or very pale-yellow. diuretic. jaundice. often cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. appetiser. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Assam.— in autumnal spikes 7. oblong lanceolate. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. linear or linear-lanceolate . troubles in the mouth and ear.5 cm.—grooved. lumbago. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . distichous. Ambehalad. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. during convalescence after acute illness. :—Stemless herb. alterative. cylindric or ellipsoid. Root—carminative. indigestion. PARTS USED :—Root. K.5-15 X 3. root stock large. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers.3-2. 30-45x7. LOC. perianth segments elliptic. inflammations (Ayurveda). oblong. piles. alexiteric. Kanara.-Sept. pale yellow inside . Fl.—long petioled in tufts. Amhaladi. G. fattening. tubers thick.5-12. Fl. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . useful in biliousness. antipyretic. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. antipyretic.— in racemes. hairy on the back. Mango-ginger. :—E. Malay Archipelago. maturant.

tubers yellow and aromatic inside. Halad. used as an application for skin-diseases. L. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. t. base deltoid. DISTR. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. sometimes cultivated. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. Sholika. H. Vanarishta. See—Condiments and Spices. Fl. annulate. Banharidra. :—E. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. It is considered tonic and carminative. long. upper half funnel-shaped. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Ran-halad.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. 3lobed. palmately branched.-May. appearing before leafing stem. Haridra. Halad. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. Sk. Varnadatri. Also cultivated in Konkan. Halada. Indian saffron. DISTR. M.—Scitamineæ. K. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. rounded at the tips. Sometimes cultivated. LOC. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Banhaladi. H. COM. NS. lateral lobes oblong. it is seldom used alone . Kapur-kachali. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. also stomachic. Bengal. CHAR. Jayanti. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. green. Turmeric. Cochin-Wild turmeric. pale green. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. biennial. M. appetiser . G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. lobes pale-rose. LOC. Mangalya. in spikes 15-30 cm. flowering bracts cymbiform. Arishina. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Yellow Zedoary. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. the dorsal longer. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. . Harita. lip yellow. FAM. :—Stemless herb. flowers fragrant. Sk. :—E.. COM. long.— flowering stem sheathed. C. NS. Sholi. Aranyaharidra. root-stock large. FAM. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. :—Western Peninsula. Vanhaldara. variegated above. sessile. forming pouches for the flowers.—Scitamineæ.5 cm.—tube 2. Fl.

K. Fl. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. 3-gonous. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. alexiteric. appearing before the leaves. Hakhir. destroys foulness of breath. lip 3-lobed. bronchitis. used in prurigo. Kachuri. The plant contains curcumin. LOC. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . long.— flowering stem 20-25cm. Narakachora. Shathi. Kachora. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. swellings. small-pox. antipyretic. flowers yellow in spikes. bruises (Yunani). diuretic. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. COM. emollient. useful in " Kapha". anthelmintic. laxative. Himalayas and Chittagong. "Vata ". useful in leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. coma-bract crimson or purple . Zedoary. In coryza. urinary discharges. carminative. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. oblong. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. an alkaloid. In small-pox and chicken-pox. heating. Karechura. root-stock of palmately branched.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Fr. said to be Wild in E. leucoderma. odour like camphor. fragrant. clouded with purple down the middle. Jatala. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. clothed with sheaths. anthelmintic. H. bitter. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. appetiser. taste bitterish spicy. vulnerary. scabies. M. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. boils. pale-yellow inside. flowering bract green tinged with red . inflammations. jaundice. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa.—capsule. . an ointment prepared from the rhizome. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. piles. :—Stemless herb. vulnerary. bruises. good for liver affections. G. FAM . tonic. sprains (Ayurveda). CHAR. scabies. See—Condiments and Spices. bitter. fumes are used during hysteric fits . alexiteric. improves complexion. :—Cultivated in the State. lobed . heating. Tuber is used as a stimulant. HABITAT :—Cultivated. L. and yields an essential oil. It contains vitamin A. DISTR. maturant. Kachari. Kachora. boils and urticaria. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis .—4-6 with long petioles. 30-60 cm. urinary discharges. blood diseases. externally applied to leech-bites. internally administered in blood disorders. Bitter. LOC. asthma. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. Sk. long. oblong-lanceolate. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. itches etc.:—E. cylindric. annulate tubers. C. deepyellow. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema.—Scitamineæ.—funnel shaped. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. Gandhamulaka sara. bruises. NS.

those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. CHAR. Gandhatrina. neuralgia. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. chronic rheumatism. Bhustrina. Tubers yield an essential oil. upto over 90 cm. up to over 1. stimulant and carminative. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. it is also a good application for ringworm. and other painful affections. anthelmintic. high. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). leprosy. DISTR.. tuberculous glands of neck. others narrow and separating. tonic to brain and heart. carminative. laxative.—Gramineæ. epileptic fits. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. sharp hot taste.—linear tapering upwards to a point. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. L. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. It is also aromatic. nodding. aphrodisiac. COM. gastric irritability. applied to bruises and sprains. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. pains. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. emmenagogue. H. LOC. NS. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. Purhati hullu. toothache (Yunani). sprains. bitter. carminative. useful in griping of children. Gavati-chaha. culm stout.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. G. Putigandha. Bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. good odour.8 m. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. sheaths terete . :—A tall perennial. sheaths of the culm tight. and is of great value in cholera. long. Takratrina. Ligule very short. M. Lilicha. midrib whitish on the upper side. furunculosis. of much use in typhoid fevers. Sk. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. velvety at the nodes. hot. alexipharmic. erect. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. appetiser. expectorant. Majjige hullu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. inflammations. glaucous green. laxative. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. long.:—E. LOC. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. enlargement of spleen. it is stimulant. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. sharp. Externally it is rubefacient. emetic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. LOC. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. Lemon grass. K. probably of Indian origin. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). also used as a tonic and depurative. It is an excellent stomachic to children. useful in bronchitis. alexipharmic. FAM. .

—Gramineæ. M. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. pains.4 m. Dhro. See-Oils. Kobbar. Ghats. in the Himalayas.t. bronchitis. Harali. straw coloured. Mirchiagand.—2-10 cm. leprosy. pungent. HABITAT:—Open grass lands.:—Grows all over the State. carminative. Geramium grass. oblique or divaricate. glaucous beneath. Fl. :—Punjab. Roshagavat. thirst. Bahuvirya. leprosy. Fl. Country. Gharo. stem. widely creeping. heart diseases. sweet. H.5-2. :—E. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. useful in fevers. FAM. throughout India. M. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. slender.—grain.3 cm. K. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Bujina. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. Rhusghas. margins scabrid.—throughout the year. Africa to Morocco. L. CHAR. Sk. Saugandhika. X 1 cm. H. Deccan. long. LOC. soft. epileptic fits. subcordate or rounded at the base. Durba. Vasanchullu. scabies. 12-18 mm. Fl. throat troubles. CHAR. Shatagranthi. NS. COM.—flat. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Rohisha. most warm countries. leafy. 1 mm. high. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. :—Cosmopolitan . :—Sourashtra. G. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. Baluchistan. burning sensation. smooth.—spikes 2-nate. with erect flowering branches 7. through N. fatigue. narrowly linear.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. useful in biliousness. cooling. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. NS. Sind. L. 1. Durva. usually broad. K. PARTS USED :—Whole plant.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. Rohisha. bad taste in the mouth. green or purplish.-Nov.—Oct. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. Shyamaka. high. Konkan. hallucinations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. vomiting. M. COM. Sk.. Shatamula. bitter. upto 2. W. Mangala. wide below. long. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. Fl. Durva. Afghanistan. Bhutika. Fr. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. prostrate . and Ceylon ascending to 3. sheaths tight. long.5-5 cm. S.5-30 cm. LOC. skin . DISTR. Garikehallu. particularly the Deccan trap areas. :—E. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). Roshdo. LOC. finely acute. long. :—A perennial grass . stem. Gujarat. Dhoboghas. G.000 m. FAM. forming matted tufts. t.—Gramineæ.

hiccup (Yunani). t. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. blood diseases. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. difficult to eradicate. Kachhola. anthelmintic. K. dyspepsia. narrowly linear. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Bitterish. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. used as a diaphoretic and astringent.— in simple or compound umbel. :—G. diaphoretic.—shorter or longer than the stem. Motha. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. PARTS USED :—Tubers. :—Glabrous herb. bruises. pruritis. expectorant. Tubers yield an essential oil. Koranarigadde. pain. diarrhœa. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. stolons elongate. They are also diuretic and stimulant. Fl. FAM. fevers. Tungegaddo. Bimbal. :—Throughout India. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. most hot countries. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. Mutha. anthelmintic. diarrhœa. LOC. erysipelas. useful for ulcers and sores. biliousness. spikelets 10-50 flowered. Motha. it is diuretic. biliousness. . LOC. fever. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. See—Fodder Plants. trigonous. Mustaka.. stomachic. blood diseases. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. L. burning sensation. emmenagogue. stomatitis. acrid. epilepsy. Nut—broadly ovoid. vulnerary. vulnerary. Sugandhi-granthila. dysentery. epistaxis (Ayurveda). epistaxis. useful in vomiting. astringent. urinary concretions (Yunani). COM. Nagarmotha. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. Motha. vomiting.5 cm.82. Granthi. appetiser. very troublesome weed. CHAR. juice is used in hysteria. LOC. Root— diuretic. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. dysentery. 0. cooling.. epilepsy and insanity. In Ceylon. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. H.—Cyperaceæ. USES :—Roots are commonly. fever. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. DISTR. ophthalmia. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Fl. Sk Bhadramusta.—Sept-Nov. useful in leprosy. NS. thirst. M. Ceylon. greyish black.

-Jany. Kaladhatura. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. stem hairy. somewhat zigzag. NS. 18 cm. Country. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. Phalakantak. spur acute.—many. subglobose. Kala-dhotara. reflexed. inner curved high over the staminal column.—capsule.—thin. Ceylon. CHAR. Unmatta. has been isolated and its mode of action studied.—Solanaceæ. velvety pubescent beneath. :—Annual shrub. . double.—purple outside. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. tubular. entire or with large teeth or lobes. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. Rajdhattura.—Asclepiadaceæ. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. HABIT :—A common weed.—Sept-Dec. Kariyu-Um-Matta. H.5-15 X 3. yellowish brown. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. afterwards racemose. divaricately branched. :—A perennial twining herb. a glucoside. Fr. M. Black-Purple datura. COM.—follicle. Sd. Fl. Sk. C. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". long 10-20. :—H. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). high. Ns.g. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Kaladhatura. lobes spreading.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. DISTR. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . acute. soft spiny. :—Deccan.—Aug. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. glabrous above. nodding. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. FAM. Fl. CHAR. covered with straight sharp prickles. greenish-yellow or dull-white. COM.2-7. funnel-shapped..—7. broadly ovate or suborbicular. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice.2 cm. Sk. beak long.5 cm. G. ovate. packed. Gujarat. ciliate. t. outer truncate. Utarni. Fl. Bhranta. Utran. on curved stalk 3. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. usually pubescent. Kanaka.:—E. paralytic ileus. corona outer and inner. K: Dhattura. S. Kanaka. Administered after the third stage of labour. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. FAM.5 cm. M. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. L. and sub-involution of the uterus. very unequal at the base. long. LOC. L.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. green. Sd. PROPERTIES AND LOC. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. Fr. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. white inside.— tubular. diam. LOC. solitary. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. 30-60 cm. t. Fl. across. e.

with curdled milk. toddy. mumps etc. black variety is considered to be more powerful. LOC. Carrot. and antispasmodic properties. to increase their stupefying effect. anthelminitic . digestive and heating. Leaf-juice is given internally. LOC. Seeds—narcotic. Gajjari. relieves pain. aphrodisiac. anodyne. useful in leucoderma. biliousness. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. PARTS USED :—Roots. The plant as a whole has narcotic. toxic. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. PARTS USED :—Root. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. in combination with subja. febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Gajar. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. headache. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. DISTR. bronchitis. leaves and seeds. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. equal in effect to atropine. alexiteric. black (Kala) and white (Safed). Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. nosetrouble. heating. febrifuge. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. in gonorrhœa. enlargement of testicles and boils. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Gajar. M. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated.—Umbelliferæ COM. G. Garjara. Gajra. cause headache (Yunani). Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. painful tumours. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. USES :—Out of the two varieties. FAM. (Ayurveda).. Europe. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. emetic. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Cultivated in many parts of India. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. :—E. H. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. ulcers. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Gajar. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bitter. Shikkikanda. K. GranthiPinda-Mula. skin-diseases. tonic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. majum. anthelmintic. emetic. NS. leaves and seeds. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. The whole plant is narcotic. Sk. jaundice. Leaf poultice. ganja. chronic coughs. :—Throughout the tropics. nodes. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. . piles.

corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. cures leprosy. Fl. standard cuneate at the base . rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. USES :—Externally. DISTR. piles. " Tridosha ". removes " Kapha". NS. Malay Peninsula and Islands . chronic affections of chest and lungs. they are also diuretic. bronchitis. B and C. COM. throughout India. fattening. carminative. burning sensation. Burma. margins wavy. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Darh. astringent to bowels. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. high. stomachic.6-1.—in terminal or axillary racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. Tonic. hiccup. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. t. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). prevents death of fœtus in womb . Murele-honne. Root marmalade is refrigerant. nausea (Yunani). piles. 0. K. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). pains. Roots contain vitamins A. cures biliousness.. alexipharmic. China. diuretic. asthma. :—Konkan and N. joints 6-8. tonic. Kitavinashini. " Vata". antidysenteric. Ceylon. chest troubles. H. FAM. thirst.—onefoliate. boiled with honey and fermented.—May-July. ovate-oblong. used in bronchitis. sub-falcate. Salpani. Country. cures typhoid. other fevers. LOC. Philippines. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. astringent to bowels. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. biliousness. good for liver. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. aphrodisiac. tropical Africa. urinary complaints. cough. CHAR. useful in chronic fevers. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). M. membranous. inflammations. Salpan. Shaliparni. Fl. good for inflammation. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. LOC. Salwan. urinary discharges. L. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . :—A woody undershrub. Vidarigandha. Deccan and S. thirst. It is used in fevers. Dirghamula. hairy. Ranbhal. dysentery . Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. :— G. vomiting. green and glabrous above. alterative. Sk. Salparni.—pod. asthma.2 m. expectorant. tumours. they produce a spirituous liquor. paler and hairy beneath. stems and branches angled. LOC. See—Vegetables. indigestible. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. Kanara . cardiotonic. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. hooked hairy. C—violet or white. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. Fr. . anthelmintic. upper edge straight. vomiting and asthma. Salwan. Salwan. M. vomiting. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect.

. rootstock stout. Makurkendi. Kalatendu. Gavandu. Tumari. erect. Ceylon. Darbha. Dab. cures ulcers and " Vata". sheaths glabrous. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. diseases of blood. useful in blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. clothed with sessile spikelets. vomiting. Kanara and the Konkan. H. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Tendu.:—Saurashtra.—many. COM. thirst. Fruit—oleaginous. L. K. Gale. Sk. tufted. Fl. Fl.3-3. Wood cures biliousness. Kalaskandh. skin eruptions. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. PARTS USED :—Wood. diseases of bladder. flowers. heating. Pavitra. DISTR.—Dec. strangury. See—Fodder Plants. good for lumbago. Riber ebony. high. Sphurjaka. fruit and seeds. creeping. vaginal discharges. M. rigid. Temburni. Tinduka. Darbha. :—Perennial tall grass. Flowers—aphrodisiac. LOC. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. Sacred Plants. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. LOC. H. oleaginous. :—Throughout India. interrupted. NS. COM. used in biliousness and blood diseases. ligule a hairy line . :—Along the coasts of N. cooling. diuretic. Zeeberwo. LOC. Anilsara. biliousness. G. reaching 50 cm. margins hispid.—Ebenaceæ. M. branches short crowded.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. :—E. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. smooth. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Konkan. DISTR.—Gramineæ. astringent to bowels. Banda. asthma. long. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Timbwini. branched from the base.8 cm. Gujarat. stolon very stout. . covered with shining sheaths. Tumaki Mara. Syria. t. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places.) FAM. NS. aphrodisiac. Egypt. Thailand (Siam). stems 30-90 cm. Durva. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. vesical calculi.—G. stout. jaundice. Dabha. FAM. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Malay Archipelago. Nubia. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). erect pyramidal or columnar. in the beds of rivers and streams. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. CHAR. Kusha. Davoli. sedative to pregnant uterus. the basal fascicled. -panicle 15-45 X 1. bark. Wild mangosteen.

92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. appetiser. tumours. inflammation. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. acrid. Diuretic. :—Tropics of the old world. liver troubles. Horse-Gram. Surfaces naked. Grains contain vitamin A. densely clothed with red-brown scales. coughs etc. H. intestinal colic. Hurali. LOC. Bijapur and Dharwar. Kulitha. anthelmintic. Kulathi. ozoena. pain in liver. LOC. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. DISTR. cordate. Sitetara. dry. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. :—M. Wandar bashing. NS. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. grown to a certain extent in S. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. See—Timbers. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. COM. Tans. abdominal complaints. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Nasik. cures " Kapha". :—Rhizome creeping. FAM. Kulit. emmenagogue. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. variously lobed. Basingh. base decurrent on the stipe. diseases of the brain and eyes. short. K. improves complexion. CHAR. Kalvrinta. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Kulithaka. generally on trees and rocks. :—E.—Polypodiaceæ. cures hiccup. NS. See-Food Plants. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. G. "Vata". astringent to bowels. piles. Country—Belgaum. enlargement of spleen. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. antipyretic. M. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Texture membranaceous to leathery.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). asthma. leucoderma. Konkan— Ratnagiri. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. PARTS USED :—Seeds. COM.Gahat. Kulthi. urinary discharges. causes biliousness (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. removes stone from kidney. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. Kulthi. Sori two in each primary areole. hot. . Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. ovate. piles. strangury. It is demulcent in calculus affection. FAM. heart-troubles. Kulith. hiccup. Sk. Sk. Jurali. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. eye troubles. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. fertile ones long stalked. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). fattening. stout. Ashvakatri. bronchitis. M. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds.

Bhringraj. Kalobhangro . C. M. M. thirst. Kadechubak. often rooting at the nodes. :—Konkan. yellowish. Utkatara. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). DISTR. Utanti. also cultivated to a certain extent. Ajagara. Utkanto. Utakatara. stems and branches strigose and hairy. . inflammations. dyspepsia. subentire.5 cm. Kantalu. Deccan. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. It is used in hoarse cough. the lobes triangular and oblong. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. tonic.—Compositæ. :—More or less throughout India. COM.9 m. sinuate and spinescent. Maka. Mochand. S. LOC.:—Throughout India. biliousness. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Markara. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. pain in joints. Konkan. diseases of heart.— Nov.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. astringent to bowels . :—G.3—0. LOC. Afghanistan. hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Kantaphala. glabrous above. Keshrangana. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. CHAR. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. " Vata". used in ophthalmia. antipyretic. :—A much branched rigid annual. involucre. Plant stomachic. analgesic. H. improves taste. strigose and hairy. Shulio. dyspepsia and cough. deeply pinnatifid. cooling.— opposite. Bhangra.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Fl. NS. hectic fever. globose. chronic fever. Balari. hysteria. Garagadasoppu. increases appetite. L. useful in brain-diseases. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). bitter. Sunilaka.-Jany. Dadhal. bracts 3seriate. surrounded by strong white bristles. Bhangro. :—G. stimulates liver. LOC. Bhangra. causes " Kapha". L. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. t. 0. spiny. cottony. Fl. FAM. Root— abortifacient. Fr. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. NS. DISTR. gleet. cottony pubescent.—sessile.—Compositæ. CHAR. branches widely spreading from the base. high. Pitripriya. M. Seeds—wholesome. Country.—achene obconic. usually oblong-lanceolate. oblong. :—Kanara. used in strangury. Sk. FAM. long. K. COM. Utkanta. spines 2. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Utkantaka. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. densely villous. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots.—limb linear. wooly beneath. urinary discharges.—heads white. H. sessile. Kadigga-garaga. pappus short.

fevers. cuneate with a narrow wing. a reputed and popular liver tonic. There are two forms erect and prostrate. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). hot.—in heads. Fl. Triputa. alexipharmic. Elachi. anthelmintic. good for complexion. Bahula.—achene. fattening. night blindness. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places.—Scitaminaceæ. antipyretic. DISTR. liver pain. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. .:—India (Bengal. improves colour of hair. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases .. G. FAM. involucral bracts about 8 . eyes. prevents abortion and miscarriage. axillary. eye diseases. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. ray flowers ligulate. Sind.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl.— Oct. Kanara (Siddapur. COM. it is powdered and applied externally. "Vata". pappus 0. Panjab. Bitter . Lesser—Malabar cardamom. cultivated. Choti-Elachi. stomachic. Velchi. heart and skin diseases. Veldoda. Ela. Yalakki. "Kapha". It is given internally in scalding of urine. LOC. cures inflammations. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. cures vertigo (Yunani). t. See—Sacred Plants. It relieves headache when applied with oil. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. hair. leucoderma. disk ones tubular . In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Chandrabala. C—often 4-toothed . good for spleen diseases. H. Madhya Bharat. alterative. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. NS. M. and for strengthening gums. internal diseases. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. syphilis. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Sk. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. :—Western valleys of N. Gandhkuti. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Peninsula). Karangi. Fr. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. K. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Burma. Malaya. anæmia. solitary or 2 together. stomatitis. W. teeth. Ilaji. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ).-Dec. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. toothache. :—E. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Ceylon. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Gourangi. lustre of eyes. LOC. hemi-crania. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. expectorant. hernia. asthma.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. :— G. Boberang.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. NS. Kanisha. causes thirst. Narttaka. CUM.. fruit is tonic. pruritus. lessens inflammation. Ragi. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. LOC. Makra. Nachani. kidney. FAM. Vavading. useful in biliousness. Seed—fragrant. ear and tooth ache. In S.:—Western and S. rich or poor. India. fruit and seeds. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. cause biliousness . scabies. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). cooling. strangury. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. Jantughna. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). cultivated. bronchitis. consumption. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. stomachic. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. clear head. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). stimulant and emmenagogue. Vayuvitang. Sk. LOC. It is stomachic. diuretic. FAM. Bidanga. Varding. useful in asthma.—Gramineæ. K.:—G. M. bad humours of liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. piles. Pavaka. diuretic. Wavrung. H. abortifacient. brain and mouth. PARTS USED :—Grain. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Bhasmaka. carminative. COM. . K. fragrant. It is said to be astringent. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Bavato. chest and throat (Yunani). M. Sk. Rajika. Nagali. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. useful in head. cooling. See—Condiments and Spices. tonic. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. most suitable to hard-working classes. Vidariga. NS. Grains contain vitamin B. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. root is laxative and tonic. Navalo-nagali. pungent. stomachic. H. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. diseases of bladder. See-Food Plants. Marua. alexiteric .—Myrsinaceæ. bitter. tonic to heart. LOC. Vavoding. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. laxative. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. Rotka. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world.

with a sharp bitter taste. K.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. anuria. Amlika. tonic. L. many. H. like a pepper corn when dried. dries wound discharges . flowers. diseases of heart. poisoning. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. Int. Dadi. useful in burning sensation. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). carminative. Adiphala. biliousness.—alternate. China. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). cures bronchitis . internodes long. Embelic myrobalan. antipyretic. reddens urine. :—A large scandent shrub. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. bark studded with lenticels . analgesic. urinary discharges. anthelmintic . Arch. DISTR. t. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Malaya. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Fruit. urinary discharges. greenish yellow. Amla. shining above. Gokhale. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Amalaka. smooth. G. sour. succulent. bark. PARTS USED :—Root. S. sweats. Anward. . :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . constipation. jaundice. anæmia. laxative. ascites. Western Ghats. alterative. Ceylon. Ceylon. cooling. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness.—Euphorbiaceæ. NS. Deccan. Avala. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. " Tridosha ". LOC. 42-II-1932). piles. strangury. LOC. :—Throughout India. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. cures tumours. Pharm. Bitter. leprosy. dry. HABITAT :—Rain forests.—in lax panicles. carminative. S. paler and silvery beneath. good for plethoric constitution. Amlika. wild or planted. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. Fr. Fl. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. COM. Sk. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. alexiteric. slender. Fl. mental diseases. racemes minute. inflammations. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. leaves. " Kapha'. M. Dhatriphala. Paranjpe and G. elliptic-lanceolate. flexible. Daula . vulnerary.—Feb. LOC. (Dymock). hemicrania. :— E. laxative. branches long. China. useful in asthma. fruit and seeds. Kanara. nearly globose. Ambala. erysipelas. bronchitis. good appetiser. :—Hilly parts of the State. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Anola. often planted in Konkan. DISTR. Seed— acrid. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. thirst. et. purgative. K. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. coriaceous. Dhatri.—berry. Konkan and N. Malay Islands.) FAM. dyspnoea. Triphala. anthelminitic. Ther. Bhoza . black when ripe. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. Nellika . alterative. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only.

rounded apex. COM. M. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Nagajivha. t.—Aug. stops nasal hæmorrhage.) FAM. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Nahu. . bark and fruit are astringent. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. M. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. anthelmintic. Sk. H. Tiktapatra. Fl. M. branched from the base. opposite. in axillary clusters all along the stem. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. Malaya. COM. liver complaints. lobes 5. stems erect or procumbent. Garbe. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. LOC.-Nov. Kadvinayi. NS. tropical Africa. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Garambi.—sessile. Hallekayiballi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. diuretic and laxative. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Ind. :—Throughout the greater part of India. expectorant. L. S. Fruit—acrid. improves appetite. Dyes. Lady nut. LOC. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". Unripe fruit is cooling. 3-nerved. sub-quadrangular or terete. :—G. Fr. K. tonic. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. narrowed at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Gujarat. 10—50 cm. NS. Doddakampi. purifies body humours (Yunani). Saurashtra. sour. West Indies. Mamejavo .— capsule. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. Mackary bean.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling.). C—infundibuliform. USES :—Root. used as laxative and astringent. thirst. Grey). vulnerary. Fruit Trees. See—Timbers. Giant's rattle. Madvinashi. :—Konkan. ellipsoid. LOC. :—E. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. piles. variable. Chhotakirayat. R. FAM. Sind. aperient.—Gentianaceæ. astringent. CHAR. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). mid-nerve strong. Dried fruits. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Mabhipaka. Fl. cooling. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Country. cold in the nose.—sessile. eye troubles. :—A perennial glabrous herb. white. Celyon. useful in heart-diseases. biliousness. high. Tans. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Tanavadi.

inflammations.—yellow. ORIENTALIS Merr. hot. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Mandara. Leaves—bitter. branches terete. Mandara.. DISTR. cure urinary discharges. Halivan. Sd. Fl. stomachic.S. diam. Sundribans. L. mixed with spices. glabrous. G. wide and 3-8 cm. LOC.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. :—E. Ceylon. .. smooth. H. Arakan. improve appetite.—pod. C. Nepal. thick. in debility and glandular swellings .— Mar. 4. :—Coast forests of Malabar. Planted as support for pepper vines. pinnae 2—3 pairs. USES :—Powdered kernel. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold.7-5x7. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. leaves. Dadap.) FAM. Kantakinshuka. Andamans and Nicobar.. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. LOC. 30-90 cm. N. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Hongara. often along river banks. rigidly coriaceous. compressed. shining and brown. Indian coral-tree. Salaki. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . :—Konkan and N. Kanara. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. K.3-2 cm.5-5-7 cm.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Bangaro. Paribhadra. oblong or obovate. long. flowers. Fr. along sea-coast above high-water. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. slightly curved. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. The plant is used as a fish-poison. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Pangara. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Peninsula. Pegu. Mullumurige. orbicular. Var. bark used in dysentery.5-10 cm. 3. PARTS USED :—Root. M. COM. Raktapushpa. Panarvo. indented between the seeds. Pangara. DISTR. they are given internally as an emetic. Panjira. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". W.-May. woody.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fl. Tennaserim. t.—6-15. Phandra . dark green. Panderavo. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Planted as ornament. stalked. leaflets 7-5 x 2. long. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Mochi-wood. Sk. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats.—2pinnate. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. anthelmintic. bark. for grapevines in Nasik district. the tropics generally.

serrulate or dentate. Sc. 18th Ind. Govardhan. FL. H. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. G. Sk.—Euphorbiaceæ. bowel complaints and cough in children. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). LOC. dark green above. K. H. Milk bush. gland minute. NS. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Sd. with or without a limb. Sher.—capsule. Dudhi.—opposite.) FAM. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. :—E. FAM. Dudhi. Dudanali. Pill-bearing spurge. appressedly hairy. and to relieve pain of the joints. high. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Cong. branches often 4-angled. Nevli. Kodukalli. it is anthelmintic. Bottugalli. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. erect or ascending. Sendh. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. K. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. t. :— E. Vajradruma. globose. Indian tree spurge. COM. :—Annual herb. rugose. Dudhi. Achchegida.—ovoid-trigonous. Duddi. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Australian asthma herb. M. Mondukalli. Ceylon. Plant is chiefly used for worms. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. G. COM. Bahukshira. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Fl. CHAR. 15-50 cm. Sk. Dandalio thora. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Shirthahar. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Pusitoa. Fr. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. reddish brown. M. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Milk hedge. Dandasruha.—Euphorbiaceæ. —throughout the year. L. pale beneath. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Sahud. Nagpur 1931). NS. Paradeshi thora . The plant contains an alkaloid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. base unequal-sided.—involucres numerous. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. PROPERTIES AND LOC. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. . In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores.

PARTS USED :—Whole plant.— capsule. Konkan and Gujarat. Vishnukranti.—many. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. stone in bladder (Yunani). HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. useful in abdominal troubles. NS. Sd— glabrous. carminative. more than 5 cm. :—Sind. K. leprosy. cocci velvety. tumours. polished.—Convolvulaceæ. stems many. linear. carminative. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. terete. CHAR. Fl. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. 6-13 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. about 6 m. LOC. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. H. . thick like quill. also as an alterative. :—A perennial herb. alexiteric. LOC. t.-light blue. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. jaundice. t. base acute. Ceylon. silky hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. brightens intellect. almost leafless. peduncles very long. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid. and with oil to promote growth of hair. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State.—capsule. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. pungent. :—Throughout the State. Sd. anthelmintic. branchlets whorled. usually clothed with long hairs . It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. wiry. thin. milk is alexiteric. FAM. Fl. globose. long (appearing in rainy season) . long. Jhinkiphudardi. prostrate. DISTR. leprosy and leucorrhoea. employed to raise blisters. Sk. 4valved. LOC. Juice is purgative. colic. high. enlargement of spleen. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Shyamakranta . rootstock woody . improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda).-Sep. campanulate. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. :—Native of East Africa. :—A small tree.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. leucoderma. naturalised in India. teething of infants .-Aug. alterative. M. Vishnugandhi. Nilpushpi. biliousness. L. useful in gonorrhœa. smooth. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. elliptic-oblong. COM. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . Kalisankhavali. Vishnukranta. tropical and sub-tropical countries. branches erect. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). dyspepsia. mostly female. whooping cough.—small. useful in biliousness. L. Fr.-July-Nov.—ovoid. tonic. :—G. useful in bronchitis. Vishnukranta. epilepsy. spreading. axillary. asthma. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Fr. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. smooth. dropsy. solitary or sometimes 2. Fl.

toothache. scarcely branched. L. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr.-Nov. N. CHAR. Fl. Ind. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. about 1. flattened. FAM. fever. Circars. smooth. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. also used in chronic fevers. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. shining. pale rose-coloured. in chronic bronchitis.—capsule. Sd. Udichirayat. :—An erect annual. Fl. emmenagogue. t. vomiting. Gujarat. pyramidal to the apex. Maval. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours .—opposite. cures dysentery.-Aug. Fr. removes "Vata. Upper Gangetic plains.— ovoid. Punjab. Country. westwards to Afghanistan. stomatitis. spitting of blood. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Waziristan. in copious terminal cymes . 5-nerved. glandular hairy. . the upper blue. asthma. 1-seeded cocci. long. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). reduces tumours. arising from between the stipules . C—lobes 4-5. erysipelas. small. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Atmamuli. Sk. NS. Mediterranean. Iran. typhoid. M. Dhamaso . purifies blood (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. quadrangular. :—Konkan. petioles deeply striate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. COM. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Arabia. FL. Bark is used in scabies. more or less glandular. it has got cooling properties. Rajasthan. Dusparsha. Mysore. CHAR. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. smooth. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. W. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. LOC. FAM. acute. M. NS. reaching 60 cm. Fl. yellowish brown.—Zygophyllaceæ.-Oct. leaflets linear.—solitary. stem. DISTR. alexipharmic. Dhamasa. urinary discharges. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. ophthalmia. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields.— showy. L. lower half white.-Dec. Hinguna. LOC. LOC. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. Cooling. :—G. sessile. DISTR. deeply 5-partite. Coimbatore. Ustarkhar. Prabhodhini.—very variable in size and form sessile. removes "Vata". obliquely obovate. :— Sind. thirst. H. M. elliptic or lanceolate. Ghats. 1-3 foliate. ellipsoid. Barachirayat. Baluchistan. of 5." asthma. Dhanavi. t.—Gentianaceæ.2 cm. :—Madras State. cooling. the middle the largest. Fr. good for liver troubles. COM. Kashaya. root fibrous. ovate.). high. :— H. Deccan hills and S.

refrigerant . Nyagrodha. aphrodisiac. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves. common in the Tapi Valley. Vadlo .102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. H.5 cm. astringent. Malura. Bargat. cordate or rounded base. Kavath. Leaves—very astringent. removes biliousness. vomiting . and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Dadhiphala. which afterwards develop into separate trunks.—Rutaceæ. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). high. ophthalmia. Banian tree. LOC. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. NS. blood impurities. leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . shining above. useful in biliousness. ovate to elliptic. Kathel. Sk.. Kait. often planted. . " Vata ". thirst. Self-sown. good for throat. M. Fr. CHAR. Kavit. " Tridosha". Alada. tonic to heart.—coriaceous. Kothun. Avaroha. Vad. See—Timbers.—Moraceæ. H. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. LOC. Bar. binding diuretic.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. M. diam. FAM. Fruit Trees. NS. :—E. Kathinyaphala. country and N. M. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. refrigerant. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). L. Kapitha. Java. Kavitha. Ala. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. fruit and seeds. fatigue. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . consumption. Jatala. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. strengthening to gums . sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Monkey fruit. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Byala. Manmadha. Belada. female. Bargad. K. COM. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m.— globose. Kapipriya. COM. Grahiphala. Bahupada. Seeds—antidote to poison. with spreading branches. :— E. tumours. :—Cultivated all over the State. Ghats. difficult to digest. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. S. DISTR. Balin. dysentery. Kanara. alexipharmic. Vata. cures cough. Fruit—sour . :—Indigenous in S. with male. heart diseases. LOC. often cultivated. about 2 cm. liver and lungs . Goli. 10-20 X 5-12. Elephant or wood apple. India. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . G. Ceylon. Bhringi. acrid. Kotha. Vad. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. hiccup. K. asthma. G. Vat.

hill ranges of S. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. diseases of head and blood. seeds and milky juice. India. Fig. bruises. in rheumatism and lumbago. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Sacred Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. gonorrhœa. lithotriptic. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. useful in "Vata". nutritive. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. Root—tonic.—Moraceæ. useful in "Kapha". Afghanistan. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. LOC. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. weakness. pain in chest cures piles. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. NS. Anjura. diuretic. Anjir. Anjir. ulcers. FICUS CARICA Linn. DISTR. alexiteric. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. FAM. root-fibres. Anjir. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. vulnerary. biliousness. H. useful in syphilis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. G. India. biliousness. dysentery. COM. nose-diseases. :— E. USES :—Fruit is emollient. vaginal complaints. . inflammation of liver (Yunani). thirst. Asia and Mediterranean. Milky Juice—expectorant. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. LOC. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). laxative. Cultivated in N. Sk. vomiting. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Kakodumbar. fever. Fibres. boils and carbuncles. LOC. paralysis. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. useful in piles. Aerial root is styptic. maturant. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). demulcent. stimulates hair-growth. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. aphrodisiac. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. leprosy (Ayurveda). See—Famine Plants. tonic. Seeds are cooling and tonic. useful in leucoderma. Grown scattered elsewhere. PARTS USED :—Bark. useful in inflammation . K. Simeyatu . lessens inflammations. erysipelas. W. :—Baluchistan. Dharwar. Anjir. ringworm. inflammations. W. liver and spleen diseases. leaves. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Bijapur. Fruit—antipyretic purgative.

Peepal tree . bark. :—E. Milk—aphrodisiac. leaves. Pimpal. vagina. Ragi. blood diseases. cummin. Shuchidruma. tonic. Vriksharaj. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. bark. Pippala.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Pipli. Bark useful in asthma and piles. burning sensation. Pipers. good for gravid uterus. H. planted all over. in diseases of blood. biliousness. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. vulnerary. good for foul taste. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Bark. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. COM. Atti. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Lalka. FAM. good for bronchitis. Pipal. ground with onions. Gular-Country fig. Umbro. COM. Yajnika. Sk. LOC. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Umbar. M. Sk. uterus . The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. leucorrhoea. Bark is cooling. burning sensation. See—Timbers. Ashwatha mara. biliousness. Hemadugdha. leaves and fruits. :—Widely spread throughout India. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar.—Moraceæ. loss of voice. NS. fruit. leprosy. HABITAT :—Planted. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet.—Moraceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Arani. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. FAM. allays thirst. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. fatigue. LOC. K. styptic. urinary discharges. Pipal. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). nose bleedings. DISTR. latex. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. K. G. G. M. :—Throughout the State near villages. . Rumadi. Udumbara. Gular. menorrhagia. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. H. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. DISTR. Bodhidruma. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Pavitraka. (Yunani). useful. Ashvatha. LOC. Fruit—astringent to bowels. Sacred Plants. Umar. useful in "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root. Umar. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. acrid. Pippala. Jari. given in leucorrhoea. :—E. galactagogue. NS. Demera. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. diseases of kidney and spleen.

:—E. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Country and N. Burma. Root good for gout. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Mullutari. See—Timbers. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. PROPERTIES AND LOC. seeds. fruit. Shalina. LOC. Kanara Jungles. Shateya. Root-bark good in stomatitis. aphrodisiac. . Young bark useful in bone fractures.—Umbelliferæ. Fennel. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. PARTS USED :—Root. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. S. See—Timber. Bhuripushpa. DISTR. gum. Hettarimullu. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Handi Kandai. Badisoppu. Fodder Plants. Potika. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Kankod . Satpura. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. and produces sterility in women. Variali. N. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. M. G. Fruits are sweet. H. Swadukantaka. K. Bhakal. Finkel. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). W. Bilangra . HABITAT :—Hills. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. FAM. Sk. upper Gangetic plain. Fruit—purgative. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Sk. Katar. Soupa. M. :— G. Sacred Plants. SAPIDA Roxb. Bhanber. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. COM. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Akrani. The juice is employed in hiccup. Badishep. Variari. K. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. heart diseases. Tambat. NS. FAM. LOC. M. astringent in leucorrhoea. H. common in the Peninsula. Circars. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. appetising and digestive. Ghats. Hunmunki. bark. good for lumbago.—Flacourtiaceæ. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. COM NS. Gajale. Paker. checks vomiting (Yunani). promotes granulations. Khandesh. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). cleans ulcers. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. Tapaspriya.

leprosy (Ayurveda). Kokam . ultimate segments linear. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Wynaad. bracts and bracteoles absent. cures "Tridosh". common in S. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. often cultivated. leaves and seeds. See—Condiments and Spices. eye-diseases.— decompound. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. difficult to digest. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. cough and asthma.—in large umbels . useful in diseases of chest. yellow. Oils. dysentery. :—E. FAM. aromatic and carminative. laxative. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. Sk. fissures of lips. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. alexiteric. anthelmintic. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). Mulgala. Kanara. " Vata ". . LOC. See—Timbers. L. Tittidika . M. tumours. aphrodisiac. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. Ratambi. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Bark. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Kokam . PARTS USED :—Roots. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. anthelmintic.9 m. dark green. stomachic.—ellipsoid. G. galactagogue. Fr. Murjinhalli. COM. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. :—Apparently a native of S. appetiser. causing constipation . strengthen eyes (Yunani). fruit and seeds. :—Endemic in W. high. 0. Ghats south of Bombay. (Mhaskar and Caius). :—A tall glabrous. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. seeds-carminative. USES :—used as stimulant. amenorrhœa. improves appetite and allays thirst. furrows vittate. annual. ridges prominent.—Guttiferæ. FL. leaves (rarely). in headache. It is much used as a nutritive. thirst. wounds etc. wounds. carpophore 2-partite. Amlabija. H. Tintidika. spleen. Atyamla. USES :—Bark is astringent. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. useful in bleeding piles. K. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". cardiotonic. LOC.6-0. diuretic. LOC. stimulant. demulcent and emollient. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. Leaves—improve eyesight. NS. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Konkan and N. lessen inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". fever. Ghats. Coorg. :—W. kidney. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. LOC. Kokam. Wild mangosteen. dysentery.

Jantuka. Fl. FAM. Fr. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. HABITAT :—Open situations.-subsessile. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour.5 cm. lucida (Ayurveda). Dikamali.. Western Peninsula. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . As sold in the bazar it is hard. Gums and Resins. NS. :—Common from Konkan southwards. Bikke. NS. oblong. Dakamali.-tubular. Hingu. Kanara.5-3. M. buds resinous. PARTS USED :—Gum. 1-3 together. LOC. :—A deciduous shrub. G. K. long. opaque. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Cambi resin tree. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. DISTR. oblong or ellipsoid. Suvirya. common on laterite in southern parts of N. -June.5x22. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. Fl. Dikkamalli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. C. See—Gums and Resins.—Feb.—Rubiaceæ. Northern ghats of Madras State. :—India (W. 4. relieves pain of bronchitis. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. first white then changing to yellow. Pinda. t. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. high. Burma. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. Dikemali. all dry districts of Madras State. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. about 1. LOC. not fragrant. L.-sessile. lucida.—Rubiaceæ. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. LOC. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali.—2. :—E. astringent to bowels. shining. DISTR. unarmed. CHAR.8 m. Peninsula). :—India. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). LOC. See—Timbers. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. Dekamari. COM. COM. Sk. elliptic-obovate. . with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . PARTS USED:-Gum. Dikamari. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms.8 cm. same as for G.

solitary. Fl. In Guinea. :—Herbaceous. K. used to remove placenta from uterus. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. perianth segments reaching 6. sometimes whorled. Kathari. In case of retained placenta. leaves and flowers. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. inflammations.-July-Oct. FAM. The former is supposed to be male. filaments long spreading.. Huliyuguru. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.—sessile. abortifacient. Tuber— astringent. Cochin-China. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all.5 X 15 X 2-4. orange. stems annual.. Karianag. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. Languli.—Liliaceæ. tall. useful in chronic ulcers. solid. LOC. Sivasaktibalb . the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. t. LOC. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. bitter. Nangulika. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Ceylon. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. NS. PARTS USED :—Tuber. ovate lanceolate. alexiteric. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. abdominal pains. There are two varieties of the plant. linear oblong. COM. Khadyanag. anthelmintic. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. margins wavy. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. piles. L. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. itching. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. :—Throughout tropical India.5 cm. thirst. changing colours from greenish yellow. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. Tropical Africa. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins.—capsule.—large. scattered or opposite. DISTR. root-stock of arched. given off from young tubers . expectorant. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. Indai. Garbhapatani. Sk. Linn. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). CHAR. laxative.. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. Kalihari. FL. Kalikari. Akkitang hall.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. axillary . :—G. and crimson from blooming to fading. Dudhio vachhonag. scarlet. 7. H.2 cm. Fr. Kulhari. acrid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Malay Peninsula.3 cm. linear-lanceolate. leprosy.5-3. Agnimukhi. . branching climber . M.

promotes hair-growth. " Tridosha ". Nurma . consumption. tonic. COM. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. NS. flowers and seeds. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Oils. catarrh of the bladder etc. Coomb teak. made into paste. root is also stomachic and laxative. Root extract is bitter and tonic.:—E. alterative. H. chronic cystitis. improves appetite . thirst. COM. Savan. Fruit— diuretic. Ceylon. Kumbudi. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Devkapas. Shivani. Gambhari. Gumbhar. K. PARTS USED :—Root. anæmia. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. laxative. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. gleet. See—Fibres.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. PARTS USED :—Root. :— E. Rajasthan and N. K. Karpasam. Kashmari. LOC. Shripani. fevers. Root taken with liquorice. :—Throughout India. the root. Gandhari. G. useful in hallucinations. Sk. :—Throughout the State and about temples. . FAM. DISTR. Flowers—astringent. Sk. Malaya. Sind. Philippines. leaves. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. anthelmintic . Gambari. Karibatti. LOC. stomachic. Devakapus.—Verbenaceæ. consumption and some catarrhal affections . W. Cashmere tree. PROPERTIES AND LOC. leprosy. White teak. useful in indigestion. Provinces. leaves. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. indigestible. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. scalds etc. G. :—Throughout the State. abdominal pains. ulcers. strangury. Tree cotton. M. Shiwan.—Malvaceæ. useful in fevers . useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Deokapas. Mahabhadra. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. :— Bengal. urinary discharges. anasarca. Shiwan. Khandesh. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Madhya Bharat. piles. scattered in monsoon forests. common on Satpuda. Var. useful in "Vata". See—Timbers. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. DISTR. FAM. H. Gupsi. M. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Hanji. Shivan . with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). In the Konkan. thirst. Bachanige. NS. aphrodisiac. LOC. flowers and fruit.

LOC. Kapas . Tula. Mediterranean. Phalsa. PARTS USED :—Root. W. Afghanistan. analgesic. U. Dhamin. PARTS USED :—Root. Syria. :— Cultivated in N. fomentation for burning eyes . Seeds are used as a galactagogue. Buttiyu-dippa. Seeds are laxative. acrid. Roshana. K. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Rui.. Sk. M. M. increase flow of urine. Jana. expectorant and aphrodisiac. in hills near Poona. restore consciousness. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. A. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. K. tonic. cooling. FAM. Cotton . H. cure all ear-troubles. Arabia and Asia Minor. bark. fruit. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Iran. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Mesapotamia. Ripe fruit—sweet. extensively cultivated. DISTR. In India they are used to procure abortion.—Malvaceæ. aphrodisiac. F. laxative . Leaves remove " Vata " . Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Baluchistan. LOC. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Seeds—aphrodisiac. heart and blood disorders. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Phalsi. Badari. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. :—E. Pharuah. H. DISTR. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. sour. Parapera. leaves. Oils. Hatti. Country. Arali.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. removes " Vata ". Seeds— ' galactagogue. Karihariyale. :—Cultivated in the State. Sk. preventing their access to wounds etc. Gujarat and S. M. Anagnika. enrich blood. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Karpas. Rui. Kapus. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. :—Sind. fevers and consumption. allay thirst. removes " Vata" and biliousness. in hypochondria. scabies . Tadasala. wild in Deccan.Phalse. :—G. (Yunani). probably in N. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. digestible. See—Fibres. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . NS. G. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. good for throat . COM. Province (Pakistan). poultice applied to burns' scalds. tonic. Egypt. fruits and seeds. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. used in orchitis. demulcent. leaf-juice good in dysentery.—Tiliaceæ. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . COM. S. LOC. cures inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Kupas. extensively in Gujarat. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. East Tropical Africa. Sutrapuspha. expectorant. FAM. Parusha. good for all kinds of inflammations. NS..

Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. bronchitis. . vitreous body) burning sensation. Shrikala. K. FAM. NS. Pandhari tilwan. S. cornea. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Vishani. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Arkapuspika. young stems densely pubescent. Meshashingi. much branched. Sk. H. Karnasphota. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Kabari. Mabli.— opposite. LOC. G.-May. :— E. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. K. base rounded or cordate . Karalia . C. acrid. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. LOC. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). NS.—follicle. t. Merasingi. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). L.—Capparidaceæ. Vakundi. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Periploca of the woods. Fl. Mahabaleshwar and N. Sd. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. the stomachic stimulant. helps removal of dead fetus. Hulhul. Br. ulcers. Mardashingi. cooling. Tilparni. corona of 5 processes . Tanmani. :—A large woody climber. :—Western Peninsula. asthma. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. CHAR. Kanara coast. Kanphodi. relieves thirst and hiccup. good in heart-diseases. Sati talvani.— with thin marginal wing. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. FL. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. Adiyakharan. Sannagerse. inflammations. Ceylon. Fr. alterative. Sanngera. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). COM. FAM. Fruit—sour. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. should not be eaten raw. stomachic. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. anthelmintic. SK. DISTR.—in cymes . In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Churota. Gurmar. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). sweet. M. The ease of administration. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. ovate. elliptic. See—Fruit Trees. Tropical Africa. H. common in hedges in Dharwar district. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. M. piles. tonic. :E. — Asclepiadaceæ. Root and bark used in strangury. Hulhul. COM. lanceolate. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). usually single. Kavali. yellow . Caravella. LOC. alexiteric. strengthens chest and heart. :—Throughout the State.— Apl. Bedki. Meshavalli. Ugragandha. G. leucoderma. Bastagandha. India.— companulate .

hairy on the nerves beneath. Country. Fl. Sinhgad hills. COM. Fl. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. :—M. tapering at both ends. CHAR.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. stomachic . high.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. stem and branches hairy. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. FAM. producing copious exudation. hills near Nagothana.-Feb.—capsule. Murudi.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering.—muricate. pain.6—1. acute. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). :—An annual erect herb 0. removes "Vata". stipules triangular. L. t.—Oct.5 cm. Sk. LOC. Murdasing.—3-5 foliate. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. (Kirtikar and Basu). hairy. vesicant. FAM. Fl. M.—Rubiaceæ. Fr. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. good in ascites. Kavargi. . in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles.—many. earache. Sd. Edamuri.. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.12. leaflets subsessile.—June. 5-9 cm. HABITAT:—Hills. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. LOC. :—G. Gujarat. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. hairy. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. H. .2 m. Gidesa Jitasai. Murudseng. PARTS USED :—Root.—petals 4 with long slender claws.5-20 X 3.—in dense bracteate racemes. gynophore 2-2. :—A small deciduous shrub. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. DISTR. Kewan.8-9 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. sessile.—rather rigid. leaves and seeds. NS. dark-brown . white or blue. Sd. ellipsoid . :—A common weed in all tropical countries. Mrigashringa. LOC. pedicels viscid hairy. tumours.—capsule. glabrous or pubescent above. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. long . HELICTERES ISORA Linn. DISTR.. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. Katraj Ghat. viscid. L. Fl. hills in Supa Taluka. Marosi. pubescent. :—Deccan. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Jonkaphal Maraphali. with divaricate herbaceous branches . pink . Fr. Kanara. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . opposite. t. K. C.—Sterculiaceæ. China. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. S. Avartant. ulcers. elliptic-lanceolate. margins crenate-dentate. NS. M. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . elliptic-obovate.

useful in syphilis and leucoderma. and leaves. eye troubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. Anantmula. spirally coiled. antidiarrhœal. Country. liver and kidney diseases . L. They are demulcent. Hamadaberu . a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). HABITAT :—In hedges. useful in gleet. C. Upalsari. G.— with silvery white coma . anti-galactagogue. LOC. astringent to bowels. burning sensation. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). paralysis.—tubular. Ceylon. 5-6. ovate orbicular. Utpalashariva. "Vata' dysentery. uterine complaints. joint-pains. foul body odour. tapering . 7. purplish inside. diaphoretic. astringent to bowels . common in hedges. Fl. Kapurimathuri. fevers. Fr. epileptic fits. Deccan and S. DISTR. long. bronchitis. root-Stock woody .—numerous. Root useful in hemicrania. See—Fibres. Root and stem—laxative. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). Fr. lessens griping.—Asclepiadaceæ. LOC.. dark-green. greenish outside. :—Throughout the State. red at first fading to lead colour. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. K. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant.3 cm.— in cymes in opposite axils. Malaya. LOC.5 X 5-10 cm. NS. good for brain. Burma. rat-bites. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. PARTS USED :—Root. t. FL. angular . USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. L. :— E. Anantmula. poisoning.—follicle of 5-6. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. Stem lessens inflammation. low appetite. Indian sarsaparilla . Dhaval kashtha. t — Aug. bark and fruit. asthma.Sd. M. PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. diuretic. diarrhœa. Hindisalse. often variegated with white above. beaked. scabrous above. Australia and West Indies.— very variable. cures all skin-diseases.—throughout the greater part of the year. syphilis.-biferous. COM.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. blood diseases. Fl. India. irregularly crowded. :—Upper Gangetie plain. DISTR. Sk.512. Konkan. stems thickened at the nodes . Durivel. H. Upalsali. .-Dec. mildly astringent. :—Large shrub or small tree. Fl. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Sd. “tridosh". Magrabu. useful in piles. asthma.—follicle cylindric. alexiteric. cough. CHAR. thirst. obliquely cordate. Br. bilabiate. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. Kanara ghat forests. FAM. stem. demulcent. M. leucorrhoea. "Kapha". :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. urinary discharges. Sugandhi-balli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.

Native country probably China. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. remove burning of body. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. and as early as 1864. K. G. irregularly serrate towards the top. urinary discharges. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. Dasavala. COM. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury.—no fruits produced in India. tonic. etc. Fr. H. uterine and vaginal discharges. ovate or ovate lanceolate. Jasut. Fl. It is also diuretic. red. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). Sk. syphilis and leucorrhoea. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. piles. Harivallaba. cm. tubular below. cooling. Aruna. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. LOC. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. :— E. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. crimson. skindiseases. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. Dasanihu.—Malvaceæ. Kempupundrika. involucral bracts 5-7.. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. DISTR. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. L. Root roasted in plantain leaves.—axillary. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. It is said to purify blood. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . astringent. demulcent.—short petioled. LOC. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Jasavand. magenta. leaves. entire near the base. Raktapushpi. Fl. . petals thrice as long as the calyx. seminal weakness. t. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). yellow. C. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. bark and petals are demulcent. diam. glabrous.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Japapushpa. M. fevers. Jasuva. useful in loss of appetite. Root is valuable in coughs. solitary.5. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. and mixed with ghee.—7. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Jasum. pedicel jointed above the middle. In the Konkan. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. :—A perennial shrub.—during most of the year. NS. flowers. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. bright red. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. Shoe flower. Rudrapushpa.

USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Kanara.2-2 cm.lobes oblong. Patwa. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. . Fl. purple. Kampti. Chandravalli. much used in curries. Fr. M. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. long. Sd. Vasanti. H. :—An annual. K. Grows abundantly on the W. NS. Pundi-bija or soppu.—in erect racemes. See—Vegetables. HABITAT. black-brown. mid-lobe the longest. Vasantduti. ovoid. Fr. Sd. 3-winged.—large.—Malpighiaceæ. petioles silky. uppermost petal broader. C. pepper. :—Throughout the State. :—E. Haladvel.-Mar. Atimukta. PARTS USED :—Leaves. elliptic-oblong. involucral bracts 10.—purple with darker centres.—petals 5. Madhavi. FAM. NS. t. asafoetida and molasses. Fl.5 cm.—coriaceous. Madhavi. flowers. serrate. Sk. Madhumalati. LOC. often blotched with purple with darker centre. purple. Ragotpiti. orbicular. tropics of the old world. Madhalata. COM. DISTR. K.—capsule. entire glabrous. 10-18 X 4. and adding a little salt. Kamuka. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Madmalati. long.3-7. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. covered with minute hairs . Fl. M. Madhavi. glabrous. globose. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub.— solitary. stem and branches purple. calyx fleshy. Ceylon. sedative and refrigerant. Lal ambadi. erect. (lower leaves sometimes entire). t. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. on the margins.) FAM.—Malvaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Madhavi. Ghats. 3-5 lobed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. C. COM. Konkan. Atimukta.—Oct. 1. Deccan. hairy.—5-7. L. 5th petal yellow at the base. CHAR. beaked. Vasantduti. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. white.— Jany. Malati. across. Red sorrel. LOC. acuminate. clawed.5 cm.—axillary. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Rozelle.-Dec. fragrant. young parts silky. base cuneate.. fringed. CHAR. Kempupundrike. :—Cultivated. L. fruits and seeds.—1-3. Lal ambari. Lal ambadi. G. H. Adimurtte Adirganti. :—G. Fl. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Fibres. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.

often dotted with white spots. leprosy. good in chronic bronchitis. Siwalik. H. broadly ovate or elliptic. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. biliousness.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Kaduoindrajav. Sk. Conessi bark tree. bleeding piles. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Fl. leprosy. :—E. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. thirst. asthma. smoke good for piles. tonic. biliousness. C—tubular. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. Malay Peninsula.5 cm. inodorous. vulnerary. Hale. given in chest affections. cooling. COM. Kurchi tree. good in erysipelas. excessive menstrual flow.. burning sensation. K.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . leucoderma . Hath. skin and spleen diseases. ulcers. remove muscular pains . flowers and seeds. skin diseases. diarrhœa. fevers. anthelmintic. NS. cough. lumbago. Flowers— acrid. main nerves conspicuous .—10-20 X 5-11. Kutaja. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Kuda.—Feb. boils. astringent to bowels cure pains. leaves. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Andamans. Mt. t. Seeds—appetiser. PROPERTIES. Ceylon. vulnerary. aphrodisiac. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). Thailand (Siam). urinary discharges.-June. Karuindrayan. Madras State. FAM. Kudsalu. thirst and inflammation. remove "Tridosh". L. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. PARTS USED :—Bark. DISTR. LOC. CHAR. Kodasige. tonic. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. See—Ornamental Plants. Assam. :—Throughout the State.—Apocynaceæ. Nepal. Indrayana. Fr. Leavesastringent. good in headache. insecticidal. Circars. Kumaon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. LOC. appetiser cure blood diseases. Burma.—follicles 20-48 cm. hallucinations (Ayurveda). :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Seeds—carminative. Dudhi. branchlets drooping. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. piles. Sd. white. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. M. Bark—bitter. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. acrid. galactagogue. G. acrid. throat hairy inside. burning sensation. strengthens gums. Karohi. Kuda. " Kapha". fatigue. cause "Vata". styptic. LOC. Pandhara Kuda. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. long. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. cures dysentery. Kura. Kaling. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. FL. lessens inflammations. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. bitter. heating. Abu. wounds. cool the brain. diuresis (Yunani). colic. China. N. cylindric.. Karnatak. Veppale.

acrid. useful in biliousness. bronchitis. (R. 1928). The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Germinated barley. They are also used after delivery. Javegodhi. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Java. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. Gaz. lowers the pulse. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. biliousness. useful in fevers. Sk. and kurchicine. M. India. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. nor styptic. Aug. causes constipation. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. diarrhœa. inflamed gums. nor astringent. Ymvah. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Seeds. The grains contain vitamin B. allays thirst. Divya. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. See—Food Plants. Suj. aphrodisiac. anæmia. . with radicle attached to it. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Med. They are astringent. DISTR. useful in bronchitis. LOC. fevers (Yunani). improves voice. Shaktu. Knowles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. widely cultivated in temperate regions. sweetish. kurchine. pains in chest. especially cod-liver oil. good for ulcers. :—E. Jav. headache. K. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. asthma. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. Tasteless. NS. COM.—Gramineæ. febrifuge. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Jawa. burns. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. —Cultivated chiefly in N. Hayapriya. fattening. demulcent and expectorant. FAM. Ind. Satu. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. Jav. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Yava. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. stomachic. Barley. dysentery and intestinal worms. H. malt sugar and diastase. G. LOC. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant.

flat.. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Phaldu. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. M. Garudphala. size of small apple. more or less coriaceous. Gandele. :—K. Bhringamallika. Bhoswar. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Garudphala. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Bharnarasalya. Kastel. Doti. Bhutabi.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. cures all tumours (Ayurveda).—Bixaceæ. 12. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Sd. Bihar. Malabar. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition.5-23 X 3. high. :—G. NS. NS. Kshiradru. See—Oils. DISTR.—Apl. Sk. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Ugragandha. pungent. CHAR.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. M. Kadukavata. increases taste and appetite. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume.—Rubiaceæ. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. C. DISTR. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. K. M.—numerous. Dondra. . Sk. Kanara evergreen forests. :—W. FL. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats.—solitary or in racemes.—berry. Fr. S.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. globose or ovoid.—Jany.5 cm. broadly ovate.8-7. sulphur. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. acuminate. t. Bhanina. LOC. Madhya Pradesh. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Niradivittulu. FAM. young parts brown pubescent. Amarachala. sometimes along river banks. L. LOC. Bhorsal. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Dondru. white. Peninsula. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Southern and Western India. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Common in N. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest.) FAM. COM. Betaga. Bandaru. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. Bhrijatuaka. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. COM. dioecious . Kowti. Ghats. good for the throat. Fl. tomentose. Country and Kanara. camphor and lime-juice. bitter. For scald-head. common in Travancore.

stems long. ovoid . Fr. K. L. CHAR. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. trailing on mud or floating. Sariva. glabrous above. Kalambika. In Indo-China. straight or slightly curved. DISTR. M. thick. :—Annual or biennial herb. Fr. Nalanibhaji. throat and tube dull purple . Kantebhovari. COM. Country. :—Throughout the State. Sk. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. X 4 cm. Gopini. H. blood diseases.—tube with narrow portion below. the powdered wood is used for herpes. Fl. aphrodisiac. NS.—5-12. CHAR. Kalaka. lobes obscure . Ceylon. L. elliptic oblong. cordate or hastate. upper constricted. Siamalata.-Apl.—4 or 2. black with white scanty coma.5 cm. Common in the evergreen forests of N. Shradhashaka.—capsule.5x 3. cooling. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge.2 -7. Nadika. Chandangopa..—linear. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. rusty pubescent. FAM. See—Timbers. hollow. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. stalks and leaves. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. numerous . biliousness. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Kalidudhi. Pechuli. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions.—follicle. Fodder Plants. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. The outer layer is tasteless. very slender. Kanara. COM.— Nov. Nalichibhaji. greenish white. Karmi. :—G. middle portion much inflated. t. M.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white).—Convolvulaceæ. . C. Karihambu. young branches finely fulvous tomentose .—1-5 flowered peduncles . Krishnasariva. vomiting.8 cm. Fl. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. thirst. very common in Gujarat. prostrate. Fl. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. LOC. base rounded. trichotomous cymes. Java. :—Konkan.—4-5-7 X 2-3. :—H. Br.—Apocynaceæ. fever.-Dec. cures " Kapha ".—in axillary and terminal. Gorwiballi. " Vata ".—Nov. S. rooting at the nodes . Sd. M. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Bhadra. pubescent. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). Australia. LOC. Sk. 10-15 cm. :—A large twining shrub . Kalmisag. Sd. :—More or less throughout India. Potuasaga.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. Kanara. FAM. acute. t. cylindric . FL. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Kalaghantika. C.

bronchitis. enclosed in fleshy sepals. LOC. 4-valved.-July-Sept. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. liver complaints. blood diseases. biliousness and fevers.—in. pale. tonic. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Fr. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. useful in syphilis. indigestible. :—Throughout India. . COM. leprosy. CHAR. to children in case of emaciation. vomiting. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . aphrodisiac. entire. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.3 cm. Africa.—10-15 cm. Carminative. LOC. near sea coast. useful in leucoderma. diuretic. burning sensation. DISTR. root large. (Ayurveda).—clothed with brown cottony hairs. Bhunichahragadde. stimulant. H. :— E. gonorrhœa and inflammation. biliousness. t. Fl. Swadu Vidarikand. leaves. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. often broader than long. Bilaikand . galactagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl.—Convolvulaceæ. purple. dry. thick. being regarded as tonic. demulcent and lactagogue. Australia in moist climate. also useful in liver complaints. 4-celled. M. useful in leprosy. expectorant. K. ovoid. Leaves enrich blood. FAM. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. NS. In Burma. Sd.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. stomachic. Africa and Australia. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. long. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. Kanara sea coast. tropical Asia. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. lessens inflammation. long. deeply palmately divided. alterative. 3. appetiser. galactagogue. " Kapha " . stem long. improves voice and complexion. peduncle solitary axillary. glabrous. (Yunani). carminative. tropical Asia. ovate-lanceolate. Root—heating. LOC. Sk. Giant potato . anthelmintic. L. twining. (Yunani). Bhuikohala. America. jaundice. alterative. Flower causes " Vata ".8—6. debility and want of digestive power. anthelmintic . See—Gums and Resins. Bhumikushmanda. Ceylon. lobes 5-7. Nila-kumbala. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. :—Perennial. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. flowers (rarely). HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests.—capsule. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. useful in fever. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. cures biliousness.

carminative.— yellow. :—Konkan. Sd. Fl. Ganribij. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). L. COM.—1. believed to be of American origin. CHAR.5 cm. 3-celled. diam. DISTR. Sk. broad. subglobose. NS. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. Ceylon. Morning glory. cures inflammations. PARTS USED :—Seeds. ovate-cordate. lobes ovate.—capsule.3-2. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. M. t. Fl. Kaladana. bechic. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. Purgative. blue tinged with pink. long tubular funnel-shaped.5 cm. Vrishchikparni. :—A herb .. stems many. G. :—Western Peninsula. stems twining. :—An annual herb. S. Shyamala-bijak. K. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. Sd. useful in liver and spleen diseases.—capsule. Fl. fevers. E.8-5 cm. dries the phlegm. Undirkani. tropical Africa. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. bronchitis (Ayurveda). scabies and biliousness. Country. surrounded by ciliate sepals. LOC. Africa. M. L. Musekani. pains in joints. Mirchai. Fr. Fr. Krishna—Shyama-bija. :—G. Nilvel. Indian jalap. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. The plant contains a glucoside. in the Himalayas.—Convolvulaceæ. Kalokumpo. glabrous .) FAM. abdominal diseases. creeping and rooting at the nodes. . LOC.—Convolvulaceæ. K. petioles hairy. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m.— 4-6. axillary. C. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. filiform. Nilpushpa. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. diseases of head.—Sept. FAM. deeply three-Iobed. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. Kaladanah.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . S. leucoderma.-5-12. reniform or ovate-cordate. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). CHAR. H. Sk. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. clothed with long hairs. headache. M. LOC. crenate. subglobose or ovoid. sparsely hairy. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians.:—Throughout India. bracts linear. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative.—3.-Oct. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. COM. H. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). Deccan. anthelmintic. :—E. Undirkani.—dark chestnut coloured .

USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. pedicels thickened upwards. applied in diseases of eye and gums. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). Trivrit. Fr. stems very long. FAM. root long. Nishottara. good for weakness. Root— bitter. when used alone . Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. enclosed in enlarged sepals . fistula. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. often pinkish.—capsule. L. inflammations. Kanaka. NS. t. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). Nandi.8-5 cm. antipyretic. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. good in pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. Triputi. twining and twisted together. Kalaparni. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. M. bracts large. K. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). . wounds. 3. Malay Islands. fleshy. C. bronchitis. used in rheumatism and neuralgia.—in few flowered cymes. Ceylon. anthelmintic. useful in bilious tremors of body. Mauritius. Fl. H. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. Nishoth. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative.3-7 cm. mucronate. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. Nashotar. like others of the genus .—Convolvulaceæ. uterus. G. It is also alterative. removes bad humours. :—Throughout India. paralysis. Rechani. HABITAT :—Wild . acrid. Br. lungs. LOC. long. Pithori. CHAR. leucoderma. bechic.. useful in bilious fevers. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Root with bark should be used. useful in loss of consciousness. rarely slightly lobed. ovate or oblong. :— E. Turbith root. also in the Konkan and N. pains of chest and joints. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. useful in spleen enlargement. False-Indian jalap. tropical Africa and America. LOC. sometimes cultivated. pungent. burning sensation and intoxication. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. LOC. Philippines. COM. laxative. Indian rhubarb. inflammations and abdominal diseases . much branched. laxative. Fl. Sk. brain diseases. fevers. angled and winged. PARTS USED :—Root.-Jany. Nahatara. base cordate or truncate . The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. anæmia. muscular pains. expectorant.—Oct. cooling. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. strangury. heart and abdomen.—white. purgative. DISTR. useful in diseases of kidney. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). white variety is a mild cathartic. carminative. urethral discharges. Common in southern Gujarat. globose.—5-10 X 1. paralysis. bladder.

FAM. Fl. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant.—3. 5-12. high. Jajimalle.2-6. intermediate sessile . oblong. stipules . Chambeli. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Anemallige. Chambali. tube long. Fl. imparipinnate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. petiole and rachis margined. obtuse. Parali. Sk. . Kepala. fleshy. :—E. coriaceous.3 cm. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. lobes 4 (rarely). CHAR.. Fl. Ajjige. FL—numerous. purple when ripe. pale when dry. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. leaflets 7-11. Guddedasal. t. very slender . hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. smooth. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. :—Bombay southwards . pale when dry.9 m. in lax axillary and terminal cymes.—tubular. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. K. :—E. 3.5 cm. sessile.—opposite.—July-Sept. obtuse . Pankul. Jati. Jai. wild. Raktaka. across. LOC. Priyanvada. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. Kisukare. Chambeli.—throughout the year. also along river banks. :—Western Peninsula.2-6. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. proximal petiolulate. H. L. Fr. often tinged with pink outside.. M. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. COM NS. white. Ceylon.—globose.—Oleaceæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Fr. stipules with a long rigid point. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. sessile. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. FAM. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range.—ripe carpels 2. K. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. Surabhigandha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.—opposite. oblong. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. :—A large subscandent shrub. Bakali. NS. M. LOC. C. G. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. DISTR. Flame of the woods . :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Bandhuka. terminal rather larger. t.8 cm. L. :—Cultivated throughout India.3 coriaceous. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Sk. size of a pea. COM. Pendgul. of stems and roots.— Rubiaceæ. very common in Konkan and N. 5-10 X 3. CHAR.

brain tonic . Sambac. ear. LOC. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. heating. eyes and ear. rheumatism. leprosy. . headache and weak eyes. entire. Oil—lessens inflammations. LOC. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. soporific. black. See—Ornamental Plants. vulnerary. Fl. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. The plant contains an alkaloid. good in asthma. M. alexiteric. scarcely climbing. Iravantige. emmenagogue. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. diuretic. K. head. mouth and skin. Banmallika. paralysis. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. allays fevers . stomatitis. good for pains in joints and ear. Chamba. variable in shape. Navamallika. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. alexiteric. Plant—deobstruent. cures headache. :—A sub-erect shrub. :—Cultivated throughout India. caries of teeth. Flower has bitter taste . given in blood diseases. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. ulcers. H. Sk. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. aphrodisiac. weakness of sight and affections of mouth.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Mogra. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). :—E. In Goa. Leaves are also used in toothache. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. flowers and oil.—opposite. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . and for scabies (Yunani). Mallige. Tuscan jasmine. softens skin. COM NS. tonic to brain. intoxicating. expectorant. alexiteric. Mogro. diseases of mouth.—white. Ananga-mallika. Fl. Motia. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. aphthae. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. surrounded by calyx-teeth.—more or less throughout the year . Pramodini. LOC. Arabian Lily. HABITAT :—Cultivated. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. See—Ornamental Plants. L. Root—purgative. emetic. useful in stomatitis. Mogara. suppurative. CHAR.—Oleaceæ.—ripe-carpels 1-2. biliousness. it is used in cases of insanity. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. abundant in April-May. Fr. biliousness (Ayurveda). DISTR. Flowers—tonic. t. FAM. base rounded or subcordate. useful in diseases of eye. teeth. membranous. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). very fragrant. subglobose. anthelmintic. otorrhoea. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. Vanchandrika.

L. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk.5-12. Jangali—Pahari erand. useful in chronic dysentery. subfleshy. CHAR:—A handsome.—Euphorbiaceæ.5 cm. H.— ovoid. long. Simeavadala.5 mm.— alternate. Fr. The acrid.. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. fistula. Virechani. . palmately 3 or 5 lobed.—monœcious. abdominal complaints. LOC. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. M. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. biliousness. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. Fr. 7. have suppurative effect. FAM.—in flat-topped cymes. diam. K. herpes. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Mogali—Ran-erand. Bhadradanti. longer than calyx. across. " Tridosha".—capsule. Coral plant. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. French or Small physic nut.—E. anaemia. Barbados Physic nut. Sk. yellow. thirst. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. villous within. NS.8 cm. large. Sutashreni.5-12. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. garden shrub . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. urinary discharges. Ratanjot. DISTR. LOC. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). :—E. stipules capillary.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. COM. black. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. :—Native of tropical America. 3-lobed. The seeds act as drastic purgative. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. FAM. L. corolla lobes 5. disk of female flower urceolate. coral-red. Seeds contain active principle curcin.—Euphorbiaceæ. K. CHAR. broadly ovate. dull brownish black. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. leaves. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. multifid. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Akhuparnika.—ovoid oblong. NS. COM. when applied to boils.—orbicular. Sk. fruits and seeds. Fl. PARTS USED :—Wood. Vilayati haralu. Fl. Dundigu. cordate. Kananerand.5 cm. G. juice sticky opalescent. 10-15 X 7. and also promotes healing. 7. Sd. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. 1. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). Jangali erandi. long-petioled. male flowers. Jyotishka.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. eye diseases (Ayurveda). purple within. Kala adulsa. useful in piles. LOC. leaves. in interrupted spikes. causes " Kapha ".5 cm. inflammations. heating. M. Sk.5 cm.—Acanthaceæ. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. Karinchki. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). Seed— oleaginous. NS. vaginal discharges. :—H. native of N. . fattening tonic . COM.—Ghati pitpapda. skin-diseases. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. wounds. Fr. NS. HABITAT :—Shady positions. LOC. FAM. :—A native of China. dry . fevers.2 m. Kalmashi. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . rheumatism and dysentery. Leaves are used in scabies. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. Nachukaddi. Karambal. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. all over the State. CHAR. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. bitter. clavate glabrous. enlarged spleen. L. high .126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. tympanitis. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly).—capsule. often met with in Bengal. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. dyspepsia. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—white spotted. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. Shindhuka. COM. Bhutakeshi. DISTR. DISTR. Bakas. aphrodisiac.6-1. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. pains. branches subterete with raised lines.5-12. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. wild in Tenasserim. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. In Cambodia. long. Nilinirgandi. LOC. 7. America. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. :—Bomb.—Acanthaceæ. Krishna-nirgundi. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. Fl. M. 5-12. hot. purgative. useful in bronchitis. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. Nilmanjari. " Vata ' and "Pitta". :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. K.

petioles channelled. thin. C. ovate or lanceolate. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede).—2-lipped. round. increases " Vata ". LOC. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. Kachri.—finely tuberculate.—in cylindric terminal spikes. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic.-Mar. :— H. South Konkan. Sk. Fl.3-12. Deccan. fragrant. NS. lying flat on the ground. Maval in the Deccan. L. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. diaphoretic. Australia. urinary discharges. Tubers yield an essential oil.. removes indigestion.—Oct. Malaya. L. Sugandhavachai. DISTR. intoxication. Ceylon. thirst. oval. upper lip notched. tube funnel-shaped . Malay Islands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Madras State. Chandramala.—lobes lanceolate.:—Stemless herb. :—Western Peninsula. wandering of mind. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. stomachic. tired feeling. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. Panchgani. Travancore. Kapurkachri. Cultivated in gardens. K.—2. purifies blood in skin diseases. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. oblong shortly pointed. teeth. softly pubescent. strengthens lungs. :—Konkan. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches.— June-July. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. COM. Western Ghats . constricted between the seeds . LOC. LOC. . diuretic. FAM. DISTR. Fl. vomiting. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . t. (Yunani). pale violet pink. burning of body. constipating . Plant diuretic. stops vomiting.—Scitaminaceæ.5-9 cm. lower 3-lobed . Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. gives lustre to eyes.—612 from the centre of the plant. biliousness. pure-white. obtuse at both ends. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). Konkan.5 X 4. root-stock tuberous. :—More or less throughout India. spreading horizontally. P. PARTS USED :—Tubers. good in spleen diseases. fugacious. M. Chandramulika. :—N.—capsule. t. aromatic. Fr. enriches blood. Kachchura . aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. deep green. elliptic. CHAR. fever. expectorant. 6. Sd..—variable.

PROPERTIES AND LOC.5-23 cm. semicylindric. Country. Dudhi. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. :—E. female cylindric. :— G. oblong. very poisonous . CHAR. FAM. :—An aquatic herb. M. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND LOC. long. Bhuchampaka. thick..-Apl. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. :—Mysore. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. —Feb.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. NS. Kanara. M. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. simple. spathe 7.—narrowly oblong. The whole plant. yellow. diam. HABITAT :—Marshy places. tubular below.— inflorescence. DISTR. t. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Dudio Tumbada. Tubers yield an essential oil. creeping. Fr. L. midrib very stout. of various shades of purple and white.5 X 5-12. Coorg. H. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. elliptic-oblong. Travancore.—15-37. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.. M.8-5 cm. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. remedy for itch. Ceylon. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Tumbaka. COM. Danta-bija. :—Stemless plant. promotes suppuration. annulate . petiole as long as blade. Bhuichampa . only 1 or 2 opening at a time . crowded in a globose bead .—Scitaminaceæ. entire. CHAR. Dudhya bhopala. Calabash. N. Kadu bhopala. Bottle-gourd.-Mar. COM.— sweetly fragrant. anthers crowded. in many cycles. inflorescence of many ovaries. Katutumbi. Fl. Fl. Sk. FAM.5 cm. NS.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. COM.—Aroideæ. Sk.5-10 cm. Kaddu. rootstock reaching 5 cm. Nelasampige ... coriaceous. LOC. FAM. L. DISTR. S. Bhuichapha. Bhuichampo . LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Cochin. :—M. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Vatsanabhi. margins undulate. :—Konkan. H. NS. t. Halagumbala. furrowed. K. Fl. G. Alkaddu. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. K.—globose 3. Labuka. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. Fl. used in the form of poultice. . has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Malay Islands. Lauka..—30X7. LOC.

cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. in many cases only cultivated. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. Seeds—good for hot constitution. ulcers. Malaya. anti-bilious. bitter variety is diuretic. LOC.—Lythraceæ. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. vulnerary. Bandhara. oleaginous. flowers. pains (Ayurveda). laxative. seeds are narcotic. COM. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. leaves. sweet. Arjuna. leaves. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. dry cough. China. wild (rarely). inflammations. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. Fruit good in bronchitis. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. bronchitis. See—Vegetables.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. earache. Challa. fever. Ornamental Plants. alexiteric. styptic. Taman. Sk. bark. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. There are two varieties. piles. Arjuna. :—H. cooling. cardiac and general tonic. cures leucorrhoea. PARTS-USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds emetic (Yunani). bitter. In the Andamans. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. fattening. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Holematti. LOC. antipyretic. lessens inflammations. See—Timbers. muscular pains. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. Flowers cooling. Nirbendeka: M. Ceylon. fruits and seeds. fruits and seeds. NS. cures asthma. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. :—Western Peninsula. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. brain-tonic. USES :— Leaves are purgative. causes bronchitis. refrigerant and anti-bilious. flatulence. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. improves taste. "Vata". useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. scalding of urine. anti-periodic. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. LOC:—North Kanara and S. Konkan Ghats. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. emetic. diuretic. increases "Vata". aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. . good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. cures blood diseases. Bark and leaves are purgative. DISTR. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. wholesome to fœtus. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers.) FAM. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . earache. cause haemoptysis. DISTR. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. Assam. K. Tarul.

swellings etc. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action.. LOC. Rametha. bark mottled. Rami. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. Sandika. D. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Deccan hills. H. S. Medi. Mehndi.—ellipsoid-oblong. Mendi. burning. G.8 cm. Henna plant. (B. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Ragangi. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. COM. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Kassar.5-3. Tree mignonette. Medika. DISTR. 5-7. FAM. Fl. Nakharanjaka. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. CHAR. K. pain. :—W. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—E.—in erect. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. Latri. lameness. dense terminal heads 2.—Thymelaeaceæ. Lakh. tonic. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. COM. Kukurgal. diam. Country. Belgaum hills . pointed. :—Konkan southwards. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. lobes 4. NS. oblong lanceolate. Peninsula—Ceylon. M. causes much flatulence. FAM. common on the Supa Ghats. :—E.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. Lang. t. Wooly-headed gnidia. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Chickling—White vetch. enclosed in the perianth . . inflammation. Triputi. Khesari. Fr. NS.5 cm. G.. Yavaneshta. L. heart-troubles.—Dec-May. cooling. Mukute. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. yellow. Sk. M. glabrous above. silky beneath. :—A much branched large shrub. FAM. common at Mahabaleshwar. NS. Kanara. Madaranga. perianth-tube densely silky villous . oblong flat. improves taste. N. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Gorantha. but dangerous cathartic. Grains contain vitamin A. The bark is used to poison fish. :—E. piles and wandering of the mind.—opposite or scattered. subsessile. DISTR. Fl. See—Food Plants. K.5 X 2-2.—Lythraceæ. COM. LOC. Basu). M. (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.

Massur. LOC. E. Masur. indigenous in S. finger nails and hair. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—opposite. Sura. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. DISTR. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. :—Grown in Nasik. truncate. COM.). LENS ESCULENTA Moen.—in terminal. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. scabies. The oil and essence keep the body cool. lateral branches 4-gonous. NS. L. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. often ending in spinous point. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic.—angular. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . H. pyramidal and panicled cymes. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. & Gib. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). globose. cure leucoderma. bronchitis. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. DISTR. diuretic. Masura. skin diseases . mucronate. Chanangi. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. boils. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). t. Flowers are refrigerant. flowers. Fl. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. many. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. favours hair-growth. Fr. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. LOC. Masuridal. M. allay burning sensation. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. veined outside. stomatitis.—capsule. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. in diseases of heart and of . Leaves—bitter. ophthalmia. improve appetite. Gabholika. Gurubija. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. wild in Arabia. syphilitic sores. Sk. Iran and Baluchistan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. expectorant. supported by persistent calyx. Sd. useful. diseases of spleen. fragrant.—Apl-July. LOC. lumbago. enriches blood. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. seeds. Belgaum and Poona districts. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . cure strangury tumours. planted as hedge. Asia. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". Europe and in temperate W. cure insanity (Ayurveda). Lentil. :—E. useful in headache. Masur. The plant contains a glucoside. ulcers. Ragadali. diuretic. Ceylon. HABITAT:—Cultivated. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. PROPERTIES. amenorrhœa. FAM. See—Dyes. Fl. K. white or rose coloured . dysentery. vulnerary.

. Chandrika. Asia.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. useful in diseases of chest.—Cruciferæ. See—Vegetables. L. cures dysentery . destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. Ashalika. constipating. Ahaliva. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. tumours and injuries. K. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). :—E. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. laxative.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). rheumatism. galactagogue. bronchitis. good in inflammations. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). often with linear segments . Hot and dry. CHAR. bronchitis. M. Hurfi. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. white. affections of spleen. Grains contain vitamins A and B.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Suvasura. HABITAT :—Cultivated. good for pain in abdomen. See-Food Plants. bitter. stomatitis . In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox.—small. enrich blood. H. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Garden cress . aphrodisiac. Seeds contain fatty oil. Sk. eye diseases (Ayurveda). aperient. Allibija. the lower petiolate. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Raktabija. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Halim. The covering is styptic and astringent. Fr. Chandrashura. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. leaves and seeds. C—petals 2-4 or 0. Kurutige. :—An erect glabrous annual. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. PARTS USED :—Root. chest complaints. very likely indigenous in W. FAM. tonic. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. Halim . upper sessile. diuretic. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). and muscular pains. bechic. Chavnsar. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Asahio. aphrodisiac . Seeds—indigestible. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. COM. Leaves are used as pot-herb. They are mucilaginous and laxative. They contain vitamin B. LOC. NS. tonic. LOC. blood and skin diseases. LOC. Fl. G.

diam. glossy dark-green above. good for cough and kidney troubles. M. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. Alsi. yellowish. usually alternate. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Kanara. burnt bark styptic and healing. Garbijaur. H. perianth lobes wanting. native country probably Egypt. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. NS. seeds and oil. "Kapha". FAM. remove "Vata".5 mm. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). K. DISTR. 8-12 together in heads.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. dysentery. FAM. Sedhavi. COM. Fibres. 7. Seeds—mucilaginous. G. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). L. hot.:—A small evergreen tree. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. gouty and rheumatic swellings. Fr. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. supported by the thickened pedicel. Madagandha.— globose. bark somewhat corky. :—E. COM. . LOC. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate.—Linaceæ. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S.—May-July. Common flax.. urinary discharges . aphrodisiac. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. LOC. Tisi. NS. Tailottama. See—Oils. emmenagogue. tonic. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Alashi.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. bad for eyesight. hard to digest. Haimwati.—crowded at the ends of branches. Jivanika. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Javas . inflammations. bronchitis. branchlets densely tomentose.:—E. Alshi. Malina. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. flowers. boils. heal ulcers. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. black. H. remove biliousness. Alasi. Country. used in consumption. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. Linseed. :—Cultivated throughout India.—Lauraceæ. aphrodisiac . base narrowed. Fl. pale beneath. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Alsi. CHAR. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). leaves. urinary complaints. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. LOC. causes loss of appetite. M. galactagogue. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Maidalakadi. Roasted seeds are astringent. diuretic. Medini. Sk. Sk. Maidelakri.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. lenticellate. colds and throat complaints. cure leprosy.. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. t. Fl. Common tallow laurel. M. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. "Pitta". Seeds contain vitamin A. lead to impotency. Alashi. back-ache.

Kandele.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. bark. CHAR.—. Devnal. H. finely serrulate. H. Sk. :—Konkan. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. M. FAM. Narttaka. lanceolate. long. high. lobes linear. Kadudodka. bitter. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . nearly sessile. light green. Jalini. G. Malay Islands. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. Bibhishana. LOC. stem stout. NS. overheated brains. Deccan and S. DISTR. It acts as anodyne.5-3.—Cucurbitaceæ. Narsala. Fl. Dhaval. Wild tobacco. t. Nal. strangury. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". many. tonic. subglobose. Devanala. burning sensation. Fr. long. Ranturai. white.100 m. spleen diseases. Root—astringent.2-3 m. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.9 cm. diuretic.—Nov. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. galactagogue. all oblong. paralysis. Ghontali. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . heart. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. lower much longer. Katukoshataki. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. Dhamana. opening by 2 valves. consumption. Ceylon. Mrityupushpa. erysipelas (Ayurveda). vagina. hollow. :—E. Nali. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. 1. M. heating. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. branched upwards. leaves. Jhinga. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. L. Kalahogesoppu. K. K. 2. fruits and seeds. M. aphrodisiac. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. very small. FAM. pains in joints. Sd. LOC. useful in biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. fever. uterus. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet.—Lobeliaceæ. biliousness. bronchitis. . G.-Mar. burning sensation.—capsule. Divali. Fl. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. aphrodisiac. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). stomachic. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . throat troubles. :—E. cure cough. SK.—alternate. leprosy (Ayurveda). Ridge gourd. acrid. LOC. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. midrib white. diseases of blood.—numerous. much curved. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. useful in inflammations.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. Karvituri. Sthulanala. "vata". Australia. C—2-lipped. Leaves are mucilaginous. Kahire. 3 usually connate throughout . Country. expectorant. yellowish brown . AMARA Clarke. thirst. NS. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. COM. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.

Mhowra. L. also in Konkan and N. W. DISTR. tonic to intestines. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. . prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. Doddippa. Mahula. LOC. uterine and vaginal tumours . LOC. recommended in splenic enlargement. 5-10 cm. hydrogogue. thrives in Deccan trap.—Sapotaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent.—obovoid. piles. palmate. PARTS USED :—Bark.—small. LOC. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. digestible. inflammations.—petals yellow with green veins . :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. bitter. t. Hunage. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic.8 cm. liver complaints. 5-7 lobed. females. G. asthma. especially in western Peninsula. bronchitis. obtusely conical at both ends.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR.53. Mahuda. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel.) FAM. :—E. at first whitish and softly villous. laxative. Madhusrava. alexiteric. Sk. base cordate. biliousness. jaundice. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). anæmia. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Moha. Mowa. Burma. C. :—Plant is bitter. cures "Vata". ascites. tonic and diuretic.. bitter. DISTR. Bengal to the W. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Madhuka. M. diuretic. 10-ribbed. tuberculous glands. "Kapha". cathartic. fruit and seeds. acrid. pale green. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. :—Throughout India.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Fl. solitary in the same axil as males.:—A large climber. carminative. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Mahua. Butter tree. long and about 2. leucoderma. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). thick. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Mowda. stems 5-angled. Gudapushpa. COM. Fruit cures fever. NS. Mahura. Kanara (rare) . used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). leaves. USES. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Fl. cures urinary discharges. piles. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). at length scabrid.—monœcious. asthma. Root-bark is abortifacient.—Sept. cough. tumours. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. tendrils usually 3-fid. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). Mahua tree. H. flowers and fruits. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. Ceylon. Madhya Pradesh. useful in rat-bite. K. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Fr. Pokka. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. HABITAT :—Common in hedges.

Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. and Upper Burma. LOC. Kamala. Movaro.—Sapotaceæ. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). :—Konkan. Mohwa. Mahuva of S. Kesarimavu. Kapila. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. FAM. Liquors. bronchitis. Kampillaka. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. galactagogue. COM. heals wounds . Ippe. PROPERTIES AND LOC. often planted. G. and Kanara. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. anthelmintic. used in fractures. tonic and nutritive. M. Flower—sweet. Flowers are regarded as cooling. H. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. NS. Sk. good in heart diseases. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. cures blood diseases. Karnatic. COM. tonic. fixed oil and a spirit. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient.) FAM. Fruit-tonic . :—-E. Mehua. Mahuda. Ceylon. carminative.—Euphorbiaceæ. fattening. Kapila. Oils. Famine Plants. and also a remedy for itch. causes "Kapha". M. Honey tree. See—Timbers. Huli. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Oils. flowers act as a mild purgative. :—E. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Kapilo. Oil is good for skin-diseases. and appetiser (Sushruta). India . Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. expectorant. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. ulcers. K. Shendri. Movanuhjad. consumption. LOC. There is a trace of alkaloid. DISTR. Moha. PARTS USED :—Bark. thirst. aphrodisiac.. aphrodisiac. :—Western peninsula. fatigue . cures biliousness. G. Mysore. Mohache jhad. See—Timbers. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. H.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. burning sensation. leprosy. flowers and oil. Flowers—oleaginous. Kambhal Raini. . Madhuka. Sk. K. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. NS. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Hullichillu. cooling. yields two important products. USES :—Astringent and emollient. astringent. Monkey-face tree. Oil—emollient (Yunani).

Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Ghats and the Satpudas. H. urinary discharges. clears brain. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. useful in bronchitis. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). dispels langour and burning of body. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. alexiteric. in "Tridosh". Astringent. cultivated throughout the State. it exudes a pink coloured gum. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). spleen. tonic. bad blood. astringent to bowels. beautifies complexion.—Anacardiaceæ. Am. sweet. vulnerary. good in cough. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Kamarasa. Khasia Hills. Ceylon. Chuta. LOC. lessen intestinal pains. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. dysentery. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. used in chronic diarrhœa. cooling. maturant. appetiser. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. See—Timbers. :—E. Gum . leaves. FAM. detergent. cooling. M. sour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. Ambo. Mavin-mara. aphrodisiac. Sk. Mavu. DISTR. good in heart trouble. improve taste and appetite. removes bad smell from mouth. vaginal troubles. China. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. Dyes. Amra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. ulcers. styptic. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. G. K. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root. fruits and seeds. carminative. Rasala. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Kanara. wounds. chronic dysentery and gleet. DISTR. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. NS. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. useful in skin-diseases. a good collyrium (Yunani). improves cough. :—-Throughout the State. diseases of abdomen. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Amri. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). :—Tropical Himalayas. Introduced. Fruit—heating. aphrodisiac. Malay Islands. purgative. enriches blood. cure "Vata". stomachic. cure leucorrhoea. anthelmintic. heals ulcers. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. "Pitta". flowers. tumours. thirst. biliousness. tonic to body. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. diuretic. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. throat troubles. purgative. leaves. Bihar. Cuckoo's Joy. bronchitis. liver. Burma. cause flatulence and constipation. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). vomiting. Mango tree. wild and cultivated. Bhutan. piles. LOC. Amba. fruits and seeds. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. "Kapha". good in dysentery. Sikkim. COM. improves complexion. laxative. hiccup. :—Throughout tropical India. styptic. Sahakara. stone in bladder. anthelmintic. LOC. liver pain. vermifuge and. Sind.

cooling.—6. H.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. rugosely striate. NS. coma copious .5-11. antipyretic. Nim or Margosa tree. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Dodi. Assam. useful in bleeding piles. if snuffed. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. pale yellowish brown. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. flattened. green or yellowish green. cures "Vata". The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Limbra. K. Java. Balant nimba. urinary discharges. :—-E. Bevu. Suparnika.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. all plains districts of Madras State.. See—Timbers.—broadly ovate. good for dyspepsia. USES. burning sensation.—Asclepiadaceæ. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic.5-10 cm. astringent to bowels. rat-bite (Ayurveda). Sk. NS. asthma.) FAM. Nimla. Confection made from ripe mango juice. corona lobes large. Country. older branches ash coloured. G. Madhumalati. :—Bengal. :—G. Fruit Trees. biliousness. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. CHAR.—Apl. Hemajyoti-valli. K. useful in diseases of eye. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. :—Deccan and S. t. alexiteric. long. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. tumours. Juice of kernel. margined. Limbada. M. LOC. Paribhadraka. Nim. overlapping to the right. Fr. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. M. Nimba.5 cm.—many. aphrodisiac. Kadulimb. Kharkhodi. inflammations. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Ceylon. :—A large twining shrub.3-15 X 4. Fl. fleshy. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. leucoderma.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. 7. M. Fl. Harandori. Nakchhikni. . Ambri. with lenticels and black dots.) FAM. stops nasal bleeding. few glands above the petiole cordate . MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Nimba.—Meliaceæ. H. It is also anthelmintic. Hari. Nimbaka. piles.—rotate with broad lobes. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Sk. Dugdhike . COM. C. Ripe fruit is laxative. Juss. L.—follicles. COM. Khandodi. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Sd.

flowers." vomiting. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). astringent. insecticidal. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. Sk. The flowers are stimulant. FAM. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. burning sensation near heart. COM. piles. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. useful in syphilitic sores. stomachic. See—Timbers. chronic leprosy. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. and loss of appetite. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. stimulant and stomachic. leucoderma. blood complaints. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. maturant. Burma. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. bruises. . general debility. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. sprains. :—E. expectorant. biliousness. Small melilot. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. for unhealthy ulcers. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. bark. boils.. Vanmethika. good in ophthalmia. good for leprosy. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. tonic and antiperiodic. DISTR. lessens inflammation. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. "pittadosh. maturant. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. M. antiperiodic. aphrodisiac. LOC. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. fever. cough. tumours. toothache. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. bad taste in the mouth. swollen glands. it is a general vermifuge. Banmethi. cures ulcers and inflammations . USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. Tonic. valuable in consumption. LOC. leaves. thirst. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. relieves "Kapha". refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. earache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . convalescence. piles. lumbago. H. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. tonic. alexiteric. rheumatism . fatigue. Ranmethi. leprosy. Oils. fruits and seeds. skin diseases. carminative. NS. urinary discharges. resolvant. asthma. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). pectoral.

NS. COM. HABITAT :—In hedges. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Agamaki.—Cucurbitaceæ.—3-foliate. Malaya and Africa.—pod. tapering at both ends. G. Afghanistan.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. Pudinah. Fr. stem angular. NS. Europe. Sd. FAM. LOC. Fl. H.—small. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda).— Jany. DISTR. truncate at the apex. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Bilari. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed.—monœcious . HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies.—Labiatæ. Chatinmaragu. in spicate close racemes. ellipsoid. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. COM. oblanceolate. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. M. at first green and variegated with yellow. M. base cordate. glabrous or slightly hairy. "Sikkim. poultice or plaster for swellings.. Ghugri. DISTR. standard exceeding the wings and keel. Iran. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . CHAR. . Country and Gujarat. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. Fl. leaves and seeds. Fr. male fascicled on short peduncles. scabrid.—size of a pea. glabrous. deltoid-ovate entire. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. north Bengal. tendrils simple. oblong-ellipsoid. C. :—India (tropical zone). also in S. very hispid . LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. M. young parts white-hairy. :—Common in Deccan. 30-45 cm. :—An erect annual herb. finally red.—variable in size. Corn-March mint. leaflets toothed. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. given as a gruel (Murray). t. of terminal rather long. K. L. S. Ceylon. females sessile. Pudina. Assam. especially in strained back. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Khasia. Externally used as a fomentation. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots.—pale yellow. introduced into many other regions. brown. Pudina. LOC. :—H. Fl. rounded. :—Western Peninsula. slightly echinulate. lobes dentate or serrate . high. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. :—E. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. FAM.—one.

LOC. diuretic. Europe. COM. expectorant. Assam Iron-wood. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Burma Tenasserim. smooth. Nagkinjalka. In N. tonic to kidneys . It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. good in asthma and sweats. L. The plant is used in chutneys. Country. M. skin diseases. dry. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. North and West Asia. indigestion and cephalagia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. good for fevers. small tumours. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sk. pains in joints (Ayurveda). DISTR. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Ceylon.-narrowed below. headache. NS. S. USES :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—E. FAM. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. vomiting. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. Travancore. leaves. stalked. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. E. DISTR. K. Nagkesara. M. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. lilac. stem short. cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. LOC. cardiotonic. binding. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. Kanara. asthma. digestive. Ceylon Iron-wood. Naghas. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. Nagakeshara. used for cough. LOC. sweats. foul breath. Carminative. H. alexipharmic. MESUA FERREA Linn. China. Assam. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. Nagkesara. LOC. flowers and fruits. oblong.—Guttiferæ. Bengal. :—A perennial erect herb . infusion is given in fevers. :—Western Himalayas. Suvarna. and stimulant. sorethroat.—nutlets dry. Fl. Andamans. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). the upper similar and large. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. hiccup. ovate.—in axillary distant whorls. Nagsampige. hairy. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). useful in liver and spleen diseases. emmenagogue. Konkan and N. Fr. blood and heart troubles. Gums and Resins. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kashmir. thirst. Himalayas. Oils. lanceolate. none at the top. :—E. PARTS USED :—Bark. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Nagchapha. C. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. See—Timbers. lined with hairs and hairy outside. biliousness. toothed. .

COM. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. India. evergreen rain-forest of N. rheumatism. with 3-5 one-seeded joints.5 cm. 57. useful in cough. Lajjavati. Lajja. destroys poisons. S. K. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Lajalu. "Vata". Lajalu. Lajalu. FAM. Sankochini. Muthmurika. Sonchampo. long. removes worms. gout. petioles hairy. Lajjika. NS. M. Champaka. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). bark. COM.—Sept. Hem-pushpa. H. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Champa. Surabhi.—4-merous.—Magnoliaceæ. in globose heads. LOC. Vanamallika. diaphoretic. Champo.—bipin-nate. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. diuretic.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . :—E. LOC. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. slightly recurved. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. clothed with glandular hairs . Flowers— expectorant. NS. Champaka. Yunnan. nausea and fevers . Suvarna champaka. rheumatism. good in leprosy. Kanara.-pod flat. also used as purgative. Champaka. G. sensative. FAM. "Kapha". Pilochampo. Fl. t. CHAR. IndoChina. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. ophthalmia. remove biliousness. Golden champa. Sone-chapha. Humble plant. Dyes. pinnae 1-2 pairs. Ghats. facilitates micturition. H. Lajari. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. near temples and in gardens. W. :—Cultivated all over the State. Sk. Risemani. leaflets 15-20 pairs.-Oct.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Fr. rachis bristly. leaves. 45-90 cm. Nachike-gidda. M. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Fruit.. cultivated. L. pink.. in vertigo. high. stems and branches sparingly prickly. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Pivala chapha. Fl. digitate. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. See—Timbers. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. G. DISTR. . acrid. glabrous above. Sparshalajja. diuretic. blood affections. Yellow champa . HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. flowers and fruits. stimulant. Sk. Sensitive plant. hairy beneath. Assam. Sampige. it is given with honey to relieve colic. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. K. bile. Flowers-stomachic. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Burma. Raktamula. :—A diffuse under-shrub.

DISTR. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. cooling. biliousness. COM. dysentery. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Bakul. :—G. flowers. in piles and fistula. probably a native of tropical America. LOC. oleaginous. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn.:—Western Peninsula. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. nose diseases. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. alexipharmic. acrid. Kanara and Konkan. fatigue. LOC. bark. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. vaginal and uterine complaints. M. cures biliousness. leprosy. Vovali. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. cure blood diseases. leprosy. often planted in gardens. Fruit causes flatulence. Baphuli. Juice is applied externally. Anangaka. burning sensation. Flowers—expectorant. Bakul. astringent to bowels. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. fruits and seeds. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. liver complaints. Sk. jaundice. vulnerary. NS. :—Naturalised throughout India. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. It is also resolvent and alterative. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bakul. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. Root is resolvent. useful in blood and bile diseases. bilious fevers. Ceylon. alexipharmic. cooling. Bolsari. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. also used in discharges from mucous membranes .—Sapotaceæ. Bark cardiotonic. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). leucoderma. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Borsalli. H. DISTR. piles. alterative. Mugule. Flowers give taste. Ranjal. Mukul. cultivated in gardens in pots. cure biliousness. Kalhala. sweet. teeth and gum diseases. good for gonorrhœa. Sharadika. cures "Kapha". inflammations. K. smallpox (Yunani). flowers and fruits acrid. cultivated in the tropics. Mulsari. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). In Brazil root is used as emetic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. LOC. ulcers. Root. anthelmintic. Varsuli. stomachic. Bakula. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. asthma. Kanara. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. See—Ornamental Plants. Seeds fix loose teeth.

K.—large. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. See—Ornamental Plants. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. CHAR. :—Grown throughout India. native of tropical America. Carella fruit. Four o'clock plant. 30-75 cm. L. LOC. Karela. NS. often ribbed or rugose. H. NS. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Gulbasa . HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. M. DISTR. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Karli. Karela. t. Fr. HABITAT -Cultivated. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck.—Cucurbitaceæ. COM.—E. See—Timbers. Krishnakali. LOC. cordate. Sandhya-kali or Raga. G. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. M. blackish. H. Karala. Kandura. and rather fleshy stems . Hagalkai. Sk. Kareli. It is also tonic and febrifuge. K.—Nyctaginaceæ. Fl. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. it is applied to relieve headache. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Oils. each one surrounded by an involucre. FAM. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Karavalli. Leaves are maturant. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. yellow. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Marvel of Peru. FAM. Sk. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . .—membranous. lessen inflammations (Yunani). Karelo. good for syphilitic sores. :—A herbaceous plant.—continually in bloom. Fl. high with large perennial tuberous roots. COM. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Guleaabbas . Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Fruit Trees. :—E. Hagala.

eye and heart. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. laxative. appetiser. sparingly in Konkan. China. cures biliousness. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. anæmia. LOC. antipyretic. Beksa. Malaya. :—Cultivated throughout India. B and C. etc. FAM. antibilious. M. Fruits contain vitamins A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. laxative. asthma. Plant cures diseases of blood. fever consumption. Fruit is tonic. bronchitis. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. M. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. Karehiballi. Kantolan. longpepper. stomachic. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. hearttroubles. rheumatism. ulcers. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases.—Cucurbitaceæ. DISTR. and externally in ague as an absorbent. :—Throughout India. jaundice etc. excessive salivation. cure "Tridosh". bronchitis. Country and Gujarat. aphrodisiac. diseases of spleen and liver. K. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. Kartoli. tumours. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. NS. anthelmintic. urinary calculi. stomachic. anthelmintic. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . urinary discharges. Sk. Vishakankini. all kinds of poisoning. stomachic. cooling. burns. H. LOC. erysipelas (Ayurveda). also in Malaya. hot alexiteric. lessens expectoration . HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is useful in gout. leaves and fruit. carminative. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Gid-hagalu. Fruit— bitter. leprosy. urinary discharges. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. boils. :—G. S. digestible. PARTS USED :—Root. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. tropical Africa. Karkotaki. Fruit—bitter. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. used in syphilis. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. "Kapha". See—Vegetables. Leaves act as galactagogue. cure "Vata". Kantoli. Leaves—aphrodisiac. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. Vandhya. COM. tonic. hiccup.'. laxative and authelmintic. blood diseases. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. asthma. rheumatism. Golkandra. and America. Ceylon. piles. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. anthelmintic. Nagarali. . It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. Kanta. piles. Fruit—very bitter. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. leaves and fruit.

"Kapha". :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. China. all "tridosha" fevers. DISTR. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Famine Plants. Shevaga. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Mochaka. also in the Oudh forests. dyspepsia. analgesic. Saraoji. See—Dyes. "Vata". bark. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. COM. cultivated throughout India and Burma. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain.—Rubiaceæ. Achchuka. Ashyuka. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. emmenagogue. H. alexiteric. Achi. LOC. fattening. Nuggi. also wild. Bartondi. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). spleen enlargement. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. stuttering. Formosa. G. FAM. K. PARTS USED :—Root. earache. See—Vegetables. digestible. DISTR. astringent to bowels. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND LOC. inflammations. Rochana. Guggala. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Introduced var. tumours. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. Sargavo. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. fruits and seeds. M.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. . causes burning sensation. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Aal. eye diseases. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. improves appetite. FAM. M. Segua.—Moringaceæ. Burma. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. leaves and fruits. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Tikshnamula. Al. Seglo. anthelmintic. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Ugra. leaves. biliousness . Ab. H. Tagase . In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Sajina. Indian mulberry. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Sk. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Mochaka. Murangi. NS. tuberculous glands in neck. removes all kinds of pains. flowers. Ainshi. Munigha. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Indian horse radish . makes blood impure . Ak. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. Mulgule. :—E. Drum-stick Tree. useful in heart-complaints. aphrodisiac. G. Sk. COM. NS. Haladipavate.

increases biliousness. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. Root is purgative. bronchitis. expectorant. :—E. M. Sk. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan.—Moraceæ. diarrhœa. NS. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. Leaf paste. Fruit—tonic. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. lumbago. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. G. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. Tutri. gout. Oils. FAM. Tut. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Kambali. enriches blood. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. leaves and fruit. Ambat. . LOC. bark. it is cooling laxative. K. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. B and C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. stomatitis. good for inflammations of throat and chest. turmeric. biliousness. Tut. DISTR. White mulberry. PARTS USED :—Root. internal inflammations and calculous affections. expectorant. MORUS INDICA Linn. appetiser. See—Vegetables. diuretic. The plant contains an alkaloid. rheumatism. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. sour. lumbago. Karihannu. aphrodisiac. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. Peninsula. fattening. with garlic. burning sensation (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. good for brain. Shetur. cooling. enriches blood. laxative. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. enlarged spleen or liver. loss of appetite. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. useful in small-pox. spleen. wounds. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. salt and pepper. cures gleet. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. anthelmintic. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. urinary discharges. LOC. aromatic and acid flavour. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. H. Kanara. carminative. Fibres. heart. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. piles. See—Fruit Trees. Fruits contain vitamins A. obstinate asthma. ulcerated intestines. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. epilepsy and hysteria. COM. Tuda. common about villages in N. diuretic. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Tuta. Gums and Resins. Siahtut. Madhu pippali. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. sweetish.

Dirghapatra. NS. Kivanchha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. terminal smaller. pods and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers and fruit. :—Punjab plains. spermatorrhoea etc. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda).—Oct-Nov. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. tonic. M. sometimes cultivated. :—An annual twiner.3-11. Sk. Urustambha. Havanch. Hasaguni. leaflets membranous. Root—emmenagogue. Adam's Fig. tonic. Banana. FAM. Sk. Cowhage.—5-6 small. Tikshna. :—E. COM. Kela. covered with tawny stinging hairs. G.) FAM. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Kadali. LOC. leaves. turgid-shaped.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. MUSA PARADISIACA L. dark-purple.—in drooping racemes. H. Fr. Kela. :—E.. HABITAT :—Humid areas . K. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Fl. grey-silky beneath. Maoz kela. Goncha. Kavach. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. which produce intensa irritation of skin. consumption. LOC. Atmagupta.. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. lateral very unequal sided. Sd. biliousness . silky.—pod. They are used as anthelmintic. with honey is given in cholera. juice given for headache. M. Himalaya up to 1200 m. Var. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . 6-30 flowered. COM. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. cures blood diseases. Turashi. Fl. H. Kapikachu. 5-7. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. PARTS USED :—Root. improves blood. laxative. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Rambha. HABITAT :—In hedges. Kuhili. Plantain.—Scitaminaceæ. Kela.—3-foliate. long. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. K. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. DISTR. NS. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Ceylon. .3 cm. G. Root useful for delirium in fevers.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Kadvare. Kivanch. common in hedges. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Bale. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma .5x1. Seeds— alexipharmic. Fruit— aphrodisiac.2 cm. " Vata ". SAPIENTUM O. cultivated. stem. Kunth. DISTR. petioles 6. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Kavatch. LOC. CHAR. Nayi songuballi. Strong root infusion. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. Vanari. L. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. t.

Ipparati. Nagavalli. biliousness. lobes broadly ovate. very hairy outside. CHAR. sore-throat. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. thickens blood. linear. anthelmintic. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. Sk. astringent to bowels. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. tonic. indigestible . dyspepsia. in " Vata". COM. and are used in acidity. L. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. tube slender. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. Fr. increases appetite. :—S. LOC.— July-Oct. causes bronchitis . Burnt stem is vulnerary. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. stipules twin. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. blood diseases. Fl. broadly elliptic. Shrivalli. t. broad at base. good for dry bronchitis. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Hastygida. Kanara. astringent to bowels. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. tonic. Fruit—sweet. menstrual disorders. hairy. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. improves complexion (Ayurveda). with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. strangury. C. Assam. Bedina. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . aphrodisiac. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. DISTR. LOC. M.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Fibres.—Rubiaceæ. deep golden yellow. See—Fruit Trees. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. ear-pain. urinary discharges. Bhutakes. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. aphrodisiac. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . . consumption and bronchitis. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa.— berry. K. leprosy. Fl. Serwadh. in thirst. kidney troubles (Yunani). FAM. Tropical Himalayas. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. antidysenteric.--in terminal cymes. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. diabetes. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. diseases of uterus and vagina. subglobose.—tubular. Root-juice. pubescent. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. :—A rambling shrub. useful in "Kapha". appetiser. flowers and fruit. PARTS USES :—Root.. Lawsat. NS. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. :—H. :—Konkan and N. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. heart-burn and colic. buds densely hairy. B and C. Andamans. Bellotti.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. leaves. Root-juice is anthelmintic.

NS. is regarded as. diuretic. emmenagogue. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Kamuka.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic.—Myrtaceæ. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. Myrtle. DISTR. Malati. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. intermittent fevers and dropsy. COM. Dioscorides. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). Pliny. LOC. especially epilepsy. K. Kaiphal. L. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. all over the State. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. Himalayas. used in stopping vomiting. white. Vilayantimendhi. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. small. Ram-patri. PARTS USED:—Seeds. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. A decoction is employed. cures headache. NS. ovate to lanceolate. applied locally to relieve pain.—berry. as . USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Fl. :— E. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. axillary on slender peduncles. H. common in the Kumta taluka. FAM. See—Timbers. Galen and the Arabian writers. DISTR. It is credited with opposite qualities.—small. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. black when ripe. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Kanara Ghats . Habules. M. FAM. ellipsoid. Malabar. :—Western Peninsula. :—Konkan and N. :—A shrub. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. very sweet smelling. :—E. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is used as a substitute for true mace. Murad. smoke beneficial to piles. M. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil.— Myristicaceæ. Kanage. W. They are given in asthma. COM.— solitary. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. LOC. allaying pain. enriches blood. Fr. Condiments and Spices. fruits and oil. False nutmeg. promotes growth of hair. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Malati. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Sk. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action .

H. Kapurbhendi. peltate. t. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. dysentery. Ambuja.—petals many 5-12. PARTS USED :—Root. M. 3-valved. FAM. DISTR.—Nymphæaceæ. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. COM. Sd. Kamala.) FAM. :—E. LOC. erect. Kanara.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. K.—capsule. anthers with clavate appendages. top flat. Timpani. Tavari-bija or gadde. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts.—Meliaceæ.—July. Fl. cells 2-seeded. Nelanaringa . entire. bronchitis. Fl.—white. Fl. Sk.3-0. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. Padma. petioles very long. Padam. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. Chinese water-lily. free.—pendulous. radiately nerved. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Sarasija. t. DISTR. muricate. LOC. Kamal. white or rosy. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Amlavalli. :—Konkan. G. Papra-vel. concave or cupped. fleshy.—alternate. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness.-Dec. 0. Kamal. Ambuj. orbicular. leaves. with slender. glabrous. Kandalu.6 m. Belakanji.—solitary. from Iran eastwards to Australia. Pitmari. NS. :—A large aquatic herb. Indian sacred lotus. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. NS. cures asthma. K. . Pundarika. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. hæmorrhage. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. elongate. Kandabahula. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. diam. See—Ornamental Plants. M. :—W. Goanese ipecacuanha. vulnerary. C. Kamal. Ripe carpels. Aravinda. & A. long. rough with distant prickles . ovoidglobose. Fr. elliptic. torus 18 mm. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. high. LOC. disk annular. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. linear spathulate. Fl.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. ovoid. 10-25 cm. L. petals 5. Sk. 3-foliate. spongy.5 cm. COM. alexiteric. petiole winged. curved. CHAR. Pankaja. axillary. stem. ulcers (Ayurveda).—membranous. in diam. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. Suriyakamal. CHAR. :—E. solitary or 2 together. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin.-Nov. L.. :—A small branching undershrub.

COM.—in threes. Karber. allays thirst. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. at length separating. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . rose or white. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. Fl. 15-23 cm. vomiting. coriaceous. also cholera. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . DISTR. allays thirst. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. seeds. L. also recommended as cardiac tonic. Ashwa-marak. Sind. diuretic. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. H. flowers. diseases of skin and eye . In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. Pratihasa. Salt Range. Sweet scented oleander. chest-pains. Upper Gangetic Plains. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. LOC. Filaments are astringent and cooling. See—Ornamental Plants. leaves. ulcers and sores of mouth. 10-15 cm. Waziristan. menorrhagia. M. in fever and liverdiseases. good in blood-complaints. In China and Malaya dried red petals. long. fragrant. G. fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Cool. also as a hedge plant. C. . flowers. FAM. heart and brain tonic . long. Kanel. cures cough.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Kaner. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. useful in burning sensation of the body. leucoderma. rigid. PARTS USED :—Root.—follicles. improves watery eyes (Yunani). Fr. spermatorrhoea. good in throat-troubles. linear-lanceolate. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. NS. planted in gardens throughout the State.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. inflammations and poisoning. Baluchistan. fever.—Apocynaceæ. useful in fevers . Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. biliousness. tapering into short petiole. :—Madhya Bharat.—red. :—E.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. India. Kanagile. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . astringent to taste . strangury. throat scaly. Kanher.—funnel-shaped. Vishavrikshanka. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. small-pox. useful in piles. Sd. t. Cool. honey. dark green and shining above. Fl. LOC. CHAR. Paddali. removes worms. K. Kaner. Sk. stem. aphrodisiac. gives tone to breast. leaves. S. Karvira. lobes rounded. slightly bitter. Karvira. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ".

Krimighni. also applied in leprosy. Tobacco. dimness of sight. FAM. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. USES :—All parts of plant. H. Bujjarbhang. Tabak. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. G. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. nervous depression and sleeplessness. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—pink or white. CHAR. NS. The plant contains a glucoside.—alternate. useful in caries of teeth.—in open corymbose panicles . tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine.—capsule. Hoge soppu. L. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. funnel-shaped. M.—Solanaceæ. wounds.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. scabies (Yunani). emetic. asthma. An ointment made . good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. useful in bronchitis. anthelmintic. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. are poisonous and are used externally. cultivated in all tropical countries. inflammations. especially root. scabies. tonic. bronchitis. COM. Tamarakuthika. See—Ornamental Plants. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda).8 cm. the surface is plain or bullate. lobes spreading. about 1. water from hookha is diuretic. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). M. Tamaku. disinfectant. carminative. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. base wedgeshaped . Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. sores. DISTR. oblong or elliptic. good for lumbago. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. :—Native of America. a mental stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. skin diseases. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. headache. caries of teeth. tubercular glands of neck. C. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Fr. across. Fl. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. large (especially lower ones). LOC. K. Root—aphrodisiac. smoke constipating. conical. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Kalanja.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). inflammations. Poisonous to fish. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Tambak. laxative. foul nose. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). :—E. very poisonous. tonic. Flowers— aphrodisiac. Dhumrapatrika. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. sedative and emetic. Tamakhu. Tambakhu. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). LOC.

Lalkamal. NS.3 cm. Sephalika. hairy. flowers and seeds. Harsing. G.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. abundant July-Sept. LOC. t. Alipriya. NS. It is used with honey in chronic fever.—lobes white. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic.— fragrant. L. tonic to hair. carminative. compressed. (Ayurveda).—Nymphæaceæ. H. Aravind. COM. . Lotus. Burma. young branches quadrangular. lessen inflammation. Nilophhal. axillary. a decoction of root. CHAR. Jayaparvati. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. obcordate or merely orbicular. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. rough above with bulbous hairs. useful in bilious fevers. Prajakta. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Sk. cures fevers. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Nalkumkuma. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Assam. solitary. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Kharapatraka. Chotakanwal. leaves. bark.—capsule. Sephali. astringent-to bowels.— more or less throughout the year. COM. Kanval. C. Fl. Sk.—Oleaceæ. M. See—Ornamental Plants. 2-celled.) FAM. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Bark cures bronchitis. :—E. ovate acute. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Bilitavarai. southwards to the Godavari. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Parijata. bark. FAM. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Indian Mourner : G. tube orange-coloured. densely pubescent beneath. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Har-singhar. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Shonapadma. peduncles 4angled. LOC. HABITAT :-Cultivated. Madhya Bharat. H. Cultivated in many parts of India. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye.. M. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Fr. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Bengal. Parijataka. K. scalp affections etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . Har. Nyadale huvu . Kumuda. :—A large shrub or a small tree. Fl. K. Kanwal. DISTR. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Prajakta. Buds are tonic.5-6.—opposite 5-10x2. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Root. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. :—E. Parijata .

cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda).—nutlets about 2 mm. diam. DISTR. G. :—Large aquatic herb . open in the morning only. alexipharmic. Bahari.— in whorled racemes . Sabja. :—An erect herb 0. roundish. allays thirst. flowers and seeds. enlarged spleen.—petals about 12. t. cylindric. Damaro. Ajagandhika. Africa. obtuse. CHAR. Manjarki. ripening beneath the water. " Kapha". cultivated throughout the greater part of India. PARTS USED :—Roots. 8-13 mm. submerged . diuretic. long. thyrsiflora. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. pale rose or white. Fr. Barbar. FAM. removes impurities from blood . Ramkasturi. rough. "Kapha". Plant has a sharp. Sd. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . bitter taste. green. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. purple stem. useful in diseases of heart and blood. root stock tuberous. Ceylon. toothed or lobed. lessens bile. K. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. and nigropunctate above. stamens about 40. petioles very long. stomachic. See—Ornamental Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. antipyretic . Sabzah. Fl. bracts stalked. long.—peltate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. asthma.—all the year. high. white. diarrhœa and piles . aphrodisiac . hot taste. Barbar. deeply cordate at the base. ellipsoid. peduncles very long . glabrous or pubescent. Burma. NS. anthelmintic. leaves and flower. :—E. Java. globose. erect.—3 cm.. leucoderma.6-0. inflammations.— ovoid. M. stems and branches green or purplish. C. red. Sk. L. itch. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. Common sweet basil. Nasabo.9 m. entire. 15-25 cm. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. 7. Hungary. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Surasa. leaves. causes burning sensation. short. across. improves taste . LOC. "Vata". oblong. pink or purplish. chronic pain in joints. cooling . LOC.5-20 cm. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. Rihan. emmenagogue. Sajjebija.—solitary. Surabhi. Philippines. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. acute.—ovate. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. H. COM. Fl. fleshy. Fl. febrifuge. Tungi. biliousness. irregularly sinuate-dentate. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. glabrous.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. C. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Tukhamariya . filaments dilated at the base .—Labiatæ. Var. diameter.—2-lipped. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. Sabja. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). DISTR. useful in diseases of heart and brain. :—Var. Fr. juice gives lustre to . L. "Vata". thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. black and pitted.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. liver and spleen. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. earache. C. useful in vomiting. diuretic and stimulant. COM. :—A perennial shrub. DISTR. headache. useful in diseases of brain. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. L. rugose. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. strangury . given in infusion in gonorrhœa.—Labiatæ.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. alexiteric. often cultivated : Ceylon. lower lip longer. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. Deccan.—6. carminative. pale greenish yellow. Fl. It is also styptic. coarsely crenate-serrate. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. Gujarat. Ram Tulasi. inflammations.3—12. S. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. :—E.8 m. high. :—Throughout India. skin diseases. young ones pubescent. branched. they are also aphrodisiac.7 cm. removes foul breath. rachis quadrangular . causes insomnia (Ayurveda). aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis.—2-lipped. Large basil. Sk. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). Plant has bitter. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. fits.— in simple or branched racemes. Lemon—shrubby basil. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. gland-dotted. Fr. CHAR. stems and branches subquadrangular .8—5. brown. Ajaka. t. pubescent. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. M. LOC.-July-Oct.—nutlets subglobose. good for toothache. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. Avachi-bavachi.. 1. :—Konkan. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. BanMal tulasi. G. heating. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. aphrodisiac . USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. diuretic and demulcent properties.5 X 3. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. good for griping and piles (Yunani). in close whorls . sharp taste . stimulant. Rantulasi. LOC. " Vata". leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. Java. M. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. elliptic-lanceolate. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. During fever when the extremities are cold. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. strengthens gums. FAM. Fl. " Kapha". heart. Sumukha. H. LOC. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.2—1. Rama-Ran tulasi. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. . The flowers possess. Country. woody below . NS.

hiccup. Australia. LOC. used in catarrh and bronchitis . :—Throughout India. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil.6— 3. t. minutely gland-dotted.:—E. M. LOC. COM. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. CHAR. margins recurved and scabrous. long. . Tropical E. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. strangury. Vrinda. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. purulent discharge of ear. Sk. stomachic.—2.—Sept-Nov. Parpat. Vishnuvallabha. vomiting. antipyretic.—on filiform pedicels.— in racemes 15-20 cm. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases .MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. heating. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. purplish. M. purplish. Tulasi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Papli. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Manjari. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Tulasi. especially in children. Kala tulasi.5-5 X 1. stems numerous. L. :—An annual plant. leaves and seeds. CHAR. NS. leucoderma. COM. high. :—An annual herb. alexiteric. :—Konkan. HABIT :—A common weed. DISTR. entire or serrate. K. PARTS USED :—Root. yellow with black marking. usually 2-3 cm. lobes acute. stems and branches subquadrangular. Krishna tulasi. cholagogue. Country. NS. L. Fl. Damanpaper. asthma. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . linear or linear-lanceolate. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache.—pale brown. Ceylon. useful in heart and blood diseases.— capsule. stipules with bristles . angular. Fl.— nutlets.5—38 cm. DISTR. bronchitis.—subsessile. Deccan and S. Vranda. H. Fr. smooth. painful eye. globose or pyriform . 30-60 cm. See—Sacred Plants. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos.. obtuse or acute. Sd. of children and in hepatic affections . West Asia. Tulasa. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. anthelmintic. clothed with soft hairs . H. " Vata". elliptic-oblong. :—G. lumbago pains. Tulasi. long in close whorls .—2-lipped.2 cm. bitter. FAM. foul smells. C. high. Asia to Java and the Philippines. Sk.—Rubiaceæ.—Labiatæ. upper lip pubescent on the back. and are given with honey. Parapate. Fr. varying from 7. FAM. Pavitra. " Kapha". Phapti. Fl. pubescent. M. G. Suravallari. Arabia. LOC. Malay Archipelago.

Slipper thorn. purgative. antipyretic. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. rather thin. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. reddish purple when ripe. dull bluish-green. spleen enlargement. LOC. cures inflammations. ulcers. perianth rotate. tumours. rusty brown. " Vata". largest 3. anæmia. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). Plant bitter. Zhoratheylo. Fr. alexiteric. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. Nagaphani. burning. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. diuretic.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. NS. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. good for leucoderma. leucoderma. Sher. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Snuka. used in ophthalmia. piles. it is also used in liver complaints. obovate or elliptic. DISTR. inner spathulate. HABITAT :—Common in waste places .—Cactaceæ. digestive. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. Phadyanivdung. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. or more high. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. cures biliousness. :—E. Mullugalli.—7. reddish at the tips. loss of consciousness. Nagaphana. Chorhothalo. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. Sk. lumbago. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Nagadru. 3 m. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. subulate. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. yellow at the edges. introduced into India. spleen enlargement. Nagdali.5 mm.— berry. CHAR. G. recurved. Hathathoria. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . carminative. . Grown as hedge. yellow or orange.5 cm. outer segments ovate red in the centre. laxative. inflammations. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. angular or warty. pyriform. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. juice cures earache (Yunani). :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. Plant juice—heating. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. Nagaphana. L. Fl. H. COM.—5 cm. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. flowers and fruits. xerophyte. Prickly pear. long. cures bronchitis in children. Joints variable in size. K. LOC. carminative. Vajrakantaka. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. M. vesicular calculi. FAM. urinary complaints. ascites. liver complaints. across. long. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia.

:—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. oleaginous. cooling. Podval. See—Timbers. Mokka. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. stomachic. COM. appetiser. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea.—Gramineæ. :—E. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Chaval. Dirghavrinta. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. M. bronchitis. DISTR. inflammations. tonic. Ullu. intestinal worms. Bagi. astringent to bowels . Bhat. It is astringent and tonic. HABITAT :—Aquatic. useful in biliousness . Indian trumpet flower. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. R. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Tandula. K. LOC. LOC. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Sk. useful in " Vata". Malaya. G. DISTR. LOC. Tans. vomiting. Tetu. dysentery. Rice. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Kanara ghats . :—Widely cultivated. Dyes. Cochin-China. Seeds are purgative. Akki. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). :—E. H.S. aphrodisiac. Ava. Ceylon. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. fattening. asthma. Tetu. Arlu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. LOC. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Shali. Mayarjangha. COM. Araluka. :—The Konkan and the N. good in heart and throat diseases. Ghats. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Rice . useful in diarrhœa and dysentery.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Tuntaka. G. useful in leucoderma (Yunani).—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Fruit—acrid. Vrihi. FAM. anthelmintic. NS. Sk. improves taste. H. piles. Shyonaka. Alangi.). sweet. Pharri. K. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. leucoderma. M. Fruit—expectorant. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. improves appetite. K. FAM. fevers. M.—Bignoniaceæ. biliousness. Tetu. NS. Chokha. diuretic. tonic. PARTS USED :—Grain. anal troubles. aphrodisiac. Tandula. Nivara.

bowels or kidneys. Dudhani.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Chukrita. leaflets 1. In dysentery. Dugdhika. . skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). H. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. obcordate. Dudhialata. C. diarrhœa. COM. scarlet fever. Br. sub-umbellate . :—Throughout the State. astringent. Dudhialata. ulcers. buboes. stems rooting. beaked. petioles very slender. Sk. also in burns and scalds. It is a pleasant. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. yellow.2—2. Fr. LOC. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. used externally. easy to digest. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn.— capsule. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. LOC. brown.— Oct-May. t.5 cm. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. Jaladudhi. PARTS USED :—Leaves. bruised. K. Ceylon. Dugdhica. H. Amlalonika. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. rounded at the apex. small-pox. Fl. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. to which a little lemon juice is added. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. good appetiser . demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers.— many. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. L. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. Ambastha. gives great relief. measles. :—G. Dudhatani. FAM. See—Food Plants. Amrul. Ambuti. " Vata " and piles. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. transversely striate. pubescent. Kyirin . Shuklika. M. oblong.—Oxalidaceæ. Sk. M. Indian Sorrel. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. 5-angled. boils.—Asclepiadaceæ. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. cures dysentery. CHAR. Marudbhava. if applied to chest. NS. :—E.—petals 5. Dudhari. base cuneate subsessile. Rice water. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. It is an excellent application to abscesses. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. K. Sd. DISTR. removes " Kapha ". margins ciliate. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. FAM. dysentery and scurvy. linear-oblong. Dugdhike. NS. The grains contain vitamin C. inflamed piles. ovoid. Fl.—palmately 3-foliate. long. Kshiravi. COM.—axillary. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . :—A small procumbent acrid herb . Changeri.

coma present. purple veined. Dhulipushpika. Screw pine. Gogandhul. :—A shrub up to 6 m. 4.8-6.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. LOC.—very numerous. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. . expectorant. PARTS USED :—Plant. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Andamans. Country— Belgaum. coriaceous ensiform. Sundarbans. black. :—E. often planted.—oblong or globose. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. mouth with pubescent ring. small-pox. root. Giripriya. Leaves are useful in leprosy. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. pain. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Ketaki. aphrodisiac. gonorrhœa. pale rose or white. Deccan. useful in strangury and tumours. Kewoda. female flower spadix solitary. bitter. juice is used in gleet. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. Keora. Fr.9—1. Umbrella Tree. cough. Anthers useful in pruritus. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. palegreen. Kedige. 3. H. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). tonic. M. Ketgi. anthelmintic. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. " Kapha ". heat of body. Chama-pushpa. anthers. Flowers improve complexion.5-9 cm. X 3. fruit.—glaucous green. DISTR. Mundige. yellow or red.—Pandanaceæ. HABITAT :—Usually near water. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). dry. Gandha-pushpa. K. leaves.. :—Konkan. aphrodisiac. t. fruit and oil from bracts. Fl. pain in the muscles. linear or linear-lanceolate. G.8 mm. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. indigestible. stem supported by aerial roots . CHAR. long. long.— large. Sd. alexiteric. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. LOC. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. corona staminal. 0. LOC. stems many. Ceylon. causes flatulence. anthelmintic. Fr. aphrodisiac. Java. leucoderma. COM. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . syphilis. NS. Sk. DISTR.—dioecious. Fl. strikingly handsome. laxative. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. L. much branched. Fruit—tonic.—follicles.3 cm. Kanara. Kanara. high. somniferous. diseases of heart and brain. lobes ciliate.—deciduous.5 m.—Dec. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Burma. thin. C. M. :—Konkan and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. FAM. PARTS USED :-Root. L. with flavour. Poona Sangam. margins and midrib spiny. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". Kevada. Fl. scabies. diuretic. Ketaka. rarely erect. milky juice.

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. gout. good for eyes. aphrodisiac. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. LOC. nose complaints. long. slightly recurved. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Kalli-chalu. Khaji. laxative. broadly spathulate. H. Indian wine palm. Kajuri. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Kidney diseases. biliousness. " Kapha". light and astringent. Sd. Kapila. Satara. G. prostrate. bitter. Kurangika. Fr. good in fevers. t. Ranmug. as a kharif crop. antipyretic. Kohesaru. 2. blood diseases. Malay Islands. Ahmedabad. K. L. Kolaba and Kanara. Fl. Abyssinia. Dharwar. DISTR.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Date sugar palm. Vanmudga. cure biliousness. Koshila. Adabanmagi. Sk. Sendhi. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. Belgaum. piles. thirst. styptic. LOC. See—Food Plants. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. petioles grooved.3—2. long. . :—Annual or perennial. cures consumption.—Oct. Deccan and Gujarat. M. Sk. Ahmednagar. FAM. inflammations. K. eye troubles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Ranmath. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling.:—Very common throughout the State. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. H. leaflets 1. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. LOC. FAM. long. enrich blood. :—Largely grown in. throat inflammations. Siyindu. COM. membranous. M. Burma. Khandesh.—3-foliate. DISTR. :—E. " Tridosh". Kharjurika.— pod. COM. Mugani. astringent to bowels. NS. headache. wild date palm. Kherk. The grains contain vitamins A and B. mugawana. Magavala.—6-12.5 cm. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Kharjuri. PARTS USED :—Seeds. bronchitis. Shindi. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Kashayi. LOC. Khajuri. Trianguli. anthelmintic. straight subcylindric. dysentery. Tadi. digestible. Seeds— tonic.—Palmæ. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). few flowered racemes. dry. good for the eyes . Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. peduncles 10-23 cm. Shimbiparni. Kallu. and southwards to Ceylon. Boichand.—in sub-capitate. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Sind. :—G. burning sensation. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. NS. glabrous or hairy. Afghanistan. wiry. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Ichela-mara. Swadi. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. yellow.5—5 cm. Konkan. Fl. astringent. layer. Adavada. cough. CHAR.

This is called neera. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. Mysore. wild or more often cultivated. Fl. angular.—Verbenaceæ. Fl. Sharadi. alexiteric. oleaginous. Vashira. L. 3-4.—globose. Jalapipali. Ratuliyo. H. DISTR.— dioecious. spatulate. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. deeply grooved on one side. Sholapur. triangular. Coromandel Coast.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. upper 2-lobed. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . DISTR. spiny at the base. stems rooting at the nodes. rigid. Fl. Famine Plants. :—Tolerably common throughout India. erect. ensiform. Jalapimpli. Ratoliya. :—G. rounded at the apex. Fr. :—Throughout India. scented. NS. Bihar.—more or less all the year.5 m.) FAM.—pinnate. orange-yellow. flowers very many. long. Sk. good in heart and abdominal complaints. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Africa. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. Bhuiokra. Okra. pointed. subsessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. spinous. COM. lower 3-lobed. 15-45x2-2. constipating. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. male white. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). vomiting. 2-lipped. oblong-ellipsoid. Toyavallari. fattening. crown hemispherical. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). t. 9-15 m. Baluchistan. densely fascicled. aphrodisiac. CHAR. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid.—rounded at the ends.. Jalpippali. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. cooling. Rohilkhand.—sessile. petioles compressed towards the apex. long. L.—white or pale-pink. oblique. aphrodisiac. sharply serrate in upper part. Sd. much branched. fevers. LOC.—Fibres. and in beds of streams and water courses.5 m. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places.—opposite.5—3. fruit and juice of the tree. outer Himalayas. .—2.—Jan-Feb. M. :—A creeping perennial herb. pinnules many. greyish-green. Bengal. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. large and thick. Fl. flowers distant.2 cm. long. t. wandering of mind. oblong. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. LOC. Langali. Fr. LOC. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. :—Found fairly in Surat. spadix 60-90 cm. high. clothed with appressed white hairs . cooling. cardiotonic. Agnijwala. female spadix and spathe as in the male. anthelmintic. Ratoliya. blood and eye. Siwalik. roundish. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. Poona and Belgaum districts. useful in diseases of heart. Ceylon. usually along banks. :—A tall graceful palm. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. C. See.

sores. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. thirst. :—Throughout India. wounds. t. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. Fl. and without salt may be applied to bruises. The whole plant. bronchitis. CHAR :—An annual herb. Bhumyamali. Ceylon. useful in thirst. fruit. milky-juice. globose. urinary discharges. . K. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. hiccup. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. :—Konkan and Deccan. cooling. Jaramla. anæmia. LOC. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Plant—hot. Bhumyamalaki. FAM. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia.— July-Aug. angular. burning sensation. Ajata. Stomachic. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. smooth. maturant. Vituntika. leprosy. anuria. monœcious. high . Sk. alexipharmic . except Australia. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). of female. dry. Fr.— numerous. scabies. stem branched at the base. distichous. wounds. males 1-3. annular. axillary. asthma. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). Bhuiavli.. NS. females solitary. bronchitis. lobed.—Euphorbiaceæ. biliousness. Sd. very small. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. DISTR. good for ulcers. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery.—3-gonous. Bhuianvalah. asthma. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn.—capsule. Amala. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman).useful in fevers. Leaves are stomachic. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). diuretic. ringworm (Yunani). Fl. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. H. disk of the male of minute glands. L. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. Bhumyamali. longitudinally ribbed on the back. Tropics generally. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. 30-60 cm. COM. LOC. M.—yellowish. Infusion is a good tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. scarcely lobed. Sukshmadala. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. leaves. LOC. very numerous.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. elliptic-oblong. Kiranelligida. :—G. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . Sadahazurmani. It is valuable in scurvy.

H. Menasin-kallu . LOC. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Fruits. :—Wild in the N. tonic. vulnerary. Pan. satyriasis and to allay thirst. :—E. useful in "Kapha". improves voice. :—E. Vata". useful in "Vata". carminative. heart and liver. Panu. heating. Mensinballi. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Sk. Poona. cultivated in Konkan and N. elephantiasis . spleen diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. inflammations. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. asthma. Linn. bechic. foul smell in the mouth. strengthens teeth . LOC. Eleballi. Fresh leaves. Tambulavalli. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. DISTR. " Kapha ". aphrodisiac. pains. tonic and digestive. Betelleaf. Kalamirich. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. leavs. Vidyache-pan. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. throat diseases. NS. Bhakshyapatra. Kanara. improves appetite (Ayurveda). G. generally in Konkan. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). night blindness. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Tambola. clears throat. Tikshna. Kalaka. liver and muscular pains. given with milk in hysteria. NS. COM. LOC. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. K. styptic (Yunani). Kalimiri. ozoena. Nagavalli. acrid. Kalamiri. hot. K. removes all foulness from mouth. ozœna. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Golmirch . aphrodisiac. urinary discharges. laxative. Menasu. COM. DISTR. Kanara forests. smeared with oil. Kaphavirodhi. Satara. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. FAM. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. M. Marich. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. carminative and astringent. anthelmintic. Betel pepper. Pan. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. increases biliousness. alterative. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Pan. Saptashira. useful in toothache.—Piperaceæ. Malimirich . :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. piles. . It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. purgative. tonic to brain. Betel leaf vine. It increases saliva. H. stomachic. Sholapur. carminative. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. FAM. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. alexipharmic. It sweetens breath. Sk. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Warm leaves. and fruits (rarely). Vileyad-ele.—Piperaceæ. Black-pepper.

:—E. used in chronic bronchitis. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. Bark contains a glucoside. tonic and a local stimulant. It is a good expectorant. W. lumbago. Vehkali.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. H. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. Deccan. M.5 cm. LOC. Lahuriya. COM. ophthalmia and phthisis.—capsule. sprains.—lobes 4. See—Timbers.5-12. See—Condiments and Spices. DISTR. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. Greater plantain . NS. variable in width. C. FAM. lanceolate or greenish . COM. Externally it is rubefacient. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. Arcot and Salem. base tapering into petiole. used as febrifuge. radial 2. various forms of cutaneous diseases.— alternate. ovate or oblong. piles and some skin-diseases . :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . weakness following fevers. CHAR. Burma. the oil is alterative. NS. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. dries body humours (Yunani). Khasia Hills. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. entire or toothed. Khandala (pretty common). and possesses narcotic properties . N. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. FAM. In physiological action. L. paralysis . . Fr. sciatica. petiole longer than leaf-blade. long.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. Fl. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Bartang. chronic fevers. Vikhari. It yields an essential oil. Konkan. LOC. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. leprosy. facilitates menstruation.—Pittosporaceæ. bruises. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock.—Plantaginaceæ. coma. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. hills of S. piperidine and an essential oil. :—K. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. chest affections. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. & A. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. ovoid. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. vertigo. Kanara in ghat forests. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Tammata. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera.

Sk. Fl. t. Fl. NS. t.Sept. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. leaves. CHAR. Malaya. FAM. H. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers.—throughout the year. Chitra. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. PARTS USED :—Roots. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Agnishikha.-4-8. Lead-wort. Baluchistan. Rosy-coloured leadwort. attenuate. high. Chitraka. angled.—3-5 cm. Raktachitraka. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . :—A shrub 60-90 cm. DISTR. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Sd. erect. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. :—Cultivated throughout India. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base.Kempuchitramula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Nilgiris. striate . The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. and seeds. obtuse. LOC. G. DISTR. Burma. top coming off as a conical lid. Assam. Lalchita. Palni hills. LOC. HABITAT :—Along river banks.—large. alterative. limb wide. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Lalachitraka. Fl.-Feb. LOC. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Lalchitrak. Fattening. exauriculate petiole. long in long terminal axillary. zeylanica. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). C.. COM. dull-black. lax spikes. L. Lalchitrak. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). base passing into amplexicaul. Ratochatro. :— E. oblong. W. alterative and diuretic.—tube slender. Mahang. K. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin.—Plumbaginaceæ.. afford relief. :—Konkan : Deccan. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Ghats. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. LOC. PARTS USED :—Roots. stems herbaceous. Fire plant. Ceylon. :—Temperate Himalayas. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. rosy scarlet. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani).

alexipharmic. leaves are caustic. Chitranga. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. striate. astringent to bowels. ring-worm. Chitramula. Vallari. Chitraka. The use of Pl. laxative. woody. " Vata" and " Kapha". CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Ind. FAM. and in leucoderma.—in elongate spikes.—Plumbaginaceæ. pointed. bechic. Agnishikha. DISTR. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. C. Medi. COM. Chitra . ascites.—white. ovate.5 m. t. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics.6-1. Tropics of the old world. " Tridosha" . Journ. Bengal.-Sept. alterative . It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. piles. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . a favourite medicine for flatulence. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. skin disease. LOC. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. spreading. Chitra. root-bark. PARTS USED :—Root. terete. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. It is used in procuring abortion. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. lobes 5. diarrhœa. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. bronchitis. Sk. rachis glandular . Bile-Chitra-mula. cultivated .—capsule.—Aug. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. Chitrak. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. hot. piles. leucoderma. G. anasarca. scabies. LOC. . appetiser. diseases of spleen. Ceylon. Vahni. Fr. juice. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. leucoderma. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. inflammations. dysentery. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin.—thin. L. rheumatism. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. attenuated into a short petiole. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. H. Chitaro Chitrak. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). NS. carminative. See—Ornamental Plants. anthelmintic. itching. leaves. entire. January 1933). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. cure intestinal troubles. aborti-facient. Jyotishka. it is useful in dyspepsia. M. diseases of liver. stomachic. :—E. consumption. In S. oblong. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. vesicant. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. a paste is made with milk. expectorant. long. stomachic. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Root—bitter. See—Ornamental Plants. tonic. useful in laryngitis. leprosy. wild in Western Peninsula. stems 0. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). K. :—Throughout India. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Res. Malay Peninsula. Chitra .

abundant. shining. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. L.-May. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. common. useful in gleet. irregularly doubly toothed. oblong-lanceolate. Radha-champo. Golainchi. long. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. venereal sores. many flowered. itching. PARTS USED :—Root. Rhuruchapha.5-18x3.8 m. Mahabaleshwar. Fl. inner face angular. Khairchapha. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. FAM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.2—1.—practically throughout the year. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. laxative . USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. Champakam. spirally arranged.—follicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. t.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. H. :—Konkan. Root-bark is purgative. DISTR. NS. :—A small shrub 1. COM. upper lip white shot with purple. abundant from Mar.-Feb. :—M. LOC. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. LOC.-nutlets ellipsoid. M. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. LOC. FAM. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. 15-30 cm. with an intra-marginal vein. entire. Country. CHAR. stems and branches quadrangular. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. :—E. heating. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. bark.—Dec. white with a pale yellow centre. acrid. carminative. rounded. smooth. broadly ovate. See—Ornamental Plants. high.—2-lipped. Pangli. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. 12 cm. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani).— large. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. Fl. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. C. C. Kadu-sampige. divaricate. DISTR. .—Labiatæ. Sk. whorls close. COM.8-9 cm.—Apocynaceæ. useful in leprosy. K. Belchampaka. G. :—Native of tropical America. ascites (Ayurveda). acute at both ends. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. NS. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Phangla. cylindrical. Goleurchampa. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. cultivated. long. 3-lobed. Kanara. leaves and milky juice. lower lip white. Devagangile.:—More or less throughout India. :—All throughout the State. 4-lobed. pungent. Frangipani.—salver-shaped. urinary discharges. CHAR. t. pains. purple. shining black. Deccan. Fr.. Fr. Fl. very fragrant. Pagoda tree. ulcers. L. rarely maturing. 7. S.

) FAM. lumbago. head and brain diseases. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. . liver pain. Karanj.—Verbenaceæ. urinary discharges . FAM. M. Agetha. Arand. leucoderma.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). DISTR. Indian beech. alexipharmic . NS. itching. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. along Deccan rivers . chronic fever. LOC. lumbago. F. Karanja. Chamari. bruised. wounds. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). cures eye diseases. Ichu. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Kirmal. PARTS USED :—Root. Aran. piles. piles. cures biliousness. J. NS. ascites. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. USES :—The fresh leaves. Arni. chest complaints. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Agnibijaka. " Vata ". good in scabies. COM. Kanika. " Kapha ". Oil—anthelmintic.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. skin diseases. Honge. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Seeds—acrid . cure earache. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. COM. Karanja. Oil—styptic. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. bark. Gaura. Kanaji. good for tumour. :—G. also planted. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. relieves inflammation. M. juice is given in colic and fever. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. H. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. Sk. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Ustabunda . Agnimandha. H. vagina. Gracie). Oils. leprosy. chronic fever and hydrocele. anthelmintic. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. rheumatic pains. useful in diseases of eye. In Satara. Karanjmara. Jayanti. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Huligili. wounds (Ayurveda). G. Arni. ulcers. K. skin and in keratitis . K. Karanj. Sk. LOC. Pavaka. Naktamala. Kanja. carminative. fruits and seeds. leaves. flowers. :—E. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. See—Timbers. purify and enrich blood.

C. L. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. fever. Perala. NS. COM.3 cm. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils."Vata". Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). heating. Nicobars and Malaya.2-6. Ash—caustic (Yunani). . aphrodisiac . bark yellowish. cool heated brain. stomachic. Perala. Amrut. diabetes. pungent. Fruit—tonic. LOC. Peru . Kanara. lobes 4. causes "Kapha". LOC. laxative. Dridhabija. FAM. Root is laxative. DISTR. Guava tree. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. smooth.—tubular. LOC. high. Jamb. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Peru. piles. Anthers—dry wound. Vastula. Sd. Flowers cool body. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. entire or upper part dentate. It is given in the form of decoction. See—Famine Plants. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. common about Karwar. Fl. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Young leaves are tonic in the . Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. It is also employed in scurvy. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. for unhealthy ulcers. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. chyluria. stomachic. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Jamphal. sour. Piyara. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. Gova. cylindric. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. G. M.—hard. Fl. rough-tubercled . applied to sore eyes. inflammations.— June-July. cooling.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). Sk. cooling. fruits and gum. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Peruka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Gum is tonic. hairy in the throat. dyspepsia. Ceylon. :—E. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. Andamans. bronchitis.—5-9 X 3. greenish yellow.. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. broadly elliptic. seated on the calyx .—Myrtaceæ. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. as an astringent to bowels. Fr. constipation. blue-black. DISTR. laxative after food. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.— globose. Jamud-rukh. flowers. useful in anaemia. good in colic and for bleeding gums. H. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. used in bronchitis. Safedsafari. t. small. :—Cultivated all over the State. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic.

Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. standard orbicular. Vanguji. vomiting. rounded and mucronate at the apex. ovoidoblong. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil.2 m. . bitter taste. diuretic. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. :—E. FAM. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. smooth. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. alexiteric. leaves. Seed—purgative. Bowach-chi. COM.6-1. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. laxative. cures "Vata". Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. K. NS. Fl. inflammation. difficulty in micturition. anæmia. anthelmintic. raw one is used in diarrhœa. white hairy. Sd. Sk. stomachic. nephrites and cachexia. Kushtaghni.—in dense axillary. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. " Rakta-pitta". bronchitis. Kalameshi. DISTR. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. good for leucoderma. C. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. studded with glands and white hairs.—simple. Babachi. scabies. leprosy.—bluish purple . LOC. fruit and seeds. piles. M. Country. black. Bakuchi. Seeds— refrigerant. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". antipyretic. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. alterative. solitary. Fr. Bhavanj. closely-pitted. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. 3. stimulant.8 X 2. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). urinary dis charges. G. biliousness. Babachi. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). aphrodisiac. 0.—Aug-Dec. mucronate. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Fl. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. L. Fruit—diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. HABITAT :—Waste places. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—pod. heals ulcers. t. H. skin diseases. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. anthelmintic. stem and branches grooved. LOC. nigro-punctate. CHAR. high. Chandralekha. :—An erect annual.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. improves appetite. 10-30 flowered racemes . See—Fruit Trees. cures blood diseases . vulnerary. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. improves hair and complexion. Konkan and S. causes biliousness. good for heart troubles. clawed.5—5 cm. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Bavachi.—one. Bukchi. Bavachi. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji).

useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. leucoderma. G. strengthens gums.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Wild in Iran. called kino. applied to hydrocele. fever. M. Dadam. DISTR. Pitasar. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). urinary discharges. Gum—bitter. ascends to 1100 m. styptic. useful in vomiting. NS. Bibla. antipyretic. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. ophthalmia. Dalimba. Bija. bark. somewhat milder in action than catechu. Bio. PARTS USED:—Root. H. Bia. scabies. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Fruit-appetiser. M. liver tonic. griping. earache. flowers and fruits. gleet. COM. blood diseases. diuretic. " Tridosh". enriches blood. Bigsah. Dharimb . from the Balkans to the Himalayas. See—Timbers. Dadimba. " Kapha ". Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. biliousness. K. LOC. Bijak. thirst. Dhalim. Gums and Resins. G. cures " Vata ". stomatitis. scattered but not gregarious .—Punicaceæ. Pomegranate tree. Sunila. boils. heart-disease. FAM. NS. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. DISTR. body eruptions. laxative. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. anthelmintic. ulcers. :—E. Indian kino-tree. Sk. . HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. used in sore throat. chest troubles. anal troubles. sore eyes brain diseases. flowers and gum. Anar. spleen complaints. alterative . K. Hulidalimb . Flowers— improve appetite. Common in N. LOC. Dadima. sore-throat. in Akrani. used in piles. LOC. India. useful in eye troubles. fattening. prolapsus ani. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). FAM. PARTS USED. burning sensation. :—Leaves. Hirdokhi. Flowers—check vomiting. leprosy. good for biliousness. urinary discharges (Yunani). COM. tonic. laxative. Ceylon. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Honi. Raktabija-pushpa. Dalimb . Honne. anthelmintic. tonic. elephantiasis. Bark—astringent. Khandesh and Dangs. Gum. :—Western Peninsula and S. H. erysipelas. allays thirst. Benga. useful in biliousness. cultivated in many parts of India. Bibla. Kanara. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Kabul and Baluchistan. Mahakutaj. Sk. Bibla. Dadima. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. colic. also in Konkan. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. useful in all body diseases. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Malabar kino-tree. :—E. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. vulnerary. Valka-phala.

Minkare. LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. USES :—In Amboyana. t. Country and Kanara. NS. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm.-Aug. M. COM. Fr. base rounded. Fl. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. In China. Rangoonkibel. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. Midhola. glabrous above. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. hairy beneath.—Rubiaceæ. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. elliptic. Sk. :—E. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. :—A strong climber. Lalchameli. H. G. Emetic nut. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. 7. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Madana. Gela.— ellipsoid. The rind of the fruit. Mangari-kai.—opposite. acuminate. M. jasmine . Dharaphal. nearly 6 cm.—Mar. calyx tube long. Fl. COM. DISTR. NS. Malaya.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. FAM. See—Ornamental Plants.—Combretaceæ. pendant. It is given in the form of decoction.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Rangoonchavel. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection.5 cm. at first white then deep red . Barmasinivel. C—petals 5.—in axillary and terminal spikes. CHAR. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. S. H. M. Mindhola. Chinese honeysuckle. Gelphal. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . :—E. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. FAM. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Konkan. dark green. L. K. lanceolate . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Karhar Mainphal. Annam. Rangoon creeper. . the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. long. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. LOC. Fruit contains vitamin C. acutely 5-angled. numerous. Karigidda. Pinditak. widely cultivated all over India. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . G. LOC. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula.

laxative. sweet. See—Timber.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. emetic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. NS. H. Ksharmula. emetic.—Cruciferæ. and all inflammations . USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. carminative. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. emmenagogue. DISTR. antipyretic. certain and regular. flowers. DISTR. It also contains an essential oil. tumours. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Radish. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. aphrodisiac. purgative. Mura. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. asthma. heating. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. The plant contains glucoside saponin. its action is very safe. E. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. S. piles. skin-diseases. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. juice relieves earache. Hastidanta. Mula. alexiteric. boils. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. eruptions. LOC. Seeds-sharp. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. Mula. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. muscular pains. cholera. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . LOC. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). used in diseases of the brain. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Mulak. :—Throughout India. binding. cures abscesses. Java. bitter. Mali. hiccup. tonic. amenorrhœa. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. M. PARTS USED :—Root. paralysis. Sk. Tropical Africa. inflammations. good in tumours. carminative. useful in chronic bronchitis. stomachic. leaves. :—E. " Vata" and " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Muri. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . It is also used to poison fish. leucoderma (Yunani). anthelmintic. Bili Mulangi. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. carminative. ulcers. Ceylon. leprosy. Sumatra. China. useful in diseases of heart. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. Ruchira. Bitter. it is equal to it in every respect. fruit and seeds. bad taste. K. destroys "Vata". COM. Juice of . piles (Ayurveda). inflammations. Muro. FAM. produce alopecia (Yunani). Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. good for spleen and in paralysis.

lanceolate. often tinged with violet. Garudpatala. HABITAT :—Moist forests.. LOC.-May. M. ajamalinine. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. Yuthikaparni. acrid.) FAM. Chhotachand. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. :—H. yellowish root stock. cures " Tridosha ". Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. 7. C. anthelminitic .5-18 X 2. Juipani. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. laxative. pale beneath. Andamans. ajmalicine. B and C. seeds are considered peptic.—Acanthaceæ. specific for insanity. t. Fr. :—An erect perennial shrub.. Western Peninsula. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Root contains vitamins A. expectorant. bright red . See—Vegetables. Palakjuhi. In the Konkan. Chandrika. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. :—H. DISTR. sharp. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Group B — Serpentine. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. white. K. Nakulikand.—Apocynaceæ. and black salt. corrective and emmenagogue. Harki. Java. . Doddapatike. Gaja-karni. Chandrika. ginger. irregularly. CHAR.5-6. swollen a little above the middle. black shining. carminative. LOC.—drupe. It is hypnotic. pungent. diuretic. shady open places near rain-forests. COM. leaves (rarely). Sarpagandha. Sk. Ceylon. Nai.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. NS.9 m. Fl. Sk. Sivanabhi.3 cm. sedative. used in hyperpiesis . NS.—in irregular corymbose cymes. L. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. single or didymous. acute. Sarpakshi. FAM..-in whorls of 3. Harkaichand. nodular. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. heating.—tubular. M. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. with a long.— Mar. thin. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Fl. Mungusavel. serpentinine. ulcers (Ayurveda). Kanara. bright green above. K.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma.

Divaligo. leprosy. Madagascar (cultivated). vaginal pains. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Triputiphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. carminative . M.—Oct. :—Probably of African origin. Haralu.—nearly sessile. Java. lumbago. anal troubles. widely cultivated in tropical countries. useful in liver troubles.—lipped. hairy outside . ascites.—capsule. ascites.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Country (Dharwar. alterative. Vardhaman. night-blindness. Khandala. rheumatism. M. useful in pains. dropsy. Erand. aphrodisiac. Vardhamana. diseases of rectum and head. Chitrabija. Country. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. cultivated. inflammations. pointed. HABITAT :—Hills. pubescent: C. generally cultivated. pain in back. increases "Kapha". :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. high. Castor oil plant. purgative.. Erand. Fl. Fruit— appetiser. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". useful in skin-disease. LOC. Straits-Settlements. asthma. COM.—Euphorbiaceæ. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). amenorrhœa (Yunani). Divald.-Jany. oil—anthelmintic. glands. Arand. pains. increase biliousness. tropical Africa.— tuberculate. :—Throughout India. Ceylon (wild) . RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. liver and spleen diseases. FAM. bracts ovate lanceolate. Eranda. velvety hairy Sd. L. Sholapur). Fl. elephantiasis. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. :—Deccan. M. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. asthma. convulsions. bronchitis. Very little in other districts of the State. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. flowers and seeds. useful in inflammations. leaves. boils. Erand. NS. ring-worm. typhoid. body pains. narrow. :—Undershrub. Root-bark—purgative. good for burns. leprosy. white.9—1. H. alterative. intestinal worms. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. Mahabaleshwar. Tirki. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). stems obscurely angled. 0. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Belgaum. useful in heart diseases. solitary. LOC. DISTR. t. piles. G. Cattle are fed with leaves for . tumours. hills near Belgaum. fevers.5 m. piles. K. DISTR. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Sk. LOC. Fr. earache. some fevers. inflammations. leaves and seeds. elliptic lanceolate. entire. ascites. Seed and oil—cathartic. lumbago. black. eructations. Palma christi. strangury. glandular. upper lip bifid . or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. PARTS USED :—Root. paralysis. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves—galactagogue. S.—5-10 X2-5 cm.

ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. double. 2.5 m. petioles prickly.—pinnate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. mild and safe purgative. cardiotonic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fr. Greece and Germany. astringent when dry (Yunani).— all the year. Gulab. Ati-manjula. antipyretic. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Gulab. DISTR. hairy. See—Ornamental Plants. pink or white.— usually corymbose. used in heat of body. adults. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. Ghazipur is a chief centre. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. liver. K. sometimes striped . CHAR. stems with stout and hooked prickles. etc. Fl. G.. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. stipules scarcely dilated. acrid. :—E. M. cultivated all over India. burning sensation. aperient removing bile and cold humours. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. NS. France. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). In constipation it is used as an enema. Sudburj. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . Soumyagandha. .3 cm. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. cardiotonic. Punjab and U. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. removes bad odour from mouth. Fl. much used in lotions and collyria . USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . Gulab . Lakshmipushpa. red. Sk. laxative. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. tonic. ovate oblong. kidneys. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. good for eyes. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. P. Tarana.—Rosaceæ. L. attaining 1. t. H. Pannira. which is a powerful poison. excessive perspiration. with a good odour. PARTS USED :—Flowers. cephalic. They are also applied to painful joints. sometimes glandular. chronic fevers. COM. LOC. Italy.5-6.—obovate . It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. intestinal affections. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . stomatitis. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. " Vata". laxative. seldom griping or causing flatulency. sweetish. Flower—bitter. benefits lungs. long.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. inflammations. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. :—Origin unknown. expectorant. biliousness. cures leprosy. See—Oils. tooth-ache. cooling. Shatadala. aphrodisiac. LOC. FAM. they are cold. :—A perennial shrub. head-ache. serrate. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. dry. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle.

obtuse. diuretic. cures " Kapha ". LOC. t-Oct. the Konkan and S. CHAR. all scabrous with white prickles. paralysis. :—Annual. paralysis. analgestic. COM. Rohini. liver complaints. purplish black when ripe.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. K. Manjishtha. Manjit. urine and even bones red.—Polygonaceæ. M. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. leaves and fruit. uterine pains (Yunani).-Jany. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. Sk. antipyretic. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. dysentery. emmenagogue.5 cm. spleen-enlargement. high. DISTR. piles. lactagogue. Aruna. :—E. diseases of uterus. five-nerved. vagina. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. branches quadrangular . Bladder. L. roots very long. Fl. Country. H. Chukra. with a thin red bark. Fl. laxative. erysipelas. heating. leucoderma. lower leaves larger. Leaves-sweet.—in whorls of 4. rheumatism. Japan.—2. LOC. valves hyaline. eye. M. COM. shining.—Rubiaceæ. cylindric. PARTS USED. erect glabrous herb. NS. pains in joints. used in eye-sores. elliptic. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda).—in terminal panicled cymes.—didymous or globose. Raktasara. oleaginous . Java. Sorrel. leucoderma. grooved. Fr. branched from the root. Fl. Manjishha. analgesic. Chitralata. increase appetite.—white or pink. Fr. Indian Madder. orbicular . H. :—E. acrid. anthelmintic. ovate. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. FAM. :—Perennial climbing herb. jaundice. stems very long. lethargy. Decoction tinges blood. Root—bitter. M. it powerfully affects the nervous system. ulcers. blood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. L. Gulmketu. and was much used in dropsy. Majit. Ambat Chuka. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. Manjishtha. antidysenteric. FAM. :—Root. cordate or hastate. leucorrhoea. prickly. Amlavetasa. NS. Tamravalli. urinary discharges. inflammations. jaundice. one pair with longer petioles ovate.5—7. inner perianth-segments membranous. base cuneate. greenish. Ceylon. Chuka.. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. . Malay Peninsula. bitter. Dock. ulcers and skin-diseases. tropical Africa. petioles triangular. Sk. alexiteric. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. CHAR. improves voice and complexion . Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. ear. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. 15-30 cm. smooth.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes .

H.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated.— subsessile. generally in the Deccan. FAM. C. Fl. 2-lipped. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Satri. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. while fresh they are bruised. Deccan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Havananju. acute.—white. The juice allays tooth-pain. K. M. flatulence. Parpatha. Africa.-Jany. asthma. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Pismarum Sadab. G. bronchitis. oblong lanceolate. Khatselio . diseases of the spleen. vomiting. constipation. Sadabu. M. pains. CHAR. Cooling. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. S. piles. Country. Nagadali. tonic.—suborbicular.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. COM. bracts elliptic. laxative. ciliate. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Sadapaha.—capsule.—Acanthaceæ. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. USES :—Leaves are cooling. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. FAM. stomachic. checks nausea and promotes appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. hiccup. stems usually decumbent. :—G. Ceylon. NS. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Persia. t. rugose with furrow. leucoderma. Fr. roasted. NS. H. :—A herb . Afghanistan. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. ovoid oblong. Common—Garden-rue . lower shortly 3-lobed. DISTR. toothache. pale brown. Ghati pittapapada . Sk. often rooting near the base. then erect. LOC. analgesic. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. with darker spots. also considered as a vermifuge. Trans-Indus Hills. Konkan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Satapa . M. useful in heart troubles. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. . in dysentery. acute . dyspepsia.—Rutaceæ. LOC. Vishapaha. Sd. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). bites and stings of poisonous animals.—Nov. upper emarginate. Sk. :—Western Punjab. N. Satap. Kharmor. The seeds have the same properties . RUNGIA REPENS Nees. blue or pink. :—E. Kanara. useful in scabies. COM. LOC. DISTR. :—Common throughout the State. alcoholism. Fl. aperient and diuretic. L. they are prescribed. tumours.

SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. epilepsy. L. useful in fatigue. yellowish. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. colic. amenorrhœa. leprosy. Sherdi. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. Rikhu. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. glandulose punctate. grown in gardens. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). NS :—E. FAM. aphrodisiac. G. S. COM. diuretic. M. in pots. Powdered and combined with aromatics. Ukh . emmenagogue.—Gramineæ. Tanigarbu . forest and mountain. HABIT :—Cultivated. it may be given internally in hysteria. LOC. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. cooling.. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. tonic. The herb and the oil act as stimulant.—capsule. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. flatulence.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. etc. oleaginous. petioled. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. thirst. heating to body . increases mental activity. Ikshu. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. digestive. S. Sugarcane. DISTR. Naisakar. abortifacient. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . oblong-obovate. :—Egypt and Algeria. H. Poona. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. Sd. Gudatrina. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—angled. and externally used as a rubefacient. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Asia is very likely the original home of the species. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Kabbu. Fl. The plant contains glucoside glutin. Gudakastha. Rasala. K. There are three varieties . spathulate or linear-oblong . M. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. Ingotu. segments cuneate. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). all over the State. Ganna. Satara. indigestible. :—Grown everywhere in India. The plant is tonic. decompound. Us . laxative. Madhuyashti. The oil is the best form for administration.-alternate. . flawed. C. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. obtuse . :—A strong smelling herb . Sk. anti-aphrodisiac . The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. garden. cultivated throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter.—petals 4. Kumad. heats body. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. LOC. particularly Deccan. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. DISTR. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. diuretic. Fr.

In cases of poisoning by copper. It is good in calculous complaints. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Pilu. t. Leaves—bitter. finely striate. carminative. laxative. DISTR. Fr. astringent to bowels. globose. Pilu. NS. Fruits are deobstruent. Fl. Cane—sweet. aphrodisiac . red when ripe. Kharijal. carminative and diuretic. C. Mahaphala. improves appetite. :—Drier parts of India. good for lungs . Khakan Mirjoli. Seeds—purgative. 3 mm. L. often mucronate at the apex. analgesic. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. Pilu. tonic to liver. causes " Kapha. deobstruent. M.—drupe. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. Ceylon. sugar is considered heavy. inflammations. G. Kanara in littoral forests. Fl. fleshy. Egypt. dry regions of W.—Nov. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Sk. purifies blood . corrective. Tooth-brush tree. useful in heat. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. branches numerous. strengthen teeth. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. COM. Brihat madhu pilu. . diam. ulcers. the Konkan and N. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Piludi. See—Food Plants. K. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. greenish-yellow. bile. diuretic. shining. erysipelas. pectoral and aphrodisiac. leaves. :—E. lessen inflammation .. near the coasts of Gujarat . smooth. alexiteric. useful in biliousness. white. FAM.—very thin. useful in nosetroubles. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. :—Dry districts of the State. Sind. opposite. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. tonic and aperient. LOC. diuretic. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. drooping. piles. useful in biliousness. improve diuresis (Yunani). stomachic . anæmia. anthelmintic. Sugar causes " Kapha". Pilu. delirium. Abyssinia. Asia.-Feb. sometimes it raises blisters. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. leucoderma. disorders and wind. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). numerous. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. often planted near Muslim tombs. PARTS USED :—Bark. bad for liver (Yunani). deeply cleft. H. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. lobes much reflexed. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid.". stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. LOC. scabies. Goni. oil is digestible. LOC. fruits seeds and oil. Fruit—aphrodisiac. fattening.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles.—Salvadoraceæ. Jal. In the Punjab.

FAM. Phenilu. Ritha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. in skin-diseases. Kumblabijaka. small-pox (Ayurveda). LOC. gonorrhœa. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. strangury. useful in inflammations. aphrodisiac. is applied to local inflammations. burning sensation. Oils. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Chandan. Anthuvala. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. alexiteric. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. LOC. alexiteric. Sandal-wood Tree. epileptic fits of children. G. acts as diaphoretic. S. Ringni. astringent to bowels . Bhadrasara. Shrigandhalmara. alexipharmic. ground. M. :—Indian Peninsula. biliousness. gleet. :—E. to allay heat and pruritus. often planted. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. Oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Cultivated elsewhere. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. LOC. See—Timbers. NS. K. abortifacient. useful in chronic dysentery. Soap-Nut tree. fruit and seed. stomachic. Root—expectorant. Arishtaka. tubercular glands. Sandal. Ceylon. laxative. :—E. COM. Agarugandha. COM. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). to temples in fever. chiefly in S. Ritha . allays uterine pains. Antharalo. emetic. :—Western Peninsula. Chandan. G. cures "Tridosha". Chandal. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis.—Santalaceæ. Country and N. USES :—Wood. M. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. lumbago. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Bhadrasri. M. Phenila. Kugale. DISTR. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. DISTR. India. antipyretic. hemicrania. much cultivated. K. Bhogivallabha. H. " Kapha ". cold in head. Rishta. Sukhad . PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Arithan . Burugukayi. Aritha. Chandan. Suket. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia.. . Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. diarrhœa. head-ache (Yunani). exhilarating. tonic. Mysore and parts of Madras State. aphrodisiac. Malayaja. Fruit—bitter. bronchitis.—Sapindaceæ. NS. up with water into a paste. useful in diseases of heart. Sk. Sk. Mangalya. H. cholera. paralysis. PARTS USED:—Wood. thirst. FAM. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Kanara. vaginal discharges.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

cooling. scabies. COM. Waziristan. L. removes "Kapha". branches striate.5-15 cm. :—Cultivated all over India. Shewari. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. carminative. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. etc. applied to gouty joints. an emollient poultice is also made from them. useful in dry cough. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. HABITAT :—Cultivated. asthma. Jayat. LOC. lung diseases.—standard as broad as long. Rasin. tonic. leaflets 914 pairs. Fl. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. oil. Jayanti.—in lax. biliousness. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. cures . such as dysentery etc. Jinangi. There are three varieties of seeds : black. useful in sorethroat. and as an oildressing for ulcers. cure menorrhagia. alterative. PARTS USED :—Root. diuretic. long. anthelmintic.. 4-5 m. C. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. Jayantika. applied to ulcers and piles. into claw. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. astringent to bowels. septate between the seeds. They have been used to procure abortion. Black variety is common. seeds. Jayanti. burning sensation.—pod. Nadeyi. promote hair growth. oleaginous. inflammations. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. They are nourishing. of eye and ear. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. enrich blood. obscurely angled . bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. Seeds contain vitamin A. Baluchistan. NS. mottled with purple on the outside. M. leaves. linear-oblong. Seed-oil—fattening. pendulous. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. seeds. eye diseases . See—Oils. inflammations (Yunani). :—G. Sd. beaked. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac.— abruptly pinnate. Jaya. in height. useful in diarrhœa. indigestible . CHAR. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). FAM. strangury. K. urinary concretions. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . gouty joints. Jayanti.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). hair-tonic. Fr. syphilitic ulcers. 7. :—A soft-wooded shrub. diseases. strengthening. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. aphrodisiac. spleen troubles. slightly torulose. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. diuretic and lactagogue. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. suppurating wounds. 15-23 cm.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. inflammations. bleeding piles. white and red. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. H. They are also emmenagogue.—20-30. PARTS USED :—Root. opposite. Sk. leaves. probably a native of tropical Africa. yellow. small-pox. Janjhan. tonic. long. Raysingani. galactagogue. few flowered axillary racemes. LOC.

Bark—astringent. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. maturant. anthelmintic. Ornamental Plants. 15-30-cm. is applied in painful swellings. rubbed into a paste with water. Basna. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sk. 2-4 white or red. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Agusta. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). diarrhœa. Bak. 6-9 m. Kempagase. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations.8 cm.5-8. See—Vegetables. fevers. ulcers. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. Agati. long. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. DISTR. Australia. Leaves—indigestible. Vranari. gout. useful in ophthalmia. leaves. long. anaemia. H. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. :—A soft wooded tree . SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. useful In diseases of spleen. stimulant. L. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. Dirghashimbi.— pod. long. fruits. t. alexiteric. high. leprosy. C. demulcent. cures " Tridosh " pains. Agase. "Kapha" and inflammation. diabetes. useful in ozœna. K. improve appetite . Hatiya . is applied in rheumatism. Agathio. Fruit—laxative .— flowers at various times. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . relieves throat-troubles. An infusion is given in small-pox. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. :—G. LOC. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. 50 cm. bronchitis.— pinnate. improves taste. LOC. The plant contains vitamin A. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. Agasta. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). See—Fodder Plants. anthelmintic. Munidruma. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Flowers—cooling. tumours . Leaves—purgative. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. FAM. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). cure quartan fever. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. Bark— astringent. . CHAR. epilepsy. astringent.—in racemes .—7. cure itching. night-blindness. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. NS. M. Kanali. dysentery and paludism. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Indigenous from Malaya to N. allays thirst. linear oblong. flowers. leucoderma. biliousness. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. gout . Fl. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). very showy. Agasti. Seeds—emmenagogue.

cordate. Tukti. Fl. Deccan and S. Kherati. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.—2. :—E. t. sharply serrate. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. dorsal scabrid. Fl. Bariara. astringent. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . branches slender. puberulous. with ginger. linear . obtuse. Sk. K. minutely hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. useful in blood and throat diseases. Gujarat and S. :—Konkan. H. COM.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. M. t. base rounded. LOC. Sd. linear.— yellow.5-5 cm. Samanga. :—A shrub. C. emollient. a weed. Fr.5-6. strongly reticulated . Country. PARTS USED :—Root. Bala. H. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda).—1-2 in each axil. is given . Pata. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. :—Konkan (common). LOC.—2. awns 2. diuretic. Bala. Jayanti. astringent. Sk. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. Country Mallow. Fl. Kharanti. :—Hotter parts of India. " Pitta ". Baladana. L. Kareta. yellow. Barial. CHAR. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). LOC. aphrodisiac .—5-6 mm. M. " Kapha " .-Oct. COM.—smooth. PARTS USED :—Root. Vatyapushpi. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). long. Root—cooling. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. K.—Malvaceæ. upper margins ciliate. carpels 7-10. NS. Chikna. digestive. FAM. long. G. CHAR. Pata. bark.—Malvaceæ. decoction.Dec. Chikna. LOC. carpels 5-9. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges.. Country. L. leaves and seeds. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. softly hairy all over. Khareti.—Nov. HABITAT :—Moist places . Chittuharatu. removes " Vata ". cooling. useful in fever. Hettutti-gida. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. black. strongly reticulated. Batyalaka.—6-8 mm. :—G. Fl. FAM. M. lanceolate.—solitary or few together. scabrid-hairy. awns 2. crenate. glabrous.. Kisangi. pedicel jointed much above the middle. diam. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. M. stomachic and tonic. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. Rajbala. bleeding piles. DISTR. NS.3 cm. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Bala. DISTR. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Fr. dorsal margins toothed. diam. Prahasa. Kumghi. pedicel jointed about the middle.-Nov.. ovate-oblong.

FAM. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. Fl. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Pilibadkadi. S. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. and head-ache.—Nov. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. facial paralysis.—achene. rhomboides Roxb. stiff-neck. DISTR. also in colic and tenesmus. triangular-ovate.-Dec. diaphoretic. Linn. M. black. :—A large annual herb. LOC. :—Deccan. juice is used for healing wounds. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. 5 inner boat-shaped. 5 outer clavate. Externally.6—1. erect. Ceylon. those of the ray red beneath. deeply and irregularly toothed. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. cystitis. stem stiff. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. COM. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. M. Katampu. noise in ears. pappus 0. Bala—Sida cordifolia. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Throughout India. Fl. slightly rough. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. NS.—heads small in leafy panicles . It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra.—yellow. It is also used to favour menstruation. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. Country. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. involucral bracts 2 rows. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. L. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. administered in hemiplegia. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. 0. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Fl. tinged with purple. :—G. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. CHAR. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". common.2 m. Fr.—Compositæ.—opposite. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". . all running down wing-like into petiole. high.

ovate.—5—15 X 2. Vadikadheri. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. stem stout. LOC.-Aug. Kadusonde. loss of appetite. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating.5—7. :—Throughout tropical India. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. digestive. Vengni. globose. sharp. bad for piles if taken internally. subentire. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. 0. laxative. Philippines. LOC. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Nilaphala. Indian Nightshade. Mhotiringni. Barhanta. HABITAT :—Cultivated. enriches blood. " Vata". increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). M. COM. Ceylon. :—E.5 cm. FAM. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. recurved. K. :—Widely cultivated in India. covered with stellate hairs. leaves. L. Fr.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. anthelmintic.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. C. . prickles large. Ranringni. Malpya. causes biliousness. H. vomiting. maturant. COM. " Kapha". astringent to bowels. Vange. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Rigana. analgesic. DISTR. dark-yellow when ripe. 8 mm. Egg Plant. M. lessens inflammations.— berry.—minutely pitted: Fl. Sk.3—1. Vrittaphala. pruritus ani. K. Fl. Kattarta. LOC. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. Root is applied to lessen pain. It is seldom used alone. DISTR. useful in leucoderma. Sk. rarely wild. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch.-Oct. Hinguli. petiole prickly. improves appetite. Brihati. NS.—Solanaceæ. lobed. removes foulness of the mouth. Hinguli. Badanikai. Ubhi-bhuringni.5 m.—pale-purple. Sd. clothed outside with purple hairs . :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Dorli.. Vayase. fruit and seeds. Fruit—cardiotonic. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. pain. Habba-Kirigulla. high. G.. prickly. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. Bhanta. asthma. leaves (rarely) and fruits. Baingan. t.—Solanaceæ. base unequal-sided. fever. Vantak. very.. bronchitis. diam. G. :—E. Bhantaki. NS. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). aphrodisiac. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. Mahotika. Bhantaki. or triangular-ovate. H. eye diseases (Ayurveda). cardiotonic. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. PARTS USED :—Root. Vartaki. FAM. Brinjal.

Sk. :—Throughout India. :—E. Kakamachi. H. Ceylon. In S. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers.—Sept. leucoderma. inflammation. Makoi. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. favours conception and facilitates delivery . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. :—A variable annual herb . piles. in extra-axillary. taste. and used with success in psoriasis.—small. Vayasi. diam. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. laxative. aphrodisiac. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. dysuria and asthma. dysentery. Seeds—laxative. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. minutely pitted . gonorrhœa (Yunani). cathartic and diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root.— berry. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. t. fever. useful in diseases of eye. leaves and fruit. K.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . improves voice . Fl. L.—many. 6 mm. stem erect. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. Katuphala. yellow. Kakamachi. NS. Fr. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). diarrhœa. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. bitter. Morellel. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. tonic. itch. worms in ear. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. heating. B and C. G. M. fever. 3-8 flowered cymes . Black Night-shade. Piludi. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases.—Solanaceæ. in pains. ovatelanceolate. See—Vegetables. DISTR. alterative. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). C. Gurkamai. urinary discharges. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. . LOC. eye-diseases hydrophobia. The seeds are used as a stimulant. etc. bronchitis. not to be given to pregnant women. It acts as a hydrogogue. good for neck ulcers. liver inflammation. griping. inflammation. useful in giddiness. Kabaiya.—discoid. Tiktika. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. useful in heart and eye-diseases. bark. Kamoni. bronchitis. Kakamunchi. much divaricately-branched .-Jany. Fruit contains vitamins A. entire or sinuate toothed. COM. asthma. subumbellate. diuretic. tapering into petioles. CHAR. shining. LOC. improves appetite. Hound's Berry. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Sd. Fl. Root-bark—laxative . smooth. " Tridosha". chronic fever..MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. throat burning. FAM. ear and nose . vomiting. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. hiccup. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases.

ozoena.—purple. It is used in asthma. asthma. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. DISTR. Fl. piles. Bhoyaringni. bright green perennial herb . stone in bladder. Ringni. Nidigdhika. Jonera. appetiser. Leaves—good application for piles. useful in bronchitis. Jowar. Nele-Rama-gulla . Vrittatandula. stem zig-zag. L. biliousness. Dhavani. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. COM. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Basu). Africa. Fr.3 cm. & Wendl. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. D. C. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative.— June. Kateli. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. hairy on both sides. stomachic.5-5. dysuria. sterility in women. Shalu. fevers. Kenjal. yellow or white with green veins. Sind. asthma. fruits and seeds.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . H. Brihati. muscular pains. CHAR. chronic bronchitis. urinary concretions. good in inflammation. S. heart disease. heating. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Malaya. Sk. Jundri. Yuvanala. anthelmintic . stems. Chikka-sonde. Jowari. FAM. petiole prickly. expectorant and febrifuge. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . leaves. fever. :—E. Dirghashara. ovate or elliptic.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. LOC. Sorgho. :—A very prickly diffuse. Katai. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sinuate or subpinnatifid. LOC. t. Jondhala. strangury. Konkan. Bijapur and E. 3-2 cm. K. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. E. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Durrah.—berry. Great Indian millet. thirst. Kantakini. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Sk. flowers. Root—aphrodisiac. COM. pruritus . :—G. surrounded by enlarged calyx . diam. M. hairy outside. Bhui-Kate-ringni. laxative. Ikshupatraka. Jolah. often exceeding 1. H. long. prickles compressed. M.—Solanaceæ. Kantakari.—Gramineæ.. lumbago. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. they are used in the burning of feet. Fruit—laxative. NS. base unequal-sided. PARTS USED :—Root. tropical Australia. G. Fl. straight. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. :—Throughout India. Seeds—anthelmintic. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. LOC. pains.-5-10 X 2. yellow and shining. Yengara .. Sholapur.7 cm. :—Common in the Deccan . good for boils and scabies (Yunani). :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Nirgol. lobes deltoid. "Vata" and " Kapha". Sundia . aphrodisiac. K. NS.

POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. :—Widely cultivated in India. Fibres. Agniruha. Dharwar. refrigerant. H. Ahmedabad. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. LOC. :— E. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. LOC. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . PROPERTIES AND USES. diseases of blood. tumours (Ayurveda). :—Bark-acrid.—Meliaceæ. while Belgaum. FAM. :—Seeds. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. ulcers. Khandesh and S. Rohini. Rohani.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. indigestible. FAM: —Compositæ. common in Gujarat. PARTS USED. Bijapur and E. Rohun. Munditika. :—Dry forests of W. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. piles. L. tonic and antiperiodic . COM. hairy. on dry stony hills. introduced into America and Australia. PARTS USED. DISTR. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Kumbhala. with toothed wings. Swami-mara. Tans. Ruhin. G. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. general debility. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. anthelmintic. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). ulcers. Ceylon. :—Bark. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. hence used in intermittent fevers. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. leprosy and dysentery . Mahamundi. cures " Tridosha ". useful in " Kapha". Bodiakalara. HABITAT :—Open situations. biliousness. bladder and kidney complaints. laxative. DISTR. Aruna. stem and branches cylindric. aphrodisiac. good for sore-throat. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Juss. K. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Poona. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Grains contain vitamin B. Sk. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Karanda-gida. . :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. fevers. M. Pravrajita. Gorakhmundi. constipating. Sumbi. Gums and Resins. improves appetite and taste. COM. vaginal injections and enemas. CHAR. NS. Country. Asia and Africa. Vritta. Indian Red-Wood. M. Bastard Cedar. :—G. Gorakhamundi. :—The grain is cooling. Sk. aphrodisiac. glandular. H. See—Food Plants.—sessile. Rohina. Gorakmundi. high. See—Timbers. K. Rawtarohan. NS. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Some.

DISTR. :—Throughout India. boils. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. used also for local application.—purple. epileptic convulsions. asthma. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. leaves and flower-heads. :—Annual herb. Akarakara . SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. NS.—Compositæ. :—Wild and cultivated. piles. t. Tonic. PARTS USED. Africa. compressed . PARTS USED. bark. :—Throughout India. with honey they are given in cough. scalding of urine. peduncles reaching 10 cm. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. truncate. LOC. Fl. Akkalkara . PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. They are chewed to relieve toothache. laxative. :—Hot. spleen diseases. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. DISTR. urinary discharges. :—Common in the Konkan. leucoderma. stem and branches hairy. biliousness. FAM. :—Common in rice-fields. Australia. Sk. They are given in powder form. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. S. scabies. Malay Islands. Fl. in cases of worms and indigestion. Akara-karava. long. fattening. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles .—Achene. strangury. Fr. gleet. M. indigestion. rectal pain. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. CHAR. lessens inflammations . Ceylon. Fr. :—E. irregularly crenateserrate. glaborous. enriches blood . flowers and seeds. tonic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. involucre bracts linear. t. ciliate near the ends .. L. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Powdered root is given as tonic. Pellitary . globose ovoid. :—Root. vomiting. jaundice. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. depurative. base usually acute. alterative. cools brain.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent.—Nov.—compound heads.— achene. used in insanity. M. all warm countries. C. :—Root.—Nov-Jany. looseness of breasts. alexipharmic. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). COM. gives lustre to eyes . emmenagogue. useful in skin diseases. stalked. H. Country and Kanara. laxative. chest diseases.. increases appetite. oblong. anæmia. solitary or subpanicled. elephantiasis. ovate-oblong. leaves. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. Fl. tuberculous glands. ring-worm of waist. pain in uterus and vagina. glandular hairy. :—Deccan. LOC. digestible.—in heads ovoid. the latter when present minute. bronchitis. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. dysentery. sometimes grown in gardens. . Celyon. HABITAT. cooling. and tonic (Stewart) . hemicrania (Ayurveda). good for eyesore. HABITAT. anthelmintic.—opposite. urethral discharges and jaundice. peduncles with toothed wings. LOC. ovate. USES. serrate or dentate. biliousness. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. Pappuso.

DISTR. It has been found useful in dysentery. blood complaints . :—E. :—Often planted throughout the State. entire. FAM. LOC. COM. Indian Archipelago.Feb. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. NS. :—Leaves-tasty. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. astringent. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Amra.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. tonic. Sk. refrigerant. Kalavrinta. COM. :—Bark.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Padiala.-usually 1. Sd.5-18 x 3.. PARTS USED. pinkish green. NS. leaves and fruit. Sk.5 m.—Bignoniaceæ. aphrodisiac. biliousness. long. Hude. Marahunise. Ambada. Country. Toyadhivasini.— petals 4-5.5 cm. Pandri. Giri Hadari. :—A tree 9-10.-Apl. Salt Range. :—H. Ceylon. Wild Mango. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. enriches blood . oblong. ulcers. hard. Amate. branches nearly horizontal. Patala. Gum is demulcent. Kanara. ash-coloured .. M. S. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. stone woody. Indian Hog-Plum. cures rheumatism. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Pahad. C. ovoid. Dr. destroys " Vata ". strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Fl. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. PROPERTIES AND USES. Western Peninsula. t. widely planted.—drupe. Ambodha. M. Avatekayi. Amrataka. oblique. Parur.8-7. Ali-vallabha. Andamans. W.. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Padal. K. Konkan. Fruit—indigestible. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. bark smooth. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Patala. M. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. long. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Fr. yellow.8 cm. K. Burma. See—Gums and Resins. :—Cultivated. H. Tungi. Padal. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery.—Anacardiaceæ. appetising. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. ovate oblong. round with furrows and cavities. burning sensation. Gujarat. Hulave. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Kapichuta. CHAR. Kariguddada. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. Fl. . Bile Tree. trunk straight. good for sore-throat. phthisis. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Kumbhi. L. high. Hongkong. LOC. Kamduti. Ran-amba . Pitana. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. 3. HABITAT.

common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. PROPERTIES AND USES. asthma. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. "Kapha". Kachita.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Kuchala. seeds. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. Crow Fig. DISTR. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Kelakutaka. cures pains in joints. PROPERTIES AND USES. west coast of Madras State. heating. :—Root. :—More or less throughout tropical India. :—Root-bitter. fevers. Kakatinduka. Travancore . Kanara. poisonous. tonic. ulcers. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter. COM. Kangira. :—In forests south of Bombay. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . :—Fruit-acrid. piles. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Kuchla. useful in bilious diarrhœa. leaves. LOC. Karaskara. tonic. Kupaka. Ittangi. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. jaundice. Indo-China. heating.—Loganiaceæ. Flowers— acrid . pungent. Kuchla. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. blood diseases. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. LOC. See—Timbers. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Hemushti. tonic. Visha-druma. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. PARTS USED. eructations. aphrodisiac. Karnatak. antipyretic. "Vata". STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. diuretic. sub-Himalaya. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. lumbago. diuretic. inflammation. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. It is regarded as cooling. :—Wood (rarely). Burma. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. bitter. Poison Nut. appetiser. astringent to bowels. LOC. Ceylon. vomiting. thirst. heating. Kajra. K. DISTR. Travancore. Planted in Ceylon. Circars. flowers. M. Laos. :—E. Vishamushti. N. fruit. H. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. piles . fruit. burning sensation. ring-worm. Nirmal. blood diseases.. G. emmenagogue . loss of taste. LOC. NS. Sk. PARTS USED. Kajra. itching. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. FAM. Kanara. Kajavara. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :—Monsoon-forests. cures leucoderma. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. anæmia.

Ambuprasadini.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. cure strangury. . cures inflammations. Shodhanatmaka. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. :—Root cures leucoderma. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. COM. (Rasendrasarasangraha). poisoning. DISTR. :—E. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Kanara and Khandesh. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. H. alexiteric. Chittu bija. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. :—Sand-stone hills of S. head-diseases (Ayurveda). anæmia. urinary discharges. causes biliousness. See—Timbers. M. Nivali. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. kidney complaints. Sk. thirst. increases "Vata". HABITAT. Fruit useful in eye diseases. also in Konkan. Nirmali. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. emetic. diaphoretic. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels.. diuretic. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. tonic. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Kataka. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. Aduguchali-bija. Madhya Bharat. Seeds—acrid. Clearing Nut Tree. fruit and seeds. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. alexipharmic. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. PROPERTIES AND USES. relieve colic (Yunani). Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. :—Western Peninsula. lithotriptic. K. NS. Seeds—bitter. Country. See—Timbers. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. PARTS USED. LOC. Burma. LOC. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. :—Deciduous dry forests. hallucinations. M. Nelmal. jaundice. :—Root (rarely). improve eye-sight. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa.—Loganiaceæ. FAM. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. gonorrhœa. Ceylon. good for liver.

:—W. PARTS USED. Deccan . dysentery. in powder or in fresh decoction.—many. Bark—bitter. FAM. digestible. M. Lodhra . Lodh . common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling.-Jany. :— E. COM. Lodh Tree. biliousness. throughout N. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda).—Symplocaceæ. See—Timbers. :—An erect herb. CHAR. diseases of blood. Balaloddujinamara.. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Kadu. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. flowers (rarely). Mahabaleshwar. PROPERTIES AND USES.. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. etc. emmenagogue. Californian Cinchona. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. :—The whole plant is bitter. Bhilli. Deccan. Torna fort. stem densely leafy. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)".— lobes 4-5. high. . LOC. astringent to bowels. :—Bark-acrid.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. Tiritaka.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . astringent and useful in bowel complaints. Broughton). LOC. Lodhraka. L. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . aphrodisiac. Lodh. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. Lodh is used in raw condition. t. acrid. Lodhra. white with blue veins. Sd. vaginal discharges. ovoid or oblong. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. decussate. Fl.—Gentianaceæ. Fl. winged . it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Dyes. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. quadrangular. :—Konkan and N. C. H. Loder. :—Bark. Peninsula). E. :—India (W. Bose). 4-winged. C. Chota Nagpur. Fr. broadly ovate. NS.3-0. :—Hilly parts. PARTS USED.—capsule. NS. cooling. Tillaka. alexiteric. Country. :—Root. useful in abortions . useful in eye-diseases. C. HABITAT. Peninsula. Burma. 0. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures cough. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. COM. inflammations. 2-valved. LOC. colloturine and loturiaine. leprosy.9 m. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). Shavaraka. FAM. :—Western Ghats . M. China Nora. :—M. 5-nerved . K.— sessile. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . DISTR. bleeding gums . DISTR. Sk.— Oct. S. eye-diseases and ulcers .

very often planted. Pannerali. COM. Kokileshta. Jambu. anthelmintic. carminative and diuretic.—Myrtaceæ. Jambu. H. Sk. common along river banks. Nilphala. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Surabhipriya. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Jamen. sweet. sprouts. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. enriches blood. Gulab-Jamb. PROPERTIES AND USES. Malay—Rose apple. good for sore-throat. LOC. fruits and seeds. Jam. Jambu-Nayinerale. useful in spleen diseases. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. Jambura. :—Bark. K. :-Black-Java Plum. LOC.—Myrtaceæ. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). astringent. Sk.) FAM. M. :—Bark-acrid. both wild and cultivated. Nenda. thirst. dry. Shukapriya. . COM. Jambul. ulcers. :—Throughout the State. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. increases "Vata". Gulabjaman. carminative . used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. strengthens gums and teeth. Seeds—diuretic. K. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. bronchitis. Jambula. digestive.) FAM. G. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Ceylon. NS. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. common at Mahabaleshwar. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. PARTS USED. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. blood impurities. good gargle for sore-throat. biliousness. gargles and washes . HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. also used in spongy and painful gums. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Jamburaj. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. See—Timbers. Jambu. Australia. NS. Jambu. removes bad smell from mouth. Pharenda. astringent to bowels. dysentery. Nerate. Malaya. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. :—E. Shukapriya. M. also wild. astringent to bowels. LOC. cooling. Neralu. Fruit—acrid. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Jambudi. etc. H. fruit vinegar is tonic. :—Throughout India. Jambul. Fruit Trees. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. DISTR.

Taggar. lobes 5 in single. liver and spleen . Fl. cultivated in many parts. weakness of limbs. Root—bitter . Trinidad . Br. Ananta. See—Ornamental Plants. 7. glossy green above. E. HABITAT. fatigue. removes bad humours.5-5 cm. . heavy speech. Chandani.5-15 X 2. See—Timbers. lessens pains in limbs and joints .5-5 cm. wood and oil.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. The plant contains an alkaloid." biliousness. Wax flower.—snow-white. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Assam. K. orange within. tonic. margins wavy. PARTS USED. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. Tagara. tonic to brain. DISTR. bronchitis. pale beneath. LOC. hot. double. :—Cultivated in gardens. Burma. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. and an essential oil. COM. indigestible. Maddarasa gida . removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). LOC. CHAR. Fr. astringent to bowels. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. divaricate. 1-3 ribbed. :—Bark. heating. used in asthma. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). Bengal. Fruit—sweet and tasty. thirst. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. Hills of Visakhapatanam. useful in paralysis. :—Root is acrid. Kottuhale. fragrant at night.—Apocynaceæ. indigestible. across. Root chewed relieves toothache . t. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. fruit and seeds. Tagar . cures epilepsy. strangury. inodorous during the day. L. Tagar. dysentery.— opposite. Yunnan to Australia. :—Root. used in syphilis (Yunani). G. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate.) FAM. . Garhwal. Nandi. alexipharmic. PARTS USED. NS. salver-shaped.—follicles. Cultivated in many places. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. C—lobes overlapping to the left. :—Bark is sweet. Ashvathabheda. :—Sikkim Terai. H. astringent to bowels. Khasia Hills. M.—rainy season. emmenagogue. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. astringent to bowels. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. tonic to brain. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. :—E. LOC. acrid. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Fl.. with milky juice . useful in "Kapha. PROPERTIES AND USES. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. digestible. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. improves voice. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. purgative. used in liver complaints. Seeds are astringent to bowels. bitter.

COM. PARTS USED. Teter.5 m. Nagaskuda. Sandu. G. LOC. Amli. . The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. Maddarssa. Makhamala. Makhamal. Amli.—opposite. Gultora.—white. oblong lanceolate .— tube inflated near the top. muscular pains. divaricata. :—E. Kanara.—Apocynaceæ. :—Cultivated.5 cm. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. G. M. Pandarakuda. COM. Chinch. Tintrani. rough. M. Guljharo. Zendu. :—Flower-pungent. acrid. Halmeti. Imli. Leaves—good for piles. stomachic. wood. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right.. Amlika. Amla. Chinchika. DISTR. astringent. FAM.5 cm. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Makhamali. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Root. Fl.—surrounded by red pulp. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). HABITAT. Amlike. PARTS USED. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Kalaga. CHAR. :—Leaves and flowers.4-4. DISTR. kidney troubles. :—Malabar. FAM. internally they are said to purify blood. NS. good for teeth . FAM. 2.—follicle. bitter. :—Native of Mexico. their juice is given in ear-ache. Fl.5-20 X 3. bark grey. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). Sk.. Flower—bitter. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. Fr. H. H. L. NS. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Genda. 7. Sthulapushpa. M. Sk. common in rain-forests.—Compositæ. Chinch.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).— Mar-Apl. Nagakuda. :—Same as T. :—Rain-forests. Amala. coriaceous.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tamarind.2-7. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. high. Tintidika. NS. yellow when ripe. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. carminative. oil.000 m. LOC. C. throughout the Konkan and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. See—Ornamental Plants. Nuli. LOC. grown in gardens all over India. :—E. French Marigold. COM. belching. lessens inflammation . HABITAT. Sd. useful in scabies. t. Travancore up to 7. HABITAT. K. somewhat boat-shaped. across in pedunculate cymes .. Zanduga. : K.

laxative. K. abundant all along the slopes of W. vomiting.. scabies. intoxication &c. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. Burma. thirst. FAM. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. urinary discharges. :—Throughout India. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. flowers and seeds. heals ulcers. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. eye-diseases. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. Teka. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Condiments and Spices. fruit and seeds. digestive. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. :—Bark. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Tega. sweetish. Kanara. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. useful in giddiness and vertigo. DISTR. . Anil. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. Seeds are good astringent. indigestible. Tropics generally. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Sagwan. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. earache. G. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Sagwan. DISTR. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Sag. wood. and laxative. Sk. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Mahapatra. Madhya Bharat. :—E. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Sagun. Tegu. Arna. boiled they are used as a poultice. Fruit—sour. Fruit-sour. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Seeds astringent. such as body-burning. sore-throat. Sag. small-pox. Kanara. anthelmintic. LOC. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. LOC.—Verbenaceæ. NS. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. laxative. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Cultivated also.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. biliousness. heals wounds and fractures. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Circars. PROPERTIES AND USES. heating. tonic to heart. PARTS USED. COM. causes cough. tasty. and for sizing materials. tumours. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Teak. Sumatra and Java. astringent to bowels. tonic.. costiveness. M. Sagach. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. useful in liver-complaints. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Bark—astringent. stomatitis. Flowers— appetising . flowers. bark. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Malay Peninsula. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. carminative. H.

TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. bitter. useful in bronchitis. leprosy.—petals clawed. good in piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. DISTR. 2—2. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). Fr. dry. C. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. root. leaflets 11—21. Jhila. glabrous above. increase "Vata". Ghodakan. tumours. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Leaves—tonic to intestines .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).. anthelmintic. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. allays thirst. Empali. anthelmintic. ulcers. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . :-G. t. Sarpankho. laxative. Wood—acrid. sedative to gravid uterus.5 cm. Sk. HABITAT:—Open situations. allays thirst. LOC.-June. See—Timbers. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). Country. cooling. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. Plihari. Bark is an astringent. Flowers—acrid. M. linear. red. Unhali. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. branches spreading. useful in piles. biliousness. PARTS USED. :—All over India. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. useful in scabies. NS. enriches Blood . The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. spleen diseases. Deccan. COM.8—1. blood. cultivated lands and roadsides.—Oct. antipyretic. suborbicular. Wood good for head ache.2 cm. syphilis.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. leaves and seeds. Fl. cures diseases of liver. poisoning.—pod 3—4. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. asthma. K. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. CHAR. silkyhairy beneath. spleen. heart. cures diarrhœa . inflammations. S. useful in bronchitis. "Root—diuretic. Sharapunkha. L. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. Udhadi. :—Plant-digestible. Gujarat. long. Kalika. FAM. improve appetite. Konkan. 30—60 cm. Sarphonka.. asthma. mucronate. liver. biliousness. :—The whole plant. Phanike. urinary discharges. long. standard. Sharapunkha. expectorant. oblanceolate.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. high. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis.—5-6 . alexiteric. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. Sarphoka. Sd. . LOC. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. LOC.8 X 0. mucronate. H. burning pain over the region of liver. boils and pimples. ground and made into a pill. pubescent on the back. along forest borders. useful in lung and chest diseases. Fl. Malay Peninsula. alterative. Kogge. it acts also as a vermifuge. slightly curved. :—A perennial herb. fresh root-bark.

:—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma.—Combretaceæ. LOC. FAM. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Beheduk. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Sadado. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Burma. Ceylon. Behedo. Bedda Nut. Kakubha. anthelmintic. LOC. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. Arjuna. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Vibhata. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. strangury. tumours. FAM. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). Arjuna. acrid. fruit (rarely). Bastard Myrobalan. :—Throughout the forests of India. Arjun Sadada. tonic.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. K. G. H. Arjan. Madras State. Tara. tonic. useful in biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES. Aksha. styptic.—Combretaceæ. very common in South Konkan. Fruit-pungent. Madhya-Bharat. Koha. Kalidrum. Bera. Vibhitika. aphrodisiac. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Sk. Hela. :—Konkan and Deccan. Voting. LOC.. COM. " Kapha". intoxication. except in dry arid regions. Bibhitiki. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Kahu. :—E. G. with milk. Rajastan and Sind. H. DISTR. excessive perspiration. Bahaza. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Dhanvi. & A. M. anæmia. sore-throat.. NS. Karvirak. Chota-Nagpur. asthma. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. PROPERTIES AND USES. Belleric Myrobalan. anthelmintic . in the sub-Himalayan tract. Sagona. digestible. blood-diseases. Arjuna. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Buhura. urinary discharges. Tari. DISTR. biliousness. laxative. fruit and seed. Arjun-Sadada. in Khandesh Akrani. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. false presentation of fœtus. Madhya-Pradesh. Sk. Kushika. Shantimara. Bahara.. heart disease. externally in wounds and fractures. M. NS. leaves. diuretic. :—Bark. strangury. ulcers. biliousness. inflammation. Karshaphala. See—Timbers. Expectorant. :—Alexiteric. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. PARTS USED. :—E. COM. useful in bronchitis. useful in fractures. leucoderma. . Baire. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Indradruma. PARTS USED. Behada. :—Bark. White Marudah. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. K. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Sadura.

COM. elephantiasis. Kanara. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. in Travancore. Harara. cold in head. delirium (Ayurveda). constipation. Hirdo . diseases of eye. Burma. M. heart and bladder. is used as an application in ophthalmia. gums. heating. See—Timbers. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. diseases of spleen. sore-throat. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. G. nose. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. Hirda. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. tumours. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. piles. NS. Haritaki. carminative. Ripe fruit—purgative. antipyretic. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. :—Bark and fruit. anaemia. attenuant. urinary discharges. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. Fruit-astringent. aperient. alterative . dyspepsia. DISTR. Harade. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. PARTS USED. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. good in ophthalmia. tonic. antidysenteric. heart and bladder. hoarseness. Black myrobalan. strengthens brain. Chebulic myrobalan. FAM. —E. Jivantika. bilious headache. vomiting. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. Kernel has narcotic properties. mixed with honey. Gums and Resins. stomachic. USES. itching pain. tonic. useful in thirst. :—Fruit-dry. biliousness. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. inflammations. piles and diarrhœa. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. useful in asthma. ascites. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Abhaya. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. gout. which is considered a good digestive. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . diseases of eye. Ceylon. intoxicating. hiccup. eyes. Dyes. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. corneal ulcers. applied to eyes. useful in dyspepsia. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. used in paralysis (Yunani). bleeding and ulceration of gums. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. Seed—acrid. piles. useful in caries of teeth. common in Khandesh Akrani. LOC. leucoderma.—Combretaceæ. anthelmintic. bleeding piles. brain tonic (Yunani). vomiting. carminative. H. the fully ripe or dried fruit. eye diseases etc. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. vesicular calculi. enriches blood. LOC. Alate. Sk. Jivanti. expectorant. strangury. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. Haria. Har. Haritaki. diarrhœa. K. thirst. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). typhoid fever. tonic.

:—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. :—Coast forests of India.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Kuberaksha. M. H. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius.—Malvaceæ. LOC. :—Bark. leaves. Paras-piper. Bhindi. Bengal. Paraspiplo. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Gandarati. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). aphrodisiac . Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. . especially centipedes. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. See—Timbers. DISTR. Tulip Tree. It is also used in chronic dysentery.. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. LOC. COM. Bhend. Fibres. difficult to digest. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Mhaskar and Issac). acrid . Burma. Sk. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Portia Tree. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. flowers and fruit. NS. Dyes. Parisha. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. See—Timbers. produces worms in intestines . Tans. also planted as roadside tree. Parasipu. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. PARTS USED. Ranbhendi. PROPERTIES AND USES. Paraspipal. profuse discharge. Arasi. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. :—E. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. G. Suparshuakan. burning of body . Kanara. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. :—Districts of Konkan and N. FAM. :—Fruit-sour. Bhandi. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. K. Kandarala. Phalisha. Gajadanta. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Bugari. Jogiyarale. Sacred Plants. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Hucerasi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. increases " Kapha " . Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative.

HABIT :—In thickets.—membranous. male fascicled. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. . Gulo. size of a pea . leucoderma. Pila kanir. dorsally convex. Amarvel. females solitary. Gulhel.-spirally arranged. virgin uterus. wounds. often planted in India. NS. :—Often planted. Pivali kanher. Gado. yellow. Burma. LOC. bronchitis . across. red. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. M. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. pungent. corona in the throat. Gulvel.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. Sk. lobes 5. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. bark corky. Gurch. :—E. worms. G.—broadly obovate. Pila kaner. mesocarp bony. M. with milky juice. piles. useful in urethral discharges. Zard kunel. root. eye-troubles. bright green and shining above. grooved . throat campanulate. frequently planted. Gulancha. Uganiballi. H. but its use is attended with considerable danger.5—12. Andamans and Ceylon. FAM. elliptic. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. Fl. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). CHAR. 5 cm. Haripriya. yellow. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Sd. H. See—Ornamental Plants. cures " Vata " .. long. PARTS USED. very poisonous (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. FAM. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. HABITAT. NS. Gulvel. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . Sk.—drupes. COM.—Apl. CHAR. crowded . PARTS USED.5 cm. L. exocarp fleshy.—Apocynaceæ. Fr. growing on mango and other trees. Heart-leaved moonseed.—generally 4. ventrally flat. linear. DISTR. COM. LOC. bladder.. acrid. Fl. Jwaranashini.—Menispermaceæ. :—Native of S. tubular.—in axillary and terminal racemes. endocarp corky.—in terminal cymes. Amrita-Valli. :—Stem. Fr. America and W. Karvira. Exile or yellow Oleander. 5—10 cm. G. t. skin diseases. C. it has no action on digestive enzymes . Vatsadani. fevers. L. seeds and milky juice. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Pittaghni. :—Bark. DISTR. LOC.. Ashvaghna. :—Throughout tropical India. 7. 1—3. Fl. and blood vessels . The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. astringent to bowels. 7—9 nerved. hot. Indies . :—An extensive climber. Shatakumbha. :—E. Amritvalli. K.

tropical Africa. diuretic.— alternate. :—Root. allays thirst. high. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. also in the Deccan hills. 5-7 lobed. common in S. vomiting. Lopezroot Tree. :—E. ovary rudimentary. Forest Pepper. especially acid. LOC. stomachic . Sk. female flower buds oblong. Jangali-Mirchi. cures jaundice. antipyretic. Root and stem are bitter. causes constipation. :—Stem-bitter. Java. L. 3-5 grooved. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. stomachic. Root-bark is aromatic. 5-10 X 1. coriaceous. anæmia. stigma sessile. tonic. Stem-bitter. unisexual. orange coloured. Khasia Hills. vaginal and urethral discharges. armed with small hooked prickles . FAM.—Rutaceæ. bark.—Aug. leaflets sessile. stimulant and anti-periodic. chronic fever. (Kirtikar). Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. leaves. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. Ceylon. white.—in axillary cymes. Kadu-menasu. NS. China. Fl. t. Konkan and Kanara. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. K.-Jany.8. . Kaduhakukare. tonic appetiser. good in cough.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Rain-forests. HABITAT. fever. Dahan. juice useful in diabetes. jaundice. CHAR.. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Mirchi. PARTS USED. enriches blood. piles. Fl. size of a large pea. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. crenulate. Macimullu. Sumatra. M.—globose. FT. USES. vomiting. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. burning sensation. LOC. fruits. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Limri. H. DISTR. diarrhœa. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. digitately trifoliate. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. :—All over the Madras State .—Dehan. pitted on the rind. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. COM. oblong. Manger. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. Gangalaki. useful in skin diseases. dark shining green above. giddiness. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers.8-3. 15 m. Kumaon to Bhutan. stimulates bile secretion. expectorant. Philippines. renews blood. male flower bud globose. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine.

useful in . cardio-tonic. LOC. aphrodisiac. M. astringent to bowels. Shingada. :—Throughout the State in tanks. :—Bark-acrid. :—Throughout India. of India). inflammation. Mahalimbu. useful in ulcers. cures leprosy. removes " Kapha ". Kalingi. Lim. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. expectorant. Jalakantaka-valli. Singodi. :—Bark and flowers. HABIT. Lud. Tuni. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Kanara.. Chittagong. Tun. Kuberaka. H. Water-chestnut. Waitz). good for scabies and gleet. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. urinary discharges. :—E. NS. Shingoda. astringent to bowels. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. LOC. removes " Tridosha". Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula.—Meliaceæ. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. Singhara.—Onagraceæ. Malaya.) FAM. Bark—bitter. Garige. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Shringa-kanda-taka. indigestible. DISTR. Chota-Nagpur. antipyretic . Ceylon. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. biliousness. Apina. digestible. :—Cooling . Gums and Resins. Sk. burning sensation. :—E. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. burning sensation. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Burma. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. Mandurike. causes " Vata " . H. strangury. tonic. biliousness. leprosy. Deodari. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Dyes. Trikone-phala. :—Aquatic (in tanks). PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. Indian Mahogany. Trikota. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. cures fevers. Sandal Neem. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Kuruk. fattening. :—Fruit. See—Timbers. Tundu. "Tridosha". NS. fatigue. PARTS USED. COM. tropical Africa. often cultivated. Tunika. FAM. Nand-vriksha. cooling. Sk. anthelmintic. Gandhagarige. DISTR. Toon. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Kaechaka. COM. headache. itching. M. Assam. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. G. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. LOC.

. M. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Java. CHAR. PARTS USED. DISTR. improves taste . Gokharu. t. one pair longer than the other . G.—globose. PROPERTIES AND USES.. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Gokhura. FAM. LOC. They are also used in the form of poultice. Tumri.—throughout the year. NS. Ceylon. Sd. considered cool and sweet. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. LOC. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. :—Throughout India. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. used as food. L. Negalu . Fibres. LOC. Gokhru. K. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Trikantaka. Kurangaha.—opposite. each with 2 pairs of hard. COM. Assam. Kere Padye. sharp spines. Ceylon. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Beta-Nahan Gokhru. Sk. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. Fr. upto 3300 m. one of each pair smaller than the other. See—Food Plants. Seeds abound in starch.—several in each coccus . Deccan and S. Gamhar. appetiser. See—Timbers. COM. bad-teeth (Yunani). Gujarat. thirst. H. yellow. Shadanga. Gokshura. Gokshri. Sumatra. :—H. mucronate. hairy. solitary.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). LOC. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. of 5 woody cocci. Kadu Kange Kumbala.. Fl. Chhota gokhru. bile and phlegm. lumbago. :—Plant is cooling tonic. a common weed of the drier parts. Hussuk. NS. Malay Peninsula. K. :—A procumbent herb. :—E. sore-throat. Kanara. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn.—Euphorbiaceæ. . Sarata. biliousness. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese.—Zygophyllaceæ. antipyretic. Pindara. DISTR. Calthrope. Gokhru. :—The whole plant. bronchitis. abruptly pinnate. M. stems and branches pilose. young parts silky. Kantaphala. Karahate. useful in chronic fevers. pain. alexiteric. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). Aphrodisiac.:—Saurashtra. oblong. base oblique. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Petari . all warm regions of both the hemispheres. M. Sk. Country. along nalas and in swampy localities. Pindara. FAM. in Kashmir. The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge.

the Deccan. cough. improves appetite . Konkan.—heads 6—8 mm. emmenagogue (Yunani). removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda).— Dec. Diuretic. long. :—Root. Sk. reduces inflammation. : — G. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . pappus shorter than the achenes. suppression of urine. :—Hot. Physiaran. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. urinary discharges. LOC. alleviating burning sensation. fruits. piles. ciliate. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). useful in strangury. L. cures strangury. diuretic. . used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. removes " Tridosha ". copious. :—A glabrous herb. DISTR. bitter. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. Brahmadandi. alterative . Mota-Motachor. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. yellowish brown. Country. oblong. branches angled and ribbed. C. COM. :—Western Peninsula. Kantapatraphala. S. fattening. S. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). stem erect. tonic. tonic . purifies blood . spinous toothed or serrate. asthma. :—Wild in places. ovoid. Mt. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. Talakanto. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. linear-oblong or lanceolate. lumbago . "Vata". aphrodisiac.—sessile. Aja-dandi.— purple. USES :—Fruits are cooling. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. Brahmadandi. cures skin and heart diseases. Brahmadandi. Brahmadandi. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fr. M. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. West Rajastan. NS. K. gonorrhœa. stomachic. seeds. urinary disorders and impotence. appetiser. Kanara. tonic. gleet. :—Cooling . H. pruritus ani. LOC. bloody urine. LOC. S. reduces inflammation . leprosy . Fl. t. Abu. PARTS USED. vesicular calculi. inflammations.—Compositæ. CHAR. FAM. diuretic. slender. Kanara. pain . M. HABITAT. :—The whole plant. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. Central India. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. Brahma-dandi. leaves. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. faintly ribbed. increases menstrual flow. which is taken in large quantities. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. cures "Kapha". —achene. enriches blood .

Patola.. furrowed. eye diseases. tendrils 3-fid. leaf-juice is emetic. lobes ovate-oblong. Indrayan. Sk. Panduka. bitter. HABITAT:-In hedges.-male in axillary . Fl. blood diseases. Sk. NS. antipyretic.-5-12. Makal. — surrounded with red-pulp . Ceylon. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Betlada padaval.—2. L. dentate or serrate. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. deeply 5-lobed. slightly hairy. stomachic. DISTR. Fr. :—Root. CHAR. antipyretic. long. Malaya. useful for boils and intestinal worms. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. Sd. :—Root-cathartic . FAM . anasarca and ascites. green with white stripes when raw. oil. laxative. CHAR. alexiteric. Mukal. K. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Katuka. palmately 3-5 lobed. :—E. NS. erysipelas.—July-Oct. Root-juice is very purgative. Australia. Ratan-indrayan. stem robust.5 cm. females solitary. COM. G. leprosy. long as well as broad. Jyotsna. Leaves—good for biliousness. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. H. ovoid-fusiform. Avagude-hannu. base cordate . with a long sharp beak. cures itching. distantly denticulate.6—4. H. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. leaves. long. L. Malay Peninsula.5 cm. dark-green above. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. axillary. t. Fl. alterative. woody below. LOC. pungent. cures bronchitis. it is given in decoction with ginger. Kaundal. COM. N. Fl. In Bombay. LOC. Kiripodla. fruit. base deeply cordate. Kadvi-padyal or patola .. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . ulcers. stems 3. white. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. leucoderma. burning sensation. scarlet when ripe. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). paler beneath. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. slender. allays thirst. asthma. Jangali chichonda.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn.—Cucurbitaceæ. male in axillary racemes. variable. Perula. tendrils 3 cleft.3 cm.. PARTS USED. Wild Snake-gourd. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex.—monœcious. long. :—Throughout India. K. Mahakala. Jangli— Kadu padval. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. M. Fruit—hot.—Cucurbitaceæ. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. the Deccan. :—A scandent annual.5—7.5 m.3-12.-6. Lal-indrayan. reniform or broadly ovate. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. chireta and honey. —G. orbicular. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). FAM. headache and boils.

rheumatism. bracts large. China. Japan. N.. :—A perennial straggling herb.— Apl. slender. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. Kirkee.5 cm. Sd. very hairy.. Ceylon. which is found abundantly all over the country.—head solitary. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. Fl. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. :—Wild in hilly parts. t. ophthalmia. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. black. :— Wild in Konkan. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. gargle good for toothache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. t. bruises and wounds. :—Abundant in the Deccan. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). heat of brain. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. Ekdandi. on the Himalayas. boiled with gingelly oil. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. :—Fruit is useful in asthma.. hairy.-July. 3-partite. lessens inflammations . petioles densely hairy. LOC. many years ago. cures hemicrania.—petals wedge-shaped. outer involucral bracts ovate. limbweakness.. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. LOC. Deccan and S. Juice of fruit or root-bark. ligules yellow.—Compositæ. purgative. diam. PROPERTIES AND USES. peduncles very long. white. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm.—many . . Fl. ovate-elliptic. inner slightly longer than outer. C. abortifacient. HABITAT. densely silky hairy. Fr.75-1 in. L. :—Throughout India. Australia. Fruit—carminative. :—Root and fruit. DISTR. :—M. acute. FAM.— achene. COM. sparsely white hairy. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. Fl. PARTS USED. Malaya.—throughout the year. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. M. glandular. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. used in epilepsy. high. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . leprosy. axillary. PARTS USED. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. CHAR. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. fringed. 30-60 cm. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. LOC. :—Leaves.—1. all over the State. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils.—globose 3-8. DISTR. Ray flowers ligulate. stem and branches hairy. middle lobe smallest. female solitary.75 X . Fr.

vomiting. :—Cultivated. :—Leaves and seeds. suppurative. H. M. tapering to a fine point at the apex. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). diarrhœa. Jyoti. S. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. FAM. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. Country. G. dropsy. antipyretic. chronic cough. COM. long.— broadly ovate. LOC. much used in colic.. Methini.—opposite. Muthi.—in umbellate cymes . large for the genus. long. corona gibbous below. PARTS USED. M. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. K. Methi. tonic and carminative. also in low and sandy localities.. greenish-yellow outside.—follicles.7 cm. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. narrowed at the apex to a free point. Kanara. :—South of Bombay. dyspepsia with loss of appetite.—Asclepiadaceæ. they are also aphrodisiac. . LOC. FN. L. Sk.-Nov. Fl. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Pitabija Vedhini. cultivated in many parts of India. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). base cordate.5-5. Janglipikvan. LOC. enlargement of spleen and liver. 5-10 x 2. :—E. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. flatulence. ovate or elliptic oblong. COM. removes bad taste from mouth. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Menthe—palle. Fenugreek . Methi . appetiser. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). See—Vegetables. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. 7. emmenagogue. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Kashmir. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk.—deeply lobed. :—Punjab. piles. dysentery. enlargement of spleen and liver. Pitakari (Pitamari). TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. t. fleshy. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.—Aug. Sd. aperient.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. tonic. Hot and dry. Konkan. Antamul. and the seeds contain vitamin A. :—A twining perennial. anthelmintic. diuretic. DISTR. :—Hot. roots many. Methi. :—H. useful in dropsy. Methi. K. M. NS. bronchitis. "Vata". Nepala . with coma . CHAR.5—10 cm. purplish within. HABITAT. NS. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Chandrika. Fl. cures leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. C. astringent to bowels.

Jaglipiaz. polished. Sd. NS. M. tropical Africa. Pitavan . ellipsoid. Sk. Ceylon. :—G.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Throughout India. long. HABITAT. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion).8 m. FAM. joints 3-6. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Panjala. drooping. stems downy with hooked hairs. Bihar. long. Fr.-Sept. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. folded on one another. high. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. Prishna-parni. 15-45 x 1. tapering to both ends . L.— Liliaceæ. :—Common on sandy shores. CHAR. stalks long. USES. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. Sk. LOC. pale lead-colored. Malay Islands. Pitvan. Dabra. Borneo. linear. LOC. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. 20-30 cm. linear-oblong. Dried leaves are emetic. Malay Islands.— flattened. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. USES. Shankaraja . C. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. 10-20 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. black.—in racemes 15-30 cm. :—E. scape erect 30-45 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC.. :—A perennial shrub. hairy beneath.. Fl.. :—Western Himalayas.9-1. Peninsula. Vanapalandu. :—Wild. perianth campanulate. C.—Aug. :—Throughout the plains of India. :—Konkan. HABITAT. Fr. G. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. FAM.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. CHAR.— pod. blotched with white above. :—Sandy places.. long..—capsule. Ceylon.—appearing after the flowers. M.— petals lanceolate. 0. Burma. H. URARIA PICTA Desv. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate.5 cm. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. Jangli-Ran-khanda.. Rankanda.— imparipinnate. Pithavan. :—Roots and leaves. KolaPutakand. Chota-Nagpur. Ranganja . H. . DISTR. DISTR. :—Bulb. diaphoretic and expectorant. :—A herb. found useful in dysentery. t. white. Fl.—purple. flat. Philippines. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. Fl. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha.3-2. Indian Squill. W. COM. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. light-brown . 5-7 (rarely 9). NS. glabrous. PARTS USED. PARTS USED. COM. Thailand (Siam). tropical Africa.

asthma.—Orchidaceæ.. column very short. W. and was found useful (Koman). stimulant and diuretic. long. COM. (In Med. tonic to brain and liver. stout.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. diseases of nose. Ceylon. lip bluish dotted with purple. praemorse. heating. scilla of Great Britain. :—Root is bitter. antipyretic. HABIT. useful in dyspepsia. Atiras. purgative. Gujarat and Kanara. long. cardiac. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. NS. LOC.— July. boils in the scalp. Vriksharuha. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . diuretic. . maritima of U. :—Epiphyte. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. Rasna. emmenagogue. FAM. DISTR. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. M. K. Chota-Nagpur. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. alexiteric. 1931. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. :—The bulb is pungent. Br. Rasno. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Fl. CHAR. :—An epiphyte. renal calculi. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Banda. inflammations. useful in paralysis. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm.5—9 cm.—capsule. Travancore. diseases of the abdomen.. USES :—Expectorant. Nakula. dropsy. Sarpagandha. The bulb is stomachic. lessens inflammations . Fr. t. A. lumbago. Gaz. LOC. scandent by simple or branching roots . obtusely keeled. anthelmintic. alexiteric. tip. H. bronchitis. skin diseases. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. laxative. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. Madhya-Pradesh. S. :—Root and leaves. Peninsula. stem 30-60 cm. Root is bitter. long. alexiteric. Rasna. complicate. Vanda. PROPERTIES AND USES.—thickly coriaceous. indica is in no way inferior to the official U.. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. good for piles. bronchitis. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. Fl. 15-20 X 1. pollinia ellipsoid. and U.3-2 cm. :—Konkan. acute. heating. 2-lobed. Persara. and an acute interposed one. tremors (Ayurveda). Bandanike. toothache. Rasna. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. bronchitis. L. rheumatic pains. PARTS USED. LOC. :—Bengal. anthelmintic. Sk. internal pains (Yunani). Bihar. :—G. The plant contains an alkaloid. rheumatism. erect. heals fractures (Yunani). middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. hiccup. recurved.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES.

—5-10 X 2. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. NS. :—A large much branched woody climber. Kanara. whitish). Kaharub. :—Bark-hot. Sarjaka. useful in leprosy. Shala. tonic and stimulant. G. DISTR. Haruge. yellowish. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. K. Ragatarshado. Safed-damar. debility and slight cases of fever. M. Sekalyel. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. PARTS USED. :—Bark. NS.5-3. :—E.—Dipterocarpaceæ. bechic. Coorg in Ghats. Bilidhupa. boils and ringworm. USES. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. buds 5-angled. Sk. Poppli. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. .. Shandike. Malamaitra. prolonged into a linear-oblong. See—Timbers. expectorant. :—Western India. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Country. anæmia. Madidhupa. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. CHAR. also in N. young branches and panicles pubescent. Khandvel. Red Creeper. Ceylon. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Tenasserim. :—Madras State. t. urinary discharges. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. resin. :—Bark. cures cough. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn.—in large drooping terminal panicles. Sk. acrid. Dhupa. LOC. carminative.. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. Oils. Dhupa. piles. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. Raktavalli. Sandras. Gums and Resins. :—North Kanara. Fl. alexipharmic. Mysore. greenish. C. FAM. (T. L. diam. LOC. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . eardiseases. Travancore. tuberculous glands.—Dec. LOC. Kanara and S. amenorrhœa. good for sore-throat. Pitti. fruit. useful in atonic dyspepsia. abundant in S. hemicrania. also planted. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. detergent. rheumatism. Lokhandi. skin eruptions. ulcers and wounds.—Rhamnaceæ. Kubbila. with an offensive odour. COM. in chronic bronchitis. COM. M. H. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. M.-nut about 5 mm. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. entire or crenate. dysentery. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. FAM.-Jany. Fr.8 cm. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). dark. 1-nerved wing. diarrhœa. itch (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). stomachic. alexipharmic. globular. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. tonic. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. Kundura. deciduous and monsoon-forests. K. :—E. Fl. PARTS USED..—petals 5.

Kalejire. Kalijiri. often cultivated. rachis glandular pubescent. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. branched near the top. :—An annual herb. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. Kadvojiri. DISTR. all coarsely dentate. FAM. H. with purple tips . hairy.2 cm. DISTR.-achene oblong cylindric. robust. hairy. compound or pinnatisect. Bakchi. :—G.5—3. Ceylon. Somaraj. 10-ribbed. pappus reddish.) FAM. stems 60—90 cm. LOC.6-0. Fr. LOC. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Fl. K. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Purple Fleabane. "Vata" and "Kapha".Feb. lyrate.-rotate. Gadar-tambaku. lobes 5.—capsule. H. PROPERTIES AND USES.. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. L. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Kalhara. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd.. hairy on both sides.—oblong. stem 0. LOC.. 5—9 x 2. Afghanistan. innermost the longest. Kulhala. L. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. PROPERTIES AND USES. G. Ceylon . squeezed out by pounding. Vanajiraka. t. anthelmintic.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. K. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles.—Scrophulariaceæ. NS. Fl. Sk. :—Annual. Java . upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. PARTS USED. COM. cure ulcers. CHAR. in equal proportions. Kutki.—Compositæ. high.9 m. CHAR. rounded. :—Konkan . on long petioles. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Vapehi. Sk. China. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Fr. ofter cultivated. coarsely serrate. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages.—alternate. Fl. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. and leaves.—Dec. sub-globose. COM. :—Throughout India .-radical 5-10 x 2-3. M. t— Jany. leafy herb . Gujarat. M. C. Vishamushti. warted. yellow. hairy. Somaraj. erect. astringent to bowels.. truncate. The juice of the whole plant. HABITAT:-Waste places. Bhutakeshi.—heads subcorymbose. Sundika. used in skin-diseases. Country. :—E. :—Seeds-acrid. involucre bracts linear. .—in simple or branched terminal racemes. M. :—Plant. about 40-flowered. Fl. Agnibija. lanceolate. Sd. Seeds— anthelmintic. NS. Kalizhiri. high .8 cm. Kulara. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall.-May. The juice mixed with mustard oil. Deccan .

Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil.—achene. :—E. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. Africa . Sahadevi. pubescent. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. high. LOC. Fr.. asthma. G. K. stomachic. :—Throughout India.-Feb. Australia. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. alternate. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. LOC. astringent. . The plant with quinine. Mudivala. kidney troubles. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Fl. FAM. Ardhaprasadana. seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Bena. L. Sind. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). 15—75 cm.—Jan. Ushira. heads small. bronchitis .—Compositæ. G. made into a bolus with lime-juice. Dandotpala. Osari. stem stiff. NS. good for sores and itching of eyes. tonic. stomachic and diuretic. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Khas. consumption. :—E. M. COM. silky on the back. striate.—simple. Sk. They are also used as tonic. K. :—Annual.— pinkish violet. FAM. CHAR. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Sahadevi. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). LOC. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. applied in inflammatory swellings .—Gramineæ. NS. The expressed juice is given in piles. cures "Tridosha". PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. t. clothed with white hairs . used for asthma. a depilatory (Yunani). Bala. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). Lavancha. COM. In Ceylon. Panni. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. pappus white. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. Kuruvelu. Devika. awned. H. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. Cuscus grass. cold. tropical Asia. DISTR. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. remove blood from liver. PARTS USED. hiccup . :—Plant. Sahadevi. are used in destroying pediculi. Koosa. with lime-juice. Valo . Ash-coloured Fleabane . H. Sadori. :—A common weed throughout the State. Sadodi. oblong. Sedardi. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. Fl. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). Vecrnam. Vala. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Sk. plant is used in fever convulsions. M. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. erect herb. flowers. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf.

—Verbenaceæ. NS. high. Sk. bitter. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . L. Leaves are aromatic. :—Common in Gujarat and N. alexiteric. spleen enlargement. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. The roots contain an essential oil. :—Throughout the State. slender. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. K. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. leucoderma. diuretic. febrifuge. :—Roots. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED. Nirgundi. cephalic. bronchitis. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery.. Sessile spikelets. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. LOC. Nirgundi. The otto is used as a tonic. racemes up to 5 cm. bilious fevers. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES. also cultivated. :—Root. stimulant and tonic. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. Culms stout.—panicle up to 30 cm. COM. blood diseases (Yunani). DISTR. asthma. Sinduvara. USES :—Root is tonic.. useful in eye diseases. Ceylon. H. soporific. refrigerant. Kanara in damp places. Nirgud. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. leaves. :—G. Nirgundi. colour varying from yellowish to black.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. stomachic. biliousness. pale green. bitter. Sind. lower ones keeled and fan-like. Lakki. Nigod. tonic and vermifuge. long. Indrani. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . West-Indies and Brazil.-leaf sheaths compressed. Fl. useful in burning sensation. Nirgari. strangury. PARTS USED. Nukki. Konkan and Deccan. heating.8 m. rachis stout. throughout the Malayan regions. inflammations and irritability of stomach. Sambhalu. up to over 1. Philippine Islands. erect. FAM. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. head-ache. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. LOC. LOC. Nilpushpi. bitter. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. expectorant and diuretic. margin spinously rough. Cooling to brain. Bilenekki. anthelmintic. foul breath. useful in spermatorrhoea. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. M. promotes hair-growth. sweats. inflammations. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). usually sheathed all along. Afghanistan. astringent. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . DISTR. :—Cooling. astringent. thirst. long. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. consumption.

Fruit is nervine. fever. Ahmednagar. a remedy for skin diseases. Drakh . laxative. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. difficult to digest.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. PARTS USED :—Stem. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. H. :—A native of western Asia. emmenagogue. purifies and enriches blood . liver and kidney. fattening. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. expectorant. Guchaphala. good in chronic bronchitis . Country. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. Angur. cough. blood diseases. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. :—Fruit-acrid. cooling . hoarseness and consumption. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. :—Deccan. Draksha. and traces of vitamins B and C. asthma. burning. cures thirst. causes gases in the stomach. Sap of young branches. appetiser. piles. Madhurasa. good for lungs. LOC. Seeds—aphrodisiac. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. bad effects of drinking. COM. heat of body. emmenagogue. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Yakshmaghni. good for eyes and throat. M. Angura. produces alopecia. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—Cultivated. fever. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. diuretic. Sk. Draksha. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves. fattening . cooling useful in thirst. G. :—E. useful in old fevers. See—Timbers. Flowers—expectorant. Draksha. produces constipation. allays vomiting. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). sparingly in Poona. diuretic . K. Draksha. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. astringent to bowels. FAM-—Vitaceæ. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India.. NS. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. . laxative. Fruit— digestive. jaundice. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. Gujarat and S. flowers. skin should not be eaten. syphilis. sweet. applied in scabies. Grape-vine. catarrh and jaundice. aperient. tonic to liver. spleen inflammation. stones in bladder. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. testicle swellings and piles. HABITAT. diarrhœa. DISTR. India. Darakh. cooling. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. fruits. Khandesh. W. and given in coughs. strangury. stomachic. M. allays vomiting. LOC. stops bleeding from mouth. The fruits contain vitamin A. seeds. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N.

green berries. inflammations. Vajini. acrid. Wakeri. smooth. :—Tubers-bitter. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. seeds.—berry. armed with prickles . Ashvagandha. oblong. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . Amangura. t. Fl. "Kapha".5-5 cm. calyx-tube. dark-orange. Tuber—bitter. (not common. Sogada-beru.— Sept. Wagati. bronchitis. . spathulate.—3-4. somewhat scurfy. L. NS. Ceylon. Mediterranean regions. Fr. LOC. Sd. marasmus of children. M. 7. See—Fruit Trees. tonic. Balada.. :—Drier regions. good in asthma. C. entire. CHAR. base dentate. branches armed with recurved prickles . PROPERTIES AND USES.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. bony Fl. pinnae 4-6 pairs.—petals 5. bronchitis. Sd. aphrosidiac. USES. main rachis armed with prickles. Canaries. L. G.—5-10 X 2. oblong. psoriasis. Fl. leaves. hoary tomentose . high. linear oblong. Asgund. hard. branches terete. Hirimaddina-gadde. useful in "Vata".—pod. HABITAT. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . inserted on the top of. :—A branched erect undershrub. Asgundh. PARTS USED. Sk. PROPERTIES AND LOC. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. scabies. aphrodisiac. Punir. :—A robust woody climber. Kanchuki. slightly 5-angled. Asan.. Gandhpatri. swollen above the seeds.5 m. alterative. enclosed in inflated calyx. coriaceous. tonic. :—Deccan. COM. long.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). 23-30 cm. senile debility. :—K. COM. 0. inflammations. Deccan.) DISTR. rachis grooved with soft hairs. insomnia. FAM. H. anthritis. Kamrupini. alexipharmic. Winter-cherry. Kanara. consumption. asthma. obovate. NS. CHAR. red. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. DISTR.—2-pinnate. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). LOC. Drakshasava—used as tonic. leaflets 5-7 pairs. FAM. Fl. Cape of Good Hope. lumbago.3-1. abundant in Sind .-Feb.5-12. M. Asoda. :—E. favours constipation (Yunani). minutely hairy. Wagati..-Jany. K. pretty common in the ghats. t. constricted between them. :—Root and bark. anthelmintic. emmenagogue . chest troubles etc. Fr.—Solanaceæ.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. long. diam. Gujarat. 6 mm. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. long. leucoderma. Ghodasoda. :—In the drier regions of India . ulcers. dark-green. heating. Hooliganji. ovate. ghats near Mahabaleshwar.—yellow. :—Konkan jungles.5 cm.—greenish or lurid yellow.

Hale.. LOC. Are. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. Madhuindrayava. Madhavasini. PARTS USED. :—Root is regarded as tonic. leaf-infusion is given in fever. PROPERTIES AND USES. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Khirni. Ornamental Plants.) FAM. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). blood diseases. USES. Kanara near the sea-coast. alterative. :—G. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. dysentery. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests.3-2. Br. ulcers and painful swellings . :—G. FAM.—numerous. alexiteric.— numerous. irregularly dehiscent. anthelmintic . branches long. Hallunova. simple. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. M. toxic. Fl. useful in leucorrhoea. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. :—Bark and flowers. in 2-15 flowered cymes. :—Monsoon-forests. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. uterine sedative. long. LOC. cooling. Phulsatti. Madagascar. velvety above. Baluchistan.—Apocynaceæ. used in thirst. Indrajav. tropical Africa. Dhaiti. Bela. H. nigro-punctate beneath. Ceylon. Dhaw. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Kalikari. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. scarlet. 1 cm. debility from old age. brown. rheumatism.5 cm. See—Tans. diuretic and deobstruent. Swetakutaj. Sumatra. on trap in the Akrani. Tamrapushpi. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Kuda. Japan. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. common in the Konkan and N. haemorrhoids. It is narcotic. Fr. Dhavani. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Sk. erysipelas. . NS. H. DISTR. COM. Dhavani. and in derangement of liver . ovate-lanceolate. Dudhi. Dhawadina. Santha. leprosy.—Lythraceæ. COM. acrid. M. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. :—Throughout India. Sk. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. 5-9X 1. NS. Dhawai. Fl. wedge-shaped.—mostly opposite. Indrajav. Dec. t. lumbar pains. The plant contains an alkaloid.-May.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. smooth. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Java. K. Kalakuda. K. HABITAT. Dyes. China. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. L. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Vanhishikha. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Kodamurki. Hayamaraka. emaciation of children.—capsule. Indrajav. Dhateki. :—Pungent. Sd.

. anthelmintic.. Sankeshwar. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. especially root and fruit. long.-E. Shankhahuli. USES :—Root is bitter. Itara. Bur-Weed. Kambu-Vanamalini. useful in cancer and strumous diseases.5 cm.—many. Sarpakshi. Fl. alexiteric. complexion. PARTS USED. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. . PROPERTIES AND USES. stout. West-Peninsula. DISTR. LOC. barren heads many. Fl. :—Rajastan. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs.—Jany. rough with short hairs . Madhya Pradesh. voice. salivation. L. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. G. with 2 erect beaks. H. Fr. Aristha. fertile heads few. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. memory. In S. t. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . COM. Ceylon.achene. tonic. Banokra.1-6. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. DISTR. :— Throughout India. poisonous bites of insects. cures leucoderma. laxative. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. fever. all over the State. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. ovoid in fruit. tonic. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. long and broad.Feb. hairy on both sides. FAM. involucre of fertile head. oblong ovoid. Khandesh at 1050 m. :—Bark and seeds. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. Gadrian. :—Cooling. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. fattening. stem short. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. at the top. Clot-Cockle-bur. LOC. :—The whole plant. irregularly incisoserrate . The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. LOC. :—Annual herb . 3-lobed. See—Timbers. CHAR.. 5-7.—Compositæ. biliousness. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. PARTS USED. hard and tough. antidysenterica (Yunani). digestive. M. 1-3 cm. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. the bark is specially useful in piles. in W.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. antipyretic. epilepsy.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Sk. compressed . thickly clothed with hooked prickles. axillary. Dutundi. Dumundi. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). NS. Timor.

removes pain due to cold. Chinese Date. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Kandara. G. K. vomiting. stomachic. Bogari. HABITAT. appetiser. anthelmintic. heating. :—E. Ber. on poor soil and in rocky places. K. vomiting. laxative. . USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias.—Rhamnaceæ. flatulence. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. Egasi. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Anupama. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . H. DISTR. gives lustre to eye. :—E. asthma. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Koli. Sk. :—Rhizome-pungent. "Vata". Bor. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). pains. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. Ardraka. Ada. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. LOC. FAM. M. Ginger. H. Bore. Ajapriya. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Alen. NS. :—Cultivated. Boyedi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. aphrodisiac. inflammations. Hasisunthi. NS. "Kapha". Indian Cherry. Dridhabija. COM. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. pains (Yunani). :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. head-ache. Alen. alexiteric. carminative. expectorant. COM. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). LOC. to prevent nausea and griping. rheumatism. stomachic. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. carminative. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. eructations. and dry situations. Bordi. G. it is also given in the form of infusion. Alla Adrak. See—Condiments and Spices. aphrodisiac. Beri. PROPERTIES AND USES. loss of appetite and piles. Badari. Shringavera. Bor. tongue and increases appetite. it cleans throat. Ipanji. PARTS USED. Rhizome—pungent. Plum. useful in elephantiasis. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. colic. lumbago. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Sk. bronchitis. piles. Adrate. Kuvali. FAM. tonic. It is stimulant. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. :—Rhizome. Gulmmula. good in piles. useful in heart and throat diseases. M..MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc.—Scitaminaceæ. dyspepsia. Ber. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives.

head-ache. Fruit— cooling. Root and Bark tonic. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. reduce obesity. causes cough. allays thirst (Yunani). on the laterite near the coast in N. causes diarrhœa in large doses . removes biliousness. Fruit—sweet and sour. DISTR. cure asthma. aphrodisiac. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Seed—astringent. See—Timbers. Ceylon. vomiting. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . good in consumption and blood-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves. Bark—causes boils . fruit. thirst. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. biliousness. Leaves—anthelmintic. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. tonic to heart and brain . indigestible. cooling. Fruits contains vitamin A. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. Leaves form a plaster to boils. Afghanistan. burning sensation. tonic. Africa. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. abundant in the Deccan. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. frequently planted as a fruit tree. :—Root-bitter. seeds. :—Root.. laxative. Leaves antipyretic. PARTS USED. good in liver complaints. Kanara. LOC. bark. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. China. Australia. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. useful in fevers. wounds and ulcers. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Fruit Trees. . and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. Burma.

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