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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. Fl. LOC.—bipinnate. aphrodisiac. " Vata ". ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Sd. Sige-balli or kai. Kochi. anti-pyretic. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . overlapping. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). Kushthari. astringent to bowels. M. Yajnika.5-12. Saptata. relaxation of the uvula. H. Burma. . given in elephantiasis. CHAR. DISTR. gums. Himalayas up to 1700 m. mouth troubles. Shige. psoriasis. Dipta. Fl. Vidula. Khair. Fr. M. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Malay Islands. M. cooling. piles. It is given in diarrhœa. wrinkled when dry . DISTR. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.-6-10 . :—An extensive woody climber.5X2-2. Phena. fleshy when green. Pegu. Soap-pod tree. L. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Bhuriphena. Dantadhavan. along the coasts of Konkan and N. LOC. :—E. " Kapha ". China. Shikekai. LOC. Sk.-July. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). long. Deccan. Kath-bole. Kanara (often on laterite). as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. In ulceration of the gums. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. tonic. :—Common in the Konkan and N. heaviness. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. See—Timbers. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. erysipelas. bronchitis. prurigo. Saradruma.—in fascicled globose heads. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Sikkim. linear-oblong.-t. yellow. hypertrophy of tonsils. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Dyes. measles and other skindiseases. acrid. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. Khadira. Tans. throat diseases. sore-throat and tooth-ache. :—Common throughout the Stale . :—Throughout India. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Chikakai. cures itching. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. Ritha. Kanara forests. 7. Sk. FAM. Charmakusha. leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. strengthens teeth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.. anthelmintic. Lalkhair. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). K. COM. ulcers. indigestion. 5-10 cm.8 cm. Country and Gujarat. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). inflammations. Manda-otte. :—Rajastan. NS.. urinary and vaginal discharges.—pod. Khandesh Akrani S.-Mar. Western Peninsula. leucorrhoea. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. antidysenteric. G. boils.
Sind. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. inflammations. anti-diarrhoeal. tonic. digestible. purgative. LOC.. leucoderma. caries of teeth.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ).pungent. Sponge tree. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Jali. LOC. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. See—Timbers. blood diseases. Arimeda. DISTR. deobstruent. prurigo. Cassia flower. FAM. COM. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. G. itching. K. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Gandhelo khair . M. Sk. cardio-tonic. LOC. eczema. Gandhbabul. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). ascites. ulcers. buboes. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. Girimeda. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. bronchitis. anthelmintic. improves appetite. piles. not indigenous but naturalised. erysipelas. Pissibabul. expectorant and good emetic. often planted . Gum—sweetish. In Philippines decoction. leaves and gum. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. NS. Jheri baval. Kankri. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. often cultivated. anthelmintic. Stinking acacia. cures " Kapha. Internally they are aperient. Sauna jali. blood-diseases. cures stomatitis. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). Devababhul. stomatitis. Vilavati kikar. alexiteric. Marudruma. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. burning sensation. :—E. erysipelas. Kari jali. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. leucoderma. . PARTS USED :—Bark. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. cooling. detergent. anti-dysenteric. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. Gums and Resins. biliousness. HABITAT :—Moist situations. causes " Vata". H.
also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. tropical Africa. H. Chirchira. Vasira. Chalmari. Aghada .—Euphorbiaceæ. Utranigida. The plant contains acalyphin. Kuppi. Var. LOC. It is used in congestive headache.5-4. long in fruit. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. M. pneumonia and rheumatism. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. Fr. Khokali. Khajoti.—truncate at apex.—greenish white. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. Prickly chaff-flower. Fr. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. Arittamanjaria. FAM. Fl. rounded at base.—June-Sept. Kharamanjiri. Apamarga. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Vanchhikanto. :—Throughout India. COM. K.—capsule. Country. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. :—Annual. asthma. Latjira . ascending. 2. Khokla.—opposite. high. Sk.. Kuppi-gida. about 50 cm.. M.57. CHAR.3 X 2. . :—E. elliptic obovate.—monœcious. Ceylon. L.8-6. Chichra. :—Common in the Deccan and S. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. axillary spikes . oblong-cylindric. NS. Sk. :—An erect herb 0.5x2-4. Apang. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps.—utricle. Ksharamadhya.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. FAM. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. L. elongate. brown. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. small. pale-brown. Sd. erect.-Jany. LOC. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. :—G. in elongate terminal spikes. males. Agheda-di.5 cm. Fl. scattered. softly hairy. somewhat 3-nerved. Merkati. branches terete or quadrangular striate. Uttrane . G. K. many. perianth 4-5 segments. few. erect herb. t. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. NS. Kantarika.3-0. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places.9 m. crenate-serrate. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M.— ovoid. females. stem stiff. high. CHAR. Fl. 30-75 cm. Philippines. in lax. enclosed in perianth smooth. COM. minute. hispid. smooth.5 cm. t.—Nov. Fl.—Amarantaceæ. clustered near the summit of spike. one-seeded. angular. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. brown. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. branches long. Sd. DISTR. 3.
Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. spathe 15-75 cm. laxative. alexiterie. Sikkim. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. pungent. creeping and branching.8 X 1. Jatila. Australia.. useful in vomiting. DISTR. L. "Vata". Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. flatulence. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. carminative. useful in dyspepsia. tumours. boils. piles. Sweet flag . epilepsy. Baluchistan.8 cm. improves appetite. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. Vacha. hysteria.7-3. G. heart diseases. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. thirst. PARTS USED :—Root. bitter. good for mouth diseases. Bach. toothache. emmenagogue . Tropical Asia. Vekhand. emetic. :—E. :—An aromatic herb . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. fevers. COM. laxative. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. anthelmintic. Godavaj. 5-10 cm. improves appetite. heating. etc. Sk. inflammations. and is considered useful in dropsy. blood diseases (Ayurveda).8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. America. acute. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. LOC. ascites. brain-tonic. spadix. margins wavy. M. itching. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic.—turbinate. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. slightly curved. LOC. carminative. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. kidney troubles. leucoderma (Yunani). :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Gorbach . bronchitis. . dysentery. LOC. prismatic. Ceylon. See—Sacred Plants. useful in general weakness. :—Throughout India.—Araceæ. bronchitis. PARTS USED : —Root. useful in abdominal pains. laxative. piles. leaves. stomachic. throat. Bitter. Throughout Asia. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. dyspepsia. inflammations. flowers and seeds. liver and chest pains. 0. FAM. America. CHAR. long. Africa. Europe and N. carminative. abdominal pains. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). Fr. diuretic. Gandhilovaj. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. stomatitis. green . voice. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. K. loss of memory. bright-green. skin eruption etc. Baja . rat-bite. dysentery. long. Vekhand . Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia.. expectorant.9-1. Bhutnashini. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. thickened in the middle. sepals scarious. NS. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. delirium. obtuse. Ugragandha. H. top pyramidal. heating. anthers yellow.
PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Powder is very effective insecticide. indigenous in tropical Africa.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . NS. bark. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Monkey-bread tree. useful in biliousness. Bukha. Gorakhaamli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—K. vomiting. etc. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . FAM. LOC. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. dysentery. Gorakhchinch. Deccan. :—Western Peninsula.:—Konkan. Gorakamali. Panch-parnika. N. It is a good remedy in asthma. FAM. H. Gopali. Brahmamlika. Gujarat. DISTR. DISTR. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Goremlichora . HABITAT':—Cultivated. Sk. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. See—Timbers. Haggodgimara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. African calabash. Rukhdo . excessive perspiration (Ayurveda).—Lauraceæ. :—E. Pisa. M. K. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. anti-pyretic. LOC. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. colic. fevers and other maladies. :—Grown in many places in India . USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Tudgensu . It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. M. in children. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats.—Bombacaceæ. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. PARTS USED : —Root. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. fever. LOC. NS.. Gorakshi. Pichli. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. leaf and fruit. Kanara evergreen forests. Baobab. G. COM. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. COM. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
hydrophobia. :—E. poisonous bites. Akoly. Uddanaka. alexiteric. Dridhakantaka. pungent. Ankola. Root-bark poisonous. diarrhœa. expectorant. Shirish. Tantia. COM. (Mimosaceæ). . useful in inflammations. Ankoli. :—E. Root-bark— used in piles. H. Kalashirish. blood diseases. Malaya. and fruit. DISTR. wasting diseases. commonly planted along roadsides. rat-bite. blood diseases. G. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. gleet. Ankol. tonic. Krishnashirisha. Kullumavu. Sk.—Leguminosæ. aromatics or honey. Kanara. G. Chinchola. Shirish. Piloshirish. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Kalshish. useful in worms. acute fever. Karnapura. Philippines. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. FAM. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Asroli. M. NS. NS. Dodda-Hombage. Garso. Sage-leaved alangium. dysentery. Kathora. Ceylon. Ankola. Ankora. Shankiniphala.) FAM. LOC. Tamraphala. lumbago. M. :—Throughout India. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Ankola. Sirisa. Fruit—laxative. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Sirsul. Juice—emetic. Kalosadasado. Vamaka. anthelmintic. alterative. heating. Sk. carminative.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree.—Alangiaceæ. Anedhera. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ankota. :—Throughout the State. Ankotha. " Vata "-pain. H. Sirai. colic. S. spermatorrhoea.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. anthelmintic. inflammations. inflammations. cures " Kapha". Kaloshirish. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). biliousness. indigestible. China. K. it is said to stop after-pains. Onkla. Ankoli. Seeds—cooling. aphrodisiac. Gudhapatra. stem. burning of body. leaves (rarely). USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. fish-poison. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. cures erysipelas. alexipharmic . See—Timbers. LOO. LOC. Shyamala. Shirisha. lumbago (Yunani). often along banks of nalas in N. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. See—Timbers. K. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. COM.
Bulb—tonic. stomachic. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). excessive perspiration. B & C. weakness. Onion. Seeds—tonic to brain. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. syphilis. :—Native country probably Persia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. prescribed in ophthalmia. DISTR. bark. diarrhœa. LOC. maturant.K. Ceylon. ear-ache. body pains. FAM. scabies. catarrh. . useful in malaria. Dungari.:—E. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. Kanda.: —Throughout India. cooling. etc. scabies. deafness. Bengal. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. alexiteric. good in rat-bite. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). asthma. their smell useful in hemicrania.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. cultivated everywhere. given in piles. Leaves—good in night blindness.—Liliaceæ. Oil is used in leprosy. leucoderma. LOC. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. bleeding piles. and also in skin diseases . The plant contains vitamins A. Piyaz. strengthens gums and teeth. improves taste. vomiting. leaves. G. relieves tooth-ache. Rajapriya. paralysis. anthelmintic. biliousness. erysipelas. Ulageddi. Flowers—aphrodisiac. NS. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. useful in vomiting. eruptions and swellings. Rochaka. Bark— anthelmintic. seeds. LOC. etc. dropsy. usually planted. piles. piles. Palandu. flowers. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. aphrodisiac. occasionally used in fever. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. Root—astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. epistaxis. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. spleen diseases. blood diseases. seeds. Burma. itching. tumours. volatile oil.. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. and chronic bronchitis . enriches blood. inflammations. tonic. skin-diseases. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Bark and seeds are astringent. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. M. emollient. Seeds—fattening. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. cures "Vata". ophthalmia. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. Bark-bitter. which acts as a diuretic. H. used in leprosy. appetiser. bronchitis. boils. stimulant and expectorant.. It is an important garden crop. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. See—Timbers.
K. thirst. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. G. NS. Kapila. good for lumbago. heating. Garlic. Ikshurmallika. useful in inflammations. :—E. Kattali. M. FAM. aphrodisiac. improves appetite. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. piles. Diuretic. fattening. thins the blood (Yunani). ear-ache (Ayurveda). Kumari. :—E. alexipharmic. In cases of diphtheria.—Liliaceæ.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. See—Vegetables. The plant contains vitamin C. Bellulli. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Country. Ghi-kumari. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. low fevers. voice. hemiplegia. . Sk. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. " Vata ". LOC. oleaginous . leucoderma. LOC. H. H. digestive. asthma.—Liliaceæ. liver and lungs . chronic fevers. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. aphrodisiac. ALŒ VERA Linn. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. In pulmonary phthisis. Ugragandha. caries of teeth. tonic. Sk. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Indian aloe. clears voice. FAM. COM. epileptic fits. paralysis. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. leucoderma. Lahsan. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Kumari. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. anthelmintic. troubles of spleen. tumours. Lashuna. Lasan. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. body and joint pains. Kanya. PARTS USED :—Bulb. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. K. useful in diseases of eye and heart. COM. G. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. Lolisara. Korphad. In Cambodia. coughs and other debilitating conditions. carminative. inflammation. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. M. complexion. It is an important garden crop. Rasonaka. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. thirst. Lasan. Lasun. sciatica. NS. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. lumbago. Kuvarpatha. M. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. Korkand.
ophthalmia. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. H. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. crowded. Kadusale. spleen enlargement. K. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. somewhat divided. also cultivated. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Java.—Apocynaceæ. biliousness. Dita bark tree. C. FAM. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. Africa. anthelmintic. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. lanceolate. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. digestive. Barbados. Hale. wild along the coast. Sk. tropical Africa. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. emollient and demulcent. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. aphrodisiac. LOC. LOC. fattening. simple or branched. perianth cylindric . scaly.—sessile. PARTS USED :— . leaves. Root. gonorrhœa. Kaduhale. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. used in fevers. E. Saptaparna. :—Throughout India. tonic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Native of S. alexiteric. isobarbaloin and emodin. scape longer than the leaves. purgative. pale-green. West Indian Islands. alterative. asthma. biliousness (Yunani). pendulous. :—E. tonic. planted in Indian gardens . Ceylon. purgative. Br. methritis. M. stem short thick. bark. yellow. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Satwin. India. lumbago. liver troubles. bronchitis. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Fl. margins spiny. Bitter . Australia. Chatian. liver complaints. skin diseases. inflammations. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. :—A perennial herb .—in dense racemes . useful in splean inflammation. used in form of paste in pleurisy. useful in eye-diseases. vomiting. It also acts as a mild purgative. The plant contains aloin. tumours. and it is largely imported into India. fleshy. Jamaica. pain in muscles. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. Mediterranean. jaundice. common in the rain-forests of N. Kanara. carminative. milky juice. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. :—Wild along the coast in S. NS. L. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. strangury. cooling. DISTR. Satwin. DISTR. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Saptachhada. HABITAT :—Moist forests. COM. piles. Satian.
alexiteric. LOC. COM. appetiser. " tridosha " pain. Tandulaja. NS. numerous. Kante math. diuretic. male calyx acute. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. apiculate. unisexual. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. burning sensation. laxative.5 X 1. See—Vegetables. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. K. leucorrhoea. Tandulibija. H. Cholai. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. female calyx oblong. biliousness. L. M. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. long. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains.3—3. rugose. G. HABITAT :—In waste places. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. hallucination. thickened at the top. Tandulja. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). also useful in catarrhal fever. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. antiperiodic and febrifuge. tropical countries. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses.—Amarantaceæ. often reddish. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. LOC.). tumours. sudorific and febrifuge. ovoid. diseases of the blood. Mulladantu. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . DISTR. :—Throughout India. leucoderma. Fr. anthelmintic.. galactogogue. Drug Com. Kantanatia. rat-bite. LOC. Pathyashaka. Root—heating expectorant. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. See—Timbers. laxative. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. bronchitis. .—in terminal and axillary dense spikes.8 cm.— 3. 30-60 cm.2—7. antipyretic. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. boils and burns. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bitter. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). asthma. Prickly amaranth. digestible. lanceolate. rubbish heaps and fields. obtuse. obtuse. bristles pointed. piles. CHAR. :—An erect glabrous herb. Kantanu-dant. ovate. oleaginous. ulcers. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. high. leprosy. Bark—acrid.— capsule. improves appetite. good in diseases of the heart. stomachic.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. blood diseases. :—E. also in fields. entire. Apamarisha. Fl. rubbish heaps . heating. Kantalo dambho. Ceylon. Mullarave-soppu. useful in " Kapha ". FAM. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine.
CHAR. sessile. vomiting. FAM. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. Sukaranda. Sk. DISTR. Malaya.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Konkan rivers.—Lythraceæ. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). In the Konkan. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. enlargement of the spleen. corm. Suran.—capsule. fevers etc. bronchitis. LOC. Kuranda. NS. appetiser. elephantiasis . blood diseases. . Vatari.—opposite. Suran . linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. COM. Afghanistan. G. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils.—Araceæ. :—E. NS. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. fresh or dried. stomachic. Kanthalla. Kuranti. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). irregularly circumsciss above the middle. causes itching sensation. Australia. erect or subscandent herb. H. asthma. M. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. LOC. Bharajambhul. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Kurendika. abdominal pains. Gujarat and Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Vikata. LOC. Tropical Africa. increases appetite and taste. Fl. Suran. Fr. :—Cultivated widely in the State. K. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . strangury .:— Konkan. high. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. " Vata. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. Suran. Ceylon. used as an appetiser (Yunani). AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Kandavardhan. Elephant's foot. useful in piles. pungent. Grows wild on the banks of S. 8-65 cm. laxative. harmful in "Kapha". COM. Sk. :—An annual. China. LOC. Kandala. branches usually opposite. much narrowed at the base. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Throughout India in moist places. globose. the plant. tumours. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Jangli mehandi. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. t. Sd. red." blood troubles. Arshaghna. G. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Blistering ammania. L. DISTR. Jalavgiyo. constipating. Bitter and acrid . aphrodisiac. :—E. Deccan. Dadmari. stomachic. FAM.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Fl. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common).—Nov. acrid. depressed. removes " Kapha ".
M. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. Sophara. The seed contains vitamin A. L.5-12. Oils. K. H. Govamba. Upapushpika. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. 5-nerved.—Menispermaceæ. broadly ovate. Crow-Fish Killer. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. and trace of C. NS. piles. Kakanashika. also cultivated. The plant contains Vitamins A. ringworm.5 cm. aphrodisiac. bark vertically furrowed . K. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. Kaju . Kempu— Turkaka geru . Kajutaka. . which is nutritious and emollient. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Garalaphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. DISTR. ulcers. Kanara.— subcoriaceous. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. FAM. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. fever. Corm is poisonous. dysentery. 10-12 X 7. B. Cashew apple-nut. anthelmintic. Jermic. Sk. Fish-Louse Berry. Sk. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. swollen peduncle of fruit. PARTS USED :—Bark. . M.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. Agni-krita. COM. tumours. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. LOC. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Kaju. equal to almond oil. digestible. Gerubi. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. CHAR. Fl. See—Timbers. Gova. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. cordate or truncate. long. corns and obstinate ulcers. Kakamari. Kakamari. COM. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. NS. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . skin diseases.—Anacardiaceæ. sweet. LOC. Prithagbija. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. G.—in panicles 25-35 cm. It is supposed to have restorative power. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. :—A native of tropical America. ascites. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. hot. :—E. G. FAM. Kakamari. Kakaphal. leaves. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). :—E. Kakamari. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leucoderma. USES :—Bark is alterative. & A. flowers. many flowered. See—Vegetables. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. Kakamari. H.. Kakkisoppugida . Kaju. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established.
:—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. fruits. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Bengal. It acts also as diuretic.—Acanthaceæ.—Sept. DISTR. to a certain extent in Gujarat. petals absent.—Bromeliaceæ. smooth. FAM. FAM. Mahatit. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. good expectorant. Ananas . :—Khasia Hills. Assam. Ama. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Creat. dioecious. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). K. black . USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Sk. Olen kirayat. NS. Pine-apple . native of Brazil (tropical America). LOC. Bhuinimba. leaves and fruits. M. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. it is useful in jaundice. Olikiriyat. NS. Ananasa. COM. Kanara. causes cough and biliousness. Sk. PARTS USED :—Roots. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. Ananas . H. N. Kirata. Kantak sanjika. Parvati. LOC. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. LOC.) LOC. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. . M. a poison to fish (Yunani). and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. See—Fruit Trees.-Oct. Ananas hannu. :—E. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . G. Nelabevu gida. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. cultivated. E. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Ananas. H. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. K. Mahateet. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. diaphoretic and refrigerant. COM. :—Konkan. :—E. Kiryat. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. Kiriyata. G. removes gases from the intestines . from Orissa to Ceylon. also acts as a purgative. Ananas. t.
t. Sundraphul. thickly woolly. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Dec. sometimes cultivated. ellipsoid. DISTR. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. COM. :—An erect branched annual 0. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. Plant is useful in general debility. rose coloured. lateral lobes small. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. stem quadrangular.— capsule. stomachic. upper lip 2-toothed. Malay Peninsula.8 m. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. yellowish brown. and anthelmintic. C—2-lipped. Chodhara.. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. C—2-lipped. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui.9 m. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. pale above.—many. Vaikunth. :—S. distant. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. Fr. linear-oblong. CHAR. solitary. Sd. FAM.—very thick. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. bracts lanceolate. acute at both ends . clothed with woolly hairs . Kanara. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin.—in dense whorls . Roots and leaves are febrifuge. G. very small. smooth. pale beneath. NS. made into an electuary.2-1. Fl. and N. polished brown.—nutlets. dyspepsia and fever from teething. DISTR. Green leaves. high. :—Konkan and Kanara. Fl. crenate-serrate. distant. Fr. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . lower lip very large and broad . HABITAT.—Ghats. white below. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. :—E. Br. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. and certain forms of dyspepsia. :—Throughout India. LOC. dysentery. forming a spicate inflorescence.—small. Ceylon. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. t. Malabar Catmint. undulate. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. :—An erect shrub. K. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. 1. Gojivana. Alamoda. oblong-lanceolate.3-10 X 2-4. . :—Deccan. rugosely pitted. approximate above. extensively used in Bengal. tonic.-Oct. acute. Karitumbe. M. Sk. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.3-0. Fl. Fl. Oshthaphala. purple. high. Karnatak. L. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Sundara. alterative.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. 6.—lanceolate.-Nov.5 cm.—Labiatæ. lower 3lobed.
Bark is a powerful astringent. good tonic. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Sweet-sop. bark. now cultivated throughout India. Sitaphal. Damora. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. cooling. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". G. expectorant. causes fever and furunculosis . good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). LOC. Sk. COM. Bakla. erysipelas. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. :—A native of West Indies . LOC. H. Durangi. Dhavada. DISTR. K. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . tasty. NS. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. COM. K. Seeds—difficult to digest. Dhamora. Sitaphala. FAM. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Bahubijika. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. and eyesores. enriches blood. improves taste and appetite . Button Tree. increases muscular strength. Custard apple. discharges. Fruit—sweet. Anan. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Sharipha. Dhava. chronic diarrhœa. leaves. Dindala. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. useful in anaemia. abortifacient. Shushkanga. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root. M. flavoury. M.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Root—cathartic. LOC. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Anuram. Dhavala. (Yunani). produce ulcers in the eye. Sitaphala. Ata. :—Throughout the greater part of India. enriches blood . bark. Sk. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. :—E. fruit and seeds. increases biliousness . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Dohu. FAM. useful in liver complaints. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. cooling . Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. PARTS USED :—Root.—Anonaceæ. Sitaphala. Krishnabija. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . DISTR. leaves and fruits. :—E. Sugar apple. Dyes. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Ceylon. G. Dhavada.—Combretaceæ. NS. astringent to the bowels. applied to skin-diseases. Dhava. sedative to heart. Dindiga. Kanara border. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Bark is bitter. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Pitaphala. Amritphala. Bejjalu. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Sitaphala. stimulant. LOC. H. Dabria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet.
opium and alum is applied round the orbit. Fruit—heating. Karnapuraka. mixed with gram-flour. often cultivated. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. PARTS USED:—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. K. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. :—W. H. Nadija. " Kapha". There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. USES:—In the Konkan. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. Kadam. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Jajpugri. Malay Islands. saline. Peninsula. Kanara . vulnerary. Kadamb . cooling. galactagogue. from the Himalayas to Ceylon.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. DISTR. biliousness. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. In eye inflammations. Pegu. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Rubiaceæ. M. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Bairi. bitter. :—E. :—G. aphrodisiac. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Kaduve. Burma. Sprouts—acrid. Nipa. wild or cultivated. Malayan Peninsula. Tennaserim. alexiteric. LOC. See—Fruit Trees. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. common near Yellapur. indigestible. Fodder Plants. Kadamb. They are detergent and their powder. M. Sacred Plants. Valkala. Ceylon. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Upas Tree. good in uterine complaints. is a good hairwash. LOC. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. blood diseases. Chandala. Ajjanpatte. COM. See—Timbers. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.—Moraceæ. FAM. Kadamba. sprouts and fruits. sweet. H. Kadamb . COM NS. astringent to bowels. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. NS. Kadubale. DISTR. burning sensation. . Seeds yield an oil and resin. LOC. Ashokari. Chandkuda. Surabhi. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). It is generally considered tonic. causes biliousness when ripe. Niv. PARTS USED :—Seeds. stomachic. Kadamb. strangury. FAM. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Chandkuda. sap of the tree. Sk. " Vata". K. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. aphrodisiac. acrid. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. :—Throughout India. Sk.
anthelmintic. Moda.—Umbelliferæ. Abyssinia. Wild celery. Fr. See—Timbers. The plant contains vitamins A. Bhuchanak. nasal catarrh (Yunani). and γ-antiarin. Asia. chest-pains. rays 5-10. vomiting. tooth-ache. Ajmud. used in anasarca and colic. apex toothed .—1. K. inflammations. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. β-antiarin. Ajmoda . Java and Malaya. improve appetite . fever with cough. scorpion and other stings. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). vittae broad. Markati. laxative. ascites. Ajamoda. pedicels 6-16 . COM NS. good in ophthalmia. Mungphali. branching. Nelkadle. cure asthma. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. aphrodisiac. tonic.— in umbels. Snehabijaka. Mandapi. appetiser. abdominal pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Bhuimug. useful in ophthalmia. :—A biennial plant. . H. COM. bronchitis. L. Chinimung. Bhuimug-chana. urinary discharges. rectal troubles. H. scabies. W. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). abortifacient. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. segments once or twice trifid. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Europe. LOC. astringent to bowels . Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. specially near large cities. G.— radial. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. high. Brahmakoshi. :—E. Sk. vomiting. " Vata " . It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. Fibres. Ugragandha. N. Bhuimug. :—E. NS. Bodi ajomoda. M. Glucoside apiin is present. M. Fl. See—Vegetables. amenorrhœa. ridges narrow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. W. cure " Kapha ".. 0. Sk. Afghanistan. Ground-Pea-nut. LOC. erect.3-2. Bori ajmud. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. rheumatism. hiccup. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments.5-2 mm. Monkey-nut. traces of B and C. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. Shimbika. DISTR. FAM. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Celery. G. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. CHAR.:—Foot of the N. Seeds—carminative. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic.4 m. Africa. heart and spleen diseases. good for heart. cauline 3-partite. Karafs.
ARECA CATECHU Linn. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. indigestible. Hopari.:—Extensively grown in N. Nut astringent. Supari. digestive. diuretic. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. . oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Kaungu. fairly largely in the Konkan. Oils. Pugiphal. Sopari. G. LOC. gleet. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. H. K. Areca-nut palm. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. used for eye-inflammations. emmenagogue. Chikka. useful in urinary disorders. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. giddiness. Gum pungent. seeds. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). M. LOC. Sk.—Palmæ. Betta. Deccan. Assam. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Poga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Adki. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Akota. leaves (rarely). Chikkan. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. cardiotonic. Bengal. DISTR. removes pus (Yunani). bleeding gums. cooling. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. See—Food Plants. Siam. LOC. Malabar. Supari. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. M. Mysore. Suppiyari. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Areca palm.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. Gujarat and S. Betel-nut palm. :—Madras. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. FAM. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Pophal. improves appetite and taste. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Chhataphala. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. :—E. USES. Kanara. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Seed cooling. gum. Tantusara. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. laxative. NS. COM. DISTR.. Country. Indo-Malaya. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. removes foul breath. Burma. In French Guinea. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts.
Ind.— terminal. NS. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. globose. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. expectorant and demulcent.3-0. oblong-ovoid 2. K. prickly. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. spinous. Fl. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. LOC. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields.—Papaveraceæ. netted. antidote to various poisons. Shialkanta. H. Indigenous in tropical America. prickly. It is also diuretic. DISTR. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Sd. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. India. Mexican prickly poppy . Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. nauseant. USES :—Root is an alterative. Seeds are laxative. Root anthelmintic. . oblong. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.—capsule. Darudi. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani).8 cm.). emetic. opening by 4-6 valves. PARTS USED :—Root. G. arecoline. Juice—used as a collyrium. See—Timbers. various skin-diseases. Brahma dandi. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. glaucous herb . stem 0. LOC.—thistlelike. Plant enriches blood. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). :—E. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). purgative. sinuately pinnatifid. brownish black. branching. Srigalkanta. veins white. Fruit Trees. diam. arecaidine. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. Daruri. Pirangi datturi. cures leprosy. and guvacine. Svarnakshiri.—numerous. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. inflammations and bilious fevers. high. Sk. Bharbhand. L. stem clasping. t. This is said to bring the worm out at once. destroys worms .5-5 cm. :—A glabrous. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. CHAR. Datturi. 2. yellow. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part.5-3. and in pertussis and asthma. Balurakkisa. Pita-pushpa. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. juice yellow.5-18 cm.12 m. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane.—all the year. seeds and yellow juice. 7. sedative. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. Fl. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. relieves blisters. useful is strangury. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Seeds—purgative. Bila dhatura. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. COM. M.
-Sept. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic.—deltoid with cordate base . Adumuttadagida. stems. t. Bracteated Birth-wort. K. t. 1. DISTR. base subglobose. Kitamari. powdered root is given with milk. used in gleet. LOC. Samudrashok. See—Ornamental Plants. Shyambhuna. Gujarat and S.—in sub-capitate cymes. G. Kitakaba.3-25 cm. Kiramar. anthelmintic. long. infundibuliform. Hastivalli. rose purple. 12-ribbed .—solitary. long and as broad as long. striate. NS. :—E.— Aug. white-tomentose. absorptive. NS.—Convolvulaceæ. K. tube inflated. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—capsule. strangury.3-2 cm. Sk. Java. oblongellipsoid.. Fl. Krimighni.5-4. pubescent outside. Kidamari. CHAR. G. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda).5 cm.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Varghoro. M. W. Ganda. Fr. pedicel with a large bract at the base. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. diuretic . L. Fr. COM. white-tomentose L. long. Samardar sokh. painful joints.— 7. white-tomentose beneath. aphrodisiac. Dhuma-patra. . H. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. FAM. :—A slender perennial. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz.5-30 x 6. prostrate. M. Samandarka phal. Samudraballi. H. Sk. CHAR. Soge.-Nov. tip linear dark purple.—Aristolochiaceæ. :—Throughout India. tubular. Fl.— globose apiculate. cultivated.3 cm. weak. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. Gandali. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. stems stout. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . perianth 2. useful in " Vata". :—A very large climber. Ceylon. Konkan.—Aug. Leaves are maturative. peduncles stout. HABITAT. Dridhadaru. :—E. DISTR. (sometimes even larger).28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. base cordate with wide sinus . M. FAM.5 cm. chronic ulcers (Yunani). the bands silky pubescent outside. In synovitis. Samudrapatrashoh. Country. LOC. reniform or broadly ovate.— 3. " Kapha" fevers. bracts large . M. glabrous inside. gonorrhœa. Sd. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. long. base cordate. Fl. LOC. with revolute margins. perhaps a native of Bengal.8-7. Vridhadaraka. Samudrashosh. COM. Deccan and S. Kidamar. Country. Elephant Creeper. Ajantri.:—Konkan. ovate glabrous above. tropical Africa. Arabia. :—Bengal. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Fl. Peninsula. C—5-6.
COM.) FAM. bitter. Ceylon. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Mother or Mugwort. tonic. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. :—A twining shrub.:—Konkan and S. :—E. Arkamula. Isharmula. Nagdamani. winged. Nilpushpa. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Nagduna. H. Manjipatri. M. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Indian Birth-wort. Saraparni. Ishvari. Ruhimula. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dhor-davana.5 cm.—Nov. dyspnoea of children. K. Fl.5 cm. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.—variable linear oblong. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. LOC. K. leaves and seeds. — capsule. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. M.—Compositæ. Dona. Nakuli.. joint-pains. Majtari. LOC. :—Western Peninsula. dry cough. slender. perianth greenishwhite. Isvara balli beru .3-2. The plant contains an alkaloid. 3.. Plant is used as an abortifacient. obovate oblong 10-12. Sd. NS." pains in the joints.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. purgative (Yunani). woody at the base. Sugandha. grooved. Flea-bane. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Fl. G. globose-oblong. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Sk. NS. Indian wormwood. L. Sk. also useful in dropsy. biliousness. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children.8-10 X 1. . USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Stem long. emmenagogue. useful in " Tridosha. Seeds useful in inflammation. Gathona. Mastaru.—flat. Fr. Country. t. PARTS USED :—Roots. Arkamula.5 cm. long with globose inflated base. alexiteric. base vaiable. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. Sapsan. Nepal. DISTR. Bengal. reaching 4. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. FAM. 6-valved. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Dovana. H. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda).5x7.—Aristolochiaceæ. bract opposite the pedicel. M. entire with undulate margins. CHAR. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. COM. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn.
deeply pinnatisect. ulcers. Externally it is used in fomentations. cooling. The plant contains an essential oil. Sk. solitary or 2. Kujja. HABITAT. aromatic. LOC. enriches blood. " Kapha".—Jany. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. Thailand (Siam). petioled. H. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. aphrodisiac. grown in gardens also. aphrodisiac. Phanasa.—Urticaceæ. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. although very nutritious. Jack-Orange wood. diuretic. constipating (Ayurveda). . Kanthal. outer flowers female. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration.4 m. minute. Chakki. Panas. 3-fid or entire. :—E. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Fr. itching (Ayurveda). Kantakaphala. Java.:—A perennial shrub. appetiser. oblong ellipsoid. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. asthma and brain diseases.6-2. NS. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. pubescent above. stems leafy. ripe fruit laxative. " Vata". Kanara. G. leprosy. fattening. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. oleaginous. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.-Hilly districts. temperate Asia. ovate. :—Widely cultivated. "Vata". LOC.10x2. Vanas. useful in biliousness. An infusion is given as a tonic. involucral bracts villous. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. often planted along roadsides in N. but rather difficult to digest. LOC. See—Timbers. Fruit Trees and Dyes. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. :—Konkan. L— lower leaves 5. Ceylon. Fl.— achene. base lobed. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. lobes entire. Panos. Seeds sweet. lanceolate. high. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. cures "Kapha". Ghats. Phanas. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). toothed or again pinnatisect. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. inner hermaphrodite.5-5 em. fertile. The unripe fruit is astringent.—heads ovoid or subglobose. FAM. Halasina. aphrodisiac. alexiteric.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. fruit and seeds. Tage. 0. upper leaves smaller. hairy. Skandaphala. tonic. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. M.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. Fl. COM. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. Jack-fruit tree. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. white tomentose beneath. LOC. tonic. K. DISTR. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. t. Panesa.
solitary.5-5 cm. erect. H. segments. stomachic. DISTR. NS. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. Fr. and moist monsoon forests. white. PARTS USED:—Root. CHAR. cladodes in tufts. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. tumours. Java and Australia.—in simple raceme. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. Satavari. oleaginous. blood and eye diseases. Shatavari. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. undershrub. :—E. biliousness. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. thin.—opposite 7. LOC.—linear with a stout spinous spur.— follicles.2 m. FAM. A fibre is extracted from the plants.5 cm. tapering at both ends. appetiser. :—Extremely scandent. red when ripe. tonic. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. Kaktundi. :—G. spinous. alterative. useful in dysentery. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. with coma. K. Asual Shatavari.. curved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn.5 cm. See—Ornamental Plants. oblong.—Asclepiadaceæ. fragrant. straight. long. root-stock tuberous. Sd. Satavari. Flower is a good styptic. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds.5-10 X 1. S. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. t. high. cultivated as ornamental plant.9-1. JAVANICA Baker. :—Deccan. Country. inflammation. COM. t.—June-Sept. Fl. .—Liliaceæ. valvate in bud. Svadurasa.-Feb. naturalised in many parts of India. Satavari. NS. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. Tropical Africa. astringent to bowels. CHAR. 7.000 m. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. Svetmuli. abundant round about Poona.ovoid. Sk. M. M. Fl.—lobes reflexed in flower. M. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. in the Himalayas.3-2. Indies. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . lanceolate. LOC. Satamulika. FAM. indigestible. COM. spines recurved. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column.—orange in axillary umbels. Fl. L. 0. Fl. narrowed at both ends. galactogogue. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. cooling. L. leaves and flowers. C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. thorn.-Dec. globose. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. :—An erect undershrub.—berry. dark brown. up to 1. throat complaints. PARTS USED:—Root. common in the Deccan. aphrodisiac. Siprimuli. Kuraki. from Kashmir eastwards. linear. :—Introduced from the W. 2. Var. DISTR.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. laxative. abdominal troubles. LOC. useful in jaundice and anasarca. 4 inner small. Fl. 4-8 seeded. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. 0. Used in diarrhœa. COM. USES :—The root is refrigerant. NS. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. HABITAT:—Swampy places.6-1. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Vajrakantaka. aphrodisiac . sedative to gravid uterus . tube. anæmia. Seeds fattening. antispasmodic. aphrodisiac. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy.) LOC. scalding of urine. CHAR. colic. :—A stout herb. Ikshura. DISTR. Vishnu Taila. subquadrangular. useful in diarrhœa. erect. stems fasciculate. pointed. lips sub-equal. The root is sweet. Gokshura. aphrodisiac. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. L. widely 2-lipped. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. t. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. expectorant. Gokhalkanta.—sessile. tonic. Leaves good for cough. biliousness. inflammations. bracts. eyediseases. hypnotic. like leaves. Fr. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. gonorrhoea. lower deeply 3-lobed. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. Shrigalghant. urinary calculi and discharges. thirst. Talim-khana. hairy. tonic.5 cm. diuretic.— purple blue. Fl. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. aphrodisiac.2 cm. K. leprosy. Gokhran. Ceylon. Kak-Kokilaksha.8 cm. galactogogue.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. LOC. tonic. Ekharo.:—Common throughout the State.. Sk. aphrodisiac . Talamkhana. gleet. linear oblong. (Yunani.—June-Jany.— Acanthaceæ. tropical and S. thickened at the nodes. :—Throughout India. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. H. demulcent. Kolavalike.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita.—capsule. Konkan and Deccan. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. 18 X 3-3. USES. hispid with long hairs. M. ascites. Kalavankabija. C.) FAM. And. Vikhara. :—G. constipation. and alterative tonic. Narayana Taila. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. . dysentery. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. ciliate . Seeds cooling. long. high. and dysentery. anuria. leaves and seeds. tonic. Phalaghrita. 3. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Africa. lanceolate. improve blood (Yunani). upper 2-fid.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . Talamkhan. 2 outer large. abruptly swollen at the top.
H. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. emetic. Karuka. creeping herb. useful in bad ulcers. Fr. K. See—Fruit Trees. fleshy. Carambola apple. Kirihuli. tonic. Ceylon and all warm countries. astringent to bowels. Kamrang. leprosy. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. Fruits are used in pickles. heats the body (Ayurveda). also used in diarrhœa. Jany-May. enlargement of spleen. fruits. Fl. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. solitary. Manduki. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. NS. Root is given in cases of poisoning. heating. Sd. FAM. ascites. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda).. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. astringent to bowels .:—Throughout India in wet places. decussate. succulent. Kamaranga. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. H. pale. M.:—E. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. Brahmi. obovate-oblong or spatulate. rarely wild. t. causes biliousness. Karmar. axillary. NS. Shiral. allays thirst. Jalneam. lobes equal spangled. oblong. Nirbrahmi. when fresh. CHAR. Sk. :—E. HABITAT :—Damp places. LOC. Karmare . Mudgara. sour. Kamarakh. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5-10 mm. sessile. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. Kanara villages. C. "Vata". M. Fruit sour. Soumyalata. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Brahmi. stems rooting at the nodes. COM. anæmia. :—A glabrous. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . Safed-Kammi. capsule.) FAM. digestible. Coromandel gooseberry. inflammations. Bama. Barambhi. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). laxative. pale blue or white. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Fl. Kamarakha. 6-25 X 2. ovoid. COM. with shining dots. causes biliousness (Yunani). found wild near N. 2-lipped. Darehuli. black dotted : entire. G. tumours. Brahmi. Karmal. DISTR. LOC. branches many ascending. indigestion. dried fruit is given in fevers. striate. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. pungent.—Scrophulariaceæ. . Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles .:—Konkan and Deccan. Thyme-leaved graticula . DISTR. acute. perhaps a native of Malaya. L. Tamarak. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn.—Oxalidaceæ.
It is a direct cardiac tonic. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient.—Burseraceæ. Mukul. Kanara. Guggula. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Hakum. is used as a local application in rheumatism. yellowish. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. Guggula. diseases of skin and abdomen. Leaf-juice. in monsoon forests of N. high. or in monsoon forests. K. conjoined with petroleum. capsule. Danti.9-1. M. Danti. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Danti. Fl. NS. wounds.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. . LOC. Sk. K. purgative. Chota Nagpur. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Vishodhini. useful in insanity. of three 2-valved cocci. Guggula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Guggul. leucoderma. good in scabies. t. M. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. sinuate. Devdhup. Fr. often palmately 3-5 lobed. purifies blood. Kaduharalu. Fl. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Seeds are poisonous. anasarca and jaundice. Dec.. Bengal. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. the upper small. They are used in dropsy. COM. NS. ellipsoid. Sk. Danti. :—A stout undershrub. Assam. alexiteric. Uddipta. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. COM. N. anthelmintic. hairy.8 m. FAM. :—Dry open Deccan plains. LOC. Dantika. LOC. obovoid. Gum gugul. epilepsy and hoarseness. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. all male or with a few females below. :—G. anaemia. H. piles. epilepsy and hoarseness. Malaya. aphrodisiac . Burma. abundant on the hills of Karanja. toothed. the lower large. Peninsula. 0. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. W. diuretic. CHAR. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. syphilis . mottled. :—E. Sd. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. L. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Gugul. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f.—Euphorbiaceæ. Jatala. DISTR. leaves and seeds. H. :—Bihar. useful in pains. branching from the roots. 2-glandular. inflammations. Jamalgota. smooth. itching. enlarged spleen. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). leucoderma. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. jaundice (Ayurveda). Dantimul. Root and leaves are cathartic. Rechani. G.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
Buds—indigestible. Kohala. blood diseases . burning sensation. anal troubles. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. diuretic. flat. PARTS USED :—Root. blood impurities. DISTR. tuberculous glands. eye diseases. enriches blood.5 cm. G. Tallow-White gourd. seeds. There are two varieties. tonic. Root. Ash pumpkin. NS. Timisha. Sk. biliousness. used in strangury. asthma. USES :—Root-decoction is given. heart tonic (Ayurveda). cures strangury. vaginal discharges. dysmenorrhoea. " Tridosha". K. leucoderma. See—Ornamental Plants. Golkaddu. PARTS USED :—Fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. bark and flowers. Seeds— cooling. tuberculous glands.-Apl. used as gargle in stomatitis. Fr. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. in dyspepsia and flatulence. tonic. dehiscent. Kumaon. blood diseases. cough. astringent. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Kondha. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. used in piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. DISTR. wounds and ulcers. Dorokaru. cures biliousness. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries.—pod. HABITAT :—Cultivated. urinary discharges and calculi. China.10-15. COM. asthma. Shikhivardhaka. not indigenous. Sikkim. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. Kudimah. Budekumbalkai. LOC. t. LOC. biliousness.-Feb. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. leprosy. 15-20 X 1. red and white. appetising. M. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). it is also anti-fat remedy. given' to corpulent persons. leprosy. cardiac and general tonic. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. Koholu. removes foul taste from mouth. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. H. "Kapha". :—Cultivated throughout the State. Bark—astringent to bowels.—Cucurbitaceæ. urethral discharges. ulcers. used in dry cough. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. Fl. Fruit—antiperiodic. :—E. cough.8-2. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. thirst. oil from the seeds. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. aphrodisiac. fever. LOC. menorrhagia. Burma. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Karkutika. aphrodisiac. Sd. tonic to liver. FAM. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. Kushmanda. thirst. Bhuru-koholu. cures biliousness.
LOC. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. sweetish. Pilokapurio. H. :—G. Kakarunda.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Mriduchhada. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). bitter. Oil—is soporific. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic.:—In plains south of Bombay. Bhamurdi. Ceylon. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera.3—0. M. upper subsessile.—heads many. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. ash colored. Tamrachuda. fevers. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. not ribbed. L. LOC. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Tropical Africa. and nutritious tonic. Kukurbanda. 0. astringent. pappus white.—the lower ones petioled. mixed with black pepper. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. CHAR. stem erect. anti-pyretic. febrifuge. good for the brain and liver. Country. high. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. finely silky pubescent on both sides. pungent. . it is given in bleeding piles. Sk. Fr. oblong. it is also useful in insanity.9 m. often incised or lyrate. DISTR. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Kalhar. :—Throughout plains of India. Kanara. phthisis. burning sensation. Konkan. thirst. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. pubescent. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. densely glandular.-Apl. t. inner bracts with green midrib. good in syphilis (Yunani). blood diseases. sharply serrate-dentate. haemoptysis. heart diseases. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. Kukkurdru. Fl. Kakaronda. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. catarrh. NS. and diuretic. BLUMEA LACERA DC. etc. base tapered. asthma. FAM. laxative. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. :—Annual herb. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot.—Compositæ. M. Deccan. Malaya.—Jany. elliptic-oblong. cures bronchitis. See—Vegetables. cooling. China. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka.-achene. Fruit is made into confections. COM. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. with a strong odour of turpentine. Jangali-muli. S. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Fl. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Australia.
FAM. G. Dhvajadruma. FAM. and dropsy. inflammations.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Desert Palm.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. :—Tropical India. Africa and America. Ceylon. Plant contains large quantities of pot. CHAR. K. Uttar Pradesh. green above. L. alterative. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. :—A diffuse herb. Leaves— appetiser. spleen enlargement. blood impurities. Vasu. sub-orbicular. Celyon. Lekhyapatra. leaves and seeds. very small. cultivated. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. common in S. Kolaba and Thana districts. tumours. DISTR. stem prostrate or ascending. Fl. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. —Nyctaginaceæ. root large. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). Asavardu. DISTR. K. scabies. Talimara. Fr. Bitter. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. It produces a very marked and persistent. M. Fl. useful in lumbago. H. leucorrhoea. Shothaghni. alexiteric. Moto-satodo.3—2 cm. whitish beneath. Brab tree. M. Madhurasa. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . COM. Seeds—tonic. in pain of joints. COM. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Varshabhu. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. cultivated and self-sown.. Ghetuli. Tad. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Indian Archipelago. expectorant. Santhikari. It is used in jaundice. PARTS USED :—Root. gonorrhœa. margins undulate. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. very glandular . anæmia. Kommegida. Burma. Tala. (Ayurveda). bluntly 5-ribbed.— Nov. Raktakanda. fusiform. Persian Gulf. :—E. generally found in poorer soils. Hogweed. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears.—Palmæ. Dholia-saturdo. 1. "Vata". native of tropical Africa. heart diseases. abdominal pains. t. astringent to bowels . carminative. "Kapha" heating. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. India. Leaves useful in dyspepsia.—in corymbose umbels. . Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions.—clavate. Baluchistan. HABITAT :—A weed. H. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. cooling . LOC. Punarnava. asthma. pinkish. Palmyra Palm. :—E. Tad. P. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). useful in biliousness. LOC. G. LOC. Fan Palm. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. NS. Tad.—in unequal pairs at each node. useful in ophthalmia.
Dhupam. antibilious .. allays thirst. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Sugars. Dhup. leaves. fatigue. Salpe. allays asthma. G. Salgond. if taken regularly acts as laxative.—Burseraceæ. Sambrani. antiglycosuretic. expectorant. Loban. bad throat. Gums and Resins. fattening. hot. flowers. thirst and scalding of urine. may cause vomiting. Salphali. with a good flavour. causes headache. LOC. juice. Guggali. with a little salt added. tonic. Luban. DISTR. cures dysentery. dry. removes "Kapha". improves taste. See—Timbers. Guggula. COM. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. Kundur. Gum is of five kinds . useful in biliousness. Salashi. scabies. bronchitis. causes " Kapha ". purifies blood. :—E. aphrodisiac. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . intoxicating. vaginal discharges. astringent to bowels. Moddi. tonic. M.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. mouth-sores. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . :—Common in hills of the Deccan. asthma. used for boils. fruits. also used as antiperiodic. thirst. antidysenteric. Sk. aphrodisiac. " Vata". FAM. fruit and gum. intoxicating. Mukulsalai. ulcers . Fruit—cooling. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). also found in Belgaum District. invigorating. laxative. bitter. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests .42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. skin diseases. antipyretic. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. burning sensation. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. K. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. expectorant. H. helps delivery. alexiteric. Indian olibanum tree. Gum—hot. blood complaints . purifies blood (Yunani). as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Fermented juice—tonic. "Vata". strengthens teeth. cooling. . useful in skin and blood diseases. Liquors. NS. diuretic . Flower— good for spleen enlargement. diaphoresis. flowers. Vishesha-dhupa. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. binding. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. useful in intestinal troubles. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. biliousness. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Bark-decoction. PARTS USED :—Bark. convulsions. Dup. allays. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. heals wounds . fattening. Salai. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. fevers. LOC. cough.
Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). See—Condiments and Spices. Broach. H. rheumatism. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. DISTR. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. good in cough and for inflammations. G. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Sk. K. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. spasmodic. Rajika. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. appetiser. cure skin-dissases. ear. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. chiefly in Nasik. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). cure enlargement of spleen. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. internal congestions. :—E. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Gums and Resins. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. vermicide. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. Seeds act as digestive condiment . increase appetite . if swallowed whole they are laxative.—Cruciferae. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . anthelmintic . M. LOC. dispel fever . Seeds-laxative. bechic. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. :—Cultivated in India. Asuri.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. Mohori. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Surat. COM. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. LOC. Dharwar and Belgaum. Jwalanti. good for throat complaints. cause burning . used with butter in syphilis . FAM. NS. India. spleen. Taramira . BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. biles. and toothache. Kali-rai. " Vata". mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. lessen oedema of body. Sarshapa. Black-True mustard. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. increase bile. Rai. Kaira. Kari Sasive . kill external parasites. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. eye-troubles. cure nose. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. . Khandesh. See—Timbers. stomachic.
It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Shivalingi. Goge. Kavodi.. long. Kassi. CHAR. glabrous .—Euphorbiaceæ. or few or many. Fl. Gauli. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. M. streaked with broad vertical lines . lobes oblong lanceolate. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). Ekadivi. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. :—An annual scandent herb. LOC. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. H. bark. Gargumaru. NS. 5-partite. Mahavira.— Aug-Sept. lumbago. Khaja.—baccate. Malaya. FAM. 10-15 cm. NS. Ekalkanto. tropical Africa. paler and smooth beneath. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. bitter.:—Throughout India. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. deeply cordate base. and in fevers with flatulence. Manj. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. alterative. LOC. 3—2 . t. S. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Fr. Sk. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Ishawara-Shivalingi.—yellowish brown. Mullu-siru Honne. ovate-oblong. Shivlingi. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. useful in "Vata". hot. Asana. Asana.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Asana. DISTR. Philippines. It is used in bilious attacks. corolla companulate. FAM. globose. bluish green. stem grooved. heating. hemiplegia. K. of Shivaling shape . Lingini. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). COM. Shivavalli. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. :—G. Gunjan. southward to Ceylon. pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. Patharphoda. tendrils 2-fid : L. :—Deccan. Sd. Asana. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. LOC. H.— membranous.. female flowers solitary.. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. Suviraka. margins sinuate denticulate. Garige. Lingaja. DISTR. :—G. green and scabrid above. corolla as in the male . Chandra. smooth. Mauritius. COM. M. subsessile. Apastambhini. Country. Kaj. diam. Fl. 5-lobed. 1 .— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. . PARTS USED :—Root. Australia. Tans. M. 5 cm.
Panphui. C. Charpoppu. M.2 m. It is a disinfectant. K. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. analgesic. carminative. elliptic. constricted in the middle. Piyal. smooth. useful in diarrhœa. Char. aphrodisiac. upper 3-5-7 foliate. buds with root. :—H. S. Cambodia. lower usually simple.—small. Sk. NS. LOC. M. vomiting. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . Charoli. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". Thailand (Siam). Deccan.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. inflammations. thirst.—swollen and octagonal at the base. fruit. Priyal. expectorant. The bark is bitter and poisonous. Murukali. L. in large panicles. t. COM.. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. :—Konkan. boils and bites of venomous insects. H. Panphuti. Lalana. :—Konkan. Fl. Cochin-China. Parnabija. ulcers. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. Sk. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng.—Jany. PARTS USED :—Roots. FAM. Tapaspriya. DISTR. Sd. Paira. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. Rajadana.—variable. Asthibhakshya. Burma. leaflets ovate. high. Country.—Anacardiaceæ.) FAM. HABITAT :—Dry. Char. Zakhi-haiyat. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. crenate or serrate.3-1. seeds. Stems obtusely 4-angled. binding. :—Hot and drier parts of India. See—Ornamental Plants. aphrodisiac. tonic. alexipharmic. Fl. when punctured. speckled with white. Kolegeru. M. cardio-tonic. Snehabija. deciduous open forests. younger reddish. allays . Gujarat.—Crassulaceæ. the older light-coloured. cures blooddiseases. CHAR. COM. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani).—pendant. fattening. Lonnahadakana gida. Charoli. with opposite branches . Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. purgative. Char.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. Country. NS. :—Native of tropical Africa. fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. "Vata" and biliousness. also wild. Fr. purifies blood. S. Deccan. leaves. bruises. the Dangs. decussate. DISTR. laxative. Dhanu. reddish purple. gum (rarely). cooling. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. occasionally compound. burning sensation on body. Pyalchar. M. LOC. LOC. Leaf-juice digestive. astringent to bowels. K. lobes triangular. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery.
Sk. :—E. dry. LOC. leprosy. useful in elephantiasis. pimples. useful in bone fractures. lessens biliousness. K. inflammations. emmenagogue. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. aphrodisiac. LOC. Gum—acrid. Flowers—cure " Kapha". lessens inflammations. diuretic . cause headache (Yunani). useful in piles. aphrodisiac. digestible. thirst. remove bad humours. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). corneal opacities. if chewed. cures ulcers and tumours. M. H. cure tumours. aperient used in urinary discharges. tonic. dysentery. strangury. stomachic. hydrocele. dysmenorrhoea. burning urine. Bark—appetiser.) FAM. Dhak. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. carminative. Bark—appetiser. good in dysentery. Palas. Dyes. Bastard teak. used in diseases of chest and lungs. used in liver disorders. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Palas. LOC. Leaf—very astringent. good in biliousness. prickly heat and itch. gonorrhœa. lessens lumbago. Muttuga. See—Timbers. bark. Kshatadru. Chichra. flowers. Tripatrak. astringent. eye diseases. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Khakera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. PARTS USED :—Root. skindiseases. Kakria. cough. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . Ceylon. good in fevers. tonic to liver. tonic. buboes. purifies blood. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . colic. gum. Flower—aphrodisiac. topically in piles and hydrocele. anthelmintic. biliousness. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. laxative. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. pterygium. piles. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. seeds. piles. diseases of anus. Seeds tonic to body and brain. Oils. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. cold and cough. Palash. ascends to 1200 m. Muttala. G. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. anthelmintic. gout. fractures. COM. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). aphrodisiac. Yajnika. Khakhrao. Gum—astringent to bowels. Kinshuk. worms and piles. burning sensation. gonorrhoea. leaves. Fruit and seeds—oily. Khakda. Leaves—good for eye diseases. tumours. anthelmintic. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. NS. in the Khandesh Akrani. Gums and Resins. stomatitis. expectorant. India. Fruit and seed—hot. DISTR. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. cures excessive perspiration. relieves abnormal thirst. useful in syphilis. anthelmintic. Kuntz.
Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . malaria. etc. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. leprosy (Yunani). cures inflammation . Kuberakshi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Leaves contain a glucoside. Karanja. sprouts useful in tumours. petioles prickly. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. aphrodisiac. asthma and colic. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally.—abruptly pinnate. FAM. leaves. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. lead-colored 1. Gum solution is applied to bruises. very common near the sea-coast. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. :—E. anthelmintic. shortly stalked. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic.5 cm. anthelmintic . See—Timbers. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". M. They are applied to orchitis. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. Dyes. oblong 5-7. Deccan hills. 30-60 cm. Kakechika. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Fl. ringworm.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. G. pinnae 6-8 pairs. elliptic-oblong. Sagargota. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. act as rubefacient. CHAR. Sk. . PARTS USED :—Root-bark. long. wounds. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. Fl. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi.5 cm. Katkaleja. long . Gajga. cures urinary discharges. t. Katkaranj. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. Fever nut. 5-7.—1-2 oblong. Gajaga. aphrodisiac and diuretic. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch.—pod. leucorrhcea. leaflets 6-9 pairs. densely armed on the faces with prickles. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. L. fevers. hydrocele.—yellow. flowers and fruit. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. piles. Gajjige. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. the tropics generally. Gums and Resins.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. useful in colic.3 cm. antiperiodic. :—Throughout India. Physic nut. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.5 X 4. Sind. H. Fruit—acrid. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. NS. Flowers are astringent. prevents contagious diseases . Sd.) COM. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. :—An extensive climber. Seed—styptic. astringent to bowels. Tapasi. heating. strongly mucronate. skin-diseases. DISTR. LOC. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Fr.—JulySept.
Undi. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. very common in N. Dholaakdo. Ponne. both surfaces tomentose. often gregarious. PARTS USED :—Bark. H. Akdo... elliptic or ovate oblong. Madar. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. gum. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Kshirparni. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. :—E. sessile. Akand. Surpan. 2. Br.—Guttiferæ. :—E. Sk. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face.H. sometimes amplexicaul. L. Mandara. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. :—A large shrub. Mandara. Malaya. Sultanchampa.— opposite. NS. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. and oil. lessens appetite. used in chronic fevers..—Asclepiadaceæ. CHAR. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Punnaga. Sk. G. Vuma. Polynesia. astringent. Alexandrian laurel. FAM. and for its oil. K. East African Islands. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Kanara associated with littoral species.8-10 cm. :—Cultivated throughout India. Oils. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. NS. Arka. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Undi. LOC. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. covered with cottony pubescence. See—Timbers.. Purasakeshera. Surangi. improves complexion (Ayurveda). mixed with bark strips and leaves. Ark. Ak. 10-20 X3. K. Rui. Gigantic swallow-wort. thick.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. DISTR.4-3 m. M. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Madar. Ceylon. Surhonne. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. FAM. LOC. Australia. Shuka-phala. The gum from wounded branches. COM. Tungakeshera. M. branches stout. base cordate. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Punnag. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Arka. high. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). COM.. . Ekke. Kshiranga. much branched. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.
5-8.—about 2. acrid .. Sd:—many.8-2. cures leucoderma. lobes usually erect. eruption on body. Milk— caustic. L. painful joints . expectorant and anthelmintic.7—15 X 4. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum.-July. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . rat-bite. Ak. Flowers—digestive. Root-bark is diaphoretic. coughs. cottony.— purplish in umbellate cymes. asthma. Safedak. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. China. heal wounds. ascites and anasarca. ringworm of scalp. tumours. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. Sd. spongy. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. purplish or white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. back much curved. alterative and purgative properties. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.. DISTR. leaves and flowers. Fl. Sk. See—Fibres. long. asthma. M.5 cm. NS. :—Throughout warmer parts of India.5-10 X 5-7. cures leprosy. Fr.—in umbellate cymes. LOC. apex with two auricles. tumours. bark. . spleen and liver diseases. laxative.4 m. piles. high. scabies. broad. Fr. India. Milk— heating. cures piles and "Kapha". green.. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. also useful in intestinal worms. CHAR.—follicles. buds ovoid. Ceylon. corona shorter than the column. ulcers. C. swellings. depilatory. :—An erect shrub usually 1. purgative. C. Ark. across. ovate oblong. diaphoretic. Malay Islands and S.— Feb. flattened tomentose. leaves applied to paralysed parts. PARTS USED :—Root. Mandara. usually 5.—subsessile. t. elliptic or obovate. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. LOC. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. ellipsoid or ovoid. subglobose. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. good for liver (Yunani). tonic and stomachic in action. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. Madar. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Flowers—stomachic. elephantiasis. bark corky. young parts white. FAM. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. very common.2 cm. Fl. Mandara. oleaginous. astringent. buds globose. Juice—anthelmintic. cures asthma and syphilis. ascites.—broadly ovate.5 cm. 9-10 cm.—7. COM. comose . cures inflammations. catarrh and loss of appetite.:—H. Br. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. used in cough.—lobes deltoid-ovate. very common is S. comose. dropsy. Rajarka. Flower—analgesic. useful in leprosy.—Asclepiadaceæ. liver and spleen enlargement. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera.
Kardali. lanceolate to ovate. Egypt. spatulate. Tarvardi. K. stem 0. H. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC.5 cm. Iran.—15-45 X 10-20 cm.:—Perennial herb . Shitarambha. flowers and milky juice. Sambe. cooling. See—Vegetables. membranous. Fl. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sarvajaya. appetiser. Khadsambal. ulcers (Ayurveda). useful in burning sensations. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. staminodial segments. hernia and colic. Sema. H. K. veins arching. Kadsambu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Asishimbi. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. biliousness.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. LOC. NS. Indian shot. but doubtfully wild. FAM. FAM. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm.9-1. CANNA INDICA Linn. Warm leaves used as poultice. CHAR. abundant in Sind. Sk. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. Sk.—Scitaminaceae. greenish or colored. oval or orbicular. acrid. P. root-stock tuberous. Afghanistan. :—E. 1 linear . tonic. Paraholiya. LOC. indigestible. erect. Nilashimbika.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. tropical Africa. Gavria. PARTS USED :—Pods.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). The pods contain vitamin A. M. LOC. Abai. green.. Gavara.—segments 2. L. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. bracts oblong. DISTR. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Tamateballi. (Chopra). Sabbajaya. Waziristan. Broad—Sword bean. high . on trees and hedges . Flowers used as detergent. Arabia. Shimbi. they are given in cholera. Kamakshi. narrow. Gigantea. long. :—E. See—Fibres. Akalabera. Devakeli.3 cm. Kalehu. G.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6.. NS. G. Kadavare. COM. Hudingana. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. 3 sub-erect.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated.2 m. Sarvajaya. Koshaphala. DISTR. COM.
lower 3-8 foliate. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. soporific. LOC. cause headache. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male.—Urticaceæ. Ganja.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . PARTS USED :—Roots. Fr. good for hydrocele.—small axillary. leprosy. Vijaya. tonic. melancholia. Fl. restlessness. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. Ganja. 3-lobed. shining. tonic. oil-good for earache. Sd. aphrodisiac. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Bhang. t. stomachic. inflammations. astringent to bowels.—sub-globose or oblong . DISTR.—alternate or the lower opposite. hallucinations. useful in " Kapha".9-1. See—Ornamental Plants. impotence. dropsy. COM. upper 1-3. LOC. soporific. HABITAT :—Cultivated. astringent. Not indigenous. They are broken in small pieces. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. Leaves—bitter. aphrodisiac. alterative . seeds and resin. leaves. sepals 5.—achene. Harshini. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). echinulate . USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. :—Throughout India. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. K. abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND LOC. dioecious. imbricate. M. antidiarrhoeic. Mohini. black. PARTS USED :—Bark. Fl. also wild. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. CHAR. causes thirst. male fascicled. Hemp. Shivapriya. Ganja. female perianth hyaline. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Unmattini. Bhangi. check vomiting. causes biliousness. heating. :—E. high in its feral state. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Bark—tonic. globose.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. (2) Bhang. serrate. Fr. cough. DISTR. FAM. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . G. flowers and seeds. intoxication.—more or less throughout the year. (3) Charas. H. Female inflorescence is stomachic. L. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling.—many. Wild in the Himalayas. insanity. usually 0.5 m. excessive use causes indigestion. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). LOC. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. female crowded under convolute bracts. intoxicating. leaves. useful in convulsions. NS. Bhang. water extract anthelmintic. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. male flowers. lessen inflammation. flowers. :—Widely cultivated in India. Central Asia. piles. intoxication (Ayurveda). hot. Seeds—carminative. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Siddhapatri. Sk. causes thirst and biliousness.
produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). weakness of body. M. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). and dropsy. It is stomachic. and flatulence. . diarrhœa. dysuria. DISTR. in the form of electuary. Mirchi. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. PARTS USED :—Fruit. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Ujjvala. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Mirchi. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. LOC. chronic ulcers. Country in Deccan. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. Tivrashakti. Fruit—pungent. whooping cough. NS. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. LOC. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. erysipelas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Lalmirchi. Tikshna. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Raktamaricha. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. acute mania. H. :—Extensively cultivated in S. :—E. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. G. The fruit contains Capsisin. dyspepsia. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. often found as an escape. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. cholera. COM. useful in brain complaints. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. Madana modak used in cough. loss of consciousness. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. expectorant. Narcotics. Cayenne-pepper. See—Gums and Resins. Lanka mirchi. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. and is employed by Indian physicians. Capsaicin and Solanin. The plant contains cannabinin. FAM. delirium (Ayurveda).—Solanaceæ. Marchu . Menshinkai. Fibres. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. increases appetite. Sk. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. See—Condiments and Spices. useful in indigestion. muscular pains. Marichiphala. also in gout. M. increases biliousness. Chillies. Vegetables. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. spermatorrhoea. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. asthma. :—Cultivated all over India.
Girikarnika. Daddala. very acute apex. Kapalphodi.—Sapindaceæ. inciso-serrate. Kumbi. DISTR. and is administered in fevers. FAM.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. it is mucilaginous. PARTS USED :—Root. skin-diseases.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. abscesses and ulcers. anthelmintic. dry. trigonous. Kanphuti. black. PARTS USED :—Root. Root. M. The plant contains saponin. COM. :—E. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. stem wiry. dyspepsia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. G. . bladdery . :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. K. flowers and fruits. colic. leucoderma. " Vata ". USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Malay Peninsula. Sind. Deccan. leaves and seeds.—white. H. M. deltoid. :—E. LOC. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Balloon vine. hot. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. 2-ternate. COM. Karolio. CHAR. Vakambi. Sk. Agni-erum. bark. Sakralata. Fruit—acrid. Ghats. Jyotish-mati.—Myrtaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. LOC. Konkan and W. Sd. petals 4. :—Throughout India. Gavvahannu. winged at the angles. Blister creeper. bronchitis. HABITAT :—In hedges . diuretic and aperient. urinary discharges. See—Timbers. Hennumatti. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. Kalindi. alexiteric. ultimate segments lanceolate. :—Most warm countries. Karnasphota. Maniju balli. G. piles. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. bark. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . Kumbhi. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . Thailand (Siam). K. aphrodisiac. useful in tumours. LOC. Root is considered diaphoretic. subglobose. when moistened. Fr. Kangu. Wild guava . common in S. NS. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. L. smooth. introduced. Ceylon. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. FAM. epileptic fits. Shaundi. Sk. C.— alternate. leaves. Fl. Kumbhi. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. NS. DISTR. Fibres.—capsule. rounded at the apex.—globose. Kumbha.
Fruit—stomachic. Oil—indigestible. Agnishikha. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. Kusumba. . piles. Guppe. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Kusumbo. made into curries. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Kusumbha. fruit and seeds. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kusumba. LOC. digestive. cure urinary discharges. in haemoptysis. ringworm. removes biliousness . :—Native throughout India. appetiser . good for eyes. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Kamalottama. Dyer's saffron. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Karada. expectorant. used. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Compositæ. diuretic. :—E. Popayi. Papaw. Sk. Papita. H. Papaya. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). carminative. See—Fruit Trees. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. Flower—tonic to liver. Papayi. COM. Chibda. FAM. heating. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. K. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. cures inflammations. FAM. COM. seeds and oil. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. Ahmednagar and Nasik. NS. enlargement of spleen. Seeds—oleaginous. diuretic. causes burning sensation . DISTR. :—Grown extensively in Poona. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. bleeding piles. Safflower. LOC. Fruits contain vitamins A and C.—Caricaceæ. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. cooling. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. scabies. Nalikadala. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. relieves obesity. strangury. DISTR. Kardai. Barre. NS. flowers. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. depilatory. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. laxative. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). Pappayi. M. it is used to procure abortion. Chirbhita. removes urinary concretions . Pangi. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . unripe fruit. wounds of urinary track. Indies. aphrodisiac. bile. Papaya. of W. "Kapha". Karrak. leprosy. cures insanity (Ayurveda). Papaya. leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Leaves. H. Mexico and Brazil. G. cause biliousness. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Kusumba. "Tridosh". cures inflammation.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. :— E. Leaves—hot. G. bronchitis. hypnotic. astringent to bowels. K. Sk. cure "Vata". appetiser. White thin latex contains Papain. LOC.
Oma. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). Owa. subsessile. Simyatase. chest and throat pains. Dipyaka. CHAR. Elgra. rachis . Egypt. Ringworm shrub. inflammation (Yunani). Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. and even in cholera. emmenagogue and sedative. Winged senna. dyspepsia. Dodda sagate. stimulate intestines. oblong-obtuse. See—Vegetables. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. cure catarrh. abdominal tumours. Dwipagasti. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). The seeds bitter and hot. purgative. aphrodisiac. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. H. Dyes. spleen. Oil—good in all diseases. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . long. Seeds—purgative. carminative. Ajwain. atonic dyspepsia. FAM. Tivragandha. tonic and carminative properties. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. G. laxative. Bishops' weed . kidney troubles. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. COM. appetiser. LOC. K. Datka pat. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. H. NS. oblique at the base. Ajamoda. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. hiccup. bitter. they are used in jaundice . and diarrhœa. chest pains. myrabolans and rock salt. See—Condiments and Spices. vomiting. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. mucronate. COM. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. Dadmardan. 30-60 cm.—Umbelliferæ. :—Cultivated extensively in India. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. stimulant. M. Ajamo . CASSIA ALATA Linn. They are administered in flatulence. abdominal pain. diuretic. liver. aphrodisiac . piles. bechic. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. DISTR. pungent. paralysis. Sk. Leaves contain vitamin A. tonic. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. vomiting. strengthening. Iran. leaflets 10-12 pairs. FAM. good in weakness of limbs. improve speech and eyesight. good for ear boils. Omu . good for old people. Afghanistan. Oils. M. good for heart and tooth-ache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Europe. carminative. Baluchistan. give lustre to eyes. Sk. anthelmintic. enlargement of spleen. downy beneath. cure ascites. stomachic. pinnate. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. LOC. Dadrughna. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. Dadamardana. :—E. Ajowan. NS :— E.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). carminative. K. enrich blood.
it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. anthelmintic. Sakusina. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. FAM. M. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). The whole plant. HABITAT :—Planted. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Ahmed. reddish brown. mucronate. Fl. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. Country. Mukerji). :—Introduced into India. along the sea coast in laterite region. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. and throat troubles. stipules very large. Tanner's cassia. PARTS USED :—Root. K. across. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. bark smooth. J. CHAR. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. useful in vomiting. t.—7. Madhya Pradesh and W. causes flatulence . Bark has the same properties. L.. slightly overlapping. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . C. Pitakilaka. cm. H.—Jany. Sd. oblong-obovate. buds in yellow bracts. Awal.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. obliquely septate. itching. Ph. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. asthma. Gujarat and S. 20-25. Charmaranga. Peninsula. Mayahari. Fl. rhombohedral. DISTR. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. NS. N. membranous. rachis densely pubescent. useful in thirst. M. LOC.—pod. fruits and seeds. skin diseases. rotundate.3-1. cough. alexipharmic . reniform. LOC. long. Avarike. very likely a native of the W. nocturnal emissions.6 cm. skin-diseases. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. Sd. diabetes. LOC. Fl. 28-4-88). Tarwad. Taroda. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). leprosy. Avartki. dull green above. pale beneath.-Oct. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. ringworm. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers.-50 or more. cure " Vata ".5 X 10 cm. good for ulcers. Fr. ..—bright yellow with darker veins. flowers. 10-20 X 1. thirst. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. Tangadi. cures tumours. Indies. :—E. pedunculate racemes .—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. DISTR. yellow with orange veins. Fr. Fl. leaflets 8-12 pairs. leaves.—in spiciform.) COM. " In eczema. vermicide (Ayurveda). t. 5 cm. Sk.—large.—30-35. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). asthma .56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Burma. Ceylon.—pod long.. LOC. Tarwad. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. straight. G.-July. urinary discharges .
Ceylon. C. FAM. purgative. M.—pods. antipyretic. recurved. Burma. Sd.) COM. Kacodari. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Kasundari. Pudding-pipe or stick. Leaves lessen inflammation. Suvarnaka. Hema-puspha. leprosy. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Flowers—improve taste. corymbose. Arimarda. griping. Fruit—digestible. Bahava. Fruit—antipyretic. :—Throughout India. CHAR. shining dark olive-green. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Konde.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Sk. leaves. K. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Vyadivata.. :—E. purgative. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Arogyashimbi. t. Fr. LOC. Rajataru. (Ayurveda). K. Amaltas. Rankasvinda. cause flatulence.—petals 5. lessens inflammation and body-heat. heal ulcers . Golden shower. laxative. Negro coffee. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Aragina. cures burning sensation. Stinking weed. base somewhat oblique. Chakinda.) COM. Bandartauri. used in rheumatism. throat-troubles. Flowers—purgative. cooling. transversely septate. rheumatism. often purplish. carminative. H. LOC. M. Tans. flowers. Kasondi. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. also planted. cure " Kapha ". syphilis. Seeds— oily. 10—12. Garmala. G. Kasmarda. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. improve appetite. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. cooling. abortifacient. hard. smooth. :—E. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. It is a mild laxative.—20-30. Ornamental Plants.—in few flowered racemes. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. and Famine Plants. In Konkan. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests.— Jany-March. distinctly torulose. long. safe for children and pregnant women. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. demulcent. eye-diseases. Rechana. Kasonda. astringent. Kasari. Balla. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. fruit and seeds. Ane sogate. long.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. See—Timbers. tuberculous glands. Fl. Chimkani.—very foetid when bruised. biliousness . Sk. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. branches furrowed. Kakka. 15-20 cm. yellow. useful in chest and liver complaints. Dodda-tagase. Kasoda. . G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. juice given in erysipelas. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. faintly veined with orange . apex acute. FAM.5 cm. DISTR. Leaves—anti-periodic . L. Indian laburnum. ovate-lanceolate. NS. H. See—Dyes.
DISTR. t. The bark. ovate. . hiccup. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Leaves—aphrodisiac. Talapota. See—Famine Plants. long . when mixed with sandal-wood paste. petals 5. and seeds are cathartic. stomachic. Fr. Sd. with a solitary conical gland near the base . opposite. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. base rounded. yellow. rachis grooved . HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. are given in diabetes. 7. slightly recurved. Ran tankala. LOC. asthma. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). tonic and febrifuge. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. turgid. CHAR. :—G. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. COM. DISTR. mixed with honey. :—A shrub 2. Fl. alexiteric. H. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. At Kotra. Kasamarda. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee .4-3 m. NS. annual or perennial. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani..—18-23 cm. " Vata ". root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm.—in axillary. Seeds used in heat of the blood. PARTS USED :—Root.. leaves and seeds. Kasamarda. PARTS USED :—Bark.510 cm. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. The plant contains glucoside emodin. elephantiasis. FAM. Fl. cure " Kapha". :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). " tridosha " . :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. Baskikasondi. dark brown . Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Kasundari. fevers. cough. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. lanceolate.—pod.Jany. Banar. leaves and seeds. LOC. Sk. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). LOC. leaves.— Nov. high. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. leaflets 6-10 pairs. LOC. L. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. M. cures ascites. See—Famine Plants. C. heals wounds. few flowered corymbose racemes. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. Kasondi. septate between the seeds . in Kutch.—30-40 broadly ovoid. In many countries root is considered diuretic.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. obtuse. K. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them.
in diam. X 4. M. Panevar. NS.3-10 X 3. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. crenate. 7. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. unarmed.—pinnate. high. NS. obliquely septate. CHAR. emetic.—pod. DISTR. Sk. obovate. Taga. M. Tarota. Seeds—bitter. leaves and seeds. Svarnalata.5-20 cm.— petals 5. LOC. Climbing-staff plant.. usually unisexual. 6. bitter. laxative.—Celastraceæ. rachis grooved. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. K. Chakramarda.8-7. Fr. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. high. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Kangani. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Fl. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. H. Velo . expectorant. Kangodi. H. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Foetid cassia. Malkangoni. PROPERTIES AND LOC. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. DISTR. Chagoche.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. hot. cure joint-pains. leaflets 3 pairs. powerful brain tonic. . Sd. covered with lenticels. L. :—An annual foetid herb. :—Large deciduous climber. Jyotishmati. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Burma. appetiser. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. reddish brown. :—E. base oblique. fleshy arillus.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . Ceylon. stem upto 23 cm. opposite (lowest smaller). Pamad. brain and liver tonic.. pale yellow. Fl. Dadamari. aphrodisiac. 30-90 cm. upper petal 2-lobed . L. remove "Vata" and "Kapha".—after the rains.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. COM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. K. 18 m. Fr. :—A very common weed all over the State. :—E. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Malkakni. Malhangana. PARTS USED :— Root. Black-oil tree. Kangli. Sphutabandhani. Tagache. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Sk.5 cm. Malkamni. bright yellow. capsule. G. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. 12. LOC. much curved when young. Madras State. Intellect tree.. t. Chakunda. small yellowish-green. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. cause burning sensation. Seeds— acrid. Kanguni. alternate. globose.5-10 cm. Dadrughna. branches rough. 1-6 completely covered with red. The plant contains glucoside emodin.) COM. CHAR. Taragosi. in drooping panicles. ovate or obovate. C. long. FAM. oblong. FAM.5 mm. shining above. Takala. Sd.
Jangli-karayatu. :—Throughout India. especially in Bengal.—Feb. Deccan and S. Ekpani. Lahanchirayat.—in fascicled umbels. Brahmi. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. gout. FAM. good for cough and asthma. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). linear-oblong. cloves. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. CHAR. LOC. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. stem creeping with long internodes. long. cauline smaller. tonic. and is employed for external application. t.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. base deeply cordate stipulate. DISTR. reniform. they are also sudorific. Vondelaga. LOC.—4 mm. L. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. hard-rugose. obovate or oblong. Fl.-Apl. Don. Kheta-Barik-chirayat.—Umbelliferæ. M. high. Country. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. :—G. H. :— E. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Brahmamanduki. NS. rooting at the nodes. aphrodisiac and stimulant. H. t. Fl.—tubular lobes 5. Fl. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri.—opposite.—3 from each node. . Jhinkun-kariatum. NS. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. CHAR.—capsule. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). Fr. pink.). Sk. persistent. M.—Gentianaceæ. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. elliptic. M. G. pink. Barmi. Seeds are hot.—May-Nov. K. Brahmamanduki. :—Konkan. Fl. Oil stomachic. Mahaushadhi. paralysis and leprosy. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. COM. L. spreading star-like . Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. radical leaves revolute. COM. orbicular. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. used in leprosy. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. FAM. Fr. Mandukparni. C. ovoid. :—A slender herbaceous plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Vallari .). USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. minute. narrowly oblong .
biliousness. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. inflammations. Kanara. cooling. plaster or bath are used. digestible. laxative. cures leucoderma. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. clears voice and brain. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. and a bitter substance odollin. twigs. :—South Konkan and N. soporific. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. bechic. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. Tande. voice. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. nallas. headache . leaves and seeds). Leaf-powder. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. alterative. ointment. Leaves are also diuretic. small-pox. nut is narcotic and poisonous . Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. thirst.—Apocynaceæ. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. milky juice. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. Australia Pacific Islands. bronchitis. tonic. bitter. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. China. M. fevers. scalding of urine. Plant—bitter. tonic. urinary discharges. cures hiccup. . spleen enlargement. memory. cardio-tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. fruit. LOC. alexiteric. asthma. asthma. abundant on the Malabar Coast.) DISTR. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. used in insanity (Ayurveda). :—In moist situations (streams. sedative to nerves. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. See—Timbers. NS. Sukanu. Chanda. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . For external use powder. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. stomachic. anæmia. USES :—Bark is purgative. improves appetite (Yunani). LOC. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. diuretic. bronchitis. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". :—Throughout India near the coast. FAM. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. water courses throughout the State. Malay Archipelago. :—K. " Kapha ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Honde.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. blood diseases. LOC. carminative. improves appetite. DISTR.
Harparrevdi. tonic. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Deccan and S. Bengal—Common-gram. spleen (Ayurveda). useful in thirst. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. LOC. COM. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Sk. LOC. Agralohita.. M. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. H. G. NS. Sk. oleaginous. :—Very common in the Deccan. Harbara. But. Cheel. Tanko. also cultivated as a pot herb. COM. FAM . DISTR. laxative. Country gooseberry. Sk. COM. biliousness. M. Laveni. anthelmintic. DISTR. Bathusag. Wild-spinach. LOC.) FAM. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. :— E. Kadale. The plant yields an essential oil.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). useful in bronchitis. K.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. "Vata". Chillika. Vajibhakshya. diuretic. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Lavali. Chania. Skandhaphala. eye-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. Kanchuki. Rayara nelli. throattroubles. Chalmeri. HABITAT :—Cultivated. urinary concretions. Chana. Chakravarti.—Euphorbiaceæ. Kari-Kempukadale. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Goose-foot. aphrodisiac. tonic to liver. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Chakravati. G. LOC. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Country. H. NS. Ksharadala. fragrant. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Chana. sour . K. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. vomiting. Chakwat. Chick pea. root and the seed are cathartic. Harparauri K. constipation. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. fruit and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. H. piles . :—Cultivated in India. Chandanbedu. Chanaka. :—E. FAM. Pandu. :—Widely distributed. Balabhojya. "Kapha". Rai-avala. .—Chenopodiaceæ. diseases of blood. LOC. heart. NS. See—Fruit Trees. USES :— Root is purgative. biliousness. abdominal pains. useful in biliousness. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. M. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). :—E. CICCA ACIDA Merr. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Chunna. Fruit is very sour . improves appetite. acrid.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. anthelmintic . Dalchini. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. abdominal pains. useful in inflammations. seed and acid exudation. Dalchini. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. toothache. Ceylon. Malay Peninsula. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. See—Food Plants. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. hiccup. COM. aphrodisiac. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. causes salivation. Seed—indigestible. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. M. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. throat troubles. tonic. tonic . bronchitis (Yunani). useful in hydrocele. piles. astringent to bowels . cold in head. LOC. diarrhœa and dysentery. useful in cold. itching. K. anthelmintic. flatulence. heated brain. PARTS USED. etc. H. useful in loss of appetite. biliousness. . PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaves—purgative. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. Oils. cures thirst and burning.—Lauraceæ. rectum and urinary diseases. indigenous and cultivated. Dalchini. improve taste and appetite. indigestion. Lavange-hakke. carminative. It possesses carminative. Dalchini. headache. vomiting. toothache (Ayurveda). bronchitis. :—G. Duk. pains . tonic. abortifacient. Peninsula. causes flatulence. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. chest complaints. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). :— Bark and oil. LOC. anthelmintic. FAM. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. Bark—tonic. expectorant. headache. See—Condiments and Spices. Nisane. strengthens liver. leprosy. Kanara district. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. blood troubles. Darchini. aphrodisiac. useful in " Vata ". Gudatwaka. Valkala. refrigerant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. cure bronchitis. vomiting. emmenagogue. cures skin diseases. :—W. throat troubles. Oil—carminative. Burma. parched mouth. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). aphrodisiac. enriches blood. Leaves contain vitamin A. NS. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. pungent. liver-tonic . Kash. Sk. carminative. diarrhœa. foul mouth and fever. Oil—styptic. It checks nausea and vomiting. biliousness. DISTR. heart. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. good for diseases of liver and spleen. thirst. very common in the N. flatulence. appetiser. LOC. tonic to hair. causes flatulence. Seed—stimulant. useful in bronchitis.
:—An extensively climbing annual. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure.-Jany. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Chitraphala. i. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). L. Africa and America. uterine complaints. diarrhœa.— usually margined. smooth. Fl. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". angular . somewhat hairy. removes intestinal worms. upto 25 cm. an alkaloid. lobes obovateoblong. sub-globose. also for prolapsus uteri. Venivalli. The active constituent of the drug. dysentery.—large.—Menispermaceæ. long. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. NS. COM. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. L. M. tendrils bifid. t. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Indrayan. stem thick. or twin. :—Deccan.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. diam. LOC. Annual Report. Fl. greenish. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. greenish outside. G. piles. mucronate.e. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . Katurasa. yellowish. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. itching . Trapusi. K. Pahadvel. CHAR.8-10 cm. waxy coated. helps parturition.—Nov. E. (Ind. solitary. Fl. hairy. Colocynth. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. R. Indruk. Venivel. red. diam. branches more or less pubescent. leaves. drupe. in conjunction with aromatics. DISTR. LOC. Bitter apple. warm parts of Asia. :—E. asthma . NS. Indrayana. Sk. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. useful in hemicrania. Indraphal.. Pavamekke Kayi. burning. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses.—July-Sept. red or yellowish white. 5-nerved. 5-partite. 3. HABITAT. Fr. Uthika. FL t. female flowers in elongate. removes pain. Sk. H. skin eruptions. alleviates vomiting. Kanara. . monœcious. axillary racemes . 7. cordate at the base. Nirbisi. 1949). F. COM. margins ciliate. Fr. dropsy and cough..5-20 cm. Kaduvrindavan. male flowers in axillary cymes. heart troubles. H. Asso. minute. FAM. Ghorumba. Patha. Makal. CHAR. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. FAM.—A climbing shrub.—Cucurbitaceæ. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Paharmul. solitary. which possibly has a cholinergic action. Mahendravaruni. peltate. PARTS USED :—Root. Indrayan. subglobose. yellow within. fever. C. flesh juicy. orbicular or reniform. has been isolated. Tumtikayi. :—In hills. young shoots woolly. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. G. :— E. M. Velvet-leaf. compressed. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. subcampanulate. Sd.
good in fevers. :—Widely cultivated in India. cures tumours. constipation. Gujarat. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. G. H. sea-shores. relieves vomiting and retching. anthelmintic. with or without nux-vomica. removes biliousness. chest troubles. removes " Vata ". Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. aphrodisiac. ascites. fever and worms. fortifies chest. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. and lumbago. useful in piles. Rind— anthelmintic. bowel complaints. tuberculous glands of neck. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. Also indigenous in Arabia. LOC. anæmia. Tvakasugandha. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. elephantiasis . Santra. LOC. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Root and fruit cooling. LOC. " Kapha".—Rutaceæ. Fruit—sour. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Naringi. NS. Sk. carminative. urinary discharges. Sunthura. throat diseases. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Narangi. tonic. :— E. Narange. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Kirmirtvaka. K. In the Konkan fruit and root. useful in biliousness. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. Cardiotonic. Narenj. Sukkare-kanji. Flower— stimulant. leuco-derma. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. laxative. epilepsy. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. Nagaranga. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). astringent. relieves colds. Naringa. Doddile. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. FAM. pain in joints. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. COM. dyspepsia. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. sweet and has agreeable flavour. cooling. antipyretic. aphrodisiac . DISTR. asthma. removes fatigue . DISTR. M. N. enlargement of spleen. bronchitis. diuretic. good in vomiting and skin diseases. W. purgative. jaundice. LOC. Kittale. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. :—Konkan. Asia. Ceylon. tonic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). anthelmintic . :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. constipation. enlargement of spleen. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. (Poona.
Matalunga. The fruits contain vitamins A. Seeds—indigestible. astringent to bowels . :—Citron rind is hot. urinary calculus and caries of teeth.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Bera nimbu. Mahaphala. Bijaura. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. bark and fruit. :— E. removes colic. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . anasarca and chronic fever. Jambira. COM. juice refrigerant and astringent. aphrodisiac. Idalimbu. G. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. with a sharp taste. cures leprosy. Thora-limbu. Mahalunga. Mavalunga. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Bijapurna. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Mahaphala. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). the juice allays ear-ache. Paharinimbu . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Sk. Limonum. asthma. K. thirst. :—Roots. Madala. M. cough. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. DoddaGaja-nimba. heating.—Rutaceæ. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. M. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. Fruit—sweet and sour. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in abdominal complaints. Turanj. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . anæmia. Mahanimbu. Ruchaka. relieves sore-throat. anthelmintic. VAR. its preserve is used for dysentery. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. Kutla. Amlakeshara. though there are no regular plantations. COM. Devamadala. Matulunga. G. Matunga. increase appetite. FAM. also corrects foetid breath. Lemon . seeds. Sk. rind of the fruit is bitter. LOC. B and C. Rusaki. stimulant. Adam's apple. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. According to Theophrastus. fruits and seeds. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cough. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). used in constipation and tumours. leaves and flowers hot and dry. flowers. :—E.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Ghats. Harale. dry and tonic . said to be wild in W. intoxication. PARTS USED. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. useful in vomiting. digestible. flatulence. H. the pulp cold and dry. Citron . sharp. Motalimbu . Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. tonic. relieve vomiting. Turanj. tonic and astringent properties. NS. USES. jaundice. hiccup. asthma. LOC. Bijoru. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Flowers—stimulant. LOC. K. NS. Balank. oily. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. See—Fruit Trees.
it cures and prevents scurvy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. bronchitis . also useful in rheumatism.—simple or once ternate. Rochana. heart. white. See—Fruit Trees. :—E. lobes mucronate. CHAR. Amlasara. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. relieves biliousness. Khatalimbu. Fr. Lebu. Nimbuka. loss of appetite. Morata. sharp taste. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). measles. Shodhana. Ranjai. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. petioles twinning. whole plant tomentose. Nebu. Nimbu. Fl. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . leaves (rarely). Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases.—achenes. stomachic. it helps digestion. not good in old age. silky villous. Nimbu. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. brain disorders. Oil from rind. hemicrania. K. H.Nov. constipation. but often found trailing amongst grass. Snuva. ovoid. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. where there is dry skin and much thirst. C. Devashreni.—Sept. Dhantiate. :—G. Lebu. M. scarletina. G. Murhari. with long feathery tails . Madhulika. Moravel. t.. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . NS. M. K. stimulant . good for the eyes (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND LOC. cures abodominal complaints. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. L. burning in the chest. vomiting. Murva. NS. appetiser. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. long ovate or orbicular. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. with flavour. relieves vomiting . Fl. throat trouble. Nimbe. PARTS USED :—Fruit. .—Ranunculaceæ. fatigue . blades 2-2. Limpaka. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. eyes . :—Extensively cultivated all over the State.—petals O. Acida. Morvel. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Limbu.5 cm. Churhar. Sk. plethora. VAR. sepals 4-6.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Acid-Sour lime . Morhari. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. COM. improves liver. FAM. COM. Fruit—sour. anthelmintic. H. Kagadi limbu. :—An extensive climber. Sk. Limbe. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". hairy outside. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. LOC.
—petals 4. anthelmintic. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. transversely striate. removes " Kapha". Juice— cures ear-ache. Nayibela. laxative. Sd. used internally in thirst. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. and fevers. . it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Bharangi. LOC. Karnasphota. HABIT :—A common weed. CHAR. M. stems grooved and glandular. and dispel intestinal fermentation. hot. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. hairy. veined. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. terminal the largest. petioles of lower leaves longer. very common in the Deccan. H. DISTR. Tinmani. Jangali-harhar. C.—Capparidaceæ. laxative. NS. Tilwan. :—G.—brownish black. FAM. Fl. L. COM. Sk. high. causes excessive biliousness. gradually becoming shorter upwards.—Sept-June. stimulates secretion of bile. COM. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. useful in leprosy. leaflets elliptic-oblong. Kanphodi. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. 30-90 cm. tapering towards both ends . good in malaria. cooling.—axillary. Vatari. Bharangi. :—Annual erect herb. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Fl. DISTR. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). Konkan. K. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. dryness and urethral discharges. Kasaghni. LOC. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. hairy. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). oblong-obovate. Bharang. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Phanjika. Kanphutia. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Barbara. Talvari. Sk. yellow. H. Fr. t. M. bitter. obliquely striate. stomachic. in lax racemes. externally applied to boils. blood diseases. stimulant. Ghats. Harhuria. LOC. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. reduces tumours and inflammations .—3-5 foliate. Bharangi. Hulhul.—capsule.—Verbenaceæ. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Gantubarangi. :—W. Sauri. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. diuretic. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. :—G. erect. subglobose. bitter taste and a strong odour.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. NS. Adityabhakta. FAM. Leaves—favour digestion. Brahmani. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. Tilparni. :—Common in grass lands. K. mixed with oil. Kiritekki.
ozœna. leucoderma. blood diseases. tonic to the brain. oblong or elliptic. M. sharply serrate. tubercular glands. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. leaves and seeds. Garani. LOC. 0. anthelmintic. 2-2.—axillary. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. also found throughout the State. epilepsy. Sk. Ceylon. spreading. lower one deflexed. COM. ulcers (Ayurveda). nearly straight. Kajli. bronchitis.2 cm.8-5 cm. Malay Peninsula.9-2. pubescent. good for eye-diseases. obovoid. t— June-Jany. Vishnukranta. Wowatheti. asthma. and blue flowered. ulcers of the cornea. FAM. DISTR. in lax dichotomous cymes. lessens expectoration. heating. C. useful in bronchitis. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. showy.—ternately whorled. PARTS USED :—Root. tube hairy within. . Fl. Gokarnika.-Oct. diuretic. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. C.7-6. solitary. with an orange centre.— Aug. wounds (Ayurveda). :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. Gokarni. burning sensation. stems bluntly quadrangular. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. t. :—A perennial twining herb.— drupe. Girikarnika..—imparipinnate. useful in inflammation. acrid. H. fevers (Yunani). Root is purgative and diuretic.—pale blue.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. long . DISTR. hiccup. tuberculous glands. consumption. pains. standard bright blue or white.5-15 X 5.. :—G. useful in ascites (Yunani). Fl.3 cm. smooth. 12.:—More or less throughout India. Aparajita. leaves and seeds.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Koyala. Aparajita. burning sensation. Sd.5 X 2-3. Fr. inflammations. fevers. Girikarniballi. headache. L. sometimes opposite. stomachic. high.—much exerted.—Shrub. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . HABITAT :—In hedges. collectively forming a terminal panicle. Fl. The plant contains an alkaloid.—many. PARTS USED :—Root. 4 lobes flat. Root increases appetite. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy.. CHAR. hairy. elephantiasis. Fl. leaflets 5-7. "Vata". LOC. Fr. K. tumours. Kalina. black. fleshy. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. asthma. 3..2 m. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. inflammations. beaked. the larger lower lobe dark purple. There are two varieties :—white flowered. LOC. cures "Tridosha". laxative. alexiteric. flat. stems terete. Kowa.—6-10 yellowish brown.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. anthelmintic. biliousness. elliptic oblong. L.
& A. cures leprosy. COM. leaves. FAM. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. wild in hedges. Country. Parvel. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Bimba. antipyretic .) FAM.:—Root cooling. Bimbika.:—Cultivated in gardens. Tana. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. M. :—G. and jaundice.—Menispermaceæ. Broom-creeper. K. H. flowers. fruit. LOC. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Tondeballi. Sk. USES:—In the Konkan. Glum. The plant contains an enzyme. Oshthi. Flowers cure itching. . astringent to bowels. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. dried and powdered. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Chireta. COM. Ink-berry. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Tundika. G. Malaya. Vasandi. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. DISTR :—Throughout India. Dirghvalli. given for uterine discharges. urinary losses. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. See—Vegetables. Leaves—acrid. Faridburti. Seeds are purgative and aperient. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Kanduri. Konkan. Vasanvel. Kambhoja. Tundi. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. galactagogue. Fruit— indigestible. K. Galedu. stops vomiting. Bimb. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. tropical Africa. LOC.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. NS. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta".—E. a hormone and an alkaloid. " Vata". aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Vevati. H. useful in ascites and fevers. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). burning of hands and feet. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Hunder. NS. Deccan. cause flatulence. Vasantitikta. Jamtikibel. Ceylon. Gujarat. diseases of blood. Bimbi. consumption. Ghobe. M. S. COCCINIA INDICA W. HABITAT. Root bark. allays thirst. Tondali. Garudi. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. biliousness. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. M. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Vevdi.
"Kapha" and "Vata".MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. 2-8 together. good in fractures. H. Nalivar. useful in leprosy. Konkan. :—E. cardiotonic. Flower-cooling . PARTS USED :—Root. Nariyal. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. male in small axillary cymose panicles. HABITAT :—In hedges. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste.8-6. fermented juice. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . laxative. enriches blood.3-3. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). alexipharmic . roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. Antipyretic. aphrodisiac. size of a small pea. It is also used as a refrigerant. Kanara. Narial.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. India. Deccan. female in axillary clusters. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. fattening. . appetiser. NS. tonic. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. dysentery. Gujarat. which is taken internally with sugar. tuberculosis. M. Jataphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Milk—cooling. DISTR. DISTR.8 cm. ovate. bronchitis. COM. lessens thirst.—Palmæ.3 X 1.—Dec. In the Konkan. Narikel. mixed with water. laxative and sudorific.:— A straggling scandent shrub. G. Mad. it is used for coughs. laxative. t. 3-5 nerved. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. villous . Mahaphala. Common in Konkan and N. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Seed-cooling. Tengu. lessens bile and burning sensation. keeled. LOC.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Naral. smells sweetish and pungent. S.. Tenginmara. FAM. urinary discharges. Toyagarbha. young parts densely Villous. oil. indigestible. Fl. thirst. subdeltoid or subhastate. rugose .—3. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). tonic.—dioecious. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. and put on to sore-eyelids. also in many places in the interior. biliousness. causes "Kapha". Fl. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. India and Ceylon.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. China. Leaf-juice. fattening. Cocoanut palm. Mangalya. as a cure for gonorrhœa.—drupe. S. Pegu. aphrodisiac. K. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. constipation. useful in biliousness. useful in diabetes. bark. blood diseases. burning sensation. aphrodisiac. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. LOC. it is heating. LOC. Sk. tropical Africa. Arabia. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. with a few heads of pepper. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". tumours. ovate-oblong. Fr. L. flowers. oleaginous. seed.
Madhya Pradesh. M. Ran-jondhala. CHAR. :—E. Rajputana. :—Himalayas.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. rachis within the bract slender. polished. midrib stout. long. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. useful in lumbar-pain. NS. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. Bengal. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. increases body weight. Kasai. liver complaints.—broadly ovoid to globose.5-6. Fl. Dabha. Japan. useful in fever. tonic. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). Fr. consumption. H. America.3 cm. fattening. it promotes growth of hair. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. DISTR. it also purifies blood. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. LOC. bluish grey. bronchitis. internodes smooth. Oil—sweet. 6.—monœcious racemes 2. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. stout. Sk. diuretic. sheaths long. Gojivha. spinously serrate margins. Oils. It is refreshing and laxative. smooth. FAM. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. above the bract stout. rooting at the lower nodes. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. India. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. high or more. Fl. abundant in standing water. Fibres. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness .. Gurlu . LOC. :—A tall leafy grass. Assam. Jargadi. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . It is also used for burns.—Gramineæ COM. paralysis. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. L. HABITAT :—Gregarious. enriches blood. China. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). useful in urinary complaints.—10-15 x 2. polished.—Oct. LOC. long. Madhya Bharat. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. See—Fruit Trees. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. diuretic . base cordate. Gavedhu. lessens inflammations . B and C. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. piles . ulcers (Ayurveda). incipient phthisis and cachexia. Polynesia. Malaya. piles and scabies (Yunani. tropical Asia-Africa. Oil—indigestible. smooth. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. t. Job's tears. G. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). asthma. stem 90-150 cm. fermented juice is intoxicating. notched at the nodes . S.5-5 cm.6-10 mm. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. promotes hairgrowth.
They are also used in lung and chest complaints. lanceolate. brown. Hadige. Pistan. Kalasaka. COM. wedgeshaped. buds obovoid. Resalla. tyrosin. Mannadike.:—E. M. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. Gujarat. arginine and coicin. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. :—E. fever. PARTS USED :—Root.—Boraginaceæ. lysin.—petals 4-5. In jutegrowing districts. DISTR. G. FAM. K. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver.— Sept.5-10 X 2-3. See—Fodder Plants. Gondan. G. COM. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. LOC.—Tiliaceæ. laxative. Patta.—few in each cell. yellow. CHAR. anthelmintic. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. subglobose. Bhukerbudara. diam. See—Fibres. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. :—Konkan. ridged and muricated. Fl. NS. Bargund. 5-valved. Sebesten plum. Bhokar. Fr. Chhunchh . L. leaves and fruit. 12 mm. carminative. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. M. Lassora. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. astringent. The plant contains leucin. Sd. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. It is also used as a bitter tonic. acute or acuminate. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value.—7.—in short cymes. Col. also efficacious in skin-diseases. also as antiperiodic. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . Chaunchan . Sk. stomachic. Bhuselu. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. smooth. FAM. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. not beaked. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. Sk. and dyspepsia. growing very tall under cultivation. histidin. cultivated in most tropical countries. and intestinal antiseptic. Bhokar. t. C. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts.2 cm. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa.— capsule. serrate. Challa. :—An annual herb. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Rayagundo. H. . Fl. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Jute . PROPERTIES AND LOC.
scabies. The plant and fruit— acrid. M. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Kustumburi. diseases of chest and urethra. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. heart and liver. dyspepsia. indigestion. wild and cultivated. also cultivated. burning of throat. COM. Kothamir. causes suppuration. headache. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors.—Umbelliferæ. stomachic.:—Throughout the State in W. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). maturant. stomatitis. H. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Satpudas. biliousness. carminative and antispasmodic.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. analgesic. inflammations. used in syphilis. bronchitis. G. jaundice. Kothimbir. removes bad humours. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). tuberculous glands. K. diuretic. chronic fevers. antipyretic. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. bechic. NS. Allaka. uterus and urethra. PARTS USED :—Bark. Fruit is aromatic. biliousness. thirst. useful in hiccup. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. LOC. Egypt. expectorant. Ghats. used as an expectorant and astringent. stimulant. Fibres. Sk. Fruits are used as spice. gleet. cooling. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. purgative. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures thirst. Kothambri. Konphir. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Coriander. LOC. laxative. often planted. DISTR. highly esteemed in coughs. Dhania. See—Timbers. :—Cultivated throughout India. piles. biliousness. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. aphrodisiac. leaves (rarely) and fruit.:—E. LOC. Syria. pains in joints. vomiting. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. gives appetite. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Leaves—hypnotic. eye-pains. anthelmintic. diseases of chest. DISTR. stimulant. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Mesapotamia and Greece. used in dry cough. tooth-ache. LOC. Ceylon. Dharika. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. bleeding gums. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Cochin-China. widely known from Palestine. tropical Australia. Fruit—diuretic. Hivija. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. anthelmintic. vulnerary. Vitunnaka. tonic to brain. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. Kanara. prevents coryza and bronchitis.
subsessile. Bilpatri. M. useful in bronchitis. lobes ovate-oblong. Sk.—Aug. a tonic is prepared from it. Varvunna. Var. Varuna. Kushtha. Kumaraka. By the earliest writers. FAM. t. DISTR. Hadawarna. Kashmira. Pushkarmula.7 m. :—G. silky-pubescent beneath. The plant yields an essential oil. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Var. and " Vata". seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. dyspepsia. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. sheaths coriaceous . COM. and aphrodisiac. S. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. hiccup (Ayurveda). the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names.—Scitamineæ.— in very dense spikes. Fl. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Barna. Karikuttu. PARTS USED:—Root. Leaves contain vitamins A and C .:—Konkan ghats. depurative. Kust. LOC. coughs and skin diseases.—capsule. Changalkashta.— tube short. It is also astringent and digestive. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos.2-2. root-stock tuberous. FAM. Pinga. Country. in moist and shady places. spirally arranged. . Vayavarno. many. Vayavarna. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. K. Pakarmula. oblong. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. bracts ovate. :—An erect plant 1.7-7. NS. Malay Islands. India. Madhya Bharat. :—G. Ceylon.—15-30 X 5. Nervele. Sk. crisped. Sd. CHAR. M. " Kapha". Kemuka. Chikke. H.—Capparidaceæ. COM. Shura. S. DISTR. stem sub-woody at the base .-Oct. Khandala. bright red. useful in catarrhal fevers. Penva. Varno. fever. lumbago. China. globosely 3-gonous. inflammations. :—More or less throughout India.5 cm. nalas. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Castle Rock. Mahakapittha. mucronate. Bitusi. subequal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Fl. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. See—Condiments and Spices. LOC. Ajapa. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. rheumatism. red. high. Keu. H. K. anæmia. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Biliana. M. Fr. NS. Pushkarmula. LOC. concave. lip white with yellow centre.— black with white aril. Varuna. L. C. also planted near Muslim tombs.
USES:—Root is alterative..—15-50 in an umbel. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. L. long. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). FAM. antipyretic. white. laxative. Bark promotes appetite. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in biliousness.9-1. heating. expectorant. K. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths .5-10 cm. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. expectorant. Nag-damani. it promotes appetite. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). anthelmintic. Kanmu. antilithic. tumours. Nagdavana. with a sheathing base.—20-30.5 cm. increases secretion of bile. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. useful in bronchitis. as long as the tube. bitter. bright green. :—Throughout tropical India. detergent. Ceylon. COM. perianth tube greenish-white. M. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. Vishamungalli. Sd. flowers and fruits. PARTS USED :—Root. bulb 5-10 cm. bracts 7. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. diuretic. also wild. anthelmintic. and seeds. Wild or cultivated. emmenagogue. lumbago. good in strangury. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. linear lanceolate. Tonic. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). then sweet. NS. strangury. diseases of vagina. chest. vomiting. See—Timbers. Sk. LOC. tuberculous glands. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. anuria. Seeds—purgative. laxative. chest and blood diseases. beaked. act as rubefacient and vesicant. Kanwal. "Pitta" and "Kapha". urinary discharges.—subglobose. Nagadown. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. scape 45-90 cm. removes "Vata". The plant contains saponin. laxative. DISTR. linear. thin. gonorrhœa. Nag-damani. lung and spleen diseases. vulnerary. defective vision. flat.5-18 cm. bark. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. cylindric. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue.. Chindar. diam. toothache. X 12. Pindar. Patra-pushpi. Fr. H. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. CHAR. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. bechic.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. urinary concretions. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. digestive. fragrant at night. night-blindness. vesicant. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. Kanda-shalini.—1 (rarely 2). Visha-Mandalamardini.:—G. carminative. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones.—Amaryllidaceæ. leaves. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. . LOC. 0. found wild in North and South Konkan. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. lobes 6.
Assam to Malacca. H. COM. useful in mental troubles. Kanara. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Oil from the seed is purgative. K. Ieucoderma. Sk. Bengal. abdominal diseases. leaves and seeds. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. G. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints.—Euphorbiaceæ. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. LOC. China. Danti. As an application to sprains. See—Ornamental Plants. Nepal. Bhutankusam. :—Naturalised in S. Japala. fever. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. DISTR. Ceylon .MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. excessive phlegm. The plant contains lycorin. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Danti. Nepala . Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. it is in great request. :—H. Seeds cause burning sensation. carminative. FAM. bark. :—Sylhet. :—E. Jayapala. emetic.—Euphorbiaceæ. Western Peninsula. M. Chota-Natpur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. expectorant. DISTR. Purging croton . nauseant and diaphoretic. Madhya Pradesh. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. cathartic. Ceylon. See—Timbers. Chucka . Konkan. inflammations. :—Bengal. near Junnar (Poona Dist). tonic. Burma. Jamalgota . Malay Islands. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. . FAM. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). insanity. etc. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Nepala. Sk. COM. :—Rare in the State. good in sore eyes. LOC. naturalised or cultivated. Jamalgota. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. Oil cathartic. in small doses. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Ganasur. M. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Seeds contain an alkaloid. NS. NS. convulsions. PARTS USED :—Root. Jepal. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Burma..
Sk. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Kakri. laxative. M. H.—Cucurbitaceæ. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Shantanu. in ascites and anasarca. FAM. insanity. convulsions. cures " Vata ". Fruit—tonic. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. oily. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. chronic fever. diuretic. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. insanity. Melon. &c. and lock-jaw. thirst (Yunani). in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. :—In Deccan. G. cures ophthalmia. Lomashi. DISTR. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Karkali. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. PARTS USED :—Root. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. Mahanaracha Rasa. LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Mutrala. COM. galactagogue. Chibuda. Said to be truly wild in India. dropsy. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. ascites. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. strengthens heart. nutritive and diuretic. Sk. brain and body. wholesome. Tarkakadi. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Kachra. COM. Ripe fruit—sweet. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. MELO Var. obstinate constipation. synovitis. used in liver and kidney troubles. C. Seeds—lachrymatory. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Kharbuja. Chibdu Shakarteti. diuretic. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Pathira . allays fatigue. LOC. Karkati. laxative. NS. fruit and seeds. It is useful in apoplexy. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. aphrodisiac. may cause indigestion. cooling. Valaka. diaphoretic. M. Kharbuja. Kalangida. gives headache. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. ascites. colic. bronchitis.:—E. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. It is given internally with great caution. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. biliousness. Kakni. They are edible. See—Timbers. Kakadi. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—G. Rind—vulnerary. Sweet melon . Valungi. Shadrekha. fattening. urinary discharges. Kharbuja. DISTR. tonic. NS. Kankadi. H. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. LOC. Vrittervaru. . Baluchistan and tropical Africa.
HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A.—subglobose or ellipsoid. fruits. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kakari. Sd. female peduncle longer than male. K. NS.—white. Cultivated in all parts of India. NS. Ripe one tonic. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. See—Vegetables. Kankdi. Takamaki. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Chitravalli. cures biliousness. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. H. purgative. utilissimus (Ayurveda. roasted and powdered. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Seeds possess cooling properties. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. Khira. used in thirst.—Cucurbitaceæ. seeds. cordate at the base. they are also used as diuretic. enrich blood. Hislambhi. Sudhavsa. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. Kothiban. fatigue.— suborbicular.:—E. FAM. margined . LOC. Fl. FAM. diuretic. Trapusha. tendrils simple. strangury. causes "Vata". LOC. angled. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. good for brain and body. CHAR. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. B. :—G. Tansali. t. Mrigadani. Kakdi. dry. Sushitala. rigid. astringent. indigestible. stomachic. lobes obovate. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). Karit. COM. cooling.—monœcious . Seeds—diuretic. lobulate or dentate . C. India is considered to be the original home. pulp bitter. H. They are nutritive. allay thirst. M. M. fever. Vishala. biliousness. G.:—N. pale yellow when ripe. Yunani). Khira. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. See-Fruit Trees. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. cures thirst. L. Sk. Fr. Fruit—fattening . deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. antipyretic. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn.—Cucurbitaceæ. male in clusters.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). improve complexion. stem slender. hairy. Seed oil used in fever. COM.—June-Sept.—yellow segments elliptic. melo var. Cucumber. and C. are administered in throat affections. :—A perennial climber. Santekayi. Kumbhakshi. . "Kapha" and flatulence. Sk. Tavasa. DISTR.
Fruit contains vitamins A. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. : — E. DISTR. Kushmand. HABITAT. Kushmand. K. Dudia. B and C. M. LOC. Iran. Koron. Sk. :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. LOC. USES. Kaddu. Afghanistan. carbuncles. LOC. unhealthy ulcers. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Vegetable marrow. Dangari.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Ceylon.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. G. M. Kashiphala. Kumbala. Safedkaddu . Seeds are used as taeniacide. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. DISTR. LOC. indigestible. Bhopala. increases " Vata" . Tambda bhopala. H. on hedges. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Red squash gourd. Kumbala. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Pumpkin. Dried fruit indigestible . Kadimah. The plant contains glucoside saponin. increases " Vata ". :—Throughout the greater part of India. LOC. NS. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). :—E. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Pitakushmand. In Malabar. cures cough. stomachic. Sk. Malaya. FAM. astringent to bowels . See—Vegetables. Australia. Kumra. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Punyalata. FAM . CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. etc. fruits and seeds. K. COM. N.:—Considered to be a native of America. . HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Melon pumpkin.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. NS. improves taste (Ayurveda).—Cucurbitaceæ. H. G. Mithakaddu. allays thirst. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Karkarn.—Cucurbitaceæ. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. cultivated in many parts of India. COM.
scorpion sting (Ayurveda). CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. Musali. NS. astringent to bowels. bronchitis. allays thirst. cures haemoptysis. Seeds—diuretic. fatigue. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. fattening. Gaurajerka. stops epistaxis . carminative.—Amaryllidaceæ. LOC. vulnerary. tonic. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Sk. scabies. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. asthma. astringent to bowels. :—G. K. analgesic. Zira. Neltati gadde. cooling. LOC. remove biliousness. leprosy. Neladati. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. antipyretic. M. increases appetite . :—E. carminative. Fruit yields an essential oil. also a lactagogue. appetiser. Cumin. diuretic and demulcent. LOC. Sk. Talamulika. sweet. aphrodisiac. and the root for making these more potent. fruit and seeds. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. See—Vegetables. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. leucoderma. H. fever. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. H. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). Seeds are taeniacide. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). Kalimusali. Seeds anthelmintic. enlargment of the spleen. inflammations. Jirige. M. antidysenteric. laxative. Cures " Vata " tumours. throat and eyes. K. stomachic. Kalimusali. belching . Fruit—very cooling. good for teeth. biliousness. ulcers. Fruit astringent. FAM. beneficial in consumption. Kalimusali. DISTR. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Dipaka. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox.—Umbelliferæ. abortifacient. thirst. G. Jira. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. PARTS USED :—Fruit. NS. ft contains vitamins A and C. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. See—Condiments and Spices. haematinic. gonorrhœa. tonic. fever. cures leprosy. Jiru. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Mushalikand . purifies blood (Ayurveda). astringent. tonic to intestine. Ajjika. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. FAM. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. Girautmi. COM. COM. eye-diseases. relieves hiccup. emmenagogue. Dirghaka. carminative. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. Jire. alexipharmic. heals corneal opacities. uterine stimulant. cure haemoptysis. Leaves—digestible. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Kapha " and " Vata ".
very short.— in autumnal spikes 7. LOC.3-2. alterative and tonic. Ambahaldi. rhizome. useful in piles. shining . cooling. Bitter. appetising. linear or linear-lanceolate . asthma. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. troubles in the mouth and ear. pains in joints (Yunani). emollient. hairy on the back.5 cm. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . hiccup. tips sometimes rooting. NS. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. CHAR. HABITAT :—Often cultivated.:—W.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. antipyretic. Sk. Peninsula. expectorant. tonic. t. gonorrhœa. yellow. Peninsula. alterative. Amhaladi. LOC. inflammations (Ayurveda). maturant. scabies. DISTR.—sessile or petiolate. causes "Vata".—Scitamineæ. black. lumbago. colic.— May-June. C—white or very pale-yellow. COM.5-12. Mango-ginger. Malay Archipelago. :—Konkan and N. useful in biliousness. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. distichous. fatigue. " Vata". diuretic. :—Stemless herb. G. often cultivated. alexiteric. 1545 X 1. gleet.:—Sweet.8-5 cm. Kanara. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. biliousness. common at the beginning of rains. W. hydrophobia.—long petioled in tufts. gonorrhœa. :—Bengal. appetiser. Kapurahaldi. laxative. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. aphrodisiac. lumbago. ophthalmia. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual.—grooved. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. bronchitis. Sd. Fl. all skin-diseases. :—A small herb. DISTR. useful in bronchitis. Bengal. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Amragandha. H. Root—carminative. with a beak . debility and impotence. antipyretic. FAM. clavate . . diarrhœa. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. tubers thick. Java. fattening. flowering bract greenish-white. Fr. appetiser. LOC. Fl. t. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . :—Konkan and Gujarat. L. perianth segments elliptic. useful in inflammations. 30-45x7. oblong. M. scape. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. ulcers on penis. oblong. Ambehalad. stomatitis (Yunani).5 cm. oblong lanceolate. :—E. gleet.—capsule. indigestion. Assam.. sessile. root stock large. jaundice.— in racemes. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. piles. during convalescence after acute illness. vomiting. cylindric or ellipsoid. Ambahaladara. antipyretic. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. K.5-15 X 3. aphrodisiac. bitter. Karpuraharidra.-Sept. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. pale yellow inside . aphrodisiac. L.
H. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Fl. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. sessile. Sholi. pale green. . annulate. root-stock large. FAM. Halada. K. Varnadatri. Banhaladi. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. Sk. palmately branched. lip yellow. flowering bracts cymbiform. It is considered tonic and carminative. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache.— flowering stem sheathed. Haridra. Banharidra. flowers fragrant. COM. See—Condiments and Spices. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Turmeric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.—Scitamineæ. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. G. used as an application for skin-diseases. Vanhaldara. Halad. COM. long. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. sometimes cultivated. G. NS. CHAR. Harita. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. C. Indian saffron. appearing before leafing stem. long. Ran-halad. t. LOC.-May. :—E.—tube 2. DISTR.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. lateral lobes oblong. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. Bengal. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. :—Stemless herb.—Scitamineæ. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . biennial. Halad. in spikes 15-30 cm. LOC. rounded at the tips. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. 3lobed. H. Aranyaharidra. LOC. Yellow Zedoary. the dorsal longer. Also cultivated in Konkan. Sometimes cultivated.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. upper half funnel-shaped. M. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. FAM. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. base deltoid. Sholika. Fl. Arishina. also stomachic. Mangalya. Cochin-Wild turmeric. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. :—E. appetiser . they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. :—Western Peninsula.5 cm. forming pouches for the flowers. variegated above. Sk. DISTR. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). green. lobes pale-rose. Kapur-kachali. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. NS. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Vanarishta. Jayanti. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. it is seldom used alone .. L.
tonic. pale-yellow inside. said to be Wild in E. deepyellow. FAM . :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. anthelmintic. lip 3-lobed. clothed with sheaths. destroys foulness of breath. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. odour like camphor. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . Jatala. Karechura. cylindric. Narakachora. heating. H. used in prurigo. Kachuri. useful in leucoderma. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. asthma. 3-gonous.—capsule. G. fragrant. urinary discharges. M. alexiteric. "Vata ". anthelmintic. flowers yellow in spikes. bitter. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. urinary discharges. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. It contains vitamin A.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Sk. small-pox.— flowering stem 20-25cm. vulnerary. oblong. bitter. antipyretic. fumes are used during hysteric fits . A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. Bitter. diuretic. annulate tubers. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . jaundice. taste bitterish spicy. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. bruises. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. inflammations. piles. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. swellings. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy.—4-6 with long petioles. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. long. Himalayas and Chittagong. good for liver affections. bronchitis. NS.—funnel shaped. Gandhamulaka sara. boils and urticaria. and yields an essential oil. vulnerary. sprains (Ayurveda).—Scitamineæ. lobed . an ointment prepared from the rhizome. clouded with purple down the middle. improves complexion. emollient. L. scabies. K. Zedoary. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. externally applied to leech-bites. leucoderma. bruises (Yunani). . Kachora. itches etc. carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bruises. Fl. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. flowering bract green tinged with red . Kachari. Hakhir. C. LOC. appetiser. boils. In small-pox and chicken-pox. :—Stemless herb. 30-60 cm. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. scabies. long. CHAR. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. blood diseases. useful in " Kapha". root-stock of palmately branched. Fr. In coryza. appearing before the leaves. The plant contains curcumin. coma-bract crimson or purple . Tuber is used as a stimulant. heating. laxative. internally administered in blood disorders. alexiteric. maturant. :—Cultivated in the State. Kachora. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.:—E. oblong-lanceolate. Shathi. COM. an alkaloid.
furunculosis. Sk. chronic rheumatism. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. also used as a tonic and depurative. erect. sheaths terete . L. appetiser. alexipharmic. long.:—E. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. NS. bitter. velvety at the nodes. H. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. FAM. sharp. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. M. up to over 1. :—A tall perennial. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. hot. tonic to brain and heart. Externally it is rubefacient. laxative. toothache (Yunani). Majjige hullu. It is an excellent stomachic to children. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Ligule very short. Gavati-chaha. K. CHAR. COM. sharp hot taste. emetic. tuberculous glands of neck.—linear tapering upwards to a point. pains. long. high. Bhustrina.8 m. nodding. Lemon grass. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Gandhatrina. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. stimulant and carminative. epileptic fits. applied to bruises and sprains. and is of great value in cholera. alexipharmic. G. culm stout. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. Bitter. others narrow and separating. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. . Lilicha. enlargement of spleen. anthelmintic. it is also a good application for ringworm. Putigandha. probably of Indian origin. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. carminative. of much use in typhoid fevers. LOC. inflammations. neuralgia. midrib whitish on the upper side. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. carminative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. gastric irritability. and other painful affections. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. useful in bronchitis. glaucous green. DISTR. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. LOC. leprosy. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. Takratrina. good odour. sheaths of the culm tight. it is stimulant. LOC. sprains. It is also aromatic. useful in griping of children. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). upto over 90 cm. emmenagogue.—Gramineæ. aphrodisiac. Purhati hullu.. laxative. Tubers yield an essential oil. antispasmodic and diaphoretic.
Deccan. H. LOC. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Shatagranthi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. COM.000 m. Bahuvirya. Garikehallu.—flat. Geramium grass. wide below. long. L. FAM. stem. leafy. soft. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Kobbar. useful in biliousness. COM. smooth. fatigue. Mangala. bad taste in the mouth. 1. finely acute. slender. L. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. S. subcordate or rounded at the base.-Nov. those below the inflorescence 23 cm.—2-10 cm. :—Cosmopolitan . distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. vomiting. green or purplish. Fl. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Dhoboghas. M. Bujina.5-2. K.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. W. Shyamaka. Rohisha. Sk. LOC. Fl. oblique or divaricate. Roshdo. 12-18 mm. Saugandhika.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. heart diseases. pains. :—Sourashtra.:—Grows all over the State.—Gramineæ. useful in fevers. epileptic fits. widely creeping. narrowly linear. leprosy. through N. pungent. carminative. H. Shatamula.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere.5-30 cm. burning sensation. high. :—A perennial grass . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. sheaths tight.4 m. CHAR. FAM. M. Durva. DISTR. G. Country. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. long. throat troubles.3 cm.—grain. with erect flowering branches 7. most warm countries. stem. leprosy. DISTR. Bhutika. Rohisha. Burma. Konkan. long. prostrate . Ghats. K. upto 2. cooling. particularly the Deccan trap areas.—throughout the year. high. hallucinations.—Oct. Durva. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. 1 mm. Rhusghas. Sk. Africa to Morocco. skin .5-5 cm.—spikes 2-nate. Fl. NS. usually broad. straw coloured. bitter. forming matted tufts. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. X 1 cm. Vasanchullu. Roshagavat. sweet. :—E. Afghanistan. glaucous beneath. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Baluchistan. :—Punjab. Fr. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Fl. thirst. bronchitis. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). throughout India. t. Sind. scabies. Gharo. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. Durba. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. M. NS. Harali.t. G. long. margins scabrid.. :—E. Dhro. CHAR. Gujarat. See-Oils. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. Mirchiagand. in the Himalayas.
used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. stomatitis.—Cyperaceæ. Bitterish. Granthi.—shorter or longer than the stem. Motha. 0. emmenagogue.82. erysipelas. cooling. Root— diuretic. pruritis. useful in leprosy. fevers. H. dyspepsia. biliousness. blood diseases. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. . CHAR. useful for ulcers and sores. epilepsy. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. vomiting. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Sk Bhadramusta. biliousness. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. bruises. Fl. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. most hot countries. it is diuretic. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. useful in vomiting. diaphoretic. stomachic.— in simple or compound umbel. Nut—broadly ovoid. fever. trigonous. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—Tubers. fever. DISTR. juice is used in hysteria.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. They are also diuretic and stimulant. In Ceylon. Mustaka.5 cm. very troublesome weed. t. vulnerary. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. appetiser. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. spikelets 10-50 flowered. narrowly linear. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness..—Sept-Nov. Fl. astringent. USES :—Roots are commonly. difficult to eradicate. thirst. pain. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. hiccup (Yunani). dysentery. expectorant.. FAM. Mutha. L. See—Fodder Plants. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . anthelmintic. anthelmintic. dysentery. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. :—G. Tungegaddo. greyish black. Bimbal. epistaxis. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. stolons elongate. burning sensation. Ceylon. acrid. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. epistaxis (Ayurveda). blood diseases. K. LOC. epilepsy and insanity. diarrhœa. :—Glabrous herb. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. M. LOC. vulnerary. ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. NS. LOC. urinary concretions (Yunani). Koranarigadde. diarrhœa. Sugandhi-granthila. Kachhola. Motha. Motha. Nagarmotha. COM. Tubers yield an essential oil.
Fl.— tubular.—Aug. :—A perennial twining herb. glabrous above. e. LOC. Utran. subglobose. double. CHAR. . and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. Sk. L. M. Unmatta. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Deccan. long. reflexed. :—Annual shrub. FAM.5 cm. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. t.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. afterwards racemose. M. somewhat zigzag. H. white inside.2-7. a glucoside. Sd. paralytic ileus.5-15 X 3. Fl. LOC. Ceylon. Kanaka. Fl. Kaladhatura. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". entire or with large teeth or lobes.—purple outside. DISTR. Kariyu-Um-Matta. Rajdhattura. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. beak long.—follicle. Kanaka. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle.—Sept-Dec.—Asclepiadaceæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC. spur acute. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. yellowish brown. solitary. 18 cm.—7. outer truncate. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. NS.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. Kala-dhotara. Sd. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . COM. Fr. C. G.:—E. ovate. stem hairy. Black-Purple datura. Kaladhatura. very unequal at the base. corona outer and inner. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. COM. M. usually pubescent. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). FAM.—many. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Utarni. packed. HABIT :—A common weed. tubular. green. t. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. diam. ciliate. funnel-shapped. covered with straight sharp prickles. Gujarat. L. Administered after the third stage of labour. K: Dhattura. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Country. Sk. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution.. 30-60 cm. S. lobes spreading. high. on curved stalk 3. and sub-involution of the uterus.—Solanaceæ. Bhranta.5 cm. velvety pubescent beneath.—thin. acute.2 cm. across. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. long 10-20. inner curved high over the staminal column. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. Fl. soft spiny. greenish-yellow or dull-white. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. Phalakantak.-Jany. :—H. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). nodding. divaricately branched. Ns. CHAR.—capsule.g. Fr.
Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. LOC. Cultivated in many parts of India. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. Seeds—narcotic. Gajra. headache. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Gajjari. ganja. FAM. tonic. emetic. in combination with subja. nosetrouble. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. Sk. Carrot. :—E. ulcers. Gajar. . emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Roots. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Garjara. The plant as a whole has narcotic. bronchitis. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine.—Umbelliferæ COM. Gajar. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Europe. relieves pain. toddy. GranthiPinda-Mula. Shikkikanda. febrifuge. Leaf poultice. bitter. biliousness. H. USES :—Out of the two varieties. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. and antispasmodic properties. nodes. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. mumps etc. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. cause headache (Yunani). skin-diseases. to increase their stupefying effect. with curdled milk. painful tumours. useful in leucoderma. equal in effect to atropine. chronic coughs. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. black variety is considered to be more powerful. Leaf-juice is given internally. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. jaundice. digestive and heating. enlargement of testicles and boils. anodyne. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. febrifuge. leaves and seeds. LOC. piles. toxic. Gajar. leaves and seeds. black (Kala) and white (Safed). (Ayurveda). K. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. anthelminitic . :—Throughout the tropics. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. in gonorrhœa. majum.. DISTR. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. heating. alexiteric. G. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. M. The whole plant is narcotic.
Fr. CHAR. chronic affections of chest and lungs. . biliousness. Kanara . green and glabrous above. :—A woody undershrub. Deccan and S. " Vata". diuretic. biliousness. used in bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. paler and hairy beneath. cures leprosy. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . upper edge straight. Fl. DISTR.. abundant in Khandesh Akrani.2 m.6-1. urinary discharges. good for inflammation.—May-July. aphrodisiac. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. membranous. piles. Burma. margins wavy. cures typhoid. t. anthelmintic. " Tridosha ". high. thirst. Ranbhal. stems and branches angled. LOC. expectorant. Kitavinashini. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. indigestible. Salparni. LOC. Vidarigandha. See—Vegetables. B and C. they produce a spirituous liquor. USES :—Externally. Fl. Darh. sub-falcate. Murele-honne. LOC. ovate-oblong. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. standard cuneate at the base . throughout India.—onefoliate. vomiting. hooked hairy. 0. useful in chronic fevers.—in terminal or axillary racemes.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). K. alexipharmic. Salwan. thirst. vomiting. astringent to bowels. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. H. Salpani. boiled with honey and fermented. L. dysentery . Root marmalade is refrigerant. pains. cures biliousness.—pod. fattening. asthma. cough. NS. astringent to bowels. Shaliparni. carminative. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. urinary complaints. Roots contain vitamins A. piles. Salwan. hiccup. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. bronchitis. nausea (Yunani). Dirghamula. joints 6-8. good for liver. Philippines. removes " Kapha". Salpan.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. tropical Africa. Tonic. asthma. C—violet or white. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. It is used in fevers. M. China. inflammations. tumours. burning sensation. they are also diuretic. :—Konkan and N. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. cardiotonic. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. :— G. chest troubles. Sk. tonic. Ceylon. antidysenteric. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Malay Peninsula and Islands . vomiting and asthma. M. other fevers. FAM. hairy. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. Salwan. COM. alterative. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. prevents death of fœtus in womb . Country. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice.
Temburni. erect pyramidal or columnar.:—Saurashtra. Kusha. thirst.—Dec. Davoli. Anilsara. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Kalaskandh. Fl. . Darbha. Sacred Plants. branches short crowded. Dab.. skin eruptions. :—E. Tumaki Mara. Wood cures biliousness. erect. Timbwini. Dabha. H. LOC. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. M. long.—Ebenaceæ. Konkan. oleaginous.—G. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. diseases of blood. stolon very stout. M.) FAM. Pavitra. :—Along the coasts of N. astringent to bowels. Durva. NS.—many. Sphurjaka. Malay Archipelago. heating. smooth. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). cooling. :—Perennial tall grass. fruit and seeds. aphrodisiac. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). LOC. branched from the base. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Riber ebony. high. jaundice. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Gale. covered with shining sheaths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. bark. FAM. reaching 50 cm. L. Tumari. sedative to pregnant uterus.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. asthma. -panicle 15-45 X 1. rigid. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Flowers—aphrodisiac. creeping. margins hispid. Nubia. Syria.8 cm. rootstock stout. sheaths glabrous. vaginal discharges. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Egypt. :—Throughout India. stems 30-90 cm. G. Gavandu. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Tinduka. t. Wild mangosteen. tufted. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. LOC. CHAR. Banda. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Wood. K. vesical calculi. stout. Kanara and the Konkan. Zeeberwo. Tendu. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Makurkendi. Gujarat. cures ulcers and " Vata". in the beds of rivers and streams. Thailand (Siam). See—Fodder Plants. Kalatendu. NS. ligule a hairy line . Fruit—oleaginous. clothed with sessile spikelets. Fl. Darbha.—Gramineæ. Sk. H. COM. COM. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. strangury. good for lumbago. useful in blood diseases. Sk. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. DISTR.3-3. flowers. vomiting. Ceylon. diuretic. interrupted. the basal fascicled. diseases of bladder.
emmenagogue. removes stone from kidney. grown to a certain extent in S. NS. cordate. Basingh. piles. base decurrent on the stipe. H. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Konkan— Ratnagiri. See—Timbers. abdominal complaints. HABITAT :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. Grains contain vitamin A. "Vata". :—Tropics of the old world. Hurali. :—Rhizome creeping. inflammation.Gahat. cures " Kapha". COM. bronchitis. Texture membranaceous to leathery. eye troubles. . Kulithaka. Nasik. causes biliousness (Yunani). Tans. dry. FAM. enlargement of spleen. Bijapur and Dharwar. Sk. It is demulcent in calculus affection. Horse-Gram. ovate. FAM. K. diseases of the brain and eyes.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). acrid. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Kulathi. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. Sitetara. CHAR. piles. generally on trees and rocks. Kulith. leucoderma. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). appetiser. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. Diuretic. liver troubles. hiccup. astringent to bowels. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. Wandar bashing. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. See-Food Plants. coughs etc. asthma. :—E. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. tumours. heart-troubles. Surfaces naked. NS. :—M. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. LOC. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. pain in liver. Kulitha. stout. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Kulthi. COM. M. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. variously lobed. Sk. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. fattening. Kulit. cures hiccup. strangury. PARTS USED :—Seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Ashvakatri. G. intestinal colic. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. DISTR. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. improves complexion. M. Sori two in each primary areole.—Polypodiaceæ. ozoena. Jurali. Kulthi. Kalvrinta. LOC. short. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. fertile ones long stalked. antipyretic. urinary discharges. hot. Country—Belgaum.
:—Throughout India. M. increases appetite. used in strangury. Deccan. cottony. often rooting at the nodes. antipyretic. Root— abortifacient. L. Sk.— Nov. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. K. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Konkan. :—A much branched rigid annual. Country. LOC. cottony pubescent. diseases of heart. :—Konkan. Utkatara. Balari. strigose and hairy. Fr. Plant stomachic. " Vata". Utanti. chronic fever. M. urinary discharges. . H. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. CHAR. Kalobhangro .—limb linear. Maka. cooling. globose. FAM. COM. usually oblong-lanceolate. :—G. LOC. pain in joints. COM. involucre. Utkanta. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda).—Compositæ. branches widely spreading from the base. L. Markara. Kantaphala. :—More or less throughout India. Utkantaka. Ajagara. Afghanistan. Bhangra. oblong. wooly beneath. Shulio. CHAR. t. M.—heads white.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. Mochand.—achene obconic. hot. Kadechubak. Utakatara. Bhringraj. subentire. :—G. Fl. S. C. also cultivated to a certain extent.—Compositæ. hysteria. used in ophthalmia. Bhangra. Kadigga-garaga. bracts 3seriate. bitter. useful in brain-diseases. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. DISTR. inflammations. thirst. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). causes " Kapha". dyspepsia. DISTR. spines 2.3—0. NS. sessile. Fl. densely villous. 0. improves taste. Sunilaka. Dadhal. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. Garagadasoppu. Seeds—wholesome. :—Kanara.—sessile. Pitripriya. NS. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. the lobes triangular and oblong. high. intermediate produced in sharp spine. long. Keshrangana. stimulates liver. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic.9 m. LOC. Bhangro. sinuate and spinescent. analgesic. It is used in hoarse cough. tonic. astringent to bowels . biliousness. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. hectic fever. gleet. surrounded by strong white bristles. yellowish. glabrous above.— opposite.5 cm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. deeply pinnatifid. Sk. Kantalu.-Jany. Utkanto. dyspepsia and cough. pappus short. stems and branches strigose and hairy. H. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. spiny.
In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Burma. G. alexipharmic. :—Western valleys of N. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. DISTR. Karangi. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Malaya. lustre of eyes. fevers. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. LOC. leucoderma. cultivated. heart and skin diseases. Triputa. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. "Vata". In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Fl. COM. Elachi. fattening. cuneate with a narrow wing. anæmia. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. disk ones tubular . There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. involucral bracts about 8 . hair. bronchitis. internal diseases. improves colour of hair. NS. antipyretic. it is powdered and applied externally. Bitter . stomatitis. Chandrabala. . solitary or 2 together. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. Ilaji. :—E. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. FAM.— Oct. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. "Kapha". used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). It relieves headache when applied with oil. Veldoda. stomachic. night blindness. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). K. Velchi. Gourangi. W. prevents abortion and miscarriage. anthelmintic. syphilis. teeth. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Gandhkuti. pappus 0. Madhya Bharat. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. Choti-Elachi. a reputed and popular liver tonic.—in heads. Peninsula). and for strengthening gums. C—often 4-toothed . Fr. Ela. LOC. alterative. hot. expectorant. good for spleen diseases. tonic. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy.-Dec.—Scitaminaceæ. axillary. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. asthma. cures vertigo (Yunani). Panjab. t. Yalakki. Sk. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . hernia. There are two forms erect and prostrate. M. hemi-crania. toothache. liver pain. Ceylon. It is given internally in scalding of urine. H.:—India (Bengal. eye diseases. See—Sacred Plants.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. good for complexion. ray flowers ligulate.—achene. Kanara (Siddapur. Bahula. eyes. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle.. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. cures inflammations. Sind. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton.
Kanisha. DISTR. Bhasmaka.—Gramineæ. Rotka. Wavrung. H. See-Food Plants. piles. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. consumption. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. COM. It is said to be astringent. Vayuvitang. ear and tooth ache. NS. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. diuretic. India. Marua. Vidariga. useful in asthma. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Bidanga. PARTS USED :—Grain.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. rich or poor. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. :— G. Bavato. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. cause biliousness . abortifacient. FAM. stomachic.. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. . USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. scabies. cooling.:—G. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. root is laxative and tonic. diuretic. M. Narttaka. pungent. Sk. most suitable to hard-working classes. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. M. Makra. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. bitter. In S. It is stomachic. clear head. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. useful in head. FAM. CUM. Nagali. Rajika. bronchitis. pruritus. tonic to heart. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. Pavaka. NS. cooling. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Navalo-nagali. fruit and seeds. laxative. stomachic. Boberang. Varding. K. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. fruit is tonic. alexiteric . carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. strangury. chest and throat (Yunani). diseases of bladder. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). kidney. fragrant. carminative. Vavading. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. Grains contain vitamin B. bad humours of liver. Nachani. H. useful in biliousness. Seed—fragrant. causes thirst. Jantughna. LOC. LOC. Vavoding. lessens inflammation. Sk. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. tonic. cultivated. brain and mouth.—Myrsinaceæ.:—Western and S. stimulant and emmenagogue. Ragi.
Amalaka. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. analgesic. good appetiser.—Euphorbiaceæ. S. Dhatri. L. DISTR. purgative. ascites. useful in burning sensation. Triphala. LOC. Amlika. bark studded with lenticels . alexiteric. bronchitis. bark. cures bronchitis . Fr. cooling. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Gokhale. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. wild or planted. laxative. many. bronchitis. Kanara. Malaya. . G. urinary discharges. Amlika. Bitter. biliousness.—Feb. " Tridosha ". Anward. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. dries wound discharges . EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. aphrodisiac. China. LOC. t. internodes long. Ambala. sour. racemes minute. anthelminitic. Dhatriphala. Bhoza . paler and silvery beneath. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. NS. reddens urine. cures tumours. coriaceous. Konkan and N. strangury. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. Arch. China. S. vulnerary. laxative. dyspnoea. succulent. Daula .—in lax panicles. hemicrania. inflammations. Avala. Malay Islands. anæmia. Int. carminative. leaves. Dadi.—alternate. :—A large scandent shrub. " Kapha'. :—Throughout India. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. carminative. with a sharp bitter taste. Fl. nearly globose. :—Hilly parts of the State. M. Ceylon. K.—berry. good for plethoric constitution. often planted in Konkan. slender. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). diseases of heart. Anola.) FAM. alexiteric. greenish yellow. LOC. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. PARTS USED :—Root. Paranjpe and G. dry. useful in asthma. :— E. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. smooth. Adiphala. PARTS USED :—Fruit. HABITAT :—Rain forests. Seed— acrid. thirst. K. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. anthelmintic . It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. mental diseases. Fl. Western Ghats. sweats. et. Amla. leprosy. antipyretic. flexible. H. urinary discharges. Deccan. like a pepper corn when dried. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. constipation. alterative. piles. alterative. erysipelas. Nellika . flowers. Pharm. poisoning. Ther. DISTR. vomiting. shining above. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). black when ripe. Sk.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. branches long. jaundice. tonic. Ceylon. (Dymock). anuria. elliptic-lanceolate. 42-II-1932). :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Embelic myrobalan.
piles.—Aug. used as laxative and astringent. astringent. :—Throughout the greater part of India. useful in heart-diseases.—Gentianaceæ. Hallekayiballi. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. purifies body humours (Yunani).—sessile. Fr. cooling. Dried fruits. Celyon. West Indies. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Tiktapatra. Sind. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. See—Timbers. stops nasal hæmorrhage. anthelmintic. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". Doddakampi. branched from the base. Mabhipaka. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). USES :—Root. Fl. Dyes. DISTR. COM. Tanavadi. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). stems erect or procumbent. K. Fruit Trees. tonic. Sk. NS. Lady nut. aperient. Fruit—acrid. Country. Ind. 3-nerved. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. Garambi. white. R. variable.). CHAR. M.) FAM. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. ellipsoid. vulnerary. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. :—Konkan. expectorant. Mamejavo .MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. 10—50 cm. Unripe fruit is cooling. high. in axillary clusters all along the stem. eye troubles. H. improves appetite. biliousness. narrowed at the base. lobes 5. C—infundibuliform. thirst. FAM. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. COM. liver complaints. cold in the nose. Madvinashi. :—E. Giant's rattle. Gujarat. Nagajivha.-Nov. Mackary bean. Tans. Nahu. Chhotakirayat. sub-quadrangular or terete. .—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). :—A perennial glabrous herb. Garbe. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. sour. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. opposite. M. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa.— capsule. M. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Saurashtra. mid-nerve strong. :—G. rounded apex. LOC. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. diuretic and laxative. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases.—sessile. Fl. LOC. Malaya. Kadvinayi. Grey). t. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. NS. S. LOC. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. L. bark and fruit are astringent. tropical Africa.
cures " Kapha" and " Vata". cure urinary discharges. hot.-May. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Salaki.S. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. . is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery.—6-15.—2pinnate. DISTR. LOC. indented between the seeds.3-2 cm. Dadap. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Fl. Pegu. Pangara. L. Leaves—bitter. woody. Sk. Mandara. LOC.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. shining and brown.. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. Kanara. improve appetite.) FAM. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. rigidly coriaceous. Sundribans. Indian coral-tree. leaves. stalked. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ceylon. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. Mochi-wood. Tennaserim. Nepal. t. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. in debility and glandular swellings . flowers. Mullumurige. H. DISTR. Planted as ornament. G. Paribhadra. diam. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. the tropics generally. they are given internally as an emetic. USES :—Powdered kernel. Arakan. for grapevines in Nasik district. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda).7-5x7. M. bark used in dysentery. Halivan. Panjira. Bangaro.5-5-7 cm. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kantakinshuka. pinnae 2—3 pairs. N. COM.. Andamans and Nicobar. anthelmintic. stomachic. Sd. 3. slightly curved. Raktapushpa. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. compressed. long.— Mar. Panarvo. orbicular. Panderavo. glabrous. Fl. along sea-coast above high-water. K. thick.5-10 cm. :—Coast forests of Malabar. leaflets 7-5 x 2. :—Konkan and N. 4. W. oblong or obovate. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Peninsula. Phandra . bark. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . dark green. mixed with spices. Planted as support for pepper vines. inflammations.—yellow. wide and 3-8 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Mandara. branches terete. Hongara. The plant is used as a fish-poison. ORIENTALIS Merr. smooth. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. Pangara. :—E. Var. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—pod. often along river banks. C.. long. 30-90 cm.
M. Sk. K. and to relieve pain of the joints. Sendh. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Nevli. Milk bush. COM. Sd. Australian asthma herb. t. Cong. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. gland minute. LOC. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts.—ovoid-trigonous. Mondukalli. erect or ascending. Dudhi. high. rugose. Sc. COM. L. NS. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dudhi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Pusitoa. The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Shirthahar. H. Kodukalli. :— E.—involucres numerous. Vajradruma. Bahukshira. Plant is chiefly used for worms. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman).—opposite. Dudanali. bowel complaints and cough in children. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn.—capsule. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. . Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. branches often 4-angled. H. FAM. Dandasruha. serrulate or dentate. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. pale beneath. with or without a limb. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Duddi. Dudhi. reddish brown.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. :—E. :—Annual herb. Nagpur 1931). Sher. NS. Fr. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Achchegida. 18th Ind. globose. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Sk. G. Bottugalli.—Euphorbiaceæ. Paradeshi thora .) FAM. K. Dandalio thora. appressedly hairy. it is anthelmintic. Milk hedge. —throughout the year. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Govardhan. See—Timbers. Sahud. M.—Euphorbiaceæ. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. CHAR. dark green above. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. base unequal-sided. 15-50 cm. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. G. Pill-bearing spurge. Indian tree spurge. FL. Ceylon. Fl.
LOC. Ceylon.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. axillary.-Sep. linear. LOC. H.—Convolvulaceæ. high. t. FAM. :—G. t. pungent. almost leafless. smooth. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. :—A perennial herb. leprosy. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. epilepsy.—ovoid. spreading. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. CHAR. useful in abdominal troubles. polished. biliousness. teething of infants . DISTR. DISTR. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. dyspepsia.— capsule. Sk. leprosy and leucorrhoea. tumours. prostrate. campanulate. enlargement of spleen. useful in biliousness. NS. 4valved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Vishnukranta. Konkan and Gujarat. whooping cough. carminative. peduncles very long.-Aug. Sd. smooth. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. more than 5 cm. 6-13 mm. COM. Fl. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. branches erect. useful in bronchitis. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). :—Sind. elliptic-oblong.—many. M. globose. also as an alterative. Vishnukranti. LOC. colic. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. The plant contains an alkaloid. asthma. tropical and sub-tropical countries. long. LOC. stems many. Kalisankhavali. Fr. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . Vishnugandhi. Fr.—small. Sd— glabrous. Nilpushpi.—capsule. brightens intellect. long (appearing in rainy season) . Shyamakranta . Jhinkiphudardi.-light blue. jaundice. usually clothed with long hairs . Fl. . Vishnukranta. alterative. thick like quill. terete. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. stone in bladder (Yunani). naturalised in India. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. solitary or sometimes 2. Fl. rootstock woody . and with oil to promote growth of hair. silky hairy. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. carminative. K. alexiteric. base acute. about 6 m. milk is alexiteric. :—Throughout the State. branchlets whorled. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. tonic. dropsy. employed to raise blisters. leucoderma. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Juice is purgative. cocci velvety. :—Native of East Africa. thin. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. L.-July-Nov. anthelmintic. :—A small tree. mostly female. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. L. wiry. useful in gonorrhœa.
arising from between the stipules . removes "Vata". ellipsoid. Deccan hills and S. DISTR. ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. :—G. Sd.-Nov. t. NS. alexipharmic. Fr. root fibrous. 1-seeded cocci. sessile. smooth. 1-3 foliate. FAM. Circars. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. purifies blood (Ayurveda). toothache. in copious terminal cymes . pale rose-coloured.-Dec. Country. Mysore. Gujarat. :— H. LOC. cures dysentery. Prabhodhini. smooth. Sk. Punjab. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. COM. :—Madras State. reduces tumours. Upper Gangetic plains.— ovoid." asthma. Dhamasa. LOC. C—lobes 4-5. removes "Vata. :—An erect annual. FAM. Ustarkhar. obliquely obovate. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. Maval. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. asthma.—solitary. flattened. Dhamaso .—very variable in size and form sessile. scarcely branched. the upper blue. NS. fever. Baluchistan. L. in chronic bronchitis. L. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn.—capsule. W. Mediterranean. CHAR.— showy. DISTR.-Oct. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. Coimbatore. Arabia. deeply 5-partite. cooling. reaching 60 cm. H. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. long. lower half white. ovate. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Barachirayat.—Gentianaceæ. Dhanavi. Bark is used in scabies. Fr. good for liver troubles. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). acute.—Zygophyllaceæ. Ind. erysipelas. high. typhoid. FL. M. Hinguna. 5-nerved. westwards to Afghanistan. . Rajasthan. glandular hairy. Dusparsha. elliptic or lanceolate. also used in chronic fevers. urinary discharges. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Fl. thirst. petioles deeply striate. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). LOC. Udichirayat. Fl. more or less glandular.). USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours .—opposite. Fl. N. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. it has got cooling properties. Kashaya. M. Waziristan. stem. leaflets linear. Iran. spitting of blood. the middle the largest. yellowish brown. M. stomatitis. vomiting. :— Sind. of 5. Atmamuli. COM. CHAR. quadrangular. Ghats. emmenagogue. Cooling. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. about 1.-Aug. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. :—Konkan.2 cm. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. pyramidal to the apex. small. shining.
tonic to heart. Kapipriya. thirst. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Byala. difficult to digest. tumours. NS. diam. India. " Vata ". NS. Kathel. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. See—Timbers. Alada. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). :—Cultivated all over the State. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Monkey fruit.5 cm. Ghats. COM. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . acrid. K. binding diuretic. Grahiphala. fatigue. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . COM. :— E. " Tridosha". FAM. Bahupada. Vata. CHAR. with spreading branches. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Vad. Kanara. with male. Kait. Kothun. .. Kavitha. often cultivated.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. common in the Tapi Valley. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Sk. :—E. about 2 cm. heart diseases. leucorrhoea. country and N. M. Malura. useful in biliousness. K. ophthalmia. shining above. Fruit Trees. S. vomiting . fruit and seeds. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Banian tree. Fruit—sour . H. liver and lungs . refrigerant. LOC.—Rutaceæ. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Belada. M. cordate or rounded base. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. removes biliousness. astringent. high. Fr. 10-20 X 5-12. female. Avaroha. good for throat. consumption. Kavath.— globose. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). asthma. Balin. Bargad. Seeds—antidote to poison. H. Elephant or wood apple. alexipharmic. Self-sown. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. Kapitha. hiccup. refrigerant . Kotha. L. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . cures cough. Vadlo . Vad. Vat. Kathinyaphala. blood impurities. LOC. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Leaves—very astringent. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Java. :—Indigenous in S. ovate to elliptic.—coriaceous. strengthening to gums . Ala. Goli. Bargat. often planted. Bhringi. G. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Bar. Ceylon. dysentery.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Dadhiphala. Jatala. M. LOC. Manmadha. DISTR. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Kavit.—Moraceæ. Sk. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Leaves. G. Nyagrodha.
Aerial root is styptic. biliousness. vulnerary. useful in "Vata". Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. nose-diseases. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. useful in leucoderma. DISTR. Fibres. diseases of head and blood. pain in chest cures piles. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Anjura. ulcers. W. LOC. gonorrhœa. liver and spleen diseases. LOC. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. . maturant. Seeds are cooling and tonic. Sk. leaves. vomiting. Root—tonic. Anjir. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Afghanistan. in rheumatism and lumbago. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. M. See—Famine Plants. paralysis. India. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. biliousness. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. hill ranges of S. laxative. Anjir. inflammation of liver (Yunani). H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. useful in piles. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. G. vaginal complaints. Dharwar. tonic. diuretic. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. aphrodisiac. boils and carbuncles. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. Cultivated in N. COM. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. :— E. Anjir. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. leprosy (Ayurveda). bruises. thirst. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. demulcent. ringworm. dysentery. erysipelas. weakness. Sacred Plants. leprosy. useful in "Kapha". Bijapur. W.—Moraceæ. useful in syphilis. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. inflammations. useful in inflammation . Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. seeds and milky juice. Asia and Mediterranean. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. lithotriptic. fever. FICUS CARICA Linn. K. India. :—Baluchistan. nutritive. NS. Fig. Milky Juice—expectorant. stimulates hair-growth. Grown scattered elsewhere. Simeyatu . Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). alexiteric. Kakodumbar. lessens inflammations. root-fibres. Anjir.
M. blood diseases. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). LOC. latex. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Yajnika. leaves. Sacred Plants. Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. allays thirst. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. vagina. Umbar. Bodhidruma. bark. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. leaves and fruits. Peepal tree . nose bleedings. given in leucorrhoea. Jari. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. H. FAM. HABITAT :—Planted. good for gravid uterus. Pavitraka. G. fruit. Hemadugdha. loss of voice. PARTS USED :—Root. Umar. H. . The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. Umar. Sk. useful. K. K. :—E. Pipal. ground with onions. Vriksharaj. DISTR. NS. in diseases of blood.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. diseases of kidney and spleen. Shuchidruma. urinary discharges.—Moraceæ. fatigue. menorrhagia. burning sensation. galactagogue. biliousness. :—E. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. COM. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Ashvatha. :—Widely spread throughout India. Rumadi. Leaves—astringent to bowels . acrid. LOC. NS. ulcers. Gular. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Fruit—astringent to bowels. Pipli. M. (Yunani). uterus . In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. biliousness. vulnerary. Arani. Bark is cooling. cummin. Pipers. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. good for foul taste. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Demera. Ragi. Udumbara. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Pippala. DISTR. Sk. leprosy. :—Throughout the State near villages. leucorrhoea. useful in "Kapha". common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Ashwatha mara. bark. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Timbers. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. planted all over. styptic. Pipal. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Umbro. LOC. burning sensation. COM. Lalka.—Moraceæ. Atti. Gular-Country fig. good for bronchitis. G. tonic. Fruit— useful in dry cough. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Pimpal. FAM. Pippala. Milk—aphrodisiac.
. K. Sacred Plants. HABITAT :—Hills. Circars. SAPIDA Roxb. Paker. Country and N. COM NS. Swadukantaka. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. LOC. checks vomiting (Yunani). H. K. Root-bark good in stomatitis. :—E. Handi Kandai. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Hettarimullu.—Flacourtiaceæ. The juice is employed in hiccup. :— G. Ghats. NS. Kankod . USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). FAM. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Badishep. promotes granulations. aphrodisiac. Khandesh. Potika. good for lumbago. COM. Variari. Akrani. bark. cleans ulcers. astringent in leucorrhoea. W. Shalina. FAM. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. gum. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. M. heart diseases. common in the Peninsula. Satpura. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. N. Young bark useful in bone fractures. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Bhanber. G. DISTR. Fennel. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. PARTS USED :—Root. Variali. Sk. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Hunmunki. Katar. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Gajale. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Burma. M.—Umbelliferæ. Fruit—purgative. appetising and digestive. seeds. Tapaspriya. Bhakal. See—Timber. H. Kanara Jungles. M. fruit. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Fodder Plants. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Timbers. upper Gangetic plain. and produces sterility in women. Bhuripushpa. Sk. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Soupa. LOC. Root good for gout. Bilangra . FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Badisoppu. Mullutari. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Shateya. Fruits are sweet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Tambat. Finkel. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. S.
yellow. HABITAT :—Cultivated. appetiser.9 m. bracts and bracteoles absent. aromatic and carminative. furrows vittate. dysentery. leaves and seeds. Sk. spleen. See—Timbers.—in large umbels . young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. laxative. Wild mangosteen. cardiotonic. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. LOC. stomachic. carpophore 2-partite.—Guttiferæ. alexiteric. H. LOC. It is much used as a nutritive. strengthen eyes (Yunani). fissures of lips. in headache. fever. amenorrhœa. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. lessen inflammations. demulcent and emollient. :—Apparently a native of S. :—W. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. Mulgala. K. burning sensation. See—Condiments and Spices. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. dysentery. tumours. often cultivated.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. FL. Ratambi. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections.6-0. :—E. difficult to digest. dark green. (Mhaskar and Caius). The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. Ghats. anthelmintic. useful in diseases of chest. LOC. Amlabija. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. cough and asthma. LOC. Fr. thirst. anthelmintic. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. " Vata ". wounds. improves appetite and allays thirst.— decompound. common in S.—ellipsoid. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. Murjinhalli. Kokam . . cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. Oils. seeds-carminative. aphrodisiac. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. leaves (rarely). DISTR. PARTS USED :—Roots. leprosy (Ayurveda). COM. Coorg. Kanara. biliousness. high. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. :—Endemic in W. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Konkan and N. M. galactagogue. annual. eye-diseases. G. useful in bleeding piles. Tittidika . Tintidika. causing constipation . FAM. ridges prominent. fruit and seeds. USES :—used as stimulant. USES :—Bark is astringent. kidney. Kokam . PARTS USED :—Bark. ultimate segments linear. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. cures "Tridosh". Kokam. NS. Wynaad. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". Leaves—improve eyesight. Atyamla. 0. L. DISTR. wounds etc. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. Ghats south of Bombay. :—A tall glabrous. stimulant. diuretic.
HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. lucida. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite.—Rubiaceæ. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. Fr. opaque.5 cm.-tubular. lucida (Ayurveda). 4. high. LOC. not fragrant. relieves pain of bronchitis. 1-3 together. t. Dakamali. Cambi resin tree. M. C. COM. NS.. PARTS USED :—Gum. FAM.—2.—Rubiaceæ. As sold in the bazar it is hard. Suvirya. :—A deciduous shrub. :—India (W. shining. Dikemali. Northern ghats of Madras State. Burma. unarmed. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . PARTS USED:-Gum.-subsessile.8 cm. COM. DISTR. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . Fl. same as for G. Gums and Resins. Peninsula). Sk. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Hingu. LOC. DISTR. L.5-3. CHAR. Dikkamalli. See—Gums and Resins. Western Peninsula. oblong. . LOC. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. Jantuka. Fl. :—Common from Konkan southwards. Kanara.-sessile. Dikamari. -June. :—India. G. about 1. Bikke. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. See—Timbers. oblong or ellipsoid. K. elliptic-obovate. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. buds resinous. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). Dekamari. NS. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. Pinda. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. :—E. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating.5x22.—Feb. astringent to bowels.8 m. common on laterite in southern parts of N. FAM. HABITAT :—Open situations. LOC. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. all dry districts of Madras State. Dikamali. long. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. first white then changing to yellow. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition.
. sometimes whorled. and crimson from blooming to fading. branching climber . laxative. LOC. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. Kalihari. linear-lanceolate. Tuber— astringent. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Fl. itching. CHAR. Akkitang hall.. .. scarlet. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Tuber. Sivasaktibalb . Ceylon. given off from young tubers . In Guinea. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs.5-3.-July-Oct. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. H. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). perianth segments reaching 6. LOC. L. anthelmintic. root-stock of arched. Dudhio vachhonag. filaments long spreading. changing colours from greenish yellow. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Garbhapatani. FL. Huliyuguru. Languli. leaves and flowers. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. 7. acrid.—sessile. axillary . bitter. useful in chronic ulcers. Fr. inflammations. scattered or opposite. leprosy.2 cm. DISTR. COM. t.5 X 15 X 2-4. thirst. heating. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. Kalikari. Kulhari. abortifacient. Nangulika. The former is supposed to be male. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. Khadyanag. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. piles. Cochin-China.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. used to remove placenta from uterus. K. orange.—Liliaceæ. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Throughout tropical India. margins wavy. :—G. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. abdominal pains. solid. In case of retained placenta. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. linear oblong. NS. stems annual. M. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. FAM. Tropical Africa. expectorant. Indai. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. Sk. ovate lanceolate. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. solitary. Kathari. :—Herbaceous. There are two varieties of the plant. Agnimukhi.3 cm.—large. Malay Peninsula.5 cm. tall. Linn. Karianag. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State.—capsule.
—Verbenaceæ. leaves. Hanji. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. In the Konkan. alterative. Bachanige. Deokapas. made into paste. :— Bengal. laxative. Fruit— diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. Madhya Bharat. Savan. Cashmere tree. tonic. improves appetite . FAM. Karibatti. useful in fevers . LOC. useful in "Vata". Tree cotton. Karpasam. thirst. burning sensation. scattered in monsoon forests. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. LOC. Provinces. promotes hair-growth. H. Gupsi. Shiwan. G. H. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Shiwan. Coomb teak. White teak. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. DISTR. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Sind. the root. piles. Shivani. Gandhari. chronic cystitis. FAM. abdominal pains. Ceylon. Sk. anasarca. Kashmari. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. :—Throughout India. K. COM. See—Fibres. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic . strangury. " Tridosha ". stomachic. Nurma . ulcers. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. LOC. Oils.—Malvaceæ. indigestible. Malaya. DISTR. common on Satpuda. Kumbudi. :—Throughout the State. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Gambari. Devakapus. . Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. leprosy. NS. Root taken with liquorice. M. Var. Gambhari. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Khandesh. Sk. Mahabhadra. Shivan . Shripani. aphrodisiac. root is also stomachic and laxative. gleet. :—Throughout the State and about temples. M. G. urinary discharges. consumption.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. COM. fevers. catarrh of the bladder etc. Flowers—astringent. thirst. :— E. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. anæmia. Devkapas. W. Gumbhar. Rajasthan and N. useful in indigestion. useful in hallucinations. leaves. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra.:—E. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Philippines. flowers and fruit. scalds etc. K. flowers and seeds. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants.
wild in Deccan. used in orchitis. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. good for throat . Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. :— Cultivated in N. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Seeds are laxative.—Tiliaceæ. W. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . preventing their access to wounds etc. K. expectorant and aphrodisiac. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra.—Malvaceæ. cures inflammations. extensively cultivated. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. in hypochondria. Badari. LOC. expectorant. in hills near Poona. bark. Iran. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. enrich blood. poultice applied to burns' scalds. M. Tadasala. scabies . laxative . Province (Pakistan). Dhamin. S. sour. FAM. cooling. DISTR. Anagnika. Egypt. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. M. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. Kapus. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. fruits and seeds. acrid. removes " Vata" and biliousness. fomentation for burning eyes . aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. Phalsi. Tula. Arabia and Asia Minor. COM. FAM. removes " Vata ". Oils. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Karihariyale. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. In India they are used to procure abortion. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). probably in N. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Parusha. NS. Cotton . H. Kapas . good for all kinds of inflammations. (Yunani). NS. Gujarat and S. A. Sk. Country. fevers and consumption. Arali. Kupas. cure all ear-troubles. Rui. See—Fibres. Baluchistan. Ripe fruit—sweet.. fruit. Afghanistan. G. Syria. demulcent. :—Sind. Karpas. M. aphrodisiac.. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds— ' galactagogue. F. extensively in Gujarat. Jana. East Tropical Africa. heart and blood disorders. Rui. LOC. increase flow of urine. Sutrapuspha. Pharuah. restore consciousness. K. Seeds—aphrodisiac. leaf-juice good in dysentery. allay thirst. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the State. Buttiyu-dippa. Parapera. Hatti. digestible. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . Phalsa. leaves. Mesapotamia. tonic.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Mediterranean. U. tonic. LOC.Phalse. Sk. Roshana. analgesic. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Leaves remove " Vata " . H. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery.
Sati talvani. :—Western Peninsula. L. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). G. Sk. Small Indian ipecacuanha. acrid. K. Hulhul. . FAM.— with thin marginal wing. yellow .— companulate . K. FAM. ulcers. Tanmani. asthma. COM. Vakundi. leucoderma. Churota. Ugragandha. LOC. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. C. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Karalia . cooling. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. lanceolate. India. :— E. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). Periploca of the woods. sweet. Sd. :E. NS. Caravella. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Fruit—sour. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. NS. inflammations. Vishani. :—A large woody climber. Sannagerse.—in cymes . removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). much branched.—follicle. Tropical Africa. strengthens chest and heart. Bedki. the stomachic stimulant. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. biliousness. Mardashingi. FL. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". cornea. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. M. M. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Tilparni. Meshashingi. tonic. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. The ease of administration. Root and bark used in strangury. stomachic. Kavali. alexiteric.— Apl. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). H. common in hedges in Dharwar district. usually single.—Capparidaceæ. Gurmar. — Asclepiadaceæ. G. good in heart-diseases. See—Fruit Trees.— opposite. LOC. Kabari. SK. base rounded or cordate . Mabli. should not be eaten raw. Shrikala. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Merasingi. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Kanphodi. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Adiyakharan. Kanara coast. Arkapuspika. Fl. Bastagandha. vitreous body) burning sensation. LOC. anthelmintic. CHAR. H. Karnasphota. corona of 5 processes . alterative. relieves thirst and hiccup. Meshavalli. elliptic. Fr. young stems densely pubescent. :—Throughout the State. bronchitis.-May. t. Ceylon. Sanngera. helps removal of dead fetus. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Mahabaleshwar and N. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. piles. COM. ovate. S. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. DISTR. Pandhari tilwan. Br. Hulhul.
vesicant. pain.8-9 cm. COM. 5-9 cm.—capsule. :—An annual erect herb 0. tumours. :—M. gynophore 2-2. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). hairy on the nerves beneath. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. ellipsoid . LOC. long. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Gidesa Jitasai. Sd.12. CHAR. Murdasing. PARTS USED :—Root. Murudseng. elliptic-lanceolate. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. t. Edamuri. margins crenate-dentate. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. NS. removes "Vata". sessile. :—Deccan.. Fl. Fl. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. Marosi. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. hairy. good in ascites. pubescent. Sk. earache.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. Gujarat. . producing copious exudation. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers .—June. :—A small deciduous shrub. COM. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. elliptic-obovate. Kanara. Jonkaphal Maraphali. t.2 m. Sd. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Mrigashringa. FAM.—3-5 foliate. hairy.—many. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. Fl. H. China. hills in Supa Taluka.—Oct. S. acute. long . viscid. glabrous or pubescent above. Katraj Ghat.—muricate.5-20 X 3. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Kavargi. pink . C. :—G. Murudi.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. tapering at both ends. hills near Nagothana. with divaricate herbaceous branches . Fr. Fr.-Feb. Fl. leaflets subsessile. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant.—petals 4 with long slender claws. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles .—Rubiaceæ. K. high. leaves and seeds. DISTR.6—1. stipules triangular. opposite.—capsule. ..—rather rigid. dark-brown . NS. DISTR. stomachic . Sinhgad hills. LOC.—in dense bracteate racemes. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. M. L. FAM.5 cm. Country. HABITAT:—Hills. L. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. stem and branches hairy. M. white or blue. Avartant.—Sterculiaceæ. (Kirtikar and Basu). in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. ulcers. Kewan. pedicels viscid hairy.
Durivel. Upalsali. :—Throughout the State.—follicle cylindric. t. FAM.— very variable. useful in gleet. 5-6. diaphoretic. Deccan and S. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Anantmula. Konkan. Stem lessens inflammation. blood diseases. L. Kapurimathuri. alexiteric. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). Hindisalse. antidiarrhœal. cough. HABITAT :—In hedges. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. liver and kidney diseases . lessens griping. beaked. root-Stock woody . India. bronchitis. Utpalashariva.512. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. stem.-biferous. Sk.—throughout the greater part of the year. 7. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections.Sd. Anantmula. common in hedges. COM. asthma. "Vata' dysentery.—tubular. irregularly crowded. Upalsari. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. Fl. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. rat-bites. astringent to bowels . L. syphilis. and leaves. Country. purplish inside. M. Br. useful in piles. eye troubles. They are demulcent. Root useful in hemicrania. epileptic fits. asthma.— in cymes in opposite axils. thirst. Dhaval kashtha. astringent to bowels. Australia and West Indies. foul body odour. burning sensation. angular . and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). ovate orbicular. scabrous above. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. G. LOC. Hamadaberu . Sugandhi-balli. Indian sarsaparilla . Magrabu. NS. cures all skin-diseases. dark-green. CHAR. Ceylon. anti-galactagogue. often variegated with white above. . Malaya. "Kapha". “tridosh". PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes.—Asclepiadaceæ.-Dec. low appetite. Sd. Burma. H. paralysis. good for brain. bilabiate. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Fl. diuretic. obliquely cordate.—follicle of 5-6. poisoning. leucorrhoea. red at first fading to lead colour. Root and stem—laxative.. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). LOC. K. greenish outside. :—Upper Gangetie plain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.5 X 5-10 cm. tapering . uterine complaints. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. M.— with silvery white coma . Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. demulcent. LOC.3 cm. DISTR. C. Fl. Kanara ghat forests. fevers. stems thickened at the nodes . DISTR. bark and fruit. t — Aug. joint-pains. PARTS USED :—Root. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. :—Large shrub or small tree. mildly astringent. FL. Fr. diarrhœa. See—Fibres. urinary discharges.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. :— E.—numerous. spirally coiled. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs.
It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. t. fevers. :—A perennial shrub. bark and petals are demulcent. seminal weakness. cm. DISTR. CHAR. H. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). Jasavand.—short petioled. yellow. syphilis and leucorrhoea. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. K.—axillary. cooling. crimson. diam. bright red. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. involucral bracts 5-7. magenta. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste .114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. remove burning of body. etc. Jasum. solitary. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. PARTS USED :—Root. skindiseases. Shoe flower. Fl. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Rudrapushpa. It is said to purify blood. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. :— E. LOC. petals thrice as long as the calyx. Fr. Harivallaba. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. It is also diuretic. useful in loss of appetite. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia..—during most of the year.5. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. FAM.—no fruits produced in India. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. C. Kempupundrika. demulcent. COM. Root roasted in plantain leaves. piles. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. G. urinary discharges. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. . Fl. ovate or ovate lanceolate. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. LOC. tonic. red. Dasanihu. L. Jasuva. Dasavala. Aruna.—Malvaceæ. and mixed with ghee. Japapushpa. Root is valuable in coughs. In the Konkan. and as early as 1864. pedicel jointed above the middle. See—Ornamental Plants. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). leaves. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. uterine and vaginal discharges. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Sk. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. M. glabrous. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. tubular below. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Raktapushpi. entire near the base. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. flowers. irregularly serrate towards the top.—7. astringent. Native country probably China. Jasut.
Fl. Sd. Madhavi. t. Ghats.—coriaceous. Madhalata. Deccan. orbicular. long. Lal ambadi. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. 5th petal yellow at the base. COM. Kempupundrike.—1-3. NS. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Kamuka.—in erect racemes. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Haladvel. flowers. elliptic-oblong. Sk. much used in curries. mid-lobe the longest. ovoid. asafoetida and molasses. 10-18 X 4. C. Atimukta.-Dec. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. base cuneate. :—An annual. Rozelle. Atimukta. Madhavi. beaked. Madhavi. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. erect. involucral bracts 10. :—Cultivated. G. NS.—purple with darker centres. Pundi-bija or soppu. Vasantduti. 3-winged. :—E. L. 1. CHAR. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.— Jany. Lal ambadi. 3-5 lobed. pepper.—Malvaceæ. hairy. K. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. clawed. Fibres.—Malpighiaceæ. stem and branches purple. petioles silky. M.—5-7. Konkan. long. K. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Madmalati. Fr. calyx fleshy. Fl. Lal ambari. and adding a little salt. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. Adimurtte Adirganti. fringed. fragrant. on the margins. .—capsule. young parts silky. PARTS USED :—Leaves. fruits and seeds. often blotched with purple with darker centre.—large. acuminate. Fl.) FAM. L.—petals 5. Ceylon. COM. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient.5 cm. Red sorrel. Madhavi. Vasanti. across. H.—axillary. serrate. sedative and refrigerant. Ragotpiti. FAM. purple. Grows abundantly on the W. LOC. H. purple.5 cm. :—G. white. (lower leaves sometimes entire).—Oct. Kanara. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. CHAR.— solitary. Kampti. C. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Vegetables. HABITAT.3-7.lobes oblong. Vasantduti.2-2 cm. tropics of the old world.-Mar. t. entire glabrous. Sd. Malati.. Fl. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. covered with minute hairs . DISTR. :—Throughout the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. M. Fr. uppermost petal broader. glabrous. Chandravalli. Madhumalati. Patwa. globose. black-brown. LOC. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places.
bleeding piles. diarrhœa. Sk. Burma. lumbago. leprosy. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. hallucinations (Ayurveda).—Apocynaceæ. L. Mt. Andamans.—10-20 X 5-11. cool the brain. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. LOC. insecticidal. urinary discharges. Kaling. Kumaon. tonic. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. white. styptic. given in chest affections. remove muscular pains . See—Ornamental Plants. vulnerary. astringent to bowels cure pains. tonic. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. good in chronic bronchitis. Sd. Flowers— acrid. wounds. Nepal.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . :—E. CHAR. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). ulcers. good in erysipelas. acrid. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. G.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Madras State. biliousness. skin diseases. Fr. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. colic. Kutaja. vulnerary. Abu. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. fevers. M. H. Kuda. long. good in headache. Kuda. acrid.. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. remove "Tridosh". bitter. inodorous. fatigue. excessive menstrual flow.. anthelmintic. Kaduoindrajav. Siwalik. Circars. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. COM. N. Karuindrayan. Leavesastringent. Conessi bark tree. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Malay Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Bark. NS. Ceylon. Dudhi. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. strengthens gums. PROPERTIES. LOC. Thailand (Siam). thirst and inflammation.5 cm. cylindric. cause "Vata". biliousness. Seeds—carminative. flowers and seeds.—follicles 20-48 cm. burning sensation. Pandhara Kuda. cures dysentery. Assam. Hath. Seeds—appetiser. leaves. thirst.—Feb. China. K. Kudsalu. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. branchlets drooping. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. Karohi. FAM. broadly ovate or elliptic. Indrayana. Kura. cooling. LOC.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Kurchi tree. :—Throughout the State. C—tubular.-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. FL. t. smoke good for piles. appetiser cure blood diseases. cough. main nerves conspicuous . HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. piles. galactagogue. leprosy. Bark—bitter. often dotted with white spots. Kodasige. throat hairy inside. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Hale. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Veppale. heating. DISTR. Karnatak. skin and spleen diseases. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. " Kapha". diuresis (Yunani). boils. lessens inflammations. asthma. leucoderma .
Shaktu. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. bronchitis. useful in bronchitis. allays thirst. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. dysentery and intestinal worms. malt sugar and diastase. and kurchicine. headache. (R. Ymvah. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Tasteless. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Seeds. aphrodisiac. Java. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. 1928). G. Germinated barley. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). The grains contain vitamin B. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Knowles. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. H. nor astringent. Satu. Jav. kurchine. DISTR. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). improves voice. diarrhœa. Javegodhi. LOC. Barley. stomachic. India. demulcent and expectorant. useful in fevers. burns.—Gramineæ. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. nor styptic. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. Med. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Yava. See—Food Plants. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. NS. febrifuge. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—E. . LOC. fevers (Yunani). M. They are astringent. causes constipation. widely cultivated in temperate regions. Divya. COM. useful in biliousness. Sk. Suj. lowers the pulse. K. Gaz. fattening. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. They are also used after delivery. acrid. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. good for ulcers. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. FAM. biliousness. with radicle attached to it. especially cod-liver oil. Ind. anæmia. Hayapriya. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. asthma. inflamed gums. Jav. pains in chest. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Jawa. sweetish. Aug. —Cultivated chiefly in N.
dioecious . Kshiradru. t. good for the throat. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. COM. Kadukavata. Garudphala.5-23 X 3. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Sk. Peninsula.—Apl. Bhrijatuaka. Bhanina. sulphur. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Kanara evergreen forests. FAM. Sk. DISTR. Ugragandha.. Bhoswar. For scald-head. NS. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume.—berry. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. size of small apple. H. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Kastel.—Rubiaceæ.—solitary or in racemes. Fr. . M. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Bharnarasalya. :—G. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests .—petals fringed with soft white hairs . :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Madhya Pradesh. Bhutabi. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. See—Oils. Common in N. Ghats. :—W.—Bixaceæ. Sd. white. camphor and lime-juice. S. Garudphala. high. COM. acuminate. Dondru. :—K. Bhorsal. bitter. globose or ovoid. common in Travancore. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. L. Dondra. K. Phaldu. tomentose. Malabar. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Gandele.5 cm. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. flat. M. LOC. C.) FAM. Southern and Western India. CHAR.—numerous. more or less coriaceous. pungent. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Fl. DISTR. sometimes along river banks. FL. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition.8-7. Bandaru. M. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Bhringamallika. 12.—Jany.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. Bihar. Betaga. Kowti. Country and Kanara. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). young parts brown pubescent. Amarachala. Niradivittulu. broadly ovate. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. LOC. Doti. increases taste and appetite.
5 cm. thirst. Common in the evergreen forests of N. :—More or less throughout India. Java. :—Konkan. Fl. :—Throughout the State. prostrate.-Apl. Krishnasariva. trailing on mud or floating.—follicle. Kanara. Bhadra.8 cm. Siamalata. S. Fr. cures " Kapha ". black with white scanty coma. Shradhashaka. FAM. middle portion much inflated. COM. cooling.-Dec. Gorwiballi. t.—in axillary and terminal. Nadika. :—A large twining shrub . Kalidudhi. very common in Gujarat.—1-5 flowered peduncles .. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. Kalmisag.—capsule. DISTR. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. LOC. ovoid . Fr.—Nov. :—H. blood diseases. Nalichibhaji. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. H. Fl. Australia. Karmi. biliousness. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . the powdered wood is used for herpes. lobes obscure .—Convolvulaceæ. rooting at the nodes . NS. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda).—tube with narrow portion below. Pechuli. Sd. Nalanibhaji. PARTS USED :—Root. t. Karihambu. Ceylon. FL. throat and tube dull purple . Country. very slender. C. numerous . The outer layer is tasteless. pubescent. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Sariva. vomiting. COM. Br. hollow.—5-12. Gopini. Kalaghantika. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. :—G. straight or slightly curved. Fl. C. M. upper constricted. X 4 cm. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. rusty pubescent. aphrodisiac. fever. L. :—Annual or biennial herb. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. cylindric . Potuasaga. " Vata ". L. See—Timbers. FAM. CHAR. greenish white. cordate or hastate. M. CHAR.—Apocynaceæ.—4-5-7 X 2-3. stalks and leaves. glabrous above. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Kantebhovari. In Indo-China. Fodder Plants. .—linear. Sk. 10-15 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Kanara. Sk. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. stems long.—4 or 2. thick. trichotomous cymes.2 -7. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. LOC. Kalambika. Kalaka.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). NS. elliptic oblong. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Sd. LOC. acute.5x 3.— Nov. K. base rounded. Chandangopa.
Fl. appetiser. diuretic. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. galactagogue. Sk. burning sensation. :—Perennial. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. 3. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. tonic. blood diseases. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. dry. liver complaints. Giant potato . Africa. stem long. lobes 5-7.3 cm. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. anthelmintic. DISTR. enclosed in fleshy sepals. stimulant. Sd.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. FAM. peduncle solitary axillary. lessens inflammation. biliousness and fevers. indigestible. entire. (Ayurveda). ovate-lanceolate. . alterative. Bhunichahragadde. leprosy. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. thick. CHAR. carminative. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. deeply palmately divided. Root—heating. LOC.—in. long. ovoid. H. Ceylon. 4-valved. debility and want of digestive power. being regarded as tonic. In Burma. Leaves enrich blood. useful in fever. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. PARTS USED :—Root. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. tropical Asia.8—6. (Yunani). " Kapha " . expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. useful in leucoderma. Nila-kumbala. purple. vomiting. aphrodisiac. often broader than long.-July-Sept. to children in case of emaciation. biliousness. useful in syphilis. Africa and Australia. improves voice and complexion. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. also useful in liver complaints. near sea coast. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. alterative. useful in leprosy. M. Fr. long. stomachic. LOC. :—Throughout India. galactagogue. Bilaikand . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. COM. Bhumikushmanda. gonorrhœa and inflammation.—10-15 cm. NS. Kanara sea coast. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. flowers (rarely). Flower causes " Vata ". Fl. twining. glabrous. :— E. leaves. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. pale. Bhuikohala. demulcent and lactagogue. 4-celled. (Yunani). jaundice. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. anthelmintic . Swadu Vidarikand. Australia in moist climate.—capsule. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . K. t. cures biliousness. LOC. tropical Asia. Carminative. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. See—Gums and Resins. America. root large.—Convolvulaceæ. L.
surrounded by ciliate sepals. :—Western Peninsula. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth.) FAM.—capsule. Mirchai.—Convolvulaceæ.-Oct. M. Africa. ovate-cordate. subglobose or ovoid. :—Konkan. carminative. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. t. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). PARTS USED :—Seeds. creeping and rooting at the nodes. Fl. stems twining.— yellow. crenate. bronchitis (Ayurveda). blue tinged with pink. Vrishchikparni. Undirkani.5 cm. See—Ornamental Plants. Nilpushpa. K. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. dries the phlegm. Sd. Fr. Ceylon.5 cm.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . believed to be of American origin. petioles hairy. H. Kaladanah. G. Undirkani. Deccan.—dark chestnut coloured . USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. CHAR. Shyamala-bijak. bechic.8-5 cm. LOC. stems many. :—E. CHAR. Sk. broad. reniform or ovate-cordate. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m.—capsule. The plant contains a glucoside.. M. :—An annual herb. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Nilvel. tropical Africa. Fl. E.—Convolvulaceæ. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Morning glory. sparsely hairy. Purgative. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). C. bracts linear. abdominal diseases. LOC. Sd.—3. :—G. cures inflammations. COM. Krishna—Shyama-bija. pains in joints. Musekani. L. scabies and biliousness. FAM. diseases of head. Fr. glabrous . Country. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. long tubular funnel-shaped. . K. :—A herb . S. Kalokumpo. H. Kaladana.—Sept. lobes ovate.-5-12. 3-celled. NS. axillary. fevers. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. COM. filiform. NS. DISTR. L. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). deeply three-Iobed. diam. LOC. Ganribij. anthelmintic.— 4-6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. in the Himalayas.:—Throughout India. M. DISTR. Indian jalap. leucoderma.—1. subglobose. Sk. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. useful in liver and spleen diseases. headache. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. clothed with long hairs.3-2.
it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Fl. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). FAM. purgative. LOC. leucoderma. anthelmintic. Trivrit. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. C. fevers. anæmia. K. LOC. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. lungs. Root— bitter. rarely slightly lobed. Root with bark should be used. Kalaparni. Malay Islands. Indian rhubarb. cooling. bronchitis. removes bad humours. when used alone . long. Philippines. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. bechic. mucronate. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. Nandi. urethral discharges. much branched. bracts large. often pinkish.3-7 cm. antipyretic. Pithori. expectorant. useful in bilious tremors of body. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. muscular pains. COM. LOC. HABITAT :—Wild . H.—white. useful in loss of consciousness. 3. Br. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. stems very long. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. :—Throughout India.—in few flowered cymes.—5-10 X 1. heart and abdomen. pains of chest and joints. good for weakness. pedicels thickened upwards. inflammations and abdominal diseases . root long.—capsule. Nahatara. white variety is a mild cathartic.—Oct. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. :— E. Triputi.-Jany.—Convolvulaceæ. Fl. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. t. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). Mauritius. paralysis. False-Indian jalap. brain diseases.. inflammations. enclosed in enlarged sepals . Sk. Nishottara. bladder. carminative. L. sometimes cultivated.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fistula. useful in diseases of kidney. Turbith root. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). Rechani. like others of the genus . angled and winged. M. G. DISTR. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). acrid. base cordate or truncate . Fr. It is also alterative. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. uterus. tropical Africa and America. burning sensation and intoxication. Nishoth. Kanaka. useful in bilious fevers. also in the Konkan and N. good in pain. ovate or oblong. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). pungent. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. laxative. Common in southern Gujarat. applied in diseases of eye and gums. globose. . strangury. laxative. paralysis. fleshy. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. Nashotar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. twining and twisted together. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. wounds.8-5 cm. Ceylon. CHAR. useful in spleen enlargement.
FAM. intermediate sessile . Fl. LOC. Chambali. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Bakali. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon.—ripe carpels 2. high. G.3 cm. Surabhigandha. white. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. stipules with a long rigid point. Chambeli. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. oblong. DISTR. sessile.5 cm. DISTR.2-6.—July-Sept. terminal rather larger. pale when dry. t. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. often tinged with pink outside. oblong. imparipinnate. H. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Bandhuka. :—Bombay southwards . COM NS. 5-10 X 3. Sk.3 coriaceous. Fr. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. 5-12. obtuse. very common in Konkan and N. size of a pea. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0.— Rubiaceæ. Jajimalle. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Priyanvada. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. See—Ornamental Plants. across. Kepala.. Sk. sessile. Ceylon. Raktaka.—globose. Jai. L. leaflets 7-11. L. pale when dry. :—A large subscandent shrub. C. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. K. :—E. smooth.—3. Ajjige.—opposite. Jati. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. wild. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. Flame of the woods . M.—tubular. Kisukare. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. of stems and roots. proximal petiolulate. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fr. NS.8 cm.9 m.—throughout the year.—opposite. stipules . Pankul. Chambeli. . hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Fl. :—E. Fl. Guddedasal. CHAR. tube long. Anemallige. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. t.2-6. :—Western Peninsula. HABITAT :—Cultivated . FAM.—Oleaceæ. LOC. Parali. lobes 4 (rarely). purple when ripe. FL—numerous.. CHAR. petiole and rachis margined. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. M. obtuse . 3. also along river banks. K. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. coriaceous. very slender . fleshy. Pendgul.
PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. diuretic. M. Sambac. good for pains in joints and ear. See—Ornamental Plants. Flowers—tonic. brain tonic . LOC. :—Cultivated throughout India. Mogra. Ananga-mallika. heating. scarcely climbing. base rounded or subcordate. useful in stomatitis. stomatitis. alexiteric. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. Mallige. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. aphthae. . t. alexiteric. Fl. rheumatism. headache and weak eyes. Iravantige. Pramodini. entire. In Goa. COM NS. Fl. Plant—deobstruent. K. ear. Arabian Lily. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet.—white. very fragrant. Navamallika. biliousness (Ayurveda). black. variable in shape. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. The plant contains an alkaloid. subglobose. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. vulnerary.—Oleaceæ. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. Leaves are also used in toothache. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. and for scabies (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid.—opposite. membranous. abundant in April-May. cures headache. Mogro. See—Ornamental Plants. Mogara. emetic. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. head. leprosy. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . intoxicating. mouth and skin.—ripe-carpels 1-2. aphrodisiac. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. Fr. LOC. surrounded by calyx-teeth. CHAR. biliousness. soporific. paralysis. caries of teeth. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Motia. teeth. softens skin. :—A sub-erect shrub. Tuscan jasmine. Chamba. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. diseases of mouth. useful in diseases of eye. DISTR. FAM. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Sk. given in blood diseases. Root—purgative. expectorant. Flower has bitter taste . suppurative. good in asthma. G. tonic to brain. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. flowers and oil. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). eyes and ear. :—E. Oil—lessens inflammations. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. emmenagogue. otorrhoea. allays fevers . it is used in cases of insanity. Vanchandrika. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue.—more or less throughout the year . Banmallika. alexiteric. H. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. L. ulcers.
CHAR. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. Fr. DISTR. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. 10-15 X 7. subfleshy. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx.— ovoid. Jyotishka. black. male flowers. anaemia.—E. corolla lobes 5. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. " Tridosha". and also promotes healing. Sutashreni.—Euphorbiaceæ.5-12. Coral plant. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. Sk.—orbicular. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). Jangali erandi. herpes.5 cm. useful in chronic dysentery. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. abdominal complaints. long-petioled.—capsule. have suppurative effect. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. stipules capillary. yellow. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Barbados Physic nut. L. disk of female flower urceolate. FAM. garden shrub . when applied to boils. 1. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Fl.5-12. multifid. :—Native of tropical America. Fr. diam. FAM. Bhadradanti.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. G. longer than calyx. COM. cordate. coral-red. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. K. LOC. fistula. Akhuparnika.—in flat-topped cymes.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Wood. thirst. Dundigu. CHAR:—A handsome. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. fruits and seeds. villous within. Sd. Simeavadala. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu.8 cm. juice sticky opalescent. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. Sk. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.— alternate. H. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. L. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. long. biliousness. COM.. Seeds contain active principle curcin. Jangali—Pahari erand. broadly ovate. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. K. . Virechani. Ratanjot. French or Small physic nut.—Euphorbiaceæ. urinary discharges. 7. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. The acrid. NS. Kananerand. Vilayati haralu. Mogali—Ran-erand. leaves. LOC. NS. across. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. The seeds act as drastic purgative. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. :—E.—monœcious. large. 3-lobed. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock).—ovoid oblong. dull brownish black. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles.5 mm. 7. M.
—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. COM. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn.—white spotted. native of N. Nachukaddi. HABITAT :—Shady positions. Fr. often met with in Bengal.—Acanthaceæ. clavate glabrous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. wild in Tenasserim. M. Shindhuka. Nilinirgandi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. hot. Bakas. Karambal. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. high . leaves. DISTR. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. FAM. M. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. dyspepsia. Karinchki. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis.5-12. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. :—Bomb. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. LOC. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. all over the State.5 cm. LOC. LOC. bitter. heating. Bhutakeshi. useful in piles. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. . rheumatism and dysentery. NS. purgative. eye diseases (Ayurveda). long. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. fevers. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). K. L. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Fl. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. tympanitis. pains. causes " Kapha ".126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nilmanjari.—Acanthaceæ. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm.6-1. FAM. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. vaginal discharges. Kalmashi. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). America. :—A native of China. branches subterete with raised lines. 7. 5-12. Leaves are used in scabies. Krishna-nirgundi. COM. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . aphrodisiac.2 m. fattening tonic . in interrupted spikes. wounds. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. dry .—capsule. :—H. Sk. " Vata ' and "Pitta". inflammations.—Ghati pitpapda. CHAR. skin-diseases. NS. LOC. Seed— oleaginous. enlarged spleen. purple within. Kala adulsa. In Cambodia.5 cm. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania.
—2-lipped. pale violet pink. removes indigestion. HABITAT :—Cultivated. ovate or lanceolate. round. FAM. Malay Islands.— June-July. tube funnel-shaped . purifies blood in skin diseases. gives lustre to eyes. CHAR.—in cylindric terminal spikes. Kachchura .5-9 cm. tired feeling. upper lip notched. constricted between the seeds . Travancore. K. teeth. Australia. Malaya. COM.—612 from the centre of the plant. softly pubescent. Tubers yield an essential oil. Plant diuretic. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . :—Western Peninsula. :—More or less throughout India.:—Stemless herb. Chandramulika. increases " Vata ". Fr. LOC. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. stops vomiting.. expectorant. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. elliptic. good in spleen diseases. Fl. spreading horizontally. M. deep green. oblong shortly pointed. Western Ghats . aromatic. burning of body. Chandramala. DISTR. Cultivated in gardens. fugacious. HABITAT :—In hilly parts.—2. obtuse at both ends. petioles channelled. Madras State. oval. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. NS. LOC. fever. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base.—Scitaminaceæ. L.—Oct. t. Maval in the Deccan.—finely tuberculate. fragrant. biliousness. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Tubers. C. lying flat on the ground.—lobes lanceolate.. PROPERTIES AND LOC. strengthens lungs. stomachic.5 X 4.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. diuretic. :—Konkan. t. pure-white. intoxication. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. thirst. L. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). Sugandhavachai.—capsule. LOC. wandering of mind. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Kachri.3-12. :—N. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. vomiting. Sk. Ceylon. enriches blood. Deccan. South Konkan. (Yunani).—variable. Kapurkachri. Panchgani. urinary discharges. . Fl. root-stock tuberous. constipating . The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. 6. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. :— H. Fl. lower 3-lobed . diaphoretic. Sd. thin. Konkan. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Fl.-Mar. P.
when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflorescence of many ovaries.. Kanara. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . Kadu bhopala. Bhuchampaka. elliptic-oblong. L. Dudhya bhopala.— inflorescence. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Cochin.5 X 5-12. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. furrowed. of various shades of purple and white. Dudio Tumbada. Danta-bija. COM. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . M. :—Mysore. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. coriaceous. Kadu—Mithi tumbi.—30X7. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. FAM. oblong. Halagumbala. DISTR. Sk. female cylindric.— sweetly fragrant. Kaddu. semicylindric. M. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root.5-23 cm. —Feb. :—An aquatic herb. Tubers yield an essential oil.—narrowly oblong. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. N. t. K. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. yellow. Fl. CHAR. LOC. Travancore. simple. .. COM. S. LOC. Bhuichampa . :—M. H. Vatsanabhi. rootstock reaching 5 cm. DISTR. t. Malay Islands.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. The whole plant. Lauka. annulate . petiole as long as blade. Fl.—Aroideæ.5-10 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated. remedy for itch. diam. used in the form of poultice. crowded in a globose bead . long. M. :—E. Calabash. NS.-Apl. H. FAM. entire. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bottle-gourd. tubular below. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. G. Tumbaka. spathe 7. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Sk. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India..—15-37. Fl.—Cucurbitaceæ. L. in many cycles. Coorg. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. Alkaddu. Fl. :— G. :—Konkan. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps.-Mar. Ceylon. anthers crowded. COM. margins undulate. CHAR. creeping. :—Stemless plant.. very poisonous .—globose 3. Nelasampige . midrib very stout. Country. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. thick.. Bhuichapha.8-5 cm. NS. Fr. NS. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Bhuichampo . with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Dudhi.5 cm. Katutumbi. FAM. promotes suppuration. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Labuka.—Scitaminaceæ.
Seeds—good for hot constitution. inflammations. cures blood diseases. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice.—Lythraceæ. Ornamental Plants. LOC. flatulence. flowers. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. LOC. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. fattening. USES :— Leaves are purgative. antipyretic. bronchitis. Flowers cooling. Taman. Ceylon. alexiteric. emetic. Holematti. Seeds emetic (Yunani). cures leucorrhoea. China. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. Arjuna. causes bronchitis. . HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities.) FAM. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. See—Vegetables. styptic. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. seeds are narcotic. NS. laxative. K. scalding of urine. DISTR. diuretic. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. wild (rarely). cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. lessens inflammations. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. anti-periodic. piles. :—Western Peninsula. Tarul. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. Arjuna. Assam. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. ulcers. Bandhara. DISTR. bitter. Sk. PARTS-USED :—Root. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. dry cough. increases "Vata". leaves. Nirbendeka: M. oleaginous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. fruits and seeds. cardiac and general tonic. earache. cures asthma. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. LOC:—North Kanara and S. Konkan Ghats. earache. See—Timbers. Bark and leaves are purgative. LOC. wholesome to fœtus. "Vata". COM. Malaya. refrigerant and anti-bilious. vulnerary. bark. PARTS USED :—Root. :—H. In the Andamans. fruits and seeds. There are two varieties. fever. Challa. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Flesh of fruit is diuretic. aphrodisiac. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. leaves. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. cause haemoptysis. Fruit good in bronchitis. pains (Ayurveda). improves taste. anti-bilious. in many cases only cultivated. sweet. bitter variety is diuretic. cooling. muscular pains. brain-tonic. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge.
oblong lanceolate. silky beneath. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. :—W. G. Fl.5-3. heart-troubles. The bark is used to poison fish. bark mottled. causes much flatulence. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. NS. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. Wooly-headed gnidia. Rametha. cooling. :—E. subsessile. M.5 X 2-2. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. . t. Grains contain vitamin A. Fr. lobes 4. burning. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. 5-7. yellow. N. M. lameness. NS.. Fl. Kukurgal. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. improves taste. Rami.—Thymelaeaceæ. DISTR. tonic. Mehndi. M. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. common on the Supa Ghats. Country. Lang. Sandika. K. inflammation. Khesari. CHAR. :—A much branched large shrub. Sk. :—E. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. Triputi. but dangerous cathartic. piles and wandering of the mind. Medi. Gorantha. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Dec-May. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. enclosed in the perianth . glabrous above. Nakharanjaka. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . NS. FAM. common at Mahabaleshwar. Tree mignonette. See—Food Plants. diam. Madaranga. Belgaum hills . Latri. pain. Basu). (B. COM. LOC. Mendi. H.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. (Ayurveda). LOC. Sk. Mukute. Henna plant. Medika.. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. G. FAM.5 cm. S. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. Ragangi. FAM. L. oblong flat. COM.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. COM. Yavaneshta. D. Kanara. :—E. pointed. dense terminal heads 2. K. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam.—opposite or scattered. Chickling—White vetch.—ellipsoid-oblong. Lakh. perianth-tube densely silky villous . Peninsula—Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC.8 cm. Deccan hills.—Lythraceæ. :—Konkan southwards. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. DISTR.—in erect. Kassar. swellings etc.
G. t. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows.—in terminal. favours hair-growth. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Sk. globose. lumbago.—capsule. planted as hedge. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. FAM. Gabholika.). Fl. vulnerary. enriches blood. Ragadali. cure leucoderma. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. Iran and Baluchistan.—opposite. Lentil. ophthalmia. M. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. seeds. mucronate. expectorant.—angular. fragrant. dysentery. L. Belgaum and Poona districts. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. LOC. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. wild in Arabia. Masur. skin diseases . finger nails and hair. The oil and essence keep the body cool. K. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . useful in headache. LOC. cure insanity (Ayurveda). stomatitis. NS. Europe and in temperate W. Fl. pyramidal and panicled cymes. useful. Masura. See—Dyes. amenorrhœa. syphilitic sores. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. white or rose coloured . many. bronchitis. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. allay burning sensation. diuretic. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. H. COM. cure strangury tumours. scabies. boils. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Sura. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. LOC. Flowers are refrigerant. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. The plant contains a glucoside. lateral branches 4-gonous. indigenous in S. Chanangi. Gurubija. supported by persistent calyx. diuretic. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. DISTR. often ending in spinous point. Ceylon. improve appetite. PROPERTIES. Masuridal. veined outside.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. HABITAT:—Cultivated. Massur. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. E. Asia. Fr. Masur. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. Leaves—bitter. :—Grown in Nasik.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. ulcers. remove " Kapha" and biliousness.—Apl-July. Sd. in diseases of heart and of . enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). Henna is used as an emollient poultice. & Gib. :—E. diseases of spleen. truncate.
cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. Asia. tumours and injuries. LOC. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. rheumatism. They are mucilaginous and laxative. LOC. Allibija. Chandrashura. Hot and dry. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. stomatitis . Asahio. DISTR. L. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. good for pain in abdomen. white. leaves and seeds. See-Food Plants. Chavnsar. The covering is styptic and astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. good in inflammations. HABITAT :—Cultivated. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). laxative. LOC. :—E. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. C—petals 2-4 or 0. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani).—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. aphrodisiac. galactagogue. eye diseases (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables. Grains contain vitamins A and B. M. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. Raktabija. Halim . upper sessile. Ashalika. tonic. the lower petiolate. bechic. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Sk. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Chandrika. aperient. FAM. Fr. blood and skin diseases. often with linear segments . tonic. Leaves are used as pot-herb. Suvasura.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. Kurutige. diuretic. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Halim. aphrodisiac . serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). G. bronchitis. NS. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Seeds contain fatty oil. :—An erect glabrous annual. Hurfi. CHAR. enrich blood. useful in diseases of chest. and muscular pains. chest complaints. cures dysentery .—Cruciferæ. Seeds—indigestible. Fl. :—Cultivated throughout India. Ahaliva. bitter.—small. They contain vitamin B. COM. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Garden cress . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. H. constipating. very likely indigenous in W. K. affections of spleen. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. . USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. bronchitis.
NS. tonic. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. Medini. LOC. M. t. leaves. "Pitta".—Linaceæ. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Maidelakri. branchlets densely tomentose. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. galactagogue. Javas .:—E. H. NS. urinary discharges . PARTS USED :—Bark. COM. Alashi. 7. Fl. Sk. remove biliousness. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Alshi. See—Oils. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. remove "Vata". Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. H. Alashi. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. "Kapha". FAM. pale beneath. perianth lobes wanting. dysentery. Alsi. COM.—crowded at the ends of branches. Kanara. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. base narrowed.5 mm. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. glossy dark-green above. Common flax. aphrodisiac . aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. diam. Jivanika. Alsi. FAM. Country.—May-July. boils. Alasi. seeds and oil. Haimwati. Tailottama. used in consumption. heal ulcers. hard to digest. native country probably Egypt. . gouty and rheumatic swellings. Malina. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Common tallow laurel. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. Sk. burnt bark styptic and healing. :—E. bark somewhat corky. 8-12 together in heads. Tisi. inflammations. Fr. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Maidalakadi.—Lauraceæ. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. M. urinary complaints. emmenagogue. back-ache. bad for eyesight. :—Cultivated throughout India. G. K.— globose. lenticellate. Madagandha. Sedhavi. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. M. hot. LOC. Fibres. bronchitis. lead to impotency. good for cough and kidney troubles.. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. CHAR. Fl.. Garbijaur. causes loss of appetite. cure leprosy. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses.:—A small evergreen tree. LOC. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. supported by the thickened pedicel. black.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. L. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). Roasted seeds are astringent. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. yellowish. Seeds contain vitamin A. diuretic. usually alternate. colds and throat complaints. flowers. Linseed. Seeds—mucilaginous.
thirst. SK. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. nearly sessile. FAM. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. strangury. Ranturai. G. M. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Ghontali. galactagogue. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Nali. diuretic. fever. Kalahogesoppu. K. Dhamana. Devanala. branched upwards. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet.100 m. Devnal. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. 1.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. stomachic. cure cough. aphrodisiac. paralysis. Dhaval. diseases of blood. Karvituri. It acts as anodyne. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. Nal. Mrityupushpa. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. high. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). light green.—Lobeliaceæ. hollow.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. M. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". NS. H. "vata". COM. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism.—.—Nov. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.5-3. throat troubles. bark. all oblong. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. vagina. biliousness. Kandele. Sd.9 cm. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. Fl. 3 usually connate throughout . very small. C—2-lipped. Narsala. L. Jhinga. erysipelas (Ayurveda). leaves. pains in joints. bitter. Narttaka. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Malay Islands. Sthulanala. spleen diseases. Katukoshataki. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. CHAR. useful in biliousness. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Ceylon. Kahire. midrib white.—capsule.2-3 m. aphrodisiac. overheated brains. burning sensation. G. Bibhishana. lobes linear. Jalini. subglobose. stem stout. expectorant. :—E. lower much longer.—alternate. tonic. much curved. AMARA Clarke. LOC. Australia. lanceolate. Sk. useful in inflammations. Country. FAM. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. :—Konkan. Fl.—numerous. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Root.-Mar. white. NS. leprosy (Ayurveda). Leaves are mucilaginous. LOC. Wild tobacco. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. yellowish brown . H. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. acrid. Deccan and S. long. K. opening by 2 valves. t. 2. heating. Divali. Kadudodka. Ridge gourd. Fr. uterus. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. long. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . Root—astringent. . USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. :—E. M. consumption. many. heart. finely serrulate. DISTR. fruits and seeds. COM.
—Sept. Mahuda. L. tonic to intestines. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. G. DISTR. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). carminative. also in Konkan and N. :—Plant is bitter. piles. Mahula. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. 5-7 lobed. cathartic. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. liver complaints.—Sapotaceæ. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). palmate. LOC. H. asthma. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). obtusely conical at both ends. especially in western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—E. K. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. anæmia. leaves. DISTR. LOC. Madhusrava.:—A large climber. M. Ceylon.53. LOC. Fl. USES. long and about 2. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. fruit and seeds. Bengal to the W. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. females. Fruit cures fever. Mhowra.—small. Doddippa. at length scabrid. :—Throughout India. biliousness. digestible. jaundice.8 cm.. Gudapushpa. useful in rat-bite. Butter tree. Mowa. cures urinary discharges. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. Root-bark is abortifacient. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Mowda.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Mahua. asthma. inflammations. t. bitter. W. laxative. Burma. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). ascites. thrives in Deccan trap. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. acrid. at first whitish and softly villous. COM. Pokka. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. Madhya Pradesh. C.—monœcious. Fl.—petals yellow with green veins . Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Moha. bitter. Mahura.—obovoid. 10-ribbed. tendrils usually 3-fid. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). piles. "Kapha". leucoderma. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves. pale green. flowers and fruits. . recommended in splenic enlargement. 5-10 cm. uterine and vaginal tumours .) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. thick. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. tumours. tuberculous glands. cough. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. NS. cures "Vata". stems 5-angled. hydrogogue. Kanara (rare) . alexiteric. tonic and diuretic. Madhuka. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. haemorrhoids and leprosy. base cordate. solitary in the same axil as males. diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. Hunage. Mahua tree. bronchitis. Fr.
Mahuva of S. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. bronchitis. causes "Kapha". LOC. and Upper Burma.—Euphorbiaceæ. ulcers.. LOC. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. :—Konkan. fixed oil and a spirit. Movaro. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. . FAM. tonic. cooling. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. carminative. Mohwa. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. astringent. flowers act as a mild purgative. consumption. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. thirst. M. Oils. cures blood diseases. India . Movanuhjad. Fruit-tonic . K. G. Flower—sweet. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Kamala. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Ippe. fattening. anthelmintic. COM. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. H.—Sapotaceæ. fatigue . Oil—emollient (Yunani). Madhuka. used in fractures. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. leprosy. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. See—Timbers. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. DISTR.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Shendri. :—-E. Kapilo. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Kapila. Ceylon. NS. Hullichillu. G. Kapila. yields two important products. There is a trace of alkaloid. and also a remedy for itch. Liquors. PARTS USED :—Bark. aphrodisiac. cures biliousness. USES :—Astringent and emollient. :—E. often planted. Mehua. See—Timbers. burning sensation. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. expectorant. Kampillaka. Kesarimavu. Huli. H. Honey tree. Monkey-face tree. Oils. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Western peninsula. aphrodisiac. heals wounds . NS. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Mahuda. Karnatic. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Moha. COM. and Kanara. galactagogue. K. Flowers—oleaginous. Mysore. good in heart diseases. Famine Plants. flowers and oil. and appetiser (Sushruta). MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Sk. Sk. Kambhal Raini. tonic and nutritive. Mohache jhad.) FAM. M. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic.
Astringent. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. NS. Cuckoo's Joy. Amba. COM. astringent to bowels. China. fruits and seeds. Bihar. cure leucorrhoea. leaves. Malay Islands. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). clears brain. aphrodisiac. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. Sk. lessen intestinal pains. Khasia Hills. sour. styptic. piles. useful in skin-diseases. Sikkim.—Anacardiaceæ. Ceylon. Amri. LOC. good in heart trouble. Gum . Mango tree. biliousness. Bhutan. chronic dysentery and gleet. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. diseases of abdomen. hiccup. vomiting. anthelmintic. "Pitta". it exudes a pink coloured gum. flowers. See—Timbers. DISTR. Amra. laxative. Ambo. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. enriches blood. :—E. styptic. :—Throughout tropical India. sweet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. FAM. throat troubles. bad blood. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. ulcers. stomachic. fruits and seeds. purgative. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. leaves. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. carminative. detergent. wild and cultivated. diuretic. stone in bladder. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. cooling. dispels langour and burning of body. Am. Fruit—heating. cultivated throughout the State. good in cough. appetiser. :—Tropical Himalayas. Chuta. M. Australia. H. removes bad smell from mouth. tumours. purgative. Ghats and the Satpudas. Burma. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. aphrodisiac. tonic to body. "Kapha". Mavu. LOC. heals ulcers. vermifuge and. in "Tridosh". good in dysentery. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. cooling. anthelmintic. improve taste and appetite. dysentery. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. G. Sahakara. LOC. cure "Vata". Introduced. Seeds-astringent to bowels. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. useful in bronchitis. K. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). spleen. PARTS USED :—Root. cause flatulence and constipation. improves complexion. beautifies complexion. Dyes. Kamarasa. improves cough. vulnerary. Kanara. used in chronic diarrhœa. thirst. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). alexiteric. liver pain. vaginal troubles. Sind. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. urinary discharges. a good collyrium (Yunani). tonic. Rasala. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). wounds. Mavin-mara. liver. :—-Throughout the State. bronchitis. DISTR. maturant. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections.
—broadly ovate. burning sensation. 7. :—Bengal.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. Nimbaka. rat-bite (Ayurveda). Balant nimba.—Meliaceæ. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Fl. G. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Country. Madhumalati. CHAR. tumours. piles.—Asclepiadaceæ. NS. margined. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Fl. inflammations. Ceylon. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. stops nasal bleeding. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Dugdhike . broadly ovate or suborbicular. Confection made from ripe mango juice. antipyretic. COM. Juss. It is also anthelmintic. Limbada. green or yellowish green. alexiteric. asthma. H. older branches ash coloured.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. urinary discharges.5-11. K. Hari. M. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Nimba. corona lobes large. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Kadulimb. few glands above the petiole cordate . NS.. Bevu. K. good for dyspepsia. coma copious . Fr. Juice of kernel. astringent to bowels. Sk. long. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic.3-15 X 4. Nim. See—Timbers. Dodi.) FAM. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. M. Harandori. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic.) FAM. LOC.5 cm. LOC. M. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. USES. all plains districts of Madras State. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Ripe fruit is laxative. useful in diseases of eye.—follicles. overlapping to the right. Limbra. :—A large twining shrub. Nimba.—6. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. COM. cooling. H. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. C. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. cures "Vata". t. Kharkhodi.—rotate with broad lobes. fleshy. aphrodisiac. with lenticels and black dots.5-10 cm. Paribhadraka. Java. Fruit Trees. Ambri. flattened. if snuffed. Assam. biliousness. Nim or Margosa tree. L. pale yellowish brown. . Suparnika. Nakchhikni.—Apl. rugosely striate. Hemajyoti-valli. DISTR. Sd. leucoderma. Nimla. :—G. Khandodi.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs.—many. Sk. useful in bleeding piles. :—-E. :—Deccan and S.
skin diseases. biliousness. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. FAM. tumours. cures ulcers and inflammations . it is also used internally as anthelmintic. cough. astringent. urinary discharges. general debility. pectoral. leprosy. fever. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. piles. asthma. expectorant. Small melilot. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. Banmethi. anthelmintic. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. . bruises. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. refrigerant. useful in syphilitic sores. tonic. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . anthelmintic. insecticidal. fruits and seeds. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). like a weak solution of carbolic acid. sprains. carminative. M. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). LOC. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. lessens inflammation. boils. DISTR." vomiting. Oils. leucoderma. "pittadosh. fatigue. valuable in consumption. earache. flowers. antiperiodic. maturant. tonic and antiperiodic. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. Burma. Vanmethika. maturant. burning sensation near heart. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. rheumatism . lumbago. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. leaves. toothache. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . See—Timbers. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. good for leprosy. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. blood complaints. thirst. chronic leprosy. relieves "Kapha". piles. and loss of appetite. it is a general vermifuge. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries.. LOC. Ranmethi. aphrodisiac. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. bad taste in the mouth. for unhealthy ulcers. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. alexiteric. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. bark. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . useful in consumption (Ayurveda). Tonic. convalescence. resolvant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. :—E. The flowers are stimulant. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. stimulant and stomachic. NS. good in ophthalmia. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. H. swollen glands.
Chatinmaragu. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed.—Labiatæ.— Jany.—monœcious . Ghugri.—Cucurbitaceæ. Afghanistan. LOC. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—India (tropical zone). Bilari. . "Sikkim. Corn-March mint.—pod. Fr. :—H. C. given as a gruel (Murray). Fr. 30-45 cm. tapering at both ends.—3-foliate.—one. Iran. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. north Bengal. leaves and seeds. S. especially in strained back. high.. lobes dentate or serrate .—variable in size. rounded.—size of a pea. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . :—Common in Deccan. slightly echinulate. L. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. Sd. :—E. glabrous or slightly hairy. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Fl. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Ceylon. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. glabrous. poultice or plaster for swellings. Pudinah. oblanceolate. Assam. base cordate. FAM. male fascicled on short peduncles. oblong-ellipsoid. M. at first green and variegated with yellow. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. DISTR. Agamaki. K. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). COM. truncate at the apex. NS. Fl. brown. DISTR. introduced into many other regions. Khasia. H. :—An erect annual herb. t. L. deltoid-ovate entire.—pale yellow.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Country and Gujarat. CHAR. LOC. G. also in S. It has expectorant properties to some extent. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. ellipsoid. leaflets toothed. females sessile. NS. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. Externally used as a fomentation. of terminal rather long. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots.—small. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. tendrils simple. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. M. Malaya and Africa. HABITAT :—In hedges. COM. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. M. finally red. Fl. Pudina. young parts white-hairy. stem angular. :—Western Peninsula. scabrid. standard exceeding the wings and keel. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. in spicate close racemes. very hispid . Pudina. Europe. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache.
K. tonic to kidneys . good for fevers. Nagakeshara. Nagkesara. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. FAM. M. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. asthma. Carminative. Konkan and N. vomiting. E. Nagkesara. hiccup. Europe. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S.—Guttiferæ. alexipharmic. digestive. diuretic. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). stalked. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. DISTR. good in asthma and sweats. Ceylon Iron-wood. sweats. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. cough. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. DISTR. pains in joints (Ayurveda). hairy. The plant is used in chutneys. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Assam. L. Andamans. cardiotonic. Kashmir. Nagchapha. infusion is given in fevers. lined with hairs and hairy outside.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Assam Iron-wood. . and stimulant. :—A perennial erect herb . :—E. China. biliousness. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. dry. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. MESUA FERREA Linn. the upper similar and large. leaves.-narrowed below. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. :—Western Himalayas.—in axillary distant whorls. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fr. Suvarna. Nagkinjalka. H. binding. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. flowers and fruits. foul breath. Nagsampige. Fl. C. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. USES :—Root. LOC. See—Timbers. Sk. Burma Tenasserim. :—E. Ceylon. smooth.—nutlets dry. Himalayas. Bengal. lanceolate. LOC. headache. Kanara. used for cough. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. lilac. blood and heart troubles. ovate. In N. toothed. stem short. none at the top. small tumours. indigestion and cephalagia. LOC. S. COM. M. North and West Asia. Travancore. sorethroat. oblong. Gums and Resins. emmenagogue. expectorant. skin diseases. Oils. LOC. thirst. Naghas.
their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Ghats. Champaka. Yunnan. M. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Sensitive plant. Fruit. :—Cultivated all over the State. destroys poisons.. in vertigo. Vanamallika. petioles hairy. Muthmurika. "Kapha". Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. ophthalmia. diaphoretic. Fl. Lajalu. also used as purgative. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Lajalu. CHAR. Sk. Lajjika. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. leaves. Nachike-gidda. "Vata". Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. glabrous above. Flowers— expectorant. rheumatism. Raktamula. Flowers-stomachic. India.—Magnoliaceæ.5 cm. Yellow champa . gout. NS. DISTR. stimulant. sensative. Pivala chapha. Lajjavati. Sankochini. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . aphrodisiac. stems and branches sparingly prickly. PARTS USED :—Root. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. clothed with glandular hairs . Lajja. 57. See—Timbers. K. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Risemani. Burma. LOC. good in leprosy. H.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. G. L. rachis bristly. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. Dyes. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. :—E. G. . cultivated. Fl. Champaka. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Sparshalajja. near temples and in gardens.—Sept. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . removes worms. Sone-chapha. rheumatism. NS. Lajalu. flowers and fruits. FAM. Pilochampo. acrid.—4-merous. Lajari. W. facilitates micturition. Sonchampo. bile. t.—bipin-nate. H. pinnae 1-2 pairs. Hem-pushpa.. LOC. K. Sk. 45-90 cm. remove biliousness. hairy beneath. in globose heads. Champaka. Assam. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma.-Oct. M. evergreen rain-forest of N. digitate. long. Golden champa. high.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). pink. S. COM. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. IndoChina. slightly recurved. Sampige. :—A diffuse under-shrub. nausea and fevers . :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Suvarna champaka. Kanara. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Champa. COM. Champo. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Fr. bark. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). blood affections. :—E. useful in cough.-pod flat. Humble plant. FAM. Surabhi. diuretic.
Bakula. :—G. probably a native of tropical America. biliousness. Bark cardiotonic. cultivated in gardens in pots. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. DISTR. LOC. LOC. oleaginous. Flowers give taste. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. H. Baphuli. COM. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. in piles and fistula. Varsuli. Bakul. alexipharmic. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Kanara. cooling. dysentery. Kalhala. Fruit causes flatulence. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. vulnerary. Juice is applied externally. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. flowers. sweet. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. astringent to bowels.:—Western Peninsula. Mukul. alterative. In Brazil root is used as emetic. Sharadika. Root is resolvent. Kanara and Konkan. Vovali. cure biliousness. nose diseases. acrid. Ranjal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. cultivated in the tropics. Borsalli. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. cures "Kapha". In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. cure blood diseases. Ceylon. K. headache. useful in blood and bile diseases. cures biliousness. good for gonorrhœa. asthma. fatigue. :—Naturalised throughout India. It is also resolvent and alterative. leprosy. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . M. vaginal and uterine complaints. blood diseases (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. Root. LOC. Flowers—expectorant. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). leprosy. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. liver complaints. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. fruits and seeds. piles. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. DISTR. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. FAM. bilious fevers. Seeds fix loose teeth. alexipharmic. leucoderma. anthelmintic. flowers and fruits acrid. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. smallpox (Yunani). Bolsari. ulcers. Mugule. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Anangaka. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth.—Sapotaceæ. Bakul. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. burning sensation. NS. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. often planted in gardens. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Mulsari. bark. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. teeth and gum diseases. Sk. Malaya. cooling. jaundice. stomachic. Bakul.
each one surrounded by an involucre. high with large perennial tuberous roots. blackish. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Sk. lessen inflammations (Yunani). In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. CHAR. . COM. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. FAM. Four o'clock plant. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. H. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Fr. Hagalkai. K. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. M. yellow. See—Timbers. native of tropical America. Gulbasa . Chandra—Sanjimallige. Karelo.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Krishnakali. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. G. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Grown throughout India.—Nyctaginaceæ. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. L. Fruit Trees. NS. DISTR. Fl.—E. Karli. HABITAT -Cultivated. Kandura. Karala. Karela. Oils. It is also tonic and febrifuge. t. Karela. good for syphilitic sores. :—E. Carella fruit. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. cordate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Hagala. FAM.—membranous. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. 30-75 cm. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. :—A herbaceous plant. LOC. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Sk. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. Karavalli. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles.—large. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Kareli. Guleaabbas . it is applied to relieve headache. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. COM. K. LOC. Fl. H.—Cucurbitaceæ. M. Leaves are maturant. and rather fleshy stems . NS. Marvel of Peru. often ribbed or rugose.—continually in bloom. white or crimson striped with white yellow) .
:—G. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. China. Gid-hagalu. urinary discharges. sparingly in Konkan. Kanta. leprosy. carminative. anæmia. jaundice etc. cure "Tridosh". M. burns. erysipelas (Ayurveda). the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. Fruit—very bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. hearttroubles. etc. rheumatism. H. Ceylon. cures biliousness. laxative. stomachic. See—Vegetables. PARTS USED :—Root. excessive salivation. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). M. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. tumours. ulcers. appetiser. all kinds of poisoning. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. laxative and authelmintic. hiccup. B and C. It is useful in gout. Karkotaki. K. piles. Nagarali. Malaya. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Vandhya. Kantolan. . eye and heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. COM. Fruit— bitter. used in syphilis. urinary calculi. Vishakankini.—Cucurbitaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. DISTR. boils. antibilious. NS. lessens expectoration . Plant cures diseases of blood. Beksa. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. longpepper. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. stomachic. digestible. LOC. Leaves—aphrodisiac. Fruits contain vitamins A. also in Malaya. tropical Africa. S. hot alexiteric. Kartoli. urinary discharges. LOC. Golkandra. cure "Vata". asthma. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. anthelmintic. diseases of spleen and liver. stomachic. Fruit—bitter. :—Throughout India. LOC. Country and Gujarat. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. bronchitis. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. asthma. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. laxative. antipyretic.'. "Kapha". In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. blood diseases. and externally in ague as an absorbent. DISTR. Karehiballi. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). Fruit is tonic. piles. Leaves act as galactagogue. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. leaves and fruit. and America. fever consumption. FAM. Sk. :—Cultivated throughout India. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. rheumatism. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. bronchitis. Kantoli. cooling. leaves and fruit.
:—E. biliousness . Sk. aphrodisiac. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. Mochaka. removes all kinds of pains. NS. See—Dyes. Haladipavate. Seglo. FAM. H. cultivated throughout India and Burma. emmenagogue. earache. K. LOC. Guggala. improves appetite. bark. tumours. Nuggi. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Achchuka. anthelmintic. G. . G. Munigha. Rochana. also wild. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. LOC. M. causes burning sensation. alexiteric. FAM. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. analgesic. M. ulcers. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. makes blood impure . Tagase . The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Introduced var. Segua.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sargavo. Ashyuka. Murangi.—Rubiaceæ. "Vata". :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Ainshi. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. PARTS USED :—Root. Root-tonic to body and lungs.—Moringaceæ. Achi. fattening. also in the Oudh forests. Sajina. Burma. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. stuttering. Indian horse radish . spleen enlargement. Mulgule. flowers. Indian mulberry. HABITAT :—Cultivated . introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. all "tridosha" fevers. Ak. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. COM. Drum-stick Tree. dyspepsia. Mochaka. astringent to bowels. Ugra. Formosa. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . digestible. Al. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. fruits and seeds. China. Famine Plants. :—E. NS. Saraoji. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. COM. leaves. inflammations. K. Sk. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. tuberculous glands in neck. useful in heart-complaints. Aal. See—Vegetables. Shevaga. Ab. H. DISTR. "Kapha". bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Tikshnamula. leaves and fruits. DISTR. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Root. Bartondi. eye diseases.
leaves and fruit. Tut. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. carminative. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. LOC. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. lumbago. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. H. Fruits contain vitamins A. expectorant. stomatitis. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. Sk. biliousness. aromatic and acid flavour. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. sweetish. Kambali. Siahtut. Madhu pippali. ulcerated intestines. salt and pepper. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. diuretic. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. spleen. Tutri. Tut. White mulberry. common about villages in N. Shetur. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. loss of appetite. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. Oils. epilepsy and hysteria. appetiser. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. gout. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". enlarged spleen or liver. :—E. good for brain. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. diuretic.—Moraceæ. NS. Peninsula. Tuda. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. COM. anthelmintic. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). sour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. B and C. K. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. it is cooling laxative. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. urinary discharges. enriches blood. Ambat. cooling. Leaf paste. Tuta. enriches blood. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. laxative. diarrhœa. internal inflammations and calculous affections. bark. FAM. turmeric. piles. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Seeds yield a fixed oil. MORUS INDICA Linn. lumbago. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Kanara. Fibres. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. increases biliousness. fattening. M. wounds. Karihannu. good for inflammations of throat and chest. heart. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. aphrodisiac. burning sensation (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables. obstinate asthma. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. useful in small-pox. with garlic. The plant contains an alkaloid. DISTR. expectorant. bronchitis. See—Fruit Trees. Fruit—tonic. rheumatism. cures gleet. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. Root is purgative. Gums and Resins. G. .
Havanch. Kuhili. Kela. LOC.. H. Kunth. consumption. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics.. laxative. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . SAPIENTUM O. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. improves blood. Kela. Fl. DISTR. K. pods and seeds. NS. spermatorrhoea etc. sometimes cultivated. L. cures blood diseases. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations .3 cm. Vanari. grey-silky beneath. terminal smaller.) FAM. :—An annual twiner. Strong root infusion. HABITAT :—Humid areas . Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Fruit— aphrodisiac. long.—5-6 small. Sd. tonic. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Kivanchha. Bale. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Plantain. :—E. HABITAT :—In hedges. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. M. CHAR. G. Var. Root—emmenagogue. flowers and fruit. Kadvare. turgid-shaped. biliousness . NS. DISTR. leaves. . Himalaya up to 1200 m. M. lateral very unequal sided. Nayi songuballi. juice given for headache. leaflets membranous.3-11. tonic. Fr.—pod. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. LOC.2 cm. COM. cultivated. silky. Urustambha. Kavach. Sk. Seeds— alexipharmic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. H. covered with tawny stinging hairs. 5-7. G. Maoz kela. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Hasaguni. Kadali. dark-purple. Fl. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Kivanch. Ceylon. t. Kavatch. Dirghapatra. which produce intensa irritation of skin. Kapikachu. Kela. :—E.—in drooping racemes.—Scitaminaceæ. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. 6-30 flowered. stem. common in hedges. :—Punjab plains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. with honey is given in cholera. Sk. petioles 6. Banana.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook.—3-foliate. They are used as anthelmintic. " Vata ". MUSA PARADISIACA L. Tikshna. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Atmagupta. Goncha. LOC.—Oct-Nov. COM. Adam's Fig. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Root useful for delirium in fevers.5x1. Turashi. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Cowhage. Rambha. K.
FAM. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. Fr. flowers and fruit. leaves. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Bellotti.--in terminal cymes. tube slender. thickens blood. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Fruit—sweet. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. indigestible .— July-Oct. urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Root-juice is anthelmintic. CHAR. very hairy outside. stipules twin. buds densely hairy. NS. LOC. tonic. Sk. causes bronchitis . L. astringent to bowels. Ipparati. Tropical Himalayas. :—Konkan and N. Root-juice. C. linear. dyspepsia. consumption and bronchitis. :—S. and are used in acidity. B and C. aphrodisiac. :—H. diabetes. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Assam. sore-throat.—opposite or 8nately whorled. aphrodisiac.—tubular. Fl. M. broad at base. COM. appetiser. Kanara. improves complexion (Ayurveda). heart-burn and colic.—Rubiaceæ. tonic. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Nagavalli. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . subglobose. pubescent. broadly elliptic. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. . leprosy. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. lobes broadly ovate. diseases of uterus and vagina. astringent to bowels. menstrual disorders. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. DISTR. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A.. Fibres. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. deep golden yellow. strangury. Bedina. Serwadh. biliousness. :—A rambling shrub. in " Vata". increases appetite. Fl. K. Shrivalli. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. Lawsat. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. good for dry bronchitis. useful in "Kapha". Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. t. PARTS USES :—Root. ear-pain. See—Fruit Trees. Bhutakes. Andamans.— berry. kidney troubles (Yunani). hairy. antidysenteric. blood diseases. in thirst. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. Burnt stem is vulnerary. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. LOC. anthelmintic. Hastygida. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation.
is regarded as. Himalayas. :—Grown in ornamental gardens.—berry. FAM. L. emmenagogue. :—Western Peninsula. CHAR. Kanage. small. Galen and the Arabian writers. PARTS USED :—Leaves. used in stopping vomiting. LOC. They are given in asthma. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Kanara Ghats . M. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. axillary on slender peduncles. intermittent fevers and dropsy. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. black when ripe. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. :—E. NS. as . especially epilepsy. Myrtle. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. Kaiphal. :—A shrub. Murad. See—Timbers. DISTR. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. PARTS USED:—Seeds. smoke beneficial to piles. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. PROPERTIES AND LOC. diuretic. LOC. Vilayantimendhi. Sk. DISTR.— Myristicaceæ. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. Malati. Pliny. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). cures headache. very sweet smelling. Kamuka. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. W. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. Dioscorides. NS.—Myrtaceæ. Fl. A decoction is employed. Malabar. white. LOC. Condiments and Spices. FAM. It is credited with opposite qualities. :— E. allaying pain. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. promotes growth of hair. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. all over the State. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. It is used as a substitute for true mace. common in the Kumta taluka. H. False nutmeg.—small. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. COM. M. Malati. Fr. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. ellipsoid. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. K. fruits and oil. enriches blood.— solitary. Ram-patri. :—Konkan and N.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. ovate to lanceolate. applied locally to relieve pain. COM. Habules.
diam. rough with distant prickles . anthers with clavate appendages. erect. muricate. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Padma. top flat. cells 2-seeded. Goanese ipecacuanha. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. curved. Kamala. COM. glabrous.—capsule. L. creeping stem rooting at the nodes.—petals many 5-12. orbicular.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae.—July. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. petioles very long. Aravinda. t. Pundarika. CHAR.. See—Ornamental Plants. spongy.—Meliaceæ. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. :—W. Chinese water-lily. Ripe carpels. 0. cures asthma. M. DISTR. Padam. :—E. COM. from Iran eastwards to Australia. :—A small branching undershrub. fleshy.—Nymphæaceæ. stem. Ambuja. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. biliousness. elliptic. Kamal. solitary or 2 together. NAREGAMIA ALATA W.—pendulous. ovoid.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. vulnerary. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. long. DISTR. H. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. 3-foliate. Suriyakamal. Kandabahula. K. Tavari-bija or gadde. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. LOC. ovoidglobose. M. Fl. linear spathulate. bronchitis. Indian sacred lotus. Fr. ulcers (Ayurveda). Ambuj. disk annular. :—E. Amlavalli. LOC. NS. G. Timpani. leaves. CHAR. K.3-0. Sd. concave or cupped. hæmorrhage.—solitary. alexiteric. Kapurbhendi. & A. high. LOC. radiately nerved. elongate. Sarasija. C. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. petals 5. PARTS USED :—Root.5 cm.-Dec. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. 3-valved. entire. Papra-vel. Kandalu. t. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Fl. Pitmari. Belakanji. Sk. Kamal. Pankaja. in diam.-Nov. .—white. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. white or rosy. axillary. 10-25 cm. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant.6 m. Nelanaringa . The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. FAM. Fl.—membranous. L.) FAM. petiole winged. NS. :—Konkan. torus 18 mm. free. with slender. Fl.—alternate. peltate. Sk.. dysentery. :—A large aquatic herb. Kamal. Kanara.
Fl. Kanagile. small-pox. menorrhagia. Karvira. Sweet scented oleander. inflammations and poisoning.—in threes. chest-pains. Cool. C. Vishavrikshanka. FAM.—funnel-shaped. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Sind. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ".—red. L. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Kaner. Fr. :—E. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. fragrant. Baluchistan.—follicles. See—Ornamental Plants. t. strangury. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. useful in piles. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. :—Madhya Bharat. Fl. Sd. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. removes worms. coriaceous. aphrodisiac. rose or white. 15-23 cm.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. Upper Gangetic Plains. CHAR. dark green and shining above. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . ulcers and sores of mouth.—Apocynaceæ. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. M. S. useful in fevers . biliousness. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. Paddali. at length separating. fruit. astringent to taste . In China and Malaya dried red petals. also cholera. India. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. gives tone to breast. allays thirst. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . also as a hedge plant. Cool. heart and brain tonic . extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. Karvira. stem. K. leaves.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. spermatorrhoea. Kaner. lobes rounded. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . Kanher. LOC. rigid.—flowers more or less throughout the year. in fever and liverdiseases. diseases of skin and eye . Kanel. H. flowers. Ashwa-marak. seeds. useful in burning sensation of the body. flowers. G. linear-lanceolate. Waziristan. COM. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. honey. also recommended as cardiac tonic. . long. long. Pratihasa. DISTR. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. cures cough. allays thirst. vomiting. diuretic. leaves. good in throat-troubles. NS. improves watery eyes (Yunani). tapering into short petiole. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . Filaments are astringent and cooling. slightly bitter. fever. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . 10-15 cm. Karber. planted in gardens throughout the State. throat scaly. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. good in blood-complaints. Salt Range. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. LOC. leucoderma. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa.
Tamakhu. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Dhumrapatrika. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. M. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. USES :—Leaves are narocotic.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. :—E. also applied in leprosy. Tamarakuthika. sedative and emetic. conical. PARTS USED :—Leaves. base wedgeshaped . CHAR. good for lumbago. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). scabies (Yunani). Root—aphrodisiac. Bujjarbhang. :—Native of America. a mental stimulant.—alternate. tonic. L. dimness of sight.—in open corymbose panicles . Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. Flowers— aphrodisiac. across. oblong or elliptic. nervous depression and sleeplessness. scabies. water from hookha is diuretic. disinfectant. inflammations. smoke constipating. funnel-shaped. are poisonous and are used externally. Fr. tubercular glands of neck. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). LOC. about 1. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. G. H. tonic. Tambak. Tambakhu. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. carminative. Tobacco.8 cm. caries of teeth. especially root. K. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. Tamaku. Sk. headache. Kalanja. anthelmintic. inflammations. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Krimighni. emetic. useful in bronchitis. USES :—All parts of plant. large (especially lower ones). DISTR. Hoge soppu. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. An ointment made . laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. cultivated in all tropical countries. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. Tabak. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. The plant contains a glucoside.—Solanaceæ. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses.—pink or white. C.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. very poisonous. NS. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. FAM. lobes spreading. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. asthma. sores. bronchitis. Fl. skin diseases. COM. Poisonous to fish. useful in caries of teeth. wounds. foul nose. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. M. the surface is plain or bullate.
DISTR. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. tonic to hair.— fragrant.—Oleaceæ. Sk. Indian Mourner : G. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. CHAR. LOC. astringent-to bowels. Prajakta. M. M.. It is used with honey in chronic fever. C.— more or less throughout the year. Chotakanwal. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. abundant July-Sept. H. K. scalp affections etc. cures fevers.) FAM. Lotus. Cultivated in many parts of India.—opposite 5-10x2. tube orange-coloured. Bilitavarai. Shonapadma. Bengal. Sk. Parijata. a decoction of root. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Nalkumkuma. Har-singhar. leaves. compressed. Kumuda. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Nyadale huvu . L. COM. H. Parijataka. peduncles 4angled. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . Kanval.—Nymphæaceæ. NS. bark. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Jayaparvati. (Ayurveda). Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. flowers and seeds. solitary. Sephali. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Buds are tonic. COM. t. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. :—E. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Nilophhal. FAM. K. hairy. useful in bilious fevers. Fl. axillary. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. ovate acute. obcordate or merely orbicular. :—A large shrub or a small tree. Kanwal. Kharapatraka. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. densely pubescent beneath. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Fl. stomachic. Aravind. G. Burma. 2-celled. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. HABITAT :-Cultivated. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . See—Ornamental Plants. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd.—lobes white. Assam. southwards to the Godavari. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Madhya Bharat.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. Bark cures bronchitis. bark.5-6.3 cm. Harsing. LOC. carminative. young branches quadrangular. Har. Fr.—capsule. . leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Prajakta. Alipriya. Lalkamal. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. rough above with bulbous hairs. Sephalika. Parijata . lessen inflammation. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic.
toothed or lobed. aphrodisiac . thyrsiflora. antipyretic . biliousness.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. rough. high.—2-lipped. Fl. Ajagandhika. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. fleshy. Barbar. purple stem. Var.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. Common sweet basil. stomachic. Manjarki. LOC. NS. :—E. Hungary. K. asthma.9 m. CHAR.— ovoid.—peltate. long. :—Cultivated in many places in the State.—ovate. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. Tukhamariya . L. "Kapha". C. Java. ellipsoid. anthelmintic. useful in diseases of heart and blood. diuretic. leucoderma. black and pitted. flowers and seeds. Ceylon. Sd. LOC. Surabhi. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). across. submerged . :—Var. 8-13 mm. globose. Nasabo. ripening beneath the water. filaments dilated at the base . useful in diseases of heart and brain. Rihan. stamens about 40. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. DISTR. Fr. C. Barbar. improves taste . "Vata". See—Ornamental Plants. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. L. :—An erect herb 0. roundish. short. stems and branches green or purplish. green. Sajjebija. bitter. Fr. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. red. glabrous. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. DISTR. t. G.—Labiatæ. Africa. FAM. root stock tuberous. entire. Bahari. " Kapha". OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. open in the morning only. COM. Surasa. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. pink or purplish. Tungi. Sk. alexipharmic. acute. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. LOC. :—Large aquatic herb . M. inflammations.—all the year. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. 7.5-20 cm. deeply cordate at the base. long.— in whorled racemes . Damaro. PARTS USED :—Roots.—3 cm. chronic pain in joints.. bracts stalked. juice gives lustre to . hot taste. peduncles very long . pubescent and prominently veined beneath . Fl. "Vata". erect. diarrhœa and piles . cough and vomiting (Ayurveda).—nutlets about 2 mm. irregularly sinuate-dentate. obtuse. emmenagogue. cooling . diam. itch. pale rose or white. Philippines. Sabzah. lessens bile. Sabja. febrifuge.—solitary. bitter taste. 15-25 cm. leaves. Ramkasturi. allays thirst. Plant has a sharp. H. white. causes burning sensation. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. glabrous or pubescent. PARTS USED :—Root-stock.6-0. Burma. Sabja. petioles very long. Fl. diameter. enlarged spleen. and nigropunctate above. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda).—petals about 12. cylindric. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. removes impurities from blood . oblong. leaves and flower. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid.
mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague.5 X 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. Rama-Ran tulasi. branched. Rantulasi. carminative.—2-lipped. aphrodisiac . It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. C. Ram Tulasi. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. H. alexiteric.3—12.8—5. " Kapha". It is also styptic. G. Sumukha. often cultivated : Ceylon. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. coarsely crenate-serrate. useful in diseases of brain. Fl. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. good for griping and piles (Yunani). Ajaka. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). for which the juice warmed with honey is given. M.—nutlets subglobose. S. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. stems and branches subquadrangular . Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. woody below . The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. rachis quadrangular . :—A perennial shrub. During fever when the extremities are cold. Fl. NS.. LOC. LOC.8 m. " Vata". liver and spleen. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. inflammations. strengthens gums. sharp taste . Avachi-bavachi. Java.7 cm. young ones pubescent. brown. 1. good for toothache. DISTR. gland-dotted. headache. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. earache. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. they are also aphrodisiac. diuretic and demulcent properties. heart. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Large basil.— in simple or branched racemes. Plant has bitter. The flowers possess. strangury .156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye.2—1. :—E. rugose. Country. L. heating. . useful in vomiting. removes foul breath. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. t. skin diseases. pale greenish yellow. high. Lemon—shrubby basil.-July-Oct. CHAR. in close whorls . :—Throughout India. Sk. Deccan. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery.—6. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. FAM. :—Konkan. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. COM. lower lip longer.—Labiatæ. diuretic and stimulant. stimulant. M. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. Fr. Gujarat. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). elliptic-lanceolate. fits. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. LOC. BanMal tulasi. pubescent.
Papli. Sk. bitter. antipyretic. used in catarrh and bronchitis . foul smells. COM. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. :—Konkan. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system.—subsessile. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. Tropical E. H. COM. DISTR. G. lobes acute.2 cm. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. especially in children. :—G.— nutlets. :—Throughout India. :—Throughout India (cultivated) .MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Asia to Java and the Philippines.5—38 cm. Malay Archipelago.6— 3. Tulasi. stems numerous. strangury. LOC. Deccan and S. K. Arabia. Ceylon. leucoderma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Vishnuvallabha. clothed with soft hairs . Tulasi. upper lip pubescent on the back. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. Sd.—Sept-Nov. linear or linear-lanceolate. See—Sacred Plants. LOC. Australia. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. obtuse or acute. H.—2-lipped. DISTR. cholagogue.. painful eye. Manjari. stipules with bristles . L. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos.— in racemes 15-20 cm. West Asia. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda).5-5 X 1. minutely gland-dotted.—pale brown. . L. " Vata". Damanpaper. PARTS USED :—Root. margins recurved and scabrous. hiccup. angular. entire or serrate. " Kapha". M. Vranda. anthelmintic. FAM. 30-60 cm. of children and in hepatic affections . high. HABIT :—A common weed. Tulasi. asthma. Parpat. C. Fr. Fl. Tulasa. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. CHAR. CHAR. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. Kala tulasi. stems and branches subquadrangular. long.—on filiform pedicels. Pavitra. varying from 7. M. Parapate. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. purulent discharge of ear. purplish. NS. heating.— capsule. Country.—2. elliptic-oblong.—Labiatæ. globose or pyriform . OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. stomachic. Vrinda. pubescent.:—E. :—An annual herb. Krishna tulasi. bronchitis. alexiteric. Fl. useful in heart and blood diseases. purplish. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Phapti. Sk. smooth. M. Fr. t. and are given with honey. FAM. lumbago pains. yellow with black marking. Suravallari. vomiting. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. :—An annual plant. high. leaves and seeds. Fl. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. long in close whorls . usually 2-3 cm.
Joints variable in size. cures inflammations. " Vata". long. H. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. Nagadru. Prickly pear.—5 cm. largest 3. rather thin. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. used in ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . Nagdali. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. laxative. introduced into India. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. Fl. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. spleen enlargement. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. DISTR. liver complaints. inner spathulate. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Slipper thorn. Sher. good for leucoderma. xerophyte. stomachic. L.— berry.5 mm. CHAR. Mullugalli. Grown as hedge. :—E. purgative. cures biliousness. lumbago. dull bluish-green. LOC. M. FAM. urinary complaints. inflammations. vesicular calculi. Phadyanivdung. piles. :—A woody shrub branched from the base.—7. yellow at the edges. ulcers. perianth rotate. Snuka. outer segments ovate red in the centre. burning. it is also used in liver complaints. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. antipyretic.5 cm. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. subulate. ascites. reddish at the tips. yellow or orange. recurved. LOC. diuretic. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. cures bronchitis in children. reddish purple when ripe. spleen enlargement. K. Nagaphani. or more high. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. anæmia. pyriform. long. Plant bitter. leucoderma. obovate or elliptic. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. Nagaphana. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. flowers and fruits. angular or warty. rusty brown. carminative. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Zhoratheylo. Sk.—Cactaceæ.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fr. carminative. tumours. Hathathoria. Chorhothalo. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. loss of consciousness. Vajrakantaka. juice cures earache (Yunani). alexiteric. Plant juice—heating. G. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Nagaphana. across. . :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. 3 m. NS. digestive.
Ceylon. intestinal worms.—Gramineæ. Fruit—expectorant. M. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Tans. LOC. bronchitis. :—The Konkan and the N. G. Arlu. tonic. anal troubles. good in heart and throat diseases. Mokka. Bagi. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Vrihi. Fruit—acrid. Seeds are purgative. Tandula. fevers. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Tetu. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). NS. HABITAT :—Aquatic. M. useful in " Vata". Araluka. H. Dyes. fattening. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels . Rice. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). :—E. Pharri.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. H. Ava. oleaginous. :—Widely cultivated. improves taste. PARTS USED :—Grain. R. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. COM. Malaya. Mayarjangha. diuretic. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Dirghavrinta. Chokha. Akki. LOC. Rice . useful in biliousness . ORYZA SATIVA Linn. aphrodisiac. Alangi. Shali. piles. COM. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Tetu. sweet. FAM. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. tonic.—Bignoniaceæ.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Tandula. Sk. leucoderma. Ullu. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. stomachic. cooling. Tetu. inflammations. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. vomiting. dysentery. K. Ghats. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. DISTR. :—E. G. biliousness. Tuntaka. FAM. LOC. Podval. Nivara.S. K. It is astringent and tonic. Sk. DISTR. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Shyonaka. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit.). NS. Bhat. Kanara ghats . K. Cochin-China. Indian trumpet flower. appetiser. Chaval. M. asthma. LOC. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. bronchitis (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid.
The grains contain vitamin C.— capsule. Sk. See—Food Plants. Ambuti. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. LOC. rounded at the apex. It is a pleasant. :—E. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Sd. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Dudhatani. Fl. Jaladudhi. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. LOC. leaflets 1. Rice water. C. Amrul. ovoid. ulcers. COM. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. good appetiser . :—Throughout the State. astringent. to which a little lemon juice is added. COM. NS. dysentery and scurvy. Ambastha. transversely striate. Changeri.—Asclepiadaceæ. oblong. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. . linear-oblong. " Vata " and piles. H. K. In dysentery.5 cm. CHAR. Indian Sorrel. petioles very slender. sub-umbellate . bruised. M. margins ciliate. t. FAM.—palmately 3-foliate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . cures dysentery. Dudhialata. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Marudbhava.— Oct-May.—axillary. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. used externally. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. gives great relief.—petals 5. Chukrita. Fl. FAM. Shuklika.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. Dugdhike. :—G. long.— many. NS. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . yellow. Dudhari. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. measles. K. Dugdhika. Dudhialata. scarlet fever. pubescent. if applied to chest. Sk. Kshiravi. Br. brown. diarrhœa. easy to digest. M. bowels or kidneys. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. L. obcordate.—Oxalidaceæ. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . inflamed piles. Dugdhica. 5-angled. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. small-pox. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. also in burns and scalds. Ceylon. Fr. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). :—A small procumbent acrid herb . It is an excellent application to abscesses. base cuneate subsessile. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. H. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). buboes. boils. Amlalonika. DISTR. Dudhani. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. removes " Kapha ". beaked. stems rooting.2—2. Kyirin .
purple veined. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). linear or linear-lanceolate. female flower spadix solitary. aphrodisiac. Poona Sangam. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. LOC. t. high. dry. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. stems many. Sundarbans. LOC. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. Sk. yellow or red. heat of body. causes flatulence.—dioecious. with flavour. Deccan. thin. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . DISTR. long. Screw pine. pale rose or white. pain in the muscles.—glaucous green. strikingly handsome. K. black. tonic. much branched. aphrodisiac. :—Konkan. Fl. Sd. L. Keora. bitter. Ketaki. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. :—Konkan and N. LOC. 3. NS. Burma.5-9 cm. Fl. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". small-pox. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties.8 mm.8-6. margins and midrib spiny. anthelmintic. DISTR. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. leucoderma. :—A shrub up to 6 m. PARTS USED :-Root. indigestible. HABITAT :—Usually near water. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Kedige. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. useful in strangury and tumours. milky juice. 0. PARTS USED :—Plant. fruit.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. .3 cm. diuretic. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. Giripriya. Dhulipushpika. Ketaka. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. S. Gogandhul. L. COM. corona staminal. Kanara. root.—follicles. Mundige. anthelmintic. Country— Belgaum. alexiteric. Fr. H.—oblong or globose. palegreen. leaves. Flowers improve complexion. roots fibrous from the lower nodes.—very numerous. juice is used in gleet. somniferous. aphrodisiac. rarely erect. " Kapha ". Andamans. M. gonorrhœa. FAM. pain. fruit and oil from bracts. syphilis. Ketgi.— large. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides.. :—E. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Java. coma present. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. long. CHAR. Kewoda. Ceylon.—deciduous. diseases of heart and brain. cough.—Dec. Fruit—tonic. Gandha-pushpa. X 3. mouth with pubescent ring. scabies. stem supported by aerial roots . Kanara. anthers. Leaves are useful in leprosy. often planted. M. Umbrella Tree. Fl. C.5 m. lobes ciliate. Kevada. laxative.—Pandanaceæ. Anthers useful in pruritus. 4. expectorant. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Fr. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. Chama-pushpa.9—1. G. coriaceous ensiform.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
5 cm. petioles grooved. Deccan and Gujarat. Burma. Magavala. K. wild date palm. " Tridosh". cough. Fl. glabrous or hairy. Ranmug. Mugani. as a kharif crop. FAM. Kajuri. membranous.—Oct.—3-foliate. layer. yellow. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kharjurika. Sk. Ahmednagar. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. headache. Sd.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Boichand. Adabanmagi. Abyssinia. Afghanistan. COM. peduncles 10-23 cm. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). The grains contain vitamins A and B. mugawana. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. H. Khandesh. thirst. dysentery. LOC. :—G. Swadi. FAM. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Kohesaru.3—2. Seeds— tonic. digestible. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. biliousness.5—5 cm. :—E. Malay Islands. prostrate.—in sub-capitate. Vanmudga. broadly spathulate. laxative. cure biliousness. wiry.—Palmæ. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. inflammations. COM. Koshila. CHAR. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. DISTR. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. good in fevers. good for eyes. Sendhi. aphrodisiac. styptic. long. Satara. dry. Trianguli. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Kashayi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. LOC. long. Kurangika. Kharjuri. few flowered racemes. antipyretic. blood diseases.— pod. NS. Shimbiparni. Kapila. Fl. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. t. Adavada. Dharwar. DISTR. cures consumption. throat inflammations. Sind. Tadi. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. L. LOC. and southwards to Ceylon. straight subcylindric. :—Largely grown in. enrich blood. Belgaum. " Kapha". NS. good for the eyes . bronchitis. Indian wine palm. light and astringent. anthelmintic. astringent. slightly recurved. Konkan. long. Kolaba and Kanara. astringent to bowels. Kherk. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. nose complaints. H. Ahmedabad. bitter. Kidney diseases. Kalli-chalu. Ichela-mara. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. Khaji. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. K. burning sensation. gout. M. leaflets 1. piles. Shindi. Kallu.:—Very common throughout the State. :—Annual or perennial. Siyindu. LOC. eye troubles. See—Food Plants. Date sugar palm. Sk. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). Khajuri. M. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever.—6-12. Ranmath. 2. .166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. Fr.
PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). male white. :—Throughout India. Bihar. Vashira. Okra. Coromandel Coast. pointed. Toyavallari. fruit and juice of the tree.5 m. Fl. Langali. t. Siwalik.5—3. This is called neera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. . 3-4. Africa. good in heart and abdominal complaints. orange-yellow. female spadix and spathe as in the male. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Fl. fattening. wild or more often cultivated. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. long.—opposite. flowers very many. angular. CHAR. Fr. Fl. outer Himalayas. crown hemispherical. large and thick.—Verbenaceæ. densely fascicled. clothed with appressed white hairs . Sharadi. aphrodisiac.—Fibres. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. M. rigid. :—Found fairly in Surat. alexiteric. spadix 60-90 cm. DISTR. constipating. long. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Poona and Belgaum districts. oleaginous. oblong-ellipsoid. LOC.—Jan-Feb. sharply serrate in upper part. Sd. useful in diseases of heart. flowers distant. pinnules many. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. Jalapipali. Fr. much branched. :—G. oblong. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Mysore. Ratoliya. 9-15 m. See.—white or pale-pink. lower 3-lobed. Sholapur. cardiotonic.—sessile. Agnijwala.) FAM.—more or less all the year. spiny at the base. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. cooling. usually along banks. upper 2-lobed.—globose. erect. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene.—rounded at the ends. spinous. wandering of mind. Jalapimpli. L. rounded at the apex. high. C. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ratoliya. petioles compressed towards the apex. triangular. cooling. vomiting.— dioecious. stems rooting at the nodes. Baluchistan. LOC. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Bengal. NS. anthelmintic. t. :—A tall graceful palm. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). and in beds of streams and water courses. aphrodisiac.2 cm. fevers. H. 2-lipped. greyish-green. roundish. Famine Plants. long. subsessile.—pinnate. blood and eye.. 15-45x2-2. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika.5 m. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. Bhuiokra. oblique. ensiform. deeply grooved on one side. DISTR. LOC. :—A creeping perennial herb. L. Ratuliyo. :—Tolerably common throughout India. spatulate. Ceylon. COM. Rohilkhand.—2. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. scented. Sk. Fl. Jalpippali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR.
asthma. cooling. Bhumyamalaki. Kiranelligida. PARTS USED :—Root. Plant—hot. good for ulcers. :—G. distichous. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). useful in thirst.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. anæmia. Bhuianvalah. angular. hiccup. maturant. bronchitis. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). bronchitis. urinary discharges. diuretic. sores. milky-juice. males 1-3. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. Vituntika. K. Ceylon. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. Ajata. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. ringworm (Yunani). Fl. Sk. biliousness. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. CHAR :—An annual herb.—Euphorbiaceæ.— July-Aug..— numerous. NS.—capsule. high . Stomachic. Sukshmadala. scarcely lobed. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. axillary. anuria. Infusion is a good tonic. FAM. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. and without salt may be applied to bruises. . Amala. longitudinally ribbed on the back. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. disk of the male of minute glands. LOC. It is valuable in scurvy. smooth. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. scabies. of female. Bhumyamali. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). globose. Sadahazurmani. wounds. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. stem branched at the base. burning sensation. except Australia. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. Bhuiavli. lobed. Jaramla. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. annular. asthma. Fl. Tropics generally. alexipharmic . Sd. thirst. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. LOC. wounds.—3-gonous. Fr. Bhumyamali. fruit.useful in fevers. t. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. leprosy. :—Throughout India. elliptic-oblong. L. leaves.—yellowish. females solitary. H. 30-60 cm. very numerous. monœcious. M. dry. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). LOC. COM. DISTR. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). very small. The whole plant. :—Konkan and Deccan. Leaves are stomachic.
Leaf—improves taste and appetite. aphrodisiac. :—Wild in the N. laxative. :—E. Kalamiri. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions.—Piperaceæ. given with milk in hysteria. LOC. styptic (Yunani). It increases saliva. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Satara. Malimirich . increases biliousness. NS. clears throat. tonic. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Tambola. Vata". Vileyad-ele. leavs. carminative. liver and muscular pains. G. Mensinballi. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. :—E. improves voice. smeared with oil. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. DISTR. generally in Konkan. H. alexipharmic. Marich. and fruits (rarely). ozœna. Kalamirich. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. LOC. Golmirch . Tambulavalli. Sk. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. improves appetite (Ayurveda). foul smell in the mouth. cultivated in Konkan and N. spleen diseases. Nagavalli. heating. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. M. Sholapur. useful in "Kapha". Poona. NS. throat diseases. COM. " Kapha ". tonic to brain. hot. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. H. It sweetens breath. Warm leaves. Vidyache-pan. Kalaka. Eleballi. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Tikshna. M. G. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Linn. DISTR. Betel pepper. stomachic. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. Saptashira. FAM. Panu. carminative and astringent. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Betelleaf. Menasin-kallu . inflammations. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. Pan. urinary discharges. pains. COM. tonic and digestive. Kaphavirodhi. piles. removes all foulness from mouth. K. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Betel leaf vine. useful in "Vata". acrid. elephantiasis . carminative. Pan. anthelmintic. alterative. night blindness. Pan. LOC. Menasu. asthma. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Sk. strengthens teeth . Fresh leaves. Black-pepper. See—Condiments and Spices. Kanara. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. K. aphrodisiac. Bhakshyapatra. Kanara forests. . useful in toothache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. satyriasis and to allay thirst. ozoena.—Piperaceæ. purgative. Kalimiri. bechic. heart and liver.
Khandala (pretty common). C. Fr. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. the oil is alterative. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. Konkan. piperidine and an essential oil. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. :—K. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. paralysis .—capsule. used in chronic bronchitis. Vikhari. N. facilitates menstruation. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. Vehkali.— alternate. NS. variable in width. Bartang. piles and some skin-diseases . as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. It yields an essential oil. ophthalmia and phthisis.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . Kanara in ghat forests. Lahuriya. dries body humours (Yunani). long. In physiological action. FAM. H. L. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . CHAR. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Bark contains a glucoside. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Externally it is rubefacient. See—Condiments and Spices. NS. :—E. sciatica. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. hills of S. LOC. . tonic and a local stimulant. ovate or oblong. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids.5-12. Arcot and Salem. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. DISTR. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. lumbago. Deccan. COM. FAM. lanceolate or greenish . entire or toothed. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. Greater plantain . as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. leprosy. vertigo. weakness following fevers. radial 2. Khasia Hills. coma. petiole longer than leaf-blade. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. and possesses narcotic properties . various forms of cutaneous diseases. & A. M.—Plantaginaceæ. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries.—lobes 4. base tapering into petiole. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. used as febrifuge. W.—Pittosporaceæ. chest affections. LOC. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. sprains.5 cm. It is a good expectorant. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Tammata. chronic fevers. ovoid. Burma. Fl. bruises.
HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. Fire plant. CHAR. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. FAM. high. attenuate. L. Malaya. afford relief. :—Konkan : Deccan. alterative. :—Temperate Himalayas. G. LOC. Lalchitrak. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. and seeds. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . rosy scarlet. Burma. Chitra. stems herbaceous. Nilgiris. :— E. :—Cultivated throughout India. striate . Ghats. Agnishikha. Lalchitrak. oblong. alterative and diuretic. Sk. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. exauriculate petiole. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Ratochatro. Raktachitraka. Palni hills. Lalchita. PARTS USED :—Roots.—tube slender. DISTR. Rosy-coloured leadwort. t. COM. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. Lalachitraka.-Feb.Kempuchitramula.Sept. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic.. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. lax spikes. Fattening. NS. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. LOC.-4-8. zeylanica. HABITAT :—Along river banks. W. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Mahang. angled. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Sd. Fl. obtuse. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Ceylon. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. K.—throughout the year. LOC. top coming off as a conical lid. DISTR. Fl.. PARTS USED :—Roots.—Plumbaginaceæ. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Assam. Chitraka. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Baluchistan. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. LOC. M. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers.—large. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. dull-black. erect. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. H. base passing into amplexicaul. limb wide. t.—3-5 cm. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Lead-wort. long in long terminal axillary. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river.
attenuated into a short petiole. leaves are caustic. leprosy. leaves.—in elongate spikes. Ceylon. hot. it is useful in dyspepsia.—white. lobes 5. L. K. C. LOC. appetiser. See—Ornamental Plants. juice. terete. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. root-bark. laxative. " Vata" and " Kapha". pointed. expectorant. . zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. alexipharmic. See—Ornamental Plants. alterative . Vallari.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. piles. Vahni. vesicant.6-1. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. Chitra. aborti-facient. LOC. Journ. rachis glandular . The use of Pl. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. oblong. " Tridosha" . a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. and in leucoderma. anasarca. anthelmintic. FAM. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. Chitramula. carminative. wild in Western Peninsula. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. G. skin disease. consumption. Root—bitter. entire. DISTR. spreading. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. bronchitis. rheumatism. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. diseases of liver. a paste is made with milk. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). leucoderma. Sk. Bile-Chitra-mula. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. NS. dysentery. Ind. Chitra . January 1933). :—E. tonic. t. ovate. Res. Medi. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). diseases of spleen. Chitaro Chitrak. itching. a favourite medicine for flatulence. Fl.5 m. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. ascites.—capsule. Tropics of the old world. Jyotishka. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics.—thin. Chitraka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. leucoderma. cure intestinal troubles. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. bechic. long. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. Chitra . Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). ring-worm. In S. astringent to bowels. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. stomachic. striate. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. Fr. H. :—Throughout India. It is used in procuring abortion.-Sept. stomachic.—Aug. Agnishikha.—Plumbaginaceæ. useful in laryngitis. Chitranga. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. inflammations. woody. PARTS USED :—Root. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. COM. Chitrak. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. diarrhœa. cultivated . petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . stems 0. scabies. M. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Fl. piles. Malay Peninsula. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. Bengal.
The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. very fragrant. DISTR. . COM. CHAR. divaricate.—Labiatæ. :—M. C. Fl.—practically throughout the year.-May. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. M. heating. smooth. :—Native of tropical America. Rhuruchapha. :—A small shrub 1. broadly ovate. irregularly doubly toothed. oblong-lanceolate. carminative.-nutlets ellipsoid. L. FAM. itching.—follicles.8 m. See—Ornamental Plants. Goleurchampa. H. Khairchapha. LOC. 12 cm. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). t. CHAR. cylindrical. FAM.2—1. C. NS. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. abundant. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. with an intra-marginal vein. Pagoda tree. Deccan.—Dec. stems and branches quadrangular. 15-30 cm. laxative . Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut.:—More or less throughout India. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion.. Golainchi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. entire. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Pangli. useful in gleet.— large. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. Country. long. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. NS. bark.-Feb. shining. Fl. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. ascites (Ayurveda). USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. many flowered. Fr. acute at both ends. Mahabaleshwar. high. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. Belchampaka. ulcers. white with a pale yellow centre. abundant from Mar. t.—salver-shaped. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Fr. purple. rounded. useful in leprosy. rarely maturing. long. leaves and milky juice. Kadu-sampige. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. S. upper lip white shot with purple. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. COM. pungent. L. pains. 4-lobed. Fl. 7. DISTR. cultivated. urinary discharges. Devagangile.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. G. K. Sk. :—E. :—Konkan. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. 3-lobed.—2-lipped. Root-bark is purgative. spirally arranged. lower lip white. shining black. common. Champakam.5-18x3. acrid. inner face angular. :—All throughout the State.—Apocynaceæ. LOC. Frangipani. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. whorls close. Kanara. venereal sores. Phangla. Radha-champo. PARTS USED :—Root.8-9 cm.
flowers. Agnimandha. NS. along Deccan rivers . liver pain. piles. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). rheumatic pains. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Honge. Karanja. COM. J. USES :—The fresh leaves.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. anthelmintic. skin and in keratitis . DISTR. Agnibijaka. Arni. In Satara. leucoderma. ascites. Ichu. leprosy. Pavaka. good in scabies. cures eye diseases. Oils. Oil—styptic. PARTS USED :—Root. alexipharmic . also planted. skin diseases. good for tumour. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. FAM. NS.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. urinary discharges . F. leaves. Jayanti. bruised. lumbago. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Chamari. LOC. itching. M. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. Gracie). Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. lumbago. Huligili. H. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Seeds—acrid . Oil—anthelmintic. carminative. H. Karanjmara. Agetha. LOC. ulcers. Arni. relieves inflammation. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Sk. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. chronic fever. Karanj. cure earache. Sk. Kanaji. vagina. chest complaints. head and brain diseases. cures biliousness. juice is given in colic and fever. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic.) FAM. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. K. piles. Gaura. G. Karanja. Indian beech. " Vata ". Kanika. Naktamala. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Arand. fruits and seeds. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Karanj. Kanja. Aran. chronic fever and hydrocele. K. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. COM. wounds (Ayurveda). :—G. bark. useful in diseases of eye. purify and enrich blood. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Kirmal. wounds. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. :—E. M.—Verbenaceæ. Ustabunda . " Kapha ". Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). . Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms.
—hard. t. FAM."Vata". Fruit—tonic. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. lobes 4. COM.—tubular. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. heating. Perala. Guava tree. :—Cultivated all over the State. Root is laxative.— globose. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. stomachic. Anthers—dry wound. LOC. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Fr. Jamphal. hairy in the throat. chyluria. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Fl. rough-tubercled . trunk and branches sometimes thorny. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. Fl. . Peru . LOC.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). Gum is tonic.—5-9 X 3. cool heated brain. It is given in the form of decoction. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. broadly elliptic. Jamud-rukh. blue-black. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. seated on the calyx . Jamb. small.3 cm. greenish yellow. Gova. laxative after food.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. used in bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. stomachic. for unhealthy ulcers.—Myrtaceæ. cooling. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. flowers. causes "Kapha". LOC. sour. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. K. piles.. cylindric. laxative. Vastula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. LOC. fruits and gum. bronchitis. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Sd. bark yellowish. Nicobars and Malaya.— June-July. inflammations. DISTR. good in colic and for bleeding gums. good for liver complaints (Yunani). See—Famine Plants. Ceylon. Amrut. DISTR. constipation. Ash—caustic (Yunani). cooling. G. Kanara. Peru. Sk. Flowers cool body. :—E. Piyara. NS. aphrodisiac . fever. Perala. Peruka. high. applied to sore eyes. useful in anaemia. Andamans.2-6. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. C. L. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. smooth. M. H. diabetes. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. pungent. entire or upper part dentate. Dridhabija. It is also employed in scurvy. Young leaves are tonic in the . dyspepsia. common about Karwar. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. Safedsafari. as an astringent to bowels.
Bakuchi. white hairy. K. stomachic. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). 3. :—An erect annual. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. L. cures "Vata".5—5 cm. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". urinary dis charges. Bavachi.—bluish purple . Kalameshi. improves hair and complexion. vulnerary. LOC. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. nephrites and cachexia. " Rakta-pitta". black. cures blood diseases . causes biliousness. HABITAT :—Waste places. G.—simple. DISTR. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin.6-1. ovoidoblong. anthelmintic. piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Bowach-chi. PARTS USED :—Root. t.2 m. Babachi. raw one is used in diarrhœa. inflammation. mucronate. difficulty in micturition. NS.—Aug-Dec. leprosy. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Bhavanj. good for leucoderma. C. Seed—purgative. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. Fr. scabies. COM. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. stimulant.8 X 2. See—Fruit Trees. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. skin diseases. CHAR. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. Seeds— refrigerant. 0. Sk. clawed. solitary. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. LOC. high. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). Babachi. leaves. bronchitis. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. fruit and seeds. . Vanguji. :—E. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. stem and branches grooved.—in dense axillary. Fruit—diuretic. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. bitter taste. Bavachi. heals ulcers. M. Country. M. antipyretic. Konkan and S. Fl. studded with glands and white hairs. Sd.—pod.—one.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. improves appetite. Fl. aphrodisiac. laxative. alexiteric. anæmia. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. FAM. smooth. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). diuretic. alterative. closely-pitted. Chandralekha. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. anthelmintic. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. H. Kushtaghni. good for heart troubles. standard orbicular. biliousness. rounded and mucronate at the apex. nigro-punctate. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. 10-30 flowered racemes . Bukchi. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections.
:—Leaves. useful in eye troubles. Raktabija-pushpa. styptic. laxative. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. Dadima. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Gum. urinary discharges. urinary discharges (Yunani). fever. Bija. Dadima. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Gum—bitter. Honne. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. Dalimb . is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Hulidalimb . boils. COM. used in sore throat. Flowers— improve appetite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. :—E. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. M. G. See—Timbers. flowers and gum. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. COM. flowers and fruits. used in piles. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). Malabar kino-tree. Fruit-appetiser. applied to hydrocele. Pomegranate tree. also in Konkan. called kino.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). scabies. Sk. . Dharimb . from the Balkans to the Himalayas. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. somewhat milder in action than catechu. Hirdokhi. Pitasar. :—E. colic. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. K. Common in N. scattered but not gregarious . Valka-phala. sore-throat. anthelmintic. spleen complaints. bark. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. cultivated in many parts of India. " Kapha ". prolapsus ani. gleet. Bio. leucoderma. FAM. liver tonic. alterative . in Akrani. Dadimba. chest troubles. biliousness. Bijak. FAM. NS. M. anal troubles. ophthalmia. Kanara. Flowers—check vomiting. DISTR. LOC. heart-disease. DISTR. ascends to 1100 m. Bark—astringent. PARTS USED. erysipelas. :—Wild in Iran. earache. sore eyes brain diseases. useful in biliousness. Benga. elephantiasis. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. thirst. allays thirst. blood diseases. G. Kabul and Baluchistan. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Honi.—Punicaceæ. tonic. Gums and Resins. Bia. griping. Dhalim. Bibla. PARTS USED:—Root. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Bibla. NS. useful in vomiting. H. Dalimba. stomatitis. Khandesh and Dangs. Ceylon. body eruptions. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). leprosy. :—Western Peninsula and S. vulnerary. " Tridosh". useful in all body diseases. Mahakutaj. Sunila. good for biliousness. India. Indian kino-tree. Bigsah. Anar. antipyretic. ulcers. burning sensation. LOC. H. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. LOC. fattening. Sk. diuretic. cures " Vata ". K. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. laxative. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. enriches blood. Dadam. Bibla. strengthens gums.
It is given in the form of decoction. NS. G. In China. Karigidda. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. Karhar Mainphal. long. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. elliptic. Emetic nut. K. COM. LOC. Mangari-kai. LOC. Annam. :—A strong climber. Rangoon creeper. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. Fr. Fl. calyx tube long. M. hairy beneath. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. FAM. Minkare. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Dharaphal.—Rubiaceæ. Midhola. M. Lalchameli. See—Ornamental Plants. nearly 6 cm. Madana.—Combretaceæ. G.—Mar. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Fruit contains vitamin C. Fl. H. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated. numerous. Rangoonchavel. Country and Kanara. jasmine .5 cm.—opposite. Rangoonkibel. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Sk. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Barmasinivel. Malaya.-Aug. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. base rounded. FAM. H. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . M. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. glabrous above. Pinditak. :—E. dark green. at first white then deep red . NS. The rind of the fruit. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. t. LOC. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. :—E. DISTR. lanceolate .178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. acuminate. COM. S. widely cultivated all over India. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery.—in axillary and terminal spikes. Gelphal. C—petals 5. pendant. Chinese honeysuckle. 7.— ellipsoid. Mindhola. USES :—In Amboyana. CHAR. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . acutely 5-angled.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Konkan. Gela.
laxative. G. boils. aphrodisiac. useful in diseases of heart. COM. Muro. produce alopecia (Yunani). leaves. It is also used to poison fish. Seeds-sharp. emetic. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. NS. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. juice relieves earache. China. destroys "Vata". asthma. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. PARTS USED :—Root. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. piles (Ayurveda). bad taste. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. Sumatra. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Bitter. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. inflammations. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. carminative. It also contains an essential oil. inflammations. Hastidanta. leprosy. certain and regular.—Cruciferæ. carminative. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. skin-diseases. Radish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. useful in chronic bronchitis. purgative. LOC. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. stomachic. Mula. Ruchira. eruptions. Bili Mulangi. M. emetic. :—Throughout India. paralysis. tumours. used in diseases of the brain. piles. Mura. FAM. binding. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. LOC. See—Timber. Juice of . and all inflammations . leprosy. tonic. Mula. DISTR. carminative. its action is very safe. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. alexiteric. heating. amenorrhœa. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . Mali. DISTR. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. emmenagogue. cures abscesses. K. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. antipyretic. muscular pains. cholera. ulcers. bitter. leucoderma (Yunani). flowers. fruit and seeds. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. " Vata" and " Kapha". Ksharmula. Mulak. Ceylon. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Sk. :—E. E. sweet. good for spleen and in paralysis. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . it is equal to it in every respect. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. S. Muri. good in tumours.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). Tropical Africa. anthelmintic. hiccup. Java.
Sarpagandha. ginger. COM.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. Sivanabhi. M. Yuthikaparni. LOC. Fl. :—An erect perennial shrub. Fl. ajmalicine. thin. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Kanara. used in hyperpiesis . DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. expectorant. Java. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. acute.— Mar. Andamans. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. with a long. shady open places near rain-forests. carminative. Gaja-karni. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Juipani. Group B — Serpentine. Chhotachand. single or didymous. cures " Tridosha ". Sk. and black salt. t. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Palakjuhi. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. pungent.—drupe. In the Konkan. Chandrika. Western Peninsula. bright green above.5-18 X 2.—tubular. Ceylon. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. swollen a little above the middle. sedative. serpentinine. LOC. :—H. Harki. often tinged with violet. sharp. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. laxative. white. Sk. CHAR. bright red .—Apocynaceæ. Garudpatala. diuretic. Sarpakshi.-in whorls of 3. seeds are considered peptic. C. . irregularly. See—Vegetables. anthelminitic . yellowish root stock. K. L. ulcers (Ayurveda). heating. NS. Root contains vitamins A.9 m. :—H. lanceolate. Chandrika. NS. Nakulikand. specific for insanity. B and C. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. leaves (rarely). In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. It is hypnotic. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Doddapatike. Mungusavel. corrective and emmenagogue.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. Nai.3 cm.. pale beneath. black shining. 7. PARTS USED :—Root..) FAM. M.—Acanthaceæ.—in irregular corymbose cymes.-May. COM. Harkaichand. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. acrid. K. Fr. ajamalinine. FAM..5-6. nodular.
inflammations. typhoid. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. solitary. useful in heart diseases. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).-Jany. HABITAT :—Hills. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. Divald. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. Triputiphala. body pains. earache. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. S. piles. useful in liver troubles. Fl. DISTR. Country (Dharwar. piles. Belgaum. Castor oil plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. leaves and seeds. cultivated. hills near Belgaum. :—Throughout India. Ceylon (wild) . LOC. hairy outside . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. tropical Africa. alterative. K. flowers and seeds. widely cultivated in tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Root. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. lumbago. leprosy. convulsions. bracts ovate lanceolate. Country. ring-worm. night-blindness. Sholapur). NS. diseases of rectum and head. Vardhamana. rheumatism. upper lip bifid . alterative. t. strangury. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn.—Oct.—nearly sessile. good for burns. white. some fevers. increases "Kapha". Cattle are fed with leaves for . HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. Fruit— appetiser. Arand. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". bronchitis. entire. Madagascar (cultivated). :—E. M. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. useful in skin-disease. PARTS USED :—Root. H. paralysis. Erand. stems obscurely angled. Erand.— tuberculate. increase biliousness. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. Java. aphrodisiac. Tirki. eructations. FAM. M. pubescent: C. Eranda. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. useful in pains. pains. Root-bark—purgative.—Euphorbiaceæ. LOC. :—Undershrub. LOC. M. Very little in other districts of the State. Fr. anal troubles. intestinal worms. COM. lumbago.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Seed and oil—cathartic. Mahabaleshwar. LOC. carminative . generally cultivated. leaves.—lipped. Seeds and oil have a bad taste.—capsule. vaginal pains. Vardhaman. Chitrabija. dropsy. Haralu. elephantiasis. leprosy. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). ascites. L. Khandala. high. Leaves—galactagogue. inflammations. Fl. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Divaligo. :—Deccan. narrow. Palma christi.. glands. Sk. ascites. :—Probably of African origin. G. ascites. elliptic lanceolate. 0.5 m.9—1. purgative. boils. Erand. fevers. pointed. asthma. oil—anthelmintic. glandular. useful in inflammations. liver and spleen diseases. Straits-Settlements. DISTR. pain in back. black. tumours. velvety hairy Sd. amenorrhœa (Yunani). asthma.
cultivated all over India. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . they are cold. Pannira. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Punjab and U. Tarana.5 m. Gulab. biliousness. mild and safe purgative. :—Origin unknown. Flower—bitter. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. with a good odour. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . double. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. serrate. P. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. attaining 1. See—Oils. red. :—E. Fr. H. aperient removing bile and cold humours. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . Oil from seed is a non-irritant. sweetish. Sudburj. Ati-manjula. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. Ghazipur is a chief centre. Shatadala. LOC. CHAR. seldom griping or causing flatulency. hairy.3 cm. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. In constipation it is used as an enema. intestinal affections. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. laxative. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. adults. They are also applied to painful joints. tooth-ache. t. excessive perspiration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. stipules scarcely dilated. LOC. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. long. See—Ornamental Plants.—Rosaceæ. :—A perennial shrub. laxative. aphrodisiac. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Gulab. Fl. benefits lungs.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. etc. Italy. cures leprosy. Gulab . head-ache. stomatitis. FAM. used in heat of body. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. cardiotonic. cooling. removes bad odour from mouth.—pinnate. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Flowers. acrid. kidneys. ovate oblong. sometimes striped . tonic. sometimes glandular. Soumyagandha. liver.—obovate . Greece and Germany. expectorant. good for eyes. DISTR. chronic fevers. Lakshmipushpa. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. " Vata".— usually corymbose. burning sensation. improves appetite (Ayurveda). astringent when dry (Yunani). Sk.5-6. petioles prickly. pink or white. 2. . inflammations. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Fl. stems with stout and hooked prickles. G. L. cardiotonic. NS. K. much used in lotions and collyria . which is a powerful poison.. cephalic. dry. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. COM.— all the year. France.
FAM. urinary discharges. M. eye. Bladder. vagina. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. :—Perennial climbing herb. oleaginous . Amlavetasa. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. stems very long.-Jany. tropical Africa. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. L.—white or pink. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. erect glabrous herb. Root—bitter. pains in joints. lactagogue. Sk. cures " Kapha ". inflammations. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. greenish.—in whorls of 4. uterine pains (Yunani). diuretic. obtuse. valves hyaline. used in eye-sores. grooved. liver complaints. LOC. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. Manjit. Fl. Ceylon. leaves and fruit.—in terminal panicled cymes. :—Annual. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. petioles triangular. alexiteric. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. LOC. L. Chuka. the Konkan and S. Chukra. 15-30 cm. Java. piles. it powerfully affects the nervous system. anthelmintic. shining. Manjishha. improves voice and complexion . analgestic. antipyretic. Leaves-sweet. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. and was much used in dropsy. ulcers and skin-diseases. all scabrous with white prickles. increase appetite. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily.—didymous or globose.—Polygonaceæ. :—E. Manjishtha. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. emmenagogue. blood. branched from the root. COM. Fr. jaundice.—Rubiaceæ. leucoderma. Japan. roots very long. jaundice. Manjishtha. orbicular . rheumatism. Sorrel. CHAR. Aruna. erysipelas. ulcers. acrid. laxative. cordate or hastate.5 cm. five-nerved. M. Gulmketu. cylindric. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). COM. FAM. ovate. :—E. Indian Madder. lethargy. inner perianth-segments membranous. Ambat Chuka. one pair with longer petioles ovate. high. Chitralata. NS.. analgesic. CHAR. bitter. :—Root. Sk. Majit.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . Decoction tinges blood. DISTR. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. with a thin red bark. Rohini. paralysis. antidysenteric.—2. M. branches quadrangular . amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. dysentery. purplish black when ripe. Country. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. elliptic. lower leaves larger. ear. diseases of uterus. . base cuneate. Dock. prickly.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Raktasara. Malay Peninsula.5—7. PARTS USED. H. NS. leucorrhoea. Tamravalli. spleen-enlargement. Fl. Fl. leucoderma. heating. smooth. Fr. K. urine and even bones red. t-Oct. H. paralysis.
Sadapaha. blue or pink. aperient and diuretic. Satap. COM.—white. Sk. then erect. with darker spots. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). Nagadali. Khatselio . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. often rooting near the base. Fl. vomiting. Common—Garden-rue . dyspepsia. leucoderma. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). constipation. piles. L. ciliate. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sd. Ghati pittapapada . NS. Country. 2-lipped. COM. bracts elliptic. also considered as a vermifuge. acute . asthma. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. H. while fresh they are bruised. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. LOC. Deccan. upper emarginate. DISTR.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. useful in scabies. tonic. Ceylon. analgesic. Havananju. Cooling.— subsessile. Parpatha. in dysentery.—capsule. bronchitis. Kharmor. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. :—G. stems usually decumbent. M. :—Western Punjab. Sk. DISTR. Kanara. alcoholism.—suborbicular. H.—Rutaceæ. N. Persia. The seeds have the same properties . ovoid oblong. :—Common throughout the State. Fl. lower shortly 3-lobed. :—A herb . Satri. CHAR. G. tumours. Afghanistan. Fr. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. pale brown. Vishapaha. :—E. The juice allays tooth-pain. useful in heart troubles. M. Konkan. Pismarum Sadab. they are prescribed. diseases of the spleen. S. USES :—Leaves are cooling. toothache. Satapa . acute. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. M. oblong lanceolate. bites and stings of poisonous animals. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. . generally in the Deccan. LOC. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. rugose with furrow. K. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. with scarious faces and hard ridges. C. pains. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. t. LOC. stomachic. laxative. FAM.-Jany.—Acanthaceæ. Sadabu. roasted. Africa. FAM. Trans-Indus Hills. hiccup. NS.—Nov. checks nausea and promotes appetite. flatulence.
abortifacient. grown in gardens. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. cooling. forest and mountain. K. useful in fatigue. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Ingotu. leprosy. laxative. :—Grown everywhere in India. increases mental activity. Poona. M. amenorrhœa. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. The plant is tonic. C. heats body. LOC. Sd. aphrodisiac. Fr. obtuse . USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. indigestible. digestive. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. thirst. The oil is the best form for administration. H.—petals 4. in pots. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. petioled. and externally used as a rubefacient.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. Naisakar. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Sherdi. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. epilepsy. yellowish. :—Egypt and Algeria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. all over the State. DISTR. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. it may be given internally in hysteria. LOC. The plant contains glucoside glutin. S. COM.—angled. M. :—A strong smelling herb . removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). Madhuyashti. cultivated throughout India. heating to body . diuretic. oblong-obovate. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. decompound. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. Gudakastha. garden. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. HABIT :—Cultivated. Us . Ikshu. Kabbu. Ganna. oleaginous. diuretic. DISTR. spathulate or linear-oblong . Satara. particularly Deccan. glandulose punctate. Sugarcane. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM. Kumad. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). G. Fl. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. Tanigarbu . LOC. S. Ukh . Asia is very likely the original home of the species. There are three varieties .—Gramineæ. flatulence. colic.. tonic.-alternate. Powdered and combined with aromatics.—capsule. etc. segments cuneate. Sk. emmenagogue. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. anti-aphrodisiac . PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. L. . Gudatrina. NS :—E. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. flawed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. Rasala. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Rikhu.
often planted near Muslim tombs. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. Pilu. Kanara in littoral forests. shining. often mucronate at the apex. useful in heat. L. greenish-yellow.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. PARTS USED :—Bark. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Ceylon. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. Fl. Fl. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. :—E. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. inflammations. branches numerous. causes " Kapha. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Khakan Mirjoli. C. useful in biliousness. diuretic. Fruits are deobstruent. Sk. delirium. useful in nosetroubles. purifies blood . Leaves—bitter. pectoral and aphrodisiac. LOC. lessen inflammation . leaf-juice is given in scurvy. deeply cleft. fruits seeds and oil. leucoderma.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. scabies. Pilu.—Nov. drooping. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. diam. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. anæmia.—Salvadoraceæ. In cases of poisoning by copper. globose. Jal. Goni. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. carminative and diuretic. Fr. astringent to bowels. leaves. smooth. analgesic. DISTR. Tooth-brush tree. improves appetite. deobstruent. aphrodisiac . Sind. strengthen teeth. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . useful in biliousness. near the coasts of Gujarat . red when ripe. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism.—very thin. fattening. In the Punjab. M. numerous. carminative. oil is digestible. COM. improve diuresis (Yunani). stomachic . :—Dry districts of the State. FAM. laxative. H. . tonic to liver. Egypt.-Feb. It is good in calculous complaints. diuretic. Abyssinia.—drupe. opposite. bad for liver (Yunani). intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Brihat madhu pilu. ulcers. dry regions of W. Mahaphala. Asia. sometimes it raises blisters. See—Food Plants. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. Kharijal. G. good for lungs . lobes much reflexed. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. :—Drier parts of India. t. tonic and aperient. anthelmintic. 3 mm. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. LOC. Piludi. piles. Pilu. white. alexiteric. bile. Cane—sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. finely striate. corrective. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. NS. Sugar causes " Kapha". the Konkan and N. Seeds—purgative. sugar is considered heavy.". Pilu. disorders and wind. K. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate.. erysipelas. LOC. fleshy.
alexipharmic. K. epileptic fits of children. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. COM. PARTS USED:—Wood. Ritha. FAM. fruit and seed. Phenilu. Arithan . diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Kumblabijaka. Bhogivallabha. M. G. Ringni. gonorrhœa. useful in inflammations. India. cures "Tridosha". HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. aphrodisiac. :—Western Peninsula. bronchitis. up with water into a paste. allays uterine pains. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Phenila. vaginal discharges. often planted. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). cholera. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. biliousness. paralysis. is applied to local inflammations. Kugale. Anthuvala. Chandan. Oil. Chandan. cold in head. Chandan. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Burugukayi. . stomachic. M. laxative. chiefly in S. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Rishta. abortifacient. See—Timbers. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Bhadrasara. G. Sandal-wood Tree. K. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Bhadrasri. Oils. NS. :—E. to temples in fever. Malayaja. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Fruit—bitter. Shrigandhalmara. diarrhœa. S. DISTR. small-pox (Ayurveda). Agarugandha. strangury.—Santalaceæ. H. hemicrania. astringent to bowels . much cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. USES :—Wood. emetic. Mysore and parts of Madras State. Soap-Nut tree. LOC. useful in chronic dysentery. FAM. to allay heat and pruritus. Cultivated elsewhere. Arishtaka. thirst. NS. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Suket. DISTR. acts as diaphoretic. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . tubercular glands. ground. Chandal. Sk. :—E. M. Aritha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. :—Indian Peninsula. aphrodisiac.. gleet. LOC. in skin-diseases. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. " Kapha ". antipyretic. Sukhad . Root—expectorant. Antharalo. Ritha . In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. alexiteric. Sandal. Ceylon. alexiteric.—Sapindaceæ. tonic. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. head-ache (Yunani). LOC. H. Sk. useful in diseases of heart. Kanara. exhilarating. lumbago. Country and N. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Mangalya.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . Sd. NS. and as an oildressing for ulcers.. suppurating wounds.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). beaked. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. septate between the seeds. long. 15-23 cm. Rasin. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil.—in lax. pendulous. applied to gouty joints. hair-tonic. There are three varieties of seeds : black. syphilitic ulcers. Raysingani. diuretic and lactagogue. strengthening. inflammations. seeds.5-15 cm. biliousness. Fl. K. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Shewari. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). small-pox. of eye and ear. oil. enrich blood. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. tonic. opposite. lung diseases. oleaginous. They are also emmenagogue. such as dysentery etc. Jayanti. useful in dry cough. 4-5 m. LOC. gouty joints. inflammations. They have been used to procure abortion. Seed-oil—fattening. Jaya. Jayat. long. applied to ulcers and piles. eye diseases . Jayanti. scabies. indigestible . :—A soft-wooded shrub. Jinangi. H. asthma. See—Oils. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. leaflets 914 pairs. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. :—Cultivated all over India. an emollient poultice is also made from them. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. removes "Kapha".— abruptly pinnate. They are nourishing. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic. Black variety is common. L. diuretic. useful in diarrhœa. branches striate. leaves. LOC. bark. galactagogue. probably a native of tropical Africa. Nadeyi. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. alterative. strangury. cooling. burning sensation. into claw. Waziristan. cure menorrhagia. leaves. inflammations (Yunani). promote hair growth. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it.—20-30. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. mottled with purple on the outside. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. yellow. white and red. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. aphrodisiac. Fr. CHAR. Sk. carminative. urinary concretions. in height. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot.—pod. FAM.—standard as broad as long. spleen troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Seeds contain vitamin A. useful in sorethroat. 7. :—G. COM. linear-oblong. Janjhan. Jayanti. diseases. anthelmintic. astringent to bowels. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. Jayantika. slightly torulose. cures . seeds. DISTR. C. few flowered axillary racemes. obscurely angled . etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. Baluchistan. bleeding piles.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.
MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Vranari. diabetes. cure quartan fever. Bark—astringent. long.— pod. leaflets 16-30 pairs. See—Fodder Plants. L. alexiteric. DISTR. FAM.5-8. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray).—7. The plant contains vitamin A. Leaves—indigestible.—in racemes . Seeds—emmenagogue. allays thirst. Agusta. leaves. COM. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Agati. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. is applied in painful swellings. 50 cm. Leaves—purgative. ulcers. Dirghashimbi. flowers. H. very showy. Sk. K. Hatiya . Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Bak. NS. cure itching. Fl. tumours . leprosy. cures " Tridosh " pains. biliousness.— pinnate. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. LOC. stimulant. M. Munidruma. Basna. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). Agase.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 6-9 m. An infusion is given in small-pox. improve appetite . Bark— astringent. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. gout. :—A soft wooded tree . and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). useful In diseases of spleen. Australia. improves taste. t. C.— flowers at various times. Ornamental Plants. Kanali. fruits. CHAR. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Fruit—laxative . Agasta. astringent. epilepsy. "Kapha" and inflammation. leucoderma. relieves throat-troubles. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. 15-30-cm. Fr. :—G. demulcent. Kempagase. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Flowers—cooling. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. diarrhœa. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. maturant. long. PARTS USED :—Root. gout . Indigenous from Malaya to N. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". anthelmintic. night-blindness.8 cm. LOC. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. dysentery and paludism. 2-4 white or red. is applied in rheumatism. useful in ophthalmia. See—Vegetables. Fl. LOC. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. high. long. anaemia. Agasti. Agathio. rubbed into a paste with water. . linear oblong. fevers. useful in ozœna.
—Malvaceæ. dorsal scabrid. Kumghi. aphrodisiac . LOC. with ginger. K. Sk. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). NS. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. Pata. Fr. Rajbala. DISTR. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Batyalaka. C.— yellow.—1-2 in each axil. lanceolate. Chikna. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. Fl. cordate. bark.—solitary or few together. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile.—Malvaceæ. strongly reticulated . Prahasa. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. puberulous. Country. Baladana. stomachic and tonic. Country Mallow. Chittuharatu. DISTR. Country. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. Bariara.5-5 cm. Vatyapushpi. awns 2. yellow. :—E. :—G. LOC. black. linear . Barial. diam. Kharanti. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. t.. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. L. Sk. M. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. astringent. CHAR.—5-6 mm. Khareti. t. L. K. leaves and seeds. Pata. branches slender. pedicel jointed much above the middle. Hettutti-gida. LOC. a weed. crenate. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. awns 2. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. G. Chikna. glabrous. :—Hotter parts of India.. Jayanti.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. :—Konkan (common). strongly reticulated. PARTS USED :—Root. Samanga. COM. linear. FAM. :—A shrub. " Pitta ".—2. Tukti. Bala. Deccan and S. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms.Dec. upper margins ciliate. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres.. diam. " Kapha " .3 cm. removes " Vata ". carpels 7-10. M. pedicel jointed about the middle. digestive. obtuse. Fl. Kisangi. Sd. useful in fever. dorsal margins toothed. HABITAT :—Moist places . M.—6-8 mm. long. H. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. decoction. softly hairy all over. scabrid-hairy. Fr. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. base rounded. astringent. Bala. NS. diuretic. LOC. is given . CHAR. ovate-oblong. emollient. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). bleeding piles. Fl. COM.—smooth.—Nov. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. :—Konkan. Gujarat and S. minutely hairy. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). carpels 5-9. Kherati. useful in blood and throat diseases. Bala. cooling. Kareta.-Nov. H. Root—cooling.-Oct. sharply serrate.—2.5-6. long.
also in colic and tenesmus. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Country. :—G. and head-ache. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. cystitis.-Dec. triangular-ovate. juice is used for healing wounds. FAM.—achene. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Fl. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". t. Externally. pappus 0. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn.2 m. 0. involucral bracts 2 rows. COM. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. :—Deccan. M. :—A large annual herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. Pilibadkadi. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. diaphoretic. Fl. Katampu. rhomboides Roxb. tinged with purple. administered in hemiplegia.—opposite. DISTR. Fr. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. 5 inner boat-shaped. noise in ears. Fl. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. deeply and irregularly toothed. . Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". high. common. those of the ray red beneath.—Nov.—Compositæ. S. facial paralysis. 5 outer clavate. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. CHAR. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. :—Throughout India. Ceylon. all running down wing-like into petiole.6—1. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. Linn. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. L. erect. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn.—heads small in leafy panicles . Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine.—yellow. It is also used to favour menstruation. stem stiff. stiff-neck. slightly rough. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. black.
Ranringni. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. maturant. FAM. L. 0. pain. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. FAM.-Oct.3—1. Brinjal. removes foulness of the mouth. Barhanta. enriches blood. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Fruit—cardiotonic. ovate. Vange. Sd.—5—15 X 2. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. :—Throughout tropical India. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is seldom used alone.-Aug.—Solanaceæ. asthma. very. :—E. " Kapha". petiole prickly. digestive. anthelmintic. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. lessens inflammations. Vartaki. :—Widely cultivated in India. Fr. subentire. vomiting. C.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. fruit and seeds. Dorli. G. M. leaves. LOC. Baingan. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. " Vata". Mhotiringni. or triangular-ovate. recurved. Vayase. pruritus ani. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. loss of appetite. :—E.—pale-purple. laxative. fever. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. NS. DISTR. H. Nilaphala. COM. Bhantaki. DISTR. stem stout. improves appetite. lobed. covered with stellate hairs. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. 8 mm. diam. Rigana. prickles large. K. China. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. Malpya. Hinguli. Sk. cardiotonic. rarely wild. G. sharp.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. useful in leucoderma. Ceylon. Root is applied to lessen pain.. H. Bhanta. leaves (rarely) and fruits. prickly.5 cm.5 m. high. LOC. Badanikai. eye diseases (Ayurveda). causes biliousness. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Habba-Kirigulla. astringent to bowels. globose. M.—minutely pitted: Fl. . clothed outside with purple hairs . beneficial in cardiac troubles . Kadusonde. Egg Plant.— berry. Bhantaki. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. Mahotika. COM.. Indian Nightshade. analgesic. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha".. Vadikadheri. bad for piles if taken internally. NS. Hinguli. Brihati. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. Vengni. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. base unequal-sided. dark-yellow when ripe. Fl. t.5—7. aphrodisiac. Philippines. Kattarta. LOC. Sk. Vrittaphala. Vantak.—Solanaceæ. bronchitis. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. Ubhi-bhuringni.
C. good for neck ulcers. bronchitis. Sk. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. Seeds—laxative. Ceylon. Morellel. and used with success in psoriasis.—small. Kakamachi. NS. fever. entire or sinuate toothed. diarrhœa. alterative. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. Sd. shining. Makoi. dysuria and asthma. not to be given to pregnant women. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation.-Jany. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). heating. Fruit contains vitamins A. Fl. Kabaiya. " Tridosha". diuretic. asthma. fever. Gurkamai. eye-diseases hydrophobia. B and C. bronchitis. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). itch. urinary discharges. Black Night-shade. stem erect. smooth.—Solanaceæ.—many. Kakamunchi. piles. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. cathartic and diuretic. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. Fl. dysentery. LOC. taste. :—Throughout India. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Fr. chronic fever. PARTS USED :—Root. t. In S. L. etc. inflammation. useful in heart and eye-diseases. useful in diseases of eye. :—E. useful in giddiness. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Kamoni. LOC. diam. Root-bark—laxative . improves appetite. Piludi. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. COM. Hound's Berry. M. in extra-axillary. leaves and fruit. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. leucoderma. . Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. liver inflammation. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. Tiktika. tapering into petioles.. throat burning. DISTR.— berry. hiccup. See—Vegetables. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. in pains. aphrodisiac. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. much divaricately-branched . subumbellate. CHAR. :—A variable annual herb . Vayasi.—Sept. worms in ear. bitter. Kakamachi.—discoid. laxative. FAM. ovatelanceolate. vomiting. Katuphala. bark. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. tonic. griping. minutely pitted . H. improves voice . yellow. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . 3-8 flowered cymes . 6 mm. The seeds are used as a stimulant. It acts as a hydrogogue. inflammation. ear and nose . K.
Ceylon. Africa. asthma. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic.—Gramineæ. CHAR. sterility in women. fever. FAM. useful in bronchitis. Yuvanala. surrounded by enlarged calyx . petiole prickly. Fl. & Wendl. base unequal-sided. Jonera. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Dhavani. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Kantakari. Malaya. :—Common in the Deccan . anthelmintic . chronic bronchitis. Sind. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Seeds—anthelmintic. Jondhala. t. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . "Vata" and " Kapha". :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Root—aphrodisiac. NS. LOC. LOC. FAM.. Ringni. heating. Fl. Nirgol. Fruit—laxative. C. DISTR. E. Jowar. D. H. hairy outside.5-5.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . :—G. Basu). Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. often exceeding 1. Sorgho. expectorant and febrifuge. fruits and seeds. It is used in asthma. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).— June. stem zig-zag. Katai. bright green perennial herb . Bhoyaringni. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. laxative. yellow and shining. S. Jolah. Ikshupatraka. COM. Konkan. Sk. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa.—berry. G. asthma. piles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. ozoena. Chikka-sonde. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Fr. K. M. they are used in the burning of feet. aphrodisiac. Sundia . armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. flowers. good in inflammation. stone in bladder. diam. lobes deltoid. M. biliousness. Shalu. L. Kantakini. :—Throughout India. Jowari. appetiser. NS. Vrittatandula. sinuate or subpinnatifid. Yengara .198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr.-5-10 X 2. Leaves—good application for piles. Kateli. :—A very prickly diffuse. tropical Australia. :—E. 3-2 cm. Bijapur and E. fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. muscular pains. K. Kenjal.—purple.3 cm. Great Indian millet. pains. ovate or elliptic.7 cm. heart disease. Sholapur. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Dirghashara. Brihati. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. H. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. Jundri. long. strangury. stomachic. hairy on both sides. prickles compressed. Bhui-Kate-ringni. dysuria. Nidigdhika. stems. thirst. lumbago. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge.—Solanaceæ. Durrah. yellow or white with green veins.. pruritus . urinary concretions. leaves. LOC. straight. Nele-Rama-gulla .
Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Sumbi. Rohun. ulcers. Ceylon. Sk. Bastard Cedar. hence used in intermittent fevers. Juss. Sk. stem and branches cylindric. G. M. high. NS. K. DISTR. Agniruha. :—Dry forests of W.—sessile. Some. general debility. . Vritta. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. fevers. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. ulcers. Mahamundi. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Ahmedabad. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. M. FAM: —Compositæ. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Khandesh and S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. DISTR. Bodiakalara. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Gums and Resins. cures " Tridosha ". Grains contain vitamin B. bladder and kidney complaints. :—Bark. H. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). tonic and antiperiodic . COM. tumours (Ayurveda). useful in " Kapha". LOC. HABITAT :—Open situations. Karanda-gida. :— E. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. good for sore-throat. Asia and Africa. biliousness. Poona. leprosy and dysentery . Rawtarohan. hairy. refrigerant. Kumbhala. :—Widely cultivated in India. laxative. aphrodisiac.—Meliaceæ. Aruna. LOC. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . :—Seeds. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. CHAR. H. anthelmintic. glandular. Rohini. improves appetite and taste. Indian Red-Wood. Munditika. K. FAM. Gorakhamundi. See—Food Plants. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rohani. Ruhin. Pravrajita. :—Bark-acrid. aphrodisiac. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Tans. PARTS USED. piles. Swami-mara. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Gorakmundi. Bijapur and E. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Fibres. Country. L. diseases of blood. :—The grain is cooling. NS. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. See—Timbers. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. :—G. Rohina. common in Gujarat. indigestible. while Belgaum. M. vaginal injections and enemas. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Dharwar. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). with toothed wings. introduced into America and Australia. on dry stony hills. COM. constipating. Gorakhmundi.
spleen diseases. L. emmenagogue. good for eyesore. depurative. tonic.—Nov-Jany. boils. involucre bracts linear. :—Root. HABITAT. scabies. anæmia. epileptic convulsions. Fr. Celyon.—purple. leucoderma. t. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).—Compositæ. They are given in powder form. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . :—Annual herb. gleet. all warm countries. leaves. oblong. :—Deccan. stalked. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. :—Root. Fl. hemicrania (Ayurveda). alterative.—in heads ovoid. biliousness.—Achene. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. :—Wild and cultivated. Pappuso. ciliate near the ends . vomiting. laxative. with honey they are given in cough. scalding of urine. solitary or subpanicled. Country and Kanara. lessens inflammations . enriches blood . indigestion. leaves and flower-heads. alexipharmic. bronchitis. ovate-oblong. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. cooling. :—Common in the Konkan.— achene. strangury. H. They are chewed to relieve toothache. . COM. tuberculous glands.—compound heads. jaundice. USES. serrate or dentate. Pellitary . M. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. t. truncate. dysentery. Malay Islands.. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. PARTS USED. elephantiasis. :—E. Fl. cools brain. LOC. used also for local application. S. PARTS USED. useful in skin diseases. Fl. sometimes grown in gardens. urethral discharges and jaundice. :—Throughout India. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. Akarakara . Fl. Akkalkara . Akara-karava. used in insanity. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. glandular hairy. digestible. gives lustre to eyes . Ceylon. :—Hot. Fr. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. anthelmintic. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. pain in uterus and vagina. Powdered root is given as tonic. rectal pain. laxative. peduncles reaching 10 cm. asthma. FAM. looseness of breasts. piles. base usually acute.—opposite. chest diseases. flowers and seeds. the latter when present minute. peduncles with toothed wings. in cases of worms and indigestion. DISTR. and tonic (Stewart) . ring-worm of waist. stem and branches hairy.. LOC. LOC. CHAR. glaborous. Australia. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. :—Throughout India. fattening. biliousness. M.—Nov. Africa. Sk. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. urinary discharges. Tonic. :—Common in rice-fields. compressed . PROPERTIES AND USES. C. globose ovoid. increases appetite.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. ovate. long. It is also used as fish and crab poison. DISTR. irregularly crenateserrate. bark.
S. Amra. Wild Mango. L. blood complaints .—Bignoniaceæ. See—Gums and Resins. :—Leaves-tasty. phthisis. Gujarat. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. t. widely planted. Fruit—indigestible. NS. Padal. Padal.. entire. tonic. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Ali-vallabha. Ran-amba . trunk straight. ovoid.8 cm. enriches blood . oblong.. Fr. Burma. K. Giri Hadari. K. M. Gum is demulcent. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Kamduti. burning sensation. stone woody. Tungi. long. It has been found useful in dysentery. yellow. oblique. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. :—H. Pahad. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—E. Indian Hog-Plum. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. refrigerant. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. hard. Ceylon. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. COM. aphrodisiac. round with furrows and cavities. appetising. Konkan.—Anacardiaceæ.—drupe. Padiala. Avatekayi. DISTR. H. LOC. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Fl.8-7. branches nearly horizontal. Sk. bark smooth. NS.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. Parur. 3. Dr. CHAR.— petals 4-5. M. :—Often planted throughout the State. Ambada. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Western Peninsula. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Hude. Sd. Kanara. Pandri. C. HABITAT. Hulave.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. M. Kapichuta. ulcers. .5 cm. leaves and fruit. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. Patala. Amrataka. Kariguddada. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. PARTS USED. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).. :—Bark. Andamans. Salt Range. Toyadhivasini. astringent. Bile Tree. biliousness. Hongkong. Country. Fl. Pitana. ovate oblong.Feb. Ambodha. W. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. high. Indian Archipelago. Marahunise. FAM. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative.-Apl.5-18 x 3. Amate. Kumbhi. pinkish green. Kalavrinta. ash-coloured . destroys " Vata ". and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. cures rheumatism. good for sore-throat. COM. Sk. :—A tree 9-10. Patala.-usually 1. LOC. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. long.5 m. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching.
Kakatinduka. PROPERTIES AND USES. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste.—Loganiaceæ. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. LOC.. fruit. blood diseases. Travancore . inflammation. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . heating. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. piles. seeds. H. LOC. :—Wood (rarely). abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Ceylon. Kuchla. NS. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). "Vata". Fruit—useful in hiccup. tonic. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Kajra. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. anæmia. Sk. heating. Planted in Ceylon. loss of taste. N. Kuchala. "Kapha". west coast of Madras State. :—In forests south of Bombay. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Circars. tonic. It is regarded as cooling. Crow Fig. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. M. :—Fruit-acrid. K. See—Timbers. DISTR. :—More or less throughout tropical India. fevers. Flowers— acrid . cures pains in joints.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. blood diseases. emmenagogue . Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. LOC. Nirmal. DISTR. useful in bilious diarrhœa. Vishamushti. bitter. FAM. Indo-China. :—E. cures leucoderma. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. astringent to bowels. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . poisonous. Ittangi. tonic. Kajavara. sub-Himalaya. :—Very common in Konkan and N. diuretic. vomiting. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. asthma. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. G. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. Travancore. pungent. LOC. Kajra. piles . lumbago. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Karaskara. Fruit—bitter. COM. antipyretic. flowers. Visha-druma. Kanara. :—Root. itching. Hemushti. burning sensation. Karnatak. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. Poison Nut. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). leaves. Kelakutaka. diuretic. :—Root-bitter. appetiser. Kuchla. :—Monsoon-forests. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . jaundice. ring-worm. Kanara. ulcers. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. eructations. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). fruit. thirst. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. Burma. Kangira. Kupaka. Kachita. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Laos. heating.
tonic. K. Country. relieve colic (Yunani). Sk. PARTS USED. cure strangury. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. NS. increases "Vata". also in Konkan. Shodhanatmaka. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. (Rasendrasarasangraha). The demand for strychnine is increasing. :—Deciduous dry forests. urinary discharges. FAM. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. cures inflammations. Clearing Nut Tree. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. :—Root cures leucoderma. H. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Seeds—acrid. . Chittu bija. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. lithotriptic. COM. aphrodisiac. Burma. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Seeds—bitter. Nelmal. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. poisoning. astringent to bowels. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. head-diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT. diuretic. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. See—Timbers. good for liver. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Fruit useful in eye diseases. Ceylon. anæmia. jaundice. emetic. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium.—Loganiaceæ. :—Western Peninsula. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Ambuprasadini. diaphoretic. DISTR. Nirmali. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. :—Root (rarely). INDIAN PREPARATIONS. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. Kataka.. Kanara and Khandesh. :—E. fruit and seeds. LOC. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. :—Sand-stone hills of S. gonorrhœa. Madhya Bharat. thirst. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. causes biliousness. LOC. M. improve eye-sight. M. kidney complaints. Nivali. alexiteric. hallucinations. Aduguchali-bija. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine.
Dyes. :—Western Ghats .—very many in dense corymbose cymes . Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. colloturine and loturiaine.. Bhilli. NS. Bark—bitter. broadly ovate. emmenagogue. S. Fr. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. eye-diseases and ulcers . Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Balaloddujinamara. :—Bark. C. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . M. ovoid or oblong. Loder.—Symplocaceæ. NS. winged . good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). Lodhra . COM. K.—many. H. bleeding gums . PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. See—Timbers.—Gentianaceæ. cooling. digestible. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. Californian Cinchona. vaginal discharges. 2-valved. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Lodh is used in raw condition. Lodhra. acrid. etc. :—India (W. . :—Hilly parts. t. Lodh. :—The whole plant is bitter.—capsule. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . :—Root. dysentery. useful in abortions . a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. useful in eye-diseases. Country. alexiteric. DISTR. Kadu. :—M. HABITAT. high. 0. cures cough. Deccan. Fl. C. E. FAM. Bose). PROPERTIES AND USES.— lobes 4-5. Shavaraka. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. stem densely leafy. :—Bark-acrid. CHAR. COM. Lodh Tree. DISTR. :— E. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. 5-nerved .-Jany. diseases of blood. Broughton). Torna fort. LOC.9 m.. Sd. decussate. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. LOC. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). LOC. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". :—An erect herb. throughout N. M. C. FAM. L. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. :—Konkan and N. China Nora. Tiritaka. leprosy. Tillaka. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions .204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. Fl.— Oct. inflammations. Peninsula). aphrodisiac.— sessile. Peninsula. Chota Nagpur. 4-winged. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas.3-0. biliousness. quadrangular. flowers (rarely). Lodhraka. Mahabaleshwar. Deccan . PARTS USED. white with blue veins. :—W. Burma. in powder or in fresh decoction. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. Lodh .
) FAM. Jambura. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Sk. enriches blood. NS. Fruit Trees. sweet. Pharenda. Jamburaj. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jambu-Nayinerale. both wild and cultivated. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). M. Jambula. Malaya. Gulabjaman. Malay—Rose apple. :—Throughout India. Sk. :—E. dysentery. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Jambu. Fruit—acrid. biliousness. Surabhipriya. Shukapriya.—Myrtaceæ. also used in spongy and painful gums. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. gargles and washes . Jamen. good for sore-throat. COM. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. fruits and seeds. Kokileshta. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. Jam. carminative and diuretic. digestive. See—Timbers. Ceylon. :—Bark. Jambu. Nerate. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). bronchitis. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. carminative . Neralu. Australia. etc. common along river banks. LOC. very often planted. Jambul. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. NS. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. Seeds—diuretic. thirst. Jambu. good gargle for sore-throat. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. dry. blood impurities. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. DISTR. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. fruit vinegar is tonic. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. common at Mahabaleshwar. astringent. astringent to bowels. H. Pannerali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. increases "Vata". Jambudi. cooling. :—Throughout the State. useful in spleen diseases. Jambu. LOC. Nenda. H. Nilphala. sprouts. K. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—Myrtaceæ. :—Bark-acrid. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. G. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. LOC. good lotion for ring-worm in head. asthma. Jambul. K. . Gulab-Jamb. removes bad smell from mouth. anthelmintic. also wild. astringent to bowels. M. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. strengthens gums and teeth. Shukapriya. COM. ulcers. :-Black-Java Plum.) FAM. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston.
G. Br. Khasia Hills. weakness of limbs. emmenagogue. Ashvathabheda. Yunnan to Australia.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. strangury. Nandi. with milky juice . It is very cooling in ophthalmia. inodorous during the day. useful in "Kapha. tonic. salver-shaped. LOC.— opposite.—snow-white.—follicles. and an essential oil. astringent to bowels. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. :—E. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. See—Timbers.5-15 X 2. PROPERTIES AND USES. Maddarasa gida . alexipharmic. heating. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. glossy green above. digestible. Tagara. removes bad humours. :—Root. wood and oil.. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. used in syphilis (Yunani). K. . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. t. heavy speech. Fr. Tagar. Cultivated in many places. H. C—lobes overlapping to the left. Wax flower. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. Garhwal. 1-3 ribbed. Bengal. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. hot. Taggar. Seeds are astringent to bowels. across. bitter. Chandani. acrid. Fruit—sweet and tasty. :—Root is acrid. margins wavy. DISTR. thirst. useful in paralysis. The plant contains an alkaloid. dysentery. Fl. improves voice. pale beneath.) FAM. M. Assam. orange within. Fl. Trinidad . See—Ornamental Plants. lessens pains in limbs and joints . :—Bark is sweet. tonic to brain.—Apocynaceæ. astringent to bowels. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). used in asthma. astringent to bowels. Root chewed relieves toothache . Burma. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. :—Sikkim Terai. CHAR.5-5 cm. fatigue. Kottuhale. lobes 5 in single. divaricate. aphrodisiac. Root—bitter . Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. NS. used in liver complaints. . :—Upper Gangetic Plain. liver and spleen .—rainy season. E. cures epilepsy. Ananta. 7. PARTS USED. HABITAT. Tagar . Hills of Visakhapatanam. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. :—Cultivated in gardens. LOC. L." biliousness. fruit and seeds. bronchitis. Sk. double. indigestible. :—Bark.5-5 cm. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. tonic to brain. PARTS USED. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). The fruit is sweet with a flavour. indigestible. fragrant at night. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). purgative. cultivated in many parts. COM.
DISTR. Fr. Imli. yellow when ripe. :—Flower-pungent. Amlike.—opposite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. Sk.—follicle. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. G. acrid. Chinch. : K.. PARTS USED. COM. Tintrani. Nagaskuda. LOC.4-4. coriaceous. Tintidika. across in pedunculate cymes . Chinchika. Gultora. high. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). common in rain-forests. PARTS USED. Teter. NS. NS. Pandarakuda. carminative. Kalaga. Makhamali. muscular pains. wood.— tube inflated near the top. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. oblong lanceolate . Chinch. Amli. Amala. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES. rough. Fl. 7. Kanara. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Sandu. COM. Zendu.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. t. G.2-7. bark grey. Amli. M.5 cm. LOC. internally they are said to purify blood. :—E. Nagakuda. :—Same as T. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda).— Mar-Apl. HABITAT. Halmeti. :—E. useful in scabies. lessens inflammation . DISTR.—white. HABITAT. throughout the Konkan and N. . Maddarssa.—Apocynaceæ. stomachic. M. Genda. their juice is given in ear-ache. :—Root. Zanduga. H.—surrounded by red pulp. Makhamal. :—Native of Mexico. bitter.. kidney troubles. TAGETES ERECTA Linn.5 m.. COM. M. :—Malabar.. LOC. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Makhamala. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. grown in gardens all over India. :—Leaves and flowers. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. good for teeth . :—Rain-forests. Flower—bitter. Sk. L. HABITAT. C. FAM. Leaves—good for piles. Amlika. Travancore up to 7. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. 2. Fl. FAM.000 m. NS. French Marigold. :—Cultivated. Nuli. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. oil. Tamarind.5-20 X 3. Guljharo. Sthulapushpa.5 cm. Sd. belching.—Compositæ. divaricata. FAM. somewhat boat-shaped. Amla. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.
leaves. PARTS USED. flowers. Seeds astringent. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". tonic to heart. LOC. costiveness. Sumatra and Java. wood. earache. :—Bark. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. sore-throat. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. H. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. biliousness. :—E. tumours. Leaves applied to reduce swellings.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. heals ulcers. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. useful in liver-complaints. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Tropics generally. Anil. anthelmintic. laxative. Cultivated also. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. G. Kanara. heating. scabies. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. flowers and seeds. Teak. LOC.—Verbenaceæ. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart.. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Condiments and Spices. NS. Seeds are good astringent. indigestible. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. tonic. COM. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). and laxative. DISTR. urinary discharges. FAM. Tegu. Fruit-sour. Sag.. thirst. heals wounds and fractures. eye-diseases. Kanara. Tega. Arna. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. K. Mahapatra. intoxication &c. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Burma. small-pox. and for sizing materials. . M. stomatitis. bark. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. carminative. such as body-burning. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Sagwan. Sagun. Sagwan. Madhya Bharat. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Teka. Sag. tasty. Sk. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. boiled they are used as a poultice. aphrodisiac. DISTR. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. fruit and seeds. Malay Peninsula. digestive. Bark—astringent. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. See—Timbers. Flowers— appetising . PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. abundant all along the slopes of W. Sagach. laxative. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Circars. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. causes cough. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Fruit—sour. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. sweetish. astringent to bowels. :—Throughout India. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. vomiting.
—pod 3—4. increase "Vata". Leaves—tonic to intestines . Flowers—acrid. enriches Blood . USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. syphilis. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani).8—1. heart. mucronate. See—Timbers. pubescent on the back. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. Deccan. :—A perennial herb.. leaflets 11—21. Plihari. boils and pimples. Wood good for head ache. high. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. laxative. suborbicular. bitter. useful in piles. ground and made into a pill. cures diseases of liver. Gujarat. Sk. branches spreading. . :—All over India. "Root—diuretic. Unhali. oblanceolate. useful in bronchitis. Kalika. mucronate.-June. cooling.. Malay Peninsula. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. dry. HABITAT:—Open situations. Phanike. asthma.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. sedative to gravid uterus.—5-6 . poisoning. Bark is an astringent. Ghodakan. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. linear. t. Konkan. long.5 cm.2 cm. LOC. biliousness. leprosy. burning pain over the region of liver. :-G.8 X 0. anthelmintic. S. alexiteric. LOC. 2—2.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. Fl. CHAR. allays thirst. M. 30—60 cm. slightly curved. red. asthma. Udhadi. alterative. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . useful in lung and chest diseases. L. blood. spleen diseases. Empali. C. glabrous above. M.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. improve appetite. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). allays thirst. COM. fresh root-bark. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Country. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. cultivated lands and roadsides. Sarpankho. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. FAM. antipyretic. Fr. standard. good in piles. expectorant. :—Plant-digestible. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. K. Sd. PARTS USED. cures diarrhœa . DISTR. Jhila.—petals clawed. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . useful in scabies. :—The whole plant. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Wood—acrid. it acts also as a vermifuge. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. root. urinary discharges. Kogge. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). liver. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon.—Oct. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. anthelmintic. inflammations. Sharapunkha. useful in bronchitis. along forest borders. spleen. leaves and seeds. Fl. NS. tumours. biliousness. Sarphoka. LOC. Sharapunkha. Sarphonka. long. silkyhairy beneath.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia.
Expectorant.. urinary discharges. G. Chota-Nagpur. tumours. M. . :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. LOC. digestible. H. Hela. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Indradruma. Koha. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. aphrodisiac. Madras State. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. NS. fruit (rarely). anæmia. intoxication. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. G. Karvirak. Behada.—Combretaceæ. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. sore-throat. NS. DISTR. biliousness. :—Throughout the forests of India. useful in fractures. White Marudah. Bahara. Kushika. excessive perspiration. Behedo. Bahaza. COM. useful in bronchitis. strangury. :—Konkan and Deccan.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. laxative.. Dhanvi. Tari. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Kalidrum. Sadado. except in dry arid regions. Rajastan and Sind. & A. Beheduk. :—E. Vibhata. DISTR. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. K. :—Alexiteric. H. Vibhitika. Shantimara. leaves. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. " Kapha". Ceylon. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. inflammation. styptic. ulcers. Bedda Nut. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Arjuna. FAM. Kahu. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). Arjun-Sadada. Madhya-Bharat. useful in biliousness. diuretic. Buhura. Kakubha. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Burma. :—E. in the sub-Himalayan tract. Fruit-pungent. biliousness. anthelmintic . tonic. blood-diseases. Bera. K. :—Bark. Arjuna. externally in wounds and fractures. very common in South Konkan. Bibhitiki. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). FAM. Karshaphala. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m.. Voting. in Khandesh Akrani. LOC. Bastard Myrobalan.—Combretaceæ. strangury. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. Belleric Myrobalan. LOC. Madhya-Pradesh. Sk. Tara. COM. with milk. asthma. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Arjun Sadada. Sk. :—Bark. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. false presentation of fœtus. Aksha. heart disease. Arjan. acrid. Sagona. fruit and seed. M. Arjuna. See—Timbers. PARTS USED. leucoderma. Baire. Sadura.
bleeding piles. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. piles and diarrhœa. attenuant. NS. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. cold in head. diarrhœa. common in Khandesh Akrani. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. Burma. enriches blood. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. itching pain. Fruit-astringent. bilious headache. tonic. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. thirst. alterative . Haria. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. vesicular calculi. nose. good in ophthalmia. constipation. strengthens brain. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. anthelmintic. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. intoxicating. LOC. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. biliousness. LOC. useful in thirst. Jivantika. inflammations. Haritaki. which is considered a good digestive. tonic. piles. diseases of eye. elephantiasis. Alate. aperient. Kanara. M. ascites. Ceylon. useful in dyspepsia. Black myrobalan. bleeding and ulceration of gums. expectorant. Chebulic myrobalan. :—Fruit-dry. Kernel has narcotic properties. antidysenteric. heating. delirium (Ayurveda). heart and bladder. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. Jivanti. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. the fully ripe or dried fruit. Harade. dyspepsia. DISTR. Harara. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. corneal ulcers. :—Bark and fruit. LOC. heart and bladder. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. Hirdo . urinary discharges. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. USES. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. anaemia. applied to eyes. diseases of spleen. FAM. piles.—Combretaceæ. Sk. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. COM. K. —E. useful in caries of teeth. hoarseness. Dyes. PARTS USED. diseases of eye. Ripe fruit—purgative. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. G. Hirda. hiccup. eyes. Har. Gums and Resins. vomiting. in Travancore. antipyretic. Haritaki. tonic. gums. vomiting. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. used in paralysis (Yunani). brain tonic (Yunani). useful in asthma. strangury. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). gout. H. typhoid fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. mixed with honey. PROPERTIES AND USES. tumours. stomachic. sore-throat. leucoderma. Seed—acrid. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. carminative. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. is used as an application in ophthalmia. Abhaya. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . carminative. eye diseases etc. See—Timbers.
acrid .. See—Timbers. burning of body . Ranbhendi. LOC. Hucerasi. profuse discharge. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. aphrodisiac . Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Sk. flowers and fruit. Kuberaksha. M. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. produces worms in intestines . Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. H. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Eastern and Western Peninsula. Suparshuakan. Burma. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Kandarala. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. See—Timbers. Dyes. Bhandi. :—Bark. NS.—Malvaceæ. :—E. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Arasi. Paras-piper. Bengal. PARTS USED. Phalisha.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. difficult to digest. especially centipedes. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Sacred Plants. Tans. Gajadanta. K. also planted as roadside tree. :—Coast forests of India. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Tulip Tree. Kanara. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Jogiyarale. G. LOC. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Bugari. :—Fruit-sour. increases " Kapha " . DISTR. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Mhaskar and Issac). Paraspipal. FAM. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Bhindi. Fibres. :—Districts of Konkan and N. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Paraspiplo. Portia Tree. Parisha. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Gandarati. Bhend. Parasipu. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. COM. . leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. leaves.
Exile or yellow Oleander. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. 5—10 cm. across. Gulo. HABITAT. worms. PARTS USED. females solitary. Uganiballi. mesocarp bony. NS. bladder. leucoderma. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. endocarp corky. 7. with milky juice. Fl. COM. COM. often planted in India. seeds and milky juice. Vatsadani. See—Ornamental Plants.. pungent. FAM. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. wounds. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. America and W. and blood vessels . 5 cm. acrid. elliptic.—Apl. yellow. size of a pea . Fr. G. piles. LOC.—in terminal cymes. :—Stem. useful in urethral discharges. DISTR. Fl. Amritvalli.. hot.5 cm. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. Sk. Gulvel. K. very poisonous (Ayurveda).—membranous. root. growing on mango and other trees. LOC. FAM.—drupes. Pittaghni. NS. fevers. exocarp fleshy. C. Gurch. G. bronchitis . tubular.—generally 4. grooved . Karvira. lobes 5. virgin uterus. Sd. bright green and shining above.—Apocynaceæ. throat campanulate. . Ashvaghna. LOC.. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. Gado. M. 7—9 nerved. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. Amarvel. red. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. eye-troubles. L. Zard kunel. L. Amrita-Valli. Fr. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. linear. ventrally flat. :—E. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABIT :—In thickets. :—An extensive climber. Sk. Shatakumbha. Fl. frequently planted. crowded . Gulancha. CHAR. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. bark corky. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). skin diseases. but its use is attended with considerable danger. Jwaranashini. H. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.—broadly obovate. cures " Vata " . Pivali kanher. M.-spirally arranged. Heart-leaved moonseed. :—E. dorsally convex.—in axillary and terminal racemes. Indies . Gulhel. CHAR. corona in the throat. :—Native of S. yellow. Pila kanir. PARTS USED.—Menispermaceæ. DISTR. Gulvel. male fascicled. Andamans and Ceylon. :—Often planted. :—Throughout tropical India. Haripriya. 1—3. Pila kaner. long. Burma.5—12. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. astringent to bowels. :—Bark. it has no action on digestive enzymes . H.
stimulates bile secretion. Root-bark is aromatic. common in S. piles. cures jaundice. chronic fever. allays thirst. (Kirtikar). :—An evergreen scandent shrub. FAM. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. H. 15 m. dark shining green above. Forest Pepper. female flower buds oblong. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. Stem-bitter. PROPERTIES AND LOC. antipyretic. Fl.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. stomachic . unisexual.-Jany. Mirchi. vaginal and urethral discharges. K. 3-5 grooved. :—Rain-forests. also in the Deccan hills. enriches blood. LOC. USES. oblong. :—Stem-bitter. orange coloured. stigma sessile. renews blood. Dahan. juice useful in diabetes. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. Sumatra. PARTS USED. male flower bud globose. stomachic. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. good in cough. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine.—Rutaceæ. HABITAT. useful in skin diseases. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. Khasia Hills. digitately trifoliate. diuretic.8-3. DISTR. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil.— alternate. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. ovary rudimentary.—Aug..8. 5-10 X 1. expectorant. :—E. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food.—globose. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. anæmia. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Jangali-Mirchi. Kadu-menasu. Kaduhakukare. Root and stem are bitter. tonic. bark. Ceylon. burning sensation. . diarrhœa. :—All over the Madras State . FT. Konkan and Kanara. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. Limri. high.—in axillary cymes. :—Root. causes constipation. size of a large pea. Philippines. CHAR. fever. Java. L. Macimullu. coriaceous. fruits. vomiting. China. 5-7 lobed. Manger. tropical Africa. M. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. armed with small hooked prickles . It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. Lopezroot Tree. Fl. jaundice. leaflets sessile. intermittent fever and dyspepsia.—Dehan. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. stimulant and anti-periodic. Kumaon to Bhutan. especially acid. LOC. Gangalaki. Sk. vomiting. white. t. tonic appetiser. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). COM. leaves. NS. crenulate. pitted on the rind. giddiness.
anthelmintic. M. astringent to bowels. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. fattening. Sk. Shingada. FAM. DISTR. useful in ulcers. K. Mandurike. burning sensation. Trikota.. strangury.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Tundu. useful in . of India). :—Aquatic (in tanks). Kaechaka. See—Timbers. Lud. :—E. Kuruk. expectorant. Malaya. :—Throughout India. :—Bark-acrid. burning sensation. tonic. Kanara. astringent to bowels. G. Burma. LOC. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Tuni. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kalingi. Shringa-kanda-taka. Singhara. Singodi. :—Cooling . COM. Tunika.) FAM. Waitz). LOC. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Ceylon. tropical Africa. removes " Kapha ". indigestible. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. digestible. cardio-tonic. antipyretic . good for scabies and gleet. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Shingoda. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Apina. Deodari. urinary discharges. biliousness. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Sk. leprosy. :—Bark and flowers. Jalakantaka-valli. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. PARTS USED. Kuberaka. Dyes. Lim. DISTR. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. H. :—Throughout the State in tanks. causes " Vata " . Chota-Nagpur. headache. :—E. M. COM. aphrodisiac. cures leprosy. NS. cures fevers. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. often cultivated. Sandal Neem. Indian Mahogany. :—Fruit. HABIT. removes " Tridosha". Moulmien or Singapore Cedar.—Onagraceæ. Toon. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Gums and Resins. Assam. astringent to bowels. Bark—bitter. biliousness. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. aphrodisiac. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. blood diseases. aphrodisiac. Gandhagarige. cooling. NS. LOC. Trikone-phala. PARTS USED. fatigue. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Nand-vriksha.—Meliaceæ. inflammation. itching. "Tridosha". Chittagong. Mahalimbu. Water-chestnut. Tun. Garige.
base oblique. LOC. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Gokhura. each with 2 pairs of hard. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. L. hairy. Kanara. abruptly pinnate. Karahate. :—E. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Chhota gokhru. yellow. M. sharp spines. bronchitis.:—Saurashtra. Negalu . lumbago. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Assam. LOC. antipyretic. thirst. appetiser.—Zygophyllaceæ. of 5 woody cocci. Gokharu. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Petari . LOC. Malay Peninsula. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. M. Ceylon. COM. :—Plant is cooling tonic. Kere Padye. K. upto 3300 m. oblong.—Euphorbiaceæ. Gujarat. . LOC. one of each pair smaller than the other. CHAR. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. M. Pindara. Gamhar. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. Hussuk. Gokhru. DISTR. Sk. Deccan and S. Calthrope. Seeds abound in starch. DISTR. H. Fibres. solitary. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Sd. K. considered cool and sweet. Gokshura. NS.—several in each coccus .. PARTS USED. Pindara. :—A procumbent herb. They are also used in the form of poultice. NS. Sk.—opposite. used as food. useful in chronic fevers. stems and branches pilose. PROPERTIES AND USES. young parts silky.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Kadu Kange Kumbala. biliousness. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Aphrodisiac.—globose. Shadanga. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. :—The whole plant. a common weed of the drier parts. FAM. See—Timbers. See—Food Plants. Sumatra. Fr. Tumri. :—Throughout India. G.. one pair longer than the other . Trikantaka. improves taste .—throughout the year. Gokhru. Kurangaha. mucronate.. Gokshri. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). Java. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. t. Fl. FAM. Kantaphala. Sarata. bile and phlegm. alexiteric. :—H. pain. Ceylon. bad-teeth (Yunani). along nalas and in swampy localities. Country. sore-throat. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . in Kashmir. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. COM. The plant contains an alkaloid.
Fl. fruits. long. branches angled and ribbed. Mt. vesicular calculi. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. Konkan.— purple. cough. piles. urinary disorders and impotence. :—Cooling . Mota-Motachor. Physiaran. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. H. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh).—heads 6—8 mm. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. Abu. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . INDIAN PREPARATIONS. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . useful in strangury. tonic. DISTR. . Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. seeds. slender. bitter. Brahmadandi. removes " Tridosha ". stem erect. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. S. CHAR. cures "Kapha". linear-oblong or lanceolate. yellowish brown. which is taken in large quantities. spinous toothed or serrate. gleet. Sk. :—The whole plant. pruritus ani. purifies blood . ovoid. Central India. enriches blood . :—A glabrous herb. S. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. gonorrhœa. the Deccan.—Compositæ. copious. L. leprosy . NS. cures strangury.— Dec. Fr. bloody urine. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kanara. Aja-dandi. stomachic. lumbago . fattening. reduces inflammation . FAM. Brahmadandi. leaves. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash).MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. alterative . :—Hot. USES :—Fruits are cooling. pappus shorter than the achenes. M. reduces inflammation. West Rajastan. alleviating burning sensation. K. :—Root. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Brahma-dandi. improves appetite . LOC. tonic . ciliate. faintly ribbed. Talakanto. "Vata". cures skin and heart diseases. oblong. emmenagogue (Yunani). Fl. Brahmadandi. COM. Country. tonic. S. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. aphrodisiac. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. HABITAT. pain . LOC. C. —achene. Diuretic. urinary discharges. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. increases menstrual flow. Brahmadandi. M. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. appetiser. Kantapatraphala. suppression of urine. Kanara. PARTS USED. :—Western Peninsula. t. : — G. :—Wild in places.—sessile. asthma. diuretic.
reniform or broadly ovate.5 cm. axillary. PROPERTIES AND USES. white. green with white stripes when raw.5—7. Katuka. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. Fruit—hot. Sd. antipyretic. Leaves—good for biliousness. ovoid-fusiform. Ceylon. leprosy. with a long sharp beak. COM. erysipelas. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. long. asthma. tendrils 3-fid. base cordate .-5-12. Betlada padaval.3-12. CHAR. dark-green above. blood diseases. N. eye diseases.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Wild Snake-gourd. Malaya. paler beneath. cures bronchitis. stomachic. Indrayan.3 cm. Makal. Sk. —G.6—4. stem robust. :—Throughout India. Fr. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Australia. useful for boils and intestinal worms..-6. ulcers. LOC. PARTS USED. NS.—Cucurbitaceæ. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.5 m. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. L. deeply 5-lobed. orbicular. CHAR. Mahakala. Ratan-indrayan. — surrounded with red-pulp . Jangali chichonda. lobes ovate-oblong. Avagude-hannu. females solitary. Lal-indrayan. :—Root. tendrils 3 cleft.-male in axillary . Jyotsna. chireta and honey. fruit. leaves. Sk. stems 3. Panduka. FAM. H. cures itching. K. male in axillary racemes. dentate or serrate. Kiripodla. Kaundal.. DISTR. woody below. anasarca and ascites. alexiteric. Jangli— Kadu padval. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. it is given in decoction with ginger. base deeply cordate. headache and boils. leucoderma. :—A scandent annual.—Cucurbitaceæ. G.5 cm. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . INDIAN PREPARATIONS.—July-Oct. long.. Fl. antipyretic. FAM . laxative. Perula. L. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. furrowed. leaf-juice is emetic. M. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). :—E. Fl. burning sensation. K. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Root-juice is very purgative. the Deccan. variable. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Malay Peninsula. COM.—2. pungent. long. Kadvi-padyal or patola . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. alterative. palmately 3-5 lobed. Mukal. slender. NS. oil. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. :—Root-cathartic . H. bitter. t. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. slightly hairy. M. LOC. scarlet when ripe. distantly denticulate. long as well as broad. Fl. Patola.—monœcious. allays thirst. In Bombay. HABITAT:-In hedges.
PARTS USED.. which is found abundantly all over the country. slender. axillary. used in epilepsy.—many . all over the State. HABITAT. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric.—Compositæ. leprosy.. black. LOC.-July. :—Root and fruit. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. :—Abundant in the Deccan. COM. China. the smoke causes hæmatemesis.— Apl. densely silky hairy.—1. limbweakness. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Japan. L. acute. :—A perennial straggling herb.—throughout the year. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. Malaya. :—Wild in hilly parts. C. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. Sd. t. t.—globose 3-8. ophthalmia. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. glandular.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. boiled with gingelly oil. CHAR.5 cm. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. Ray flowers ligulate. bracts large. :—M.75 X . LOC. Kirkee. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). many years ago. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places.— achene. 30-60 cm. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil.. lessens inflammations . PARTS USED. LOC. :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. Australia. :— Wild in Konkan. rheumatism. Country. Fl. Fr. inner slightly longer than outer. DISTR.. middle lobe smallest. fringed. Ekdandi.—petals wedge-shaped. DISTR. cures hemicrania. gargle good for toothache. heat of brain. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache.—head solitary. FAM. high. Deccan and S. purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES. petioles densely hairy. Fr. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). diam. white. M. NS. N. :—Throughout India. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. abortifacient. ovate-elliptic.75-1 in. Ceylon. ligules yellow. Juice of fruit or root-bark. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. very hairy. bruises and wounds. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. female solitary. 3-partite. hairy. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . on the Himalayas. peduncles very long. Fl. . Fruit—carminative. stem and branches hairy. outer involucral bracts ovate. sparsely white hairy.
FAM.7 cm. CHAR. Fenugreek . Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli.—Asclepiadaceæ. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. ovate or elliptic oblong. Konkan. Country. Fl. narrowed at the apex to a free point. :—H. M. enlargement of spleen and liver. flatulence. Hot and dry. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. 5-10 x 2. and the seeds contain vitamin A. tonic. K. aperient. H. diarrhœa. Muthi. Jyoti. Methi . useful in dropsy.. Chandrika. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. LOC. cultivated in many parts of India. PARTS USED. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. :—Punjab. fleshy. . vomiting. Pitakari (Pitamari). astringent to bowels. appetiser. greenish-yellow outside. M. removes bad taste from mouth. C.5—10 cm.—deeply lobed. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. :—Hot. FAM. L. M. diuretic. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). Antamul. suppurative. :—Leaves and seeds. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. LOC.—follicles. Menthe—palle. COM. much used in colic. Methi. antipyretic. G. See—Vegetables. K. NS.—opposite. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. they are also aphrodisiac. base cordate. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. Methini. COM. roots many. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. :—Cultivated. tonic and carminative.—Aug. dysentery. emmenagogue. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. with coma . S. Sk. long. also in low and sandy localities. large for the genus. tapering to a fine point at the apex. dropsy. corona gibbous below. "Vata". Janglipikvan. FN. Sd. piles. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. anthelmintic. bronchitis.5-5. Methi. cures leprosy. NS. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. long. Fl. :—A twining perennial. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns.-Nov. :—E. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. Kanara. Methi. HABITAT. chronic cough. t.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn.. Pitabija Vedhini. :—South of Bombay. Kashmir. purplish within. Nepala .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).— broadly ovate.—in umbellate cymes . Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. enlargement of spleen and liver. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. 7.
tropical Africa. light-brown . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Jaglipiaz. hairy beneath. ellipsoid.— imparipinnate. W. Chota-Nagpur. perianth campanulate. Panjala. DISTR..9-1.—appearing after the flowers. Rankanda. 5-7 (rarely 9). Fl.— flattened. LOC. Malay Islands. PARTS USED. :—E. tropical Africa. URARIA PICTA Desv. :—Throughout the plains of India. polished. :—G. stalks long. folded on one another. Fl.-Sept. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. :—Throughout India. Jangli-Ran-khanda. COM. :—Sandy places. . Prishna-parni. L. L. :—Roots and leaves. Borneo. linear-oblong. Burma. FAM. stems downy with hooked hairs. KolaPutakand. NS. tapering to both ends . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Thailand (Siam).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). CHAR.5 cm. Ceylon. black. Indian Squill. flat.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). 10-20 cm.3-2. t. Shankaraja . :—Common on sandy shores. :—A perennial shrub. NS. scape erect 30-45 cm.. M. LOC. long. :—Konkan. USES. Pitavan . diaphoretic and expectorant.—in racemes 15-30 cm.. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. G. H. C.—purple. long. COM. :—Western Himalayas. Malay Islands. blotched with white above. 0. Ceylon. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. pale lead-colored. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. 20-30 cm. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. :—Bulb. high. drooping. C. Pithavan. HABITAT. PARTS USED.. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. FAM. glabrous..—capsule. Sd. Dabra. joints 3-6. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. DISTR. Peninsula.— Liliaceæ. Fr.8 m. HABITAT. Sk. :—A herb. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. Vanapalandu. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). H.. found useful in dysentery. Philippines.— pod. Ranganja . white. :—Wild. linear. Pitvan. Fr. long. Dried leaves are emetic. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. USES. M.—Aug. Bihar. Chitra—Prishthi-parni.— petals lanceolate. Fl. 15-45 x 1. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. CHAR.
Fl.—thickly coriaceous. LOC. Sarpagandha. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. renal calculi. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). lumbago. Root is bitter. anthelmintic. A. Persara. tonic to brain and liver. Chota-Nagpur.. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. Sk. good for piles. NS. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. (In Med. antipyretic. M. pollinia ellipsoid. Nakula. Peninsula. :—Konkan. :—An epiphyte. purgative. :—Root and leaves. heating. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. t.. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. dropsy. Ceylon. boils in the scalp. :—Root is bitter. tremors (Ayurveda). 2-lobed. lip bluish dotted with purple. long. and U. internal pains (Yunani). long. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. recurved. anthelmintic. Rasno. column very short. toothache. stout. S. The plant contains an alkaloid. rheumatic pains.5—9 cm. PARTS USED. and an acute interposed one. diuretic. heals fractures (Yunani).) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. Vanda. L. praemorse. stimulant and diuretic. rheumatism. acute. useful in paralysis. Rasna. complicate.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. obtusely keeled. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Br. 1931. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. alexiteric. maritima of U. alexiteric. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. Gaz. stem 30-60 cm. Rasna. skin diseases. :—Bengal. HABIT. emmenagogue. COM.. Travancore. bronchitis. hiccup. heating. CHAR. lessens inflammations . USES :—Expectorant. long. PROPERTIES AND USES. erect. LOC. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. useful in dyspepsia. Rasna.3-2 cm. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. tip.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. DISTR.—Orchidaceæ. Banda. LOC. :—G. Fl. laxative. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. Madhya-Pradesh. and was found useful (Koman). in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Bandanike. cardiac. scilla of Great Britain. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. 15-20 X 1. W. Atiras. alexiteric. Bihar. bronchitis. Gujarat and Kanara. :—The bulb is pungent. inflammations. Fr. diseases of nose.—capsule. Vriksharuha. scandent by simple or branching roots . :—Epiphyte. H. The bulb is stomachic.— July. asthma. diseases of the abdomen. . bronchitis. K.
stomachic. debility and slight cases of fever. K. Poppli. rheumatism. with an offensive odour. LOC. also in N. Kanara. tonic and stimulant.-Jany. M. resin.—Rhamnaceæ. Country. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. acrid. FAM. Fl. H. young branches and panicles pubescent. Safed-damar. Sarjaka.. Fl. LOC. :—E. M. globular. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. boils and ringworm. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Shala. C. G. in chronic bronchitis. :—North Kanara. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. FAM. Lokhandi. good for sore-throat. K. eardiseases. hemicrania.—petals 5. dysentery. :—Bark.. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. entire or crenate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. abundant in S. Ragatarshado. also planted. :—A large much branched woody climber. carminative. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). Khandvel.5-3. fruit. Raktavalli. expectorant. Dhupa. Sk. piles. PARTS USED. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Sandras. alexipharmic. Ceylon. yellowish.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. :—Western India. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. :—Madras State. Sekalyel. diam. L. useful in atonic dyspepsia.. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. deciduous and monsoon-forests. NS. Kundura. Kaharub. M. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Madidhupa. tuberculous glands. Kanara and S. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests .-nut about 5 mm.8 cm. Gums and Resins. Fr. cures cough. DISTR. (T. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Oils. PARTS USED. Bilidhupa. greenish. DISTR. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. useful in leprosy. NS. Pitti. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. detergent. whitish). alexipharmic.—in large drooping terminal panicles. buds 5-angled. dark. See—Timbers. Dhupa. LOC. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. Travancore. skin eruptions. :—E. itch (Ayurveda). :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. bechic. Red Creeper.—Dec. anæmia. 1-nerved wing. COM. USES. Shandike. :—Bark-hot. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. ulcers and wounds. t. CHAR. COM. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. :—Bark. Coorg in Ghats. .—5-10 X 2.—Dipterocarpaceæ. amenorrhœa. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. Tenasserim. Mysore. urinary discharges. Kubbila. Malamaitra. diarrhœa. H. Haruge. tonic.
Afghanistan.6-0. Vapehi. Kalhara. Kulhala. on long petioles. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Vishamushti.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. Kulara. squeezed out by pounding. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.Feb. G. t— Jany. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages.—heads subcorymbose. China. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. and leaves.2 cm. Ceylon.-achene oblong cylindric. Kalejire.-May. rachis glandular pubescent. PARTS USED. sub-globose. pappus reddish. Bakchi.—alternate.—Scrophulariaceæ. lyrate. L. compound or pinnatisect. Seeds— anthelmintic. involucre bracts linear.. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. :—Annual. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. PARTS USED. Purple Fleabane. Fl. hairy on both sides.—capsule. Kalijiri. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Kadvojiri. 5—9 x 2. NS. Gadar-tambaku. Vanajiraka. Kalizhiri. LOC. yellow. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. :—Konkan . Sk. Agnibija. with purple tips . t. The juice mixed with mustard oil. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S.. Ceylon . (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall.8 cm. C. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. . coarsely serrate. :—Plant. high . is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. erect.5—3.—Compositæ. CHAR. cure ulcers.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. robust. all coarsely dentate. PROPERTIES AND USES. hairy. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. ofter cultivated.—Dec. Java . used in skin-diseases. Gujarat. astringent to bowels. :—Throughout India . innermost the longest. Country. COM. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. Bhutakeshi. warted. anthelmintic. lanceolate. DISTR. LOC. 10-ribbed. CHAR.) FAM. Sk. Somaraj. K. about 40-flowered. Fl. H. stems 60—90 cm. M. M. leafy herb . hairy.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. NS. :—Seeds-acrid. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). L.. branched near the top. DISTR. "Vata" and "Kapha". HABITAT:-Waste places. stem 0. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. LOC. rounded. Sundika. COM. :—An annual herb. in equal proportions. Somaraj. Deccan . VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. hairy. Fl.. often cultivated.-rotate. lobes 5. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. Kutki. The juice of the whole plant. high. Sd. Fr.—oblong.9 m. K. truncate. H. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fr. Fl. :—G. :—E. :—Throughout India. FAM.
they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. G. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). erect herb. 15—75 cm. LOC. Sk. Bala. t. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. :—E. :—Annual. PARTS USED. remove blood from liver. Khas. CHAR. NS. FAM. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs.—simple. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. asthma. M. LOC. applied in inflammatory swellings . bruised seeds ground up in paste.— pinkish violet. clothed with white hairs . Sadodi. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. hiccup . Shit-Sugandhi mulak.—Compositæ. Ardhaprasadana. Cuscus grass. Ash-coloured Fleabane . silky on the back. astringent. stomachic. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. alternate. good for sores and itching of eyes. cures "Tridosha". variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. K. H. Vecrnam. tropical Asia.-Feb. heads small. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. Sahadevi. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. The expressed juice is given in piles. DISTR. high.—achene. Osari. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Koosa. . VERNONIA CINEREA Less. Vala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Sind. M. Sedardi. Panni. Bena. Australia. used for asthma. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. cold. with lime-juice. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. Fr. stem stiff. Ushira. striate. a depilatory (Yunani). Sk. :—A common weed throughout the State.. kidney troubles. stomachic and diuretic. Devika. seeds. plant is used in fever convulsions. awned. Lavancha. Fl. COM. LOC. tonic.—Jan. K. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. NS. :—E. In Ceylon. Valo . The plant with quinine. Mudivala. COM. Sadori. Kuruvelu. Fl. :—Throughout India. oblong. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). H. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Africa . FAM. consumption. are used in destroying pediculi. Dandotpala. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). pappus white. Sahadevi. made into a bolus with lime-juice. L. bronchitis . :—Plant. flowers. They are also used as tonic.—Gramineæ. Sahadevi. pubescent. G.
Nukki. LOC. Kanara in damp places. throughout the Malayan regions. Indrani. USES :—Root is tonic. asthma. useful in eye diseases. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . Ceylon. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. NS. :—G. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. thirst. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). :—Cooling. The otto is used as a tonic. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. astringent. astringent. Nirgud. bitter. rachis stout. diuretic. promotes hair-growth. Nilpushpi. Sind. up to over 1. Konkan and Deccan. racemes up to 5 cm. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. refrigerant.. sweats. DISTR. erect. colour varying from yellowish to black. leucoderma. FAM. febrifuge. Nirgundi. L. alexiteric. Fl. inflammations and irritability of stomach. The roots contain an essential oil. blood diseases (Yunani). pale green.8 m. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Sessile spikelets. bitter. Sk. slender. Nirgundi. :—Throughout India. margin spinously rough. LOC. K. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. biliousness. inflammations. Sinduvara. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid.. cephalic. stomachic. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . :—Throughout the State. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. :—Root. DISTR. COM. Cooling to brain. stomachic. West-Indies and Brazil. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. PARTS USED. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. LOC. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . M. stimulant and tonic. head-ache. useful in burning sensation. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. expectorant and diuretic. H. also cultivated. Nirgundi. Lakki. bronchitis. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. soporific. consumption.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. long. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES. usually sheathed all along. high. tonic and vermifuge. lower ones keeled and fan-like. Culms stout.—panicle up to 30 cm. long. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. Afghanistan. heating. foul breath. Sambhalu.-leaf sheaths compressed. anthelmintic. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bilenekki. spleen enlargement. Nigod. useful in spermatorrhoea. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. bilious fevers. Leaves are aromatic. Nirgari. PARTS USED.—Verbenaceæ. bitter. :—Roots. Philippine Islands. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery.
MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N.. cooling useful in thirst. expectorant. heat of body. PARTS USED :—Stem. fruits. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. produces constipation. Khandesh. useful in old fevers. :—E. M. :—Fruit-acrid. appetiser. India. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. W. burning. diarrhœa. M. and traces of vitamins B and C. hoarseness and consumption. Ahmednagar. seeds. Country. Gujarat and S. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. Grape-vine. produces alopecia. good in chronic bronchitis . stomachic. HABITAT. . sweet. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. a remedy for skin diseases. :—Deccan. strangury. The plant contains an alkaloid. Draksha. The fruits contain vitamin A. Drakh . spleen inflammation. Fruit— digestive. applied in scabies. LOC. Fruit is nervine. See—Timbers. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. K. aperient. causes gases in the stomach. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. Madhurasa. Angur. cooling. Sap of young branches. Darakh. DISTR. fattening. and given in coughs. cough. :—A native of western Asia. piles. Seeds—aphrodisiac. fever. stops bleeding from mouth. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. H. There are numerous cultivated varieties. tonic to liver. syphilis. NS. Angura. Draksha. Draksha. diuretic . In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. fever. Yakshmaghni. good for eyes and throat. flowers. Guchaphala. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. fattening . difficult to digest. Flowers—expectorant. COM. Sk. laxative. skin should not be eaten. cures thirst. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. leaves. emmenagogue. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. jaundice. G. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. good for lungs. LOC. laxative. stones in bladder. Draksha. :—Cultivated. blood diseases. liver and kidney. FAM-—Vitaceæ. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. bad effects of drinking. asthma. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. cooling . testicle swellings and piles. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. allays vomiting. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. purifies and enriches blood . sparingly in Poona. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). catarrh and jaundice. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. allays vomiting. diuretic. emmenagogue.
Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). Mediterranean regions. somewhat scurfy. anthritis. FAM. Hooliganji. Kanara. Asan. hoary tomentose . . Sogada-beru. good in asthma. M. long. 7. swollen above the seeds. seeds.—Solanaceæ.—5-10 X 2.5 m. anthelmintic. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Fl. USES. scabies.—petals 5. marasmus of children. Asgundh. Wagati. FAM. Wakeri. Fr. pretty common in the ghats. alterative. "Kapha". HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. Fr.-Jany. acrid. Kamrupini. Asoda. :—Tubers-bitter. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. emmenagogue . alexipharmic. 23-30 cm. t. aphrodisiac.-Feb. 0. branches armed with recurved prickles . Vajini. H.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm.—3-4. ulcers. :—Drier regions. :—Konkan jungles. armed with prickles . aphrosidiac. inserted on the top of. abundant in Sind . coriaceous.—greenish or lurid yellow. favours constipation (Yunani). Kanchuki. leaflets 5-7 pairs. Gandhpatri. :—E. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . Ghodasoda. PARTS USED. Ashvagandha. branches terete. DISTR. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. CHAR. inflammations. high. inflammations. Tuber—bitter. green berries. asthma. Punir. minutely hairy. Cape of Good Hope. obovate. Ceylon. long. slightly 5-angled. See—Fruit Trees. :—In the drier regions of India . Amangura. ghats near Mahabaleshwar.—2-pinnate.5-12. insomnia. red. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC. dark-green. main rachis armed with prickles. 6 mm. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz.—berry. oblong.. Drakshasava—used as tonic. long. Fl.5 cm. consumption... tonic. :—A robust woody climber. K. rachis grooved with soft hairs. spathulate. Fl. L.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). :—Root and bark. PROPERTIES AND USES. L. :—K. oblong. linear oblong.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. pinnae 4-6 pairs. G. CHAR. leucoderma. Winter-cherry. Balada. calyx-tube. Deccan. diam. (not common. LOC. lumbago. COM. Sd. senile debility. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. Canaries. chest troubles etc. constricted between them. HABITAT. COM. entire. NS. useful in "Vata". Wagati.3-1.— Sept. enclosed in inflated calyx. base dentate. psoriasis. smooth. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . Hirimaddina-gadde.) DISTR. M. C. :—Deccan. NS. LOC. hard. :—A branched erect undershrub. t. Sd.5-5 cm. dark-orange. Sk. heating. bronchitis. ovate.—yellow. Asgund. Gujarat. bony Fl.—pod. leaves.
leprosy. Bark-infusion is used for asthma..MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. wedge-shaped. nigro-punctate beneath.5 cm. Dhawadina. :—G. Dec. L. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Sk. Indrajav.-May. COM. H.—Apocynaceæ. 1 cm. :—Monsoon-forests. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . LOC. Kodamurki. :—G. haemorrhoids. leaf-infusion is given in fever. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). rheumatism. Dhavani.—numerous. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. scarlet. Are. M. HABITAT. :—Root is regarded as tonic. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. China. tropical Africa. toxic. See—Tans. PROPERTIES AND USES. used in thirst. Madagascar. Dyes. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Dhawai. Fl. Br. The plant contains an alkaloid. emaciation of children. FAM. Kalakuda. USES.—mostly opposite. anthelmintic . Indrajav. diuretic and deobstruent. Santha. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Kalikari. Khirni. Hallunova. blood diseases. t. LOC. Ceylon. alterative. Hayamaraka.—capsule. :—Throughout India. :—Pungent. Kanara near the sea-coast. on trap in the Akrani. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. common in the Konkan and N. Sd. velvety above. Madhuindrayava. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Madhavasini. NS. Dhaiti. PARTS USED. Tamrapushpi. ulcers and painful swellings . Ornamental Plants. Indrajav. H. alexiteric. NS. smooth. long. useful in leucorrhoea. Dhaw. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. ovate-lanceolate.) FAM. Vanhishikha. Dudhi. branches long. Fl. It is narcotic. debility from old age. brown. Dhavani. :—Bark and flowers. Dhateki.— numerous.—Lythraceæ. cooling. Hale. DISTR. M. acrid. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . . in 2-15 flowered cymes. uterine sedative. Sk. Japan. dysentery. simple. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. K. and in derangement of liver . Baluchistan. Sumatra. Bela. Fr.3-2. Kuda. Java. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Swetakutaj. Phulsatti. erysipelas. irregularly dehiscent. K. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. lumbar pains. 5-9X 1. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. COM.
PARTS USED. LOC. complexion. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin.Feb. PARTS USED. 3-lobed.—Compositæ. Gadrian. :—Cooling. Sankeshwar. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. stout. . M. long. LOC. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks.. fattening.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. anthelmintic. COM. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . NS. Fl. oblong ovoid. involucre of fertile head. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. Dumundi. tonic. G.—many. L. in W. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. Kambu-Vanamalini. Fl. digestive. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. cures leucoderma. the bark is specially useful in piles. Sk. Clot-Cockle-bur. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. hard and tough. H. stem short. especially root and fruit. rough with short hairs . with 2 erect beaks. memory. West-Peninsula. laxative.—Jany. Timor. DISTR.achene. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. PROPERTIES AND USES. improves appetite. poisonous bites of insects. Sarpakshi. DISTR. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. 1-3 cm. long and broad.-E. antipyretic. LOC. See—Timbers. ovoid in fruit. Aristha. 5-7. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. Khandesh at 1050 m. :—Bark and seeds. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Fr. tonic. Madhya Pradesh. In S. alexiteric. fever. irregularly incisoserrate . hairy on both sides. :—Annual herb . Shankhahuli. all over the State. t. USES :—Root is bitter. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. antidysenterica (Yunani). Banokra. epilepsy.1-6. barren heads many.5 cm.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. Itara. voice. :— Throughout India. at the top. PROPERTIES AND USES.. compressed . :—Rajastan. biliousness. thickly clothed with hooked prickles.. Dutundi. Bur-Weed. fertile heads few. Ceylon. axillary. LOC. :—The whole plant. CHAR. salivation. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). FAM.
Anupama. G. NS. Ber. :—E. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. Badari. it cleans throat. head-ache. Kuvali. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ipanji. Gulmmula. :—E. It is stimulant. piles. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Alen. tonic. Beri. Bogari. pains. NS. H. Ber. :—Cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. flatulence. Ginger. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. useful in heart and throat diseases. vomiting. Ajapriya. DISTR. . rheumatism. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. K. aphrodisiac. FAM. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. H. Sk. Rhizome—pungent. vomiting. LOC. Koli. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. asthma. "Kapha". Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . bronchitis. Dridhabija. pains (Yunani). ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. appetiser. expectorant. Hasisunthi. :—Rhizome. Bor. Plum. colic. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. good in piles. COM. carminative.. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. anthelmintic. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). Ada. Chinese Date. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. loss of appetite and piles. aphrodisiac. FAM. See—Condiments and Spices. heating. Alla Adrak. Egasi. :—Rhizome-pungent. COM. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. laxative. inflammations. G. M. Ardraka. "Vata". Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. to prevent nausea and griping. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. useful in elephantiasis. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Bordi. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Alen. lumbago. PARTS USED. M. on poor soil and in rocky places. gives lustre to eye. Kandara. eructations. Adrate. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. removes pain due to cold. K. Boyedi. alexiteric. tongue and increases appetite. dyspepsia. Sk. stomachic. stomachic. Bor. Shringavera. carminative. Indian Cherry. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Bore. and dry situations. it is also given in the form of infusion. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda).—Rhamnaceæ. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism.—Scitaminaceæ.
thirst. good in liver complaints. useful in fevers. Kanara. aphrodisiac. Leaves—anthelmintic. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. Bark—causes boils . good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). cure asthma. tonic. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. Fruits contains vitamin A. fruit. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. reduce obesity. abundant in the Deccan. See—Timbers. biliousness. . Root and Bark tonic. vomiting. wounds and ulcers. causes diarrhœa in large doses . abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. Seed—astringent. laxative. :—Root. Ceylon. seeds. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. allays thirst (Yunani). bark. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. burning sensation. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. Australia. :—Root-bitter. indigestible. Burma. removes biliousness. on the laterite near the coast in N. LOC. Africa. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Leaves form a plaster to boils. PARTS USED. leaves. Fruit Trees. frequently planted as a fruit tree. causes cough. DISTR. Leaves antipyretic. Fruit— cooling. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles.. cooling. Afghanistan. Fruit—sweet and sour. China. head-ache. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . PROPERTIES AND USES. good in consumption and blood-diseases. tonic to heart and brain .
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