SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). LOC. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. antidysenteric. Kochi. indigestion. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils.5-12. K. Khair. It is given in diarrhœa. overlapping. Bhuriphena. Khadira.—in fascicled globose heads. measles and other skindiseases. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Pegu. M. yellow. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. hypertrophy of tonsils. Fr. Western Peninsula. urinary and vaginal discharges. DISTR. :—E. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. :—An extensive woody climber. Kanara forests. Chikakai. anthelmintic. COM. DISTR. NS. Sk. In ulceration of the gums. :—Common throughout the Stale . which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Sige-balli or kai.5X2-2.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Deccan. Kanara (often on laterite). a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Himalayas up to 1700 m. erysipelas.. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Soap-pod tree. FAM.—bipinnate.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Ritha. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles .-Mar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Dipta. Manda-otte. :—Throughout India. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). ulcers. Saradruma. " Vata ". along the coasts of Konkan and N. Sikkim. Dyes. leucorrhoea. . Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). G. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. Shige. gums. piles.. H. astringent to bowels. inflammations. wrinkled when dry . Kath-bole. 7. Fl. aphrodisiac. Fl. heaviness. leprosy. long. given in elephantiasis. Lalkhair. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. China. throat diseases.-t. strengthens teeth. tonic. M. Shikekai. Sd. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. L. prurigo.8 cm. Yajnika.—pod. leaflets 10-20 pairs. relaxation of the uvula. Vidula. boils. 5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Malay Islands. fleshy when green. CHAR. cooling. linear-oblong. Country and Gujarat.-July. mouth troubles. Saptata. LOC. Kushthari. anti-pyretic. Phena. See—Timbers. :—Rajastan. Tans. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Khandesh Akrani S. M. psoriasis. Burma. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. sore-throat and tooth-ache. bronchitis. LOC. " Kapha ". Sk. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. acrid. cures itching. Charmakusha. Dantadhavan.-6-10 .

anthelmintic. COM. stomatitis. Sind. prurigo. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Marudruma. leucoderma. expectorant and good emetic. Cassia flower. biliousness. LOC. bronchitis. Arimeda. not indigenous but naturalised. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. FAM. LOC. buboes. HABITAT :—Moist situations. M. Kankri. DISTR. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. eczema. digestible. Gandhbabul. blood diseases. See—Timbers.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Jali. cures stomatitis. often cultivated. Internally they are aperient. Sk. anti-dysenteric. inflammations. burning sensation. LOC. Gandhelo khair . Vilavati kikar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. detergent. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. purgative. Gum—sweetish. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Kari jali. leaves and gum. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. :—E. cardio-tonic. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. blood-diseases. leucoderma. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . piles.. NS. Pissibabul. cooling. often planted . G. PARTS USED :—Bark. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Stinking acacia. Jheri baval. Sponge tree. Devababhul. erysipelas. erysipelas. itching. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. ulcers. alexiteric. In Philippines decoction. H. tonic. K. causes " Vata". Sauna jali. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. ascites. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . anti-diarrhoeal. cures " Kapha. improves appetite. Girimeda. .pungent. deobstruent. caries of teeth. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. anthelmintic. Gums and Resins.

5 cm. somewhat 3-nerved. Fl. high. Fr. K. t. elongate.. G.—truncate at apex. 30-75 cm. :—Annual. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. Country. Fl. Ksharamadhya. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. many. rounded at base. Philippines.—June-Sept. L.—capsule. 3.3-0. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. long in fruit. Kharamanjiri.5 cm. M.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places.57. LOC. brown.—Amarantaceæ. minute. pneumonia and rheumatism.—Nov. oblong-cylindric. Utranigida. Sd. Fl. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Fr. NS. one-seeded. enclosed in perianth smooth. crenate-serrate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. asthma. COM. Kuppi-gida. Apang. :—Common in the Deccan and S. Apamarga.5x2-4. ascending. M. Uttrane . PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. high.— ovoid. K. Sd. stem stiff. erect herb.5-4. COM.—utricle. LOC. Arittamanjaria. in elongate terminal spikes. H. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Agheda-di. brown. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. :—G. Vasira. smooth. Khokali. :—An erect herb 0. Sk. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. DISTR. about 50 cm. in lax. Chichra. Khokla. Kuppi. angular. Vanchhikanto. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. females.—opposite. FAM. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. CHAR. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. perianth 4-5 segments. Latjira . 2.3 X 2.8-6. males. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. tropical Africa. Fl. .—greenish white.—monœcious. :—Throughout India. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. :—E. Merkati. small. Sk. The plant contains acalyphin. FAM. clustered near the summit of spike. branches long. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. branches terete or quadrangular striate. erect. Ceylon. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. scattered. elliptic obovate. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. few. hispid. CHAR. axillary spikes . Khajoti.. t. It is used in congestive headache. H. Aghada . Var. Prickly chaff-flower.—Euphorbiaceæ. NS. Chalmari. Chirchira.-Jany. softly hairy. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. pale-brown. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache.9 m. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. Kantarika.

—Araceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. PARTS USED : —Root. useful in abdominal pains. America. itching. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. kidney troubles. leucoderma (Yunani). dysentery. Ugragandha. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Godavaj. Vacha.8 cm. slightly curved. margins wavy. flowers and seeds. See—Sacred Plants. Ceylon. LOC. voice. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Europe and N. long. DISTR. COM. loss of memory. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. hysteria. CHAR. Gandhilovaj. skin eruption etc. top pyramidal. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. NS. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. Bitter. pungent. delirium. bronchitis. sepals scarious. fevers. improves appetite. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. boils. Bach. dysentery. L. bright-green. M. Tropical Asia. green . Africa. useful in general weakness. brain-tonic. spadix. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. throat. HABITAT :—Marshy places. America. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Jatila. stomatitis. useful in dyspepsia. anthelmintic. carminative. heating. Fr. Vekhand . acute. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. LOC. Gorbach . diuretic. Sk. blood diseases (Ayurveda). H. flatulence. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. Bhutnashini. inflammations. useful in vomiting. Sweet flag . :—An aromatic herb . ascites. heating. LOC. "Vata". INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. spathe 15-75 cm. stomachic. abdominal pains.. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). emetic. 5-10 cm. good for mouth diseases. bitter. alexiterie.. etc. toothache. piles. anthers yellow. Vekhand.7-3. heart diseases. epilepsy. Australia. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. obtuse. tumours. leaves. :—Throughout India. creeping and branching. dyspepsia. prismatic. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. laxative. K. long. Baja . thirst. piles. Baluchistan. :—E. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. G. liver and chest pains. rat-bite. bronchitis. Sikkim.8 X 1. inflammations. thickened in the middle. Throughout Asia. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. emmenagogue . carminative. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. and is considered useful in dropsy. FAM.—turbinate. carminative. . its infusion is tonic and stomachic. improves appetite. laxative. 0. expectorant.9-1.

Pichli. Rukhdo . fever. COM. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. etc. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and .MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. Baobab. Panch-parnika. K. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. African calabash. :—Grown in many places in India . aerial parts yield a volatile oil. PARTS USED : —Root. NS. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. :—E. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. NS. Gorakhchinch. :—Western Peninsula.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. H. Sk. Goremlichora . excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. dysentery. :—K. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . M. vomiting. FAM. Kanara evergreen forests. Pisa. LOC.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Gopali. fevers and other maladies. M. Tudgensu . Gorakamali. FAM. Gujarat. LOC. leaf and fruit. Deccan. indigenous in tropical Africa. N.—Bombacaceæ. Gorakhaamli. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. HABITAT':—Cultivated. useful in biliousness. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children.—Lauraceæ. It is a good remedy in asthma. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Powder is very effective insecticide. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. bark. anti-pyretic. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs.:—Konkan. G. DISTR. Bukha. in children. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. Monkey-bread tree. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. Gorakshi. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. colic. See—Timbers.. Haggodgimara. DISTR. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. LOC. Brahmamlika.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

Asroli. Ankol. inflammations. " Vata "-pain. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Krishnashirisha.—Alangiaceæ. NS. Ankota. useful in worms. Sirai.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Onkla.) FAM. blood diseases. Kanara. Shirish. Sirisa. Kaloshirish. Dridhakantaka. K. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . lumbago (Yunani). COM. FAM. heating. Ankola. LOO. Ankoli. Chinchola. alexipharmic . NS. Uddanaka. K. inflammations. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Vamaka. Sk. wasting diseases. pungent. Kathora. Ankotha. See—Timbers. Gudhapatra. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. and fruit.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. lumbago. Ankola. . Shankiniphala. cures erysipelas. H. Shirisha. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. stem. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Malaya. aromatics or honey. alexiteric. Kalashirish.—Leguminosæ. colic. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. expectorant. Anedhera. leaves (rarely). it is said to stop after-pains. LOC. Kullumavu. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Piloshirish. Kalshish. Ankoli. commonly planted along roadsides. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Root-bark poisonous. Garso. hydrophobia. Philippines. often along banks of nalas in N. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. S. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Sk. indigestible. China. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. tonic. :—Throughout the State. diarrhœa. Root-bark— used in piles. LOC. H. acute fever. G. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Ankola. Tamraphala. :—E. blood diseases. Fruit—laxative. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Akoly. Juice—emetic. biliousness. carminative. Seeds—cooling. spermatorrhoea. poisonous bites. M. (Mimosaceæ). burning of body. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. DISTR. Tantia. Shyamala. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). useful in inflammations. COM. Sirsul. anthelmintic. Karnapura. alterative. M. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. Kalosadasado. Shirish. Sage-leaved alangium. Ceylon. cures " Kapha". Ankora. rat-bite. G. Dodda-Hombage. See—Timbers. :—E. :—Throughout India. dysentery. fish-poison. gleet.

emollient. ophthalmia. body pains. diarrhœa. cultivated everywhere. Ulageddi. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). spleen diseases. bark. Bark and seeds are astringent. itching. strengthens gums and teeth. erysipelas. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. Seeds—fattening. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. LOC. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. syphilis. Onion. appetiser. etc. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. Dungari. See—Timbers. It is an important garden crop. M. prescribed in ophthalmia. which acts as a diuretic. NS. Kanda. Root—astringent. bronchitis. vomiting. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. occasionally used in fever. Seeds—tonic to brain. scabies. relieves tooth-ache. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. excessive perspiration. enriches blood. piles. tonic. maturant. LOC. epistaxis. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. seeds. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. aphrodisiac. bleeding piles. Ceylon. H. biliousness. :—Native country probably Persia. flowers. cures "Vata".. Sk. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. tumours. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. inflammations. dropsy. and also in skin diseases . deafness. Rajapriya. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). Leaves—good in night blindness. used in leprosy. leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. See—Vegetables.—Liliaceæ. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. eruptions and swellings. boils.. Burma. stimulant and expectorant. anthelmintic. Piyaz. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Palandu. DISTR. ear-ache. and chronic bronchitis . improves taste. etc. volatile oil.: —Throughout India. The plant contains vitamins A. PARTS USED :—Root. cooling. catarrh. stomachic. given in piles. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. good in rat-bite. paralysis. useful in vomiting.:—E. seeds. LOC. scabies. Bulb—tonic. Bark— anthelmintic. useful in malaria. FAM. . alexiteric. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. their smell useful in hemicrania. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. Oil is used in leprosy. asthma.K. COM. weakness. Flowers—aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). Rochaka. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. Bengal. Bark-bitter. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. piles. skin-diseases. usually planted. blood diseases. B & C. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites.

ALŒ VERA Linn. The plant contains vitamin C. body and joint pains. sciatica. Sk. NS. M. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Country. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Ghi-kumari.—Liliaceæ. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. useful in diseases of eye and heart. digestive. Bellulli. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. Kapila. chronic fevers. G. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. Garlic. Ikshurmallika. heating. COM. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. Lashuna. In Cambodia. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. LOC. piles. M. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Sk. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. liver and lungs . bronchitis. M. lumbago. epileptic fits. tonic. voice. Lasan. thins the blood (Yunani). tumours.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. coughs and other debilitating conditions. alexipharmic. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Kattali. carminative. oleaginous . ear-ache (Ayurveda). Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Kuvarpatha. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. caries of teeth. Lolisara. NS. fattening. FAM. hemiplegia. It is an important garden crop. aphrodisiac. In cases of diphtheria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Diuretic. improves appetite. leucoderma. Kumari. complexion. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. anthelmintic. . Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. asthma. Lasun. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. FAM. good for lumbago. aphrodisiac. thirst.—Liliaceæ. paralysis. leucoderma. Kumari. In pulmonary phthisis. clears voice. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Ugragandha. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. See—Vegetables. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. K. Kanya. :—E. paraplegia and convulsive affections. thirst. useful in inflammations. " Vata ". HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. PARTS USED :—Bulb. low fevers. COM. Korkand. LOC. H. G. inflammation. Indian aloe. Lasan. troubles of spleen. Rasonaka. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. H. K. Korphad. Lahsan.

simple or branched. Mediterranean. Hale. Native of S. DISTR. It also acts as a mild purgative. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. common in the rain-forests of N. Satian. pale-green. Kaduhale. alexiteric. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. Kanara. alterative. Saptaparna. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. West Indian Islands. The plant contains aloin.—sessile. aphrodisiac. Saptachhada. crowded. PARTS USED :— . USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. fleshy. useful in splean inflammation. biliousness. :—A perennial herb . somewhat divided. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. biliousness (Yunani). NS. Barbados. vomiting. tumours. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. fattening. Australia. strangury.—Apocynaceæ. asthma. used in form of paste in pleurisy. stem short thick. perianth cylindric . ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Chatian. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. Ceylon. margins spiny. lanceolate. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. India. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. Satwin. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. emollient and demulcent. H. HABITAT :—Moist forests. cooling. skin diseases. also cultivated. Root. tropical Africa. inflammations. LOC. tonic. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. spleen enlargement. leaves. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. carminative. scaly. liver troubles. scape longer than the leaves. ophthalmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. useful in eye-diseases. M. Jamaica. milky juice. Kadusale. pendulous. gonorrhœa. Africa. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Dita bark tree. L. C. liver complaints. anthelmintic. :—Throughout India. jaundice. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. yellow. planted in Indian gardens . bark. :—Wild along the coast in S. wild along the coast. COM. pain in muscles. FAM. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. used in fevers. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. Java. purgative. tonic.—in dense racemes . Fl. isobarbaloin and emodin. :—E. methritis. Bitter . K. purgative. Satwin. Br. and it is largely imported into India. E. DISTR. digestive. lumbago. piles. LOC.

). obtuse. leprosy. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. Tandulibija. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. See—Vegetables. LOC. blood diseases. galactogogue. high. HABITAT :—In waste places. LOC. See—Timbers.8 cm.. :—E. apiculate.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. rat-bite. Bark—acrid. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. M. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . good in diseases of the heart. oleaginous. Sk. CHAR. Kante math. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). Fl. K. thickened at the top. also useful in catarrhal fever. anthelmintic. Ceylon. ovoid. G. entire. . it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. LOC. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. Kantanatia. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. sudorific and febrifuge. 30-60 cm. Tandulja. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. piles. rubbish heaps . also in fields. improves appetite. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. male calyx acute. alexiteric. laxative. Prickly amaranth. rugose. Kantalo dambho. Tandulaja. tumours. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. long. :—An erect glabrous herb. Cholai. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. bristles pointed. hallucination. NS. FAM. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. asthma. DISTR. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. tropical countries. Drug Com. lanceolate. boils and burns. biliousness.— 3. useful in " Kapha ". ulcers.2—7. " tridosha " pain. burning sensation. Mulladantu. often reddish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. unisexual. diseases of the blood. Kantanu-dant. diuretic. Apamarisha. antiperiodic and febrifuge. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. bitter. laxative. :—Throughout India. antipyretic. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. bronchitis. H.3—3. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. stomachic. rubbish heaps and fields.5 X 1. Root—heating expectorant. digestible.—Amarantaceæ. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. female calyx oblong. obtuse.— capsule. leucorrhoea. Mullarave-soppu. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. numerous. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. COM. L. heating. ovate. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. leucoderma. Fr.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. appetiser. Pathyashaka.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Deccan. 8-65 cm. Suran. blood diseases. Vatari. causes itching sensation. H. Suran . fresh or dried.—Lythraceæ. NS. FAM. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. . G. In the Konkan. Kuranda. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. COM. erect or subscandent herb. Jangli mehandi. L. Kuranti. removes " Kapha ". acrid. the plant. It is also used as an emmenagogue. LOC. much narrowed at the base. Bharajambhul. elephantiasis . branches usually opposite. CHAR. Ceylon. increases appetite and taste. PARTS USED :—Leaves. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). high.—capsule. :—Throughout India in moist places. Bitter and acrid . useful in piles. fevers etc. Kurendika.—opposite. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). sessile. Kandavardhan.:— Konkan. stomachic. Tropical Africa. DISTR. NS. Australia. Kandala. COM. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings.—Nov. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . red. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. Grows wild on the banks of S. depressed. corm. Gujarat and Kanara. aphrodisiac. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Suran. Sk. t. Elephant's foot. bronchitis. strangury . appetiser. used as an appetiser (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. Fr. :—E. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. DISTR. globose. :—Cultivated widely in the State. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. M. Afghanistan.—Araceæ. LOC. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. China. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. abdominal pains. K. Malaya.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. tumours. Jalavgiyo. Suran. Kanthalla. enlargement of the spleen. :—An annual. asthma. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root." blood troubles. Fl. harmful in "Kapha". constipating. Konkan rivers. FAM. M.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . laxative. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Fl. G. Sd. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. " Vata. Arshaghna. LOC. :—E. Vikata. Sk. vomiting. pungent. stomachic. H. Sukaranda. Blistering ammania. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. Dadmari.

and trace of C. USES :—Bark is alterative. 5-nerved. The seed contains vitamin A. Kakaphal. Kaju. Upapushpika. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.— subcoriaceous. corns and obstinate ulcers. & A.—Menispermaceæ. Fish-Louse Berry. M. Kakanashika. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. H. See—Vegetables. FAM. It is supposed to have restorative power. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. Kempu— Turkaka geru . L. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. DISTR. equal to almond oil. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. K. Kanara. skin diseases. G. Garalaphala. Gerubi. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. ulcers. digestible. Kakamari. Oils. :—E. Crow-Fish Killer. Kakamari. The plant contains Vitamins A. :—A native of tropical America. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. swollen peduncle of fruit. Kaju. many flowered. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. FAM.. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kakamari.5 cm.—in panicles 25-35 cm. CHAR. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. . flowers. anthelmintic. NS. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. K. fever. long. tumours. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. H. ringworm. ascites. PARTS USED :—Bark. Prithagbija. also cultivated. :—E. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Kakamari. which is nutritious and emollient. Govamba. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. sweet. COM. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. leucoderma. bark vertically furrowed . Agni-krita. Sophara. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Cashew apple-nut. Corm is poisonous. leaves. . tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . NS. Kakamari. Kaju . G. Kajutaka. dysentery. cures "Vata" and " Kapha".5-12. Kakkisoppugida . 10-12 X 7. cordate or truncate. B. Fl. COM. aphrodisiac. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. hot.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. Gova. See—Timbers.—Anacardiaceæ. LOC. piles. Sk. LOC. Sk. broadly ovate. Jermic.

also allays gastric irritability in fevers. K. it is useful in jaundice. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Bhuinimba. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. removes gases from the intestines . DISTR. It acts also as diuretic. H. leaves and fruits. smooth. G. causes cough and biliousness. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. :—Khasia Hills. NS. Ananas .—Bromeliaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Bengal.-Oct. to a certain extent in Gujarat. Sk. Kiryat. N. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. COM. PARTS USED :—Roots. COM. Fl. M. Ananas hannu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. cultivated. DISTR. Ananas. Ananasa. Mahatit. Kiriyata. dioecious. Olikiriyat. Ananas . :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . LOC. good expectorant. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. black . native of Brazil (tropical America). LOC. Creat. Pine-apple . . Ananas. Mahateet. M. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. Parvati. K. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. FAM. a poison to fish (Yunani). also acts as a purgative. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. See—Fruit Trees. :—E. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Assam. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. H. E. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. t. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. NS. fruits. Kirata. petals absent. Kantak sanjika. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. LOC.—Acanthaceæ. FAM. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Olen kirayat. Sk. Nelabevu gida. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Ama.) LOC. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N.—Sept. from Orissa to Ceylon. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Kanara. :—Konkan.

acute. LOC. and anthelmintic. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. dyspepsia and fever from teething.3-0. 1. HABITAT. LOC. Fr. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Vaikunth. made into an electuary. Sundara. oblong-lanceolate. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. G. C—2-lipped.—small. :—Deccan. white below.3-10 X 2-4. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Roots and leaves are febrifuge. NS. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. Kanara. Fl. stem quadrangular. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Chodhara. PROPERTIES AND LOC. approximate above. :—An erect branched annual 0. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. and N. thickly woolly. FAM. polished brown.—Dec. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. dysentery. very small. Br. Sk. Malabar Catmint. Oshthaphala. distant. lower lip very large and broad .—lanceolate. stomachic.8 m. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.-Oct. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. :—E.2-1. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. clothed with woolly hairs .. L. Alamoda. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. Green leaves. acute at both ends . USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. tonic. Karnatak. K.—Ghats. DISTR. yellowish brown. alterative. Fl. forming a spicate inflorescence.5 cm. bracts lanceolate. Sundraphul. Malay Peninsula. sometimes cultivated. rugosely pitted. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. DISTR. Fr.—many.—very thick. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. Fl. pale beneath. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. :—S. ellipsoid. distant. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. Fl.—nutlets. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. 6.—in dense whorls . extensively used in Bengal. smooth. high. t. undulate. pale above. lateral lobes small.— capsule. solitary. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. upper lip 2-toothed. high. :—Throughout India. L. M. Sd. Karitumbe. :—An erect shrub. COM. C—2-lipped.—Labiatæ. CHAR.-Nov. purple. crenate-serrate. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Gojivana. and certain forms of dyspepsia. linear-oblong. t. :—Konkan and Kanara.9 m. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Plant is useful in general debility. . rose coloured. lower 3lobed.

Sharipha. Krishnabija. Root—cathartic. Pitaphala. H. M. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. improves taste and appetite . Durangi. DISTR. Sk. sedative to heart. good tonic. abortifacient. erysipelas. cooling. expectorant. Ata. cooling . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. Dyes. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). increases biliousness . Damora. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Seeds—difficult to digest. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. :—E. :—E. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. G. useful in anaemia. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. (Yunani).:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. G. Dindala. H.—Anonaceæ. See—Timbers. stimulant. Sitaphala. Anuram. Sitaphal. Bahubijika. K. discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. useful in liver complaints. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanara border. chronic diarrhœa. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Bakla. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . causes fever and furunculosis . Sk. LOC. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Sitaphala. Dhavada. Custard apple. increases muscular strength. leaves. DISTR. Ceylon. Dhavada. Dohu. K. Dabria. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Button Tree. PARTS USED :—Root. Shushkanga. LOC. enriches blood . Sugar apple. Sweet-sop. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Dhavala. COM. Anan. bark. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. :—A native of West Indies . Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. enriches blood. Fruit—sweet. NS. Dhava. FAM. COM. M. Sitaphala. and eyesores. Bark is bitter. Sitaphala.—Combretaceæ. astringent to the bowels. Dindiga. Dhava. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". applied to skin-diseases. fruit and seeds. bark. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Bejjalu. Bark is a powerful astringent. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Amritphala. flavoury. Dhamora. LOC. leaves and fruits. NS. tasty.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. now cultivated throughout India. produce ulcers in the eye.

opium and alum is applied round the orbit. It is generally considered tonic. Peninsula. Kadamba. galactagogue. Fruit—heating. bitter.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. common near Yellapur. " Vata". ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Surabhi. strangury. :—W. Kaduve. USES:—In the Konkan. LOC. Valkala. often cultivated. Ashokari. vulnerary. H. Nipa. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. mixed with gram-flour. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. burning sensation. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. saline. Bairi. Burma. FAM. DISTR. cooling. COM NS. Kadamb. In eye inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent.—Moraceæ. LOC. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. acrid. COM. See—Fruit Trees. Fodder Plants. LOC. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. M. Seeds yield an oil and resin. See—Timbers. K. . Ajjanpatte. good in uterine complaints. Jajpugri. Ceylon. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Tennaserim. :—Throughout India. Nadija. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). K. Sprouts—acrid. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. Kanara . and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. is a good hairwash. Malayan Peninsula. NS. DISTR. Sk. PARTS USED:—Bark. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Niv.—Rubiaceæ. Kadubale. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Kadamb . sap of the tree. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Chandala. They are detergent and their powder. aphrodisiac. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. PARTS USED :—Seeds. stomachic. :—E. Sk. Kadam. Pegu. sweet. Kadamb . wild or cultivated. sprouts and fruits. Chandkuda. Sacred Plants. Kadamb. Malay Islands. Karnapuraka. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. blood diseases. indigestible. Chandkuda. FAM. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. " Kapha". causes biliousness when ripe. H. :—G. Upas Tree. alexiteric. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid.

scabies. nasal catarrh (Yunani). amenorrhœa. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. :—E. rectal troubles. W. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. :—E. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). ascites. DISTR. bronchitis. Ajmud. astringent to bowels . Wild celery. tonic. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. good in ophthalmia.4 m. vomiting. and γ-antiarin.5-2 mm. . Fr. chest-pains. NS. cure " Kapha ". Karafs. Ugragandha. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Ground-Pea-nut. Sk. LOC. scorpion and other stings. LOC. K. Bhuimug. rays 5-10. Snehabijaka. Europe. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. N. :—A biennial plant. W. Mandapi. Ajamoda. pedicels 6-16 . :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Bori ajmud. inflammations.— radial. The plant contains vitamins A. CHAR.:—Foot of the N. hiccup. segments once or twice trifid. Shimbika. cure asthma. appetiser. COM NS. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. G. cauline 3-partite. H. See—Vegetables. vittae broad.3-2. M. β-antiarin. abdominal pain. used in anasarca and colic. Abyssinia. Moda. COM. Africa. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Mungphali. ridges narrow. FAM. Sk. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. useful in ophthalmia. 0. vomiting. urinary discharges. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. Brahmakoshi. laxative. aphrodisiac. traces of B and C. Java and Malaya. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. rheumatism.. Bodi ajomoda. anthelmintic. Afghanistan. Ajmoda . Glucoside apiin is present. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Monkey-nut. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Markati. Fibres. Chinimung. heart and spleen diseases. " Vata " . Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. improve appetite . Celery. L. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. tooth-ache. good for heart.— in umbels. Bhuimug-chana. Asia. See—Timbers.—1. erect. Nelkadle. fever with cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. G. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. Bhuchanak. Seeds—carminative. M. H. branching. abortifacient.—Umbelliferæ. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. apex toothed . specially near large cities. Bhuimug.

improves appetite and taste. USES. LOC. digestive. cardiotonic. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). . Country. Kaungu. removes pus (Yunani). Betel-nut palm. Akota. seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Seed cooling. Chikka. Pophal. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Indo-Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. LOC. Suppiyari. Betta. NS. Nut astringent. Sk. Hopari. removes foul breath. leaves (rarely). DISTR. Chikkan. Poga. ARECA CATECHU Linn. cooling. Chhataphala. COM. Oils. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Deccan. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. aphrodisiac. gleet. K. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. H. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Gum pungent. diuretic. Burma.—Palmæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. :—E.. Gujarat and S. indigestible. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Malabar. Bengal. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Adki. G. Pugiphal. used for eye-inflammations. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Areca palm. Tantusara. See—Food Plants. Supari. LOC. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. :—Madras. laxative. useful in urinary disorders. Assam.:—Extensively grown in N. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. FAM. In French Guinea. gum. bleeding gums. Kanara. fairly largely in the Konkan. M. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. M. Sopari. giddiness. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. emmenagogue. Supari. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mysore. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Siam. Areca-nut palm.

spinous. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. veins white. Seeds—purgative.—all the year. useful is strangury.—thistlelike. Pirangi datturi. oblong. LOC. It is also diuretic. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. USES :—Root is an alterative. Bharbhand. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. Shialkanta. Mexican prickly poppy .MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. :—A glabrous. PARTS USED :—Root. M. Plant enriches blood. Ind. FAM. glaucous herb . oblong-ovoid 2. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. various skin-diseases. antidote to various poisons. opening by 4-6 valves. Balurakkisa. nauseant. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). arecaidine. Svarnakshiri.). prickly.—capsule. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. G. inflammations and bilious fevers.5-18 cm. K. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.—Papaveraceæ.8 cm. Root anthelmintic. DISTR. COM. arecoline. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. Fl. and guvacine. Fl. Srigalkanta.5-5 cm. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). H. yellow. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. . :—E. prickly. Indigenous in tropical America. 2. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State .5-3.3-0. See—Timbers. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. CHAR. diam. cures leprosy. Daruri. netted. Seeds are laxative. destroys worms .—numerous. sedative. Sk. Fruit Trees. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Juice—used as a collyrium. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. stem clasping. Sd. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. high.— terminal. India. Datturi. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). NS. Darudi. stem 0. juice yellow. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. This is said to bring the worm out at once. t. Fr. sinuately pinnatifid. LOC. 7. seeds and yellow juice. emetic. relieves blisters. and in pertussis and asthma. L. brownish black. branching. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. Pita-pushpa. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. expectorant and demulcent. Brahma dandi.12 m. jaundice and cutaneous affections. globose. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Bila dhatura. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. purgative.

G.5 cm. the bands silky pubescent outside. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. prostrate.— 3. chronic ulcers (Yunani). pedicel with a large bract at the base. :—A slender perennial. COM. :—E. long. glabrous inside. Kitakaba.— globose apiculate. :—Bengal. oblongellipsoid. NS.5 cm. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Kidamar. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system.5-4. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.— 7. FAM. Fl. white-tomentose beneath. Java. weak. white-tomentose L.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. Fr.—in sub-capitate cymes. Kitamari. Shyambhuna. G. white-tomentose. base subglobose. H. In synovitis. painful joints. Gandali.—Weed of cultivation in black soils.. Hastivalli. aphrodisiac.-Nov. Adumuttadagida. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. (sometimes even larger). 12-ribbed . FAM. bracts large . HABITAT. with revolute margins. :—E. Sk. Soge. peduncles stout. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. perianth 2. anthelmintic. Deccan and S. Bracteated Birth-wort. long and as broad as long. Samudraballi. tip linear dark purple. Country. tube inflated. tropical Africa. Krimighni. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. See—Ornamental Plants.3-2 cm.— Aug.3 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . Ganda. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. powdered root is given with milk. Gujarat and S. base cordate with wide sinus . useful in " Vata". stems. Samardar sokh.—deltoid with cordate base . ovate glabrous above. long. Fr. strangury. M. Samudrashok. K. LOC.3-25 cm. gonorrhœa. Elephant Creeper. rose purple. Kiramar. Samudrashosh. H. Dridhadaru. L. stems stout. Arabia. Dhuma-patra. DISTR. Ajantri. Ceylon. Varghoro. t. Leaves are maturative. Fl. diuretic . cultivated.—Aristolochiaceæ. Fl. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). M.—Aug.:—Konkan. tubular. CHAR. reniform or broadly ovate. Konkan. M. t.8-7. LOC. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. Sk. . pubescent outside. base cordate.—capsule. Fl. Vridhadaraka. M.—solitary. COM. Samudrapatrashoh. absorptive. Kidamari. DISTR. LOC. 1. C—5-6. :—A very large climber. striate. Country. NS.-Sept. :—Throughout India. infundibuliform. perhaps a native of Bengal.5-30 x 6. Samandarka phal. W. K.—Convolvulaceæ. long. used in gleet. " Kapha" fevers. Peninsula. CHAR.

Arkamula. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. — capsule. Majtari. LOC. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp.. M. bract opposite the pedicel. K. entire with undulate margins. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties.5x7. .. emmenagogue. dyspnoea of children. Dona. Ruhimula. 3.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. H.—flat. Fr. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. COM.—Compositæ. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. long with globose inflated base. bitter. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. joint-pains. Nakuli. COM. Mother or Mugwort. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. also useful in dropsy. Fl. Sk. Sugandha. Dovana. winged. NS. Manjipatri.—Nov. alexiteric. globose-oblong. Sd. Nagduna. Isharmula. Mastaru. grooved. M. perianth greenishwhite. reaching 4. Isvara balli beru . LOC. Arkamula. G. biliousness. Seeds useful in inflammation.3-2.—Aristolochiaceæ. L. Fl. t. woody at the base. Nepal. dry cough.8-10 X 1. K. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda).5 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. CHAR. obovate oblong 10-12. H. tonic. :—E. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Ishvari. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Ceylon." pains in the joints. M. Country. 6-valved. PARTS USED :—Roots.) FAM. leaves and seeds. Plant is used as an abortifacient. The plant contains an alkaloid. DISTR. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Nilpushpa. Saraparni. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Gathona.—variable linear oblong. Sapsan. :—A twining shrub. Nagdamani. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Dhor-davana.5 cm. Flea-bane. Bengal. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. purgative (Yunani). :—Western Peninsula. NS.:—Konkan and S. Indian Birth-wort.5 cm. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. base vaiable. FAM. slender. Stem long. Indian wormwood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. :—E. useful in " Tridosha.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Sk.

K. Fl. useful in biliousness. Kanara.-Hilly districts. lobes entire.:—A perennial shrub. NS. diuretic.10x2. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. toothed or again pinnatisect. DISTR. Tage. FAM. LOC. Panos. minute. fattening. oleaginous. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. leprosy. LOC.6-2. L— lower leaves 5. Kanthal.—Jany. cures "Kapha". aphrodisiac. itching (Ayurveda). Ghats. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Panas. tonic. 0. fertile. alexiteric. oblong ellipsoid. lanceolate. pubescent above. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Vanas. :—Widely cultivated. Fl.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. aromatic. aphrodisiac. solitary or 2. The plant contains an essential oil. See—Timbers. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. asthma and brain diseases.5-5 em. temperate Asia. white tomentose beneath. COM. petioled. :—E. Thailand (Siam). cooling. often planted along roadsides in N. grown in gardens also.—heads ovoid or subglobose. Jack-Orange wood. HABITAT. involucral bracts villous. . USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. Fr. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. Seeds sweet.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fruit Trees and Dyes. tonic. 3-fid or entire. " Kapha". appetiser. Kujja. DISTR. high. stems leafy.— achene. An infusion is given as a tonic. outer flowers female. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. enriches blood. hairy. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. Phanasa. " Vata". although very nutritious.—Urticaceæ.4 m. Kantakaphala. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. "Vata". found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. but rather difficult to digest. The unripe fruit is astringent. Jack-fruit tree. Halasina. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. Chakki. deeply pinnatisect. M. upper leaves smaller. Sk. ovate. fruit and seeds. H. inner hermaphrodite. t. PARTS USED :—Leaves. constipating (Ayurveda). Externally it is used in fomentations. aphrodisiac. base lobed. Java. :—Konkan. ulcers. G. Phanas. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Panesa. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. ripe fruit laxative. LOC. LOC. Skandaphala.

JAVANICA Baker. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. LOC. with coma. cladodes in tufts. cultivated as ornamental plant. Satamulika. thorn. :—E. valvate in bud.5-10 X 1.—June-Sept. Asual Shatavari. lanceolate. A fibre is extracted from the plants. 0. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. oleaginous. Fl. Var. biliousness. Satavari.—linear with a stout spinous spur.— follicles. red when ripe. K. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon.000 m. throat complaints. Shatavari. spines recurved. Kaktundi. :—Introduced from the W. Fr. segments. appetiser. FAM. :—Deccan.-Feb. CHAR. tumours.—Liliaceæ. Satavari.—orange in axillary umbels. stomachic. DISTR. blood and eye diseases. M. Siprimuli. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa.5-5 cm.5 cm. FAM. Sk. high. .3-2. inflammation. :—G. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. straight. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column.. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.9-1. leaves and flowers. COM. Svadurasa. Java and Australia.ovoid.—Asclepiadaceæ.-Dec. Satavari. Fl. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. NS. C. abundant round about Poona. in the Himalayas. spinous. LOC. solitary. dark brown. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. Indies. aphrodisiac. Fl. 7. See—Ornamental Plants. :—An erect undershrub. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kuraki. indigestible. narrowed at both ends. PARTS USED:—Root. astringent to bowels. useful in dysentery. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. fragrant. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State.5 cm. up to 1. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. and moist monsoon forests. oblong. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. S. common in the Deccan. tapering at both ends. NS. white. Tropical Africa. L. Flower is a good styptic. globose.—opposite 7. PARTS USED:—Root. Svetmuli. from Kashmir eastwards. Sd. M. t. H. t. cooling. Fl.2 m. curved. tonic. long. naturalised in many parts of India. galactogogue. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. M.—berry. thin. CHAR. undershrub. erect. DISTR. root-stock tuberous. L. COM. Fr.—lobes reflexed in flower.—in simple raceme. linear. :—Extremely scandent. alterative. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . 2. Country.

K. useful in jaundice and anasarca. colic. gonorrhoea. abdominal troubles. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. like leaves. urinary calculi and discharges. tube. C. scalding of urine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. tonic. thirst.:—Common throughout the State. :—A stout herb. and alterative tonic. thickened at the nodes. upper 2-fid. constipation. linear oblong. (Yunani. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Leaves good for cough. leprosy. lower deeply 3-lobed. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. And. Kolavalike. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. hairy. 2 outer large. high. pointed. t. Fl.— purple blue. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. LOC. HABITAT:—Swampy places. gleet. CHAR.— Acanthaceæ. Gokhran.5 cm. anuria. Talim-khana. antispasmodic.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. Ikshura. tropical and S. demulcent. Fl. aphrodisiac . USES. long. Ekharo. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. DISTR.8 cm.) LOC. useful in diarrhœa.—capsule. Kak-Kokilaksha. aphrodisiac. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). Vishnu Taila. Kalavankabija. H. PARTS USED :—Root. 4 inner small. NS. Shrigalghant. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout India. :—G. ciliate . and dysentery. dysentery. Ceylon. hypnotic. ascites. improve blood (Yunani). widely 2-lipped.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally.) FAM. The root is sweet. 4-8 seeded. M. Konkan and Deccan. LOC. COM.—June-Jany.. erect.—sessile. 0. leaves and seeds. anæmia. Vajrakantaka. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Talamkhana. expectorant. tonic. biliousness. bracts. laxative. aphrodisiac. USES :—The root is refrigerant. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. aphrodisiac . Seeds cooling. 18 X 3-3. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Used in diarrhœa. Vikhara. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Gokhalkanta. galactogogue. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine.2 cm. Fr. diuretic. tonic. stems fasciculate. sedative to gravid uterus . abruptly swollen at the top. tonic. subquadrangular. eyediseases. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Talamkhan.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . L. Africa. . Narayana Taila. lips sub-equal. Gokshura. inflammations. 3. Sk.6-1. lanceolate. hispid with long hairs. Phalaghrita. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. Seeds fattening. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser.

ovoid. Soumyalata.:—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated. enlargement of spleen. dried fruit is given in fevers. H. Fl. digestible. 6-25 X 2. Nirbrahmi. Kamarakha. t. Mudgara. when fresh.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. 2-lipped. Fruits are used in pickles.5-10 mm. branches many ascending. astringent to bowels . sessile. Carambola apple.) FAM. causes biliousness. indigestion. FAM. pungent.:—Konkan and Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.—Scrophulariaceæ. K. G. Safed-Kammi. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. . useful in bad ulcers. Ceylon and all warm countries. capsule. Manduki. Kamrang. lobes equal spangled. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). Brahmi. NS. Sd. perhaps a native of Malaya. fruits. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. L. rarely wild. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . with shining dots. Sk. Brahmi. Kamarakh.:—Throughout India in wet places. HABITAT :—Damp places. Kanara villages. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. fleshy. axillary. laxative. oblong. COM. LOC. leprosy. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Karmare . decussate. acute. tumours. ascites. heating. Fr. found wild near N. M. pale blue or white. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. sour. Thyme-leaved graticula . striate. K.—Oxalidaceæ. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Fl. allays thirst. NS. causes biliousness (Yunani). M. Sk. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. Karuka. CHAR. tonic. also used in diarrhœa. DISTR. Coromandel gooseberry.. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Bama. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. emetic. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Shiral. solitary. Brahmi. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. LOC. See—Fruit Trees. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. C. Kamaranga. anæmia. astringent to bowels. :—A glabrous. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . creeping herb. Jalneam. succulent. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Karmar. black dotted : entire. Darehuli. "Vata". heats the body (Ayurveda). H. pale. stems rooting at the nodes. LOC. obovate-oblong or spatulate. :—E. COM. DISTR. Tamarak. Kirihuli. Fruit sour. Jany-May. Barambhi. inflammations. Karmal.

is used as a local application in rheumatism. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma.—Euphorbiaceæ. or in monsoon forests. all male or with a few females below. syphilis . Dantimul. leucoderma. DISTR. abundant on the hills of Karanja. L. H. toothed. Bengal. yellowish. jaundice (Ayurveda). Malaya. ellipsoid. sinuate. Sk. in monsoon forests of N. purgative. good in scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. often palmately 3-5 lobed. Seeds are poisonous. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. mottled. conjoined with petroleum. :—Bihar. Rechani. M. Gum gugul. leucoderma. :—G. Leaf-juice. 0. Kanara. smooth. anasarca and jaundice. Root and leaves are cathartic. It is a direct cardiac tonic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. :—A stout undershrub. Guggula. H. FAM. Danti.. Guggula. HABITAT :—Dry open plains.8 m. Fl. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Danti. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. . Devdhup. FAM. Chota Nagpur. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Jatala. Fr. epilepsy and hoarseness. COM. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. LOC. W.—Burseraceæ. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. the upper small. Uddipta. Burma. itching. Fl. diuretic. Danti. branching from the roots. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Dantika. anaemia. Sd. high. LOC. useful in pains. wounds. alexiteric. Danti. Hakum. N. purifies blood. Kaduharalu.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. the lower large. K. Dec. 2-glandular. G. NS. inflammations. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Sk. M. Jamalgota. diseases of skin and abdomen. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. t. Gugul. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. obovoid. useful in insanity. of three 2-valved cocci. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. Guggula. leaves and seeds. aphrodisiac . USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Vishodhini.9-1. piles. COM. Guggul. Assam. :—Dry open Deccan plains. NS. hairy. Mukul. CHAR. Peninsula. They are used in dropsy. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. LOC. anthelmintic. enlarged spleen. epilepsy and hoarseness. K.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

leucoderma. Ash pumpkin. Kondha. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. Bark—astringent to bowels. Seeds— cooling. Fr. Golkaddu. asthma. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. PARTS USED :—Fruit. wounds and ulcers. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. t. China. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Karkutika. not indigenous. Dorokaru. blood diseases . used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. oil from the seeds. USES :—Root-decoction is given. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. There are two varieties. diuretic. K. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. NS. Timisha. seeds. FAM. dysmenorrhoea. :—E. H. DISTR. cardiac and general tonic. See—Ornamental Plants. dehiscent. red and white. heart tonic (Ayurveda). burning sensation. Koholu. biliousness. Budekumbalkai.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Cultivated throughout the State. LOC. COM. in dyspepsia and flatulence. thirst. tonic. Buds—indigestible. biliousness. tonic to liver. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. leprosy. cures strangury.—pod. blood impurities. tuberculous glands. Sd. M. . used in piles. PARTS USED :—Root. tuberculous glands. eye diseases. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. ulcers. cough.10-15. asthma. anthelmintic. Sikkim. cough. G. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. urethral discharges. bark and flowers. Burma. enriches blood. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. Kudimah. DISTR. appetising. thirst. given' to corpulent persons. cures biliousness. used as gargle in stomatitis. urinary discharges and calculi. cures biliousness. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. menorrhagia. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. "Kapha". headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). used in dry cough. Shikhivardhaka. Root. used in strangury. vaginal discharges. fever. LOC. flat. Kohala. tonic. Sk. Kumaon. " Tridosha". styptic in haematuria (Yunani). Fruit—antiperiodic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. blood diseases. it is also anti-fat remedy.5 cm. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. anal troubles. Bhuru-koholu. removes foul taste from mouth. astringent.8-2. 15-20 X 1. aphrodisiac. Tallow-White gourd.-Feb. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. Fl. leprosy.-Apl. Kushmanda.

stem erect. S. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. NS. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. sweetish. sharply serrate-dentate. and diuretic. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. high. :—Throughout plains of India. phthisis. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. burning sensation. pungent. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). catarrh. elliptic-oblong. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. Bhamurdi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. mixed with black pepper. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. Fruit is made into confections. densely glandular. inner bracts with green midrib.-Apl. China. Kukurbanda.—heads many. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. heart diseases.—Compositæ. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Fl. finely silky pubescent on both sides. M. blood diseases. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. Country. astringent. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.:—In plains south of Bombay. Tamrachuda. CHAR. :—Annual herb. LOC. Kanara. and nutritious tonic. Kakaronda. Australia. good for the brain and liver. cooling. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Sk. febrifuge. See—Vegetables. Fl. :—G. LOC. Konkan. laxative. oblong. thirst. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. . The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). FAM. Kalhar. Kakarunda.9 m. upper subsessile. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. good in syphilis (Yunani). haemoptysis. pubescent. M. Tropical Africa. Ceylon. pappus white. Pilokapurio. it is also useful in insanity.-achene. Malaya. often incised or lyrate. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. not ribbed.3—0. cures bronchitis. Mriduchhada. BLUMEA LACERA DC. Deccan. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. L. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity.—the lower ones petioled. Fr. Jangali-muli. Oil—is soporific. 0.—Jany. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. DISTR. ash colored. H. Kukkurdru. COM. fevers. LOC. anti-pyretic. it is given in bleeding piles. base tapered. with a strong odour of turpentine. asthma. t. bitter.

DISTR. FAM.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. sub-orbicular. P. astringent to bowels . Leaves— appetiser. cultivated and self-sown. H. India. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Moto-satodo. COM. Asavardu. useful in biliousness. whitish beneath. fusiform. Fl. Kolaba and Thana districts. in pain of joints. Tad.— Nov. Fan Palm. root large. Madhurasa. asthma. useful in ophthalmia. Indian Archipelago. "Vata". PARTS USED :—Root. useful in lumbago. inflammations.—in corymbose umbels. NS. Tad. Talimara. t. very small. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Vasu. G. It is used in jaundice. K. Punarnava. Seeds—tonic.—in unequal pairs at each node. Fl. Plant contains large quantities of pot. Santhikari. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. L. LOC. Dholia-saturdo. Burma. COM. . Ceylon. green above. Kommegida. DISTR. cooling . expectorant.. FAM. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). —Nyctaginaceæ. Tad. native of tropical Africa. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. HABITAT :—A weed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. Tala. It produces a very marked and persistent. G. Dhvajadruma.—clavate. Africa and America. common in S. leaves and seeds. "Kapha" heating. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . and dropsy. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. bluntly 5-ribbed. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. blood impurities. Sk. heart diseases. tumours. :—Tropical India. NS. Fr. Palmyra Palm. stem prostrate or ascending. alexiteric. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. H. Varshabhu. anæmia. Sk. abdominal pains. :—A diffuse herb.3—2 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava).—Palmæ. Lekhyapatra. Ghetuli. Bitter. margins undulate. scabies. Celyon. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. cultivated. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Persian Gulf. M. Desert Palm. leucorrhoea. K. pinkish. gonorrhœa. carminative. spleen enlargement. LOC. :—E. Uttar Pradesh. alterative. Hogweed. :—E. CHAR. M. generally found in poorer soils. Shothaghni. LOC. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Raktakanda. Brab tree. Baluchistan. very glandular . 1. (Ayurveda).

fruit and gum. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Gum—hot. binding. flowers. fatigue. burning sensation. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. flowers. diuretic . useful in skin and blood diseases. if taken regularly acts as laxative. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . thirst and scalding of urine. vaginal discharges. cough. Dhupam. useful in intestinal troubles. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mukulsalai. Dhup. with a good flavour. :—E. H. heals wounds . COM. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani).—Burseraceæ. Salashi. helps delivery. expectorant. diaphoresis. tonic. "Vata". Sambrani. FAM. Vishesha-dhupa. antibilious .USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. cooling. fattening. useful in biliousness. scabies. Fermented juice—tonic. invigorating. DISTR. M. Fruit—cooling. causes headache. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. . It is a good antiacid in heart burns. with a little salt added. Sugars. LOC. aphrodisiac. tonic. cures dysentery. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Indian olibanum tree. LOC. also used as antiperiodic. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. laxative. Fruit—aphrodisiac. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. may cause vomiting. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. used for boils. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). antiglycosuretic. Salpe. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. causes " Kapha ". dry. strengthens teeth. K. Bark-decoction. Guggali. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. bitter. mouth-sores. Salai. G. improves taste. Guggula. allays asthma. Gum is of five kinds . bad throat. ulcers . Moddi. bronchitis. antipyretic. leaves. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. Salgond. Kundur. fattening. intoxicating. thirst. skin diseases.. Luban. antidysenteric. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. juice. Salphali. purifies blood (Yunani). hot. allays thirst. removes "Kapha". Loban. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . alexiteric. asthma. See—Timbers. Dup. fevers. fruits. expectorant. also found in Belgaum District. purifies blood. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Sk. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. allays. blood complaints . Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. NS. convulsions. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. intoxicating. Gums and Resins. Liquors. astringent to bowels. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. aphrodisiac. " Vata".

cure skin-dissases. increase bile. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. M. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. biles. FAM. " Vata". stomachic. good in cough and for inflammations. good for throat complaints. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). lessen oedema of body. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). rheumatism. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . See—Condiments and Spices. Seeds— remove cough tumours. G.—Cruciferae. Rai. Broach. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. spasmodic. Taramira . Kaira. LOC. NS. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. cure enlargement of spleen. chiefly in Nasik. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Rajika. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. See—Timbers. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Surat. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Mohori. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. Seeds act as digestive condiment . Kari Sasive . and toothache. Seeds-laxative. H. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. cure nose. dispel fever . given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. cause burning . The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. Sarshapa. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. :—E. K. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. India. spleen. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. increase appetite . The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Khandesh. used with butter in syphilis . PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. . Sk. Kali-rai. COM. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. kill external parasites. Dharwar and Belgaum. :—Cultivated in India. Black-True mustard. DISTR. Asuri. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Gums and Resins. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . vermicide. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. anthelmintic . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. ear. bechic. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. eye-troubles. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. Jwalanti. internal congestions.

lumbago. female flowers solitary. CHAR. LOC.. 10-15 cm. subsessile. Suviraka. :—G. Shivalingi. Mahavira. Gauli. and in fevers with flatulence. glabrous . Lingini. Australia. Kassi. COM. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. southward to Ceylon. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. H. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Manj. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. of Shivaling shape . hot. 5-lobed. NS. Sk.— Aug-Sept. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. See—Timbers.. DISTR. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Shivavalli. Lingaja. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Fr. long. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Sd.:—Throughout India. globose. Asana. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. Tans. Ishawara-Shivalingi. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. lobes oblong lanceolate. Ekalkanto. ovate-oblong.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. DISTR. corolla as in the male . Sk. H.—Euphorbiaceæ. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. LOC. Mauritius. Gargumaru. Ekadivi. diam.. Chandra. Country. Asana. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). margins sinuate denticulate. K. Fl. M. useful in "Vata".—baccate. pungent. It is used in bilious attacks. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. 3—2 . 5 cm. stem grooved. . USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Philippines. tendrils 2-fid : L. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Gunjan. Shivlingi. FAM. 5-partite. bluish green. :—G. hemiplegia. Kaj. Asana. Goge. FAM. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. streaked with broad vertical lines . corolla companulate. deeply cordate base. Mullu-siru Honne. Garige.— membranous. alterative. COM. M. smooth. Malaya. green and scabrid above. paler and smooth beneath. Khaja. Asana. Patharphoda. Kavodi. Apastambhini. Fl.—Cucurbitaceæ.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. or few or many. :—Deccan. :—An annual scandent herb. S.—yellowish brown. tropical Africa. NS. heating. bitter. 1 . bark. t. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC.

PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Asthibhakshya. It is a disinfectant. K. LOC. Paira. cures blooddiseases. Char. :—Native of tropical Africa.—Anacardiaceæ. M. PARTS USED :—Roots. M. Fl. gum (rarely). NS. Murukali. FAM.) FAM. HABITAT :—Dry. LOC. :—Konkan. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. useful in diarrhœa. Leaf-juice digestive. occasionally compound. vomiting.3-1. Stems obtusely 4-angled. Panphuti. fruit. NS. high. Country. H. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. decussate.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". fevers. reddish purple. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. lower usually simple. lobes triangular. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. Lalana. Char. Charoli. alexipharmic. Piyal. Cambodia. M. :—H. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants .2 m. purgative. Charoli. constricted in the middle. elliptic. purifies blood. Sk.—pendant. Thailand (Siam). HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. Priyal. :—Konkan. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. Pyalchar. COM. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Charpoppu. burning sensation on body. in large panicles. :—G. fattening. speckled with white. Country. M. K. The bark is bitter and poisonous. buds with root. :—Hot and drier parts of India. carminative. bruises. Snehabija. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Panphui. aphrodisiac. CHAR. DISTR. allays . deciduous open forests. Sk. Sd. Deccan. boils and bites of venomous insects. Gujarat.—swollen and octagonal at the base. smooth. upper 3-5-7 foliate. LOC.—small. crenate or serrate. DISTR.. leaves. Fr. thirst. the Dangs. inflammations.—Crassulaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). binding.—variable. Dhanu. cooling. Zakhi-haiyat. Parnabija. Burma. S. COM. Cochin-China. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). L. Fl. seeds. younger reddish. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. leaflets ovate. expectorant. Deccan. when punctured. aphrodisiac. tonic. astringent to bowels. t. also wild. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. S. Char. laxative. Lonnahadakana gida. See—Ornamental Plants. Kolegeru. Rajadana. "Vata" and biliousness. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings.—Jany. the older light-coloured. Tapaspriya. analgesic. cardio-tonic. with opposite branches . ulcers.

useful in piles. anthelmintic. Kuntz. Leaf—very astringent. M. leprosy. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. :—E. Gums and Resins. burning urine. lessens inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. Bastard teak. LOC. tonic to liver. good in dysentery. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. aphrodisiac.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). prickly heat and itch. remove bad humours. burning sensation.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. Khakda. stomachic. gonorrhœa. Palas. LOC. relieves abnormal thirst. colic. H. digestible. lessens biliousness. cough. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. Palas. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). in the Khandesh Akrani. piles. cold and cough. flowers. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. lessens lumbago. dysmenorrhoea. emmenagogue. anthelmintic.) FAM. Khakhrao. skindiseases. Oils. Seeds tonic to body and brain. See—Timbers. inflammations. eye diseases. leaves. bark. buboes. gout. fractures. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Leaves—good for eye diseases. diuretic . hydrocele. aphrodisiac. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. Khakera. gonorrhoea. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Fruit and seed—hot. India. strangury. biliousness. good in biliousness. carminative. cures excessive perspiration. topically in piles and hydrocele. Yajnika. expectorant. aperient used in urinary discharges. LOC. thirst. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Kinshuk. seeds. Flowers—cure " Kapha". Bark—appetiser. stomatitis. astringent. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. Dhak. ascends to 1200 m. Muttuga. dry. cure tumours. gum. anthelmintic. good in fevers. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. laxative. corneal opacities. Palash. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Kakria. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. Tripatrak. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. pterygium. pimples. cures ulcers and tumours. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . useful in syphilis. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Sk. aphrodisiac. dysentery. Bark—appetiser. worms and piles. Chichra. Gum—acrid. Ceylon. tonic. G. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. anthelmintic. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. piles. Muttala. Gum—astringent to bowels. Kshatadru. useful in bone fractures. Flower—aphrodisiac. COM. tumours. tonic. if chewed. NS. cause headache (Yunani). diseases of anus. Dyes. useful in elephantiasis. Fruit and seeds—oily. purifies blood. DISTR. used in liver disorders. K. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani).

K.—yellow. Gajga. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). very common near the sea-coast. lead-colored 1.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Kuberakshi. oblong 5-7. :—An extensive climber. malaria. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Seed—styptic. the tropics generally. Gajaga. Sind. wounds. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry.5 X 4. cures urinary discharges.) COM. L. act as rubefacient. etc. Tapasi. long . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . M. prevents contagious diseases . Gum solution is applied to bruises. Fl. Leaves contain a glucoside. piles. Kakechika. Fruit—acrid. See—Timbers.—abruptly pinnate. LOC. 5-7. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. leprosy (Yunani). strongly mucronate.—pod. LOC. Gajjige. Fr. elliptic-oblong. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. Gums and Resins. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. fevers. FAM. leaves. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". aphrodisiac. Sk.5 cm. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Fl. flowers and fruit.3 cm. 30-60 cm. ringworm. astringent to bowels. hydrocele. shortly stalked. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. antiperiodic. Katkaleja. cures inflammation .5 cm. useful in colic. t. Karanja. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. Physic nut. :—Throughout India.—JulySept. CHAR. asthma and colic. G. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. :—E. Sd. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. heating. aphrodisiac and diuretic. NS. long. .—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. skin-diseases. Katkaranj. petioles prickly. anthelmintic. DISTR. Dyes. Sagargota. H.—1-2 oblong. leaflets 6-9 pairs. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. anthelmintic . pinnae 6-8 pairs. They are applied to orchitis. sprouts useful in tumours. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Fever nut. Flowers are astringent. Deccan hills. leucorrhcea.

— opposite. base cordate. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Undi. PARTS USED :—Bark. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. astringent. LOC. covered with cottony pubescence. Kshirparni. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Mandara. both surfaces tomentose. Akand. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin.H. LOC. elliptic or ovate oblong.4-3 m. NS. NS. East African Islands. Kanara associated with littoral species. See—Timbers. The gum from wounded branches. Tungakeshera. Ekke.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. Br.. Vuma.—Asclepiadaceæ. COM. Gigantic swallow-wort. used in chronic fevers. 10-20 X3. Polynesia. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Australia. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. M. DISTR. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Ark.—Guttiferæ. Surpan. L. Sultanchampa. H. K. K. :—E. very common in N. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. gum. Sk. lessens appetite. Kshiranga. FAM. Sk. Surangi. . branches stout.8-10 cm. :—Cultivated throughout India. Rui. Malaya. sometimes amplexicaul. Ak. Madar. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes.. :—E. much branched. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. thick.. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Undi. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Akdo. G. Surhonne. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. Punnag. Ceylon. 2. Arka. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. M.. Punnaga. Shuka-phala. improves complexion (Ayurveda). sessile. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. and oil. high. Alexandrian laurel. Dholaakdo. Oils. Ponne. Mandara. and for its oil. mixed with bark strips and leaves. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. often gregarious. :—A large shrub. COM. Madar. Purasakeshera. Arka. FAM..

corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.4 m. LOC. CHAR. China.7—15 X 4. liver and spleen enlargement. acrid .—about 2. back much curved. expectorant and anthelmintic. Flowers—digestive. broad. :—An erect shrub usually 1. dropsy. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. eruption on body.8-2. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. comose. tumours. COM. Rajarka. buds ovoid. C. 9-10 cm. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. Flower—analgesic. high. Ark. purgative. M. Sd:—many. ascites and anasarca. See—Fibres. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. . LOC. Mandara. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. young parts white. comose .5 cm. elephantiasis. tumours. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. ascites. corona shorter than the column. NS. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . alterative and purgative properties. cures piles and "Kapha". also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. Ceylon. ulcers. usually 5. cures inflammations. cures leucoderma. Milk— heating. cures asthma and syphilis. spleen and liver diseases. long. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. asthma.. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). diaphoretic. useful in leprosy. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. spongy. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves applied to paralysed parts. catarrh and loss of appetite. good for liver (Yunani).-July. very common is S. Sd. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. Madar..—subsessile.—broadly ovate. heal wounds. t. bark corky. subglobose. DISTR. elliptic or obovate.5 cm. Fl.2 cm.5-8. across. Flowers—stomachic. bark. L. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. tonic and stomachic in action. piles. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. ringworm of scalp. Sk. buds globose. leaves and flowers. Milk— caustic. swellings. painful joints . India. also useful in intestinal worms.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. FAM. Safedak. asthma. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. Br. purplish or white.— purplish in umbellate cymes.5-10 X 5-7.—in umbellate cymes. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. scabies. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles .—Asclepiadaceæ.—follicles. Fr. Juice—anthelmintic. flattened tomentose. Ak. lobes usually erect. Fl. C. Malay Islands and S.—lobes deltoid-ovate. laxative. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. used in cough. cures leprosy. rat-bite. coughs. apex with two auricles.:—H. depilatory. Fr.— Feb. cottony. ellipsoid or ovoid.—7. oleaginous. astringent. Root-bark is diaphoretic. Mandara. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. ovate oblong.. green. very common.

they are given in cholera. Waziristan.9-1. Tarvardi. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. lanceolate to ovate. green. ulcers (Ayurveda). Iran. PARTS USED :—Pods.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Gavara. CHAR. DISTR. Sk. H. indigestible. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. hernia and colic.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Kamakshi. but doubtfully wild. 3 sub-erect. acrid. Flowers used as detergent. Afghanistan. NS. Warm leaves used as poultice. :—E. M. Nilashimbika. Kardali. oval or orbicular. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. Kadsambu. abundant in Sind. Kalehu. Arabia. M.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. greenish or colored. LOC. COM. appetiser. (Chopra). biliousness. NS. Tamateballi.:—Perennial herb . USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. erect. Devakeli.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. FAM. L. Sarvajaya. G.2 m.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Indian shot. root-stock tuberous. tropical Africa. CANNA INDICA Linn. Fl. Sabbajaya. K. See—Fibres. on trees and hedges .. COM. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Paraholiya. H. :—E. See—Vegetables. Gigantea. Shimbi. Asishimbi.. veins arching. Khadsambal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish.5 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). tonic. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. FAM. Sarvajaya. membranous. 1 linear . Kadavare. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Egypt. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. staminodial segments. high . bracts oblong. Shitarambha. Sema.—segments 2. The pods contain vitamin A. DISTR. useful in burning sensations. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Gavria. P. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Akalabera. Hudingana.3 cm. long. Sambe. LOC. Broad—Sword bean. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. stem 0. cooling. Koshaphala. narrow. spatulate. flowers and milky juice.—Scitaminaceae. K. Sk. LOC. G. Abai.

melancholia. tonic. t. astringent to bowels. Bhangi. Female inflorescence is stomachic. intoxicating. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. aphrodisiac. cause headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. also wild. Wild in the Himalayas. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). piles. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Bark. useful in convulsions. CHAR. :—Widely cultivated in India. K. soporific. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. astringent. COM. PARTS USED :—Roots. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. Bark—tonic. M. Shivapriya. globose. Leaves—bitter. DISTR. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. G. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. excessive use causes indigestion. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. lower 3-8 foliate. restlessness. stomachic. :—E. insanity.—Urticaceæ. NS. upper 1-3. serrate. black. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. Unmattini. female perianth hyaline. high in its feral state.—small axillary. Central Asia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . oil-good for earache. leprosy. (2) Bhang. intoxication.5 m.—many. causes thirst and biliousness. Fl. lessen inflammation. inflammations. dioecious. male flowers. dropsy. usually 0. Fr. Fr. leaves. Fl. abortifacient. causes thirst. LOC. leaves. Seeds—carminative. flowers and seeds. See—Ornamental Plants. H.—sub-globose or oblong . They are broken in small pieces. L. male fascicled. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). shining. water extract anthelmintic. Ganja. tonic. DISTR. female crowded under convolute bracts. soporific. hot.—more or less throughout the year. Sd. impotence.—achene. alterative .:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. Bhang. imbricate. seeds and resin. Hemp. Sk. intoxication (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND LOC. echinulate . USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. good for hydrocele. antidiarrhoeic. :—Throughout India. Harshini. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . useful in " Kapha". (3) Charas. LOC.9-1. flowers. Vijaya. 3-lobed. Ganja. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. check vomiting. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). hallucinations. Siddhapatri. causes biliousness. cough. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sepals 5. Mohini. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. FAM. Ganja. LOC. heating.—alternate or the lower opposite. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Bhang. Not indigenous.

Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. . dysuria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. HABITAT :—Cultivated. delirium (Ayurveda). applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Chillies. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. :—Extensively cultivated in S. erysipelas. The fruit contains Capsisin. COM. Lanka mirchi. useful in indigestion. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. Mirchi. and dropsy. PARTS USED :—Fruit. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. and flatulence. useful in brain complaints. asthma. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. See—Gums and Resins. M. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. :—Cultivated all over India. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. cholera. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Capsaicin and Solanin. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. also in gout. Menshinkai. loss of consciousness. M. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. dyspepsia. muscular pains. Tikshna. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). Cayenne-pepper. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. chronic ulcers. Sk. H. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. LOC. Tivrashakti. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Ujjvala. expectorant. spermatorrhoea. DISTR. FAM. :—E. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. diarrhœa. Raktamaricha. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). acute mania. Mirchi. increases appetite. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. Madana modak used in cough. Marchu . The plant contains cannabinin. K. NS. Marichiphala. Lalmirchi. Fibres. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. See—Condiments and Spices.—Solanaceæ. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. G. LOC. in the form of electuary. It is stomachic. and is employed by Indian physicians. Vegetables. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. Country in Deccan. Fruit—pungent. Narcotics. increases biliousness. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. often found as an escape. weakness of body. whooping cough.

rounded at the apex. LOC. black. Malay Peninsula.—Myrtaceæ. Maniju balli.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. hot. Ghats. diuretic and aperient. LOC. Ceylon. Fibres. leucoderma. inciso-serrate. Agni-erum. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Hennumatti. Kapalphodi. Daddala. ultimate segments lanceolate. colic. COM. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent.— alternate. DISTR. :—E. useful in tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. abscesses and ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. introduced. K. Karnasphota. Sakralata. Root. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. COM. " Vata ". :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. common in S. L. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. NS. epileptic fits.—in few flowered umbellate cymes.—globose. DISTR. Shaundi. G. winged at the angles. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Sind. skin-diseases. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Kumbha. LOC. FAM. bark. :—Throughout India. Fr. deltoid. Fruit—acrid. dry. leaves and seeds. FAM. leaves. petals 4. H. Girikarnika. NS. Balloon vine. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Karolio. piles. Kanphuti. :—E. bronchitis. subglobose. K. Kumbi. very acute apex. bark. anthelmintic. C. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. alexiteric. Gavvahannu. dyspepsia. CHAR. Fl. M. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. M. Sd. See—Timbers. when moistened. aphrodisiac.—white. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. Kumbhi. G. Sk. urinary discharges. 2-ternate. bladdery . it is mucilaginous. Kangu. Jyotish-mati.—capsule. Sk. Kumbhi. Vakambi. Wild guava . PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—In hedges . . Deccan. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. stem wiry. flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. smooth. Blister creeper. Kalindi. The plant contains saponin.—Sapindaceæ. :—Most warm countries. Konkan and W. and is administered in fevers. trigonous. Root is considered diaphoretic. Thailand (Siam).

:—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. M. Flower—tonic to liver. COM. Kamalottama. FAM. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. HABITAT :—Cultivated. leprosy. Chibda. "Kapha". Mexico and Brazil. it is used to procure abortion. Kusumba. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. cures inflammations. LOC. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Indies. Agnishikha. Pangi. removes biliousness . relieves obesity. DISTR. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. leucoderma. diuretic. diuretic.—Compositæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. made into curries. carminative. Dyer's saffron. heating. NS. appetiser . cure "Vata". K. Chirbhita. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). depilatory. See—Fruit Trees. Papaw. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Guppe. Kardai.—Caricaceæ. Kusumba. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. causes burning sensation . K. aphrodisiac. expectorant. . cause biliousness. DISTR. Papaya. flowers. Papaya. aphrodisiac. FAM. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. bronchitis. of W. LOC. Sk. Nalikadala. ringworm. :—Native throughout India. bile. wounds of urinary track. White thin latex contains Papain. Popayi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. used. cure urinary discharges. Safflower. astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. cures insanity (Ayurveda). Oil—indigestible. H. hypnotic. M. G. Papaya. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. Kusumbo. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. scabies. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Kusumbha. removes urinary concretions . enlargement of spleen. laxative. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Barre. cures inflammation. Papita. strangury. H. cooling. G. in haemoptysis. LOC. NS. diuretic. Leaves—hot. Seeds—oleaginous. :—E. seeds and oil. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Leaves. COM. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. fruit and seeds. Kusumba. appetiser. good for eyes. piles. :—Grown extensively in Poona.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. :— E. Papayi. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Sk. unripe fruit. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Karrak. bleeding piles. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. digestive. "Tridosh". Pappayi. Karada. Fruit—stomachic.

Sk. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Baluchistan. carminative. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. oblong-obtuse. Dyes. Oil—good in all diseases. CHAR. DISTR. See—Vegetables. bechic. pungent. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. Oils. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . paralysis. CASSIA ALATA Linn. and diarrhœa. Dodda sagate. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. cure catarrh. M. Ajowan. Omu . long. Owa. Dipyaka. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. H. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. downy beneath. subsessile. dyspepsia. Egypt. atonic dyspepsia. inflammation (Yunani). emmenagogue and sedative. anthelmintic. enrich blood. vomiting. stomachic. Sk. See—Condiments and Spices. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. improve speech and eyesight. myrabolans and rock salt. Ajamoda. They are administered in flatulence. Leaves contain vitamin A. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. LOC. bitter. abdominal pain. carminative. Dadrughna. COM. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). NS :— E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. :—E. tonic. appetiser. diuretic.—Umbelliferæ. K. Simyatase.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Oma. purgative. vomiting. abdominal tumours. good for ear boils. and even in cholera. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. FAM. good for heart and tooth-ache. Datka pat. rachis . COM. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. 30-60 cm. good for old people. strengthening. pinnate. liver. Ringworm shrub. aphrodisiac. cure ascites. good in weakness of limbs. G. Elgra. Ajamo . Europe. stimulate intestines. FAM. Afghanistan. oblique at the base. leaflets 10-12 pairs. chest and throat pains. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. Tivragandha. mucronate. piles. give lustre to eyes. hiccup. enlargement of spleen. Dadmardan. tonic and carminative properties. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Bishops' weed . chest pains. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. H. Seeds—purgative. carminative. Dwipagasti. aphrodisiac . stimulant. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. spleen. Dadamardana. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. they are used in jaundice . K. Ajwain. Iran. L. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. kidney troubles. laxative. Winged senna. NS. The seeds bitter and hot.

long. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. M.—in spiciform. Taroda. Sk. 5 cm.—pod long. vermicide (Ayurveda). L.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. itching. rachis densely pubescent. FAM.) COM. leaves. 10-20 X 1. In cases of bronchitis and asthma.. pedunculate racemes . J. Fl. yellow with orange veins. very likely a native of the W. N. Indies. obliquely septate.—Jany. G. urinary discharges . cure " Vata ". " In eczema. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. good for ulcers. Bark has the same properties. Avarike. Charmaranga. cures tumours. Pitakilaka. Mukerji). . Peninsula. dull green above. Fl. cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour.-50 or more.3-1. LOC. Ph. Burma. Ahmed. M. oblong-obovate. PARTS USED :—Root.-Oct. H. useful in thirst. Avartki. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. useful in vomiting. Madhya Pradesh and W. straight. Fr. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. Sd.. across. pale beneath. diabetes. leprosy. asthma.—bright yellow with darker veins. :—E. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. mucronate. t. anthelmintic. Tangadi. :—Introduced into India. reniform.. and throat troubles. CHAR. causes flatulence . ringworm.-July. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). t. bark smooth. along the sea coast in laterite region. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. Fl. Tanner's cassia. LOC. flowers. LOC.6 cm.—30-35. membranous. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. C. 20-25. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. rotundate. skin-diseases. LOC. The whole plant. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. DISTR. leaflets 8-12 pairs. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). cough. Tarwad. nocturnal emissions. Fr.—pod. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers.—large. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). Gujarat and S. stipules very large. alexipharmic . :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. Ceylon. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda).—7. asthma . HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. Mayahari. buds in yellow bracts. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. 28-4-88). K. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. skin diseases. reddish brown. DISTR. thirst. NS. fruits and seeds. Sd. Tarwad. Country. rhombohedral. Awal.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. slightly overlapping.5 X 10 cm. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Sakusina. HABITAT :—Planted. Fl.

Flowers—purgative. tuberculous glands. Flowers—improve taste. Golden shower. flowers. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. cure " Kapha ". C.— Jany-March.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. In Konkan. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. and Famine Plants. Bandartauri. safe for children and pregnant women. LOC. base somewhat oblique. leaflets 3-5 pairs. H. It is a mild laxative. G. cause flatulence. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. G. improve appetite. Aragina.—in few flowered racemes. faintly veined with orange . Burma. Arogyashimbi. Ceylon. Fruit—digestible. Pudding-pipe or stick. 10—12. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. hard. t. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Fl. Kacodari. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. long. useful in chest and liver complaints. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. antipyretic. See—Timbers. juice given in erysipelas. Ane sogate. Fr. Suvarnaka. Arimarda. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. griping. cooling. Dodda-tagase. Kakka. throat-troubles. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains.—petals 5. apex acute. Leaves—anti-periodic . yellow. FAM. transversely septate. leprosy.—20-30.—pods. recurved. See—Dyes. Stinking weed. Sd. abortifacient. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. distinctly torulose. demulcent. Tans. M. shining dark olive-green. syphilis. K.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. carminative. used in rheumatism. FAM. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Konde. Rajataru. rheumatism. Kasundari. purgative. PARTS USED :—Root. Kasari. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub.. smooth. Fl. Chimkani. Hema-puspha. Vyadivata. Rankasvinda. CHAR. Ornamental Plants. long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. Sk. . Amaltas. Bahava. DISTR. :—E. Leaves lessen inflammation. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. cooling.—very foetid when bruised. Rechana. laxative. LOC. :—E. also planted. Sk. Negro coffee. Kasoda. biliousness . Fruit—antipyretic. purgative. often purplish.) COM. fruit and seeds. corymbose. H. :—Throughout India. K. Balla. ovate-lanceolate.) COM. heal ulcers . Chakinda. branches furrowed. Kasondi. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Kasonda. Indian laburnum. M. cures burning sensation. Kasmarda. NS. Seeds— oily.5 cm. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. NS. leaves. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. astringent. Garmala. (Ayurveda). L. eye-diseases. 15-20 cm.

. Ran tankala. In many countries root is considered diuretic. yellow. See—Famine Plants. 7. LOC. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. base rounded. NS.510 cm. Banar. Kasundari. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. slightly recurved. H. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . " Vata ". mixed with honey. are given in diabetes. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. At Kotra. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries.—18-23 cm. leaves. rachis grooved . Fl. ovate. stomachic. high. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Bark. The bark. M. Baskikasondi. The plant contains glucoside emodin. cures ascites. DISTR. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. hiccup. heals wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. petals 5. FAM.—in axillary. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). :—A shrub 2. See—Famine Plants. turgid. septate between the seeds . with a solitary conical gland near the base . HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. Leaves—aphrodisiac. Seeds used in heat of the blood. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. opposite. Kasamarda. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. L. leaflets 6-10 pairs. cough. elephantiasis. lanceolate. obtuse. tonic and febrifuge. Talapota. Kasondi. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. leaves and seeds. :—G. DISTR. Fl. cure " Kapha". " tridosha " .. long . :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. dark brown . t. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Fr. Kasamarda. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. Sd.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. annual or perennial. alexiteric. few flowered corymbose racemes. LOC. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). asthma. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. LOC.— Nov. and seeds are cathartic.Jany. Sk.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).4-3 m. LOC.. in Kutch. C.—pod. leaves and seeds. K. fevers. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases.—30-40 broadly ovoid.

powerful brain tonic. :—An annual foetid herb. small yellowish-green. DISTR. alternate. K. L. Kangli. 30-90 cm. Burma.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. base oblique. Foetid cassia. Svarnalata. bright yellow.. Taga. Sk. Tagache. :—Large deciduous climber. PARTS USED :— Root.) COM. Seeds— acrid. shining above. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. in diam. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. reddish brown. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. long. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. brain and liver tonic. aphrodisiac. Sphutabandhani.—Celastraceæ. K. DISTR. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. high. Kangodi. covered with lenticels.. CHAR. H. Fr. 1-6 completely covered with red. Intellect tree. Black-oil tree.. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. appetiser. much curved when young. Seeds—bitter. Fl. cure joint-pains. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Jyotishmati. M. Ceylon. leaflets 3 pairs. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 7. globose. Taragosi. LOC. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. COM. NS. G. branches rough. C. Chagoche. X 4. crenate. Tarota. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. high. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". :—A very common weed all over the State. Sd. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Panevar. LOC. leaves and seeds. Malkakni. Dadamari. :—E. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Fl.5-20 cm. :—E.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Madras State. Chakramarda. ovate or obovate. Sk. H.—after the rains.—pinnate. The plant contains glucoside emodin. stem upto 23 cm. cause burning sensation. obliquely septate. 12. 18 m.8-7.—pod. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm.3-10 X 3.5 cm. Dadrughna. laxative. Takala. Kangani.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . upper petal 2-lobed . oblong. unarmed.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Malkamni. opposite (lowest smaller). rachis grooved. FAM. bitter. obovate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. Fr. FAM. pale yellow. Malhangana.5-10 cm. Kanguni. Sd. t. Velo . emetic. L. hot.— petals 5. capsule. Chakunda. expectorant. Pamad. fleshy arillus. Malkangoni. in drooping panicles. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). usually unisexual. 6. CHAR. .5 mm. Climbing-staff plant.

It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). Mahaushadhi.—4 mm. long. M. COM. cauline smaller. gout. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. Vondelaga. narrowly oblong . Fl.—Umbelliferæ. Vallari . COM. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. DISTR.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. . CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. Sk. Jhinkun-kariatum. :—A slender herbaceous plant.—Gentianaceæ. NS. they are also sudorific. :—Throughout India. CHAR. Don. linear-oblong. M. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn.—May-Nov. C. aphrodisiac and stimulant. Fr. Brahmamanduki. H. Barmi. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. radical leaves revolute. Fl.). Country. Fl. t. pink. NS. Brahmi. and is employed for external application. ovoid.-Apl. hard-rugose. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. persistent. G. reniform. Oil stomachic. tonic. base deeply cordate stipulate. Fr. paralysis and leprosy. CHAR.—capsule. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. :— E. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside.—opposite.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Ekpani.—Feb. :—G. Jangli-karayatu. LOC. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. minute. t. FAM. rooting at the nodes. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). Lahanchirayat. H. L.—in fascicled umbels. Seeds are hot. :—Konkan. elliptic. high. good for cough and asthma.—tubular lobes 5. orbicular. Kheta-Barik-chirayat.). bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. spreading star-like . LOC. cloves. obovate or oblong. Mandukparni. used in leprosy. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. M. Brahmamanduki. pink. L. stem creeping with long internodes. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G.—3 from each node. especially in Bengal. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. K. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. FAM. Deccan and S.

tonic. tonic. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. China. leaves and seeds). antipyretic. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. COM. water courses throughout the State. digestible. Leaf-powder. biliousness. plaster or bath are used. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. urinary discharges. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bitter. milky juice. Tande. cooling. alexiteric. spleen enlargement. :—South Konkan and N. asthma. anæmia. :—Throughout India near the coast. nut is narcotic and poisonous . HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Kanara. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . nallas. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. ointment. :—K. stomachic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. Chanda. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. LOC. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. USES :—Bark is purgative. :—In moist situations (streams. Honde. bechic. soporific. LOC. asthma.) DISTR. twigs. thirst. laxative. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. carminative. Leaves are also diuretic. inflammations. headache . voice. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. alterative. PARTS USED :—Bark. fruit. sedative to nerves. blood diseases. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. Malay Archipelago. cardio-tonic. For external use powder. memory. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. cures hiccup. abundant on the Malabar Coast. scalding of urine. cures leucoderma. See—Timbers. improves appetite (Yunani). LOC. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. . As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. FAM. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". bronchitis. Australia Pacific Islands. clears voice and brain. fevers.—Apocynaceæ. diuretic. Plant—bitter. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. Sukanu. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. " Kapha ". small-pox. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. and a bitter substance odollin. NS. improves appetite.

Chanaka. :—Very common in the Deccan. Harparrevdi.—Chenopodiaceæ. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. LOC. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. Laveni. Balabhojya. HABITAT :—Cultivated. fruit and seeds. LOC. Chick pea. .) FAM. anthelmintic. laxative. abdominal pains. K. :—E. Chakwat. Country. "Vata". LOC. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Skandhaphala. M. H. Chillika. Rai-avala. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). The fruit is acrid and astringent. Ksharadala. Kadale. Chakravarti.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. piles. But. Chakravati. Sk.. H. K. :— E. COM. H. Harbara. Fruit is very sour . Bathusag. Rayara nelli. diuretic. Chana. tonic. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Vajibhakshya. Wild-spinach. COM. Chalmeri. vomiting. root and the seed are cathartic. Chandanbedu. Agralohita. eye-diseases. The plant yields an essential oil. :—Widely distributed. fragrant. also cultivated as a pot herb. Chana. tonic to liver. acrid. Deccan and S. biliousness. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Chunna. G. M. Chania. Goose-foot. Sk.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. oleaginous. piles . FAM . COM. FAM. See—Fruit Trees. throattroubles. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :— Root is purgative. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sour . DISTR. :—Cultivated in India. useful in biliousness. "Kapha". :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. biliousness. Harparauri K. Pandu. useful in bronchitis. Lavali. Bengal—Common-gram.—Euphorbiaceæ. M. LOC. G. constipation. Country gooseberry. useful in thirst. CICCA ACIDA Merr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. NS. improves appetite. Kari-Kempukadale. Kanchuki. heart. spleen (Ayurveda). Sk. Tanko. NS. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. LOC. DISTR. NS. M. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Cheel. urinary concretions. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. diseases of blood.

useful in hydrocele. Seed—indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. M. cure bronchitis. LOC. Leaves contain vitamin A. Kanara district. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. indigestion. Valkala. parched mouth. piles. anthelmintic. abortifacient. Bark—tonic. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. itching. H. hiccup. Lavange-hakke. tonic to hair. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. heart. Dalchini. Oil—styptic. bronchitis. good for diseases of liver and spleen. causes salivation. anthelmintic . Burma. expectorant. See—Condiments and Spices. bronchitis (Yunani). pains . cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). appetiser. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. useful in " Vata ". leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. tonic. heated brain. thirst. It possesses carminative. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. useful in cold. DISTR. flatulence. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. throat troubles. Malay Peninsula. :—W. Darchini. causes flatulence. Kash. foul mouth and fever. aphrodisiac. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. strengthens liver. alexiteric. vomiting. carminative. carminative. astringent to bowels .MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. Oils. emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. Dalchini. headache. PARTS USED :—Leaves. biliousness. useful in bronchitis. very common in the N. useful in loss of appetite. cold in head. Dalchini. :— Bark and oil. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. Nisane. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). pungent. See—Food Plants. etc. aphrodisiac. causes flatulence. aphrodisiac. headache. NS. blood troubles. It checks nausea and vomiting. Duk. anthelmintic. Dalchini. Seed—stimulant. abdominal pains. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. vomiting. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. . tonic. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. diarrhœa and dysentery. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. Ceylon. chest complaints. FAM. useful in inflammations. :—G. diarrhœa. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. Gudatwaka. LOC. PARTS USED. COM. seed and acid exudation. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. liver-tonic . rectum and urinary diseases. cures thirst and burning. LOC. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. cures skin diseases.—Lauraceæ. Oil—carminative. refrigerant. flatulence. Leaves—purgative. toothache. improve taste and appetite. biliousness. indigenous and cultivated. throat troubles. Sk. tonic . Peninsula. toothache (Ayurveda). K. enriches blood.

Fl. mucronate. asthma . NS. M. t.. warm parts of Asia. tendrils bifid. CHAR. DISTR. cordate at the base. Trapusi. Katurasa. H. Mahendravaruni. Fr. heart troubles. drupe. R. Chitraphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . uterine complaints. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. Tumtikayi. male flowers in axillary cymes.—July-Sept. . orbicular or reniform. removes intestinal worms. Indraphal. (Ind. G. 5-partite. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. PARTS USED :—Root. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. useful in hemicrania. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. solitary. red or yellowish white. compressed. solitary. Colocynth. Fl. Indrayan. which possibly has a cholinergic action. Venivel. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. yellow within. NS. M. LOC. has been isolated. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. subglobose.—A climbing shrub. E. F. Kaduvrindavan. margins ciliate. Ghorumba. Kanara. Indrayana. also for prolapsus uteri. Indruk. L. fever. LOC. G. :—Deccan. itching . flesh juicy. stem thick. an alkaloid. Pahadvel. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. upto 25 cm.— usually margined. leaves. :— E.—Menispermaceæ. 5-nerved. Fr. Makal. Venivalli. angular . CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. Bitter apple.—Cucurbitaceæ. 3. C. Asso. waxy coated. young shoots woolly. smooth.—large. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). i. hairy. Patha. FAM. helps parturition. 1949). peltate. K. in conjunction with aromatics. branches more or less pubescent.. Sk. minute. :—An extensively climbing annual.-Jany. HABITAT. long. Annual Report.8-10 cm. alleviates vomiting.e. female flowers in elongate. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. diam. The active constituent of the drug. Velvet-leaf. lobes obovateoblong. :—E. monœcious. piles. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". Sd. L. Paharmul. H. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. COM. Sk. Uthika. Indrayan. Nirbisi. COM. diarrhœa. FAM. dropsy and cough. greenish.5-20 cm. sub-globose. burning. dysentery. Fl. CHAR. red.—Nov.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. 7. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Pavamekke Kayi. somewhat hairy. FL t. diam. subcampanulate. axillary racemes . formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. greenish outside. or twin. yellowish. Africa and America. skin eruptions. removes pain. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. :—In hills. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses.

Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. Kittale.—Rutaceæ. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Sukkare-kanji. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Santra. pain in joints. :—Konkan. Deccan. Cardiotonic. Tvakasugandha. asthma. COM. H. aphrodisiac. sweet and has agreeable flavour. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . :—Widely cultivated in India. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Naringi. G. removes biliousness. aphrodisiac . USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. antipyretic. tuberculous glands of neck. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). dyspepsia. LOC. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. useful in piles. tonic. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. relieves vomiting and retching. laxative. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. good in vomiting and skin diseases. (Poona. Nagaranga. enlargement of spleen. Asia. bowel complaints. enlargement of spleen. ulcers. leuco-derma. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Root and fruit cooling. LOC. DISTR. diuretic. Naringa. bronchitis. Narange. jaundice. Rind— anthelmintic. Sk. sea-shores. Narangi. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Kirmirtvaka. good in fevers. Fruit—sour. purgative. K. urinary discharges. Gujarat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). Narenj. In the Konkan fruit and root. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. throat diseases. FAM. :— E. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). relieves colds. NS. with or without nux-vomica. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. LOC. carminative. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). anthelmintic. fever and worms. fortifies chest. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Also indigenous in Arabia. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. anæmia. removes fatigue . elephantiasis . useful in biliousness. anthelmintic . W. epilepsy. cures tumours. Ceylon. ascites. Flower— stimulant. constipation. removes " Vata ". astringent. and lumbago. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. chest troubles. N. Doddile. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. constipation. Sunthura. " Kapha". DISTR. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. tonic. M. cooling. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children.

Ruchaka. Seeds—indigestible. COM. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sharp. used in constipation and tumours. its preserve is used for dysentery. removes " Vata" and " Kapha".66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Fruit—sweet and sour. Kutla. relieve vomiting. H. G. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. also corrects foetid breath. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). bark and fruit. NS. Thora-limbu. B and C. flatulence. hiccup. heating. See—Fruit Trees. removes colic. Mahaphala. relieves sore-throat. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Bera nimbu. Turanj. the juice allays ear-ache. oily. Mahalunga. Lemon . The fruits contain vitamins A. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Bijoru. Madala. Flowers—stimulant. jaundice. Rusaki. M. VAR. the pulp cold and dry. with a sharp taste. leaves and flowers hot and dry. said to be wild in W. According to Theophrastus. LOC. thirst. Turanj. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Harale. K. Ghats. Matalunga. Mahaphala. increase appetite. Amlakeshara. juice refrigerant and astringent. H. aphrodisiac. useful in abdominal complaints. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. astringent to bowels . Sk. G. Mahanimbu. anasarca and chronic fever. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Bijapurna. Devamadala. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Matulunga. digestible. M. . PARTS USED. cures leprosy. Adam's apple. though there are no regular plantations. Balank. cough. LOC. asthma. anthelmintic. :—E. :—Citron rind is hot. tonic. anæmia.—Rutaceæ. useful in vomiting. Paharinimbu . Matunga. Idalimbu. DoddaGaja-nimba. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. cough. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Limonum. Motalimbu . CITRUS MEDICA Linn. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . intoxication. stimulant. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. Sk. asthma. :— E.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Citron . Mavalunga. fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. :—Roots. tonic and astringent properties. seeds. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Jambira. flowers. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. USES. dry and tonic . urinary calculus and caries of teeth. rind of the fruit is bitter. Bijaura. K. LOC.

Murhari.—achenes. Nimbu. measles. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. :—An extensive climber. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. :—E. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ".—petals O. but often found trailing amongst grass. Churhar.—Sept. Lebu. Limbe. hairy outside. long ovate or orbicular. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. improves liver.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. petioles twinning. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). it cures and prevents scurvy. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . also useful in rheumatism. Limbu.. H. anthelmintic. stimulant . Murva. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. LOC. eyes . Khatalimbu. constipation. Ranjai.Nov. Nimbuka. CHAR. with flavour. relieves vomiting . Devashreni. burning in the chest. lobes mucronate.5 cm. Shodhana. leaves (rarely). weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Lebu. Nebu. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Morata. it helps digestion. Rochana. throat trouble. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Fl. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Fl. VAR. FAM. Acid-Sour lime . relieves biliousness. Sk. appetiser. K. bronchitis . USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. Nimbu. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Dhantiate. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. ovoid. loss of appetite.—in axillary corymbose panicles. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. plethora. Moravel. not good in old age. C. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Amlasara. Morvel. whole plant tomentose. silky villous. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Fr. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. . blades 2-2. sharp taste. M. L. white. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stomachic. Fruit—sour. vomiting.—simple or once ternate. hemicrania. H. heart. with long feathery tails . :—G. brain disorders. Morhari. Limpaka.—Ranunculaceæ. fatigue . scarletina. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Madhulika. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. Acida. See—Fruit Trees. Sk. G. COM. Snuva. NS. cures abodominal complaints. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. NS. where there is dry skin and much thirst. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. M. Kagadi limbu. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Nimbe. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Oil from rind. K. sepals 4-6. COM. t.

transversely striate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. Sk. Ghats. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. COM. Adityabhakta. petioles of lower leaves longer. :—Annual erect herb. gradually becoming shorter upwards.—brownish black. stomachic. and dispel intestinal fermentation. stimulant. reduces tumours and inflammations . HABIT :—A common weed. K. Fl. LOC. M. dryness and urethral discharges. LOC.—petals 4. Brahmani. Konkan.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. removes " Kapha". itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). H.—Capparidaceæ. Bharangi. veined. :—G. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). FAM.—Verbenaceæ. blood diseases. Karnasphota. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. terminal the largest. Kanphodi. COM. t. NS. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. bitter taste and a strong odour. Tinmani. Sk. and fevers. good in malaria.—capsule. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. laxative. Bharangi. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. stimulates secretion of bile. Kanphutia. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Gantubarangi. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Talvari. C. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. yellow. astringent. FAM. Barbara. Vatari. Fl. Sauri. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. NS. Leaves—favour digestion. stems grooved and glandular. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. DISTR. Bharangi. hairy. erect. Jangali-harhar. mixed with oil. obliquely striate. Phanjika. externally applied to boils. H. bitter. Plant has penetrating bad smell. leaflets elliptic-oblong. :—Common in grass lands. laxative. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Kiritekki. anthelmintic. cooling. causes excessive biliousness. :—W. Fr. K. diuretic. DISTR.—Sept-June. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. used internally in thirst. in lax racemes. Sd. Juice— cures ear-ache. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. LOC.—3-5 foliate. CHAR. Kasaghni. tapering towards both ends . high. hot. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). useful in leprosy. Bharang. oblong-obovate. Tilparni. M. L. hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. 30-90 cm. very common in the Deccan. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. Nayibela. :—G. Hulhul. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Tilwan.—axillary. subglobose. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. . Harhuria.

inflammations. solitary. hiccup. . Ceylon. elliptic oblong. Root is purgative and diuretic. Sk. high.3 cm.—imparipinnate. t— June-Jany. stems bluntly quadrangular. LOC. Girikarnika. Girikarniballi. asthma.5-15 X 5. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. acrid. stomachic. CHAR. beaked. C. burning sensation. LOC. oblong or elliptic. anthelmintic. tumours. t. anthelmintic.—6-10 yellowish brown. Vishnukranta. :—G. Kowa.—pale blue. Aparajita. the larger lower lobe dark purple. showy. Kalina. leaves and seeds.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. sometimes opposite.—axillary. M. useful in inflammation.—ternately whorled. ulcers of the cornea. standard bright blue or white. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . DISTR. There are two varieties :—white flowered. tuberculous glands. good for eye-diseases. biliousness. flat.. Malay Peninsula.2 cm.2 m.— Aug. alexiteric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. burning sensation. Kajli. HABITAT :—In hedges. The plant contains an alkaloid.8-5 cm.. Fl. laxative. 2-2. NS. lessens expectoration. 4 lobes flat. lower one deflexed. headache. useful in ascites (Yunani). Fl. Garani. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia.-Oct.—much exerted. wounds (Ayurveda).. in lax dichotomous cymes. Sd. inflammations. FAM. smooth. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. tubercular glands. PARTS USED :—Root. elephantiasis. collectively forming a terminal panicle. hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry.9-2. and blue flowered. heating. spreading.5 X 2-3.—many. COM.— drupe. cures "Tridosha". 0. leaves and seeds. L. Koyala. pains. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. blood diseases. Gokarni. C. stems terete. LOC.. diuretic. black. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. Aparajita. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. PARTS USED :—Root. fevers (Yunani). Fr. useful in bronchitis. tonic to the brain.—Shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. Wowatheti. ozœna. L. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. leaflets 5-7.7-6. fevers. with an orange centre. long . sharply serrate. consumption. epilepsy. 12. DISTR. tube hairy within. nearly straight. H. :—A perennial twining herb. leucoderma. Fl. Fl. ulcers (Ayurveda). "Vata". 3. fleshy.:—More or less throughout India. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. pubescent. Gokarnika. K. bronchitis. also found throughout the State. obovoid. asthma. Fr. Root increases appetite.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).

The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. HABITAT. Bimbi. S. Vevdi. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. H. K.:—Root cooling. tropical Africa. biliousness. Oshthi. " Vata". flowers. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Bimbika. asthma. Vasantitikta. FAM. Glum. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). burning of hands and feet. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes.—Cucurbitaceæ. Tana. Ink-berry. NS. galactagogue. Root bark. Bimba. aphrodisiac. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Ghobe. dried and powdered. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. and jaundice. antipyretic . M. LOC. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda).—E. Sk. Deccan. diseases of blood.) FAM. Galedu. useful in ascites and fevers. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Tondali. Tundi. NS. Vevati. astringent to bowels. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).—Menispermaceæ. & A. urinary losses. Country. H. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. cures leprosy. K. given for uterine discharges. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. M. allays thirst. The plant contains an enzyme. . Kanduri.:—Cultivated in gardens. Jamtikibel. COM. See—Vegetables. stops vomiting. Ceylon. Kambhoja. DISTR :—Throughout India. Chireta. Faridburti. :—G. Gujarat. Sk. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor).70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Fruit— indigestible. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. G. cause flatulence. Parvel. wild in hedges. Vasanvel. PARTS USED :—Root. Bimb. Leaves—acrid. COM. consumption. LOC. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Konkan. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". PROPERTIES AND USES. a hormone and an alkaloid. Hunder. fruit. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Malaya. Garudi. Seeds are purgative and aperient. leaves. Broom-creeper. M. USES:—In the Konkan. Dirghvalli. Tondeballi. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. COCCINIA INDICA W. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Tundika. Vasandi. Flowers cure itching.

villous .—Palmæ. bronchitis. Naral. bark. tonic. Kanara. subdeltoid or subhastate. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. PARTS USED :—Root. K. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. It is also used as a refrigerant. female in axillary clusters. LOC. :—E. fattening.3 X 1. male in small axillary cymose panicles. NS. flowers.8 cm. Deccan. dysentery. constipation. 2-8 together. Mahaphala. causes "Kapha". ovate. Narial. India. Fl.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. it is heating. fattening. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. oil. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. Tenginmara.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. aphrodisiac. fermented juice. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. thirst. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). indigestible.—drupe. mixed with water. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. tropical Africa. Arabia. LOC. urinary discharges. DISTR. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). G. useful in leprosy. alexipharmic . FAM. rugose . it is used for coughs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. tuberculosis.—3. Nariyal. which is taken internally with sugar. Sk. with a few heads of pepper. Toyagarbha.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Milk—cooling. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. Nalivar. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. Mangalya. useful in diabetes. M. burning sensation. keeled. Cocoanut palm. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". Pegu. Antipyretic. t. as a cure for gonorrhœa.:— A straggling scandent shrub.. laxative. young parts densely Villous. Leaf-juice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. appetiser. laxative. . smells sweetish and pungent. good in fractures. Seed-cooling. seed. "Kapha" and "Vata". lessens thirst. DISTR. China.—Dec. Mad. Fr. tonic. cardiotonic. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. H. In the Konkan. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. lessens bile and burning sensation. Common in Konkan and N. Fl. India and Ceylon. also in many places in the interior.—dioecious. Tengu. S. Flower-cooling . aphrodisiac. enriches blood. COM. oleaginous. aphrodisiac. Konkan. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. Gujarat. HABITAT :—In hedges. size of a small pea. biliousness. laxative and sudorific. Jataphala. Narikel. ovate-oblong. L. useful in biliousness. tumours. blood diseases. S.3-3. and put on to sore-eyelids. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . 3-5 nerved.8-6.

fattening. rooting at the lower nodes. useful in lumbar-pain. Oil—indigestible. M. China. stem 90-150 cm.—Gramineæ COM. paralysis. ulcers (Ayurveda). strengthening and agreeable vegetable. S. rachis within the bract slender. L. 6. Job's tears. Kasai. LOC. Oil—sweet. smooth. diuretic. India. Gavedhu. See—Fruit Trees.. Oils. It is also used for burns.6-10 mm. Fr.—10-15 x 2. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). G. Madhya Bharat. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. useful in fever. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. Fibres. H. asthma. Madhya Pradesh. enriches blood. notched at the nodes . tonic. Gojivha. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Japan. it also purifies blood. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds.—broadly ovoid to globose. diuretic .—Oct. consumption. DISTR. above the bract stout. Sk. fermented juice is intoxicating. incipient phthisis and cachexia. abundant in standing water.5-6. tropical Asia-Africa. long. Fl. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. :—Himalayas. FAM. It is refreshing and laxative. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). high or more. it promotes growth of hair. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. promotes hairgrowth. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. piles and scabies (Yunani. NS. bluish grey. Assam. Rajputana.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. B and C. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. base cordate. America. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Ran-jondhala. stout.3 cm. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . :—E. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. Dabha. smooth. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. LOC. spinously serrate margins. t. Fl. liver complaints. CHAR. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. HABITAT :—Gregarious. increases body weight. Polynesia. useful in urinary complaints.—monœcious racemes 2. piles .5-5 cm. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. polished. :—A tall leafy grass. Gurlu . Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. polished. Malaya. Jargadi. lessens inflammations . USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). Bark good for teeth and in scabies. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Bengal. internodes smooth. bronchitis. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. sheaths long. midrib stout. long.

—7. PARTS USED :—Root. 5-valved. lanceolate. Sebesten plum. cultivated in most tropical countries. Chaunchan . Bhukerbudara. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. 12 mm. Gondan. Bhokar. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . They are also used in lung and chest complaints. Hadige. CHAR. G. FAM. t. Fr. Bhuselu. yellow. stomachic. also as antiperiodic. and dyspepsia. Patta. Fl. Resalla. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. Rayagundo. arginine and coicin. ridged and muricated. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. M. LOC. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. buds obovoid.—in short cymes. L. laxative. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. lysin.— capsule. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Challa. Mannadike. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. COM. :—E. brown. Jute . K. C. smooth. NS. . leaves and fruit. Sk. Lassora. and intestinal antiseptic. serrate. acute or acuminate. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin.— Sept. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . growing very tall under cultivation. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.2 cm. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. histidin. Sk. See—Fibres. tyrosin. Kalasaka.—Boraginaceæ. wedgeshaped. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Pistan. not beaked. G. astringent. fever. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. In jutegrowing districts. Gujarat.5-10 X 2-3. subglobose. Chhunchh . Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion.—few in each cell. The plant contains leucin. Sd. carminative. H. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. :—An annual herb.—petals 4-5. Col.:—E. :—Konkan. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Bargund. DISTR. It is also used as a bitter tonic. Fl. FAM. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. Bhokar. diam. See—Fodder Plants. COM.—Tiliaceæ.

Ceylon. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. stomatitis. Kustumburi. diseases of chest. Satpudas. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. biliousness. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. tooth-ache. tuberculous glands. cooling. LOC. LOC. used as an expectorant and astringent. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. uterus and urethra. inflammations. LOC. Dharika. vulnerary. also cultivated. Kanara. bechic. LOC. COM. Cochin-China. Fibres. diseases of chest and urethra. chronic fevers. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. removes bad humours. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. tonic to brain. scabies. Coriander. eye-pains. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac. Kothimbir. Fruit is aromatic. dyspepsia. M. biliousness. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. biliousness. Egypt. Kothambri. Konphir. expectorant. Sk. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). wild and cultivated. Vitunnaka. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Allaka. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures thirst. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. The plant and fruit— acrid. burning of throat. :—Throughout India. DISTR. stomachic. piles. highly esteemed in coughs. maturant. bleeding gums.:—E. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). heart and liver. carminative and antispasmodic. anthelmintic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. used in dry cough. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery.—Umbelliferæ. Dhania. indigestion. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. gives appetite. Kothamir. Mesapotamia and Greece. H. aphrodisiac. Syria.:—Throughout the State in W. Leaves—hypnotic. Hivija. vomiting. See—Timbers. causes suppuration. diuretic. gleet. antipyretic. tropical Australia. stimulant. widely known from Palestine. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. anthelmintic. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. bronchitis. . Fruit—diuretic. headache. used in syphilis. prevents coryza and bronchitis. analgesic. FAM. often planted. stimulant.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. anthelmintic. Fruits are used as spice. K. pains in joints. purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. NS. laxative. thirst. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. jaundice. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Cultivated throughout India. DISTR. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). useful in hiccup. Ghats. G. leaves (rarely) and fruit.

7-7. many. a tonic is prepared from it. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome.7 m. inflammations. Pushkarmula. Kashmira. Var. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. and aphrodisiac. mucronate.—15-30 X 5. COM. See—Condiments and Spices. in moist and shady places. Barna. FAM. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Castle Rock. :—G. Malay Islands. Pakarmula. Changalkashta. concave. M. Kumaraka. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. silky-pubescent beneath. depurative. Varuna. H. :—G. FAM. K. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). DISTR. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. t. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. K. LOC. Keu. hiccup (Ayurveda). Kemuka. fever. Pinga. and " Vata".—Capparidaceæ. Kust. lobes ovate-oblong. anæmia. Leaves contain vitamins A and C .— black with white aril. COM. Biliana. India. The plant yields an essential oil. DISTR. Varvunna. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Var. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. NS. Sk. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm.—capsule.:—Konkan ghats. CHAR.5 cm. oblong. rheumatism. " Kapha". PARTS USED:—Root. L. Varno. red. Nervele. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Karikuttu. Chikke. Shura. S. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. also planted near Muslim tombs. globosely 3-gonous. sheaths coriaceous . Sd. China. Sk. Varuna.-Oct. bright red. C. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. lumbago. crisped. nalas. nurvala is the common form throughout the State.— in very dense spikes. subequal. Penva.—Aug. root-stock tuberous. useful in catarrhal fevers. It is also astringent and digestive. Vayavarno. high.2-2. By the earliest writers. coughs and skin diseases. useful in bronchitis. subsessile. LOC. Ceylon. M. Bitusi. Madhya Bharat. :—An erect plant 1. Ajapa. M. Fl. . :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Mahakapittha. lip white with yellow centre. LOC. Kushtha. Country.— tube short. Bilpatri. Fr. H. Vayavarna. stem sub-woody at the base .—Scitamineæ. spirally arranged. Fl. :—More or less throughout India. Pushkarmula. Khandala. NS. dyspepsia. Hadawarna. bracts ovate.

Chindar. lumbago. Sd. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . lung and spleen diseases.5-18 cm. urinary concretions. tuberculous glands. "Pitta" and "Kapha". H. good in strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. flowers and fruits. anuria. Kanda-shalini. white. bright green. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani).. perianth tube greenish-white. anthelmintic. act as rubefacient and vesicant. lobes 6. bulb 5-10 cm. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds—purgative.—Amaryllidaceæ. cylindric. K. Nagadown. chest and blood diseases. gonorrhœa. laxative.5 cm. increases secretion of bile. Tonic. linear lanceolate. Pindar. useful in bronchitis. it promotes appetite. Nagdavana. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. emmenagogue. bechic. digestive. then sweet. Ceylon. Bark promotes appetite. 0. thin. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. expectorant. FAM. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. L. scape 45-90 cm. Sk. fragrant at night. COM. found wild in North and South Konkan. with a sheathing base.9-1. Kanwal. flat. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. aphrodisiac. leaves. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. X 12. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Fl. night-blindness. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. vulnerary. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). linear. detergent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. heating. tumours. laxative. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used.:—G. Patra-pushpi. anthelmintic. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. vomiting. toothache. bracts 7. Vishamungalli.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. vesicant. bark. CHAR. Kanmu.—subglobose. See—Timbers. diuretic. . useful in biliousness. :—Throughout tropical India..—1 (rarely 2). Wild or cultivated. DISTR. diseases of vagina. urinary discharges. removes "Vata". M. bitter. The plant contains saponin. antilithic. long. LOC. as long as the tube. chest. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. Fr. leaves.5-10 cm. stomachic. expectorant. strangury. and seeds. beaked. also wild. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Nag-damani.—20-30. carminative. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. Visha-Mandalamardini. USES:—Root is alterative. diam. NS. Nag-damani. defective vision. laxative.—15-50 in an umbel. LOC.

FAM. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tonic. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. Madhya Pradesh. excessive phlegm. insanity. LOC. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. Danti. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Purging croton . As an application to sprains. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Nepala. convulsions. NS. :—Bengal. abdominal diseases. G. expectorant. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. cathartic. inflammations. Jayapala. COM. Seeds contain an alkaloid. DISTR. leaves and seeds. :—H. . good in sore eyes. H. DISTR. Sk. emetic. See—Ornamental Plants. Konkan. PARTS USED :—Root. Danti.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Nepala . FAM. Assam to Malacca. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Western Peninsula. Ieucoderma. K. Ceylon . Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. :—E. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani).. Seeds cause burning sensation. near Junnar (Poona Dist).—Euphorbiaceæ. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. M. :—Naturalised in S. LOC. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. China. Bhutankusam. Oil from the seed is purgative. Ceylon. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Malay Islands. Jamalgota. COM. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Sk. Kanara. it is in great request. Bengal. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. etc. naturalised or cultivated. NS. bruises and rheumatic swellings. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. :—Sylhet. fever. nauseant and diaphoretic. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Burma.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Rare in the State. Oil cathartic. in small doses. bark. The plant contains lycorin. Jamalgota . M. Chucka . Ganasur. carminative. Nepal. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. useful in mental troubles. Jepal. Burma. See—Timbers. Chota-Natpur. Japala.

brain and body. Kalangida. Mahanaracha Rasa. obstinate constipation. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. thirst (Yunani). M. See—Timbers. laxative. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine.:—E. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. :—G. wholesome. may cause indigestion. DISTR. cures " Vata ". Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. used in liver and kidney troubles. K. Seeds—lachrymatory. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. synovitis. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. insanity. Sk. Shadrekha. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Kakni. Kakri. COM. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. Vrittervaru. diaphoretic. nutritive and diuretic. Mutrala. COM. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Said to be truly wild in India. MELO Var. fruit and seeds. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. strengthens heart. diuretic. Valungi. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. gives headache. Melon. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Kharbuja. LOC. ascites. &c. LOC. Kakadi. Kharbuja. Kharbuja. C. Karkati. H. insanity. Ripe fruit—sweet. It is given internally with great caution. dropsy. biliousness. Chibuda. Sweet melon . applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Kachra. and lock-jaw. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. DISTR. cooling. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. galactagogue.—Cucurbitaceæ.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Shantanu. Fruit—tonic. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Kankadi. Karkali. :—In Deccan. LOC. NS. fattening. cures ophthalmia. chronic fever. It is useful in apoplexy. in ascites and anasarca. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. convulsions. Sk. G. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Valaka. laxative. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Tarkakadi. allays fatigue. Rind—vulnerary. urinary discharges. oily. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. diuretic. They are edible. FAM. H. M. Chibdu Shakarteti. aphrodisiac. Lomashi. Pathira . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. NS. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. ascites. . colic. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Baluchistan and tropical Africa.

Ripe one tonic. stomachic. FAM. Tansali. Kakdi. L. India is considered to be the original home. hairy. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). M.— suborbicular. improve complexion. cooling. causes "Vata". Sd. LOC. Seeds possess cooling properties. fatigue. They are nutritive. Yunani). seeds. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. fever.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fr. are administered in throat affections. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. utilissimus (Ayurveda. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. H.—white. B. K. NS. biliousness. fruits. :—A perennial climber. Sk. Seeds—diuretic. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Kakari. margined . angled. t. cures biliousness. antipyretic. Takamaki. FAM.:—E. cordate at the base. H. Kothiban. Khira. strangury. Fl. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb.—monœcious . COM. COM. Sushitala. Mrigadani. Sudhavsa. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. roasted and powdered.—subglobose or ellipsoid. NS. "Kapha" and flatulence. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. HABITAT :—Cultivated. indigestible. good for brain and body. male in clusters. Sk. cures thirst. lobulate or dentate . M. stem slender.—Cucurbitaceæ. Hislambhi. See-Fruit Trees. Fruit—fattening . Karit.—June-Sept. rigid. Santekayi. purgative. Kumbhakshi. C. lobes obovate. pulp bitter. Khira. CHAR. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. female peduncle longer than male. melo var. dry. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. PARTS USED :—Leaves. tendrils simple. Cultivated in all parts of India. See—Vegetables. used in thirst. Cucumber. enrich blood. Trapusha. Chitravalli.:—N. :—G. Vishala. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. diuretic. they are also used as diuretic. Fl. and C. Seed oil used in fever. Kankdi.—yellow segments elliptic. LOC. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). astringent. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. G. allay thirst. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. . pale yellow when ripe. Tavasa.

Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Kushmand. increases " Vata ". Seeds are used as taeniacide. Afghanistan. NS. Red squash gourd. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Bhopala.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. fruits and seeds. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Karkarn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Malaya. Safedkaddu . Dangari. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. G. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Vegetable marrow. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Punyalata. K. LOC. M. G. Iran. Dudia. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. K. Kumra. Kashiphala. H. Sk. cures cough. USES.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. unhealthy ulcers. increases " Vata" . DISTR. Tambda bhopala. Sk. FAM . Kaddu. See—Vegetables.—Cucurbitaceæ. Melon pumpkin. Mithakaddu. DISTR.—Cucurbitaceæ. Australia.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. B and C. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. on hedges. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. : — E. indigestible. Fruit contains vitamins A. allays thirst. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. LOC. FAM. LOC. Kushmand.:—Considered to be a native of America. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Kumbala. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. COM. :—E. improves taste (Ayurveda). M. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. :—Cultivated. etc. LOC. astringent to bowels . NS. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. In Malabar. Pumpkin. . N. HABITAT. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. cultivated in many parts of India. :—Throughout the greater part of India. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Kumbala. Koron. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. LOC. Pitakushmand. Dried fruit indigestible . stomachic. COM. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Kadimah. carbuncles.

:—E. Talamulika. tonic. . CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. NS. beneficial in consumption. carminative. remove biliousness. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. astringent to bowels. carminative. scabies. antipyretic. H. H. analgesic. G. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. Fruit astringent. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. bronchitis. fatigue. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. asthma. aphrodisiac. cure haemoptysis. enlargment of the spleen. Ajjika. haematinic. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. fruit and seeds. emmenagogue. Kalimusali. M. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. inflammations. Kalimusali. and the root for making these more potent. M. Leaves—digestible. COM. increases appetite . In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. See—Condiments and Spices. ft contains vitamins A and C. Sk. purifies blood (Ayurveda). leucoderma. NS. uterine stimulant. Cumin. Gaurajerka. tonic.—Amaryllidaceæ. Musali. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. :—G. antidysenteric. biliousness. astringent to bowels. cures haemoptysis. Seeds anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Fruit. relieves hiccup. Girautmi. heals corneal opacities. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. COM. Seeds—diuretic. Fruit yields an essential oil. allays thirst. carminative. appetiser. stomachic. fever. ulcers. eye-diseases. Fruit—very cooling. good for teeth. Jira. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). diuretic and demulcent. Mushalikand . Dirghaka. cooling. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Jire. LOC. Neltati gadde. Jirige.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. belching . FAM. DISTR. alexipharmic. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. vulnerary. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). abortifacient. gonorrhœa. LOC. stops epistaxis . USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Sk. Cures " Vata " tumours.—Umbelliferæ. also a lactagogue. thirst. FAM. Kalimusali. Seeds are taeniacide. See—Vegetables. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. Dipaka. Zira. fever. throat and eyes. leprosy. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. astringent. fattening. Kapha " and " Vata ". LOC. laxative. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. cures leprosy. sweet. tonic to intestine. Jiru. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. Neladati.

Bitter. root stock large. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. very short. Amragandha. useful in bronchitis. stomatitis (Yunani). 30-45x7. lumbago. PARTS USED :—Root. linear or linear-lanceolate . appetiser. Peninsula. LOC. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. indigestion. hydrophobia. oblong. COM. ophthalmia. . appetising.5-12. oblong. tubers thick. bronchitis. L. scape. alexiteric. Fr. scabies. Ambehalad. H. :—Stemless herb.5 cm. useful in inflammations. clavate . Fl. tonic. LOC.5-15 X 3.—long petioled in tufts.-Sept.5 cm. gleet. colic. during convalescence after acute illness. Sk. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. L. Ambahaldi.— May-June. Fl. lumbago. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. antipyretic. oblong lanceolate. ulcers on penis. gleet. alterative and tonic.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . hiccup. FAM. tips sometimes rooting. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. M. pale yellow inside . Karpuraharidra. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. :—Bengal. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. Sd. all skin-diseases. Assam. yellow. emollient. CHAR.:—Sweet. bitter. Amhaladi. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. inflammations (Ayurveda). Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. Kanara. :—E. diarrhœa. common at the beginning of rains. biliousness.— in racemes. NS. :—Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. debility and impotence. PROPERTIES AND USES. Peninsula. vomiting. gonorrhœa. cooling.—sessile or petiolate. troubles in the mouth and ear. with a beak . causes "Vata".—Scitamineæ.3-2. Kapurahaldi.—capsule. Fl. distichous. Bengal. laxative. rhizome. W. DISTR. fattening. LOC.. useful in piles. jaundice. C—white or very pale-yellow. diuretic. DISTR. " Vata". fatigue. Root—carminative. Ambahaladara. cylindric or ellipsoid. K. t. t. diarrhœa. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). asthma. alterative.—grooved. Malay Archipelago. Mango-ginger. sessile. maturant.8-5 cm. aphrodisiac. :—Konkan and Gujarat. antipyretic. black. Fl. G. often cultivated. useful in biliousness. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. shining . flowering bract greenish-white. Java. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. piles. perianth segments elliptic. 1545 X 1. gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. pains in joints (Yunani).— in autumnal spikes 7. aphrodisiac. hairy on the back. expectorant. antipyretic. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . :—A small herb.:—W.

. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. DISTR. Haridra. M. 3lobed. lobes pale-rose.-May. Banhaladi. Sometimes cultivated. palmately branched. Indian saffron. variegated above. Varnadatri. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. LOC. Banharidra. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. lateral lobes oblong. lip yellow. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Sholika. LOC. biennial. Harita. long. It is considered tonic and carminative. :—E. LOC. the dorsal longer. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. M. NS. K. Jayanti. G. Bengal. PARTS USED :—Tubers. sessile. Vanhaldara.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. Also cultivated in Konkan. H. Sk. Arishina. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Mangalya. COM.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Fl. G. annulate.—Scitamineæ. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. NS.—Scitamineæ. H. tubers yellow and aromatic inside.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. Yellow Zedoary. used as an application for skin-diseases. Ran-halad. Kapur-kachali.. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. sometimes cultivated. Aranyaharidra.5 cm. See—Condiments and Spices. base deltoid. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda).—tube 2. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. rounded at the tips. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. flowers fragrant. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Turmeric. DISTR. Fl. long. Halada. pale green.— flowering stem sheathed. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. Halad. appetiser . combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. green. Vanarishta. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. also stomachic. upper half funnel-shaped. t. Halad. root-stock large. flowering bracts cymbiform. L. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. C. FAM. :—Western Peninsula. COM. appearing before leafing stem. it is seldom used alone . Cochin-Wild turmeric. forming pouches for the flowers. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. Sholi. :—E. CHAR. :—Stemless herb. in spikes 15-30 cm. FAM.

fumes are used during hysteric fits . 30-60 cm. inflammations. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. annulate tubers. jaundice. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. LOC. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. Bitter. L. In small-pox and chicken-pox. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . G. Fr.—4-6 with long petioles. heating. diuretic. Jatala. Karechura. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. useful in leucoderma. used in prurigo. bruises. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. root-stock of palmately branched. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. clothed with sheaths. coma-bract crimson or purple . Himalayas and Chittagong. anthelmintic.—capsule. useful in " Kapha". improves complexion. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. carminative. 3-gonous. Hakhir. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. fragrant. bruises (Yunani). See—Condiments and Spices. small-pox. Zedoary. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo.—Scitamineæ. urinary discharges. destroys foulness of breath. M. Kachuri. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. Kachora. deepyellow. vulnerary. Sk. :—Cultivated in the State. Kachora. externally applied to leech-bites. The plant contains curcumin. taste bitterish spicy.—funnel shaped. "Vata ". emollient. alexiteric. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. :—Stemless herb. pale-yellow inside. long. urinary discharges. said to be Wild in E. tonic. alexiteric. Fl. oblong. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. good for liver affections. Narakachora. heating. LOC. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . also in intermittent fevers and dropsy.:—E. lip 3-lobed. Gandhamulaka sara. vulnerary. Tuber is used as a stimulant. an alkaloid. blood diseases. CHAR. NS. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. bitter. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. leucoderma. internally administered in blood disorders. C. appearing before the leaves. sprains (Ayurveda). It contains vitamin A. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. COM. boils. piles. In coryza. appetiser. Shathi. boils and urticaria. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. . bitter.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. scabies. scabies. FAM . bruises. odour like camphor. lobed .— flowering stem 20-25cm. laxative. cylindric. bronchitis. antipyretic. clouded with purple down the middle. oblong-lanceolate. swellings. asthma. itches etc. Kachari. and yields an essential oil. DISTR. K. anthelmintic. flowers yellow in spikes. long. flowering bract green tinged with red . CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. maturant. an ointment prepared from the rhizome.

Gandhatrina. neuralgia. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. DISTR. M. sheaths of the culm tight. sheaths terete . it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. midrib whitish on the upper side. probably of Indian origin. long. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. Ligule very short. applied to bruises and sprains. up to over 1. Bhustrina. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. upto over 90 cm. culm stout. Tubers yield an essential oil. chronic rheumatism. toothache (Yunani). those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. others narrow and separating. appetiser. and other painful affections. carminative. good odour. L. useful in bronchitis. alexipharmic. Gavati-chaha. LOC. it is also a good application for ringworm. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea.. H. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—Gramineæ. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. epileptic fits. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. Majjige hullu. laxative. It is an excellent stomachic to children. Takratrina. tuberculous glands of neck. furunculosis.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. FAM. Lemon grass. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Leaves. hot. nodding. alexipharmic. expectorant. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. .—linear tapering upwards to a point. velvety at the nodes. leprosy. also used as a tonic and depurative. pains. antispasmodic and diaphoretic.8 m. Externally it is rubefacient. It is also aromatic. anthelmintic. sprains. Purhati hullu. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. useful in griping of children. of much use in typhoid fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. Sk. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. K. erect.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. gastric irritability.:—E. Lilicha. stimulant and carminative. LOC. LOC. sharp. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. high. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. NS. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. enlargement of spleen. Bitter. carminative. aphrodisiac. and is of great value in cholera. sharp hot taste.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. emetic. laxative. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. long. COM. :—A tall perennial. bitter. Putigandha. CHAR. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. emmenagogue. it is stimulant. tonic to brain and heart. G. glaucous green.

slender. Harali.—flat. leprosy. glaucous beneath. sheaths tight. prostrate . CHAR. carminative.000 m. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. skin . Dhoboghas. 1 mm.5-30 cm. Gharo.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. :—Sourashtra. green or purplish. usually broad. FAM. fatigue. scabies. soft. See-Oils. Bujina. Garikehallu. K. G. L. forming matted tufts. Fl. high. Geramium grass.3 cm. Roshdo.—Oct. Deccan. bronchitis. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. S. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Durva. margins scabrid. Saugandhika. 1. useful in fevers. bitter. leafy.. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). FAM. Kobbar. Country.:—Grows all over the State. throat troubles. X 1 cm. H. LOC. M. LOC. stem. COM. Sk. long. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. Afghanistan. Roshagavat. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Rohisha.4 m. in the Himalayas.—Gramineæ. COM. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. stem. W. Gujarat. leprosy. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Fr. long. Fl. long. cooling. narrowly linear.—grain.—2-10 cm. Rhusghas.t. pains. :—Punjab. bad taste in the mouth. t. Ghats. hallucinations. Sind. CHAR. :—E. :—A perennial grass . most warm countries. NS. throughout India. Bhutika. Burma. L. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. thirst. Bahuvirya. subcordate or rounded at the base. pungent. Shatagranthi. M. Rohisha. Shyamaka. Vasanchullu. straw coloured. G. finely acute. smooth. through N. Durba.—spikes 2-nate. Baluchistan. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. upto 2. Africa to Morocco. DISTR.5-5 cm. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. high. heart diseases. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge.—Gramineæ. H. Mangala. Sk. Mirchiagand. :—Cosmopolitan . Durva. particularly the Deccan trap areas. vomiting. Fl. Shatamula. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. oblique or divaricate. DISTR. 12-18 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—E. wide below. LOC. epileptic fits. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. sweet. NS. widely creeping.-Nov.5-2. Fl. with erect flowering branches 7. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. useful in biliousness. long. burning sensation. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Konkan.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf.—throughout the year. M. Dhro.

Mustaka. fevers. dysentery. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. NS. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. useful for ulcers and sores. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. diaphoretic.5 cm. LOC. Root— diuretic. hiccup (Yunani). epistaxis (Ayurveda). difficult to eradicate. FAM. 0. diarrhœa. burning sensation. :—G. blood diseases. Bimbal. Fl. Bitterish. M. stomatitis. dysentery. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. Motha. thirst.. They are also diuretic and stimulant. dyspepsia. astringent.. greyish black. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. anthelmintic. fever. Tungegaddo. useful in vomiting. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. cooling. bruises. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. See—Fodder Plants. epilepsy and insanity. L. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Tubers. :—Glabrous herb.—Cyperaceæ. Nut—broadly ovoid. Nagarmotha.— in simple or compound umbel. Tubers yield an essential oil. useful in leprosy. expectorant. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. Koranarigadde. fever. acrid. Mutha.—Sept-Nov. stolons elongate. Motha. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . . Sk Bhadramusta. vomiting. COM.82. In Ceylon. Kachhola. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. emmenagogue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. narrowly linear. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. USES :—Roots are commonly. urinary concretions (Yunani). epilepsy. t. pruritis. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. trigonous. H. LOC. it is diuretic. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. vulnerary. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. Fl. very troublesome weed. ophthalmia. juice is used in hysteria. epistaxis. Motha. spikelets 10-50 flowered. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. Ceylon. biliousness. diarrhœa. Sugandhi-granthila. CHAR. most hot countries. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Granthi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. erysipelas. stomachic. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet.—shorter or longer than the stem. anthelmintic. pain. biliousness. :—Throughout India. DISTR. vulnerary. LOC. appetiser. K.

FAM. t. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Utran. reflexed.—follicle. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. HABIT :—A common weed. tubular. LOC. :—A perennial twining herb.g. outer truncate. long 10-20. Sk. FAM. Gujarat.—purple outside. M. CHAR. L. very unequal at the base. Fr. G. Sd. long. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. on curved stalk 3. greenish-yellow or dull-white. S.— tubular. afterwards racemose. packed.-Jany. Kanaka. Kariyu-Um-Matta.. acute. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding).—Aug. LOC. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions.—Solanaceæ. COM. C. Bhranta. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. a glucoside.2-7. K: Dhattura. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. divaricately branched. corona outer and inner. spur acute. entire or with large teeth or lobes. Kaladhatura. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. DISTR. stem hairy. Fl.:—E. 18 cm. across. and sub-involution of the uterus. white inside.5 cm.—Sept-Dec. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. subglobose. Utarni. usually pubescent. t. Country. ciliate. Sd.—capsule. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. Ns. L.—Asclepiadaceæ. e.—many. diam. CHAR. Fl. glabrous above. beak long. double. velvety pubescent beneath. yellowish brown. M. COM. H. Ceylon. NS. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. Kala-dhotara. Black-Purple datura. Fl. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. Unmatta. :—H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. covered with straight sharp prickles. somewhat zigzag. nodding. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. paralytic ileus.—thin. :—Annual shrub. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Fr. Rajdhattura. high. Phalakantak. Administered after the third stage of labour. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. lobes spreading. Kanaka. soft spiny. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. M. ovate. 30-60 cm.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. broadly ovate or suborbicular.2 cm. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Kaladhatura. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ".5-15 X 3.5 cm. green. :—Deccan. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. inner curved high over the staminal column. . Fl. funnel-shapped.—7. solitary. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. Sk.

The plant as a whole has narcotic. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. nodes. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. anodyne. piles. anthelminitic . majum. M. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. aphrodisiac. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. toddy. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. equal in effect to atropine. bitter. Seeds—narcotic. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. alexiteric. tonic. mumps etc. black (Kala) and white (Safed). in gonorrhœa. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. GranthiPinda-Mula. leaves and seeds. ganja. Leaf poultice. Gajar. cause headache (Yunani). Shikkikanda. useful in leucoderma. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. K. emetic. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. . black variety is considered to be more powerful. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. ulcers. Carrot. Sk. Europe. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. Garjara. jaundice. DISTR. digestive and heating.. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. chronic coughs. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. FAM. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. heating. Leaf-juice is given internally. headache. (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. NS. PARTS USED :—Roots. febrifuge. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PARTS USED :—Root. toxic. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. LOC. anthelmintic. relieves pain. and antispasmodic properties. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. H. febrifuge. USES :—Out of the two varieties. skin-diseases. leaves and seeds. to increase their stupefying effect. Gajar. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. emetic. :—Throughout the tropics. LOC. enlargement of testicles and boils. Gajra. with curdled milk. :—E. bronchitis.—Umbelliferæ COM. in combination with subja. nosetrouble. The whole plant is narcotic. Gajjari. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Gajar. Cultivated in many parts of India. painful tumours. biliousness.

margins wavy. they produce a spirituous liquor. Salwan. Kanara . Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. membranous. Murele-honne. PARTS USED :—Root. Darh. inflammations.—in terminal or axillary racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. paler and hairy beneath. Roots contain vitamins A.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). high. good for liver. piles. USES :—Externally. cures leprosy. antidysenteric. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). good for inflammation. DISTR. hiccup. It is used in fevers. astringent to bowels. H. bronchitis. sub-falcate. See—Vegetables. Philippines. Salpan. asthma. aphrodisiac. carminative. tonic. joints 6-8. M.2 m. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. cardiotonic. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. . urinary discharges. nausea (Yunani). hooked hairy. " Vata". biliousness. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Root marmalade is refrigerant. Fl. removes " Kapha". biliousness. L. aphrodisiac.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. stomachic. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). C—violet or white. throughout India.—pod. piles. Sk. hairy.—May-July. diuretic. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. astringent to bowels. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . vomiting and asthma. Dirghamula. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). chest troubles. vomiting. chronic affections of chest and lungs. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. COM. they are also diuretic. 0. tropical Africa. other fevers. M. Malay Peninsula and Islands . rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. used in bronchitis. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. expectorant. Country. B and C. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. :—A woody undershrub. alexipharmic. ovate-oblong. anthelmintic. Vidarigandha. fattening. Ceylon. :— G. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. alterative. Fl. LOC. thirst. China. Salwan. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. CHAR. cures biliousness. LOC. asthma. green and glabrous above. t. tumours. cough. Salwan. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. Salpani. :—Konkan and N. Fr. cures typhoid. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. standard cuneate at the base . Burma. useful in chronic fevers. dysentery . Salparni. boiled with honey and fermented. thirst. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. FAM. indigestible. pains. burning sensation. K. Shaliparni. Kitavinashini. urinary complaints. stems and branches angled. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. NS. Deccan and S. Tonic. LOC.. vomiting. Ranbhal. upper edge straight. prevents death of fœtus in womb .6-1. " Tridosha ".—onefoliate.

aphrodisiac. Kanara and the Konkan. vaginal discharges. Konkan. biliousness. FAM. covered with shining sheaths. Dabha. Banda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. high. M. Darbha. ligule a hairy line . jaundice. Thailand (Siam). good for lumbago. Sk. Fl. Tumaki Mara. PARTS USED :—Wood. LOC. :—Throughout India. strangury. diseases of blood. thirst. heating. Davoli. Wood cures biliousness. t. flowers. Makurkendi. asthma. Zeeberwo. Dab. Nubia. Riber ebony.—G. Gujarat. LOC. Pavitra. Timbwini. erect pyramidal or columnar. Kusha. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). bark. Tumari.—Gramineæ. DISTR. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. stout. branches short crowded. oleaginous. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). NS. fruit and seeds.3-3. Tendu. cooling. H. . reaching 50 cm. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Tinduka. in the beds of rivers and streams. Ceylon. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. Egypt. :—Perennial tall grass. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery.. rigid. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Fruit—oleaginous.) FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. used in biliousness and blood diseases. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Darbha. cures ulcers and " Vata". creeping. vesical calculi. Sacred Plants. smooth. :—Along the coasts of N.—many. Wild mangosteen.8 cm. -panicle 15-45 X 1. Kalatendu. Kalaskandh. rootstock stout. Sphurjaka. erect. useful in blood diseases. long. sedative to pregnant uterus. DISTR. sheaths glabrous. Syria. H. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. margins hispid. vomiting. COM. stolon very stout. NS. :—E. Durva. stems 30-90 cm. LOC. tufted. astringent to bowels. Gavandu. G. branched from the base. See—Fodder Plants. Sk. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Anilsara. Gale.:—Saurashtra. clothed with sessile spikelets.—Ebenaceæ. the basal fascicled. diuretic. COM. Malay Archipelago. K. diseases of bladder. interrupted. skin eruptions. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. L. Fl.—Dec. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Temburni. CHAR. M.

emmenagogue. piles. cordate. Sori two in each primary areole. Grains contain vitamin A. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. It is demulcent in calculus affection. cures " Kapha". Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. intestinal colic. tumours. strangury. astringent to bowels. COM. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. Kulith. Kulathi. urinary discharges. Texture membranaceous to leathery. Kulthi. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. Sitetara. improves complexion. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. Basingh. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. "Vata". generally on trees and rocks. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. diseases of the brain and eyes. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. stout. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Wandar bashing. causes biliousness (Yunani). removes stone from kidney. fattening. PARTS USED :—Seeds. densely clothed with red-brown scales. appetiser. Bijapur and Dharwar. FAM. piles. inflammation. Tans. antipyretic. liver troubles. :—Rhizome creeping. :—E. dry.—Polypodiaceæ. short. Kulithaka. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. Kulthi. G. Sk. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Kulitha. fertile ones long stalked. Horse-Gram. heart-troubles. NS. M. Jurali. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Nasik. Konkan— Ratnagiri. bronchitis. hiccup. H. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Ashvakatri. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). grown to a certain extent in S. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. abdominal complaints. Sk. cures hiccup. Diuretic. anthelmintic. CHAR. See—Timbers. :—M. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. . pain in liver. :—Tropics of the old world. Surfaces naked. Country—Belgaum. FAM. asthma. leucoderma. variously lobed. base decurrent on the stipe. hot. enlargement of spleen. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. coughs etc. acrid. See-Food Plants. Kalvrinta. M. COM. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. K. NS. eye troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Kulit.Gahat. ovate. DISTR. Hurali. ozoena.

spiny. branches widely spreading from the base. Balari. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. diseases of heart. M. Ajagara. cottony. Fr. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. cooling. Mochand.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Bhangra. H. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. pappus short. glabrous above. analgesic. Kantaphala. H. M. intermediate produced in sharp spine. C. CHAR.—Compositæ. often rooting at the nodes. Shulio. Seeds—wholesome. t. LOC. Pitripriya. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. .9 m. the lobes triangular and oblong. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). CHAR. hysteria.-Jany. :—More or less throughout India. sinuate and spinescent. pain in joints. L. stems and branches strigose and hairy. oblong. Utanti. stimulates liver. bitter. :—Konkan.— opposite.5 cm. Plant stomachic. biliousness. Kalobhangro . NS. L.—sessile. Utkantaka. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. spines 2. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. Utakatara. Markara. inflammations. antipyretic. subentire. hectic fever. 0. Root— abortifacient. tonic. globose. Garagadasoppu.:—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. dyspepsia. Bhangra. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. :—G. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. S. dyspepsia and cough.3—0.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. :—A much branched rigid annual. " Vata". astringent to bowels . :—G. thirst. It is used in hoarse cough. surrounded by strong white bristles. gleet. FAM. high. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Konkan. Utkatara. involucre.—achene obconic.—limb linear. Kadigga-garaga. Utkanto. cottony pubescent.—Compositæ. Fl. useful in brain-diseases. urinary discharges. used in strangury. Kadechubak. Sk. NS. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. FAM. LOC. improves taste. densely villous. Deccan. Kantalu. causes " Kapha". DISTR. wooly beneath. increases appetite. COM. long. Sunilaka. Dadhal. strigose and hairy. DISTR.—heads white. Utkanta. usually oblong-lanceolate. Bhangro. sessile. LOC. :—Kanara. used in ophthalmia. chronic fever. bracts 3seriate. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. hot. also cultivated to a certain extent. Afghanistan. Fl. Maka. M. K. deeply pinnatifid. Sk. Country. yellowish. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). COM. Keshrangana. Bhringraj.— Nov.

LOC. Madhya Bharat. stomatitis. Gourangi. leucoderma. M. cures inflammations. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. cuneate with a narrow wing. fattening. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. Fr. Panjab. fevers. night blindness. Bitter . There are two forms erect and prostrate. axillary. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. tonic. Burma. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. "Vata". The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). Elachi. G. bronchitis. Veldoda. syphilis. hemi-crania. lustre of eyes. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. . anæmia. LOC. Choti-Elachi. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. stomachic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. See—Sacred Plants. heart and skin diseases. :—Western valleys of N. internal diseases. good for complexion. improves colour of hair. liver pain. C—often 4-toothed .94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. K. Peninsula). NS. it is powdered and applied externally. :—E. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) .—in heads. asthma. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. "Kapha". disk ones tubular . hair. Karangi. hernia. Gandhkuti. H. DISTR. Sk. hot. involucral bracts about 8 . Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. COM.-Dec. Malaya. a reputed and popular liver tonic. Yalakki. t. cures vertigo (Yunani). FAM. solitary or 2 together.. toothache. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . alterative. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle.— Oct. prevents abortion and miscarriage. cultivated. teeth. It is given internally in scalding of urine. Ceylon. Fl. eye diseases. expectorant. Triputa. W. Sind. ray flowers ligulate. It relieves headache when applied with oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter.—achene. eyes. Chandrabala. good for spleen diseases. Bahula. antipyretic. Kanara (Siddapur. anthelmintic. Ilaji. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Velchi. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. alexipharmic. and for strengthening gums.:—India (Bengal.—Scitaminaceæ. Ela. pappus 0. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers.

H. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. Vayuvitang.:—G. Sk. Rajika. fruit is tonic. useful in biliousness. pruritus.—Myrsinaceæ. brain and mouth. Narttaka. See—Condiments and Spices. Wavrung. . carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). chest and throat (Yunani). stimulant and emmenagogue. M. NS. carminative. Nagali. laxative. useful in head. abortifacient. In S. Boberang. Makra. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. cooling. M. H. Bavato.—Gramineæ. fragrant. fruit and seeds. piles. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Kanisha. useful in asthma. scabies. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. bad humours of liver. strangury. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. Vavading. tonic to heart. tonic. Navalo-nagali. diuretic. stomachic. India. rich or poor. Bhasmaka. causes thirst. Rotka. DISTR. ear and tooth ache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid.:—Western and S. cause biliousness . Seed—fragrant. Ragi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. NS. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. alexiteric . Jantughna. Varding. Pavaka. Grains contain vitamin B. Vavoding. clear head. cultivated. COM. Bidanga. PARTS USED :—Grain. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. FAM. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. See-Food Plants. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. Vidariga. CUM. diseases of bladder. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. bronchitis.. FAM. root is laxative and tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. Nachani. diuretic. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. kidney. lessens inflammation. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. It is stomachic. It is said to be astringent. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. K. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. K. LOC. most suitable to hard-working classes. consumption. Marua. LOC. pungent. Sk. :— G. bitter. cooling. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). LOC.

good appetiser. Amlika. Anola. useful in burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. tonic. Triphala. bronchitis. biliousness. greenish yellow. Daula . whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. Ceylon. racemes minute. anthelmintic . :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. LOC. diseases of heart. paler and silvery beneath. Ambala. leprosy. alexiteric. succulent. carminative. black when ripe. piles. dry. leaves. 42-II-1932). Nellika . vomiting. Avala. cures bronchitis . DISTR. bark studded with lenticels . vulnerary. constipation.—Euphorbiaceæ. nearly globose.—in lax panicles. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. PARTS USED :—Fruit. dyspnoea. L. often planted in Konkan. Amla. . Fl. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. " Tridosha ". Int. good for plethoric constitution. Fr. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. urinary discharges. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. H. Dadi. Western Ghats. shining above. China. laxative. Bhoza . fruit and seeds. bronchitis. slender. NS. erysipelas. coriaceous. ascites. t. Konkan and N. dries wound discharges . useful in asthma. K. HABITAT :—Rain forests. alexiteric. Amalaka. urinary discharges. Sk. :—Throughout India. alterative. Kanara. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Malaya. anæmia. like a pepper corn when dried. Paranjpe and G. antipyretic. COM.—berry. poisoning. reddens urine. Gokhale. jaundice. wild or planted. S. Embelic myrobalan. smooth. with a sharp bitter taste. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. many. Dhatriphala. M. flowers. China.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. sweats. Ther. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). S. thirst. LOC. " Kapha'. Ceylon. Seed— acrid. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Hilly parts of the State. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. Dhatri. hemicrania. K. (Dymock). bark. sour. cures tumours. flexible. laxative. :—A large scandent shrub.—alternate. anuria. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. strangury. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. elliptic-lanceolate. Bitter. carminative. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. Deccan. anthelminitic. cooling. purgative. branches long. Malay Islands. Adiphala.) FAM.—Feb. Anward. analgesic. G. aphrodisiac. et. Amlika. Arch. LOC. :— E. alterative. Pharm. Fl. mental diseases. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. inflammations. internodes long. worms in wounds (Ayurveda).

COM.). aperient. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. M.— capsule. used as laxative and astringent. West Indies. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Nagajivha. Country. Tanavadi. branched from the base. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Mabhipaka. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. vulnerary. thirst. variable. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. in axillary clusters all along the stem. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Fl. M. CHAR. M. Tiktapatra. :—Konkan. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Kadvinayi.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Saurashtra.—sessile. FAM. stops nasal hæmorrhage. Lady nut. stems erect or procumbent. high.—Aug.) FAM. Madvinashi. Malaya. ellipsoid. useful in heart-diseases. white.—Gentianaceæ. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. NS. LOC. 3-nerved. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. Unripe fruit is cooling. diuretic and laxative. tropical Africa. Dyes. t. K. . Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Celyon. Chhotakirayat. C—infundibuliform. :—Throughout the greater part of India. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". :—A perennial glabrous herb. :—E. Fruit—acrid. expectorant. Mamejavo . astringent. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Giant's rattle. mid-nerve strong. R. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. opposite. L. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. H. sour. eye troubles. bark and fruit are astringent. rounded apex. Doddakampi. Tans. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Garbe. S. Sind. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. LOC. improves appetite. :—G. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Garambi. 10—50 cm. COM. Nahu. piles. Gujarat. Ind. narrowed at the base. Sk. liver complaints. lobes 5. biliousness. Dried fruits. purifies body humours (Yunani). sub-quadrangular or terete. LOC.-Nov. Grey). cold in the nose. Fr. Mackary bean. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. cooling. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Fruit Trees. tonic. Hallekayiballi.—sessile. NS. DISTR. USES :—Root.

:—Konkan and N. often along river banks.. leaves. Sk. long. Planted as support for pepper vines. Nepal.S. Planted as ornament. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. DISTR. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". :—Coast forests of Malabar. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. G.-May. Salaki. Bangaro. along sea-coast above high-water. Kantakinshuka. Arakan. Mandara.— Mar. C. mixed with spices. woody. Kanara. inflammations. hot.. Panderavo. bark used in dysentery.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). W. Pangara. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). N. shining and brown. Mochi-wood. Fr. Panjira. Hongara. PARTS USED :—Root. Indian coral-tree. Halivan. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats.. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Mandara. anthelmintic.—pod.—6-15. H. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Var. Panarvo. Andamans and Nicobar. pinnae 2—3 pairs.3-2 cm. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. . The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Phandra . diam. Dadap. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . L. dark green. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. improve appetite. flowers.5-10 cm. Fl. thick. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. cure urinary discharges. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND LOC. slightly curved. Tennaserim. in debility and glandular swellings . Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. 30-90 cm. Pegu. USES :—Powdered kernel. Mullumurige.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Pangara. The plant is used as a fish-poison. 4.) FAM. COM.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. oblong or obovate. leaflets 7-5 x 2. 3. rigidly coriaceous. smooth. indented between the seeds. Sundribans. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. bark. for grapevines in Nasik district. PARTS USED :—Seeds. stomachic. ORIENTALIS Merr. Paribhadra. wide and 3-8 cm.—yellow. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Sd.—2pinnate. the tropics generally. LOC. Fl. glabrous. t. :—E. K. compressed. M.5-5-7 cm. long. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Raktapushpa. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. stalked. Peninsula. orbicular. Leaves—bitter.7-5x7. branches terete. Ceylon. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. DISTR. they are given internally as an emetic.

Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Fr. :— E. The plant contains an alkaloid. COM. Shirthahar. Sd. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. M. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Ceylon. LOC. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Vajradruma. Cong. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sher. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . rugose. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Kodukalli. dark green above. :—Annual herb. Sc. appressedly hairy. PROPERTIES AND LOC. G. Duddi. Dudanali. Sendh. branches often 4-angled.—opposite. Nevli. Pill-bearing spurge. Fl. Dudhi. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. with or without a limb. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Dandasruha. H. t. —throughout the year. K. Sahud. G. Sk. Indian tree spurge. :—E. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. base unequal-sided. CHAR. it is anthelmintic. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Nagpur 1931). crowded in small axillary globose cymes.—Euphorbiaceæ. 15-50 cm. Paradeshi thora . EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Bahukshira.—ovoid-trigonous. NS. NS. gland minute. Australian asthma herb. Milk bush. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.—Euphorbiaceæ. 18th Ind. high.—capsule. Dudhi. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Mondukalli. globose. erect or ascending. FL. serrulate or dentate. K. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. See—Timbers. Dandalio thora.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. FAM. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. . pale beneath. H. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). M. Achchegida. Bottugalli. Dudhi.—involucres numerous. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn.) FAM. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. COM. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Milk hedge. and to relieve pain of the joints. Plant is chiefly used for worms. L. Govardhan. reddish brown. bowel complaints and cough in children. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Pusitoa.

dropsy. tumours. campanulate. smooth.-Sep.— capsule. :—Native of East Africa. Vishnugandhi. :—Sind. t. Fl. milk is alexiteric. more than 5 cm.—Convolvulaceæ. jaundice. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. asthma. LOC.-Aug. rootstock woody . elliptic-oblong. Fl. about 6 m. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. NS. long. CHAR. H. branchlets whorled.—many.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). smooth. Vishnukranta. leprosy and leucorrhoea. Sd. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. useful in abdominal troubles. Fl. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. and with oil to promote growth of hair. leprosy. L. axillary. usually clothed with long hairs . thick like quill. employed to raise blisters. Sk. DISTR. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. Juice is purgative. base acute. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K. naturalised in India. stone in bladder (Yunani). Vishnukranta. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. Jhinkiphudardi. :—A small tree. COM. leucoderma. useful in gonorrhœa. whooping cough. useful in biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. The plant contains an alkaloid. stems many. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. polished. linear. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. Kalisankhavali. FAM. teething of infants . . long (appearing in rainy season) . LOC. DISTR. cocci velvety. tropical and sub-tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. thin. also as an alterative.—small. :—Throughout the State. enlargement of spleen. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). peduncles very long. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . high. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. spreading. t. alterative. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Fr. 6-13 mm. Ceylon. solitary or sometimes 2. colic.—ovoid. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Vishnukranti.—capsule. useful in bronchitis. Konkan and Gujarat. globose. mostly female. L.-July-Nov. dyspepsia. alexiteric. branches erect.-light blue. M. pungent. LOC. :—G. epilepsy. prostrate. carminative. LOC. carminative. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Sd— glabrous. anthelmintic. :—A perennial herb. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Nilpushpi. terete. brightens intellect. Shyamakranta . 4valved. tonic. biliousness. almost leafless. wiry. silky hairy.

Dhamaso . PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. westwards to Afghanistan. Fr. :—Madras State. petioles deeply striate.—opposite. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. Cooling. more or less glandular." asthma. cooling. Coimbatore. shining. Ghats. leaflets linear. pale rose-coloured. of 5. purifies blood (Ayurveda). small. stem.— showy. good for liver troubles. ellipsoid. COM. CHAR. 1-3 foliate. FAM. yellowish brown. high. FL. vomiting. DISTR. Mysore. Mediterranean. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Punjab. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Dhanavi. LOC. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. removes "Vata". typhoid.-Nov. H. Sd. FAM. smooth. Maval. Kashaya. flattened. M. cures dysentery. deeply 5-partite. Udichirayat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. sessile. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. root fibrous. LOC. Deccan hills and S. spitting of blood. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . lower half white. Hinguna.-Dec.—Gentianaceæ. the upper blue. 1-seeded cocci. in copious terminal cymes .—Zygophyllaceæ.-Oct. quadrangular. Atmamuli. Fl. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. :— Sind. Circars.2 cm. glandular hairy. long. ovate. Arabia. Waziristan. Upper Gangetic plains. reduces tumours. DISTR. COM. C—lobes 4-5. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. in chronic bronchitis.-Aug. toothache. L. the middle the largest. thirst. :—An erect annual. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. fever. Gujarat. it has got cooling properties. LOC. obliquely obovate. :—Konkan.— ovoid. L. Baluchistan. CHAR. arising from between the stipules . 5-nerved. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Prabhodhini. elliptic or lanceolate. asthma. urinary discharges. Fl. Fr. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. W. pyramidal to the apex.). t. :—G. Sk. reaching 60 cm. Ustarkhar. Dhamasa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. Ind. M. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. Iran. Bark is used in scabies.—capsule. emmenagogue. stomatitis. ophthalmia. Dusparsha. t.—very variable in size and form sessile. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. M. erysipelas. acute. N. scarcely branched. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns.—solitary. Fl. smooth. also used in chronic fevers. Rajasthan. Country. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. alexipharmic. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Barachirayat. about 1. . removes "Vata. :— H.

Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Alada. H. female.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Nyagrodha. with male.—Moraceæ. Self-sown. :—E. 10-20 X 5-12. acrid. Java. fatigue. G.— globose. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). asthma. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. G. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Kothun. DISTR. Grahiphala. Vad. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Leaves—very astringent. Ala. K. Bargat. aphrodisiac. good for throat. Fruit—sour . LOC. LOC. Banian tree. Byala. high. diam. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. tonic to heart. refrigerant . about 2 cm. :—Cultivated all over the State. S. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Ceylon. " Tridosha". cures cough. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Bargad. Sk.—coriaceous. Vata. Monkey fruit. fruit and seeds. Avaroha. hiccup. Goli. Kavitha. Fruit Trees. ovate to elliptic. often planted. shining above. blood impurities. Ghats. common in the Tapi Valley. M. Vadlo . NS. Seeds—antidote to poison. Vad. CHAR. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa.—Rutaceæ. Belada. Elephant or wood apple. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. " Vata ". difficult to digest. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). India. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . liver and lungs . leucorrhoea.5 cm. tumours. Kavath. useful in biliousness. ophthalmia. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Kavit. with spreading branches. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Manmadha. COM. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Kait. Vat. NS. . Fr. L. Jatala. heart diseases. FAM. refrigerant. vomiting . COM. Kapipriya. Dadhiphala. M. removes biliousness. binding diuretic. Sk. Kapitha. Kanara. thirst. M. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Malura. Kotha. cordate or rounded base. Bahupada. astringent. See—Timbers. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. K. :—Indigenous in S. Balin. Bhringi. :— E. LOC. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. Kathinyaphala. strengthening to gums . consumption. Kathel.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. H. Bar. often cultivated. dysentery. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests.. country and N.

FAM. useful in "Vata". FICUS CARICA Linn. diuretic. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. vaginal complaints. pain in chest cures piles. tonic. Sk. Simeyatu . lithotriptic. Anjura. Anjir. lessens inflammations. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. Milky Juice—expectorant. liver and spleen diseases. COM. vulnerary. See—Famine Plants. biliousness. nutritive. root-fibres. useful in inflammation . LOC. stimulates hair-growth. hill ranges of S. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Root—tonic. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. thirst. Cultivated in N. Anjir. erysipelas. useful in piles. India. PARTS USED :—Bark. ulcers. M. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. W. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). dysentery. :—Baluchistan. Bijapur. Fibres.—Moraceæ. biliousness. laxative. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Anjir. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. . G. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. LOC. leprosy. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. useful in "Kapha". leaves. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. gonorrhœa. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). useful in leucoderma. useful in syphilis. Aerial root is styptic. Kakodumbar. bruises. Asia and Mediterranean. :— E. paralysis. India. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. leprosy (Ayurveda). inflammations. DISTR. boils and carbuncles. USES :—Fruit is emollient. inflammation of liver (Yunani). Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Afghanistan. Seeds are cooling and tonic. fever. W. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. demulcent. Anjir. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. Fig. in rheumatism and lumbago. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. vomiting. K. weakness. H. alexiteric. maturant. Dharwar. seeds and milky juice. diseases of head and blood. NS. nose-diseases. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Sacred Plants. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. aphrodisiac. Grown scattered elsewhere. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling.

(Yunani). LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Sacred Plants. urinary discharges. leaves and fruits. COM. useful. given in leucorrhoea. acrid. good for bronchitis. Ragi. HABITAT :—Planted. Sk. styptic. PARTS USED :—Root. allays thirst. Pavitraka. Hemadugdha. G. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. Arani. Bark. useful in "Kapha". Rumadi. . Pimpal.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). cummin. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. K. leprosy. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. latex. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. FAM. M. Bark useful in asthma and piles. in diseases of blood. leucorrhoea. LOC. ground with onions. planted all over. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit— useful in dry cough. COM. good for foul taste. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. LOC. good for gravid uterus. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. H. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. Demera.—Moraceæ. Pipal. G. biliousness. blood diseases. is given to cattle in rinderpest. See—Timbers. vagina. NS. vulnerary. Sk. nose bleedings. biliousness. :—Widely spread throughout India. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. NS. :—E. :—E. Gular-Country fig. loss of voice. :—Throughout the State near villages. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Peepal tree . diseases of kidney and spleen. Bark is cooling. bark.—Moraceæ. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Gular. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Pippala. burning sensation. Fruit—astringent to bowels. leaves. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. burning sensation. uterus . Pipli. K. menorrhagia. ulcers. fruit. Umar. Umbar. Lalka. Milk—aphrodisiac. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Vriksharaj. Bodhidruma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Pippala. galactagogue. DISTR. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. bark. Ashwatha mara. H. Umbro. M. Ashvatha. Umar. Pipers. fatigue. Yajnika. tonic. Jari. Shuchidruma. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. FAM. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Atti. DISTR. Udumbara. Pipal.

They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. M. Akrani. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. See—Timber. promotes granulations. Soupa. Khandesh. Bhanber. Kankod . :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Tapaspriya. Bilangra . USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. M. Young bark useful in bone fractures. HABITAT :—Hills. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. FAM. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Potika. common in the Peninsula. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Badishep. Root good for gout. cleans ulcers. Satpura. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. N. S. Kanara Jungles. Sacred Plants. :—E. Paker. K. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Country and N. Swadukantaka. K. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. The juice is employed in hiccup. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Fennel. Hettarimullu. Sk. Finkel. G. appetising and digestive. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. fruit. COM. COM NS. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. DISTR. H. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. gum. Ghats. upper Gangetic plain. Burma. FAM. aphrodisiac. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. bark. Fodder Plants. Variali. . Circars. PROPERTIES AND LOC. heart diseases. SAPIDA Roxb. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). H. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Shateya. Sk. :— G. Fruit—purgative. and produces sterility in women. See—Timbers. M. Badisoppu. Tambat.—Umbelliferæ. seeds. Handi Kandai. NS. checks vomiting (Yunani). Variari. good for lumbago. Katar. Hunmunki. astringent in leucorrhoea. Shalina. Bhakal. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Fruits are sweet. Mullutari. Bhuripushpa. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). LOC. W. Gajale.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst.—Flacourtiaceæ.

In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery.—ellipsoid.9 m. seeds-carminative. anthelmintic. :—E. appetiser. :—A tall glabrous. anthelmintic. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. Tittidika . Atyamla. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). amenorrhœa. aphrodisiac.— decompound. :—Endemic in W. PARTS USED :—Bark.—Guttiferæ. thirst. diuretic. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. Kokam. wounds etc.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Wild mangosteen. Coorg. spleen. H. LOC. Murjinhalli. See—Timbers. ultimate segments linear. ridges prominent. Oils. useful in diseases of chest. useful in bleeding piles. Konkan and N. USES :—used as stimulant. dysentery. USES :—Bark is astringent. " Vata ". Kokam . Wynaad. (Mhaskar and Caius). cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. Amlabija. improves appetite and allays thirst. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. L. leprosy (Ayurveda). dysentery. high. Sk. galactagogue. dark green. DISTR. It is used as a local application to ulcerations.—in large umbels . G. LOC. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. leaves (rarely). It is much used as a nutritive. HABITAT :—Cultivated. aromatic and carminative. common in S. wounds. Fr. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. Ghats south of Bombay. M. Ghats. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". burning sensation.6-0. kidney. annual. fissures of lips. causing constipation . fever. 0. lessen inflammations. yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". FAM. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. fruit and seeds. Leaves—improve eyesight. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. eye-diseases. tumours. K. demulcent and emollient. stimulant. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. bracts and bracteoles absent. PARTS USED :—Roots. leaves and seeds. LOC. FL. NS. strengthen eyes (Yunani). in headache. DISTR. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. often cultivated. Kanara. . cures "Tridosh". cardiotonic. :—W. cough and asthma. laxative. furrows vittate. stomachic. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. biliousness. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. Mulgala. carpophore 2-partite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. :—Apparently a native of S. difficult to digest. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. alexiteric. Tintidika. Ratambi. COM. Kokam .

Jantuka. Dikkamalli. 4. Hingu. NS. DISTR.-tubular. See—Gums and Resins.5x22. same as for G. LOC. first white then changing to yellow. :—A deciduous shrub. buds resinous. CHAR.8 m. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. See—Timbers. Pinda. 1-3 together. Fl. LOC. Dekamari. Fr. oblong or ellipsoid. :—E.—Rubiaceæ. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. oblong. As sold in the bazar it is hard. LOC. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . PARTS USED :—Gum. not fragrant. DISTR. COM. high. about 1. COM. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. long. Bikke. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite.—Rubiaceæ.-subsessile. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. -June. t. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. common on laterite in southern parts of N. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . relieves pain of bronchitis. Dikamali. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). Cambi resin tree.5 cm. Dakamali. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Western Peninsula. Fl. Suvirya. Dikemali. elliptic-obovate. :—Common from Konkan southwards.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. Sk. HABITAT :—Open situations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. lucida (Ayurveda). PARTS USED:-Gum. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. Gums and Resins. L. all dry districts of Madras State.. NS. G. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. FAM. K. :—India. Northern ghats of Madras State.—2.5-3.—Feb. Peninsula). shining. opaque. Dikamari. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. FAM. :—India (W. Kanara. LOC. M. astringent to bowels. . Burma. unarmed.-sessile. C. lucida. H.8 cm.

used to remove placenta from uterus.5 X 15 X 2-4.—capsule. orange. K. Languli. :—Herbaceous. DISTR.—large.. bitter. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). There are two varieties of the plant.-July-Oct.. Fl. acrid. NS. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. :—Throughout tropical India. Agnimukhi. M. Kalihari. In Guinea. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. anthelmintic. perianth segments reaching 6. CHAR.5 cm. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. scattered or opposite. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. axillary .—sessile. Akkitang hall. t. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.2 cm. scarlet. changing colours from greenish yellow. Linn.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. :—G. root-stock of arched. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Indai. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. Tuber— astringent. H. PARTS USED :—Tuber. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. Kalikari. Fr. alexiteric. Khadyanag. laxative. itching. In case of retained placenta. Karianag. The former is supposed to be male. Ceylon. sometimes whorled. Malay Peninsula. tall. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. ovate lanceolate. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. Nangulika. Garbhapatani. heating. 7. COM. given off from young tubers . the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. Sivasaktibalb . piles. thirst. and crimson from blooming to fading. Kulhari. margins wavy. FL. LOC. Tropical Africa. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. stems annual. Dudhio vachhonag. branching climber . leprosy. abdominal pains. expectorant. Cochin-China. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Kathari. useful in chronic ulcers. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. abortifacient.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. solitary. L. leaves and flowers. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. FAM. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine.5-3. linear-lanceolate. solid. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Huliyuguru. linear oblong. filaments long spreading.—Liliaceæ. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant.3 cm. . inflammations. Sk. LOC.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. piles. Kumbudi. Gumbhar. Ceylon. Cashmere tree. Mahabhadra. Savan. made into paste. flowers and seeds. LOC. Kashmari. anthelmintic . fevers. Hanji. M. Shivan . GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. catarrh of the bladder etc. PROPERTIES AND LOC. abdominal pains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. COM. laxative. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). FAM. H. Root taken with liquorice. K. Provinces. flowers and fruit. M. root is also stomachic and laxative. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. promotes hair-growth. Var. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. chronic cystitis. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. alterative. " Tridosha ". :—Throughout the State. Coomb teak. PARTS USED :—Root. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. scalds etc.—Malvaceæ. Devakapus. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. K. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. Khandesh. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. strangury. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. scattered in monsoon forests. Gambhari. . gleet. leaves. Oils.:—E. COM. See—Fibres. leaves. Bachanige. Devkapas. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Fruit— diuretic. G. useful in fevers . DISTR. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. White teak. Rajasthan and N. Sk. common on Satpuda. consumption. anasarca. Karpasam. LOC. :— Bengal. Sk. improves appetite . H. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Shivani. Shiwan. :—Throughout India. thirst. Flowers—astringent. Nurma . leprosy. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. NS. G. the root. useful in "Vata". Gupsi. indigestible. useful in hallucinations. Shiwan. Philippines. LOC. Deokapas. Tree cotton.—Verbenaceæ. Malaya. burning sensation. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. Madhya Bharat. Root extract is bitter and tonic. anæmia. urinary discharges. In the Konkan. :—Throughout the State and about temples. See—Timbers. tonic. thirst. useful in indigestion. PARTS USED :—Root. Sind. aphrodisiac. Karibatti. Gandhari. :— E. W. stomachic. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Shripani. NS. FAM. ulcers. DISTR. Gambari.

Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. removes " Vata" and biliousness. in hills near Poona. Badari. cures inflammations.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. fevers and consumption. bark. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. preventing their access to wounds etc. PARTS USED :—Root. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Gujarat and S. See—Fibres. Parapera. sour. Tadasala. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. Mesapotamia. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . LOC.. Rui. wild in Deccan. Anagnika. Oils. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Egypt. expectorant. Phalsa. HABITAT :—Cultivated.Phalse. digestible. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. :—Cultivated in the State. Seeds are laxative. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Kapus. Jana. Pharuah. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . removes " Vata ". Kupas. K. Syria. Ripe fruit—sweet. PARTS USED :—Root. :— Cultivated in N. LOC. Rui. Sutrapuspha. F. analgesic. Sk. Province (Pakistan). fruit. acrid. G. Arali. Buttiyu-dippa.. Roshana. Cotton . heart and blood disorders. K. Country. restore consciousness. Seeds— ' galactagogue. increase flow of urine. Karpas. Phalsi. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Baluchistan. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Tula. allay thirst. DISTR. FAM. S.—Tiliaceæ. Parusha. M. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Karihariyale. aphrodisiac. W.—Malvaceæ. tonic. leaves. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. extensively in Gujarat. fruits and seeds. cure all ear-troubles. Leaves remove " Vata " . All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. :—Sind. Dhamin. H. :—E. COM. Mediterranean. demulcent. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. DISTR. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. NS. extensively cultivated. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Hatti. M. Arabia and Asia Minor. enrich blood. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. FAM. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. fomentation for burning eyes . laxative . in hypochondria. Kapas . Seeds are used as a galactagogue. H. tonic. probably in N. (Yunani). Afghanistan. expectorant and aphrodisiac. used in orchitis. In India they are used to procure abortion. LOC. M. good for all kinds of inflammations. leaf-juice good in dysentery. good for throat . East Tropical Africa. Iran. A. U. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. COM. scabies . cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Sk. NS. :—G.

Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Periploca of the woods. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Mabli. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. FL. SK. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis.—in cymes . GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Sk. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). LOC. lanceolate. Vishani. Meshashingi. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Fruit—sour. Tilparni. :E. :— E. G. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. M. Sati talvani. Kanara coast. Kanphodi. cooling. NS. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). alterative. asthma. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). strengthens chest and heart. Bastagandha. Ugragandha. base rounded or cordate . Sd. Pandhari tilwan. much branched. — Asclepiadaceæ.—Capparidaceæ. Gurmar. acrid. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. bronchitis.— Apl. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). elliptic. :—A large woody climber. t. H. Karalia . FAM. stomachic. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Hulhul. CHAR. COM. yellow . corona of 5 processes . Small Indian ipecacuanha. India. Caravella. Mahabaleshwar and N. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Tanmani. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. ulcers. piles. Mardashingi. L.— with thin marginal wing. Br. leucoderma.-May. Meshavalli. common in hedges in Dharwar district. Kabari. Shrikala. sweet. anthelmintic. Merasingi. ovate. H. S. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Arkapuspika. Kavali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. vitreous body) burning sensation. Hulhul. helps removal of dead fetus.— companulate . Fr.— opposite. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. The ease of administration. Sanngera. DISTR. Root and bark used in strangury. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. young stems densely pubescent. cornea. M.—follicle. C. COM. good in heart-diseases. Sannagerse. relieves thirst and hiccup. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. usually single. :—Western Peninsula. should not be eaten raw. FAM. tonic. :—Throughout the State. Karnasphota. G. LOC. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. See—Fruit Trees. Churota. . NS. the stomachic stimulant. Adiyakharan. biliousness. Vakundi. Fl. Bedki. K. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Tropical Africa. alexiteric. K. LOC.

FAM. Mrigashringa. S. good in ascites. DISTR. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. Gujarat. tumours.—capsule. sessile. LOC. hills near Nagothana. .. pedicels viscid hairy. Country. Avartant. leaves and seeds. COM. stomachic .:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. Sd. Gidesa Jitasai. glabrous or pubescent above. Sk. Edamuri. pain. elliptic-obovate.. Fr. stem and branches hairy. removes "Vata". spleen enlargement and bilious fevers .5 cm. long .—Rubiaceæ. :—M. pink . Jonkaphal Maraphali. Kavargi. stipules triangular.-Feb. PARTS USED :—Root. vesicant. L.—Oct. hairy on the nerves beneath.8-9 cm. ulcers. C. Murdasing.12. LOC. earache. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. M. leaflets subsessile.—June. Sinhgad hills.—many. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). white or blue. M. Kanara. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. hills in Supa Taluka. Fl. . :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Murudi. t. gynophore 2-2. FAM. dark-brown .—capsule. L. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Katraj Ghat. opposite. Fl.—muricate. Fl. :—A small deciduous shrub. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. Fr.—3-5 foliate. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb.—petals 4 with long slender claws. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. tapering at both ends.—Sterculiaceæ.2 m. elliptic-lanceolate. HABITAT:—Hills. long. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. CHAR. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. viscid. Kewan. Murudseng.6—1. high. with divaricate herbaceous branches . margins crenate-dentate. ellipsoid . pubescent. producing copious exudation. NS. t. Marosi. Sd. :—G. COM. H.5-20 X 3. acute. Fl. DISTR.—in dense bracteate racemes.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. hairy. China. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. LOC. 5-9 cm.—rather rigid. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. :—Deccan. :—An annual erect herb 0. (Kirtikar and Basu). Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. K. hairy. PARTS USED :—Root. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. NS.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.

Country. Durivel.—tubular. uterine complaints. diarrhœa. Sd. LOC. LOC. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. tapering . G. DISTR.-Dec. Fl. epileptic fits. dark-green. LOC.— in cymes in opposite axils. diaphoretic. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. astringent to bowels . Australia and West Indies. Kanara ghat forests. obliquely cordate. Stem lessens inflammation. blood diseases. lessens griping. eye troubles. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. H. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. Indian sarsaparilla . Br. Upalsari. Anantmula. DISTR. Sugandhi-balli. t — Aug. 5-6. India.— with silvery white coma . fevers. demulcent. red at first fading to lead colour. FAM. CHAR. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. low appetite.. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. burning sensation. Root useful in hemicrania. FL. useful in piles. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes.—Asclepiadaceæ. Deccan and S. M. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. bronchitis. leucorrhoea. :—Upper Gangetie plain. K. L. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. asthma. M. 7. COM. t. Anantmula. HABITAT :—In hedges. "Vata' dysentery. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani).—numerous. Dhaval kashtha. Root and stem—laxative.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. long. cough. anti-galactagogue. purplish inside. Sk. Hindisalse.—follicle of 5-6. angular . young shoots clothed with stellate hairs.—follicle cylindric. foul body odour. spirally coiled. scabrous above. cures all skin-diseases. Fl. L. beaked. PARTS USED :—Root. and leaves. irregularly crowded. paralysis. Konkan.— very variable. common in hedges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. "Kapha". NS. joint-pains. syphilis. Utpalashariva. stem. root-Stock woody . bark and fruit.—throughout the greater part of the year.-biferous. good for brain. Kapurimathuri. useful in gleet. Ceylon. C. Malaya. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). “tridosh".Sd. thirst. stems thickened at the nodes .3 cm. poisoning. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.5 X 5-10 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. :—Throughout the State. often variegated with white above. Magrabu. greenish outside. asthma. See—Fibres. diuretic. :—Large shrub or small tree. Fl. liver and kidney diseases . useful in syphilis and leucoderma. Upalsali. They are demulcent. Hamadaberu . bilabiate. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. rat-bites.512. Burma. :— E. ovate orbicular. mildly astringent. antidiarrhœal. alexiteric. . astringent to bowels. Fr.

urinary discharges. CHAR. demulcent. flowers. ovate or ovate lanceolate. FAM. pedicel jointed above the middle. Fr. seminal weakness. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. M. :— E. C. irregularly serrate towards the top. Native country probably China. DISTR. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup.5. diam. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. Harivallaba. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). syphilis and leucorrhoea. Jasum. tubular below. leaves. and mixed with ghee.—short petioled. Fl. Fl. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. It is also diuretic. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan. Aruna. COM.. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Shoe flower. Rudrapushpa. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda).—7. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. solitary. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. magenta. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. LOC. :—A perennial shrub. crimson. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. glabrous. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. It is said to purify blood. tonic.—during most of the year. Dasanihu. H. LOC. astringent.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. red. cm. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair.—Malvaceæ. Kempupundrika. Dasavala. entire near the base. Root roasted in plantain leaves. Jasuva. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. skindiseases. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. bright red. . bark and petals are demulcent. G. K. etc. t. piles. petals thrice as long as the calyx. useful in loss of appetite. Root is valuable in coughs. remove burning of body. Raktapushpi. involucral bracts 5-7.—no fruits produced in India. cooling. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. fevers. NS. Jasut. Jasavand. uterine and vaginal discharges. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. yellow. L. See—Ornamental Plants.—axillary. Japapushpa. and as early as 1864. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae.

serrate. clawed. 3-5 lobed. Fl. Ghats. Grows abundantly on the W. Madhavi. HABITAT. Madhumalati. G. much used in curries. long. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. base cuneate. COM. Sd. Kampti. NS. Kempupundrike. Patwa. petioles silky. asafoetida and molasses. Kamuka. Atimukta. Fl. involucral bracts 10.. Sk. Ceylon. stem and branches purple. Madhavi. Haladvel.—5-7. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. sedative and refrigerant. Madhalata.-Mar. NS. covered with minute hairs .—Malvaceæ. hairy. pepper. Madmalati. 1.5 cm. Kanara. Konkan. fruits and seeds. Adimurtte Adirganti. Pundi-bija or soppu. H. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Madhavi. Ragotpiti.—axillary. CHAR. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. L. young parts silky. 5th petal yellow at the base. fringed. flowers.—in erect racemes. calyx fleshy.—large. Madhavi.—capsule. Fr. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. K. Vasantduti. Lal ambadi. Red sorrel.) FAM. 3-winged. globose.— Jany. CHAR. M. :—An annual.—purple with darker centres. Fibres.lobes oblong. tropics of the old world. uppermost petal broader. Fl. and adding a little salt. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. COM. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Vasantduti. across. fragrant. Fr.—Oct. LOC. entire glabrous. Deccan.-Dec. Lal ambadi. t.—coriaceous. Lal ambari. :—G.—1-3. on the margins. glabrous. DISTR. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. :—Throughout the State. Fl. H. C. beaked. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND LOC.2-2 cm. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. :—E. 10-18 X 4.—Malpighiaceæ. long. LOC. white. elliptic-oblong. black-brown. :—Cultivated. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. (lower leaves sometimes entire). PARTS USED :—Leaves. purple. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. Atimukta. Malati. . FAM.5 cm. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. mid-lobe the longest. ovoid. K. C. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. purple.3-7. acuminate. Rozelle.— solitary. erect. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Chandravalli. t. Vasanti.—petals 5. M. orbicular. L.

Hale. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. flowers and seeds. FL. heating. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. biliousness. throat hairy inside. Burma. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo .—Apocynaceæ. branchlets drooping. cures dysentery. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. L. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). LOC. fatigue. acrid. C—tubular. Kaduoindrajav. G. main nerves conspicuous . bleeding piles. Kura. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Mt. t. skin diseases. Sk. :—E. COM. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. biliousness. Kumaon. long. See—Ornamental Plants.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Fr. PARTS USED :—Bark. China. K. lumbago. Leavesastringent. styptic. leprosy. broadly ovate or elliptic. strengthens gums. colic. diuresis (Yunani). aphrodisiac. good in erysipelas. NS.-June. Assam. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. thirst and inflammation. Hath. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca.5 cm. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. good in headache. DISTR. remove muscular pains . common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. anthelmintic. Pandhara Kuda.—10-20 X 5-11. white. given in chest affections. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. H. Seeds—appetiser. thirst. bitter. Thailand (Siam). Circars. cooling. hallucinations (Ayurveda). tonic. tonic. Kutaja.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Karnatak. CHAR. Kaling. excessive menstrual flow.—follicles 20-48 cm. Flowers— acrid. burning sensation. insecticidal.. leucoderma . Madras State. remove "Tridosh". skin and spleen diseases. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. Kuda. astringent to bowels cure pains. good in chronic bronchitis. Kudsalu. leaves. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. cause "Vata". Andamans. Seeds—carminative. smoke good for piles. LOC. Sd. wounds. :—Throughout the State. N. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin.—Feb. urinary discharges. fevers. Siwalik. Veppale. ulcers. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. cylindric. Karuindrayan. galactagogue. cool the brain. lessens inflammations. Conessi bark tree. " Kapha". Malay Peninsula. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. asthma. Abu. LOC. Bark—bitter.. Dudhi. Kuda. vulnerary. often dotted with white spots. M. diarrhœa. Nepal. burning sensation. Fl. Ceylon. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). vulnerary. leprosy. piles. Karohi. PROPERTIES. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. inodorous. FAM. cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Kurchi tree. boils. Kodasige. acrid. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. appetiser cure blood diseases. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Indrayana.

The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. good for ulcers. aphrodisiac. See—Food Plants. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. improves voice. fevers (Yunani). In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. The grains contain vitamin B. H. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. Sk. Gaz. Yava. Hayapriya. sweetish. nor astringent. DISTR. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Jav. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. PARTS USED :—Seeds. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. bronchitis. G. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Knowles. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. anæmia. kurchine. Tasteless. appetiser. Divya. LOC. Ind. stomachic. 1928). pains in chest. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. diarrhœa. biliousness.—Gramineæ. fattening. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Aug. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Java. K. India. Suj. They are also used after delivery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. burns. Med. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). —Cultivated chiefly in N. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. malt sugar and diastase. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. M. LOC. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. useful in bronchitis. . febrifuge. FAM. especially cod-liver oil. :—E. Javegodhi. widely cultivated in temperate regions. They are astringent. dysentery and intestinal worms. Jav. Satu. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. NS. (R. acrid. Germinated barley. allays thirst. causes constipation. lowers the pulse. inflamed gums. Barley. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Jawa. and kurchicine. with radicle attached to it. useful in fevers. nor styptic. useful in biliousness. asthma. COM. Shaktu. demulcent and expectorant. Ymvah. headache.

In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. 12. Bhringamallika. NS. Kowti.5-23 X 3.—solitary or in racemes. Phaldu. high. increases taste and appetite. COM. white. camphor and lime-juice. Bhutabi. good for the throat. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Sk. For scald-head. t. LOC. Garudphala. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). COM.5 cm. Ghats. sometimes along river banks. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. K. Dondru. dioecious . Kastel. Doti. Sd.—Rubiaceæ.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . flat. Fl. Bharnarasalya. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. M. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Common in N. acuminate. young parts brown pubescent. size of small apple. Bhanina. M. Bhorsal. :—G. :—W. PROPERTIES AND LOC. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume.—Jany. Kshiradru. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. NS.—numerous. Bhrijatuaka. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. PARTS USED :—Seeds. tomentose. :—K. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall.. Niradivittulu. Sk. bitter. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. more or less coriaceous. FL. L. Amarachala. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. Bihar. Kanara evergreen forests. M. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. DISTR. sulphur. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Bandaru. Dondra. See—Oils. Betaga. LOC. globose or ovoid. C.) FAM. S. DISTR. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. H. Peninsula. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Bhoswar. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. .118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn.—berry. common in Travancore. Country and Kanara. Madhya Pradesh. Malabar. CHAR.—Apl. Southern and Western India. broadly ovate. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. Ugragandha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.8-7.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Fr. pungent. Kadukavata. FAM.—Bixaceæ. Gandele. Garudphala.

LOC. blood diseases. cooling. Common in the evergreen forests of N. t. middle portion much inflated. Nadika. Potuasaga. . Karmi. acute. thirst. DISTR. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Gorwiballi.—Apocynaceæ. Australia.2 -7. stalks and leaves. prostrate. biliousness.-Dec. straight or slightly curved. Ceylon. cylindric . Kalambika.—tube with narrow portion below. Kanara.. C.—1-5 flowered peduncles . USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. NS. vomiting. M. Kanara. FAM. Country. cordate or hastate.5 cm.—4-5-7 X 2-3. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . M. 10-15 cm. :—Annual or biennial herb. Gopini. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. thick. " Vata ". H. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. trailing on mud or floating.8 cm. black with white scanty coma. X 4 cm. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. throat and tube dull purple . Kantebhovari. L. :—Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. ovoid . COM.— Nov. Sk. rooting at the nodes . :—A large twining shrub . hollow. Krishnasariva. Sd.—capsule. FAM. In Indo-China. :—H. glabrous above. L. Sk. :—More or less throughout India. FL. Fl. CHAR.—follicle. Bhadra. Fr. base rounded. lobes obscure . Siamalata. Nalichibhaji. greenish white. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). C. Fr.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Nalanibhaji. PARTS USED :—Root. Pechuli. K. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. Kalaka. Kalmisag. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. t. LOC. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. stems long. elliptic oblong. Fl. very slender. trichotomous cymes.—Convolvulaceæ. cures " Kapha ". See—Timbers. fever. Br. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Fodder Plants. Sariva. very common in Gujarat. Karihambu. S. numerous .—4 or 2. Kalidudhi. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. upper constricted. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. rusty pubescent. Shradhashaka.—Nov. pubescent. LOC.-Apl. M. COM. Chandangopa. Sd. Java.—in axillary and terminal. Kalaghantika. NS.—linear. CHAR. the powdered wood is used for herpes. Fl.—5-12.5x 3. The outer layer is tasteless. :—Throughout the State. :—G. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.

pale. (Yunani). America. indigestible. ovoid. alterative. ovate-lanceolate. 4-celled. aphrodisiac. tropical Asia. (Ayurveda). " Kapha " . K. Bhuikohala. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. useful in leucoderma. Bhumikushmanda. aphrodisiac.—in. leaves. Carminative. Giant potato . cures biliousness. bronchitis.—10-15 cm. enclosed in fleshy sepals. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. In Burma. Leaves enrich blood. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. often broader than long. blood diseases. lobes 5-7. PARTS USED :—Root. entire. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. diuretic. biliousness. L. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions .-July-Sept. Flower causes " Vata ". the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. . galactagogue. alterative. flowers (rarely). Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. jaundice. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium.—Convolvulaceæ. DISTR. anthelmintic . Australia in moist climate.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. also useful in liver complaints. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. to children in case of emaciation. M. long. improves voice and complexion. lessens inflammation. Root—heating. Sd. demulcent and lactagogue. long. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. Bilaikand .—capsule. 4-valved. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. Sk. thick. dry. liver complaints. (Yunani). useful in fever. near sea coast. stimulant.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. Ceylon. LOC. root large. gonorrhœa and inflammation. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. Africa. appetiser. glabrous. LOC. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. :—Perennial. H. t. tonic. leprosy. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. expectorant. useful in syphilis. FAM. 3. :—Throughout India. deeply palmately divided. debility and want of digestive power. being regarded as tonic. stomachic. Swadu Vidarikand. galactagogue. Fr.3 cm. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. anthelmintic. Africa and Australia. LOC. stem long. NS. Nila-kumbala. purple. peduncle solitary axillary. carminative. Bhunichahragadde. twining. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda).8—6. :— E. burning sensation. Kanara sea coast. biliousness and fevers. See—Gums and Resins. Fl. tropical Asia. vomiting. CHAR. useful in leprosy.

PARTS USED :—Seeds.5 cm.—Convolvulaceæ. Fr. :—G.—capsule. Fl. Sd. M. creeping and rooting at the nodes. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. H. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. carminative. Fl. H.—Sept. Kaladana. in the Himalayas. bracts linear. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild.— 4-6. Nilpushpa. scabies and biliousness. E. tropical Africa. See—Ornamental Plants. broad. crenate. COM. headache. deeply three-Iobed.:—Throughout India.-Oct. :—An annual herb. bronchitis (Ayurveda). L.—1. CHAR. surrounded by ciliate sepals. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. removes bad humours from body (Yunani).—Convolvulaceæ.—capsule. Nilvel. Fl. :—A herb . :—Konkan.—dark chestnut coloured . Country. filiform. Ceylon. CHAR. S. Vrishchikparni. Sk. COM. diam. Kalokumpo.—3.-5-12. stems many.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . Ganribij. . Sd. Deccan. LOC. Shyamala-bijak. LOC. Musekani. Krishna—Shyama-bija. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). petioles hairy. glabrous . lobes ovate. M. K. Mirchai. C. K.3-2. Kaladanah. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. :—Western Peninsula. Undirkani. L. DISTR. stems twining.) FAM. :—E. The plant contains a glucoside. NS. subglobose. Bhumichari Mushakaparni.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. FAM. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. DISTR. ovate-cordate. t. clothed with long hairs. axillary. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Purgative. fevers. Fr. sparsely hairy. pains in joints. anthelmintic. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.. subglobose or ovoid. bechic. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. M. blue tinged with pink. reniform or ovate-cordate. diseases of head. G. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). dries the phlegm.— yellow. leucoderma. Morning glory. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. Indian jalap. cures inflammations. LOC. Africa. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. believed to be of American origin.5 cm. abdominal diseases. long tubular funnel-shaped. Undirkani. 3-celled. Sk.8-5 cm.

CHAR. Kalaparni. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). when used alone . Common in southern Gujarat. stems very long. LOC. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. urethral discharges. t. bronchitis. applied in diseases of eye and gums.—5-10 X 1. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout India. inflammations. Root— bitter. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. pedicels thickened upwards. leucoderma. useful in loss of consciousness. base cordate or truncate . like others of the genus . DISTR.-Jany. Nishottara. root long. Nishoth. HABITAT :—Wild . pains of chest and joints. pungent.—Convolvulaceæ. useful in bilious tremors of body. removes bad humours. Ceylon. globose. Indian rhubarb. Fl. :— E. FAM. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. sometimes cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. H. angled and winged. Trivrit. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. False-Indian jalap. bracts large.—white. acrid. C. inflammations and abdominal diseases . white variety is a mild cathartic. lungs. tropical Africa and America. rarely slightly lobed.3-7 cm. Turbith root. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Nashotar. Root with bark should be used. often pinkish. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. ovate or oblong. L. cooling. Malay Islands. bechic. paralysis. enclosed in enlarged sepals . much branched. Sk. mucronate.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. paralysis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. Kanaka.8-5 cm. wounds.. laxative. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. long. Philippines.—capsule. burning sensation and intoxication. antipyretic. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. brain diseases. useful in bilious fevers. twining and twisted together. NS. good for weakness.—in few flowered cymes. anthelmintic. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. useful in diseases of kidney. good in pain. K. fistula. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. Triputi. Mauritius.—Oct. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. uterus. LOC. muscular pains. also in the Konkan and N. M. useful in spleen enlargement. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. bladder. fleshy. carminative. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. expectorant. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. anæmia. It is also alterative. 3. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). fevers. Br. purgative. COM. Fl. Nandi. strangury. Rechani. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). LOC. . red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). G. Fr. Nahatara. Pithori. heart and abdomen. laxative.

Fl. 5-10 X 3. obtuse . L.—opposite.. Bandhuka. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. stipules . PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Chambeli.5 cm. :—A large subscandent shrub. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn.9 m. Jajimalle. sessile. LOC. M. :—Western Peninsula. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea.—Oleaceæ. LOC. L. Flame of the woods . Chambali. oblong. Priyanvada. Ajjige. stipules with a long rigid point. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. size of a pea. fleshy. Sk. Bakali. FAM. K. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. :—Bombay southwards .—tubular. G. Raktaka. Jai. very common in Konkan and N. :—E. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. t. FL—numerous. wild. t. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. sessile. Ceylon. leaflets 7-11.2-6. H. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. terminal rather larger. very slender .—globose.—3. COM. also along river banks. often tinged with pink outside. CHAR. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. of stems and roots. white. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. 3. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.8 cm. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Jati. Guddedasal.—opposite. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. across. Kepala. C. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. proximal petiolulate. DISTR. coriaceous. Fr.—throughout the year.3 coriaceous. petiole and rachis margined. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. COM NS. oblong.— Rubiaceæ. pale when dry. pale when dry. Kisukare. smooth. Fl. purple when ripe. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Pendgul. CHAR.3 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Chambeli. lobes 4 (rarely). NS. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Parali. high. See—Ornamental Plants. 5-12. Fr. M. Anemallige.—July-Sept. tube long.2-6. Sk. obtuse. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. intermediate sessile .—ripe carpels 2. . imparipinnate. Surabhigandha. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Pankul.. :—E. K. FAM.

aphrodisiac. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. ulcers. paralysis. head. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. t. K. allays fevers . Motia. alexiteric. headache and weak eyes. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. diuretic. COM NS. surrounded by calyx-teeth. tonic to brain. suppurative. In Goa. LOC. ear. See—Ornamental Plants. :—A sub-erect shrub. Arabian Lily. Plant—deobstruent. Navamallika. softens skin. L. flowers and oil. brain tonic . M. Mogara. leprosy. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. . USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. Leaves are also used in toothache.—white. DISTR. teeth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. Mogra. Iravantige. aphthae. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. vulnerary. subglobose. biliousness (Ayurveda).124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. rheumatism. eyes and ear. alexiteric. alexiteric. Tuscan jasmine. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. scarcely climbing. Mogro. FAM. heating. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. biliousness. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. Vanchandrika. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fl. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. membranous. Mallige. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. H. :—E. very fragrant. base rounded or subcordate. it is used in cases of insanity. and for scabies (Yunani). solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . good in asthma. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. Ananga-mallika. cures headache. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. See—Ornamental Plants. Fr. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). LOC.—ripe-carpels 1-2. LOC. useful in stomatitis. expectorant. Oil—lessens inflammations. Pramodini. emmenagogue. stomatitis. entire. HABITAT :—Cultivated. given in blood diseases. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). The plant contains an alkaloid. Flowers—tonic. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. mouth and skin. Sk. caries of teeth. Fl. CHAR. intoxicating. anthelmintic. Chamba. G. diseases of mouth. Sambac. soporific. Root—purgative. Banmallika. emetic. good for pains in joints and ear.—opposite. abundant in April-May. useful in diseases of eye. black. otorrhoea. Flower has bitter taste . The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue.—Oleaceæ. variable in shape.—more or less throughout the year . PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. in the tropics of both the hemispheres.

yellow. Dundigu. when applied to boils. and also promotes healing. COM. Sd. male flowers. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. Sk. Akhuparnika.—monœcious. multifid. CHAR. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. 7.—Euphorbiaceæ. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. :—Native of tropical America. subfleshy. CHAR:—A handsome. abdominal complaints. L. coral-red. Jyotishka. fruits and seeds. The acrid. black.— alternate.—orbicular.5 cm.5 mm. long. useful in chronic dysentery. Coral plant. " Tridosha".—in flat-topped cymes. Seeds contain active principle curcin. 10-15 X 7. longer than calyx.—E. Sutashreni. juice sticky opalescent. Simeavadala. :—E. diam. Vilayati haralu.—Euphorbiaceæ. leaves. The seeds act as drastic purgative. M. L.5-12. 1. Jangali—Pahari erand. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. COM. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. NS. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases.5-12. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. DISTR. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. herpes. cordate. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. Jangali erandi. LOC.. Ratanjot. have suppurative effect. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Fr. fistula. K. K. Sk. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). 7. biliousness. large. dull brownish black. across.—capsule.5 cm. corolla lobes 5. Fl.—ovoid oblong. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. thirst. FAM. PARTS USED :—Wood. anaemia.— ovoid. disk of female flower urceolate. garden shrub . urinary discharges. broadly ovate. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. villous within. Fr. NS. FAM. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). 3-lobed. Barbados Physic nut. Mogali—Ran-erand. Kananerand. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. G. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. long-petioled. Virechani. Bhadradanti. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Fl. French or Small physic nut.8 cm. H. stipules capillary. LOC.

FAM. Krishna-nirgundi. aphrodisiac. long. Fl. dyspepsia. fevers. NS. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). 7.6-1. K. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. causes " Kapha ". leaves. " Vata ' and "Pitta". pains. LOC.—Acanthaceæ. Leaves are used in scabies. tympanitis. heating. LOC. wounds. . M. COM. Karinchki. useful in bronchitis. Nachukaddi. HABITAT :—Shady positions. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). Fr. :—Bomb.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . L. useful in piles. :—H. Seed— oleaginous. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. In Cambodia. often met with in Bengal.2 m. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. Nilinirgandi. bitter. skin-diseases. LOC. high . fattening tonic . Bhutakeshi. NS. purple within.—Acanthaceæ. COM. in interrupted spikes. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. FAM. LOC. Kalmashi. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. vaginal discharges. Bakas. native of N. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. Karambal. America. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. eye diseases (Ayurveda). latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. dry .5 cm. M. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. CHAR. clavate glabrous. enlarged spleen. all over the State.5 cm. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed.—white spotted. Nilmanjari. Shindhuka. hot. Kala adulsa. rheumatism and dysentery. :—A native of China. DISTR. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. DISTR. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. branches subterete with raised lines. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. wild in Tenasserim. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis.—Ghati pitpapda. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic.—capsule. purgative.5-12. 5-12. inflammations.

fragrant. CHAR. L. :—Konkan. root-stock tuberous. thin. teeth. :—More or less throughout India. Travancore. 6.:—Stemless herb. Kachchura . constipating . :— H. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. K. constricted between the seeds . Sugandhavachai. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. C. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Chandramala. Kachri.—lobes lanceolate. stops vomiting. wandering of mind.. intoxication. diuretic. biliousness.—finely tuberculate. Fr.—variable. . Australia. pale violet pink.. expectorant. Sk. purifies blood in skin diseases. FAM. softly pubescent. Madras State. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). spreading horizontally. tired feeling. P.3-12. urinary discharges. upper lip notched. burning of body. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede).5-9 cm. t.5 X 4. strengthens lungs. tube funnel-shaped . oval. LOC. removes indigestion. Malaya.—in cylindric terminal spikes. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. oblong shortly pointed. Ceylon. LOC. COM. diaphoretic.—612 from the centre of the plant. gives lustre to eyes. :—N. good in spleen diseases. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. increases " Vata ".—Scitaminaceæ. obtuse at both ends. thirst.— June-July.—capsule. Sd. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). Fl. South Konkan. M. Cultivated in gardens. Plant diuretic. vomiting. aromatic. NS. :—Western Peninsula.—2. pure-white. round. t. lying flat on the ground. Deccan. Chandramulika. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Konkan. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. Malay Islands. Panchgani. lower 3-lobed . stomachic. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. enriches blood. petioles channelled. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. DISTR. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated. ovate or lanceolate.—Oct.-Mar. Fl. deep green. fever. Fl. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. Maval in the Deccan. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. Tubers yield an essential oil. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. elliptic. Western Ghats .—2-lipped. (Yunani). fugacious. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Kapurkachri.

Country. simple.. . creeping. Fl. DISTR. :—M.. COM. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Sk. CHAR. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. Coorg. margins undulate. Ceylon.—15-37. Sk.5-23 cm. coriaceous. HABITAT :—Marshy places. NS.— sweetly fragrant. FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ.—narrowly oblong. Bhuichapha. COM. Bhuichampa . Vatsanabhi. K. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. Cochin. Halagumbala. very poisonous . L. Kanara.. —Feb. t. :— G. Fr. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. :—Konkan. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. remedy for itch. Danta-bija. H. in many cycles.—Scitaminaceæ. petiole as long as blade. :—Mysore. Kadu bhopala. Travancore.. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. diam. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. thick. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Kaddu.. Katutumbi. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. female cylindric. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Labuka. K. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. Dudio Tumbada. Kadu—Mithi tumbi.— inflorescence. Nelasampige . home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. furrowed.—30X7. semicylindric. H. COM. annulate . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tumbaka.—globose 3. L. :—An aquatic herb. Fl. Malay Islands. Dudhi. Calabash. S.—Aroideæ. elliptic-oblong. CHAR. long.5 cm. Bottle-gourd. G. LOC. of various shades of purple and white. entire. M. M. t. oblong. The whole plant. Dudhya bhopala. Bhuichampo . used in the form of poultice. inflorescence of many ovaries. NS. :—E. NS. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Alkaddu. promotes suppuration.5-10 cm. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . yellow. midrib very stout. Tubers yield an essential oil. rootstock reaching 5 cm. DISTR. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. anthers crowded. Fl. LOC.8-5 cm.-Apl. M.-Mar. tubular below. Fl.5 X 5-12. Lauka. crowded in a globose bead . FAM. N. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. spathe 7. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. only 1 or 2 opening at a time .128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Bhuchampaka. :—Stemless plant. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous.

(LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. seeds are narcotic.) FAM. pains (Ayurveda). USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. NS. Bark and leaves are purgative. improves taste. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. muscular pains. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. anti-bilious. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. Taman. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. inflammations. in many cases only cultivated. Fruit good in bronchitis. See—Timbers. LOC. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Root. Arjuna. Ornamental Plants. There are two varieties. anti-periodic. LOC. ulcers. fruits and seeds. LOC. COM. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. dry cough. See—Vegetables. fever. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. leaves. causes bronchitis. earache. bitter. increases "Vata". USES :— Leaves are purgative. cooling. Bandhara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. oleaginous. sweet. PARTS-USED :—Root. antipyretic. earache. Arjuna. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. Holematti. Ceylon. Sk. cause haemoptysis. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. "Vata". wild (rarely). useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. DISTR. Seeds emetic (Yunani). bark. emetic. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. piles. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. styptic. fruits and seeds. cures blood diseases. In the Andamans. DISTR. fattening. lessens inflammations. K. wholesome to fœtus. Konkan Ghats. Challa. flowers. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. Flowers cooling. Seeds—good for hot constitution. China. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. refrigerant and anti-bilious. diuretic. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . bitter variety is diuretic. cardiac and general tonic. :—Western Peninsula. Tarul. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. :—H. Malaya. leaves. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. . laxative. Nirbendeka: M. Assam. flatulence. cures leucorrhoea.—Lythraceæ. brain-tonic. LOC:—North Kanara and S. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. cures asthma. scalding of urine.

Belgaum hills . subsessile. 5-7. perianth-tube densely silky villous . Wooly-headed gnidia. Sandika. G. FAM. Sk. Rametha.5 X 2-2. S. See—Food Plants. CHAR. tonic. Medika. silky beneath. NS. COM. Grains contain vitamin A. Kassar. cooling. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Lang. Yavaneshta. Rami. t. Mendi. M.—in erect. lobes 4. Gorantha.5-3. D. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. M. Kukurgal. common at Mahabaleshwar. Fr. :—E. Mukute. Basu). yellow. Fl. The bark is used to poison fish. swellings etc. K. diam. NS. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. Deccan hills. NS. LOC. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. L. oblong flat. bark mottled. Latri. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—opposite or scattered. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. :—Konkan southwards. improves taste. Chickling—White vetch. dense terminal heads 2. . M. lameness. :—W. H. but dangerous cathartic. COM. common on the Supa Ghats. Tree mignonette. burning. Kanara. DISTR. N.—Lythraceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. :—A much branched large shrub. DISTR. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Khesari. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. pointed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Thymelaeaceæ.—Dec-May.. Peninsula—Ceylon. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. K. FAM. causes much flatulence. LOC. enclosed in the perianth . COM. Nakharanjaka. Lakh. G. oblong lanceolate. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. glabrous above. FAM. :—E. heart-troubles. Ragangi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Madaranga. inflammation.8 cm. M. :—E. Country. pain. Sk. Medi. Mehndi. (Ayurveda). :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district.5 cm.. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. (B. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Triputi. piles and wandering of the mind.—ellipsoid-oblong. Henna plant. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Fl.

fragrant. globose. DISTR. Iran and Baluchistan. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . HABITAT:—Cultivated. G. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic.). LOC. seeds. See—Dyes. Sura. cure insanity (Ayurveda). Gabholika. amenorrhœa. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. Massur. indigenous in S. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. cure leucoderma. The plant contains a glucoside. flowers. PROPERTIES. boils. supported by persistent calyx. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Asia. Masuridal. Ragadali. Masura. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. useful in headache. improve appetite. Sk. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. cure strangury tumours. :—Grown in Nasik. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. DISTR. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. in diseases of heart and of . Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. useful. diuretic. LOC. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. Fr. ophthalmia. The oil and essence keep the body cool. skin diseases .—in terminal. Fl. K. Masur. planted as hedge. wild in Arabia. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . diseases of spleen. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. mucronate. FAM. veined outside. many.—Apl-July. stomatitis. M. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. L. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). lateral branches 4-gonous. often ending in spinous point.—opposite. NS. Lentil. lumbago. LOC. finger nails and hair. bronchitis. Fl. E. expectorant. Ceylon.—capsule. H. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Masur.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. diuretic.—angular. & Gib. Flowers are refrigerant. pyramidal and panicled cymes. allay burning sensation. Europe and in temperate W. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaves—bitter. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. Chanangi. t. truncate. dysentery. enriches blood. favours hair-growth. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Belgaum and Poona districts. ulcers. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. :—E. Gurubija. COM. vulnerary. scabies. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. white or rose coloured . PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. syphilitic sores.

aphrodisiac. :—An erect glabrous annual. Hurfi. chest complaints. enrich blood. Raktabija. G. often with linear segments . eye diseases (Ayurveda). tumours and injuries. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. constipating. H. :—E. bechic. cures dysentery . cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. Asia. Seeds contain fatty oil. aphrodisiac . :—Cultivated throughout India. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. K. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . blood and skin diseases. bronchitis. Kurutige.—small. Grains contain vitamins A and B. Chandrashura. Suvasura. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. the lower petiolate. diuretic. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Fr. good in inflammations. Seeds—indigestible.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). COM. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). L. very likely indigenous in W. galactagogue. good for pain in abdomen. bronchitis. LOC. . Fl. Chandrika. See-Food Plants. C—petals 2-4 or 0. tonic. NS. and muscular pains. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). rheumatism. useful in diseases of chest. See—Vegetables. white. Sk. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Hot and dry. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. LOC. M. Halim . DISTR. Leaves are used as pot-herb. laxative. Asahio. FAM. affections of spleen. HABITAT :—Cultivated. They contain vitamin B. Allibija. stomatitis . In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). tonic. Garden cress . Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. The covering is styptic and astringent. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. CHAR. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). bitter.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. upper sessile. aperient.—Cruciferæ. Halim. Ahaliva. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Ashalika. Chavnsar. leaves and seeds.

. Javas . bark somewhat corky. seeds and oil. Roasted seeds are astringent. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout India. L. Malina. Maidalakadi. 7. See—Oils. t. lenticellate. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. glossy dark-green above. Fr. M. Tailottama. Alashi. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). :—E. Maidelakri. pale beneath. native country probably Egypt. Fibres. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Fl. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. Alshi. PARTS USED :—Bark. DISTR. 8-12 together in heads. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. H. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). COM. Seeds contain vitamin A. "Pitta". Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. Medini. boils. Alsi. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. Alsi. Tisi. heal ulcers. Seeds—mucilaginous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Kanara. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. CHAR. galactagogue. Linseed. burnt bark styptic and healing.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. usually alternate. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. Sk. black. Alasi. back-ache.5 mm. Common flax. K. Common tallow laurel. Alashi. perianth lobes wanting. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. H. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Country. urinary discharges . Flowers—brain and heart tonic. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. M. lead to impotency. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate.— globose. gouty and rheumatic swellings.:—E. supported by the thickened pedicel. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. hard to digest. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. hot. cure leprosy. inflammations. yellowish. bronchitis.—crowded at the ends of branches. Madagandha.. "Kapha".:—A small evergreen tree. NS. Haimwati. .—May-July. Jivanika. FAM. G. flowers. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. NS. base narrowed. urinary complaints.—Lauraceæ. used in consumption.—Linaceæ. leaves. LOC. diuretic. colds and throat complaints. aphrodisiac . bad for eyesight. good for cough and kidney troubles. Sk. tonic. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. branchlets densely tomentose. COM. diam. FAM. dysentery. aphrodisiac. causes loss of appetite. remove biliousness. remove "Vata". Fl. M. emmenagogue. Sedhavi. Garbijaur.

Fr. Malay Islands. many. Kalahogesoppu. useful in inflammations.5-3. fruits and seeds. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . branched upwards. finely serrulate. NS.—capsule. consumption.—alternate. very small.—Cucurbitaceæ. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". Fl. LOC. acrid. hollow.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. cure cough. G. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Kadudodka. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. Ridge gourd. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. high. :—Konkan. Devanala. DISTR. Nali. heating. K. stem stout. Narsala. leaves. t. all oblong. Ghontali. Jalini. M. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. subglobose. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. tonic. white. SK. vagina.—numerous. Country. H. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . midrib white. long. K. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). opening by 2 valves. :—E. Sd. Jhinga. Kandele. Karvituri. leprosy (Ayurveda). COM. NS. heart. Sk. diseases of blood. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. uterus. C—2-lipped. It acts as anodyne. expectorant. fever. CHAR. "vata". Dhamana. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. overheated brains. thirst. long. Kahire. Fl. COM. nearly sessile. Divali. diuretic. bitter. Wild tobacco. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. M. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. 1. Dhaval. lanceolate. Devnal. M. much curved. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. H. Sthulanala. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. 2. Ranturai. LOC. FAM. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. aphrodisiac.-Mar. 3 usually connate throughout . erysipelas (Ayurveda). L. Narttaka. strangury. stomachic. Root—astringent. lower much longer. Katukoshataki. . USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. bark. :—E. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. G. LOC. bronchitis.2-3 m.9 cm. yellowish brown .—Lobeliaceæ. lobes linear. useful in biliousness. Mrityupushpa.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.100 m. spleen diseases. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Leaves are mucilaginous. AMARA Clarke. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . biliousness. throat troubles. FAM. light green. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. pains in joints. Nal. Deccan and S. galactagogue.—Nov. Bibhishana.—. burning sensation. paralysis.

females. tumours. hydrogogue. tendrils usually 3-fid. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. cough. tonic to intestines. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. C. PARTS USED :—Leaves. USES.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State.—monœcious. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic.53. obtusely conical at both ends. 5-10 cm. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. Mowda. biliousness. Fruit cures fever. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. flowers and fruits. base cordate. :—E. leaves. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). Mhowra. "Kapha". piles. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. Mowa. ascites. Doddippa. thick. carminative. leucoderma. tuberculous glands. LOC. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Butter tree. Kanara (rare) . Sk. pale green.) FAM.8 cm. Moha. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. useful in rat-bite. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. diuretic. also in Konkan and N. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Madhusrava. Mahua. digestible. alexiteric. LOC. M. jaundice. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). Hunage. Madhya Pradesh. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. 5-7 lobed. anæmia. at length scabrid. cathartic. bitter. Madhuka. asthma. PARTS USED :—Bark.:—A large climber. liver complaints. G.—Sept. Burma. recommended in splenic enlargement.—Sapotaceæ. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Fr. inflammations. at first whitish and softly villous. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. Fl. Gudapushpa.. L. W.—small.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. Fl. 10-ribbed. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. DISTR. H. Bengal to the W. Mahula. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). laxative. stems 5-angled. long and about 2. solitary in the same axil as males.—petals yellow with green veins . Mahua tree. palmate. bronchitis. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). bitter. Mahuda. uterine and vaginal tumours . Pokka. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat).—obovoid. asthma. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. t. especially in western Peninsula. cures "Vata". thrives in Deccan trap. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. DISTR. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. COM. Ceylon. Root-bark is abortifacient. cures urinary discharges. :—Plant is bitter. K. piles. acrid. . LOC. fruit and seeds. Mahura. tonic and diuretic. :—Throughout India.

Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Kapila. :—E. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. flowers act as a mild purgative. Huli. Kapila. :—-E. Moha. Flower—sweet. There is a trace of alkaloid. Famine Plants. Honey tree. astringent. Sk. Movaro.. NS. :—Western peninsula. and appetiser (Sushruta). Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. M. G. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. tonic and nutritive.—Sapotaceæ. aphrodisiac. Monkey-face tree. used in fractures. LOC. often planted. and also a remedy for itch. Hullichillu. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kamala. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND LOC. good in heart diseases. fixed oil and a spirit. . USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Sk. Mohwa. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. carminative. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Madhuka. India . COM. expectorant. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). H. heals wounds . burning sensation. Liquors. tonic. USES :—Astringent and emollient. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. cures biliousness. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. anthelmintic. Kambhal Raini. K. LOC. galactagogue. Kapilo. COM. flowers and oil. :—Konkan. and Upper Burma. Mehua. cures blood diseases. Kampillaka. fattening. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell.) FAM. Mysore. thirst. Mahuva of S. M. Ceylon. Shendri. See—Timbers. yields two important products. Fruit-tonic . rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Ippe.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. H. Mahuda. Oil is good for skin-diseases. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Oil—emollient (Yunani).—Euphorbiaceæ. Oils. Movanuhjad. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. K. fatigue . Oils. causes "Kapha". cooling. and Kanara. G. NS. Kesarimavu. consumption. bronchitis. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. ulcers. Flowers—oleaginous. FAM. Mohache jhad. leprosy. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Karnatic.

Am. spleen. Cuckoo's Joy. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. See—Timbers. DISTR. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Australia. Mango tree. FAM. beautifies complexion. fruits and seeds. throat troubles. :—E. leaves. cultivated throughout the State. :—Tropical Himalayas. Amra. hiccup. Burma. styptic. LOC. Amri. cooling. anthelmintic. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). H. a good collyrium (Yunani). purgative. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. Mavu. M. Bihar. laxative. fruits and seeds. Seeds-astringent to bowels. :—-Throughout the State. cure leucorrhoea. COM. :—Throughout tropical India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. lessen intestinal pains. K. maturant. thirst. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). styptic. China. cooling. "Kapha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. biliousness. sweet. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. vermifuge and. dispels langour and burning of body. improve taste and appetite. Gum . vaginal troubles. diuretic. Sahakara. enriches blood. Astringent. improves cough. "Pitta". MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. Ambo. Introduced. LOC. improves complexion. stone in bladder. liver. good in dysentery. Kanara. anthelmintic. useful in bronchitis. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. piles. tonic. Sikkim. G. Mavin-mara. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. wounds. Bhutan. aphrodisiac. liver pain. diseases of abdomen. Kamarasa. dysentery. urinary discharges. Sind. good in heart trouble. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. Chuta. bronchitis. cure "Vata". purgative. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Sk. wild and cultivated. carminative. sour.—Anacardiaceæ. good in cough. ulcers. DISTR. Amba. useful in skin-diseases. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. used in chronic diarrhœa. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. NS. it exudes a pink coloured gum. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Fruit—heating. removes bad smell from mouth. Rasala. tonic to body. alexiteric. vomiting. Dyes. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. detergent. astringent to bowels. Malay Islands. vulnerary. cause flatulence and constipation. aphrodisiac. in "Tridosh". clears brain. heals ulcers. Khasia Hills. bad blood. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). LOC. chronic dysentery and gleet. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). stomachic. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ghats and the Satpudas. flowers. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. appetiser. It is also said to possess cathartic properties.

slightly tapering to a very blunt point.—6. K.—broadly ovate. Nimba.—many.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. coma copious .—Asclepiadaceæ. COM. pale yellowish brown. Nimla. Juss. LOC.5 cm. rat-bite (Ayurveda). LOC. overlapping to the right. C. inflammations.3-15 X 4. H. Harandori. Fl. M. Assam. CHAR. :—-E. Dugdhike . Java. cures "Vata". aphrodisiac.—follicles.5-10 cm.. Nimba. :—Deccan and S. Confection made from ripe mango juice. green or yellowish green. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. tumours. Nimbaka. L. COM. DISTR. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Country. 7. Fruit Trees. It is also anthelmintic. flattened. Fr.—rotate with broad lobes. Madhumalati. leucoderma. all plains districts of Madras State. burning sensation.—Meliaceæ. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. NS. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. piles. useful in bleeding piles. with lenticels and black dots. biliousness. Ripe fruit is laxative. G. . Dodi. K. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. stops nasal bleeding. older branches ash coloured. Fl. Juice of kernel. cooling. Hari. Ceylon. alexiteric.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Limbada. rugosely striate. M. margined. NS. useful in diseases of eye. corona lobes large. USES. good for dyspepsia. :—G. Nim. H. Kadulimb. Nakchhikni.5-11.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. t. See—Timbers. Limbra.) FAM. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. M. Suparnika. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. asthma. Sk. Paribhadraka. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Kharkhodi. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. :—Bengal.—Apl. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. :—A large twining shrub. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Khandodi. Balant nimba. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. fleshy. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. few glands above the petiole cordate . broadly ovate or suborbicular.) FAM. Sk. Bevu. Ambri. Hemajyoti-valli. Sd. Nim or Margosa tree. long. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. astringent to bowels. if snuffed. antipyretic.

See—Timbers. leaves. asthma. alexiteric. bad taste in the mouth. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. boils.. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. Tonic. Ranmethi. leprosy. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally." vomiting. useful in syphilitic sores. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. Sk. M. toothache. lessens inflammation. Burma. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. carminative. anthelmintic. fatigue. astringent. The flowers are stimulant. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. earache. tonic and antiperiodic. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. tonic. maturant. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. cures ulcers and inflammations . resolvant. blood complaints. flowers. piles. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . pectoral. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. good for leprosy. insecticidal. "pittadosh. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). expectorant. rheumatism . maturant. LOC. stimulant and stomachic. valuable in consumption. it is a general vermifuge. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. . The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. COM. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . piles. fruits and seeds. urinary discharges. chronic leprosy. general debility. biliousness. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. anthelmintic. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. bruises. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. swollen glands. for unhealthy ulcers. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . leucoderma. sprains. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. tumours. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. FAM. LOC. antiperiodic. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. Vanmethika. and loss of appetite. stomachic. good in ophthalmia. Small melilot. Banmethi. bark. Oils. refrigerant. H. like a weak solution of carbolic acid.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). NS. burning sensation near heart. skin diseases. relieves "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. aphrodisiac. cough. :—E. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. DISTR. fever. lumbago.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. convalescence. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers.

:—An erect annual herb. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. Corn-March mint. Pudina. Malaya and Africa. given as a gruel (Murray).. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. slightly echinulate. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. Ceylon. Fl. especially in strained back. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). stem angular. :—E. rounded. Fr. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . lobes dentate or serrate . L. HABITAT :—In hedges.—monœcious . young parts white-hairy. Agamaki.—3-foliate.—Labiatæ. NS. standard exceeding the wings and keel. H. FAM. finally red. truncate at the apex. It has expectorant properties to some extent. poultice or plaster for swellings. ellipsoid. Iran. glabrous. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. :—Common in Deccan. C. Ghugri. M. "Sikkim.— Jany. scabrid. :—Western Peninsula. K. :—H.—pale yellow. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. north Bengal. NS. LOC. CHAR. Fl. FAM. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. 30-45 cm. Khasia. Sd. Fr.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. L. M. of terminal rather long. tendrils simple. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. introduced into many other regions. :—India (tropical zone).—size of a pea.—small. high. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Europe. COM. Afghanistan. COM. S. . HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. base cordate.—Cucurbitaceæ. females sessile. tapering at both ends. Fl. deltoid-ovate entire. Assam. also in S.—pod. glabrous or slightly hairy. DISTR.—one. leaves and seeds. Pudinah. brown. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. Externally used as a fomentation. Bilari. LOC. very hispid . oblong-ellipsoid. leaflets toothed. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. at first green and variegated with yellow. t. G. in spicate close racemes. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. male fascicled on short peduncles. Chatinmaragu. oblanceolate. DISTR. Pudina.—variable in size. Country and Gujarat.

dry. LOC. Suvarna. E. K. hairy.-narrowed below. H. :—Western Himalayas. digestive. M. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. small tumours. Nagkesara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. asthma. . Country. The plant is used in chutneys. LOC. China. DISTR. pains in joints (Ayurveda). MESUA FERREA Linn. used for cough. DISTR. lanceolate. Nagakeshara. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. skin diseases.—in axillary distant whorls. sorethroat. none at the top. Travancore. alexipharmic. tonic to kidneys . and stimulant. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. ovate.—sub-equally 4-lobed. emmenagogue. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. expectorant. S. :—A perennial erect herb . PARTS USED :—Bark. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. LOC. USES :—Root. Sk. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. the upper similar and large. smooth. stalked. Ceylon. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. Europe. In N. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Kanara. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). sweats. useful in liver and spleen diseases. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Nagkinjalka. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. blood and heart troubles. Nagsampige. lilac. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. LOC. Konkan and N. See—Timbers. North and West Asia. Himalayas. leaves. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. thirst. Bengal. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. Carminative.—nutlets dry. binding. Gums and Resins.—Guttiferæ. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. good in asthma and sweats. lined with hairs and hairy outside. cardiotonic. :—E. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. biliousness. C. Oils. oblong. Kashmir. Naghas. Ceylon Iron-wood. :—E. good for fevers. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. vomiting. hiccup. flowers and fruits. toothed. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. cough. Fr. indigestion and cephalagia. Nagchapha. Nagkesara. diuretic. NS. M. Assam. Assam Iron-wood. Burma Tenasserim. stem short. FAM. Andamans. foul breath. infusion is given in fevers.

Lajja. Risemani. Raktamula. . Hem-pushpa. Champaka. removes worms. :—Cultivated all over the State. good in leprosy. Sankochini. gout. nausea and fevers . PARTS USED :—Root. clothed with glandular hairs . :—E. Sparshalajja. stems and branches sparingly prickly. useful in cough. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Lajjika. hairy beneath. diuretic. Nachike-gidda. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Lajalu. Fr. Dyes.—Magnoliaceæ. L. K. Sone-chapha. COM. slightly recurved. NS. G. glabrous above.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). 45-90 cm. W. Sk. facilitates micturition. Pilochampo. "Kapha". their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. stimulant. Lajalu. FAM. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Flowers-stomachic. Burma. "Vata". Vanamallika. Flowers— expectorant. India. pink. :—E. diaphoretic. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . in globose heads. FAM. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Muthmurika. Sk. CHAR. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. M. leaves. flowers and fruits.—bipin-nate. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. pinnae 1-2 pairs. acrid. it is given with honey to relieve colic.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. in vertigo. bile. Ghats. remove biliousness. Sonchampo. Fl. LOC. Fruit. diuretic. IndoChina. LOC. Fl. Golden champa. 57. Humble plant. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. COM. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. See—Timbers. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. rheumatism. Champa.-pod flat. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Sensitive plant. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. also used as purgative. Yunnan. DISTR.-Oct.. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa.5 cm. Suvarna champaka. sensative. high.—Sept. Surabhi. Champo. digitate. petioles hairy.—4-merous. Assam. Yellow champa . M. rheumatism. long. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. ophthalmia. near temples and in gardens. Champaka. Lajari. Kanara. H. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Sampige. cultivated. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. Pivala chapha. Lajalu. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter.. Champaka. aphrodisiac. blood affections. evergreen rain-forest of N. H. :—A diffuse under-shrub. S. t. Lajjavati. NS. destroys poisons. K. G. rachis bristly.

Mulsari. probably a native of tropical America. NS. Bolsari. alterative. Varsuli. cures "Kapha". useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). dysentery. liver complaints. teeth and gum diseases. oleaginous. vaginal and uterine complaints. headache. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. DISTR.—Sapotaceæ. ulcers. In Brazil root is used as emetic. blood diseases (Ayurveda). fruits and seeds. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. cure biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Root is resolvent. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. vulnerary. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. asthma. LOC. alexipharmic. in piles and fistula. Fruit causes flatulence. :—G. piles. bark. anthelmintic. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Vovali. cultivated in gardens in pots. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. flowers. Flowers give taste. often planted in gardens. Baphuli. leprosy. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. useful in blood and bile diseases. cure blood diseases. Ceylon. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Juice is applied externally. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. acrid. cultivated in the tropics. Mukul. Flowers—expectorant. Borsalli. :—Naturalised throughout India. H. Sharadika. flowers and fruits acrid. Bark cardiotonic. sweet. Kalhala. alexipharmic. good for gonorrhœa. nose diseases. Bakul. cures biliousness. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. stomachic. K. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Bakula. leprosy. Kanara. M. Kanara and Konkan. See—Ornamental Plants.:—Western Peninsula. It is also resolvent and alterative. Seeds fix loose teeth. LOC. DISTR. biliousness. LOC. Malaya. Anangaka. cooling. astringent to bowels. cooling. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Bakul. PARTS USED :—Root. Mugule. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. leucoderma. bilious fevers. jaundice. fatigue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. smallpox (Yunani). Root. Ranjal. burning sensation. Sk. inflammations. COM. FAM. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Bakul. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm.

Sandhya-kali or Raga. . :—A herbaceous plant. :—E. See—Ornamental Plants. Leaves are maturant. NS. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. :—Grown throughout India. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Carella fruit. Hagalkai. Karela. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Fruit Trees. native of tropical America. Karelo. Kandura. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. COM. FAM.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. Chandra—Sanjimallige. LOC. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Karala. high with large perennial tuberous roots. t. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. LOC. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. DISTR. FAM. CHAR. COM. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities.—continually in bloom. HABITAT -Cultivated. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. lessen inflammations (Yunani). See—Timbers. Four o'clock plant. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Karavalli. K. G. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. it is applied to relieve headache. NS. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles.—E. Sk. good for syphilitic sores. 30-75 cm. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. It is also tonic and febrifuge. Karela. often ribbed or rugose. cordate. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. M. Oils. each one surrounded by an involucre. blackish.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Sk. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Karli. H. Marvel of Peru. yellow. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. K. Kareli. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck.—membranous. Fl. Hagala. M. H. Guleaabbas . Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. L.—Nyctaginaceæ. Krishnakali.—large. and rather fleshy stems . white or crimson striped with white yellow) . Fr. Gulbasa . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac.

rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. leaves and fruit. "Kapha". Fruit is tonic. anthelmintic. . Ceylon. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. cooling. :—Throughout India. leaves and fruit. PARTS USED :—Root. diseases of spleen and liver. laxative. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. Golkandra. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. Leaves—aphrodisiac. stomachic. aphrodisiac. jaundice etc. See—Vegetables. DISTR. Fruit—bitter. carminative. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. anthelmintic.—Cucurbitaceæ. urinary discharges. burns. antibilious. S. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. Plant cures diseases of blood. tonic. rheumatism. laxative and authelmintic. China. Fruits contain vitamins A. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. cures biliousness. Country and Gujarat. COM. It is useful in gout. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. LOC. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). urinary calculi. Kantolan. hot alexiteric. tumours. M. rheumatism. urinary discharges. Vandhya. and externally in ague as an absorbent. :—G. blood diseases. bronchitis. K.'. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. stomachic. anthelmintic. DISTR. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. appetiser. LOC. LOC. Leaves act as galactagogue. etc. also in Malaya. fever consumption. Malaya. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fruit— bitter. M. Karehiballi. asthma. excessive salivation. NS. digestible. asthma. H. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. hiccup. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Beksa. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. Karkotaki. stomachic. Kantoli. tropical Africa. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. Gid-hagalu. leprosy. and America. piles. ulcers. Fruit—very bitter. antipyretic. cure "Vata". The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. lessens expectoration . hearttroubles. FAM. bronchitis. erysipelas (Ayurveda). longpepper. piles. Nagarali. PARTS USED :—Root. cure "Tridosh". Kartoli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. all kinds of poisoning. sparingly in Konkan. eye and heart. boils. anæmia. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. Kanta. laxative. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). Vishakankini. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. used in syphilis. B and C.

K. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. Achi. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Seglo. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. all "tridosha" fevers. ulcers. Ak. Guggala. Introduced var. Sk. causes burning sensation. aphrodisiac. digestible. Rochana. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Cultivated . FAM. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. fruits and seeds. Tagase . Achchuka. leaves and fruits. Saraoji. COM. Sk. Formosa. also in the Oudh forests. COM. Indian mulberry. PARTS USED :—Root. analgesic. flowers. Segua. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . :—E. H. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Ashyuka.—Rubiaceæ. tuberculous glands in neck. Mochaka. bark. H. Nuggi. leaves. Sajina. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Dyes. Munigha. Sargavo. Ainshi.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. emmenagogue. M. FAM. alexiteric. dyspepsia. Mulgule. also wild. G. Aal. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. M. biliousness . Tikshnamula. useful in heart-complaints. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. :—E. "Kapha". :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. inflammations. fattening. Drum-stick Tree. NS. Murangi. astringent to bowels. DISTR. earache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Famine Plants. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. stuttering. Al. spleen enlargement. improves appetite. eye diseases. cultivated throughout India and Burma. DISTR. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. NS. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. makes blood impure . removes all kinds of pains.—Moringaceæ. China. "Vata". Burma. Haladipavate. Indian horse radish . Mochaka. G. K. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Ugra. tumours. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. LOC. . Ab. Bartondi. Shevaga. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan.

See—Fruit Trees. anthelmintic. enriches blood. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. laxative. The plant contains an alkaloid. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. Tut. Root is purgative. salt and pepper. Sk. Kanara. diuretic. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Tut. enlarged spleen or liver. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. ulcerated intestines. expectorant. epilepsy and hysteria. Seeds yield a fixed oil. bark. stomatitis. diarrhœa. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. sour. appetiser. internal inflammations and calculous affections. increases biliousness. White mulberry. urinary discharges. wounds. Siahtut. common about villages in N. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. sweetish. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. . Kambali. lumbago. Tuda. lumbago. loss of appetite. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. NS. See—Vegetables. turmeric. G. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. Peninsula. DISTR. H.—Moraceæ. Fruit—tonic. Fruits contain vitamins A. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. MORUS INDICA Linn. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. Shetur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. Oils. good for inflammations of throat and chest. LOC. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. Gums and Resins. carminative. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. FAM. cures gleet. Karihannu. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. gout. Leaf paste. spleen. bronchitis. Ambat. B and C. cooling. Tutri. piles. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. enriches blood. with garlic. M. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. aromatic and acid flavour. leaves and fruit. obstinate asthma. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). Madhu pippali. biliousness. fattening. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Fibres. useful in small-pox.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. aphrodisiac. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. expectorant. LOC. good for brain. Tuta. K. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. burning sensation (Ayurveda). USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. rheumatism. diuretic. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. COM. it is cooling laxative. heart.

M. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Turashi. leaflets membranous. G. DISTR. flowers and fruit. Atmagupta. spermatorrhoea etc. MUSA PARADISIACA L. 5-7. Kadvare. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles.—pod. terminal smaller. Himalaya up to 1200 m. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Kavach. " Vata ". .2 cm. tonic.—Oct-Nov. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. :—E. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). L.—in drooping racemes. with honey is given in cholera. Strong root infusion. consumption. LOC. Kunth. PARTS USED :—Root. G.3-11. t. petioles 6.—5-6 small. improves blood. juice given for headache. stem. Nayi songuballi. H. :—Punjab plains. common in hedges. Kavatch. which produce intensa irritation of skin. PARTS USED :—Root. Kivanch. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Banana. Rambha. sometimes cultivated. Sk. biliousness . :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. dark-purple. K.3 cm. cures blood diseases. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. LOC. Kela. HABITAT :—Humid areas . pods and seeds. Hasaguni. Goncha. Root—emmenagogue. long. Sk.—Scitaminaceæ. Plantain.—3-foliate. Adam's Fig. H. 6-30 flowered. Urustambha. Havanch. Vanari. laxative. tonic. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. turgid-shaped. LOC. Kela. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. NS. Fl. :—E. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Cowhage. silky. Seeds— alexipharmic. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). cultivated. Fl. SAPIENTUM O. lateral very unequal sided. COM. M. Bale. DISTR. Kuhili.5x1. Kivanchha. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak.. Kapikachu. K. Tikshna. They are used as anthelmintic. FAM. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. CHAR. Dirghapatra. Kadali. :—An annual twiner. NS. Kela.. Var. grey-silky beneath. Sd. Ceylon.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). leaves. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. covered with tawny stinging hairs. COM.) FAM. Fr. HABITAT :—In hedges. Maoz kela. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant.

LOC. B and C. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. Shrivalli. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. pubescent. Root-juice is anthelmintic. biliousness.— berry. diabetes. linear. Bedina. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. Serwadh. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. and are used in acidity. antidysenteric. Hastygida. causes bronchitis . See—Fruit Trees. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. NS. diseases of uterus and vagina. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. dyspepsia. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. increases appetite. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Fruit—sweet. Andamans. urinary discharges. tube slender. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Konkan and N. leprosy. astringent to bowels. heart-burn and colic. LOC. stipules twin. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Lawsat. deep golden yellow. Ipparati. very hairy outside. subglobose. useful in "Kapha". thickens blood. Bhutakes. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. C. Sk. blood diseases. Root-juice. indigestible . gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Fl. Kanara. t. L. sore-throat.. in " Vata". tonic. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . COM. ear-pain. Tropical Himalayas. aphrodisiac. M. Fibres. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . menstrual disorders.—tubular. . appetiser. K. :—H. broad at base. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. tonic. broadly elliptic. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. buds densely hairy. aphrodisiac. strangury. flowers and fruit. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth.— July-Oct. in thirst. Nagavalli. Bellotti.--in terminal cymes. FAM. Fr. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. kidney troubles (Yunani). anthelmintic. leaves. astringent to bowels.—Rubiaceæ. lobes broadly ovate.—opposite or 8nately whorled. PARTS USES :—Root. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. :—S. Burnt stem is vulnerary. hairy. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. consumption and bronchitis. :—A rambling shrub. Fl. Assam. improves complexion (Ayurveda). climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. good for dry bronchitis. DISTR.

Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Kamuka. Vilayantimendhi.—Myrtaceæ. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. Malabar. Fl. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. COM. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. DISTR. It is credited with opposite qualities. emmenagogue. smoke beneficial to piles. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. axillary on slender peduncles.— solitary. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). Galen and the Arabian writers. cures headache. False nutmeg. L. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. fruits and oil. NS. Habules. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic.—berry. W. COM. Sk. :—Konkan and N. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. :—A shrub. M. LOC. very sweet smelling. black when ripe. Ram-patri. allaying pain. especially epilepsy. Dioscorides. They are given in asthma. DISTR. common in the Kumta taluka. Kanage. H. Condiments and Spices.—small. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. Kanara Ghats . applied locally to relieve pain. It is used as a substitute for true mace. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. NS. ovate to lanceolate. Myrtle. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. white. Pliny. Kaiphal. :—Western Peninsula. enriches blood. intermittent fevers and dropsy. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. PARTS USED:—Seeds. :—E. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. as . also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. small. FAM. M. used in stopping vomiting.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. promotes growth of hair. Malati.— Myristicaceæ. See—Timbers. Malati. K. LOC. ellipsoid. Himalayas. all over the State. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. :— E. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . LOC. CHAR. diuretic. Fr. is regarded as. Murad. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. FAM. A decoction is employed.

Kandabahula. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. LOC. Chinese water-lily. Fl. top flat. & A. :—W. :—Konkan. Ambuja. Fl. LOC. long. bronchitis. Amlavalli. muricate. alexiteric. free. hæmorrhage.-Nov. t. from Iran eastwards to Australia. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Tavari-bija or gadde. torus 18 mm. C. NS. Sk. H. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Kamala.—solitary.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. radiately nerved. concave or cupped. vulnerary. Sarasija.) FAM.—petals many 5-12. diam. elongate. stem. Ambuj. Fr. rough with distant prickles . Papra-vel. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. CHAR. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. spongy. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. FAM. disk annular. fleshy. 10-25 cm. peltate.—pendulous.6 m.. :—E. Goanese ipecacuanha. erect. Pankaja. Padam. ulcers (Ayurveda).3-0. 3-valved. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. biliousness. Sk.—capsule. Suriyakamal. L. Pundarika. 3-foliate. See—Ornamental Plants. Sd. t. Nelanaringa . Aravinda. white or rosy. elliptic. :—E. Kandalu.—white. Fl. in diam. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. .—alternate. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. leaves.—membranous. ovoid. ovoidglobose. :—A large aquatic herb. K. Belakanji. Padma. 0. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. petiole winged. with slender. cures asthma.—Nymphæaceæ. cells 2-seeded. M. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. solitary or 2 together. DISTR. petioles very long. DISTR. entire. Indian sacred lotus.—July. G. Kamal. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. Kapurbhendi. anthers with clavate appendages. curved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. K. dysentery. Kanara. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. petals 5. Ripe carpels. LOC. glabrous. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. COM. Timpani. axillary. high.—Meliaceæ.5 cm. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. NS. Kamal.-Dec. M. CHAR. orbicular. :—A small branching undershrub. Pitmari. Kamal. linear spathulate. COM. L. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas..

aphrodisiac.—funnel-shaped. good in throat-troubles. Sweet scented oleander.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Upper Gangetic Plains. useful in piles. seeds. diseases of skin and eye . HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. throat scaly. leucoderma. L. leaves. Cool. Fl. useful in burning sensation of the body. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Kaner. Karvira. See—Ornamental Plants. also for dysentery and dyspepsia .—red. 10-15 cm. linear-lanceolate. :—Madhya Bharat. Kanel. H. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . G. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. slightly bitter. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . tapering into short petiole. allays thirst. biliousness. CHAR. allays thirst. Sd. also recommended as cardiac tonic. astringent to taste . S. useful in fevers . Karber. planted in gardens throughout the State. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. t. NS. Salt Range. M. Filaments are astringent and cooling. heart and brain tonic . fruit. lobes rounded. improves watery eyes (Yunani). diuretic. in fever and liverdiseases. Kanagile. LOC. small-pox. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. Sk. 15-23 cm. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. stem. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . coriaceous. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". rose or white. Karvira.—flowers more or less throughout the year. COM.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. chest-pains. inflammations and poisoning. LOC. also as a hedge plant. fragrant. Pratihasa. In China and Malaya dried red petals. K. Baluchistan. Waziristan. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. cures cough. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. good in blood-complaints. Kanher. ulcers and sores of mouth. Sind. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . spermatorrhoea. flowers. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. long. long. also cholera. bleeding piles and menorrhagia.—Apocynaceæ.—follicles. menorrhagia. PARTS USED :—Root. Kaner. C. vomiting. fever. Fr. :—E. DISTR. FAM. honey. Fl. Ashwa-marak. leaves. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Paddali. at length separating. rigid. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. Vishavrikshanka. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. . The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin.—in threes. gives tone to breast. removes worms. flowers. dark green and shining above. strangury. Cool.

For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. USES :—All parts of plant. NS. sores. Bujjarbhang. M.—in open corymbose panicles . useful in bronchitis. caries of teeth. tonic. headache. laxative. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. especially root. cultivated in all tropical countries. Kalanja. Tambakhu. Tabak. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. Fl. asthma.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. about 1. funnel-shaped. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. LOC. Tamaku. dimness of sight. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. An ointment made . wounds. conical. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). Flowers— aphrodisiac. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. useful in caries of teeth. :—E. sedative and emetic. disinfectant. Sk. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. :—Native of America. The plant contains a glucoside. across. good for lumbago. base wedgeshaped . tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Tamarakuthika. LOC. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. nervous depression and sleeplessness.—capsule. Fr. a mental stimulant. Tambak. DISTR. G. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). PARTS USED :—Leaves. anthelmintic. water from hookha is diuretic. bronchitis. oblong or elliptic. also applied in leprosy. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. smoke constipating.—alternate. foul nose. FAM.—pink or white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. inflammations. CHAR. Root—aphrodisiac. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. the surface is plain or bullate.—Solanaceæ. L. M. large (especially lower ones). tonic. very poisonous. scabies (Yunani). carminative. emetic. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. inflammations. Tamakhu. H. Dhumrapatrika. Poisonous to fish. scabies. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). Tobacco. lobes spreading. are poisonous and are used externally.8 cm. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. C. K. tubercular glands of neck. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). skin diseases. Hoge soppu. Krimighni.

A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. COM. Indian Mourner : G. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement.—Nymphæaceæ. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). young branches quadrangular. Madhya Bharat. NS. Bilitavarai.—capsule. hairy. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. scalp affections etc.— more or less throughout the year. peduncles 4angled. Sephali. M. Alipriya. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers.—lobes white. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . Flowers have a bitter bad taste. in terminal trichotomous cymes. axillary. densely pubescent beneath. . PARTS USED :—Root. Lotus. Kharapatraka. H. 2-celled. Sephalika. Parijata. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants.—opposite 5-10x2. Chotakanwal. tube orange-coloured.3 cm. cures fevers. carminative. :—E. astringent-to bowels. FAM. CHAR. K. C. solitary. Parijata . in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. LOC. Nyadale huvu . stomachic. Lalkamal. (Ayurveda). NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. compressed. t. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Bengal. Nalkumkuma. flowers and seeds. Harsing. Prajakta. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Fr. Har-singhar. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. NS. Kumuda.— fragrant. tonic to hair. HABITAT :-Cultivated. bark. Fl. DISTR. Prajakta. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn.5-6. Sk. southwards to the Godavari. Parijataka. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Har. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. Aravind. Kanwal. obcordate or merely orbicular. G. ovate acute. :—A large shrub or a small tree. leaves. Burma. Fl. Jayaparvati. M. Assam. abundant July-Sept. useful in bilious fevers. K. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Sk. It is used with honey in chronic fever. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Bark cures bronchitis. Shonapadma. :—E.—Oleaceæ. lessen inflammation. Nilophhal.) FAM. rough above with bulbous hairs. Cultivated in many parts of India. L. bark. a decoction of root. Kanval. LOC.. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. H. Buds are tonic.

COM. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. antipyretic . :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. See—Ornamental Plants. peduncles very long . M. across. t. C. glabrous. Sk. leucoderma. cylindric. root stock tuberous. Fl. rough. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. bracts stalked. Tukhamariya . Sabzah. diam. "Vata". useful in diseases of heart and brain.—Labiatæ. removes impurities from blood . Ceylon. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. diameter. petioles very long. terminal raceme longer than the lateral.—petals about 12. pale rose or white. Philippines. obtuse.— ovoid. G. inflammations. Sabja. roundish. Nasabo. Rihan. Barbar. DISTR. febrifuge. DISTR. biliousness. aphrodisiac . bitter taste. red. anthelmintic. CHAR. globose. Fl.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab.—peltate. fleshy. leaves. white. Surabhi. hot taste. diarrhœa and piles . "Kapha". black and pitted. alexipharmic. Fl. bitter. "Vata". diuretic. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). enlarged spleen.—3 cm. useful in diseases of heart and blood. entire. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. improves taste . short. Sabja. NS. acute. filaments dilated at the base . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Surasa. " Kapha". green. Java.. Sajjebija.—nutlets about 2 mm. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart.—2-lipped. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. juice gives lustre to . cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). LOC. allays thirst. Ramkasturi. lessens bile. purple stem. oblong. toothed or lobed. deeply cordate at the base. itch. and nigropunctate above. stems and branches green or purplish. LOC. 7.— in whorled racemes .—ovate. Tungi. Barbar.—solitary. Fr. 8-13 mm. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. stomachic. Burma. :—Var. Africa. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . ripening beneath the water. Sd. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). thyrsiflora. :—E.—all the year. stamens about 40. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. chronic pain in joints. emmenagogue. :—Large aquatic herb . pink or purplish. 15-25 cm. Common sweet basil. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. Ajagandhika. open in the morning only.9 m. ellipsoid. causes burning sensation. high. L. leaves and flower. submerged . Fr. L.6-0. FAM. LOC. :—An erect herb 0. flowers and seeds. Plant has a sharp. cooling . long. Damaro. irregularly sinuate-dentate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. PARTS USED :—Roots. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. Hungary. erect. K. H. C. Var. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.5-20 cm. glabrous or pubescent. long. Bahari. asthma. Manjarki. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions.

:—E. in close whorls . they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. " Vata". young ones pubescent. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. Gujarat. diuretic and demulcent properties. useful in diseases of brain. Rantulasi. BanMal tulasi. they are also aphrodisiac. H. C. good for toothache. G. useful in vomiting. LOC. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. LOC. Lemon—shrubby basil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. fits. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac . M. often cultivated : Ceylon. strengthens gums. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. Sk. liver and spleen. inflammations. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. heating. pale greenish yellow. woody below . stimulant.3—12. LOC.—nutlets subglobose. Ajaka. Sumukha. lower lip longer. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. rugose. diuretic and stimulant. :—A perennial shrub. Avachi-bavachi. During fever when the extremities are cold. t.7 cm. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. Plant has bitter. heart. carminative. earache. The flowers possess. pubescent. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. It is also styptic. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. Ram Tulasi. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani).8—5.— in simple or branched racemes. CHAR. M. " Kapha".—2-lipped. Country. Large basil. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. high.5 X 3. Fl. 1. S. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka.—6. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. branched. sharp taste . COM. :—Konkan.—Labiatæ.-July-Oct. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. elliptic-lanceolate.2—1. . Fr. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. FAM. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. good for griping and piles (Yunani). DISTR. NS. rachis quadrangular . gland-dotted. skin diseases. Fl.. coarsely crenate-serrate. Java. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. strangury . stems and branches subquadrangular . L. Rama-Ran tulasi. Deccan.8 m. brown. removes foul breath. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. headache. alexiteric.

linear or linear-lanceolate. upper lip pubescent on the back. Asia to Java and the Philippines. West Asia. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . yellow with black marking. globose or pyriform . Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. NS. H.—Sept-Nov. high. Fl.—pale brown. :—An annual plant.— capsule. L. elliptic-oblong. usually 2-3 cm. vomiting. Deccan and S. Fl. long. C.— in racemes 15-20 cm. varying from 7. obtuse or acute. " Kapha". angular. Sd. Vrinda. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Vishnuvallabha. alexiteric. lumbago pains. Damanpaper. CHAR. :—G. HABIT :—A common weed. COM. G. high. H. M. See—Sacred Plants. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. anthelmintic.:—E. :—Throughout India (cultivated) .—on filiform pedicels. painful eye. stems and branches subquadrangular. asthma. stipules with bristles . :—An annual herb. Pavitra. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. Kala tulasi. of children and in hepatic affections . especially in children. bitter. :—Konkan. purplish. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. CHAR. strangury. Tulasi. L. :—Throughout India. heating. Country. Phapti. Suravallari. HABITAT :—Cultivated. entire or serrate. LOC. Tulasa. LOC. lobes acute. Vranda. FAM. Sk. leaves and seeds. M. M. " Vata". Tulasi. Manjari.—subsessile. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. Krishna tulasi. antipyretic. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. Sk. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). purulent discharge of ear. cholagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.5-5 X 1. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State.— nutlets. Fr. minutely gland-dotted. used in catarrh and bronchitis . t. bronchitis. long in close whorls . pubescent. DISTR. Australia. Arabia. clothed with soft hairs . COM. useful in heart and blood diseases. leucoderma. stems numerous. Tulasi. . margins recurved and scabrous. hiccup.—Labiatæ. FAM. foul smells. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Papli.. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. NS. stomachic.—2-lipped. DISTR. LOC. and are given with honey.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Parpat. Fl. Parapate. Fr. smooth.5—38 cm. K. 30-60 cm. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Ceylon.2 cm. purplish.6— 3.—2. Malay Archipelago.—Rubiaceæ. Tropical E.

Vajrakantaka.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. antipyretic. rather thin. cures inflammations. anæmia. Sk. Sher. alexiteric. Prickly pear. laxative. Nagaphana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. reddish purple when ripe. purgative. digestive. subulate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . LOC. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. FAM. piles. long. recurved. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. spleen enlargement. perianth rotate. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Fr.— berry. good for leucoderma. Snuka. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. ascites. reddish at the tips. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. urinary complaints. Slipper thorn. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. Plant bitter.—7. Nagaphani. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia.—5 cm.5 cm. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma.—Cactaceæ.5 mm. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. COM. G. L. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. K. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Grown as hedge. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. xerophyte. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. angular or warty. Nagaphana. Hathathoria. spleen enlargement. CHAR. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. used in ophthalmia. flowers and fruits. Phadyanivdung. leucoderma. burning. " Vata". pyriform. ulcers. Zhoratheylo. DISTR. introduced into India. across. . PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. obovate or elliptic. Fl. it is also used in liver complaints. inner spathulate. Joints variable in size. Chorhothalo. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). lumbago. cures bronchitis in children. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). tumours. Plant juice—heating. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. stomachic. juice cures earache (Yunani). when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. M. 3 m. H. :—E. Nagadru. Nagdali. long. vesicular calculi. loss of consciousness. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . liver complaints. carminative. carminative. largest 3. LOC. Mullugalli. cures biliousness. inflammations. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. rusty brown. diuretic. yellow at the edges. NS. yellow or orange. or more high. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. dull bluish-green. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions.

K. H. Vrihi. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. R. Tetu. Indian trumpet flower. good in heart and throat diseases. Ullu.—Gramineæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Ava. G. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Fruit—expectorant. diuretic. M. LOC. improves taste. :—E. astringent to bowels . tonic. NS. bronchitis. Chaval.). Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. sweet. :—Widely cultivated. cooling. It is astringent and tonic. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. fevers. Tandula. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Shali. LOC. Akki. Kanara ghats . vomiting. Alangi. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. COM. Sk. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. LOC. Bhat. asthma. Ceylon. DISTR.S. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Araluka. anal troubles. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. K. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Tetu. LOC. M. biliousness. Bagi. Tetu. Rice. dysentery. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Cochin-China. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings.—Bignoniaceæ. Seeds are purgative. appetiser. aphrodisiac. stomachic. improves appetite. aphrodisiac. Rice . G. Dirghavrinta. COM. M. :—The Konkan and the N. Tandula. Tans. Shyonaka. Nivara. Fruit—acrid. Arlu. FAM. Chokha. See—Timbers. intestinal worms. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). oleaginous. HABITAT :—Aquatic. useful in biliousness . inflammations. fattening. Tuntaka. Ghats. :—E. Pharri. Mayarjangha. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. tonic. PARTS USED :—Grain. Mokka. Podval. Malaya. NS. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). leucoderma. FAM. Sk. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). H. DISTR.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. piles. Dyes. useful in " Vata".

In dysentery. Fr. to which a little lemon juice is added. . cures dysentery. 5-angled. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Chukrita. It is a pleasant. Dudhari. K. COM. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. if applied to chest. Dugdhike.2—2. bruised. L. boils. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Amrul. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. Marudbhava. oblong. Rice water. Jaladudhi.—palmately 3-foliate. Dudhialata. CHAR. Dugdhica. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. H. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. dysentery and scurvy. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves. petioles very slender. base cuneate subsessile. inflamed piles. M. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. also in burns and scalds. brown. t. Br. Ambuti. Sk. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). ulcers. Dudhialata. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. NS. NS. :—E.5 cm. Ceylon. Kshiravi. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful.— Oct-May.—Oxalidaceæ. pubescent. buboes. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. LOC. H. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. yellow. sub-umbellate . DISTR. bowels or kidneys. C.— many.— capsule. obcordate.—petals 5. beaked. linear-oblong. FAM. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . K. Kyirin . Fl. small-pox. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Changeri. scarlet fever. Sk. good appetiser . USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. FAM. ovoid. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. " Vata " and piles. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . used externally. Dudhatani. Ambastha. M. Dudhani. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Indian Sorrel. diarrhœa. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . margins ciliate. easy to digest. rounded at the apex. :—G. stems rooting.—axillary.—Asclepiadaceæ. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. removes " Kapha ". transversely striate. leaflets 1. astringent. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. long. LOC. See—Food Plants. measles. Shuklika. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. COM. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. Dugdhika. Amlalonika. gives great relief. Sd. :—Throughout the State. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. The grains contain vitamin C.

Kanara. H. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. purple veined. HABITAT :—Usually near water.—very numerous. C. aphrodisiac. long. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . L. Kewoda. DISTR. L. Ceylon. 3. small-pox. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". much branched. FAM. . CHAR. Burma. t.. pain in the muscles. Mundige. M. 4. Gogandhul. pale rose or white. indigestible. mouth with pubescent ring. syphilis.5-9 cm. Ketaki. :—Konkan and N.—dioecious.— large. anthelmintic. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). scabies. COM. fruit. dry. linear or linear-lanceolate. LOC.—deciduous. Kevada. gonorrhœa. black. X 3. root. Fl. high. LOC. Sundarbans. fruit and oil from bracts. juice is used in gleet.—Pandanaceæ. Deccan. diuretic. coma present. Fr.8-6. Flowers improve complexion.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. Country— Belgaum. long. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. pain.5 m. Ketgi. Fl. rarely erect. lobes ciliate. tonic. margins and midrib spiny. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Fr. bitter. milky juice. G. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. strikingly handsome. leucoderma. with flavour. Fl. DISTR. :—E. Kanara. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. aphrodisiac.—follicles. Poona Sangam. PARTS USED :-Root. corona staminal.8 mm. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. NS. Fruit—tonic.—glaucous green. diseases of heart and brain. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. leaves. anthelmintic. coriaceous ensiform.—oblong or globose. Chama-pushpa. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. cough.—Dec. Ketaka. M. heat of body. stem supported by aerial roots . :—A shrub up to 6 m. Leaves are useful in leprosy. causes flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. LOC. PARTS USED :—Plant. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. Sk. 0. Umbrella Tree. K. Dhulipushpika. thin. often planted. Anthers useful in pruritus. palegreen. yellow or red. Giripriya. expectorant. laxative. somniferous. female flower spadix solitary. Java. Andamans. stems many. Kedige. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). S. :—Konkan. Gandha-pushpa. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. useful in strangury and tumours. Sd.9—1. alexiteric. " Kapha ". Keora.3 cm. anthers. Screw pine.

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

Kidney diseases. :—E. Satara. Shindi. inflammations. LOC. eye troubles. bronchitis. dry. mugawana. Kohesaru. Kalli-chalu.—3-foliate. M. 2. :—Annual or perennial. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Khaji. Khajuri. Swadi. biliousness. good in fevers. Fl. Sd. leaflets 1.:—Very common throughout the State. Ranmath. Tadi. Fl. Kharjuri. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Sendhi. COM. H. LOC. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. antipyretic. FAM. Khandesh. styptic. Kapila. Kajuri. Ahmedabad. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. membranous. See—Food Plants. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda).—Palmæ. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. Magavala. enrich blood. digestible. bitter. long. long. Kallu.5 cm.— pod. Deccan and Gujarat. good for eyes. astringent to bowels. Sk. Ichela-mara.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. G. and southwards to Ceylon. Sk. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Sind. Siyindu. cure biliousness. Boichand. petioles grooved. Afghanistan. K.5—5 cm. yellow. wild date palm. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Shimbiparni. burning sensation. peduncles 10-23 cm. The grains contain vitamins A and B. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. astringent. aphrodisiac. DISTR. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. LOC. H. Adavada. Kolaba and Kanara. nose complaints. COM. light and astringent. Fr. Vanmudga. layer. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Abyssinia.3—2. t. cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Date sugar palm. slightly recurved. piles. headache. Dharwar. thirst. K. wiry.—in sub-capitate. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). broadly spathulate. " Kapha". glabrous or hairy. Adabanmagi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. :—Largely grown in.—Oct. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. laxative. Indian wine palm. LOC. as a kharif crop. Kashayi. DISTR. " Tridosh". commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Konkan. :—G. straight subcylindric. dysentery. Kherk. . NS. Kurangika. Malay Islands. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. blood diseases. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. cures consumption. Ranmug. NS. Koshila. Ahmednagar. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Mugani. FAM. Trianguli. good for the eyes . Seeds— tonic. L. Belgaum. Kharjurika. gout.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). CHAR. prostrate. throat inflammations. anthelmintic. long.—6-12. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. M. Burma. few flowered racemes.

Langali. Sk. vomiting. oblong. female spadix and spathe as in the male.2 cm. deeply grooved on one side. Okra.—Verbenaceæ. greyish-green.5—3. COM. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. roundish. Fr. . Mysore. spatulate. LOC. erect. 15-45x2-2. 2-lipped. crown hemispherical. t. useful in diseases of heart. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Rohilkhand.—more or less all the year. fruit and juice of the tree. cardiotonic. :—Found fairly in Surat. See. :—G.—Fibres. Fl. usually along banks. 3-4. DISTR.—white or pale-pink. :—A creeping perennial herb. petioles compressed towards the apex. male white.—2. long. t. large and thick. This is called neera. lower 3-lobed. Fl. L. Jalapipali.) FAM. orange-yellow. :—Throughout India.—opposite. Sd. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. wandering of mind. Fl. Coromandel Coast. oblique. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. subsessile. spadix 60-90 cm. long. rigid. Ratuliyo. LOC. LOC. good in heart and abdominal complaints. rounded at the apex. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. clothed with appressed white hairs . Jalpippali. scented. Jalapimpli. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. Poona and Belgaum districts. flowers distant.. high. Ratoliya. L. Sholapur. Ceylon. Famine Plants. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Bhuiokra. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. pinnules many. C. Sharadi. much branched. Bihar. NS. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Africa. Fr. long. and in beds of streams and water courses. fevers. Agnijwala. M. spiny at the base. DISTR. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). CHAR. Siwalik.— dioecious. Baluchistan.5 m. stems rooting at the nodes. oleaginous. blood and eye. sharply serrate in upper part. pointed. fattening. angular. spinous. :—A tall graceful palm. Vashira. constipating. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars.5 m. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. alexiteric. aphrodisiac.—pinnate. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. triangular. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. H. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely).—Jan-Feb.—rounded at the ends. upper 2-lobed. cooling. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. outer Himalayas. Bengal. wild or more often cultivated.—globose. Fl.—sessile. :—Tolerably common throughout India. anthelmintic. flowers very many. 9-15 m. densely fascicled. ensiform. oblong-ellipsoid. cooling. Ratoliya.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. Toyavallari.

— numerous. The whole plant. Sd. wounds. females solitary. 30-60 cm. angular. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. except Australia. monœcious. Kiranelligida. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. FAM. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). scarcely lobed. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. LOC. It is valuable in scurvy. biliousness. of female. :—Konkan and Deccan. smooth. diuretic. L.useful in fevers.—Euphorbiaceæ. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). stem branched at the base. leaves.—yellowish. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. hiccup. maturant. Fr. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. ringworm (Yunani). Bhumyamali.. high . longitudinally ribbed on the back. Amala. Fl. useful in thirst. anuria. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger).—capsule.—3-gonous. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. K. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. COM. t. thirst. bronchitis. sores. dry. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. elliptic-oblong. Bhumyamalaki. asthma. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. annular. Ceylon. Bhumyamali. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. Sukshmadala. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. H. milky-juice. asthma. fruit. Sadahazurmani. Vituntika. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). :—G. M. burning sensation. lobed. Ajata. males 1-3. LOC.— July-Aug. Infusion is a good tonic. urinary discharges. and without salt may be applied to bruises. Bhuiavli. distichous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. bronchitis. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Stomachic. globose. Fl. Plant—hot. good for ulcers. leprosy. cooling. Tropics generally. alexipharmic . very small. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. :—Throughout India. NS. axillary. disk of the male of minute glands. Jaramla. wounds. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. Bhuianvalah. scabies. Sk. Leaves are stomachic. anæmia. very numerous. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . LOC. . CHAR :—An annual herb.

—Piperaceæ. LOC. Panu. Menasin-kallu . and fruits (rarely). increases biliousness. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Warm leaves. Sk. aphrodisiac. Poona. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. Kalaka. Golmirch . urinary discharges. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Marich. tonic to brain. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. Tambola. useful in "Kapha". foul smell in the mouth. smeared with oil. improves voice. Pan. strengthens teeth . vulnerary. Saptashira. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. M. It sweetens breath. H. carminative. cultivated in Konkan and N. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. " Kapha ". carminative. laxative. Betel pepper. aphrodisiac. Sholapur. tonic. given with milk in hysteria. carminative and astringent. acrid.—Piperaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Menasu. spleen diseases. bechic. . Linn. It increases saliva. stomachic. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. COM. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. :—Wild in the N. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Nagavalli. FAM. styptic (Yunani). night blindness. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. heart and liver. LOC. Betel leaf vine. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. removes all foulness from mouth. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. anthelmintic. M. H. PARTS USED :—Fruits. G. Pan. COM. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Sk. DISTR. Pan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. Kalamiri. G. Mensinballi. generally in Konkan. tonic and digestive. Betelleaf. alterative. Bhakshyapatra. elephantiasis . K. satyriasis and to allay thirst. heating. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. asthma. purgative. NS. DISTR. useful in "Vata". Kalimiri. Fresh leaves. inflammations. ozoena. hot. See—Condiments and Spices. clears throat. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. useful in toothache. Satara. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. Eleballi. Kalamirich. liver and muscular pains. Tambulavalli. piles. Kanara forests. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. improves appetite (Ayurveda). NS. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). throat diseases. Kaphavirodhi. Kanara. Malimirich . leavs. Vileyad-ele. FAM. Vata". Tikshna. Vidyache-pan. ozœna. bronchitis. Black-pepper. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. alexipharmic. K. pains. Leaf—improves taste and appetite.

:—E. chest affections. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. bruises. Khandala (pretty common). secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. . :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. Greater plantain . PROPERTIES AND LOC. used as febrifuge. petiole longer than leaf-blade.—lobes 4. COM. vertigo. LOC. Fl. Burma. and possesses narcotic properties . It has specific effect on skin-diseases. dries body humours (Yunani).— alternate. radial 2. paralysis . Khasia Hills. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. W. It yields an essential oil. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. lanceolate or greenish . as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases.—Plantaginaceæ. N. sciatica. Konkan. Vehkali. See—Condiments and Spices. hills of S. lumbago. DISTR. Arcot and Salem. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. In physiological action. Bark contains a glucoside. leprosy.—capsule. Kanara in ghat forests. M. Bartang. FAM. Tammata. ovate or oblong.5 cm. ophthalmia and phthisis. tonic and a local stimulant. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat.—Pittosporaceæ. H. weakness following fevers. It is a good expectorant. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Vikhari. L. :—K. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. various forms of cutaneous diseases. the oil is alterative. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . See—Timbers. Lahuriya. C. NS. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. variable in width. used in chronic bronchitis. LOC.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. chronic fevers. Externally it is rubefacient. FAM.5-12. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. & A.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . ovoid. Fr. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. COM. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. CHAR. entire or toothed. piles and some skin-diseases . coma. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. NS. piperidine and an essential oil. base tapering into petiole. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. Deccan. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. facilitates menstruation. sprains. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. long.

Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. G. Palni hills. LOC. Chitraka. PARTS USED :—Roots.—throughout the year. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Malaya. top coming off as a conical lid. Agnishikha. C. limb wide. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. obtuse. Fl. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Baluchistan. Sd. Mahang. angled. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State.. W. Fire plant.-Feb. Burma. Ratochatro. FAM. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul).—large. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. LOC. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Lalchitrak. Fl. LOC. :— E. DISTR. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). Rosy-coloured leadwort. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. t. Fattening. striate . rosy scarlet. Chitra.. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Ceylon. :—Cultivated throughout India. :—Konkan : Deccan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nilgiris.—3-5 cm. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. exauriculate petiole. lax spikes.Kempuchitramula. t. Sk. Lalchita. high. zeylanica. Fl. :—Temperate Himalayas. erect. alterative. base passing into amplexicaul. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. oblong. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. leaves. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . dull-black. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. K. PARTS USED :—Roots. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . attenuate. Assam. H. Lalchitrak. M.-4-8. Raktachitraka.—Plumbaginaceæ. and seeds. NS. afford relief. COM. L. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn.—tube slender. Lead-wort. CHAR. alterative and diuretic. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Ghats.Sept.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. stems herbaceous. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. long in long terminal axillary. Lalachitraka. LOC. HABITAT :—Along river banks. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. DISTR.

Vallari. tonic. Chitramula. spreading. C. a paste is made with milk. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). :—Throughout India. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. anthelmintic. aborti-facient. hot.—Aug.—capsule. scabies.6-1. M. Ind. Fr. Fl. inflammations. " Tridosha" . astringent to bowels. Res. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Chitaro Chitrak. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. piles. oblong. Malay Peninsula. useful in laryngitis. stomachic.-Sept. alterative . laxative. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. a favourite medicine for flatulence. root-bark. itching. January 1933). DISTR. wild in Western Peninsula. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. piles. Bile-Chitra-mula. Chitra . LOC.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. striate. Agnishikha. Chitranga. Fl. consumption. See—Ornamental Plants. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. NS.—white. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Tropics of the old world. The use of Pl. Medi. Chitra . and in leucoderma. stomachic. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. rheumatism. dysentery. Journ. Ceylon. Chitra. carminative.—Plumbaginaceæ.—in elongate spikes. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. skin disease. G. juice. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). diseases of liver. :—E. See—Ornamental Plants. anasarca. leaves are caustic. rachis glandular .—thin. " Vata" and " Kapha". LOC. diarrhœa. lobes 5. expectorant. entire. cure intestinal troubles. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves. Chitrak. terete. diseases of spleen. ascites. bronchitis. long. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. pointed. Root—bitter. woody. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. vesicant. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient.5 m. it is useful in dyspepsia. bechic. appetiser. Chitraka. ring-worm. In S. FAM. K. COM. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. Jyotishka. leprosy. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Sk. Bengal. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. attenuated into a short petiole. ovate. alexipharmic. PARTS USED :—Root. leucoderma. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. leucoderma. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. t. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. cultivated . L. . stems 0. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. It is used in procuring abortion. Vahni.

lower lip white. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). with an intra-marginal vein. FAM. itching. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. Khairchapha. entire. abundant. 15-30 cm.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. Frangipani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. S. COM. :—M.8-9 cm. venereal sores. H. spirally arranged. long. CHAR. ulcers. . LOC.—2-lipped.:—More or less throughout India. acrid. Country. pungent. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Goleurchampa. t. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. DISTR. L. COM.2—1. Pagoda tree.—follicles. very fragrant. stems and branches quadrangular. Sk. M. leaves and milky juice. inner face angular. common. Fl. 3-lobed. carminative. long. bark. Phangla. C. Fl. :—All throughout the State. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. 12 cm. Rhuruchapha. purple. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Mahabaleshwar. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. NS.— large. white with a pale yellow centre. t. acute at both ends. NS. useful in leprosy. many flowered. smooth. oblong-lanceolate. rarely maturing. 4-lobed. cultivated. Golainchi. divaricate. :—A small shrub 1. The plant contains a bitter glucoside.8 m. FAM. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. abundant from Mar.-May.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. rounded. upper lip white shot with purple. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary discharges. high. Devagangile. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. Kadu-sampige. :—E.—practically throughout the year. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. K. ascites (Ayurveda). Fr. M. :—Native of tropical America. Deccan. cylindrical. Belchampaka.-Feb. broadly ovate. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough.. LOC.5-18x3. Champakam. L. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. whorls close.—Apocynaceæ. G.—Dec.—salver-shaped. See—Ornamental Plants. shining. shining black. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. irregularly doubly toothed. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. heating.—Labiatæ. CHAR. LOC. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. Pangli. :—Konkan. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. useful in gleet. laxative .-nutlets ellipsoid. DISTR. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. Fl. 7. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. C. pains. Root-bark is purgative. Fl. Fr. Kanara. Radha-champo.

skin diseases. Agnibijaka. K. leprosy. Arand. See—Timbers. H. K. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. chronic fever. :—G. Agetha. LOC. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Gracie). Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. good for tumour. flowers. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. cure earache. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Naktamala. relieves inflammation. Honge. Gaura. also planted. Karanj. bark. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Oil—styptic. J. Kanika. urinary discharges . Karanja. DISTR. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Chamari. head and brain diseases. wounds. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). . Oils. leaves. Aran. Karanja. " Kapha ". USES :—The fresh leaves. piles.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. NS. piles. M. bruised. Indian beech. liver pain. Ustabunda . Kirmal. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. along Deccan rivers . useful in diseases of eye. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Oil—anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). anthelmintic. Arni. Jayanti. LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. rheumatic pains. chronic fever and hydrocele. ulcers. cures eye diseases. chest complaints. wounds (Ayurveda). The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Ichu. itching. G. Karanj. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. In Satara. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Sk. Kanja. alexipharmic . vagina. ascites. Pavaka. NS. M. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C.—Verbenaceæ. skin and in keratitis . Arni. lumbago. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Huligili. PARTS USED :—Root. Agnimandha. Seeds—acrid . cures biliousness. purify and enrich blood. carminative. juice is given in colic and fever. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). leucoderma. Sk. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. COM. H. fruits and seeds. FAM. Karanjmara. F. " Vata ". COM. Kanaji. lumbago. :—E.) FAM. good in scabies.

PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Sd. Anthers—dry wound. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. DISTR. Andamans. Flowers cool body. laxative after food. Fl. G. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. greenish yellow. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). pungent.2-6. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. cooling. bronchitis. diabetes. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. flowers. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Piyara. entire or upper part dentate. Guava tree. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. blue-black. lobes 4. aphrodisiac . L. causes "Kapha".—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). good for liver complaints (Yunani). chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan.— globose.—5-9 X 3. LOC. NS. fruits and gum. Root is laxative.— June-July. Fruit—tonic. bark yellowish.. It is also employed in scurvy."Vata". useful in anaemia. :—Cultivated all over the State. Nicobars and Malaya. Jamud-rukh. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid.—tubular. Sk. Fr. high. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. stomachic. broadly elliptic. inflammations. Gova. hairy in the throat. small. smooth. M. heating. Jamphal. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. applied to sore eyes. Vastula. stomachic. rough-tubercled . Kanara. K. Ash—caustic (Yunani). decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. chyluria. fever.3 cm. C. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa.—Myrtaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Peruka. cool heated brain. LOC. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. good in colic and for bleeding gums. DISTR.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. sour. Peru . Leaves used for wounds and ulcers.—hard. FAM. dyspepsia. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Dridhabija. cooling. Ceylon. See—Famine Plants. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Young leaves are tonic in the . seated on the calyx . Gum is tonic. LOC. t. COM. Perala. for unhealthy ulcers. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cylindric. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. piles. Fl. as an astringent to bowels. :—E. It is given in the form of decoction. LOC. constipation. Safedsafari.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Perala. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. common about Karwar. laxative. Jamb. Peru. Amrut. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. . used in bronchitis. H.

rounded and mucronate at the apex. vulnerary. smooth. NS. Sk. diuretic. stimulant. Bakuchi. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. good for heart troubles. leaves. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. antipyretic. Fruit—diuretic. Bowach-chi. cures blood diseases . 3. CHAR. stomachic. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). :—E. raw one is used in diarrhœa. closely-pitted. M. anthelmintic. piles. LOC. bitter taste. H. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. biliousness. Country. Fl. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. K.6-1. Chandralekha. studded with glands and white hairs. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. FAM. COM. . Fl. difficulty in micturition.—pod. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Waste places. " Rakta-pitta". heals ulcers. anthelmintic. good for leucoderma. M. mucronate. alterative. clawed. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. alexiteric. stem and branches grooved. Fr. Kalameshi.—in dense axillary. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan.8 X 2. nigro-punctate. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". inflammation. DISTR. Sd. black. ovoidoblong. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate.—one. bronchitis. Kushtaghni. Babachi. standard orbicular. improves appetite. Bhavanj. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. aphrodisiac.—bluish purple . G. Konkan and S.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). skin diseases. anæmia. Seed—purgative. Bavachi. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. cures "Vata". nephrites and cachexia.5—5 cm. See—Fruit Trees. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. Vanguji. high. urinary dis charges. Bukchi. causes biliousness. 0. LOC. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Bavachi. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. laxative. 10-30 flowered racemes . improves hair and complexion. scabies. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Seeds— refrigerant. :—An erect annual. C.2 m. L. Babachi.—simple. fruit and seeds. solitary. t.—Aug-Dec. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. white hairy. leprosy.

Dalimba. elephantiasis. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). See—Timbers. flowers and fruits. Ceylon. COM. Gum—bitter. :—Leaves. sore eyes brain diseases. K. Dadima. Kabul and Baluchistan. called kino. erysipelas. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. heart-disease. useful in vomiting. anthelmintic. Raktabija-pushpa. Bio. H. flowers and gum. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. PARTS USED. body eruptions. Malabar kino-tree. tonic. earache. Pitasar. scabies. boils. useful in all body diseases. Dadima. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Benga. K. Hulidalimb . ulcers. blood diseases. leprosy. Bijak. Flowers—check vomiting. urinary discharges (Yunani). Anar. styptic. G. Bia. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). NS. prolapsus ani.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). burning sensation. Hirdokhi. Bija. cures " Vata ". " Tridosh". :—E. " Kapha ". alterative . is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. sore-throat. laxative. :—Wild in Iran. Bibla. chest troubles. Dharimb . ophthalmia. used in sore throat. Dalimb . NS. H. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. scattered but not gregarious . vulnerary. antipyretic. fattening. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). liver tonic. M. DISTR. urinary discharges. LOC. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Honne.—Punicaceæ. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. enriches blood. useful in biliousness. gleet. Khandesh and Dangs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Bark—astringent. Common in N. Sk. Flowers— improve appetite. used in piles. Gums and Resins. anal troubles. LOC. anthelmintic. tonic. allays thirst. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. PARTS USED:—Root. spleen complaints. somewhat milder in action than catechu. bark. Mahakutaj. thirst. ascends to 1100 m. griping. Sunila. stomatitis. Dhalim. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Indian kino-tree. good for biliousness. Bibla. leucoderma. biliousness. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. also in Konkan. Valka-phala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. fever. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. laxative. strengthens gums. Bibla. Fruit-appetiser. useful in eye troubles. G. LOC. FAM. Pomegranate tree. diuretic. Sk. DISTR. Dadimba. India. Dadam. :—Western Peninsula and S. in Akrani. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. cultivated in many parts of India. applied to hydrocele. . Gum. Kanara. COM. Honi. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. FAM. Bigsah. :—E. colic.

Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. :—E. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) .5 cm. Emetic nut. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. Karigidda. LOC. G. acutely 5-angled. G. Fl. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. base rounded. calyx tube long.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Lalchameli.—Rubiaceæ. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Minkare. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. :—E. Madana. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Pinditak. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Karhar Mainphal. Konkan. pendant. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. Country and Kanara.— ellipsoid. Chinese honeysuckle. M. M. In China. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . 7. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. C—petals 5.-Aug. Rangoon creeper. Annam. M. S. FAM. FAM. Midhola. Sk. COM. COM. NS. Mangari-kai. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery.—Combretaceæ. H. H. Rangoonkibel.—Mar. Gelphal. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent.—opposite. Gela. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. nearly 6 cm. Fr. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Mindhola. :—A strong climber. widely cultivated all over India. It is given in the form of decoction. t. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. Barmasinivel. LOC. Rangoonchavel. at first white then deep red . USES :—In Amboyana. L. long. glabrous above. Fruit contains vitamin C. elliptic.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. numerous. hairy beneath. See—Ornamental Plants. lanceolate . Dharaphal. DISTR. dark green. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. NS. CHAR. jasmine . USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. Fl. acuminate. LOC. The rind of the fruit. Malaya. K. .—in axillary and terminal spikes.

Radish. it is a sedative and nervine calmative.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. Mali. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . Tropical Africa. cures abscesses. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. alexiteric. K. Mura. H. Mula. asthma. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). leaves. COM. emmenagogue. Ruchira. juice relieves earache. S. used in diseases of the brain. It is also used to poison fish. Sumatra. M. it is equal to it in every respect. carminative. binding. and all inflammations . Java. The plant contains glucoside saponin. bad taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. sweet. leucoderma (Yunani). paralysis. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Muri. Juice of . inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. ulcers. antipyretic. amenorrhœa. China. useful in chronic bronchitis. emetic. muscular pains.—Cruciferæ. Ceylon. :—Throughout India. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. aphrodisiac. Bili Mulangi. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Mula. leprosy. Mulak. its action is very safe. carminative. leprosy. good for spleen and in paralysis. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. destroys "Vata". Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. eruptions. produce alopecia (Yunani). bitter. useful in diseases of heart. G. boils. NS. inflammations. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. certain and regular. heating. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. stomachic. Bitter. Ksharmula. FAM. tumours. purgative. hiccup. LOC. E. carminative. tonic. flowers. DISTR. good in tumours. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. piles (Ayurveda). DISTR. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . piles. cholera. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. Muro. skin-diseases. See—Timber. Hastidanta. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. emetic. laxative. fruit and seeds. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. It also contains an essential oil. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. Seeds-sharp. " Vata" and " Kapha".

.-May. DISTR. ajmalicine. CHAR. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. ginger. Java. Sivanabhi. expectorant. white.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma.) FAM. Fr. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. used in hyperpiesis . irregularly. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. Sk. Sarpakshi. Chandrika. Garudpatala.—Apocynaceæ. Harkaichand.. In the Konkan. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. sharp. acute. Chhotachand. thin. anthelminitic . Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions..5-18 X 2. bright red . It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Harki. C. Group B — Serpentine. Sk. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. Fl.-in whorls of 3. M. ulcers (Ayurveda). Doddapatike. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. and black salt.—tubular. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Sarpagandha.3 cm. Palakjuhi. seeds are considered peptic.—drupe. laxative. L. Juipani. 7. Kanara. cures " Tridosha ". See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. pale beneath. specific for insanity. Yuthikaparni.— Mar. often tinged with violet. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. :—H. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Nai. bright green above. ajamalinine. diuretic. FAM. COM. K. It is hypnotic. pungent.5-6. Root contains vitamins A. heating. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. swollen a little above the middle.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative.—Acanthaceæ. :—An erect perennial shrub. Chandrika. Mungusavel. lanceolate. NS. K. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. t.9 m. LOC. . acrid. Andamans. NS. :—H. leaves (rarely). M. shady open places near rain-forests. corrective and emmenagogue.—in irregular corymbose cymes. Gaja-karni. B and C. sedative. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. black shining. yellowish root stock. single or didymous. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. carminative. serpentinine. Nakulikand. LOC. Fl. Western Peninsula. with a long. nodular. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. Ceylon. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels.

inflammations. K. upper lip bifid . asthma. DISTR. narrow. night-blindness. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. white. :—Throughout India. oil—anthelmintic. tropical Africa. :—E. S. G. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. increases "Kapha". carminative . anal troubles. purgative. LOC. ascites. tumours. Erand. bracts ovate lanceolate. LOC. Madagascar (cultivated). liver and spleen diseases. Divald. Belgaum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. Triputiphala. 0. Leaves—galactagogue. :—Probably of African origin. pain in back. piles. piles. M.5 m. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. Tirki. Vardhaman. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Mahabaleshwar. convulsions. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. dropsy. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Eranda. PARTS USED :—Root. leprosy. alterative. Sholapur). diseases of rectum and head. M. lumbago. hills near Belgaum. Erand. increase biliousness. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. high. pointed. leaves and seeds. inflammations. L. flowers and seeds. paralysis. elliptic lanceolate.— tuberculate. typhoid. Ceylon (wild) . Vardhamana. Divaligo.—5-10 X2-5 cm. COM. widely cultivated in tropical countries. M. Seed and oil—cathartic. Haralu. Erand. some fevers. eructations. DISTR. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". useful in skin-disease. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). alterative. entire. Java.. Khandala. good for burns. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). LOC. ring-worm. asthma.—lipped. Fruit— appetiser. Palma christi. glandular. generally cultivated. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Fl. glands. Straits-Settlements. Cattle are fed with leaves for . Chitrabija. cultivated. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Sk. hairy outside .—Oct. pubescent: C. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. useful in liver troubles. amenorrhœa (Yunani). aphrodisiac. intestinal worms. ascites. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. boils. body pains. H. elephantiasis. LOC.—capsule. FAM. leaves. Arand. leprosy. solitary. lumbago. strangury. velvety hairy Sd. NS. rheumatism. pains. vaginal pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. ascites. Castor oil plant. t. Root-bark—purgative.—nearly sessile. HABITAT :—Hills. useful in inflammations. stems obscurely angled. :—Undershrub. Very little in other districts of the State. Country (Dharwar. useful in pains. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. Fr. earache. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). useful in heart diseases. :—Deccan.9—1. fevers. black.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Fl. Country.-Jany.—Euphorbiaceæ.

L. burning sensation. long. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. H. serrate. Gulab. M. Fr. G. LOC. tooth-ache. good for eyes. Ghazipur is a chief centre. laxative. petioles prickly. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. adults.3 cm. pink or white. stems with stout and hooked prickles. acrid. Soumyagandha. Flower—bitter. CHAR. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. which is a powerful poison. COM. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7).5 m. aphrodisiac. attaining 1. NS. P. liver. sometimes striped . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Flowers. cardiotonic. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. Ati-manjula. laxative.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. head-ache. cooling. astringent when dry (Yunani). Punjab and U. expectorant. excessive perspiration. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. Sk. intestinal affections. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. :—Origin unknown. stomatitis. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth.—pinnate. kidneys. . biliousness.— all the year. :—A perennial shrub. with a good odour. cures leprosy. dry. seldom griping or causing flatulency.. sometimes glandular. LOC. Italy. stipules scarcely dilated. hairy. Gulab . K.— usually corymbose. Greece and Germany. cultivated all over India. double. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Shatadala. red. Fl. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. ovate oblong. inflammations.—Rosaceæ. benefits lungs. See—Ornamental Plants. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. 2.5-6. Gulab. sweetish. Tarana. See—Oils. much used in lotions and collyria . Sudburj. Lakshmipushpa. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . Fl. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . t. They are also applied to painful joints. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. cardiotonic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. In constipation it is used as an enema. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. tonic. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . DISTR. mild and safe purgative. " Vata". :—E. France. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Pannira. etc. chronic fevers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. they are cold. aperient removing bile and cold humours. used in heat of body. FAM.—obovate . Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. cephalic. removes bad odour from mouth.

the Konkan and S.—white or pink. paralysis. leaves and fruit. leucoderma. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . LOC. paralysis. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. L. emmenagogue. K. Manjit. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. erysipelas. prickly. antidysenteric. PARTS USED. piles.—in whorls of 4. grooved. lactagogue. inner perianth-segments membranous. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. pains in joints. and was much used in dropsy. M. oleaginous .—Polygonaceæ. :—E.—Rubiaceæ. Gulmketu. CHAR. uterine pains (Yunani). Fr. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. antipyretic. valves hyaline. Majit. heating. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. jaundice. high. ear. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. analgestic. cordate or hastate. cures " Kapha ". urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. Malay Peninsula. Chuka. Ceylon. orbicular . 15-30 cm. Fl. Fl.-Jany. five-nerved. purplish black when ripe. Tamravalli. Amlavetasa. acrid. Bladder. Chitralata. laxative. used in eye-sores. t-Oct. Sorrel. branched from the root.—didymous or globose.. obtuse. Raktasara. alexiteric.5—7. NS. improves voice and complexion . Manjishtha. ulcers and skin-diseases. shining. Dock. smooth. Country. analgesic. Decoction tinges blood. spleen-enlargement. FAM. Manjishtha. rheumatism. M. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Sk. CHAR. :—Annual. blood. . NS. LOC. Japan. Rohini.—2. dysentery. eye. tropical Africa.5 cm. H. elliptic. Ambat Chuka. Root—bitter. L. one pair with longer petioles ovate. petioles triangular. cylindric. urine and even bones red. Aruna. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. Fl. :—Root. DISTR. inflammations. Leaves-sweet. increase appetite. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. FAM. all scabrous with white prickles. greenish. :—E. jaundice. M. Chukra. diuretic. leucoderma. diseases of uterus. stems very long. branches quadrangular . lethargy. Sk. base cuneate. with a thin red bark. it powerfully affects the nervous system. liver complaints. leucorrhoea. ovate. vagina. Java. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. roots very long. lower leaves larger. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. erect glabrous herb. H. :—Perennial climbing herb.—in terminal panicled cymes. COM. Indian Madder. COM. anthelmintic. ulcers. bitter. Fr. Manjishha.

while fresh they are bruised. NS. blue or pink. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. alcoholism. Sd. M. vomiting. hiccup. The seeds have the same properties . The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. DISTR. M. H.—Acanthaceæ. CHAR. Satapa . flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. oblong lanceolate. pale brown. stems usually decumbent. LOC. also considered as a vermifuge. upper emarginate. L. Kharmor. USES :—Leaves are cooling. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). DISTR. :—Western Punjab. Pismarum Sadab. Havananju. H. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. ovoid oblong. Persia. COM. Trans-Indus Hills. Deccan. The juice allays tooth-pain. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).—white. Fl. in dysentery. with scarious faces and hard ridges. generally in the Deccan. Satri. roasted. Common—Garden-rue . Sk. with darker spots. Fr. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Kanara. acute . ciliate. Khatselio . . lower shortly 3-lobed. tumours. asthma. FAM. useful in heart troubles. Ceylon. :—G. then erect. bites and stings of poisonous animals. S. useful in scabies. Country. rugose with furrow. NS. pains. N. FAM. COM. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. leucoderma. LOC.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. acute. bracts elliptic. Sadapaha. Afghanistan. Sk. toothache. LOC. :—Common throughout the State. Sadabu. See—Vegetables.-Jany. Nagadali. t. aperient and diuretic.— subsessile.—suborbicular. :—A herb . stomachic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. C. bronchitis. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Parpatha. G. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings.—capsule. constipation.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. often rooting near the base. piles.—Rutaceæ. they are prescribed. Ghati pittapapada . :—E. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. analgesic. Satap. checks nausea and promotes appetite. diseases of the spleen. Konkan. laxative. K. 2-lipped. Vishapaha. tonic. Africa. Cooling. Fl.—Nov.

USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. oleaginous. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). obtuse . laxative. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. increases mental activity. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). colic. :—Grown everywhere in India. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. C. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Ingotu. :—Egypt and Algeria. cultivated throughout India. S. emmenagogue. Sugarcane. K. Poona. Gudatrina. diuretic. flatulence. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. flawed. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. garden. glandulose punctate. NS :—E. forest and mountain.-alternate. The plant is tonic. and externally used as a rubefacient. Ukh . amenorrhœa. epilepsy. Kumad. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. Madhuyashti. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). H. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. yellowish. Ikshu. abortifacient. useful in fatigue. tonic.—petals 4. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. it may be given internally in hysteria. :—A strong smelling herb . Sd. COM. L. diuretic. leprosy. petioled. Tanigarbu . chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. HABIT :—Cultivated. Rasala. segments cuneate. digestive.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. Gudakastha. LOC. Fl. Sk. oblong-obovate. in pots.. See—Ornamental Plants. particularly Deccan. Us . Sherdi. anti-aphrodisiac . Naisakar. indigestible. Kabbu. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. Powdered and combined with aromatics. decompound. Fr. cooling. M. FAM. aphrodisiac.—capsule. G. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. S. DISTR. Rikhu. Satara. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. The oil is the best form for administration. spathulate or linear-oblong . all over the State. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Ganna. etc. LOC.—angled. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. There are three varieties . The plant contains glucoside glutin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. grown in gardens. heats body. heating to body . thirst. . M. DISTR.

often planted near Muslim tombs. t. analgesic. . purifies blood . NS. lessen inflammation . useful in nosetroubles. erysipelas. In cases of poisoning by copper. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. dry regions of W. Khakan Mirjoli. diam. laxative. astringent to bowels. alexiteric. Mahaphala. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. pectoral and aphrodisiac. useful in biliousness. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. piles. sugar is considered heavy. Leaves—bitter. delirium. branches numerous. opposite. Jal.—Nov. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). ulcers. good for lungs . :—E. anthelmintic. greenish-yellow. red when ripe.-Feb. smooth. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. leucoderma.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. L. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. oil is digestible.—very thin. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). deeply cleft.—Salvadoraceæ. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . :—Drier parts of India. In the Punjab. The juice contains vitamins A and B. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. near the coasts of Gujarat . Sk. Pilu. globose. drooping. improves appetite. disorders and wind. white. Fl. deobstruent. inflammations. leaves. See—Food Plants. Kharijal. Tooth-brush tree. Pilu. LOC. numerous. often mucronate at the apex. Pilu. FAM. diuretic. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. strengthen teeth. scabies. Kanara in littoral forests. bile. bad for liver (Yunani). H. carminative. sometimes it raises blisters. Brihat madhu pilu. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. LOC. DISTR. diuretic. Ceylon. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. causes " Kapha.. fattening. shining. It is good in calculous complaints.". The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. Asia. anæmia. C. Egypt. Seeds—purgative. Piludi. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Fruit—aphrodisiac. fleshy. stomachic . improve diuresis (Yunani). useful in biliousness. useful in heat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. tonic and aperient. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. corrective. :—Dry districts of the State. Fr. tonic to liver. K. Sugar causes " Kapha". Fl. Pilu. fruits seeds and oil. aphrodisiac . Abyssinia. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. M. COM. LOC. Cane—sweet. finely striate. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Sind. lobes much reflexed. Fruits are deobstruent.—drupe. carminative and diuretic. G. 3 mm.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. Goni. the Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Bark. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa.

K. laxative. . Sandal-wood Tree. acts as diaphoretic. Anthuvala. Shrigandhalmara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Cultivated elsewhere. gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. Agarugandha. is applied to local inflammations. COM. FAM. alexiteric. Burugukayi. NS. G. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Chandan. in skin-diseases. Aritha. PARTS USED :—Root. paralysis. Arithan . used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. abortifacient. PARTS USED:—Wood. Soap-Nut tree. :—E. Kugale. alexiteric. small-pox (Ayurveda). up with water into a paste. burning sensation. alexipharmic. useful in diseases of heart. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . useful in inflammations. stomachic. Ceylon. vaginal discharges. exhilarating. Sk. :—Indian Peninsula. cold in head. Chandan. cures "Tridosha". M. diarrhœa. much cultivated. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. tubercular glands. Ritha. tonic. Mysore and parts of Madras State. Suket. K. Rishta. Phenila. Phenilu. Bhadrasri. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. astringent to bowels . HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. to allay heat and pruritus. thirst. ground. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Bhadrasara. lumbago.—Santalaceæ. :—E. M. G. See—Timbers. chiefly in S. strangury. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Oil. epileptic fits of children. Mangalya. Country and N. H. Bhogivallabha. bronchitis. FAM. Fruit—bitter. Ringni. India. Kumblabijaka. Arishtaka. USES :—Wood. emetic.—Sapindaceæ. :—Western Peninsula. LOC. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. head-ache (Yunani). Kanara. LOC. DISTR. Root—expectorant. LOC. COM. allays uterine pains. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Sandal. M. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. S. Chandal. DISTR. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Sukhad . cholera. Chandan. fruit and seed. NS. hemicrania. Sk. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Antharalo. antipyretic. " Kapha ". Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). often planted. to temples in fever. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . aphrodisiac. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. Oils. Malayaja. Ritha .. useful in chronic dysentery. gleet.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

beaked. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. hair-tonic. bleeding piles. COM.—pod. LOC. Fr. etc. leaves. leaflets 914 pairs. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. opposite. aphrodisiac. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes.. probably a native of tropical Africa. Jayanti. seeds. cooling. LOC. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . 4-5 m. an emollient poultice is also made from them. Seeds contain vitamin A. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. mottled with purple on the outside. alterative. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. pendulous. into claw. such as dysentery etc. syphilitic ulcers. They have been used to procure abortion. oil. Black variety is common. :—A soft-wooded shrub. Jaya. Seed-oil—fattening. lung diseases. Jayanti. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation.5-15 cm. Sk. :—G. in height. seeds. septate between the seeds. 15-23 cm.— abruptly pinnate. HABITAT :—Cultivated. applied to ulcers and piles. Fl. diseases. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Root. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. M.—20-30. leaves. obscurely angled . enrich blood. strengthening. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. branches striate. applied to gouty joints. burning sensation. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. strangury. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. linear-oblong. CHAR. Waziristan. See—Oils. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. scabies. suppurating wounds. tonic. biliousness. DISTR. small-pox. Shewari. eye diseases . PARTS USED :—Root. and as an oildressing for ulcers. asthma. gouty joints. spleen troubles. white and red. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. FAM. :—Cultivated all over India. long. There are three varieties of seeds : black. Sd.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. They are nourishing.—in lax. indigestible . K. H. inflammations. inflammations (Yunani). useful in sorethroat. L. Jayat. bark. 7. few flowered axillary racemes. Rasin. NS. Baluchistan. yellow. promote hair growth. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. They are also emmenagogue. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. cures . Jayantika. diuretic and lactagogue. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). cure menorrhagia. galactagogue.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Janjhan. oleaginous. urinary concretions. Raysingani. slightly torulose. C. Jinangi. of eye and ear. long. carminative. removes "Kapha". diuretic. useful in diarrhœa. Jayanti. useful in dry cough.—standard as broad as long. tonic. Nadeyi. inflammations.

Agase. flowers. FAM. LOC. Munidruma. Indigenous from Malaya to N. demulcent. Fl. 6-9 m. 50 cm. L. See—Fodder Plants. anthelmintic. useful in ozœna. dysentery and paludism. Kanali. improves taste. Fruit—laxative . biliousness.—7. cure itching. NS. Kempagase.8 cm. 15-30-cm.— pinnate. Vranari. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). is applied in rheumatism. tumours . long. Flowers—cooling. C. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). CHAR. Fr. relieves throat-troubles. The plant contains vitamin A. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. diabetes. H. Agasti. t. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. :—G. alexiteric. Agasta. See—Vegetables. Bak. An infusion is given in small-pox. bronchitis. long. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. DISTR. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. anthelmintic. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). LOC. night-blindness. "Kapha" and inflammation. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. leucoderma. COM. leaves. Australia. cures " Tridosh " pains. Bark—astringent. M. 2-4 white or red. diarrhœa. Hatiya . Agusta. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. K. fruits. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Seeds—emmenagogue. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. Basna. Leaves—purgative. anaemia. linear oblong. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic.— pod. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. is applied in painful swellings. allays thirst.— flowers at various times. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Fl. useful In diseases of spleen. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. useful in ophthalmia. rubbed into a paste with water. cure quartan fever. Bark— astringent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. long. Leaves—indigestible.5-8. very showy. Agathio. ulcers. gout. stimulant. high. Dirghashimbi. Agati. epilepsy.—in racemes . leprosy.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). fevers. leaflets 16-30 pairs. maturant. . gout . Ornamental Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Sk. LOC. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. :—A soft wooded tree . astringent. improve appetite . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata".

in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. branches slender. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges.— yellow.3 cm. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Bhiman-Visha Kaddi.—smooth. M. strongly reticulated . L. Kareta. Prahasa. " Kapha " . sharply serrate. awns 2. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. Gujarat and S. G.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.—5-6 mm. linear . :—E. black. glabrous. Jayanti.Dec. Barial. Chikna. emollient. LOC. LOC. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. diam. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. astringent. Hettutti-gida. K. Chittuharatu. diuretic. is given . H. cooling. upper margins ciliate. DISTR. LOC. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. pedicel jointed much above the middle. Bala.—1-2 in each axil. Country Mallow. leaves and seeds.—2. Kisangi. Kharanti. Deccan and S. Pata. NS. linear. CHAR. Fl. M.. bark. useful in blood and throat diseases. FAM. Khareti.—Nov.—Malvaceæ. L. :—G. Chikna. CHAR. :—Konkan. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. Fl.—solitary or few together. Batyalaka.—Malvaceæ. decoction. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. carpels 7-10. Kherati. HABITAT :—Moist places . scabrid-hairy. M. COM. Fr. bleeding piles. FAM. softly hairy all over. lanceolate. base rounded. :—Konkan (common). minutely hairy. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). t. LOC. long. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Sk. COM. Bala. :—Hotter parts of India. Sd. :—A shrub. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. M..—2. Fr. awns 2. Tukti. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'.5-5 cm. Kumghi. Samanga.—6-8 mm. Fl. Baladana. cordate. Root—cooling. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). C. H. K. obtuse. strongly reticulated.-Oct. ovate-oblong. puberulous. carpels 5-9.-Nov. aphrodisiac . Vatyapushpi. yellow. digestive. Country. useful in fever. Rajbala. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. pedicel jointed about the middle. NS. Bala. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. crenate. Bariara. t. with ginger.. DISTR. a weed. diam. removes " Vata ". " Pitta ". stomachic and tonic. astringent. dorsal margins toothed. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. dorsal scabrid. Country.5-6. long. Pata.

Fl. It is also used to favour menstruation. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. stiff-neck. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. slightly rough. cystitis. triangular-ovate. deeply and irregularly toothed. tinged with purple. all running down wing-like into petiole. S.-Dec. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—G. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". pappus 0. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. COM.—achene. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". M. t. Fr. 5 outer clavate. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant.—heads small in leafy panicles . those of the ray red beneath. also in colic and tenesmus. LOC. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine.—Compositæ. black. CHAR. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. stem stiff. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Pilibadkadi. and head-ache. involucral bracts 2 rows. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. diaphoretic. 0. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. administered in hemiplegia. high. M. Ceylon. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. NS. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering.—opposite. Fl. common. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. rhomboides Roxb. erect. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. L.—Nov. :—A large annual herb. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. . Katampu. facial paralysis. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. FAM. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Fl. Linn.2 m. :—Deccan. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Country. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Externally. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. 5 inner boat-shaped. :—Throughout India.—yellow. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. juice is used for healing wounds.6—1. noise in ears. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea.

Brihati. digestive. lobed. analgesic. Fruit—cardiotonic. Ubhi-bhuringni. Vantak. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. leaves (rarely) and fruits. FAM. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. " Vata". eye diseases (Ayurveda). t. prickles large. base unequal-sided. astringent to bowels.—Solanaceæ. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. vomiting. bad for piles if taken internally. clothed outside with purple hairs . laxative. Sk. enriches blood. Kadusonde. causes biliousness. pruritus ani. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. high. Nilaphala. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vange. aphrodisiac. NS. leaves. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. cardiotonic. stem stout. Fl. L. Barhanta. Vrittaphala. prickly. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. M. Ranringni. Sd. pain.. :—E. Dorli. NS. :—Widely cultivated in India. PARTS USED :—Root. dark-yellow when ripe. rarely wild. M. C. K. Kattarta. petiole prickly. 8 mm. Hinguli. :—Throughout tropical India. Vayase.3—1. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. LOC. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections.— berry.-Aug. Mahotika. Brinjal. improves appetite. Mhotiringni. . Bhantaki. removes foulness of the mouth. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. DISTR. Egg Plant.-Oct. Bhanta. Vengni. Habba-Kirigulla. LOC. Sk. sharp.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn.. Ceylon. asthma.—5—15 X 2. Hinguli. Root is applied to lessen pain. subentire.—Solanaceæ. Badanikai. Baingan. loss of appetite. ovate. K. fever. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. G. Rigana. FAM. " Kapha". USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. anthelmintic. Indian Nightshade. very. Malpya. COM. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. useful in leucoderma. maturant. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. or triangular-ovate. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha".5—7. covered with stellate hairs. H. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). COM. China.. Vartaki. :—E. DISTR. Fr. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. fruit and seeds. It is seldom used alone. Bhantaki. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. lessens inflammations.5 cm.—pale-purple.—minutely pitted: Fl. diam. H. Philippines. Vadikadheri. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn.5 m. 0. G. bronchitis. beneficial in cardiac troubles . globose. recurved.

:—A variable annual herb . inflammation. diarrhœa. not to be given to pregnant women. L. cathartic and diuretic. in extra-axillary. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. tapering into petioles. bark. Hound's Berry. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. diam. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). taste. useful in heart and eye-diseases. ovatelanceolate. Vayasi. leucoderma. Black Night-shade. CHAR. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. dysuria and asthma. useful in diseases of eye.— berry. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. Sk. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. Fruit contains vitamins A. leaves and fruit. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. griping. B and C. much divaricately-branched . minutely pitted . smooth. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State.. Kakamachi. LOC.—discoid. Root-bark—laxative . Kabaiya. bronchitis. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. Fr. piles. LOC. fever. chronic fever. itch. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. H. PARTS USED :—Root. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. Piludi. yellow. entire or sinuate toothed. hiccup. See—Vegetables. Kamoni. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). throat burning. alterative. bitter. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Kakamachi. :—Throughout India. Ceylon. improves appetite. t. in pains. heating. fever. It acts as a hydrogogue. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. In S. FAM. NS. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC.—small. tonic. Katuphala. worms in ear. Morellel. urinary discharges. Tiktika.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . aphrodisiac. Fl. " Tridosha". Fl. bronchitis. useful in giddiness. Sd. eye-diseases hydrophobia. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. favours conception and facilitates delivery . ear and nose . inflammation. dysentery. gonorrhœa (Yunani). 3-8 flowered cymes . liver inflammation. Gurkamai. asthma.—many. shining. Kakamunchi.-Jany. . In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. 6 mm. stem erect. good for neck ulcers. vomiting. The seeds are used as a stimulant. DISTR. improves voice . In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. COM. and used with success in psoriasis. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. laxative. Makoi. G. etc.—Sept. diuretic.—Solanaceæ. Seeds—laxative. C. :—E. K. subumbellate.

Vrittatandula. Fl. :—Throughout India. M.. G. Basu). heart disease. DISTR. lumbago. biliousness. It is used in asthma. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. straight. K. S. diam. LOC. hairy outside. hairy on both sides. Fruit—laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.—purple. Great Indian millet. muscular pains. Kenjal. urinary concretions.—Solanaceæ. Bhui-Kate-ringni. Sk. sterility in women. :—Common in the Deccan . Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Malaya. FAM. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. fruits and seeds. Jowari. fevers. ovate or elliptic. Dhavani. 3-2 cm. pains. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. & Wendl. :—A very prickly diffuse. Ceylon. they are used in the burning of feet. strangury. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Yengara . often exceeding 1. Nele-Rama-gulla . LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. bright green perennial herb . :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . catarrhal fever and chest pain. petiole prickly. Sk. heating. t. NS. M. Sorgho. Africa.—berry. lobes deltoid.3 cm. stem zig-zag. :—G. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. yellow and shining. long. L. expectorant and febrifuge. stone in bladder. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Kantakari. :—E. chronic bronchitis. Seeds—anthelmintic. H. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Sholapur. useful in bronchitis. Jundri. dysuria. Katai. stems. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic.7 cm. appetiser. Brihati.5-5. laxative. Leaves—good application for piles. Konkan. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. aphrodisiac. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). CHAR. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. anthelmintic . Jondhala. Kateli. Root—aphrodisiac.— June. E. Kantakini. C. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Nidigdhika. asthma. flowers. Bhoyaringni. FAM. COM. pruritus . Sind. Bijapur and E. NS. fever. surrounded by enlarged calyx . D. leaves. Sundia . thirst. Fr. "Vata" and " Kapha". Ringni. COM. Jolah. Durrah. prickles compressed. stomachic. base unequal-sided. Shalu. Yuvanala. Nirgol. H. tropical Australia. Chikka-sonde.—Gramineæ. Jowar. sinuate or subpinnatifid. K. ozoena.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. good in inflammation. Ikshupatraka. piles. Dirghashara.. Jonera.-5-10 X 2. Fl. yellow or white with green veins.

Gorakmundi. NS. Ahmedabad. COM. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Gorakhamundi. tumours (Ayurveda). Vritta. Some. Ruhin. tonic and antiperiodic . PARTS USED. See—Food Plants. leprosy and dysentery . Rawtarohan. Aruna. Juss. :—Dry forests of W. Ceylon. Grains contain vitamin B. with toothed wings. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. :— E. Mahamundi. FAM: —Compositæ. good for sore-throat. COM. laxative. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Bijapur and E. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. indigestible. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Poona. Rohina.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Bodiakalara. M. DISTR. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. refrigerant. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). fevers. hence used in intermittent fevers. Sk. common in Gujarat. H. LOC. piles. :—Bark. Dharwar. :—G. stem and branches cylindric. LOC. :—The grain is cooling. FAM. biliousness. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). :—Bark-acrid. K. . Kumbhala.—Meliaceæ. M. vaginal injections and enemas. high. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. NS. Pravrajita. DISTR. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. PARTS USED. K. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. G. general debility. on dry stony hills. Rohani. Gums and Resins. while Belgaum. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. CHAR. L. introduced into America and Australia. useful in " Kapha". diseases of blood. cures " Tridosha ". Bastard Cedar. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Khandesh and S. Indian Red-Wood. M. H. improves appetite and taste. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . Swami-mara. bladder and kidney complaints. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. ulcers. Sumbi. ulcers. Rohini. Agniruha. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rohun. Fibres. Country. HABITAT :—Open situations. Asia and Africa. constipating. PROPERTIES AND USES. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Munditika. hairy. Karanda-gida. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Gorakhmundi. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. glandular. Tans.—sessile. :—Seeds. Sk. :—Widely cultivated in India. aphrodisiac.

Fl. Country and Kanara. peduncles with toothed wings. epileptic convulsions. USES. spleen diseases. pain in uterus and vagina. used also for local application. alterative. :—Root. Pellitary . asthma. ovate. depurative. LOC. It is also used as fish and crab poison.. :—Common in the Konkan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tuberculous glands. lessens inflammations . scabies. DISTR. cools brain. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). vomiting. Ceylon. irregularly crenateserrate. used in insanity. boils.—Nov-Jany. ring-worm of waist. t. Fl. M. :—Common in rice-fields. DISTR. PARTS USED. truncate. glaborous.—opposite. Fr.. CHAR. FAM. L. long. globose ovoid. tonic.— achene.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. fattening. stalked. oblong. Tonic. :—Root. leaves and flower-heads. :—Hot. solitary or subpanicled. :—Deccan. scalding of urine. Pappuso. They are chewed to relieve toothache. HABITAT. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. the latter when present minute. Powdered root is given as tonic. good for eyesore. increases appetite. biliousness. LOC. indigestion. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. ciliate near the ends . bark. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. :—Wild and cultivated. enriches blood . USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. :—Annual herb. :—E. alexipharmic. chest diseases. Fl. Australia. H. Fr. gives lustre to eyes . biliousness. anthelmintic. peduncles reaching 10 cm. C. piles. with honey they are given in cough. Africa. S. all warm countries. t.—purple. jaundice. useful in skin diseases. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. COM.—Achene. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. LOC.—in heads ovoid. dysentery. in cases of worms and indigestion. Fl. HABITAT.—compound heads. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. looseness of breasts.—Nov. serrate or dentate.—Compositæ. Sk. NS. :—Throughout India. bronchitis. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. PROPERTIES AND USES. rectal pain. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. elephantiasis. . ovate-oblong. leaves. compressed . digestible. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Akarakara . :—Throughout India. Akkalkara . Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . strangury. flowers and seeds. Celyon. stem and branches hairy. involucre bracts linear. M. and tonic (Stewart) . gleet. hemicrania (Ayurveda). laxative. emmenagogue. Akara-karava. base usually acute. They are given in powder form. urethral discharges and jaundice. anæmia. cooling. glandular hairy. leucoderma. Malay Islands. laxative. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. PARTS USED. urinary discharges. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. sometimes grown in gardens.

(STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM.5 m. :—Cultivated. destroys " Vata ". long. Amrataka. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Indian Archipelago. appetising. Andamans. K. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Country.5-18 x 3.-Apl. cures rheumatism. NS. branches nearly horizontal. Ambodha. Kumbhi. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. long. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Patala.. Sk. Parur. PROPERTIES AND USES. Hude. FAM. phthisis. Sd. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. biliousness.8-7. M.. ovate oblong. Amra. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. ulcers.—Bignoniaceæ. tonic. S. oblong.— petals 4-5. LOC. pinkish green. :—Bark. Marahunise. Hulave. entire. Giri Hadari. bark smooth. Indian Hog-Plum. aphrodisiac. hard. stone woody. Hongkong.5 cm.Feb. Ran-amba . Gum is demulcent. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery.—Anacardiaceæ. leaves and fruit. K. M. H. See—Gums and Resins. Pandri.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. high. COM. Wild Mango. Amate. Burma. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji.-usually 1. burning sensation. COM. Patala. DISTR. ash-coloured . Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache.—drupe. Padal. Ceylon. Dr. Kalavrinta. Ali-vallabha. Konkan. Pitana. good for sore-throat. 3. NS. It has been found useful in dysentery. LOC. C. yellow. Padal. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. HABITAT. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Tungi. Padiala. Kapichuta. Toyadhivasini. L. blood complaints . . PARTS USED. Gujarat. trunk straight.. Western Peninsula. Bile Tree. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. t. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. W. :—E. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. Kariguddada. :—Often planted throughout the State. enriches blood . In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. :—H. oblique. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). widely planted. Fr. Avatekayi. :—Leaves-tasty. refrigerant. Ambada. Fl. :—A tree 9-10. round with furrows and cavities.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. M.8 cm. Kanara. Kamduti. Fl. Sk. Pahad. CHAR. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. astringent. Salt Range. ovoid. Fruit—indigestible.

Visha-druma. bitter. :—Root. Fruit—useful in hiccup. useful in bilious diarrhœa. pungent. cures leucoderma. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). inflammation.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. COM. aphrodisiac. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. eructations. G. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Kangira. Karnatak. thirst. vomiting. Kanara. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Ittangi. Kupaka. Kanara. PARTS USED. LOC. Vishamushti. leaves. "Kapha". heating. blood diseases. heating. loss of taste. emmenagogue . :—Fruit-acrid. lumbago. Kakatinduka. Travancore. FAM. Kuchla. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . blood diseases. Crow Fig. N. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. tonic. DISTR. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. :—Monsoon-forests. from Kashmir to Sikkim . :—Wood (rarely). Kajra. Hemushti. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Karaskara. fevers.—Loganiaceæ. "Vata". LOC. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". :—In forests south of Bombay. anæmia. cures pains in joints. diuretic. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. piles . diuretic. tonic. flowers. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Kuchla. seeds. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Burma. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . Travancore . Circars. sub-Himalaya. ulcers. astringent to bowels. Sk. piles. poisonous. :—E. jaundice. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Very common in Konkan and N. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). fruit. LOC. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. asthma. Indo-China. appetiser. fruit. Nirmal. NS. M. Fruit—bitter. Poison Nut. ring-worm. Kajavara. :—Root-bitter. Kuchala. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Kachita. It is regarded as cooling. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. DISTR. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree.. Kajra. Flowers— acrid . itching. Planted in Ceylon. burning sensation. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES. tonic. K. Laos. :—More or less throughout tropical India. west coast of Madras State. Kelakutaka. Ceylon. H. See—Timbers. heating.

:—Western Peninsula. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Madhya Bharat. jaundice. Chittu bija. Shodhanatmaka. aphrodisiac. HABITAT. Ambuprasadini. Burma. COM. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. tonic. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. PROPERTIES AND USES. improve eye-sight. head-diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds—acrid. Nirmali. emetic. Nelmal. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Fruit useful in eye diseases. poisoning. DISTR. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. Sk. Country. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. good for liver. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. increases "Vata". M. hallucinations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. Seeds—bitter. K. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. alexiteric. diuretic. astringent to bowels. gonorrhœa. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. :—Deciduous dry forests. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Clearing Nut Tree. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. See—Timbers. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. M. . cure strangury. urinary discharges. thirst. :—Root (rarely). relieve colic (Yunani). :—E. kidney complaints. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. NS. alexipharmic. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. LOC. diaphoretic.. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Aduguchali-bija. Ceylon.—Loganiaceæ. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. causes biliousness. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Kanara and Khandesh. Kataka. fruit and seeds. LOC. FAM. Nivali. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. See—Timbers. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. H. also in Konkan. cures inflammations. anæmia. lithotriptic. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. :—Root cures leucoderma. PARTS USED.

white with blue veins. COM. Country. Bark—bitter. H.—Symplocaceæ. :— E. Bhilli. LOC. C. useful in abortions . Loder. Kadu. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. Bose).. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. C. CHAR. Tillaka. biliousness. Lodhra . The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Chota Nagpur. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). :—M. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Burma. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. L. Fl. in powder or in fresh decoction. DISTR. quadrangular. throughout N. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. etc. LOC. Fl. winged . colloturine and loturiaine. Mahabaleshwar. 5-nerved . dysentery.—many. HABITAT.-Jany. cures cough. decussate.. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . bleeding gums . M. Peninsula. Californian Cinchona. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling.—capsule. acrid. alexiteric. Shavaraka. aphrodisiac. high. :—India (W. astringent to bowels. vaginal discharges. 2-valved. cooling. S. ovoid or oblong. NS. Peninsula). diseases of blood. Torna fort. 4-winged. :—Konkan and N. FAM.9 m. :—Hilly parts. Lodhra. Lodh . Lodh is used in raw condition. emmenagogue. DISTR. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Balaloddujinamara. LOC. C. eye-diseases and ulcers . astringent and useful in bowel complaints. stem densely leafy. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Timbers. . Sd. PARTS USED. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu.3-0. China Nora. :—The whole plant is bitter. NS. leprosy. :—Western Ghats . Dyes. M. Deccan. digestible. 0. :—Root. Fr. :—An erect herb. flowers (rarely). "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Lodh Tree. :—W. Tiritaka. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. FAM. useful in eye-diseases. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. Lodhraka.— Oct. inflammations.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. :—Bark.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). broadly ovate. Deccan . Sk. t. Lodh. PROPERTIES AND USES.— lobes 4-5. COM. K.—Gentianaceæ.— sessile. Broughton). Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. :—Bark-acrid. E. PARTS USED.

dry. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. Shukapriya. PARTS USED.—Myrtaceæ. Nenda. LOC. Malaya. removes bad smell from mouth. NS. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. DISTR. Jamen. Nilphala. Jambudi. Shukapriya.) FAM. H. LOC. very often planted. carminative . K. Jambu-Nayinerale. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. Jambu. PROPERTIES AND USES. biliousness. Seeds—diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. bronchitis. LOC. :—Throughout the State. :—Bark-acrid. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. asthma.) FAM. See—Timbers. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. astringent. Jambura. both wild and cultivated. :—E. Jambu. :-Black-Java Plum. K. good lotion for ring-worm in head. COM. Surabhipriya. G. common along river banks. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Jambul. also used in spongy and painful gums. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. M. blood impurities. also wild. fruits and seeds. Jambul. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. thirst. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). carminative and diuretic. ulcers. astringent to bowels. increases "Vata". Fruit Trees. anthelmintic. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Nerate. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. dysentery. H. common at Mahabaleshwar. :—Bark. digestive. . Sk. Sk. strengthens gums and teeth. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Jamburaj. Pannerali. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Gulabjaman. :—Throughout India. Malay—Rose apple. Jambu. gargles and washes . fruit vinegar is tonic. Jam. Australia. cooling. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. Neralu. good gargle for sore-throat. NS. etc. sweet. useful in spleen diseases.—Myrtaceæ. Ceylon. Fruit—acrid. sprouts. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. M. enriches blood. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Jambula. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Kokileshta. Pharenda. good for sore-throat. Gulab-Jamb. Jambu. astringent to bowels. COM.

weakness of limbs. Br. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. fatigue. aphrodisiac. Khasia Hills. double. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes.. The plant contains an alkaloid. Bengal. Nandi. Tagara. fruit and seeds. Tagar .—snow-white. Fl. Cultivated in many places. removes bad humours. used in syphilis (Yunani). hot.5-5 cm. divaricate. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). Root chewed relieves toothache . Garhwal. emmenagogue. fragrant at night. heating. indigestible. :—E. LOC. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. Maddarasa gida . LOC. HABITAT. PARTS USED. Hills of Visakhapatanam. bitter.— opposite. useful in paralysis. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. across. PROPERTIES AND USES. salver-shaped. with milky juice . rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms.) FAM. tonic to brain. orange within. :—Root. used in liver complaints. bronchitis. 1-3 ribbed. LOC. Taggar. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. Trinidad . See—Timbers. . pale beneath. cures epilepsy. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. strangury. CHAR. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. alexipharmic. improves voice. t.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. acrid. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. M. G. :—Sikkim Terai. digestible. Yunnan to Australia. Seeds are astringent to bowels. 7. COM. Fl. purgative. K. inodorous during the day. Sk. Chandani. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. See—Ornamental Plants. tonic to brain. L. lobes 5 in single. E. wood and oil. PARTS USED. and an essential oil. NS. dysentery. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. thirst.—rainy season. astringent to bowels. lessens pains in limbs and joints .5-5 cm. Assam. :—Root is acrid. Kottuhale. indigestible.—Apocynaceæ. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. heavy speech. Burma. :—Bark." biliousness. Root—bitter . C—lobes overlapping to the left. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). H. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. :—Cultivated in gardens. used in asthma. tonic. cultivated in many parts. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). :—Bark is sweet. Ananta. Fr. DISTR. Fruit—sweet and tasty. Tagar. margins wavy.5-15 X 2. useful in "Kapha. Ashvathabheda. .—follicles. astringent to bowels. Wax flower. astringent to bowels. liver and spleen . glossy green above.

See—Ornamental Plants. Chinch. common in rain-forests. acrid. Flower—bitter. Amli. C. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. good for teeth . lessens inflammation .. Amlika. Fl. oblong lanceolate . Tamarind. Sk. Makhamala. Imli. high. across in pedunculate cymes . muscular pains. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. somewhat boat-shaped. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES.2-7. H.—surrounded by red pulp. :—E. Travancore up to 7. Makhamali. Amlike. Genda.. Sd. Tintidika. oil. Teter.. CHAR. :—Leaves and flowers. Tintrani. M. Halmeti. kidney troubles.4-4.—follicle. Nuli. astringent. throughout the Konkan and N. yellow when ripe. Nagaskuda.5-20 X 3. G. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.. HABITAT. Zanduga. PARTS USED. H. Maddarssa. G.5 m. wood.—white. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Kalaga. TAGETES ERECTA Linn.—Compositæ. Fl. :—Rain-forests. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Amala. :—Flower-pungent. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. :—Cultivated. Leaves—good for piles. Zendu. COM. HABITAT. Guljharo. useful in scabies. COM. Chinchika. M. . TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. coriaceous. :—Same as T.— tube inflated near the top. :—Root. Sk. NS. Nagakuda. :—E. Fr. LOC. Gultora. FAM. t. bark grey.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). NS. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . French Marigold. Kanara. divaricata. their juice is given in ear-ache. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani).—opposite. FAM. belching. L. :—Native of Mexico. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. carminative. stomachic.— Mar-Apl. Makhamal. LOC. Pandarakuda.000 m. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. K. DISTR. Amla. NS. M. PARTS USED. grown in gardens all over India. FAM.5 cm. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . :—Malabar. COM. DISTR. Sthulapushpa. 2. : K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. rough. Amli. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles.—Apocynaceæ. Chinch. Sandu. HABITAT. 7. internally they are said to purify blood.5 cm.

—Verbenaceæ. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. sore-throat. Sag. :—Bark.. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. indigestible. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. biliousness. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Madhya Bharat. such as body-burning. and for sizing materials. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Condiments and Spices. laxative. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Tega. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. :—Throughout India. DISTR. Fruit—sour. heals wounds and fractures. and laxative. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. heals ulcers. sweetish. Sagwan. scabies. Teak. wood. urinary discharges. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). abundant all along the slopes of W. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. eye-diseases. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. flowers. intoxication &c. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. Teka. LOC. Fruit-sour. Malay Peninsula.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. COM. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Seeds are good astringent. Tropics generally. Mahapatra. K. useful in liver-complaints. tasty. LOC. causes cough. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. Sagwan. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. G. fruit and seeds. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. tonic. flowers and seeds. vomiting. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. Bark—astringent. costiveness. NS. Kanara. PARTS USED. earache. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Circars. Tegu. tumours. digestive. thirst. H. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. stomatitis. leaves. Sagach. tonic to heart. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Sumatra and Java. Arna. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). small-pox. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. Flowers— appetising . bark. See—Timbers. Anil. Kanara. :—E. Burma. FAM. DISTR. heating. boiled they are used as a poultice. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. . Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. astringent to bowels. carminative. aphrodisiac. M.. Cultivated also. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. laxative. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Sagun. Sag. Seeds astringent. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent.

ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). it acts also as a vermifuge. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . fresh root-bark. Unhali. Kalika. Fr.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. Malay Peninsula. alterative. slightly curved.8 X 0. LOC. Kogge. LOC. ulcers. 2—2. long.—petals clawed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. anthelmintic. Flowers and seeds are diuretic.—Oct. Bark is an astringent. oblanceolate. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. enriches Blood .—5-6 . L. Phanike. cures diseases of liver. useful in bronchitis..2 cm. dry. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . S. CHAR. leaves and seeds. liver. Sarphoka. silkyhairy beneath. See—Timbers. suborbicular. useful in bronchitis. long. gonorrhœa (Yunani). allays thirst. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair.5 cm. syphilis. H. Plihari. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. HABITAT:—Open situations. useful in piles. tumours.-June. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. biliousness. high. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. Fl. 30—60 cm. Sharapunkha.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). improve appetite. LOC. root. anthelmintic. Fl. Wood good for head ache. Wood—acrid. M. COM. Sarphonka. good in piles. :—The whole plant. cooling. NS. :—All over India. antipyretic. expectorant. PARTS USED. leaflets 11—21. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. spleen diseases. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis.—pod 3—4. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. glabrous above. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). :—Plant-digestible. DISTR. Country. laxative. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sarpankho. burning pain over the region of liver. K. M. :-G. inflammations. asthma.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. red. C. increase "Vata". sedative to gravid uterus. Empali. branches spreading. cultivated lands and roadsides. alexiteric. Flowers—acrid. blood. biliousness.8—1. :—A perennial herb. Sk. mucronate.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. pubescent on the back. ground and made into a pill. urinary discharges. . "Root—diuretic. t. asthma. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. standard. heart. Gujarat. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda).. useful in lung and chest diseases. poisoning. boils and pimples. Ghodakan. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. Jhila. linear. Sharapunkha. Sd. along forest borders. useful in scabies. Leaves—tonic to intestines . Udhadi. spleen. leprosy. Konkan. FAM. cures diarrhœa . bitter. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. mucronate. allays thirst.

Madras State. tonic. Tari. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. G.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. FAM. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. PARTS USED. Arjun Sadada. . NS. Ceylon. K. Hela. Kakubha. Belleric Myrobalan. Rajastan and Sind. ulcers. Behada. strangury. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. LOC. blood-diseases. Bera. & A. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. COM. K. Kalidrum. laxative. " Kapha". Baire. DISTR. biliousness. Bedda Nut. Bibhitiki. Karshaphala. styptic. M. Kushika. :—Throughout the forests of India. in Khandesh Akrani. Behedo. Sadura. NS. sore-throat. Arjan. Karvirak. diuretic. excessive perspiration. Aksha. leaves. Sk. anæmia. Koha. useful in biliousness. Vibhitika. Beheduk. Dhanvi. COM. Sadado. The plant contains the glucoside rutin.—Combretaceæ. FAM. Sagona. in the sub-Himalayan tract. aphrodisiac. H. fruit (rarely). PARTS USED. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. tumours. Burma. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. acrid. M. Arjuna. Arjun-Sadada. LOC. :—Bark. leucoderma. :—E. :—Konkan and Deccan. Madhya-Bharat. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—E. Sk. digestible. asthma. Expectorant.—Combretaceæ. Bahaza. See—Timbers. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. biliousness. Voting. Fruit-pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES. Buhura. useful in bronchitis. strangury. Indradruma. tonic. with milk. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. very common in South Konkan.. false presentation of fœtus. Tara. Bahara. heart disease. Madhya-Pradesh. Bastard Myrobalan. Arjuna. except in dry arid regions. useful in fractures. :—Alexiteric. Kahu. anthelmintic . Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. G. intoxication. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Vibhata. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. :—Bark. externally in wounds and fractures. anthelmintic. H. :—Throughout the greater parts of India.. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. Shantimara. urinary discharges. LOC. Arjuna. fruit and seed. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. White Marudah. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. inflammation. Chota-Nagpur. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams.. DISTR.

dyspepsia. eye diseases etc. Haritaki. —E. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. piles. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. is used as an application in ophthalmia. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. used in paralysis (Yunani). Jivantika. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. useful in caries of teeth. bleeding piles. Harade. :—Fruit-dry. Kernel has narcotic properties. COM. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. Ripe fruit—purgative. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. H. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. Black myrobalan. sore-throat. stomachic. PARTS USED. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. Haritaki. Harara. USES. applied to eyes. mixed with honey. vesicular calculi. strangury. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. ascites. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . Abhaya. itching pain. useful in dyspepsia. vomiting. corneal ulcers. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. the fully ripe or dried fruit. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. LOC. anthelmintic. hoarseness. in Travancore. elephantiasis. M. tonic. Dyes. tonic. :—Bark and fruit. carminative. piles. useful in thirst. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). aperient. LOC. leucoderma. Jivanti. Fruit-astringent. See—Timbers. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. K. Gums and Resins. common in Khandesh Akrani. Kanara. heating. antidysenteric. gums. alterative . eyes. heart and bladder. inflammations. heart and bladder. intoxicating. Chebulic myrobalan. piles and diarrhœa. tumours. Hirdo . a valuable preparation used in many diseases. thirst. constipation. good in ophthalmia. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. anaemia. Burma. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. antipyretic. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. NS. diseases of eye. urinary discharges. G. tonic. bleeding and ulceration of gums. diarrhœa. brain tonic (Yunani). It is a constituent of " Triphala ".—Combretaceæ. FAM. cold in head. expectorant. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. Hirda. Seed—acrid. Alate. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. enriches blood. hiccup. Har. carminative. biliousness. gout. vomiting. useful in asthma. bilious headache. Sk. attenuant. strengthens brain. which is considered a good digestive. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. diseases of eye. delirium (Ayurveda). :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. typhoid fever. Haria. nose. Ceylon. diseases of spleen.

LOC. Gajadanta. Parasipu. :—Coast forests of India. :—Districts of Konkan and N. :—Bark. :—E. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Bhend. . especially centipedes. Tulip Tree. Bhandi. leaves.. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ".—Malvaceæ. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Bengal. also planted as roadside tree. M. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. See—Timbers. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. :—Fruit-sour. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Paras-piper. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jogiyarale. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. produces worms in intestines . Kanara. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Ranbhendi. Burma. COM. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). G. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Fibres. Hucerasi. aphrodisiac . Dyes. Paraspiplo. burning of body . DISTR. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. difficult to digest. Suparshuakan. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. See—Timbers. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Phalisha. Arasi. Sacred Plants. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Mhaskar and Issac). NS. increases " Kapha " . Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Sk. Bhindi. flowers and fruit. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Parisha. K. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Kandarala. profuse discharge. acrid . Paraspipal. Kuberaksha. Tans. FAM. PARTS USED. Gandarati. H. Bugari. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Portia Tree. LOC.

size of a pea . eye-troubles. bladder. females solitary. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. yellow. Andamans and Ceylon. Gulo. Gurch. NS. Sk. CHAR. :—Often planted. Pittaghni.. :—Stem.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. red. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . seeds and milky juice. K. G. virgin uterus. Sk. COM. H. pungent. Pila kanir.—drupes. Indies . Zard kunel. 1—3. often planted in India. M.—Apl. Pila kaner. :—Bark. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. M. across. lobes 5. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—generally 4. :—E. with milky juice. Fl. but its use is attended with considerable danger. Ashvaghna. male fascicled. :—Native of S. worms. hot. Amritvalli.. Pivali kanher. Fl. frequently planted. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. Gulancha. CHAR. corona in the throat. Sd. linear. very poisonous (Ayurveda). throat campanulate. DISTR. C. :—Throughout tropical India. Jwaranashini. Haripriya. bronchitis .—in axillary and terminal racemes.5—12. yellow. tubular. Fr. See—Ornamental Plants. grooved . Heart-leaved moonseed. t. Burma. FAM. PARTS USED. LOC. Karvira. :—E. piles. LOC. 5 cm.—membranous. America and W. fevers. G. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. it has no action on digestive enzymes . skin diseases. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji).—broadly obovate. Fl. 7. Gulvel. bark corky. root. exocarp fleshy. NS. growing on mango and other trees.. Gulhel. HABITAT.5 cm. LOC. bright green and shining above.—Apocynaceæ. Shatakumbha. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison.—in terminal cymes. Amrita-Valli.—Menispermaceæ. HABIT :—In thickets. elliptic. PARTS USED. useful in urethral discharges. :—An extensive climber. . L. crowded . and blood vessels . cures " Vata " . FAM. 7—9 nerved.-spirally arranged. endocarp corky. dorsally convex. astringent to bowels. ventrally flat. Exile or yellow Oleander. COM. Fr. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. wounds. acrid. Amarvel. leucoderma. Vatsadani. L. DISTR. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Uganiballi. Gulvel. mesocarp bony. long. H. 5—10 cm. Gado.

stimulates bile secretion.8. (Kirtikar). allays thirst. diuretic. Sumatra. unisexual. :—All over the Madras State . mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). USES. Macimullu. antipyretic. burning sensation. giddiness. digitately trifoliate. COM. good in cough. vomiting. fruits.. chronic fever. oblong. ovary rudimentary. HABITAT. tonic. Mirchi. Sk. high. orange coloured. Fl. armed with small hooked prickles . 3-5 grooved. vomiting. leaves. :—E. K. stigma sessile. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. M. vaginal and urethral discharges. stimulant and anti-periodic. H.—Rutaceæ. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. useful in skin diseases. Gangalaki. CHAR. common in S. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. stomachic. PARTS USED. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. 5-7 lobed. bark. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. 15 m. L.8-3. diarrhœa. stomachic . fever. juice useful in diabetes. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. NS. pitted on the rind. Philippines. expectorant.—Dehan. Root-bark is aromatic. Java. FT.—in axillary cymes.—Aug. Kadu-menasu. LOC. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. Kumaon to Bhutan. Manger. Dahan. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels.— alternate. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. Konkan and Kanara. dark shining green above. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. coriaceous. tropical Africa. LOC. Lopezroot Tree. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tonic appetiser. Stem-bitter. enriches blood. :—Rain-forests.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. jaundice. also in the Deccan hills. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). anæmia. Root and stem are bitter. cures jaundice. Limri. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. piles. Forest Pepper. leaflets sessile. female flower buds oblong.—globose. causes constipation.-Jany. Kaduhakukare. especially acid. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. male flower bud globose. Jangali-Mirchi. FAM. Khasia Hills. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. Fl. t. crenulate. 5-10 X 1. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. :—Root. China. size of a large pea. white. . USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. :—Stem-bitter. renews blood. DISTR. Ceylon. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases.

FAM. indigestible. Nand-vriksha. Mahalimbu. HABIT. aphrodisiac. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. removes " Kapha ". Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Assam. Singodi. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. cardio-tonic. digestible. Shingada. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. :—Cooling . :—Bark-acrid. :—Aquatic (in tanks). Kanara. H. Kalingi. Tun. Trikota. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. anthelmintic. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. burning sensation. cooling. urinary discharges. Toon. Ceylon. K. tonic. cures leprosy. COM. biliousness. M. "Tridosha". :—Fruit. DISTR. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Sk. G. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Trikone-phala. :—Throughout India. antipyretic . LOC. good for scabies and gleet. leprosy. Tuni. Sandal Neem. :—E. blood diseases. :—E. Kuberaka. NS. expectorant. tropical Africa. Indian Mahogany. Chota-Nagpur. Shingoda. Chittagong. burning sensation.) FAM. Kaechaka. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. useful in ulcers. astringent to bowels. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. often cultivated. Singhara. Sk. fattening. Kuruk. Burma. of India). The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. strangury. cures fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. headache. removes " Tridosha". PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. Mandurike. Lud. Water-chestnut. PARTS USED. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. Gandhagarige. Tundu. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. NS. Garige. LOC.—Meliaceæ. causes " Vata " . Waitz). Shringa-kanda-taka. :—Bark and flowers. Lim. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Tunika. Apina. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. biliousness. :—Throughout the State in tanks. fatigue. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. DISTR.—Onagraceæ. Gums and Resins. Dyes. useful in . itching. Jalakantaka-valli. Malaya.. H. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Bark—bitter. inflammation. Deodari.

all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Karahate. Aphrodisiac.:—Saurashtra. young parts silky. Assam. Sumatra. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . biliousness. NS. . Gokshri. See—Food Plants. Gokhru. DISTR. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Malay Peninsula. M. LOC. COM. pain. oblong. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. Petari . useful in chronic fevers. They are also used in the form of poultice. improves taste . used as food. Shadanga. along nalas and in swampy localities. Gokhru. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Hussuk. hairy. Kurangaha. M. K. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. one of each pair smaller than the other. lumbago. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Kere Padye. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. LOC. M. Tumri. Kanara. COM. sharp spines. Gujarat. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. Java. Fl. mucronate. yellow. alexiteric. Ceylon. Chhota gokhru. FAM. bronchitis. thirst. Fibres. abruptly pinnate. considered cool and sweet. FAM. :—Throughout India. antipyretic. :—The whole plant. LOC.—throughout the year. Gamhar. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gokhura. upto 3300 m. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid. a common weed of the drier parts. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. :—H. Kantaphala. bile and phlegm. G. of 5 woody cocci. in Kashmir. Fr.—opposite.—globose. Seeds abound in starch. PARTS USED.. LOC.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). bad-teeth (Yunani).. Gokharu. stems and branches pilose. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. L. Pindara. base oblique. sore-throat. Calthrope. :—E.. one pair longer than the other . solitary. NS. Sk. Sd. K. Pindara. Negalu . DISTR. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn.—Zygophyllaceæ. Country. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge.—several in each coccus . Trikantaka. Sarata. :—A procumbent herb. appetiser. H. each with 2 pairs of hard. Ceylon. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. CHAR. t. Deccan and S. leaflets 3—6 pairs . See—Timbers. :—Plant is cooling tonic. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Gokshura. Sk.—Euphorbiaceæ.

LOC. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections.— Dec.—Compositæ. cures "Kapha". :—Hot. appetiser. urinary discharges. cures strangury. spinous toothed or serrate. Physiaran. increases menstrual flow. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. Central India. LOC. the Deccan. :—A glabrous herb. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay.—heads 6—8 mm. pruritus ani. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. Fr. gonorrhœa. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. pappus shorter than the achenes. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. purifies blood . bloody urine. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). H. cures skin and heart diseases. M. long. Brahmadandi. alterative . INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Talakanto. NS. FAM. West Rajastan. :—Cooling . Coorg and the hills of Mysore. tonic . . yellowish brown. gleet. COM. Brahma-dandi. diuretic. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. stem erect. lumbago . Diuretic.— purple. Kantapatraphala. faintly ribbed. M. oblong. vesicular calculi. Brahmadandi.—sessile. DISTR. Sk. seeds. "Vata". pain . PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue (Yunani). fruits. :—Western Peninsula. reduces inflammation. tonic. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. S. Kanara. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Konkan. alleviating burning sensation. Country. ovoid. Mt. USES :—Fruits are cooling. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES. which is taken in large quantities. Mota-Motachor. S. diuretic. fattening. t. reduces inflammation . Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. urinary disorders and impotence. —achene. piles. slender. C. bitter. tonic. LOC. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . :—Root. Aja-dandi. stomachic. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). S. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). Abu. branches angled and ribbed. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. : — G. inflammations. cough. suppression of urine. useful in strangury. K. :—The whole plant. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. Brahmadandi. CHAR. Kanara. HABITAT. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. removes " Tridosha ". asthma. linear-oblong or lanceolate. enriches blood . :—Wild in places. leprosy . improves appetite . ciliate. Brahmadandi. Fl. leaves. copious.

Gujarat (common) and Kanara.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. long as well as broad. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. headache and boils. alterative. G. PROPERTIES AND USES. green with white stripes when raw. male in axillary racemes. leaf-juice is emetic.3 cm. bitter.5—7. Patola. dentate or serrate.5 cm.3-12. chireta and honey. cures itching. Sd. reniform or broadly ovate. paler beneath. Panduka. slightly hairy. white. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. :—A scandent annual. burning sensation. COM. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. :—Throughout India. — surrounded with red-pulp . Fl. Sk. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Ceylon. leaves. stem robust. with a long sharp beak. stems 3. :—E. Lal-indrayan. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.5 cm. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. K. Leaves—good for biliousness. axillary. NS. N. females solitary. Fr. NS. cures bronchitis. palmately 3-5 lobed.. Mahakala. woody below. anasarca and ascites. Avagude-hannu. fruit. Kaundal.—July-Oct. base deeply cordate.—monœcious. Malaya. L. :—Root-cathartic . antipyretic. :—Root.—Cucurbitaceæ. FAM . allays thirst. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . Betlada padaval. stomachic. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. HABITAT:-In hedges. Kiripodla. Katuka. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. furrowed. Sk. H. —G. M. Makal.-6. Ratan-indrayan. pungent. PARTS USED.-5-12. K. the Deccan. laxative. useful for boils and intestinal worms. Australia. oil. ovoid-fusiform. long. Fl. distantly denticulate. slender. Indrayan.. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. CHAR. LOC. deeply 5-lobed. Wild Snake-gourd.5 m. DISTR. blood diseases. Malay Peninsula. ulcers. t. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. scarlet when ripe. LOC. lobes ovate-oblong. antipyretic. variable. leprosy. Mukal. CHAR. M. Root-juice is very purgative. long. long. Kadvi-padyal or patola . base cordate .—2. Jangali chichonda. H. FAM. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. orbicular. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). asthma. COM. Fruit—hot. Jyotsna. dark-green above. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic.—Cucurbitaceæ. eye diseases.-male in axillary . Jangli— Kadu padval. it is given in decoction with ginger. L. Perula. tendrils 3 cleft. leucoderma. erysipelas.. alexiteric. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. In Bombay.6—4. tendrils 3-fid. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever.

—petals wedge-shaped. female solitary. very hairy. CHAR. China. Fl.5 cm. Fl. sparsely white hairy. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. abortifacient. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. :—Wild in hilly parts. 30-60 cm. gargle good for toothache. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. on the Himalayas. lessens inflammations .-July. :—M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. :—Leaves. ligules yellow. slender. PROPERTIES AND USES. white.—globose 3-8. t. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. which is found abundantly all over the country. DISTR.—1... the smoke causes hæmatemesis. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. Fr.75-1 in. densely silky hairy. leprosy. 3-partite. Juice of fruit or root-bark. Australia. C. peduncles very long. high.—throughout the year. petioles densely hairy. :—Throughout India. Fruit—carminative. bracts large. HABITAT. fringed. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES. diam. boiled with gingelly oil. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . Kirkee. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. :—Abundant in the Deccan. COM. Sd.—head solitary. purgative.— achene. axillary. used in epilepsy. Deccan and S. N. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. LOC. LOC.. Ceylon.— Apl.75 X . rheumatism. :—Root and fruit. middle lobe smallest. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. limbweakness. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). glandular. cures hemicrania. Ray flowers ligulate. Japan. Malaya. NS.—many . L. all over the State. PARTS USED. M. Ekdandi.—Compositæ. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. ovate-elliptic.. Fr. Fl. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. hairy. t. LOC. ophthalmia. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. :— Wild in Konkan. black. heat of brain. bruises and wounds. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. stem and branches hairy. many years ago. inner slightly longer than outer. DISTR. . :—A perennial straggling herb. acute. outer involucral bracts ovate. FAM. PARTS USED.

Sd. long. Fl. enlargement of spleen and liver. antipyretic. useful in dropsy. tonic. Nepala . Janglipikvan. 5-10 x 2. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.7 cm. large for the genus. FAM. diarrhœa. :—Punjab. flatulence. aperient. K. LOC. also in low and sandy localities. FN. Jyoti. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. Antamul. Kashmir. Pitakari (Pitamari). tapering to a fine point at the apex. Hot and dry. Methini.5—10 cm. :—H. L. Pitabija Vedhini. :—E. narrowed at the apex to a free point. :—Cultivated. cures leprosy.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. "Vata". G. M. See—Vegetables.5-5. NS. S. removes bad taste from mouth. t. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. roots many. greenish-yellow outside. Methi. vomiting. enlargement of spleen and liver. with coma . Sk. bronchitis. Chandrika. M.—follicles. LOC. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. COM.— broadly ovate. purplish within. astringent to bowels.. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. ovate or elliptic oblong. Konkan. K. Fl. anthelmintic. M.. long. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic.—opposite. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. cultivated in many parts of India. Fenugreek . dysentery. CHAR. diuretic.—Aug. fleshy. :—Leaves and seeds. Methi.—deeply lobed. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Menthe—palle. much used in colic. COM. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. LOC. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS. :—A twining perennial. prevent hair falling off (Yunani).-Nov. . FAM.—Asclepiadaceæ. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. they are also aphrodisiac. base cordate. Methi. chronic cough. :—South of Bombay.—in umbellate cymes . appetiser. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. dropsy. Muthi. suppurative. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Methi . and the seeds contain vitamin A. corona gibbous below. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. 7. tonic and carminative. C. piles. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. H. PARTS USED. :—Hot. DISTR. Country. HABITAT. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli.

:—Wild. white. USES. :—Bulb. scape erect 30-45 cm.. Thailand (Siam)..9-1. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. flat. M. PARTS USED. Pithavan. HABITAT. Fr. :—Sandy places. LOC. Sk. Jaglipiaz. Vanapalandu. H. COM. glabrous. . hairy beneath. W. diaphoretic and expectorant. Malay Islands.— pod. G. folded on one another. Jangli-Ran-khanda.—appearing after the flowers. KolaPutakand. :—Western Himalayas. Fr. HABITAT.. blotched with white above. long. polished.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Sd. 5-7 (rarely 9). pale lead-colored. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. :—Roots and leaves. tropical Africa. Bihar. FAM. stems downy with hooked hairs. Sk. linear.8 m. Burma. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. 10-20 cm.— flattened. COM. NS. black. joints 3-6. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. 20-30 cm. LOC. Pitvan.—purple. CHAR. found useful in dysentery. high. DISTR. H. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. long. Rankanda.—Aug.5 cm. Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Shankaraja . Dried leaves are emetic. :—G. :—Common on sandy shores. :—Throughout India. FAM. long. :—A perennial shrub. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. drooping. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Fl. :—E. Malay Islands. :—Throughout the plains of India. Ceylon. 15-45 x 1. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. CHAR. Prishna-parni. stalks long.— imparipinnate.— Liliaceæ. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Ranganja . Fl. URARIA PICTA Desv. Indian Squill. L. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. linear-oblong. C. :—Konkan.3-2. ellipsoid. M.. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). C. Fl.-Sept.. NS. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Borneo. USES.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). t. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. 0. light-brown . perianth campanulate. Chota-Nagpur. tapering to both ends . DISTR.. :—A herb.—in racemes 15-30 cm. Dabra. Pitavan . PARTS USED.— petals lanceolate. Philippines. Panjala.—capsule. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. tropical Africa.

LOC. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. bronchitis. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. maritima of U. S. Gujarat and Kanara. lumbago.—thickly coriaceous. Br. dropsy. bronchitis. internal pains (Yunani). useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Rasno.3-2 cm. long. Atiras. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. DISTR. Sk. :—Root is bitter. Bandanike. Fr. L. COM. :—An epiphyte. :—Bengal.—capsule. obtusely keeled. t. stem 30-60 cm. Bihar. W. alexiteric. and was found useful (Koman). M. Sarpagandha. :—Konkan. Rasna. lessens inflammations .— July. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. Chota-Nagpur. praemorse. H. complicate. stimulant and diuretic. toothache. Banda. skin diseases. Gaz.—Orchidaceæ. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. FAM. scilla of Great Britain. good for piles. cardiac. (In Med. 1931. antipyretic. diuretic. long... heating. anthelmintic. useful in dyspepsia. acute. Persara. and U. heals fractures (Yunani). a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. erect. tip. Peninsula. Fl. boils in the scalp. purgative. NS. LOC. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. PROPERTIES AND USES. Vriksharuha. heating. inflammations. :—G. and an acute interposed one. recurved. diseases of the abdomen. alexiteric. long. lip bluish dotted with purple. renal calculi. :—Root and leaves.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. scandent by simple or branching roots . The plant contains an alkaloid. laxative. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Nakula. Travancore.. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. emmenagogue. column very short. PARTS USED. Ceylon. useful in paralysis. Vanda. Fl. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. rheumatism. tremors (Ayurveda). pollinia ellipsoid. LOC. Rasna. hiccup. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Rasna. 2-lobed. :—Epiphyte. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. CHAR. USES :—Expectorant. asthma.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. A. alexiteric. bronchitis. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. diseases of nose. Root is bitter. Madhya-Pradesh. tonic to brain and liver. HABIT. :—The bulb is pungent. K. The bulb is stomachic. stout.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. . rheumatic pains.5—9 cm. 15-20 X 1.

DISTR. diarrhœa. whitish). greenish. LOC. Kaharub. amenorrhœa. Country. abundant in S. carminative. t.-Jany. Poppli. Dhupa. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. expectorant. Coorg in Ghats. C. globular. PARTS USED. Fl. with an offensive odour. also planted. itch (Ayurveda). :—Bark. Gums and Resins. PROPERTIES AND USES. yellowish. urinary discharges. Sk.. dysentery. Fl.—Dec. Tenasserim. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. :—Bark-hot.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. hemicrania. Madidhupa. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. FAM.—petals 5. See—Timbers. also in N. LOC. young branches and panicles pubescent. Kanara and S. Kundura. in chronic bronchitis. cures cough. H. Khandvel. useful in atonic dyspepsia. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). alexipharmic. Safed-damar. :—Madras State. acrid. alexipharmic.8 cm. CHAR. Sk. DISTR.-nut about 5 mm. detergent. H. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. debility and slight cases of fever. entire or crenate. :—E. K. Pitti. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. FAM. eardiseases. Ceylon. Shala. Lokhandi. COM. ulcers and wounds. buds 5-angled. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. NS. Kanara. USES. M. tonic. good for sore-throat. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. (T. L. G. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment.—5-10 X 2. COM.5-3. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. :—Western India. Travancore. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. tonic and stimulant. Sandras. Raktavalli. NS. useful in leprosy. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. boils and ringworm. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. 1-nerved wing.. resin. Mysore. deciduous and monsoon-forests. :—A large much branched woody climber. :—North Kanara.—in large drooping terminal panicles. Shandike. Bilidhupa. stomachic. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. skin eruptions. Red Creeper. prolonged into a linear-oblong. LOC. M. fruit. dark. Ragatarshado. :—E. Fr. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). HABITAT :—Hotter parts. anæmia. rheumatism. tuberculous glands.—Rhamnaceæ.—Dipterocarpaceæ. bechic. Malamaitra. Sarjaka. Oils.. Kubbila. PARTS USED. :—Bark. piles. Haruge. diam. Sekalyel. . Dhupa.

:—Konkan . USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.Feb.—capsule. . leafy herb .-achene oblong cylindric.2 cm. G. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda).—Scrophulariaceæ. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Sk. L.—oblong. PARTS USED. Kalhara. ofter cultivated. rounded. squeezed out by pounding. Fl. M. The juice of the whole plant. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). LOC. "Vata" and "Kapha". erect. Kulhala.. C. DISTR.—Compositæ. Country. truncate. Kutki. Somaraj. t— Jany. anthelmintic. Fr. Ceylon. COM. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Bhutakeshi. Java . Kalejire. rachis glandular pubescent. H. Sd. Sundika. innermost the longest. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. :—Plant. NS. :—Throughout India . lobes 5. M. Kalijiri. Kalizhiri. Vanajiraka. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. in equal proportions. stems 60—90 cm. The juice mixed with mustard oil.8 cm. Gujarat. coarsely serrate. 10-ribbed. DISTR.—heads subcorymbose. warted. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. K. Ceylon . all coarsely dentate. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. lyrate. Seeds— anthelmintic. on long petioles. :—Seeds-acrid. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. cure ulcers. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. lanceolate. :—Throughout India. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. robust. stem 0. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. CHAR. CHAR.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Afghanistan.—alternate..5—3. Gadar-tambaku. used in skin-diseases. hairy. Vapehi.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. high. COM. 5—9 x 2. Deccan . PROPERTIES AND USES. branched near the top. compound or pinnatisect. high .. LOC. Kadvojiri. Sk.-rotate. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Kulara. Fr. hairy on both sides. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. FAM.6-0.) FAM.. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. with purple tips . L. pappus reddish. :—G.—Dec. Bakchi. Somaraj. H. Vishamushti. about 40-flowered. often cultivated. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet.-May. hairy. Fl. :—E. Agnibija. Fl. China. hairy. sub-globose. M.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. :—Annual. PARTS USED.9 m. yellow. NS. Fl. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent to bowels. Purple Fleabane. LOC. involucre bracts linear. HABITAT:-Waste places. K. :—An annual herb. and leaves.

tonic. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Osari. asthma. PARTS USED. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. Africa . striate. Sk. heads small. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. M. Devika. plant is used in fever convulsions.—Compositæ. Sadodi. Ushira. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. COM.—Gramineæ. Sahadevi. applied in inflammatory swellings . The expressed juice is given in piles. bruised seeds ground up in paste. NS. good for sores and itching of eyes. Sind. DISTR. Sahadevi. NS. awned. In Ceylon. cures "Tridosha". the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). astringent. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. cold.— pinkish violet. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Khas. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. FAM. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. consumption. Koosa.—Jan. oblong.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. clothed with white hairs . M. Mudivala. L. Vecrnam. alternate.. high. Panni. pubescent.—achene. Sahadevi. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. CHAR. Cuscus grass. :—E. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. t. H. Bena. made into a bolus with lime-juice. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. LOC. G. Kuruvelu. hiccup . was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. remove blood from liver. Vala. FAM. :—A common weed throughout the State. The plant with quinine. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. bronchitis . are used in destroying pediculi. Bala. Sk. Fr. .—simple. Lavancha. stomachic. kidney troubles. pappus white. H. :—E. K. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. used for asthma. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. flowers. Fl. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. They are also used as tonic. Sedardi. :—Plant. Dandotpala. seeds. with lime-juice. K. Valo . a depilatory (Yunani). COM. :—Throughout India. tropical Asia. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). Ash-coloured Fleabane . Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet.-Feb. stem stiff. :—Annual. Fl. LOC. Sadori. stomachic and diuretic. G. 15—75 cm. silky on the back. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Australia. Ardhaprasadana. LOC. erect herb.

anthelmintic.. Nirgundi. promotes hair-growth. useful in spermatorrhoea. colour varying from yellowish to black. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. The otto is used as a tonic. thirst. L. rachis stout. astringent. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. :—Throughout the State. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. foul breath. leaves. leucoderma. DISTR. head-ache. usually sheathed all along. Philippine Islands. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. Nirgud. margin spinously rough. Lakki. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. Bilenekki. up to over 1. Nirgundi. H. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. lower ones keeled and fan-like. bitter. sweats. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. throughout the Malayan regions.—panicle up to 30 cm. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Cooling to brain.—Verbenaceæ. stimulant and tonic. tonic and vermifuge. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . expectorant and diuretic. asthma. slender. FAM. cephalic. :—G. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES. inflammations and irritability of stomach. Sambhalu. Nirgari.-leaf sheaths compressed.8 m. erect. M. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. COM. LOC. bitter.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. consumption. febrifuge. bitter. PARTS USED. diuretic. Sind. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Sessile spikelets. Ceylon. alexiteric. West-Indies and Brazil.. blood diseases (Yunani). juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. long. Sinduvara. long. spleen enlargement. useful in eye diseases. Leaves are aromatic. biliousness. pale green. :—Cooling. strangury. Nilpushpi. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. heating. NS. LOC. refrigerant. K. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . :—Roots. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. astringent. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. soporific. Nukki. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). racemes up to 5 cm. PARTS USED. Konkan and Deccan. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. LOC. stomachic. DISTR. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. Afghanistan. useful in burning sensation. Kanara in damp places. Nirgundi. high. also cultivated. Indrani. :—Root. bilious fevers. bronchitis. stomachic. The roots contain an essential oil. Nigod. Culms stout. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . Sk. USES :—Root is tonic. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Fl.

NS. Draksha. produces alopecia. There are numerous cultivated varieties. astringent to bowels. sparingly in Poona. India. fattening . Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. good for eyes and throat. See—Timbers. seeds. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. The fruits contain vitamin A.. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). :—Cultivated. Angur. hoarseness and consumption. aperient. aphrodisiac. burning. G. Draksha. flowers. laxative. tonic to liver. heat of body. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. causes gases in the stomach. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Ahmednagar. Grape-vine. emmenagogue. HABITAT. FAM-—Vitaceæ. Yakshmaghni. Seeds—aphrodisiac. :—Fruit-acrid. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. fever. PARTS USED :—Stem. diuretic . liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. cooling. catarrh and jaundice. :—E. applied in scabies. M. cough. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". difficult to digest. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. produces constipation. Angura. expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. a remedy for skin diseases. COM. stones in bladder. fruits. diarrhœa. . Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. jaundice. Flowers—expectorant. leaves. Country. Madhurasa. Drakh . emmenagogue. Guchaphala. Sk. and traces of vitamins B and C. stomachic. LOC. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. K. cooling . appetiser. The plant contains an alkaloid. allays vomiting. cures thirst. purifies and enriches blood . good in chronic bronchitis . good for lungs. blood diseases. testicle swellings and piles. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. allays vomiting. Fruit— digestive. Darakh. laxative. liver and kidney. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. LOC. Draksha. useful in old fevers. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. Sap of young branches. :—Deccan. Khandesh. Gujarat and S. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). and given in coughs. spleen inflammation. fattening. asthma. cooling useful in thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit is nervine. diuretic. M. syphilis. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. fever. H. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. sweet. W. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. piles. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. :—A native of western Asia. Draksha. skin should not be eaten. strangury. bad effects of drinking. DISTR. stops bleeding from mouth.

usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . insomnia. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Gujarat. Drakshasava—used as tonic. inserted on the top of. coriaceous. Ceylon. H. Punir. Hooliganji. Vajini. leaves. inflammations.—berry. Fl. Sk.—yellow. enclosed in inflated calyx. ulcers. calyx-tube. smooth. Wagati. obovate. CHAR. minutely hairy. dark-green. anthritis. CHAR. long.— Sept. alterative. oblong. dark-orange. useful in "Vata".-Feb. branches terete. (not common. bronchitis. COM. green berries. L. hoary tomentose . HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. branches armed with recurved prickles . NS. NS. Tuber—bitter. :—In the drier regions of India . Sd. Sogada-beru.—5-10 X 2. armed with prickles . lumbago. Amangura. 6 mm. Kanchuki. Gandhpatri. Kamrupini. DISTR. "Kapha".5-12.—Solanaceæ. Cape of Good Hope. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Deccan. :—A branched erect undershrub. good in asthma. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Root and bark. acrid. bony Fl. :—A robust woody climber. Fr.5 m. bronchitis.—pod. Ashvagandha. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). abundant in Sind . long. Fl. Fl. senile debility.—2-pinnate. LOC. :—Drier regions. aphrosidiac.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. tonic. Canaries. C.. .) DISTR. psoriasis. Asgund. inflammations. anthelmintic. USES.—3-4. long.3-1. Fr. swollen above the seeds. Mediterranean regions. G.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. Ghodasoda. Asan. aphrodisiac. ovate. Winter-cherry. leucoderma. :—K. Hirimaddina-gadde. consumption. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. :—E. Wagati. base dentate. M. L. emmenagogue .. 23-30 cm. M. hard. entire. constricted between them. asthma. rachis grooved with soft hairs. COM. HABITAT. FAM.—greenish or lurid yellow. seeds. :—Konkan jungles. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . pinnae 4-6 pairs. See—Fruit Trees. alexipharmic. :—Tubers-bitter.5 cm. oblong. favours constipation (Yunani). somewhat scurfy. spathulate. marasmus of children. Asoda.-Jany. Asgundh. Kanara. slightly 5-angled. t. PROPERTIES AND USES.—petals 5..5-5 cm. red. Wakeri. K. high. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. t. :—Deccan. leaflets 5-7 pairs. chest troubles etc. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. linear oblong. 7. tonic. heating. LOC. 0. PARTS USED. Balada. pretty common in the ghats. FAM. main rachis armed with prickles. scabies. diam.

K. . 1 cm. Dudhi. in 2-15 flowered cymes.3-2. Kalakuda. Madagascar. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). :—Pungent. diuretic and deobstruent. Dhawai. and in derangement of liver . aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. t. Fr. Sd. Ornamental Plants. rheumatism. H. Ceylon. FAM. Dhavani. Br.—numerous. nigro-punctate beneath. uterine sedative. Khirni. Baluchistan. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. useful in leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES. branches long. DISTR. :—G. COM. Sumatra. Hale.—capsule. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy.. China. Madhavasini. :—G. Dhaiti. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . debility from old age. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. alexiteric.—mostly opposite. acrid. NS. cooling. long. Indrajav. toxic. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Indrajav. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Tamrapushpi. H. Are. leprosy. Japan. Fl. Sk. LOC. It is narcotic.— numerous. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Kuda. L. Hayamaraka. Kanara near the sea-coast. 5-9X 1. wedge-shaped. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub.—Apocynaceæ. The plant contains an alkaloid. ovate-lanceolate. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Java. Dhavani. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Kalikari. Phulsatti. anthelmintic . brown. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Vanhishikha. K. velvety above. scarlet.) FAM. smooth. Bela.-May. Indrajav. Dyes. LOC. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. common in the Konkan and N. HABITAT. :—Monsoon-forests. PARTS USED. M. Dhaw. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. alterative. M. :—Throughout India. irregularly dehiscent. Hallunova. See—Tans. Dhawadina. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. COM. Kodamurki. erysipelas. leaf-infusion is given in fever. Sk. NS. Dhateki. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. USES. simple. lumbar pains. dysentery.—Lythraceæ. emaciation of children. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Swetakutaj. ulcers and painful swellings . on trap in the Akrani. haemorrhoids. :—Bark and flowers. used in thirst.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Santha. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Fl. Madhuindrayava. tropical Africa.5 cm. blood diseases. Dec.

LOC. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . stout. L. biliousness. Sk. :—Rajastan. at the top. antidysenterica (Yunani). especially root and fruit. tonic. Fr. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. cures leucoderma. Fl. with 2 erect beaks. :—Cooling.. stem short.. Clot-Cockle-bur.5 cm. :—The whole plant. epilepsy. long and broad. . involucre of fertile head. Gadrian. anthelmintic. Ceylon. salivation. West-Peninsula.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. compressed . 1-3 cm. Dumundi. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. Bur-Weed. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. hairy on both sides. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . FAM. axillary. Timor. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. Banokra. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. LOC. M. PROPERTIES AND USES.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes.. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. Fl. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). fattening. Sarpakshi. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. PARTS USED.Feb. tonic. Sankeshwar. PARTS USED. Khandesh at 1050 m. t. COM. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes.achene. 3-lobed. LOC.1-6. poisonous bites of insects. DISTR. USES :—Root is bitter.—many. G. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. :—Bark and seeds. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. 5-7. NS. :— Throughout India. digestive. antipyretic. laxative. long. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). H. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. all over the State.-E. LOC. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES. memory. barren heads many. Kambu-Vanamalini. rough with short hairs .—Jany. fertile heads few. Dutundi. improves appetite. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. Aristha. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. DISTR. in W. voice. :—Annual herb . irregularly incisoserrate . ovoid in fruit. In S.—Compositæ. the bark is specially useful in piles. hard and tough. Madhya Pradesh. Shankhahuli. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. CHAR. oblong ovoid. Itara. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. complexion. alexiteric. fever. See—Timbers.

Kuvali.. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. head-ache. Bor. Hasisunthi. alexiteric. it cleans throat. vomiting. NS. bronchitis. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache.—Rhamnaceæ. Alen. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Bordi. It is stimulant. tonic. Ber. Anupama. it is also given in the form of infusion. flatulence. useful in elephantiasis. vomiting. Bor. and dry situations. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Chinese Date. :—Cultivated. DISTR. HABITAT. Kandara. COM. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. inflammations. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. NS. heating. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. loss of appetite and piles. expectorant. . Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . :—Rhizome-pungent. aphrodisiac. Rhizome—pungent. Sk. colic. K.—Scitaminaceæ. Indian Cherry. carminative. FAM. pains. "Kapha". useful in heart and throat diseases. rheumatism. H. M. See—Condiments and Spices. stomachic. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. gives lustre to eye. piles. Koli. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. K. :—Rhizome. laxative. Beri. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Plum. Gulmmula. :—E. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Alla Adrak. PROPERTIES AND USES. to prevent nausea and griping. Ber. G. stomachic. Shringavera. Ardraka. COM. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). tongue and increases appetite. appetiser. Bore. Badari. carminative. Sk. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. dyspepsia. on poor soil and in rocky places. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). Ada. :—E. H. Alen. FAM. anthelmintic. Egasi. "Vata". In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. M. pains (Yunani). LOC. good in piles. Bogari. lumbago. removes pain due to cold. G. Dridhabija. aphrodisiac. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Ajapriya. LOC. Adrate. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. eructations. PARTS USED. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Ipanji. Boyedi. Ginger. asthma.

good in consumption and blood-diseases. good in liver complaints. Ceylon. :—Root-bitter. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. head-ache. laxative. Leaves form a plaster to boils. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. bark. Fruits contains vitamin A. PARTS USED. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). useful in fevers. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Australia. Leaves antipyretic. on the laterite near the coast in N. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. biliousness. vomiting.. DISTR. allays thirst (Yunani). Bark—causes boils . LOC. abundant in the Deccan. China. causes cough. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. frequently planted as a fruit tree. cooling. causes diarrhœa in large doses . Root and Bark tonic. fruit. Afghanistan. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . leaves. wounds and ulcers. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. :—Root. Fruit Trees. cure asthma. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. tonic to heart and brain . USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. aphrodisiac. Leaves—anthelmintic. burning sensation. Seed—astringent. Kanara. Africa. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes biliousness. thirst. Fruit— cooling. reduce obesity. See—Timbers. Burma. tonic. indigestible. . Fruit—sweet and sour. seeds. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers .

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