FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.



CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.



The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.



INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

It is given in diarrhœa. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Dyes. Ritha. leprosy. urinary and vaginal discharges. Deccan. Sige-balli or kai. long. anthelmintic. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. indigestion. relaxation of the uvula. Manda-otte. mouth troubles. CHAR. " Vata ". FAM. Saptata. fleshy when green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. :—Rajastan. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Soap-pod tree. cures itching.5-12. Phena. Burma. hypertrophy of tonsils. Lalkhair. M. cooling.8 cm. LOC. gums. prurigo. given in elephantiasis. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . :—Common throughout the Stale . M. Charmakusha. astringent to bowels. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. Bhuriphena. LOC. anti-pyretic. aphrodisiac. NS. Western Peninsula. Malay Islands. Khadira. L. ulcers. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). China. strengthens teeth. 7.. erysipelas. Fl. LOC. measles and other skindiseases.-Mar. Kanara (often on laterite). gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). See—Timbers. Fl.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests.—pod. Tans. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums.—in fascicled globose heads. Saradruma.-t. boils. overlapping. linear-oblong. antidysenteric.5X2-2. Fr. :—E. " Kapha ". Himalayas up to 1700 m. Country and Gujarat. M. Yajnika. Khandesh Akrani S. Vidula. H. Shikekai.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. DISTR. COM. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. wrinkled when dry . throat diseases. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. :—An extensive woody climber.-6-10 . K. Kochi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. yellow. Sk. Pegu. Chikakai.-July. . bronchitis. heaviness. :—Throughout India. tonic. Sikkim. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. sore-throat and tooth-ache. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. inflammations. 5-10 cm. psoriasis. Kanara forests. Sk. along the coasts of Konkan and N. :—Common in the Konkan and N.—bipinnate. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. G. acrid. In ulceration of the gums. Shige. DISTR. leucorrhoea. Kushthari. Dantadhavan. Khair. Dipta. Kath-bole. piles. Sd.

Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence.pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. blood diseases. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. leucoderma. leaves and gum. anthelmintic. erysipelas. often cultivated. caries of teeth. NS. Kankri. itching. LOC. cures stomatitis. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). Sk. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. tonic. Gum—sweetish. eczema. externally they are applied to leprous patches. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. prurigo. alexiteric. piles. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Devababhul. :—E. causes " Vata". :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . LOC. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. biliousness. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). ulcers.. Girimeda. anthelmintic. digestible. cardio-tonic. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. . HABITAT :—Moist situations.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Gandhbabul. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. See—Timbers. buboes. not indigenous but naturalised. erysipelas. cures " Kapha. Gums and Resins. cooling. bronchitis. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Arimeda. PARTS USED :—Bark. purgative. stomatitis. ascites. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. expectorant and good emetic. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Stinking acacia. Internally they are aperient. FAM. often planted . Vilavati kikar. H. burning sensation. improves appetite. G. anti-dysenteric. Sauna jali. M. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Cassia flower. K. Pissibabul. inflammations. anti-diarrhoeal. LOC. In Philippines decoction. blood-diseases. DISTR. Sponge tree. Jheri baval. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. Jali. Sind. Marudruma. deobstruent. Gandhelo khair .—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Kari jali. detergent.

Kuppi. Vasira. Chichra. minute. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. Utranigida. Country. elliptic obovate. :—An erect herb 0.—capsule. 30-75 cm. Apamarga. Sd.9 m. FAM. t. Kantarika. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. LOC. DISTR. Philippines.—monœcious. :—Throughout India. Agheda-di. Prickly chaff-flower. Sd. It is used in congestive headache. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. smooth. males.—greenish white. H. one-seeded. small. rounded at base. Ksharamadhya. :—E. Vanchhikanto. CHAR. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Sk. H.—June-Sept.. NS. Chirchira. Fr. Sk. G. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. M. The plant contains acalyphin. K. COM. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers.—Amarantaceæ. 3. hispid.-Jany. many. Latjira . branches long. Fr. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Fl. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. L. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative.8-6. Kuppi-gida.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. brown. ascending. angular. oblong-cylindric. Khajoti. COM. high. Apang.— ovoid. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. about 50 cm. Khokali. females. enclosed in perianth smooth. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. pneumonia and rheumatism.5x2-4. somewhat 3-nerved. pale-brown. softly hairy. Arittamanjaria.—Nov. . erect herb. K. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. Aghada . tropical Africa.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—G.3 X 2. Merkati. CHAR. few. long in fruit. in lax. asthma. axillary spikes . Var. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. stem stiff. perianth 4-5 segments. 2.5 cm. L. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.—utricle. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.5-4. NS. FAM. t.5 cm. Fl. erect. Khokla.. :—Common in the Deccan and S. brown. clustered near the summit of spike. Fl. in elongate terminal spikes. Uttrane . high. Ceylon. M. crenate-serrate.57. scattered. branches terete or quadrangular striate.—truncate at apex.3-0. M. LOC. Kharamanjiri. Chalmari. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. :—Annual. elongate.—opposite.

heart diseases. M. Throughout Asia. useful in abdominal pains. CHAR. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Vekhand . HABITAT :—Marshy places. top pyramidal. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. bronchitis. heating. dyspepsia. laxative. creeping and branching. Baja . improves appetite. long.9-1. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. spadix. G. Ceylon. loss of memory. anthelmintic. carminative. rat-bite. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. 5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. bright-green. Gandhilovaj.7-3. heating. epilepsy. Sikkim. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. PARTS USED : —Root. LOC. L. Bitter. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. good for mouth diseases. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery.8 X 1. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. emmenagogue . See—Sacred Plants. Bach. bitter. sepals scarious. piles.—Araceæ. flowers and seeds. :—E. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. skin eruption etc. and is considered useful in dropsy. COM. delirium. tumours. expectorant. inflammations. useful in general weakness. throat. H. Africa. leucoderma (Yunani). boils. carminative. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). margins wavy. DISTR. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. LOC. Australia. Sk. Fr. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. acute. green . Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. prismatic. Sweet flag . :—An aromatic herb . flatulence.. Vekhand. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. stomachic. useful in vomiting. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. dysentery. anthers yellow. Vacha. "Vata". obtuse. carminative. thirst. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. brain-tonic. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Bhutnashini. diuretic. Ugragandha. stomatitis. Tropical Asia. bronchitis. leaves. itching. fevers. Jatila. ascites. laxative. Europe and N. useful in dyspepsia. laxative. FAM.8 cm. abdominal pains. America. :—Throughout India. Gorbach . Baluchistan. pungent. long. . Godavaj. kidney troubles. etc. alexiterie. dysentery. thickened in the middle. improves appetite. LOC.. 0. liver and chest pains. PARTS USED :—Root. hysteria. K. toothache. NS. piles. emetic. voice. inflammations. spathe 15-75 cm.—turbinate. slightly curved.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. America.

HABITAT':—Cultivated. etc.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. See—Timbers. vomiting. FAM. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Pichli. Goremlichora . USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Powder is very effective insecticide. Gorakshi. African calabash. Brahmamlika. anti-pyretic. colic. Kanara evergreen forests. bark. useful in biliousness. COM. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. COM. :—K. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . NS. H. LOC. LOC. Baobab. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. N. in children. It is a good remedy in asthma. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. DISTR. Monkey-bread tree. NS. Gujarat. K. Rukhdo . indigenous in tropical Africa. :—E. Deccan. LOC.—Lauraceæ. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. Haggodgimara.. Sk. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. :—Grown in many places in India . Panch-parnika. fever. PARTS USED : —Root. fevers and other maladies. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Gorakhchinch. Pisa.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. dysentery. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. Gorakamali. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). :—Western Peninsula.—Bombacaceæ. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. M. DISTR. leaf and fruit. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Gopali. G. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Tudgensu . Gorakhaamli.:—Konkan. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Bukha.



inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).



Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in



ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.



FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

NS. H. LOC. fish-poison. stem. :—E. alexiteric. K.—Leguminosæ. commonly planted along roadsides. LOO. Chinchola. Dodda-Hombage. useful in worms. COM. China. Sk. Kathora. Shirish. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. " Vata "-pain. Onkla. Ceylon. Akoly. Malaya. expectorant. M. Ankoli. Garso. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. COM. Tamraphala. Kalosadasado. gleet. Anedhera. :—E. colic. :—Throughout the State. lumbago (Yunani). Shirish. Kaloshirish. dysentery. inflammations. H. Tantia. See—Timbers. wasting diseases. burning of body. aphrodisiac. Sage-leaved alangium. Uddanaka. Piloshirish. Kullumavu. tonic. NS. poisonous bites. Fruit—laxative. Ankola. alexipharmic . M. . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. (Mimosaceæ). Ankola. Ankoli. G. K. indigestible. heating. cures erysipelas. Philippines. Asroli. anthelmintic. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Sirisa. Root-bark— used in piles. Kalashirish. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). pungent. carminative. Ankol. Kanara. Kalshish. DISTR. Vamaka. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra).Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. lumbago. cures " Kapha". and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. anthelmintic. it is said to stop after-pains. Shirisha. Sirsul. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Ankota.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle.—Alangiaceæ. Shankiniphala. alterative. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. rat-bite. leaves (rarely). spermatorrhoea. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. acute fever. aromatics or honey.) FAM. blood diseases. Krishnashirisha. inflammations. Shyamala. Juice—emetic. Gudhapatra. hydrophobia. Sirai. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Dridhakantaka. S. and fruit. :—Throughout India. biliousness. Seeds—cooling. often along banks of nalas in N. useful in inflammations. Ankora. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Karnapura. diarrhœa. blood diseases. Ankotha. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Root-bark poisonous. FAM. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Sk. Ankola. G.

and chronic bronchitis . skin-diseases.—Liliaceæ. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. seeds. used in leprosy. good in rat-bite. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. their smell useful in hemicrania. tonic. given in piles. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. ophthalmia. Bark-bitter.:—E. useful in malaria. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. tumours.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. weakness. COM. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. bark. B & C. piles. improves taste. cooling. cultivated everywhere. relieves tooth-ache. syphilis. Flowers—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. leaves. bronchitis. boils. Rajapriya. DISTR. stomachic. Bulb—tonic. etc. erysipelas. Ceylon. biliousness. LOC. See—Timbers. vomiting. etc. piles. Oil is used in leprosy. itching. inflammations. stimulant and expectorant. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. enriches blood. deafness. catarrh. G.. emollient. Rochaka. Bengal. dropsy. leucoderma. Dungari. cures "Vata". Piyaz. which acts as a diuretic. paralysis. The plant contains vitamins A. epistaxis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. LOC. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). occasionally used in fever. excessive perspiration. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. H. scabies. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Kanda. maturant. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. flowers. Onion. ear-ache. Root—astringent. anthelmintic. eruptions and swellings. blood diseases. asthma. M. LOC. Seeds—fattening. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). FAM. spleen diseases. bleeding piles. usually planted. Burma. prescribed in ophthalmia. Leaves—good in night blindness. Palandu. :—Native country probably Persia. Sk. strengthens gums and teeth. . Leaves-good for ophthalmia. scabies.. body pains. useful in vomiting. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. Bark— anthelmintic. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. See—Vegetables. volatile oil. Seeds—tonic to brain. alexiteric. Ulageddi. and also in skin diseases .: —Throughout India. NS. diarrhœa. It is an important garden crop. aphrodisiac. Bark and seeds are astringent. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. PARTS USED :—Root. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils.K. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. seeds.

thirst. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Ikshurmallika. M. M. PARTS USED :—Bulb. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. lumbago. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. FAM. good for lumbago. LOC. Ugragandha. COM. It is an important garden crop. . Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. hemiplegia. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Sk. carminative. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Kanya. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. :—E. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Kattali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. Lahsan. H. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. useful in diseases of eye and heart. In Cambodia. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. " Vata ". :—E. Rasonaka. Korphad. heating. Lasun. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. bronchitis. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. fattening. Lasan. liver and lungs . tumours. In pulmonary phthisis. digestive. epileptic fits. caries of teeth. chronic fevers. Kumari. piles. Ghi-kumari. thins the blood (Yunani). paraplegia and convulsive affections. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Kumari. aphrodisiac. paralysis. Garlic.—Liliaceæ. tonic. FAM. complexion. COM. anthelmintic. Kapila. Kuvarpatha. Lolisara. alexipharmic. LOC. Korkand. The plant contains vitamin C. M. G. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. improves appetite. G.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. oleaginous . In cases of diphtheria. Bellulli. Country. NS. H. aphrodisiac. Indian aloe. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. leucoderma. Lasan. K. ear-ache (Ayurveda). garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. leucoderma. asthma. body and joint pains. clears voice. troubles of spleen. NS. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. low fevers. thirst. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. K. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. useful in inflammations.—Liliaceæ. Lashuna. See—Vegetables. sciatica. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. Sk. ALŒ VERA Linn. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. inflammation. voice. Diuretic.

Mediterranean. scaly. Native of S. skin diseases. L. liver complaints. useful in eye-diseases. purgative. Bitter . It also acts as a mild purgative. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Jamaica. tropical Africa. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. West Indian Islands. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. COM. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. margins spiny. Saptaparna. wild along the coast. digestive. vomiting. PARTS USED :— . alterative. asthma. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. cooling. NS. :—Wild along the coast in S. Ceylon. Kanara. Br.—sessile. FAM. isobarbaloin and emodin. carminative. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. methritis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. Australia. piles. fleshy. Satian. :—Throughout India. ophthalmia. M. scape longer than the leaves. DISTR. LOC. used in form of paste in pleurisy. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. Java. perianth cylindric . liver troubles. Chatian. Dita bark tree. LOC. tumours. Fl. emollient and demulcent. strangury. leaves. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. Hale. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. E. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. aphrodisiac. India. milky juice. :—E. :—A perennial herb . and it is largely imported into India. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. jaundice. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. The plant contains aloin. yellow. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Satwin. C. also cultivated. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. crowded. H. used in fevers. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. simple or branched. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. spleen enlargement. somewhat divided. Kaduhale. pendulous. bronchitis. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Satwin. Barbados.—in dense racemes . stem short thick. tonic. DISTR. biliousness (Yunani). fattening. gonorrhœa. Saptachhada. purgative. common in the rain-forests of N. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas.—Apocynaceæ. lanceolate. bark. Sk. Root. Africa. ulcers (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kadusale. tonic. pale-green. useful in splean inflammation. lumbago. pain in muscles. K. biliousness. planted in Indian gardens . Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. inflammations. anthelmintic. LOC.

). appetiser. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. asthma. LOC. good in diseases of the heart. LOC. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. Fl. NS.8 cm. Mulladantu. K. rubbish heaps and fields. also in fields. galactogogue. DISTR. LOC. leucorrhoea. sudorific and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. Cholai. bitter. alexiteric.. lanceolate. Ceylon. Sk. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. numerous. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . Mullarave-soppu. useful in " Kapha ". ulcers. improves appetite. also useful in catarrhal fever. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. stomachic. Tandulibija. entire. boils and burns. See—Timbers.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. Apamarisha.— capsule. Fr. piles. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. burning sensation. HABITAT :—In waste places. Root—heating expectorant. COM.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. laxative. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. FAM. digestible. often reddish. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery.— 3. obtuse. 30-60 cm. hallucination. :—An erect glabrous herb. obtuse. long. antipyretic. Tandulja. tropical countries.5 X 1. See—Vegetables. unisexual. laxative. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). M. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. ovoid.3—3. apiculate. blood diseases. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. :—Throughout India. G. " tridosha " pain. H. bristles pointed. Tandulaja. biliousness. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. Kantanatia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. heating. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. rubbish heaps . Kantalo dambho. . Kantanu-dant. male calyx acute.—Amarantaceæ. Pathyashaka. female calyx oblong. high. tumours. rat-bite. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic.2—7. diuretic. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. oleaginous. CHAR. Prickly amaranth. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. leucoderma. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. Bark—acrid. :—E. leprosy. L. Kante math. diseases of the blood. rugose. bronchitis. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. anthelmintic. thickened at the top. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. ovate. antiperiodic and febrifuge. Drug Com.

:— Konkan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC.—Araceæ. CHAR. high. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. elephantiasis . Kanthalla. PARTS USED :—Root. Vikata. K. Jalavgiyo. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . depressed. " Vata. t. useful in piles. constipating.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. stomachic. enlargement of the spleen. Konkan rivers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. aphrodisiac. Grows wild on the banks of S. fresh or dried. Blistering ammania. Kandavardhan. appetiser. G. Sk. H. Ceylon. COM. Kuranda. FAM. Bharajambhul. asthma. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. Kandala. China. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. LOC. Fl. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). It is also used as an emmenagogue.—Lythraceæ. harmful in "Kapha". Suran. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. Vatari.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . branches usually opposite. :—Cultivated widely in the State. strangury . There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Sukaranda. M. M. Tropical Africa. Suran . H. Sd. increases appetite and taste. tumours.—Nov. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. acrid. Kurendika. DISTR. Elephant's foot. :—E. Afghanistan. DISTR. Malaya. NS. Dadmari. Deccan." blood troubles. FAM. NS. COM. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). pungent. Bitter and acrid . Fr. Australia. removes " Kapha ". Suran. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Leaves. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. :—An annual. laxative.—capsule. Corm is irritant and also the seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. blood diseases. Kuranti. sessile. abdominal pains. In the Konkan.—opposite. the plant. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Gujarat and Kanara. red. globose. erect or subscandent herb. causes itching sensation. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. vomiting. Jangli mehandi. 8-65 cm. . :—E. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Sk. :—Throughout India in moist places. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Arshaghna. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Suran. stomachic. G. LOC. LOC. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. L. fevers etc. much narrowed at the base. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. corm. Fl.

10-12 X 7. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Kakamari. USES :—Bark is alterative. Fish-Louse Berry. K. Cashew apple-nut. ulcers. Kempu— Turkaka geru . broadly ovate. .5 cm. Agni-krita.—Menispermaceæ. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. See—Timbers. Upapushpika. B.—in panicles 25-35 cm. LOC. flowers. fever. ascites. Kajutaka. M. digestible. G. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. equal to almond oil. Kakkisoppugida . 5-nerved. Gova. aphrodisiac. Sk. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. ringworm. Crow-Fish Killer. DISTR. The plant contains Vitamins A. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. The seed contains vitamin A. many flowered. Prithagbija. . Kanara.— subcoriaceous. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". LOC. Kakaphal. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. Kaju. cordate or truncate. L. Sophara. piles. Kakamari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. bark vertically furrowed . ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. dysentery. Oils. leucoderma. long. hot. swollen peduncle of fruit. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Kakamari. Kaju . H. sweet. loss of appetite (Ayurveda).5-12.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. also cultivated. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakamari.—Anacardiaceæ. NS. CHAR. Kakanashika. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. Garalaphala. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. tumours. G. K. & A. Gerubi. leaves. Kaju. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. :—E. M. :—A native of tropical America. FAM. It is supposed to have restorative power. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . :—E. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. H. Fl.. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. NS. Corm is poisonous. and trace of C. Govamba. See—Vegetables. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. COM. Jermic. FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark. Sk. skin diseases. COM. which is nutritious and emollient. Kakamari. anthelmintic. corns and obstinate ulcers. HABITAT :—Coastal regions.

Sk. K. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. G. native of Brazil (tropical America). HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Kiryat. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). E. :—E.—Acanthaceæ. good expectorant. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. black . See—Fruit Trees. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter .-Oct. DISTR. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ananasa. Kanara. COM. it is useful in jaundice. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. G. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. LOC. Fl. Ananas . USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic .MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Kirata. LOC. N. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. Mahatit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. cultivated. leaves and fruits. DISTR. M. . HABITAT :—Moist rain forests.) LOC. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. M. Ama. H. petals absent. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Kiriyata. It acts also as diuretic. a poison to fish (Yunani). PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). FAM. Olen kirayat. Olikiriyat. :—Konkan. K. Ananas . FAM. causes cough and biliousness. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. to a certain extent in Gujarat. t. NS. fruits. Bengal. Ananas. :—E. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. :—Khasia Hills. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. Mahateet. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Pine-apple . Sk.—Bromeliaceæ. Kantak sanjika. dioecious. LOC. smooth. also acts as a purgative. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. from Orissa to Ceylon. H. Creat. removes gases from the intestines . Bhuinimba. Assam. NS. Parvati. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. PARTS USED :—Roots. Ananas. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Nelabevu gida.—Sept. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Ananas hannu.

high. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. rugosely pitted. clothed with woolly hairs . HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. LOC. Fr. acute. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. very small. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. and certain forms of dyspepsia. Kanara. dyspepsia and fever from teething. sometimes cultivated.—lanceolate. Malay Peninsula. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. purple. solitary. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. CHAR. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Ceylon. FAM. upper lip 2-toothed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. lateral lobes small. alterative.8 m. Sd. yellowish brown. Malabar Catmint. forming a spicate inflorescence. and anthelmintic. white below.—in dense whorls . COM. NS. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. stomachic. linear-oblong.—very thick.9 m. lower lip very large and broad . HABITAT. Plant is useful in general debility. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers.—Dec. Vaikunth.3-0. :—E. DISTR. L. . :—An erect branched annual 0. dysentery. K. Gojivana. oblong-lanceolate..—Ghats.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. LOC. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. :—S. DISTR. C—2-lipped. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Deccan. 1. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. L.3-10 X 2-4. Alamoda. Fl. rose coloured.5 cm.-Oct.— capsule. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. acute at both ends . :—An erect shrub. Sk. Fr. Green leaves. bracts lanceolate. lower 3lobed. pale beneath. Sundraphul. 6. ellipsoid. t. distant. M. G. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Fl.—Labiatæ. high. :—Konkan and Kanara. Karnatak. Fl.-Nov. thickly woolly. polished brown. Fl. stem quadrangular.2-1. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. approximate above.—nutlets. made into an electuary. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. t. Sundara. and N. Br. Karitumbe. crenate-serrate. smooth.—small. extensively used in Bengal. C—2-lipped. Chodhara. :—Throughout India. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. undulate. distant. pale above. Oshthaphala.—many.

K. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. LOC. increases biliousness . Sitaphala. Sk. (Yunani). Ata. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Dhava. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. leaves. cooling . PARTS USED :—Root. abortifacient. increases muscular strength. Sharipha. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Dyes. fruit and seeds. Dindiga. Seeds—difficult to digest. cooling. Sugar apple. COM. Kanara border. Custard apple. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Dhavada. discharges. Damora. PARTS USED :—Root. G. enriches blood . removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". Dhamora. Bakla. Fruit—sweet.—Combretaceæ. Dabria. :—E. Dindala. LOC. NS. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. DISTR. expectorant. LOC. K. enriches blood. Sweet-sop. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Sitaphal. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). FAM. Sitaphala. :—E. LOC. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. :—Throughout the greater part of India. COM. Bahubijika. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. See—Timbers. astringent to the bowels. Bark is bitter. Dhavala. erysipelas. sedative to heart. Dhavada. :—A native of West Indies . Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. improves taste and appetite . Ceylon. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Dhava. Bejjalu. Sitaphala. useful in liver complaints. DISTR. causes fever and furunculosis . tasty. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. useful in anaemia. now cultivated throughout India. stimulant. Button Tree. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children.—Anonaceæ. chronic diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Dohu. Pitaphala.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Bark is a powerful astringent. Anan. Amritphala. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. NS. bark. Sitaphala. Shushkanga. Krishnabija. H. good tonic. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. G. applied to skin-diseases. Sk. Root—cathartic. leaves and fruits. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. and eyesores. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). FAM. flavoury. bark. Durangi. Anuram. produce ulcers in the eye. M.

often cultivated. Tennaserim.—Moraceæ. K. In eye inflammations. Kanara . It is generally considered tonic. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Upas Tree. Fodder Plants. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Valkala. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Kadamba. burning sensation. Ajjanpatte. " Vata". the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. aphrodisiac. good in uterine complaints. Nipa. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Pegu. saline. causes biliousness when ripe.—Rubiaceæ. M. DISTR. PARTS USED:—Bark. Kaduve. Ceylon. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Karnapuraka. Malay Islands. stomachic. LOC. NS. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). galactagogue. K. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. LOC. Kadamb . H. Malayan Peninsula. :—G. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. USES:—In the Konkan. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. vulnerary. Kadamb. acrid. See—Fruit Trees. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. DISTR. Sacred Plants. Ashokari. M. LOC. See—Timbers. astringent to bowels. Jajpugri. is a good hairwash. Chandala. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. COM NS. Peninsula. :—Throughout India. alexiteric. indigestible. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Seeds. strangury. COM. Kadamb . sweet. sap of the tree. blood diseases. Kadam. :—W.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Niv. common near Yellapur. sprouts and fruits. biliousness. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. Bairi. wild or cultivated. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. :—E. . and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Surabhi. Nadija. Chandkuda. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Chandkuda. Sprouts—acrid. FAM. Kadubale. They are detergent and their powder. cooling. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Sk. Fruit—heating. Kadamb. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. " Kapha". fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Sk. Burma. H. Seeds yield an oil and resin. mixed with gram-flour. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. bitter.

traces of B and C. scorpion and other stings. :—E. vomiting. Nelkadle. Bori ajmud. Brahmakoshi. NS. urinary discharges. Karafs. L. specially near large cities. Bhuchanak. laxative. Seeds—carminative.—Umbelliferæ. fever with cough. The plant contains vitamins A. K. Sk. rays 5-10.— in umbels. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. Ugragandha. . LOC. Bodi ajomoda.5-2 mm. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. scabies. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. CHAR. cure asthma. high. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Ajmoda . Bhuimug. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. β-antiarin. apex toothed . :—A biennial plant. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ridges narrow. hiccup. vomiting. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Bhuimug-chana. M. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. G. and γ-antiarin. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. Asia. Ground-Pea-nut. amenorrhœa. COM NS. Shimbika. good in ophthalmia. Mandapi. Europe. abortifacient. bronchitis. H. nasal catarrh (Yunani). H.— radial. N. astringent to bowels . Chinimung. appetiser. Mungphali. Celery. Moda. rheumatism. abdominal pain. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. pedicels 6-16 . Abyssinia. cure " Kapha ".4 m. Glucoside apiin is present.3-2. used in anasarca and colic. Java and Malaya. Africa. Afghanistan. cauline 3-partite.—1. FAM. Fibres. See—Vegetables.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. G. ascites. vittae broad. 0. heart and spleen diseases. LOC. COM. Snehabijaka. tonic. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. useful in ophthalmia. chest-pains. tooth-ache. Sk. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. branching. erect. " Vata " . segments once or twice trifid. rectal troubles.. Monkey-nut. inflammations. Bhuimug. Fr. Fl. Markati. Ajmud. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. good for heart. W. :—E. See—Timbers.:—Foot of the N. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Ajamoda. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. improve appetite . Wild celery. W. DISTR. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin.

Kaungu. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Adki. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Deccan. Gujarat and S. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. M. LOC. G. Pugiphal. Malabar. Sk. FAM. Gum pungent. bleeding gums. diuretic. fairly largely in the Konkan. Supari. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. Country. useful in urinary disorders. cardiotonic. Betel-nut palm. aphrodisiac. removes foul breath. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Bengal. DISTR. Kanara. LOC. Suppiyari. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Sopari. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Burma. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Poga.. seeds. :—Madras. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. K. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Areca palm. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Tantusara. See—Food Plants. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. USES. used for eye-inflammations.:—Extensively grown in N. Hopari. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Akota. NS. gleet. Mysore. Chikkan. Indo-Malaya. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. . Chhataphala. improves appetite and taste.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. removes pus (Yunani). Chikka. Areca-nut palm. cooling. Nut astringent. Supari. emmenagogue. Assam. LOC. LOC. digestive. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. :—E.—Palmæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. laxative. leaves (rarely). H. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. gum. Pophal. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. giddiness. Betta. PARTS USED :—Root. indigestible. In French Guinea. Oils. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. DISTR. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Seed cooling. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Siam.

5-18 cm.—capsule. expectorant and demulcent. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. cures leprosy. and in pertussis and asthma. COM. prickly. sedative.—all the year. LOC. See—Timbers. L. Balurakkisa. 7. high. t.12 m. Shialkanta.—Papaveraceæ. juice yellow. antidote to various poisons.5-3. . veins white. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). jaundice and cutaneous affections. USES :—Root is an alterative. Sd. Mexican prickly poppy . stem 0.). 2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. Fr. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. DISTR. oblong. LOC. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. India. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Seeds—purgative. inflammations and bilious fevers.—thistlelike.—numerous. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. G. Pirangi datturi. :—A glabrous. Plant enriches blood. Pita-pushpa. relieves blisters. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). seeds and yellow juice. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Juice—used as a collyrium. Srigalkanta. Root anthelmintic. stem clasping. useful is strangury. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. Daruri. CHAR. Fl. sinuately pinnatifid. globose. Bharbhand. Darudi. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. This is said to bring the worm out at once. Datturi. FAM. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. and guvacine. glaucous herb . destroys worms .5-5 cm. diam. M. Ind. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. netted.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. emetic.8 cm. :—E. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). oblong-ovoid 2. Sk. It is also diuretic. purgative. various skin-diseases. branching. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. arecoline. Fruit Trees. Svarnakshiri. Brahma dandi. NS.— terminal. nauseant. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. K. Indigenous in tropical America. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. brownish black. PARTS USED :—Root. arecaidine. opening by 4-6 valves. prickly. Bila dhatura. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. H. Seeds are laxative. spinous. Fl. yellow.3-0. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part.

Krimighni. white-tomentose.—in sub-capitate cymes. CHAR. with revolute margins. Peninsula. t. COM. base subglobose. Sk.3-2 cm. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth.3-25 cm.—capsule. Ganda.—Aug. :—A very large climber. absorptive. tube inflated. Country. peduncles stout. Gandali. :—Bengal. Soge.-Sept. long. t. (sometimes even larger). Leaves are maturative. Fl. Samudraballi. HABITAT.5-4. G. reniform or broadly ovate. LOC. base cordate with wide sinus . LOC. LOC. used in gleet. Kidamar. NS. tip linear dark purple. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. Fl. K.— 3. COM. long and as broad as long. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Dhuma-patra. white-tomentose L. :—E. :—A slender perennial. prostrate. Fr. Kidamari. M. NS.5-30 x 6.-Nov. Fr. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. Deccan and S. stems. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. Dridhadaru. Ajantri. CHAR. ovate glabrous above. Adumuttadagida. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). Sd.— Aug. Elephant Creeper. strangury. powdered root is given with milk. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Varghoro. long. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. . FAM. Shyambhuna. perianth 2. H. G. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. M. long. Country.8-7. rose purple. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz.—Aristolochiaceæ. Samardar sokh. 12-ribbed . K. DISTR. weak. infundibuliform. Java. M. Vridhadaraka. Samudrapatrashoh. Fl. 1. aphrodisiac. diuretic . Kitakaba. tubular. glabrous inside. white-tomentose beneath. :—E.— 7. stems stout. painful joints. gonorrhœa. M. Gujarat and S. Ceylon. C—5-6.5 cm. " Kapha" fevers. See—Ornamental Plants. Kitamari. DISTR. Konkan. oblongellipsoid. H. striate.5 cm. tropical Africa. W. Bracteated Birth-wort..28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. pedicel with a large bract at the base.3 cm. Hastivalli.—Convolvulaceæ. bracts large . the bands silky pubescent outside. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. Fl. FAM. Sk.—solitary. useful in " Vata". Samudrashosh. base cordate. Arabia.—deltoid with cordate base . Samudrashok. :—Throughout India. L. In synovitis. perhaps a native of Bengal.— globose apiculate.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Kiramar.:—Konkan. cultivated. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. pubescent outside. Samandarka phal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter .

Sugandha. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda).5 cm.8-10 X 1. Indian Birth-wort. Stem long.—flat. G. Nakuli. — capsule. Gathona. leaves and seeds. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Arkamula. NS. Dona. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. M. NS. Isharmula. Plant is used as an abortifacient.3-2." pains in the joints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Sk.—Nov. Arkamula. long with globose inflated base. bitter.) FAM. M. H. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. 3. woody at the base. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. slender. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. M. K. also useful in dropsy. bract opposite the pedicel. base vaiable. Ruhimula. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Fr. .—in few flowered axillary racemes. Bengal. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. DISTR. t.—Aristolochiaceæ. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. The plant contains an alkaloid. Fl.. Manjipatri. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. biliousness. Fl. dyspnoea of children. Mother or Mugwort. obovate oblong 10-12. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Dhor-davana.5 cm. perianth greenishwhite. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Country. Nagdamani.—Compositæ. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. LOC. :—E. K. Flea-bane.—variable linear oblong. alexiteric. Sd. The plant contains an alkaloid.5 cm. Sk. 6-valved. purgative (Yunani). :—E.:—Konkan and S. COM. Nagduna. :—A twining shrub. H. Majtari. :—Western Peninsula. Seeds useful in inflammation.. Dovana. Nilpushpa. COM. useful in " Tridosha. entire with undulate margins. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Indian wormwood.5x7. Ishvari. FAM. Nepal. Saraparni. L. LOC. globose-oblong. grooved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. joint-pains. Mastaru. emmenagogue. Isvara balli beru . dry cough. tonic. Ceylon. reaching 4. PARTS USED :—Roots. CHAR. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. winged. Sapsan.

NS. t. upper leaves smaller. FAM. toothed or again pinnatisect. An infusion is given as a tonic. outer flowers female. grown in gardens also. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Sk. aphrodisiac.6-2. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. Jack-Orange wood. Tage. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility.5-5 em. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. itching (Ayurveda).-Hilly districts. Fl. Skandaphala. petioled. diuretic.— achene. PARTS USED :—Leaves. asthma and brain diseases. constipating (Ayurveda). Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. fertile. Fl. Panesa. enriches blood.—heads ovoid or subglobose. ovate. lobes entire. alexiteric. minute. LOC. . although very nutritious. often planted along roadsides in N. Phanas. Ghats. asthma. aphrodisiac.—Urticaceæ. Kujja. "Vata". DISTR. ulcers. Vanas. lanceolate. aromatic. COM. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. temperate Asia. Fr. L— lower leaves 5. deeply pinnatisect. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. Ceylon. LOC. Chakki. oleaginous. :—Konkan. tonic. Panas. H. G. useful in biliousness. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. fattening. Kantakaphala. Fruit Trees and Dyes. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. DISTR. ripe fruit laxative. involucral bracts villous. See—Timbers. 3-fid or entire.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative.10x2. pubescent above. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. stems leafy. K. oblong ellipsoid. Seeds sweet. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. Kanara. Externally it is used in fomentations. aphrodisiac.—Jany. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Thailand (Siam). LOC. 0. " Kapha". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fruit and seeds. Phanasa. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. base lobed. appetiser. :—Widely cultivated. solitary or 2. The plant contains an essential oil. M.4 m. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. but rather difficult to digest. leprosy. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Kanthal. LOC. hairy. high. Halasina. Jack-fruit tree. HABITAT. tonic. white tomentose beneath. Panos. The unripe fruit is astringent. inner hermaphrodite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Java.:—A perennial shrub. cures "Kapha". cooling. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. " Vata". Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani).

Svadurasa. M. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. Satavari. Fr. root-stock tuberous. curved. Fl. long. indigestible. 7. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd.5 cm. :—An erect undershrub. up to 1. from Kashmir eastwards. lanceolate. PARTS USED:—Root. spinous. :—Introduced from the W.-Feb. Svetmuli. M.— follicles. undershrub. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. Shatavari. NS. alterative. A fibre is extracted from the plants. Fl. aphrodisiac.2 m. white. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. narrowed at both ends.-Dec. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . leaves and flowers. tapering at both ends.ovoid. cladodes in tufts. Siprimuli. appetiser.—June-Sept. in the Himalayas. fragrant. t. Fl. blood and eye diseases. dark brown. CHAR. thorn. abundant round about Poona. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin.—opposite 7. cooling. solitary. 2.—linear with a stout spinous spur. globose. PARTS USED:—Root. oblong. tonic. with coma. naturalised in many parts of India.5 cm. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. straight. Asual Shatavari.—in simple raceme. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic.9-1. 0. Flower is a good styptic. linear. galactogogue. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. astringent to bowels. DISTR. Satavari. L. erect. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. valvate in bud. Java and Australia. common in the Deccan. oleaginous. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. . Sk.—berry. biliousness.5-10 X 1.5-5 cm. high. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. thin. L. spines recurved. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. tumours. Fr. red when ripe. stomachic. LOC. Country.3-2. CHAR. :—Deccan. NS. segments. inflammation. :—Extremely scandent.—lobes reflexed in flower. DISTR. Satavari. M. useful in dysentery. cultivated as ornamental plant. C.—Liliaceæ. LOC. Sd. H. t.. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. :—E. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. COM.—Asclepiadaceæ. throat complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. K. Fl. S. and moist monsoon forests. Indies. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM. JAVANICA Baker. Var. Tropical Africa. Kaktundi. :—G. COM. Satamulika. Kuraki.—orange in axillary umbels.000 m.

4-8 seeded. thickened at the nodes. Phalaghrita. Konkan and Deccan. The root is sweet. sedative to gravid uterus . Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. PARTS USED :—Root. Gokhalkanta. DISTR. Kak-Kokilaksha. C. colic. leprosy. USES.. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. LOC. Ceylon.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. aphrodisiac. pointed. Kalavankabija.—capsule. Ekharo. Shrigalghant.2 cm. aphrodisiac . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. demulcent. tonic. Vikhara. Fl. tonic.—June-Jany. like leaves. Africa. Fl. anuria.5 cm.) FAM. and dysentery. tonic. NS. Talim-khana. eyediseases. diuretic. ciliate . Kolavalike. 2 outer large. tube. Vishnu Taila.6-1. 0. improve blood (Yunani). stems fasciculate. inflammations. linear oblong. COM. Gokhran. dysentery. :—A stout herb. aphrodisiac. 18 X 3-3. bracts. 3. abruptly swollen at the top. expectorant. widely 2-lipped. urinary calculi and discharges. subquadrangular. Talamkhana. Leaves good for cough. t. 4 inner small. tonic. hairy. hypnotic. leaves and seeds. Seeds fattening.— Acanthaceæ. abdominal troubles. useful in diarrhœa. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Sk. lips sub-equal. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Talamkhan. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. LOC.—sessile. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda).8 cm. useful in jaundice and anasarca. :—G. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. lanceolate. Gokshura. Used in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac . M. Ikshura. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. scalding of urine. gleet. Fr. antispasmodic. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. HABITAT:—Swampy places. anæmia. H. galactogogue. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. laxative. And. K. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. constipation. thirst. Narayana Taila.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . tropical and S. upper 2-fid. Vajrakantaka. hispid with long hairs. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. (Yunani. biliousness.:—Common throughout the State. :—Throughout India. USES :—The root is refrigerant. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. . L. CHAR. high. long. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. aphrodisiac. erect. Seeds cooling.) LOC.— purple blue. lower deeply 3-lobed. gonorrhoea. and alterative tonic. night-blindness (Ayurveda). When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. ascites.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis.

allays thirst. acute. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sk. stops diarrhœa and vomiting.—Scrophulariaceæ. pale. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . leprosy. Kirihuli. capsule. pungent. Brahmi. t. when fresh. Karmar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. tumours. C.:—Konkan and Deccan. digestible. :—A glabrous. astringent to bowels . stems rooting at the nodes. Brahmi. 6-25 X 2. astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Damp places. Root is given in cases of poisoning. fruits. branches many ascending. obovate-oblong or spatulate. Fruit sour. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . succulent. also used in diarrhœa. tonic. FAM. "Vata". HABITAT :—Cultivated. found wild near N. indigestion. decussate. G. COM.5-10 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Sk. :—E. emetic. Nirbrahmi. with shining dots. Barambhi. useful in bad ulcers. DISTR. heats the body (Ayurveda). K. enlargement of spleen. Soumyalata. H. perhaps a native of Malaya.:—Throughout India in wet places. causes biliousness. rarely wild. Fruits are used in pickles. inflammations. See—Fruit Trees. Carambola apple. Karmare . lobes equal spangled. Kamarakha. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. heating. axillary. ovoid. Karmal. LOC. Fr. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. sessile. pale blue or white. Brahmi. NS. Mudgara. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). laxative. . K. Sd. H. Ceylon and all warm countries. striate. DISTR. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. Kamarakh. Karuka. oblong. L. Tamarak. NS. dried fruit is given in fevers. ascites. M. COM.. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. black dotted : entire. 2-lipped. causes biliousness (Yunani). Kanara villages. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Fl. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Bama. Shiral. LOC. Kamaranga.) FAM. Darehuli. Thyme-leaved graticula . Manduki. Fl. fleshy. solitary. M. Jany-May. Safed-Kammi. Kamrang. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely).:—E.—Oxalidaceæ. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Coromandel gooseberry. Jalneam. sour. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. LOC. creeping herb. anæmia.

Jatala. :—A stout undershrub. Devdhup. Dec. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. the upper small. FAM. branching from the roots. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. 0. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. PARTS USED :—Root. high. L. M. Uddipta. useful in pains. itching. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. conjoined with petroleum. Guggula. K. Mukul. NS. sinuate. good in scabies. inflammations. LOC. purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Peninsula. H. smooth. Danti. diseases of skin and abdomen. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. anasarca and jaundice. COM. COM. Dantika. NS. Kaduharalu. . anthelmintic. CHAR. Root and leaves are cathartic. leucoderma. t. Sk. Guggula. toothed. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). Fl. Danti. Burma. DISTR. M. :—E. Guggula. diuretic. N. Malaya. Kanara. 2-glandular. aphrodisiac . :—G. Hakum. It is a direct cardiac tonic. is used as a local application in rheumatism.. They are used in dropsy. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Dantimul. all male or with a few females below. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Fr. Sk. leucoderma. W. Chota Nagpur. Bengal. alexiteric. Seeds are poisonous. jaundice (Ayurveda).—Burseraceæ. Gum gugul. the lower large. :—Bihar.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. yellowish. K. G. Danti. Assam. Leaf-juice. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. obovoid.8 m. LOC. epilepsy and hoarseness. enlarged spleen. Danti. FAM. Fl. Jamalgota. mottled. leaves and seeds. in monsoon forests of N. useful in insanity. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. syphilis . hairy. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. LOC. Sd. or in monsoon forests.9-1. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f.—Euphorbiaceæ. epilepsy and hoarseness. often palmately 3-5 lobed. Gugul. ellipsoid. wounds. :—Dry open Deccan plains. Vishodhini. purifies blood. Guggul. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Rechani. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. piles. of three 2-valved cocci. H. anaemia. capsule.



HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).



LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.



FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in



biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

Buds—indigestible. tonic. Kohala. cures strangury. Golkaddu. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Kumaon. used in strangury. dysmenorrhoea. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. urethral discharges. used in dry cough. leprosy. burning sensation. heart tonic (Ayurveda). Fl. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. H. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. appetising.8-2.-Feb. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. thirst. K. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav.—Cucurbitaceæ. leprosy. :—E. Ash pumpkin. " Tridosha". PARTS USED :—Fruit. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. NS. diuretic. t. flat. oil from the seeds. Kushmanda. seeds. it is also anti-fat remedy. aphrodisiac. ulcers. USES :—Root-decoction is given. tonic to liver. Burma. anal troubles. G. used in piles. tonic. eye diseases. cures biliousness. LOC. Timisha. vaginal discharges. Seeds— cooling. Fr. asthma. Shikhivardhaka. blood impurities. red and white. Tallow-White gourd. Kondha. Sk. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. leucoderma. Root. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. given' to corpulent persons. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. tuberculous glands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. LOC. astringent. LOC. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. . dehiscent. 15-20 X 1. biliousness. cardiac and general tonic.-Apl. COM. wounds and ulcers. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. blood diseases . cough. "Kapha". menorrhagia. Bark—astringent to bowels. fever. enriches blood. bark and flowers. urinary discharges and calculi. See—Ornamental Plants. China. cures biliousness. cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. aphrodisiac. Kudimah. Koholu. Bhuru-koholu.—pod. DISTR. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). Dorokaru. Budekumbalkai. Fruit—antiperiodic. in dyspepsia and flatulence. Karkutika.5 cm.10-15. removes foul taste from mouth. anthelmintic. tuberculous glands. DISTR. biliousness. thirst. blood diseases. M. FAM. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. Sd. not indigenous. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated throughout the State. There are two varieties. used as gargle in stomatitis. Sikkim.

—Jany. LOC. DISTR. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. :—Annual herb. phthisis. and diuretic. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic.9 m. high. Fl.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. NS. Konkan. not ribbed. cooling. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). ash colored. anti-pyretic. Fr. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. haemoptysis. FAM. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Fruit is made into confections. etc. Jangali-muli. thirst. good in syphilis (Yunani). heart diseases. Malaya. sweetish. catarrh. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.:—In plains south of Bombay. astringent. elliptic-oblong. . Ceylon. Deccan. cures bronchitis. S. H. stem erect. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Pilokapurio. Mriduchhada. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka.—heads many. pubescent. Kalhar. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. and nutritious tonic. LOC. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages.-Apl. LOC. densely glandular. Country. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). epilepsy and other nervous diseases. L. Tropical Africa.—Compositæ. Kakaronda. often incised or lyrate. Tamrachuda. it is also useful in insanity. :—G. :—Throughout plains of India. febrifuge. with a strong odour of turpentine. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. asthma. China. pappus white. 0. Kakarunda.—the lower ones petioled. M. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot.3—0. mixed with black pepper. blood diseases. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Sk. inner bracts with green midrib. good for the brain and liver. laxative. upper subsessile. sharply serrate-dentate. See—Vegetables. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. it is given in bleeding piles. t. M. Oil—is soporific. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. pungent. oblong. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. CHAR. burning sensation. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. Fl. Kukkurdru. Australia. COM. Kanara. Bhamurdi. fevers. Kukurbanda.-achene. bitter. finely silky pubescent on both sides. base tapered. BLUMEA LACERA DC.

alexiteric. t. G. leucorrhoea. spleen enlargement. Lekhyapatra.3—2 cm. scabies. inflammations. asthma. P. It produces a very marked and persistent. Fr. expectorant. India. Leaves— appetiser.—Palmæ. Tad. Celyon. useful in lumbago. useful in ophthalmia. Ceylon. M. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. alterative. blood impurities. :—E. COM. Bitter. Madhurasa. cultivated. Santhikari. Fl. Kommegida. Dhvajadruma. Ghetuli. astringent to bowels . The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. "Kapha" heating. K. FAM. leaves and seeds. "Vata". LOC. It is used in jaundice. 1. Asavardu. Tad. generally found in poorer soils. heart diseases. H. native of tropical Africa.—in corymbose umbels. Moto-satodo. cultivated and self-sown. tumours. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. Seeds—tonic. carminative. Persian Gulf. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. in pain of joints. Tad. Indian Archipelago. and dropsy. L. Raktakanda. Dholia-saturdo. whitish beneath. root large. fusiform. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Shothaghni. NS. Palmyra Palm. sub-orbicular. Fan Palm. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Desert Palm. DISTR. Fl. —Nyctaginaceæ. DISTR. Varshabhu. Sk. Talimara. pinkish. Sk. (Ayurveda). FAM. Punarnava. very glandular .MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. very small.—in unequal pairs at each node. Burma. LOC. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Tropical India. G.— Nov. CHAR. Vasu. cooling . diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. gonorrhœa. :—A diffuse herb. margins undulate. Kolaba and Thana districts. HABITAT :—Coastal districts .—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. stem prostrate or ascending. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. useful in biliousness. NS. . bluntly 5-ribbed.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. H. common in S. anæmia. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. K. :—E. Uttar Pradesh. Africa and America. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani).. abdominal pains. tropical and sub-tropical Asia.—clavate. M. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. HABITAT :—A weed. Hogweed. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. LOC. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. green above. Brab tree. Baluchistan. Tala. Plant contains large quantities of pot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava).

expectorant. flowers. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Indian olibanum tree. flowers. tonic. biliousness. scabies. Moddi. cooling. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. diaphoresis. thirst and scalding of urine. Sambrani. Fruit—cooling. FAM. Salai. Guggula. Gum is of five kinds .. helps delivery. Salgond. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. convulsions.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. COM. fruits. hot. allays. tonic. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Loban. fruit and gum. " Vata". diuretic . laxative. Mukulsalai. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. thirst. LOC. intoxicating. Salphali. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . useful in biliousness. used for boils. Dhup. NS. antipyretic. DISTR. purifies blood. strengthens teeth. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. mouth-sores. also used as antiperiodic. "Vata".—Burseraceæ. LOC. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. purifies blood (Yunani). fatigue. dry. antibilious . its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). ulcers . Salashi. causes headache. Gums and Resins. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. bronchitis. bitter. Sk. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. . vaginal discharges. skin diseases. Fruit—aphrodisiac. with a little salt added. useful in intestinal troubles. useful in skin and blood diseases. invigorating. cough. Dhupam. Bark-decoction. aphrodisiac. causes " Kapha ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. antidysenteric. intoxicating. fevers. Salpe. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . improves taste. Fermented juice—tonic. heals wounds . astringent to bowels. fattening. juice. aphrodisiac. asthma. Kundur. blood complaints . K. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. M. bad throat. H. Luban. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Sugars. allays thirst. leaves. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. with a good flavour. Dup. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Guggali. alexiteric. allays asthma. removes "Kapha". See—Timbers. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. fattening. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. also found in Belgaum District.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Liquors. PARTS USED :—Bark. antiglycosuretic. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. binding. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Vishesha-dhupa. cures dysentery. Gum—hot. burning sensation. expectorant. G. :—E. may cause vomiting. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup.

ear. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. increase bile. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. increase appetite . It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . cure enlargement of spleen. stomachic. spasmodic. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. appetiser. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. lessen oedema of body.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. Broach. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath.—Cruciferae. Gums and Resins. Rai. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. K. eye-troubles. . M. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . India. Sk. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. dispel fever . HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. chiefly in Nasik. Kaira. G. cure skin-dissases. cure nose. Seeds— remove cough tumours. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Khandesh. and toothache. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. See—Timbers. good in cough and for inflammations. good for throat complaints. COM. used with butter in syphilis . kill external parasites. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). Jwalanti. Seeds act as digestive condiment . Surat. Mohori. LOC. cause burning . Black-True mustard. :—Cultivated in India. " Vata". anthelmintic . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. Rajika. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Seeds-laxative. biles. :—E. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. Taramira . if swallowed whole they are laxative. Kari Sasive . Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). spleen. DISTR. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Dharwar and Belgaum. Asuri. See—Condiments and Spices. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Sarshapa. Kali-rai. vermicide. NS. LOC. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. internal congestions. H. rheumatism. bechic.

Gauli. Patharphoda. Asana. Australia. or few or many. Country. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. H. stem grooved. Ekadivi. Chandra. COM.—Euphorbiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. :—Deccan. Apastambhini.. CHAR. 5-lobed. heating. Mahavira. subsessile. globose. PARTS USED :—Root. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. M. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda).:—Throughout India. :—G.—yellowish brown.. LOC.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. margins sinuate denticulate. Manj. glabrous . Mullu-siru Honne. Fr. and in fevers with flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Fl. :—G.— Aug-Sept. female flowers solitary. bluish green.—baccate. . 5 cm. M. LOC. long. corolla as in the male . DISTR. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Asana. Tans. Kassi. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Goge. FAM. Shivlingi. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. corolla companulate. COM. ovate-oblong. tendrils 2-fid : L. lobes oblong lanceolate. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. bark. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. It is used in bilious attacks. streaked with broad vertical lines .—Cucurbitaceæ. NS. See—Timbers. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. M. Kavodi. hemiplegia. FAM. Lingaja. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. deeply cordate base. southward to Ceylon. Asana. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Fl. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. NS. S. 1 . Lingini. Khaja. t. 10-15 cm. diam. Gargumaru.— membranous. Mauritius. Kaj. Philippines. Garige. paler and smooth beneath. alterative. Malaya. Ishawara-Shivalingi. Gunjan. Sk. 5-partite. bitter. 3—2 . lumbago. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Shivalingi. tropical Africa. H. pungent. hot.. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. useful in "Vata". DISTR. LOC. Sd. Sk. Shivavalli. :—An annual scandent herb.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. K. smooth. green and scabrid above. of Shivaling shape . Asana. Suviraka. Ekalkanto.

cooling. leaflets ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha".) FAM. Fl. leaves. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. Charoli. :—H. vomiting. H. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. lobes triangular.—variable. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Thailand (Siam). decussate. speckled with white. S. alexipharmic. M. Panphui. younger reddish. tonic. deciduous open forests. fruit. the older light-coloured. thirst. Stems obtusely 4-angled. elliptic. NS. Cambodia. inflammations. also wild. Charpoppu. purifies blood. K. PARTS USED :—Roots. Country.—swollen and octagonal at the base. boils and bites of venomous insects. when punctured. cardio-tonic. allays . Dhanu. Char. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. It is a disinfectant. Deccan. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. in large panicles. Char. :—Hot and drier parts of India.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Sk. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng.—Crassulaceæ. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. burning sensation on body. smooth. COM. Tapaspriya. "Vata" and biliousness. high. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . Priyal. DISTR. CHAR. LOC. buds with root. crenate or serrate.—small. Cochin-China.—pendant. Fr. M. Charoli. HABITAT :—Dry. gum (rarely). Gujarat. Rajadana. FAM. Piyal. bruises. reddish purple. LOC. lower usually simple. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).—Anacardiaceæ. M. laxative. Panphuti. t. M.2 m. ulcers. S. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery.3-1. fattening. Lalana. Country. Asthibhakshya. Paira. with opposite branches . :—G. NS. K. fevers. useful in diarrhœa. Char. cures blooddiseases. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. :—Konkan. See—Ornamental Plants. Kolegeru. Murukali.. Snehabija. Burma. Sd. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). DISTR. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. COM. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. Zakhi-haiyat. Sk. Parnabija. upper 3-5-7 foliate.—Jany. L. C. Deccan. aphrodisiac. the Dangs. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. binding. Leaf-juice digestive. Lonnahadakana gida. purgative. seeds. :—Native of tropical Africa. Pyalchar. occasionally compound. Fl. constricted in the middle. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. :—Konkan. analgesic. expectorant. The bark is bitter and poisonous.

Flower—aphrodisiac. tonic to liver. Khakhrao. leaves. good in fevers. Muttuga. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. dysentery. cold and cough. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. strangury. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Bastard teak. burning sensation. good in biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. seeds. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. colic. Dyes. :—E. useful in bone fractures. Fruit and seeds—oily. biliousness. used in liver disorders. eye diseases. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Palas. digestible. cure tumours. Fruit and seed—hot. Gum—acrid. emmenagogue. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Ceylon.) FAM. tonic. flowers. good in dysentery. M. relieves abnormal thirst. Bark—appetiser. K. purifies blood. G. DISTR. Seeds tonic to body and brain. burning urine.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). lessens biliousness. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). lessens inflammations. in the Khandesh Akrani. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. Muttala. LOC. LOC. worms and piles. Kakria. dysmenorrhoea.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. cough. topically in piles and hydrocele. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. gonorrhoea. Flowers—cure " Kapha". cause headache (Yunani). bark. aphrodisiac. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Yajnika. anthelmintic. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. hydrocele. ascends to 1200 m. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. remove bad humours. aphrodisiac. skindiseases. dry. aperient used in urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. Khakera. tonic. aphrodisiac. Leaves—good for eye diseases. LOC. Gum—astringent to bowels. diseases of anus. pterygium. Kshatadru. thirst. Kuntz. useful in elephantiasis. piles. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. fractures. cures excessive perspiration. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. Tripatrak. NS. used in diseases of chest and lungs. inflammations. stomachic. Dhak. Palash. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . anthelmintic. Bark—appetiser. lessens lumbago. buboes. Gums and Resins. stomatitis. leprosy. Chichra. anthelmintic. pimples. COM. gout. Khakda. useful in piles. piles. laxative. corneal opacities. gum. H. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. tumours. gonorrhœa. if chewed. India. Oils. Kinshuk. useful in syphilis. cures ulcers and tumours. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Leaf—very astringent. diuretic . carminative. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). expectorant. prickly heat and itch. Sk. See—Timbers. Palas. astringent. anthelmintic. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck.

They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. leprosy (Yunani). 30-60 cm. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Tapasi. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. cures urinary discharges. Physic nut. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. wounds. shortly stalked. malaria. anthelmintic . hydrocele. long . prevents contagious diseases .5 cm. Gum solution is applied to bruises. NS. heating. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. leucorrhcea. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Fl. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. leaves. Kakechika. oblong 5-7. Kuberakshi. Fruit—acrid. the tropics generally. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Gajjige. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. G. useful in colic. long. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. fevers. cures inflammation . Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Dyes. Sagargota. They are applied to orchitis. destroys bad odour due to perspiration.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. elliptic-oblong. piles. Fr. act as rubefacient. etc. Karanja.) COM. lead-colored 1.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. antiperiodic. :—An extensive climber. ringworm. :—E. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles.5 X 4. petioles prickly. CHAR. Sind. Flowers are astringent. strongly mucronate. flowers and fruit. :—Throughout India. t. anthelmintic. LOC.—abruptly pinnate. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Gajga. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. good in small-pox and elephantiasis.3 cm. See—Timbers. M. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. . asthma and colic. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic .—1-2 oblong. Leaves contain a glucoside. 5-7. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . very common near the sea-coast. skin-diseases. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Fever nut. aphrodisiac and diuretic. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Fl.—yellow. K. Gums and Resins. Seed—styptic. Gajaga. L. Deccan hills. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. H. Katkaranj.—pod. astringent to bowels. Katkaleja. Sd. FAM. aphrodisiac. DISTR.—JulySept. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. sprouts useful in tumours. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places.

. H. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. gum. L. Madar. Kanara associated with littoral species. improves complexion (Ayurveda). LOC. elliptic or ovate oblong.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. FAM. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. NS. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. often gregarious. Kshirparni.—Asclepiadaceæ. used in chronic fevers. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Sk. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Ponne. sometimes amplexicaul. high. Gigantic swallow-wort. Sk. branches stout. COM. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn.H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.8-10 cm. sessile. Australia. CHAR. Ark. G. Ceylon. lessens appetite. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action.— opposite. The gum from wounded branches. :—A large shrub. K. Purasakeshera. both surfaces tomentose. Surangi. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye.. Arka. Kshiranga. Sultanchampa. Vuma. Undi.—Guttiferæ. 2. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Punnag. Rui. Mandara. Shuka-phala. and oil. Ak. Surpan. Madar. base cordate. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Surhonne. Akdo... Akand. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Arka. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. astringent. K. LOC. M. See—Timbers. DISTR. M. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Mandara. PARTS USED :—Bark. Malaya.4-3 m. thick. :—E. COM. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. FAM. . East African Islands. and for its oil. much branched. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". :—Cultivated throughout India. very common in N. covered with cottony pubescence. Alexandrian laurel. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Ekke. :—E. Dholaakdo. Tungakeshera. NS. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties.. Polynesia. Undi. Oils. Punnaga. 10-20 X3. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Br.

Mandara. C. COM. elliptic or obovate. cottony.. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.7—15 X 4.5-8. ascites. Flowers—stomachic. scabies. Juice—anthelmintic. FAM. Flowers—digestive. very common is S. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. dropsy. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. spleen and liver diseases. also useful in intestinal worms. LOC. across.-July. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. Mandara. back much curved.—lobes deltoid-ovate. Malay Islands and S. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. corona shorter than the column. Sk. purgative. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. Fr. oleaginous.—broadly ovate. cures piles and "Kapha". Root-bark is diaphoretic. ovate oblong. Ark. heal wounds.—subsessile. Br. ellipsoid or ovoid. usually 5. rat-bite. high. See—Fibres. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. :—Throughout warmer parts of India.:—H. LOC. comose . milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles .. swellings. bark. eruption on body.—Asclepiadaceæ. cures leucoderma. young parts white. acrid . useful in leprosy. . corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. C.—7. Milk— heating. Safedak. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. M. Flower—analgesic. tonic and stomachic in action. PARTS USED :—Root.4 m. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. Fr. CHAR. catarrh and loss of appetite. piles. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . depilatory. used in cough. tumours. cures leprosy. Sd. good for liver (Yunani). long. liver and spleen enlargement. tumours. ringworm of scalp. subglobose. cures inflammations. Ceylon. DISTR. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. expectorant and anthelmintic.8-2. cures asthma and syphilis.—about 2. bark corky. flattened tomentose..— purplish in umbellate cymes.—follicles. lobes usually erect. diaphoretic. alterative and purgative properties. Rajarka. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion.— Feb. leaves and flowers. buds globose.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. leaves applied to paralysed parts. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. :—An erect shrub usually 1. apex with two auricles. laxative. very common.2 cm. ulcers. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. spongy. t. green. NS. comose.5 cm. painful joints . Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. Ak. India. broad. Milk— caustic. 9-10 cm. purplish or white.5-10 X 5-7. Sd:—many. China. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). ascites and anasarca. Fl. Fl. Madar. L. astringent. coughs. elephantiasis. asthma.5 cm.—in umbellate cymes. buds ovoid. asthma.

—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. G. CANNA INDICA Linn. 1 linear . Tamateballi.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. high . K. NS.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—Scitaminaceae. but doubtfully wild. LOC. on trees and hedges . membranous. Shimbi. flowers and milky juice. L. Gavria. Nilashimbika. COM. Shitarambha.5 cm. LOC. FAM. Sarvajaya. Flowers used as detergent. DISTR. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. useful in burning sensations. Waziristan. Devakeli.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India.3 cm.. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. abundant in Sind. CHAR. Iran. acrid. H. COM. Sabbajaya. Sambe.:—Perennial herb . 3 sub-erect. bracts oblong. Broad—Sword bean. indigestible. DISTR. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Sk. narrow. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. hernia and colic. Gigantea. The pods contain vitamin A.9-1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. M. P. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. :—E. Gavara. Kardali. tonic. See—Fibres. spatulate.. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Warm leaves used as poultice. green.—segments 2. H. Kamakshi. Egypt.2 m. Kadsambu. Hudingana. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. lanceolate to ovate. PARTS USED :—Leaves. biliousness. Kadavare. Indian shot. :—E. erect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. staminodial segments. Paraholiya. (Chopra). See—Vegetables. Arabia. veins arching. Afghanistan. M. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. There is an alkaloid present in the pods.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. FAM. Akalabera. oval or orbicular. Kalehu. Fl. Koshaphala. ulcers (Ayurveda). Asishimbi. tropical Africa. appetiser. NS. Abai. root-stock tuberous. PARTS USED :—Pods. Tarvardi. Khadsambal. K. Sk. stem 0. they are given in cholera. Sema. greenish or colored. LOC. G. cooling. long. Sarvajaya.

useful in convulsions. insanity. antidiarrhoeic. intoxicating. seeds and resin. Ganja. flowers. causes thirst and biliousness. inflammations. tonic. echinulate . DISTR. cause headache. Sd. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Bark. causes thirst. black. Siddhapatri. good for hydrocele. intoxication (Ayurveda). Mohini. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. M. cough. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. Bhang. hallucinations. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). Hemp. :—E. stomachic.—many. heating. intoxication. They are broken in small pieces. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . DISTR. upper 1-3. aphrodisiac. male flowers. 3-lobed.—achene. LOC. globose. (3) Charas. leaves. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Vijaya. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. H. G. piles. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). melancholia.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. soporific. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. water extract anthelmintic. FAM. COM. astringent. dropsy. LOC. leprosy. Not indigenous. serrate. female perianth hyaline. hot. :—Throughout India. lower 3-8 foliate. Fl. sepals 5. high in its feral state. lessen inflammation. (2) Bhang. oil-good for earache. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. causes biliousness. also wild. Seeds—carminative. Unmattini. aphrodisiac. Bhangi. useful in " Kapha". leaves. Fr.—sub-globose or oblong . male fascicled. dioecious.—small axillary. Female inflorescence is stomachic. imbricate. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Fr. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. LOC. Bhang. tonic. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja.—more or less throughout the year. PARTS USED :—Roots. excessive use causes indigestion. female crowded under convolute bracts. usually 0. K. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. Shivapriya. L. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. impotence. PROPERTIES AND LOC. abortifacient. Wild in the Himalayas. See—Ornamental Plants. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. Fl. Leaves—bitter. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. Bark—tonic.—Urticaceæ. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. t. Ganja. astringent to bowels.5 m. restlessness. CHAR. Harshini.—alternate or the lower opposite. Ganja. NS. flowers and seeds. Central Asia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . check vomiting. alterative .9-1. :—Widely cultivated in India. soporific. shining.

Marichiphala. Marchu . DISTR. H. FAM.—Solanaceæ. and dropsy. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Mirchi. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in brain complaints. M. Tivrashakti. diarrhœa. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Madana modak used in cough. Country in Deccan. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. weakness of body. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). increases appetite. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. also in gout. Sk. See—Condiments and Spices. Fruit—pungent. G. asthma. NS. Ujjvala. Narcotics. Tikshna. See—Gums and Resins. Fibres. erysipelas. M. Capsaicin and Solanin. muscular pains. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. The fruit contains Capsisin. whooping cough. LOC. and flatulence. expectorant. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Vegetables. and is employed by Indian physicians. Cayenne-pepper. dyspepsia. It is stomachic. COM. acute mania. . Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Lanka mirchi. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. Raktamaricha. :—Cultivated all over India. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. The plant contains cannabinin. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. chronic ulcers. Menshinkai. LOC. useful in indigestion. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. increases biliousness. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Lalmirchi. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. cholera. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. in the form of electuary. loss of consciousness. dysuria. delirium (Ayurveda). a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Mirchi. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Chillies. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. often found as an escape. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). :—Extensively cultivated in S. spermatorrhoea.

Ceylon. trigonous. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. abscesses and ulcers. K. urinary discharges. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.—Sapindaceæ. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. FAM. it is mucilaginous. Gavvahannu. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Hennumatti. See—Timbers. useful in tumours. :—Most warm countries. . Fr. bronchitis.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. Jyotish-mati. bark.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Fl.—capsule.— alternate. :—E. G. COM. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . stem wiry. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ghats. " Vata ". piles. 2-ternate. common in S. M. Root is considered diaphoretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. epileptic fits. M. dyspepsia. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). NS. Deccan. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. smooth. aphrodisiac. Kumbi. Karnasphota.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. Konkan and W. Karolio. Thailand (Siam). NS. LOC. dry. The plant contains saponin. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb.—white. alexiteric. LOC. leaves and seeds. Wild guava . skin-diseases. Sk. introduced. bark. hot. G. black. Sind. Kumbhi. :—E. Kapalphodi. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Kumbhi. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Agni-erum. Maniju balli. and is administered in fevers. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Shaundi. L. Vakambi. Daddala. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. FAM. leucoderma. inciso-serrate. ultimate segments lanceolate. flowers and fruits. rounded at the apex. C. when moistened. Kanphuti. LOC. anthelmintic. Kumbha. Girikarnika. :—Throughout India. leaves. K. Fruit—acrid. DISTR. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. deltoid. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. Blister creeper. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints .—Myrtaceæ. COM. Sk. colic.—globose. DISTR. petals 4. Balloon vine. Kangu. Malay Peninsula. bladdery . HABITAT :—In hedges . Kalindi. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. diuretic and aperient. CHAR. Sakralata. winged at the angles. subglobose. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. very acute apex. Root. H. Fibres.

Kardai. causes burning sensation . fruit and seeds.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Papaw. diuretic. Sk. Popayi. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Mexico and Brazil. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). cures insanity (Ayurveda). it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. Indies. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Pappayi. G. enlargement of spleen. M. Pangi. removes biliousness . ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. :— E. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. NS. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Papita. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. LOC. H. Oil—indigestible. Nalikadala. digestive. appetiser . Leaves—hot. Chibda. HABITAT :—Cultivated. unripe fruit. bile. cures inflammation. Seeds—oleaginous. Kamalottama. Kusumba. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. See—Fruit Trees. cooling. . green fruit is laxative and diuretic. bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. expectorant. ringworm. Kusumbha. cure "Vata". Safflower. Papaya. wounds of urinary track. of W. relieves obesity. Kusumba. Papayi. appetiser. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cause biliousness. LOC. flowers. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. G. in haemoptysis. depilatory. COM. bronchitis. seeds and oil.—Compositæ.—Caricaceæ. Papaya. aphrodisiac. Guppe. Karrak. aphrodisiac. Fruit—stomachic. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. astringent to bowels. diuretic. Papaya. piles. :—E. White thin latex contains Papain. cure urinary discharges. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. used. made into curries. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. :—Grown extensively in Poona. FAM. FAM. Kusumba. K. :—Native throughout India. removes urinary concretions . leucoderma. DISTR. "Tridosh". Karada. Chirbhita. Kusumbo. M. Sk. hypnotic. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. strangury. heating. cures inflammations. DISTR. leprosy. Dyer's saffron. carminative. laxative. Barre. Flower—tonic to liver. diuretic. NS. it is used to procure abortion. scabies. good for eyes. H. Agnishikha. COM. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Fruits contain vitamins A and C. "Kapha".

Ajamoda. K. long. tonic and carminative properties. Ajowan. Ajamo . K. pungent. Seeds—purgative. paralysis. NS. Oil—good in all diseases. good for ear boils.—Umbelliferæ. diuretic. bitter. chest and throat pains. subsessile. appetiser. hiccup. emmenagogue and sedative. Winged senna. leaflets 10-12 pairs. inflammation (Yunani). M. FAM. aphrodisiac . H. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. H. stomachic. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). cure ascites. Dyes. NS :— E. FAM. cure catarrh. Dadrughna. good for heart and tooth-ache. Datka pat. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. kidney troubles. good for old people. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Dadamardana. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. L. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . LOC. Ringworm shrub. abdominal tumours. Europe. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. See—Vegetables.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. good in weakness of limbs. COM. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Owa. Iran. carminative. Sk. The seeds bitter and hot. aphrodisiac. laxative. :—E. purgative. rachis . pinnate. Simyatase. Tivragandha. Oma. 30-60 cm. CASSIA ALATA Linn. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. vomiting. stimulant. myrabolans and rock salt. See—Condiments and Spices. Egypt. Omu . tonic. vomiting. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. M. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). strengthening. Sk. they are used in jaundice . carminative. and diarrhœa. They are administered in flatulence. atonic dyspepsia. Elgra. Oils. Dadmardan. oblique at the base. G. anthelmintic. LOC. stimulate intestines. improve speech and eyesight.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. DISTR. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Dwipagasti. Leaves contain vitamin A. Baluchistan. downy beneath. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. CHAR. bechic. Dodda sagate. give lustre to eyes. Bishops' weed . chest pains. enlargement of spleen. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. spleen. oblong-obtuse. carminative. and even in cholera. piles. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. Dipyaka. liver. dyspepsia. Ajwain. abdominal pain. mucronate. enrich blood. Afghanistan. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture.

DISTR. pale beneath. slightly overlapping. t. itching. The whole plant. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely).6 cm. Peninsula. rhombohedral. leprosy. Burma. Tanner's cassia. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. Ahmed. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. 28-4-88). 5 cm. stipules very large. very likely a native of the W. rotundate. ringworm. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. N. G. leaves. membranous. cure " Vata ". 20-25. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). Pitakilaka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. Bark has the same properties. yellow with orange veins. pedunculate racemes .-Oct.—pod long. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. Fl. diabetes. flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Fl. " In eczema. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). and throat troubles. along the sea coast in laterite region. obliquely septate. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. vermicide (Ayurveda). NS. causes flatulence . PARTS USED :—Root. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. good for ulcers. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. thirst. asthma . t. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.—bright yellow with darker veins. useful in vomiting. K. Charmaranga. skin diseases. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. Madhya Pradesh and W. Country.-July. across. J. straight. reddish brown.—large.—30-35. Indies. leaflets 8-12 pairs. Awal.-50 or more. Fr. :—Introduced into India. fruits and seeds. 10-20 X 1.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. H. Tarwad.. long. C. urinary discharges . alexipharmic .—7. LOC.) COM. LOC.—Jany. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. cough. oblong-obovate. nocturnal emissions. Mukerji). HABITAT :—Planted. Sd. anthelmintic. Taroda. Sakusina. Mayahari.3-1. FAM. Fl. Sd. LOC. skin-diseases.. cures tumours. reniform. Sk.—in spiciform. DISTR. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. buds in yellow bracts. Fl. LOC. . Tarwad. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). Avartki. useful in thirst. asthma. Gujarat and S. Ph. Tangadi. dull green above.—pod. rachis densely pubescent. CHAR. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. :—E. Ceylon. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. cm. bark smooth. Fr. mucronate. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. L. Avarike.5 X 10 cm. M..

throat-troubles. Negro coffee. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. K. Fruit—antipyretic. apex acute. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. :—Throughout India. leprosy. distinctly torulose. Balla. (Ayurveda). Chimkani. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. abortifacient. rheumatism. purgative. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Vyadivata. purgative. cure " Kapha ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. demulcent. recurved. Kasundari. Indian laburnum. Kasoda. faintly veined with orange . M. heal ulcers . Chakinda. FAM. G.—in few flowered racemes. corymbose. and Famine Plants. transversely septate. Sk. griping. tuberculous glands.— Jany-March. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. H. Konde. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Pudding-pipe or stick. K. Rajataru. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Kasmarda. Dodda-tagase.—20-30. laxative. NS.. DISTR. astringent. Ornamental Plants. Hema-puspha. Arogyashimbi.) COM. improve appetite. used in rheumatism. LOC. juice given in erysipelas. fruit and seeds. hard. It is a mild laxative. Ane sogate. often purplish. Burma. M. Kacodari. cooling. Rechana. base somewhat oblique. :—E. Rankasvinda. See—Timbers. useful in chest and liver complaints. :—E. eye-diseases. Aragina.—pods. Kasonda. Suvarnaka. . Flowers—purgative. Sd. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Tans. Kasondi. shining dark olive-green. C. biliousness . Seeds—emetic (Yunani).—petals 5. long. In Konkan. 15-20 cm. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. Leaves—anti-periodic . FAM. G. cause flatulence. Golden shower. lessens inflammation and body-heat. H. CHAR. yellow. syphilis. flowers. also planted. LOC. Leaves lessen inflammation. NS. leaves. Fruit—digestible.5 cm. Ceylon. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. t. long. Garmala. Fl. Stinking weed. Bahava. Arimarda. cooling. See—Dyes. Kakka. Sk. ovate-lanceolate.—very foetid when bruised.) COM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Kasari. safe for children and pregnant women. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. Fr. L. Seeds— oily. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Fl. smooth. Bandartauri. 10—12. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Flowers—improve taste. carminative. antipyretic. branches furrowed. cures burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Root. Amaltas.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice.

—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). leaflets 6-10 pairs. petals 5. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. K. dark brown .—18-23 cm. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). FAM. DISTR. C. are given in diabetes. when mixed with sandal-wood paste.. rachis grooved . alexiteric. Kasamarda. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. long . PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Banar. L. Sk. ovate. Kasundari. opposite. LOC. with a solitary conical gland near the base . M. cures ascites. Leaves—aphrodisiac. cure " Kapha". Seeds used in heat of the blood. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. 7. The bark. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. yellow. septate between the seeds . the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. DISTR. LOC. Fl. NS. H. hiccup. See—Famine Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. turgid. stomachic. annual or perennial. in Kutch. .510 cm.. cough. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. :—A shrub 2. Kasondi. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. Kasamarda. leaves and seeds. COM. In many countries root is considered diuretic. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. Talapota. obtuse. and seeds are cathartic. slightly recurved. Sd. LOC. t. leaves and seeds. :—G. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. asthma.Jany. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. Fr. few flowered corymbose racemes. high. fevers. At Kotra. Ran tankala. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. base rounded. leaves. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. " Vata ". LOC. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. The plant contains glucoside emodin. lanceolate. mixed with honey. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant.—30-40 broadly ovoid. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages.—pod. CHAR. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . elephantiasis. See—Famine Plants. heals wounds. Baskikasondi.— Nov. PARTS USED :—Root.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages.4-3 m. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. Fl.—in axillary. tonic and febrifuge. " tridosha " .

Seeds— acrid. :—A very common weed all over the State. :—An annual foetid herb. Jyotishmati. L. bitter. 12. Kangli. brain and liver tonic. Foetid cassia.5-20 cm. 7. Taga. Kangodi.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . high. expectorant. Intellect tree. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Kangani. crenate. hot. DISTR. 30-90 cm.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts.8-7. Chagoche. ovate or obovate. leaflets 3 pairs. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. stem upto 23 cm. Malkangoni. The plant contains glucoside emodin. base oblique. opposite (lowest smaller). :—Large deciduous climber. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda).— petals 5. Fl. appetiser.—pinnate. G.5-10 cm. Malkakni. oblong. 18 m. Sd. Fr. in diam. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.5 cm. rachis grooved. FAM. Seeds—bitter. Burma. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m.—after the rains. :—E. obovate. Tarota. shining above. Fr. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Sk. Black-oil tree.) COM. long. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. Climbing-staff plant. . Pamad. Svarnalata. NS. Fl. emetic. Dadamari. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. CHAR. unarmed. Tagache. CHAR. COM. globose. 1-6 completely covered with red. alternate. Chakramarda.. Takala.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. C. FAM. DISTR. LOC. in drooping panicles. cause burning sensation. 6. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. powerful brain tonic. PARTS USED :— Root. M. LOC. capsule. laxative. Madras State. M. much curved when young. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. PROPERTIES AND LOC.5 mm. Chakunda. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. Sd. :—E. K.. Panevar. obliquely septate. pale yellow. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". upper petal 2-lobed . USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. Kanguni.—Celastraceæ. cure joint-pains. Dadrughna. small yellowish-green.—pod. bright yellow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. leaves and seeds. usually unisexual. X 4. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. H. L. H. fleshy arillus. covered with lenticels. Velo . NS. Ceylon. Sphutabandhani. Malhangana. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. branches rough. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Sk. high.3-10 X 3. Taragosi. K. reddish brown. Malkamni.. t.

C.). bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers.—tubular lobes 5. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. M. Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. FAM.). Vondelaga. spreading star-like . M. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Mahaushadhi. Jhinkun-kariatum. minute. used in leprosy. good for cough and asthma. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. :—A slender herbaceous plant. :—Konkan. Ekpani. NS. Brahmamanduki. obovate or oblong. elliptic.—Umbelliferæ. they are also sudorific. paralysis and leprosy.-Apl. CHAR. pink.—opposite. orbicular. cloves. K.—4 mm. Vallari . H. Jangli-karayatu. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. persistent. ovoid. reniform. especially in Bengal. L. M. LOC. hard-rugose. Lahanchirayat. :—Throughout India.—3 from each node. G. . COM. Fl. rooting at the nodes. and is employed for external application. L. Deccan and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. tonic. Fl. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. long. Don. aphrodisiac and stimulant. base deeply cordate stipulate. COM. LOC. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. DISTR.—May-Nov. CHAR. t. Oil stomachic. stem creeping with long internodes.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. :— E. Fr. t.—Feb. Mandukparni. Fl. Brahmamanduki. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. pink. Country. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. Seeds are hot. narrowly oblong . (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Barmi. linear-oblong. radical leaves revolute.—in fascicled umbels. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G.—capsule. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). gout. high. NS. :—G.—Gentianaceæ. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. Brahmi. Sk. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Fr. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). cauline smaller. H. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium.

but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. inflammations. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. tonic. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Leaf-powder. sedative to nerves. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. abundant on the Malabar Coast. . As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. cardio-tonic. water courses throughout the State. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. alexiteric. For external use powder. small-pox. scalding of urine. bechic. Kanara. " Kapha ". thirst. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. China. M. clears voice and brain. nut is narcotic and poisonous . green fruit is employed to kill dogs . soporific. Australia Pacific Islands. LOC. Malay Archipelago. milky juice. :—Throughout India near the coast. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. urinary discharges. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. blood diseases. anæmia. biliousness. NS. bronchitis. improves appetite. twigs. bitter. bronchitis. Plant—bitter. nallas. voice. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. :—South Konkan and N. Sukanu. fruit. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. laxative. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. tonic. LOC. diuretic. Tande. ointment. improves appetite (Yunani). USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative.) DISTR. memory. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. cures hiccup. USES :—Bark is purgative. :—K. See—Timbers. fevers. plaster or bath are used. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. LOC. FAM. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. PARTS USED :—Bark. stomachic. headache . asthma. and a bitter substance odollin. leaves and seeds). Leaves are also diuretic.—Apocynaceæ. cures leucoderma. COM. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. Chanda. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. cooling. digestible. alterative. carminative. spleen enlargement. asthma. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. antipyretic. :—In moist situations (streams. Honde. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum.

Fruit is very sour . Tanko. Wild-spinach. H. heart. Chillika. diuretic. Skandhaphala. Pandu. PARTS USED :—Root. "Kapha". FAM . H. improves appetite. NS. oleaginous. G. Chania. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. LOC. Chalmeri. COM. useful in bronchitis. abdominal pains. Laveni. Kari-Kempukadale. eye-diseases. Harbara. The plant yields an essential oil. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Chana.) FAM. diseases of blood.. Harparrevdi. Balabhojya. acrid. Bathusag. Sk. Bengal—Common-gram. vomiting. COM. fruit and seeds. G. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Agralohita. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. :—Cultivated in India. DISTR. "Vata". useful in biliousness. Chick pea. :— E. :—Widely distributed. FAM. M. biliousness. Sk. piles. :—E. Ksharadala. fragrant. USES :— Root is purgative. COM. biliousness. Vajibhakshya. Sk. DISTR. The fruit is acrid and astringent. LOC.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. H. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Goose-foot. :—E. Rai-avala. M. But. tonic. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Very common in the Deccan. Chakwat. tonic to liver. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. NS. . Rayara nelli. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. sour . Kadale. useful in thirst. Deccan and S. LOC. Kanchuki. spleen (Ayurveda). purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). See—Fruit Trees. Chana. M. Country gooseberry. constipation. piles . NS. K.—Euphorbiaceæ. Chakravarti. laxative. Lavali. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. root and the seed are cathartic. Chunna. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. K. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Chandanbedu. throattroubles. Chanaka. Harparauri K. Cheel. also cultivated as a pot herb.—Chenopodiaceæ. Country. Chakravati. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). urinary concretions.

useful in " Vata ". useful in cold. Dalchini. tonic. bronchitis (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. :— Bark and oil. astringent to bowels . Lavange-hakke. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). causes salivation. parched mouth. K. Peninsula. useful in hydrocele. foul mouth and fever. It possesses carminative. expectorant. Darchini. heated brain. Leaves contain vitamin A. tonic to hair. Seed—indigestible. pungent. cures thirst and burning. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. biliousness. NS. tonic . cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). Dalchini. cold in head. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. good for diseases of liver and spleen. rectum and urinary diseases. :—G. :—W. etc. Duk. Oil—styptic. improve taste and appetite. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cures skin diseases. chest complaints. hiccup. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. refrigerant. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. . Gudatwaka. causes flatulence. LOC. It checks nausea and vomiting. aphrodisiac. Burma. alexiteric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. Sk. very common in the N. aphrodisiac. Oils. useful in loss of appetite. biliousness. flatulence. PARTS USED. diarrhœa. Seed—stimulant. Dalchini. See—Condiments and Spices. COM. carminative. headache. anthelmintic. emmenagogue. vomiting. toothache. LOC. abortifacient. M. appetiser. throat troubles. Bark—tonic. flatulence. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. anthelmintic. Nisane. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. Ceylon. itching. Kash. Valkala. tonic. Malay Peninsula. useful in inflammations. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. FAM. Leaves—purgative. bronchitis. abdominal pains. diarrhœa and dysentery. indigenous and cultivated. liver-tonic . causes flatulence. See—Food Plants. heart. indigestion. anthelmintic . strengthens liver. thirst. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. aphrodisiac. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. vomiting. Oil—carminative. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. leprosy. LOC.—Lauraceæ. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. H. aphrodisiac. Kanara district. DISTR. enriches blood. throat troubles. cure bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. pains . acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. useful in bronchitis. headache. carminative. toothache (Ayurveda). seed and acid exudation. piles. Dalchini. blood troubles. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent.

Asso. an alkaloid.— usually margined. dysentery. Velvet-leaf. peltate. Pahadvel. orbicular or reniform. yellowish. male flowers in axillary cymes. F. FAM. L. :—E. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Sd. has been isolated. 5-nerved. Paharmul. Chitraphala. female flowers in elongate. heart troubles. in conjunction with aromatics.—A climbing shrub. i. or twin. angular . greenish. Trapusi. Nirbisi.—Menispermaceæ. smooth. diam. Makal. 3. :—In hills. diarrhœa.-Jany. Mahendravaruni. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Uthika. minute. warm parts of Asia. asthma . yellow within. subglobose.e. uterine complaints.5-20 cm. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. red or yellowish white. flesh juicy.—July-Sept. Kanara. branches more or less pubescent. G. M. lobes obovateoblong. burning. CHAR. red. M. Kaduvrindavan. DISTR. Indrayan. Ghorumba. E. Bitter apple. removes pain. which possibly has a cholinergic action. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. upto 25 cm. dropsy and cough. skin eruptions. Fl. mucronate. fever. useful in hemicrania. stem thick. t. Sk. K. axillary racemes . The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Pavamekke Kayi.8-10 cm.—Cucurbitaceæ. :— E. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. The active constituent of the drug. solitary. greenish outside. :—An extensively climbing annual.. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. 7. Annual Report. . G. H. NS. Patha. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. waxy coated. Fl. cordate at the base. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. solitary. helps parturition.. H. tendrils bifid. 5-partite. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Venivalli. young shoots woolly. Fr. compressed. alleviates vomiting. C. PARTS USED :—Root. R. LOC. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch.—large. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. (Ind. NS. diam. LOC. sub-globose. Africa and America. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). 1949). Indrayana. FL t. somewhat hairy. drupe. :—Deccan. piles. Fr. FAM. Katurasa. monœcious. Indraphal. removes intestinal worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . Indrayan. Sk. HABITAT. also for prolapsus uteri. margins ciliate. hairy.—Nov. Tumtikayi. Venivel. COM. subcampanulate. Fl. L. Indruk. leaves.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. itching . COM. long. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. Colocynth. CHAR.

Asia. enlargement of spleen. with or without nux-vomica. Santra. G. NS. Narenj. constipation. carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. urinary discharges. DISTR. and lumbago. anthelmintic . chest troubles. Cardiotonic. Fruit—sour. Also indigenous in Arabia. N. laxative. Gujarat. removes fatigue . K. Doddile. asthma. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. bronchitis. purgative. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. In the Konkan fruit and root. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . DISTR. sea-shores. Deccan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. W. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. H. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. Sk. pain in joints.—Rutaceæ. LOC. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). M. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). bowel complaints. aphrodisiac . PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. sweet and has agreeable flavour. Narange. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. tuberculous glands of neck. Ceylon. Sukkare-kanji. ulcers. useful in biliousness. fortifies chest. LOC. epilepsy. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. :— E. good in vomiting and skin diseases. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. :—Widely cultivated in India. useful in piles. tonic. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. ascites. " Kapha". Kittale. Nagaranga. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Naringa. cures tumours. Sunthura. removes biliousness. Flower— stimulant. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). COM. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. enlargement of spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. relieves vomiting and retching. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Tvakasugandha. diuretic. Kirmirtvaka. FAM. Naringi. antipyretic. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. cooling. Rind— anthelmintic. anæmia. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. LOC. leuco-derma. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. elephantiasis . externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. LOC. Root and fruit cooling. relieves colds. tonic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). astringent. dyspepsia. throat diseases. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . jaundice. constipation. :—Konkan. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. good in fevers. Narangi. (Poona. removes " Vata ". fever and worms.

Ghats. Bijoru.—Rutaceæ. Fruit—sweet and sour. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Amlakeshara. Lemon . The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms.:—Grown in gardens in the State. gastric irritability in general and general debility. COM. :— E. Flowers—stimulant. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Bijapurna. used in constipation and tumours. Citron . thirst. leaves and flowers hot and dry. digestible. asthma. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. oily. Bera nimbu. G. PARTS USED :—Root. VAR. COM. useful in vomiting. also corrects foetid breath. relieves sore-throat. Mahalunga. Balank. Ruchaka. anasarca and chronic fever. The fruits contain vitamins A. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Seeds—indigestible. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Turanj. Idalimbu. Jambira. anæmia. cough. Adam's apple. increase appetite. its preserve is used for dysentery. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. rind of the fruit is bitter. Sk. astringent to bowels . flatulence. Madala. FAM. cough.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. H. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Sk. removes colic. Paharinimbu . juice refrigerant and astringent. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. flowers. with a sharp taste. Rusaki. Thora-limbu. DoddaGaja-nimba. fruits and seeds. Limonum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. seeds. asthma. NS. sharp. the pulp cold and dry. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Mahaphala. Devamadala. NS. stimulant. K. Mavalunga. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). intoxication. Matunga. tonic and astringent properties. G. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. heating. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Bijaura. H. LOC. cures leprosy. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. jaundice. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. relieve vomiting. :—E. Motalimbu . anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bark and fruit. the juice allays ear-ache. LOC. useful in abdominal complaints. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED. Matalunga. :—Citron rind is hot. :—Roots. though there are no regular plantations. M. Kutla. Matulunga. . Harale. Turanj. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. tonic. Mahaphala. USES. dry and tonic . See—Fruit Trees. said to be wild in W. hiccup. K. According to Theophrastus. aphrodisiac. M. B and C. Mahanimbu. :—Cultivated in the Deccan.

but often found trailing amongst grass. plethora. Morhari. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. Nimbuka. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Fl. H. . Nimbu. Fl.—Ranunculaceæ. loss of appetite. it cures and prevents scurvy. NS. C. anthelmintic.—petals O.5 cm. ovoid. cures abodominal complaints. sepals 4-6. L.. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . M. sharp taste. Nebu. long ovate or orbicular. Oil from rind. measles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Rochana. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). appetiser. Nimbu. :—G. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Morata. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. COM. Fruit—sour. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. Kagadi limbu. H. Acida. throat trouble. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ".Nov. t. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. not good in old age. Murhari. improves liver. blades 2-2. constipation. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. bronchitis . leaves (rarely). brain disorders. Limbe. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. fatigue . hemicrania. Amlasara. PARTS USED :—Fruit. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. hairy outside. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . scarletina. Morvel. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Devashreni. K. vomiting. Limbu. with long feathery tails . K. Murva. Madhulika. :—An extensive climber. Lebu. where there is dry skin and much thirst. :—E. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Churhar. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Snuva. whole plant tomentose. heart. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. M. Ranjai. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. Lebu. relieves biliousness.—in axillary corymbose panicles. stimulant . USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. eyes . petioles twinning. Moravel. See—Fruit Trees. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). CHAR.—achenes. G. it helps digestion. NS.—Sept. Acid-Sour lime . CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Limpaka. COM.—simple or once ternate. with flavour. burning in the chest. Dhantiate. also useful in rheumatism. silky villous. relieves vomiting . Sk. Shodhana. Nimbe. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. FAM. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. lobes mucronate. Fr. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Sk. VAR. Khatalimbu. white. LOC. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites.

68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. in lax racemes. Sk. tapering towards both ends . anthelmintic. Vatari. Kasaghni. cooling. useful in leprosy. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. diuretic. M. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). veined. K. Sk. Bharangi. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Harhuria. :—Common in grass lands. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Talvari. :—Annual erect herb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet.—Sept-June. used internally in thirst. Fl. stomachic. leaflets elliptic-oblong. H. and dispel intestinal fermentation. obliquely striate. Fl. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. HABIT :—A common weed. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. reduces tumours and inflammations . terminal the largest. blood diseases. COM. subglobose. petioles of lower leaves longer. Plant has penetrating bad smell. laxative. bitter. Barbara. Tinmani. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish.—3-5 foliate. Fr. Nayibela.—brownish black. Bharang. externally applied to boils. CHAR. Sauri.—capsule. dryness and urethral discharges. laxative. COM. C. Leaves—favour digestion. 30-90 cm. K. Sd. . Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). Adityabhakta. M. Bharangi. and fevers. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. LOC. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. stimulates secretion of bile. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. :—G. Ghats. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. DISTR.—petals 4. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Tilwan. Hulhul. Karnasphota. LOC. Brahmani. L. yellow. t. LOC. Konkan. stems grooved and glandular. Bharangi. :—W. :—G. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. NS. good in malaria. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. hairy. oblong-obovate. very common in the Deccan. hairy.—Capparidaceæ. Juice— cures ear-ache. Tilparni. FAM. Kanphodi. NS. transversely striate. Phanjika. high. hot.—axillary. mixed with oil. erect. causes excessive biliousness. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. H. Kanphutia. DISTR. bitter taste and a strong odour. Gantubarangi. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Kiritekki. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Jangali-harhar. astringent. removes " Kapha". stimulant. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda).—Verbenaceæ. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil.

DISTR. ulcers of the cornea.:—More or less throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. Garani. 3. smooth. good for eye-diseases. tuberculous glands. fleshy. Aparajita. :—G. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . bronchitis.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. useful in inflammation. pubescent.— Aug. Kajli. useful in bronchitis. stems terete. biliousness. Ceylon. Wowatheti. Aparajita. solitary. tumours. pains. Sd. Fl. sometimes opposite.. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. lower one deflexed.-Oct. inflammations. inflammations. Girikarniballi. The plant contains an alkaloid. oblong or elliptic. Fl. Fl. Sk. cures "Tridosha".5 X 2-3. asthma.— drupe. Gokarni. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. CHAR. obovoid.—many. NS.9-2. anthelmintic. also found throughout the State. . wounds (Ayurveda). asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. FAM. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. consumption. anthelmintic.—6-10 yellowish brown. t. C. tube hairy within. 4 lobes flat. Kowa. beaked.3 cm. in lax dichotomous cymes. elliptic oblong. K.—imparipinnate. "Vata". 0. hairy. Fl. M. Root increases appetite. 12. showy. Vishnukranta. laxative. leaves and seeds. DISTR. spreading. headache.—ternately whorled.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—much exerted.7-6. lessens expectoration. elephantiasis. fevers. :—A perennial twining herb. the larger lower lobe dark purple.8-5 cm. nearly straight. blood diseases.. Gokarnika.—axillary. long .5-15 X 5. leucoderma. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. Fr. Malay Peninsula. There are two varieties :—white flowered. leaflets 5-7. H. stems bluntly quadrangular. tonic to the brain. Girikarnika. diuretic.. 2-2. Kalina. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. black. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. L. useful in ascites (Yunani). LOC. HABITAT :—In hedges. C. epilepsy.2 m. COM. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. flat.2 cm.. with an orange centre. collectively forming a terminal panicle. and blue flowered. Koyala. acrid. burning sensation. standard bright blue or white. L. stomachic. leaves and seeds. hiccup. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry.—Shrub.—pale blue. LOC. heating. high. ulcers (Ayurveda). alexiteric. LOC. fevers (Yunani). tubercular glands. sharply serrate. t— June-Jany. Root is purgative and diuretic. Fr. ozœna. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations.

Flowers cure itching. Sk. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Oshthi. USES:—In the Konkan. Ink-berry. Chireta. cause flatulence. Vasanvel. dried and powdered. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Faridburti. consumption.—E. aphrodisiac. Dirghvalli. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). NS. :—G. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Tundi. K. and jaundice. leaves. Vevdi. burning of hands and feet. Glum. M. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. FAM. NS. H. The plant contains an enzyme. COCCINIA INDICA W. Leaves—acrid. Fruit— indigestible. flowers. LOC. Vasandi. Kanduri. Tondali. K. Seeds are purgative and aperient. Gujarat. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Bimb. PARTS USED :—Root. Ghobe. Bimbika. COM. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. biliousness. See—Vegetables. galactagogue. Root bark. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Malaya. COM. " Vata". Broom-creeper.) FAM. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). fruit. useful in ascites and fevers. S. wild in hedges. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. asthma. Fruit is aphrodisiac. diseases of blood. cures leprosy. Jamtikibel. Vevati. M. Parvel. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. . tropical Africa. Kambhoja. M.—Menispermaceæ. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Bimba. astringent to bowels. Galedu. a hormone and an alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tondeballi. Konkan. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. allays thirst. Vasantitikta. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. stops vomiting. HABITAT. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). LOC. Ceylon.:—Root cooling. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Bimbi. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. H. Sk. antipyretic . Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. urinary losses. Hunder.:—Cultivated in gardens. given for uterine discharges. Garudi.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Country. Deccan. G. Tundika. & A. Tana.—Cucurbitaceæ. DISTR :—Throughout India.

In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. tonic. lessens bile and burning sensation.—Palmæ. K. also in many places in the interior. Cocoanut palm. M. useful in leprosy. aphrodisiac. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. fattening. as a cure for gonorrhœa.—dioecious.3-3. In the Konkan. villous . rugose . subdeltoid or subhastate. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. aphrodisiac. thirst. Antipyretic. Flower-cooling . causes "Kapha". aphrodisiac. India. keeled. useful in biliousness. blood diseases. "Kapha" and "Vata". alexipharmic . Pegu. Fl. tropical Africa. seed. LOC. Tenginmara. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. and put on to sore-eyelids. . constipation. :—E. flowers. FAM. Naral. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. tonic. tumours. Seed-cooling. DISTR. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Milk—cooling.3 X 1. ovate-oblong. LOC. burning sensation. indigestible.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. urinary discharges.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Common in Konkan and N. Mad. Toyagarbha. biliousness. Mangalya. Gujarat. laxative and sudorific. with a few heads of pepper. Kanara. Mahaphala. young parts densely Villous. laxative.8 cm. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani).—3. Fr. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. which is taken internally with sugar. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). Fl. Jataphala. Deccan.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. appetiser. S. China. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. DISTR.8-6. laxative. India and Ceylon. it is heating. smells sweetish and pungent. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children.—drupe. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.—Dec. bronchitis. useful in diabetes. PARTS USED :—Root. lessens thirst.:— A straggling scandent shrub. G. enriches blood. L. ovate. 2-8 together. Konkan. fermented juice. Narikel. mixed with water. t. it is used for coughs. dysentery. size of a small pea. Nalivar. fattening. It is also used as a refrigerant. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Nariyal. tuberculosis. COM. H. Leaf-juice. 3-5 nerved. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. S. LOC. oleaginous. NS. Arabia. Tengu. Narial. HABITAT :—In hedges. bark. female in axillary clusters. male in small axillary cymose panicles. cardiotonic.. oil. good in fractures.

Japan. piles and scabies (Yunani. piles .—monœcious racemes 2. bronchitis. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Oils. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).5-6. Oil—sweet. Gurlu . increases body weight. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. stem 90-150 cm. Polynesia. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. tropical Asia-Africa. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . FAM. sheaths long. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. America. rooting at the lower nodes. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. base cordate. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases.6-10 mm.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Madhya Pradesh. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. lessens inflammations . polished.3 cm. enriches blood. Fr. midrib stout. stout. notched at the nodes . Dabha. t. B and C. Ran-jondhala. :—Himalayas. G. long. CHAR. incipient phthisis and cachexia. it promotes growth of hair. Sk.5-5 cm. long. consumption. Job's tears. NS. liver complaints. useful in urinary complaints. LOC. See—Fruit Trees.—Gramineæ COM. diuretic. asthma. rachis within the bract slender. paralysis. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. diuretic . 6. S. DISTR. fermented juice is intoxicating. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing..72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Rajputana. Malaya. Fl. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Assam. India. fattening. It is refreshing and laxative. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. useful in fever. Kasai. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. LOC. smooth. tonic. useful in lumbar-pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. H. Madhya Bharat. smooth. :—E. Fibres. China. polished. abundant in standing water. above the bract stout. It is also used for burns. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. HABITAT :—Gregarious. promotes hairgrowth.—Oct. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. :—A tall leafy grass. Gojivha. Oil—indigestible. high or more. Bengal. bluish grey. spinously serrate margins. it also purifies blood. M. Jargadi.—10-15 x 2. Fl.—broadly ovoid to globose. Gavedhu. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. internodes smooth. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. L.

FAM.:—E. DISTR. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. Fl. fever. Hadige. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. diam.— capsule. leaves and fruit. Sebesten plum. :—E. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. LOC. Chaunchan . The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. arginine and coicin. tyrosin. Bhokar. serrate.—Tiliaceæ. K. lanceolate. In jutegrowing districts. Sk. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. CHAR. Bhukerbudara. Kalasaka. 12 mm. . carminative. FAM.5-10 X 2-3. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Pistan. C. M. G. subglobose. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.—petals 4-5. :—An annual herb. NS. Fr. 5-valved. :—Konkan. Sk. See—Fodder Plants. Sd. also as antiperiodic. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice.— Sept. Gujarat. Bhuselu.—few in each cell. COM.—Boraginaceæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—7. G. Gondan. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. and intestinal antiseptic. and dyspepsia. L. Fl. t. acute or acuminate. M. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. histidin. Col. cultivated in most tropical countries. Mannadike. also efficacious in skin-diseases. wedgeshaped.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . anthelmintic. See—Fibres. COM. It is also used as a bitter tonic.—in short cymes. brown. ridged and muricated. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. astringent. The plant contains leucin. laxative. Bhokar. PARTS USED :—Root. Challa.2 cm. growing very tall under cultivation. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. Patta. not beaked. stomachic. smooth. NS. Resalla. Bargund. Jute . lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Rayagundo. yellow. Lassora. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. H. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. buds obovoid. Chhunchh . lysin.

Coriander. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. Kothimbir. Seeds—aphrodisiac. jaundice. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle.—Umbelliferæ. scabies. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Throughout India. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. pains in joints. Cochin-China. Kothamir. vomiting. carminative and antispasmodic. chronic fevers. Syria. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. DISTR. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. highly esteemed in coughs. cures thirst. also cultivated. Mesapotamia and Greece. . Sk. Konphir. bronchitis. The plant and fruit— acrid. FAM. dyspepsia. stimulant. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. uterus and urethra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Vitunnaka. cooling. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. LOC. Kothambri. tonic to brain. NS. H. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. purgative. Kanara. Kustumburi. used in syphilis. biliousness. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. vulnerary. stomachic. often planted. useful in hiccup. removes bad humours. tuberculous glands. Fibres. widely known from Palestine. Dhania. headache. DISTR. eye-pains. antipyretic. Satpudas. tooth-ache. used as an expectorant and astringent.:—E. anthelmintic. diseases of chest and urethra. stimulant.:—Throughout the State in W. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). aphrodisiac. M. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. inflammations. COM. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. tropical Australia. stomatitis. anthelmintic. leaves (rarely) and fruit. :—Cultivated throughout India. gives appetite. Hivija. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. Bark is used as a mild tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. thirst. Dharika. Allaka. indigestion. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. maturant. Fruit—diuretic. causes suppuration.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. expectorant. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. burning of throat. bleeding gums. diseases of chest. piles. gleet. biliousness. Ghats. Leaves—hypnotic. analgesic. anthelmintic. heart and liver. Fruits are used as spice. prevents coryza and bronchitis. LOC. See—Timbers. LOC. laxative. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). diuretic. Ceylon. bechic. used in dry cough. G. wild and cultivated. Fruit is aromatic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. K. biliousness. Egypt.

Var. FAM. crisped. H. K. Kemuka. PARTS USED:—Root. NS. FAM.2-2. Varno. Sk. H. Kashmira. It is also astringent and digestive. Pinga. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Vayavarno. :—Almost all over India (Assam. useful in catarrhal fevers. India. Mahakapittha. Ceylon. M. anæmia.— in very dense spikes.7-7. S. Shura. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Varuna.— tube short. silky-pubescent beneath.—Aug. Varuna. subsessile. Fl. Malay Islands. mucronate. LOC. and aphrodisiac. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. rheumatism. Penva. China. CHAR. M. oblong. " Kapha". Vayavarna. spirally arranged. Sd. Kust. S. :—G. . COM. LOC. Country. The plant yields an essential oil. in moist and shady places. DISTR. useful in bronchitis. Changalkashta. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. t. high. Kushtha. lobes ovate-oblong. Pushkarmula. bright red. and " Vata". stem sub-woody at the base . Var. Keu. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. :—G. Barna. Karikuttu. subequal. Khandala. also planted near Muslim tombs. inflammations. hiccup (Ayurveda). CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. K.—15-30 X 5. Madhya Bharat. globosely 3-gonous. dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. bracts ovate. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. M. nalas. a tonic is prepared from it.—capsule. Varvunna. By the earliest writers. NS. fever.— black with white aril. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Pushkarmula. Bilpatri. Castle Rock. Hadawarna. lip white with yellow centre. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices.:—Konkan ghats. red.5 cm. C. Chikke. sheaths coriaceous . L. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Fr. COM. Sk.—Scitamineæ. Ajapa. Pakarmula. DISTR.—Capparidaceæ. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Kumaraka. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. lumbago.7 m. coughs and skin diseases. :—More or less throughout India. Nervele. Bitusi. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Biliana. :—An erect plant 1. many. concave.-Oct. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. root-stock tuberous. depurative.

urinary discharges. chest. COM. lobes 6. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Tonic. perianth tube greenish-white. defective vision. bracts 7.—15-50 in an umbel. flowers and fruits. flat. useful in biliousness. L. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first.9-1. Seeds—purgative. Nag-damani. fragrant at night. with a sheathing base. Kanda-shalini. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Kanmu. USES:—Root is alterative. Vishamungalli. detergent. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose.—Amaryllidaceæ. Pindar. See—Timbers. expectorant. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. K. laxative. NS. then sweet. night-blindness. toothache. removes "Vata". HABITAT :—Cultivated. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. Wild or cultivated. X 12. linear. cylindric. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. Nag-damani. and seeds. anuria. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. aphrodisiac. also wild. FAM. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. diseases of vagina. 0. LOC.5-18 cm.. diuretic. urinary concretions. emmenagogue. Ceylon. DISTR.5-10 cm. found wild in North and South Konkan. Bark promotes appetite. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. laxative. bechic.. carminative. antipyretic. useful in bronchitis. tumours. Patra-pushpi. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . chest and blood diseases. antilithic. "Pitta" and "Kapha". linear lanceolate. Kanwal. white. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr.—20-30. bulb 5-10 cm. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. leaves. bark.—subglobose. vesicant. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. stomachic. anthelmintic. Nagadown. heating.—1 (rarely 2). CHAR. leaves. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. Nagdavana. M. good in strangury. expectorant. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). act as rubefacient and vesicant.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.5 cm. bright green. long. tuberculous glands. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. Sd. H. thin. LOC. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. vulnerary. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. scape 45-90 cm. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. . Visha-Mandalamardini. gonorrhœa. lumbago. Chindar. Fl. diam. as long as the tube. The plant contains saponin. vomiting. beaked. strangury.:—G. it promotes appetite. laxative. Sk. bitter. :—Throughout tropical India. increases secretion of bile. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. lung and spleen diseases.

DISTR. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. H. nauseant and diaphoretic. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Sk. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. bark. :—Rare in the State. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. The plant contains lycorin. :—Sylhet. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. G. LOC. naturalised or cultivated. Malay Islands. See—Timbers. M. Kanara. Madhya Pradesh. M. As an application to sprains. expectorant. Japala. Konkan. China. DISTR. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. excessive phlegm.—Euphorbiaceæ. cathartic. Western Peninsula. in small doses. Danti.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. FAM. Nepala . Seeds cause burning sensation. COM. useful in mental troubles. Ceylon. K. Chota-Natpur. Nepala. Purging croton . Bhutankusam. carminative.—Euphorbiaceæ. it is in great request. PROPERTIES AND LOC. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). Burma. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. :—H. Danti. LOC. Jamalgota . CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. tonic. good in sore eyes. Bengal. Ceylon . etc. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. NS. Burma. COM. :—Bengal. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Jayapala. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Assam to Malacca. convulsions. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. :—E. :—Naturalised in S. NS. FAM. Ganasur. Oil cathartic. See—Ornamental Plants.. insanity. abdominal diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Oil from the seed is purgative. Sk. Jamalgota. Jepal. . fever. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. near Junnar (Poona Dist). inflammations. Chucka . leaves and seeds. emetic. Nepal. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Ieucoderma. bronchitis (Ayurveda). bruises and rheumatic swellings.

Ripe fruit—sweet. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Kharbuja. diaphoretic. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. laxative. used in liver and kidney troubles. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. Kakri. :—In Deccan. and lock-jaw. It is useful in apoplexy. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Fruit—tonic. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. convulsions. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. :—G. may cause indigestion. Shantanu. Mutrala. It is given internally with great caution. Vrittervaru. . Melon. Sk. tonic. H. Karkali. Kharbuja. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. fruit and seeds. in ascites and anasarca. fattening. galactagogue. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. See—Timbers. Said to be truly wild in India. Chibdu Shakarteti. Valungi. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. DISTR. MELO Var. C. NS. wholesome. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Rind—vulnerary. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Kakni. urinary discharges. Tarkakadi. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. G. thirst (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. chronic fever. LOC. M. Kalangida. bronchitis. Seeds—lachrymatory. They are edible. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. insanity. Sweet melon . OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. NS. COM. &c. Kankadi. strengthens heart. Valaka. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. obstinate constipation. gives headache. H. brain and body. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. aphrodisiac. K. cooling. LOC. diuretic. dropsy. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Shadrekha. LOC. Kakadi. ascites. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. PARTS USED :—Root. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Kachra. COM. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. laxative.—Cucurbitaceæ. DISTR. Pathira . Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. biliousness. M. allays fatigue. cures ophthalmia. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Chibuda. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Kharbuja. cures " Vata ". colic. Mahanaracha Rasa. insanity. synovitis. nutritive and diuretic. diuretic. Karkati.:—E. ascites. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Lomashi. FAM. oily. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing.

tendrils simple. cordate at the base.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. pulp bitter. See-Fruit Trees. Ripe one tonic. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. :—G. are administered in throat affections. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. Sk. utilissimus (Ayurveda. FAM. H. good for brain and body. cooling. fever. stomachic. fruits.:—E. Seeds possess cooling properties. Chitravalli. Fruit—fattening .—Cucurbitaceæ. allay thirst. t. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat.—monœcious . diuretic. Fr. with 10 green longitudinal stripes.—white. they are also used as diuretic. enrich blood. Takamaki. NS. M. "Kapha" and flatulence. Kakdi. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Yunani). melo var. fatigue. They are nutritive. antipyretic. COM. Fl. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). Fl. C. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Khira. roasted and powdered. Seeds—diuretic. astringent. rigid. Tansali. DISTR. Seed oil used in fever. Vishala. lobes obovate. Mrigadani. LOC. Sushitala. :—A perennial climber. CHAR. stem slender. Santekayi. strangury. Kumbhakshi. Tavasa. dry. . Sudhavsa. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Kankdi. LOC. Sd. HABITAT :—Cultivated.:—N.—June-Sept. causes "Vata". purgative. B. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. male in clusters.—yellow segments elliptic. pale yellow when ripe. cures biliousness. G. hairy. indigestible. Kothiban. LOC. biliousness. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. improve complexion. Cultivated in all parts of India. Kakari. angled. Khira. Hislambhi. Trapusha. Cucumber. India is considered to be the original home.—subglobose or ellipsoid. M. COM. L. lobulate or dentate . Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). Karit. See—Vegetables. NS. margined . Sk. cures thirst. used in thirst. PARTS USED :—Leaves. and C. seeds.— suborbicular. K. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. FAM. female peduncle longer than male.

Punyalata. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. NS. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. HABITAT. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . DISTR. In Malabar. . Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Malaya. Karkarn. COM. Tambda bhopala. K. See—Vegetables. carbuncles. DISTR.—Cucurbitaceæ. DISTR. G. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Kumbala. M.:—Considered to be a native of America. Sk. Bhopala. FAM . :—E. Pumpkin. indigestible. USES. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. LOC. Afghanistan. B and C. LOC. unhealthy ulcers. Safedkaddu .—Cucurbitaceæ. Kumbala. K. Koron. Australia. Dudia. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. astringent to bowels . Mithakaddu. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Kumra. M. Iran. increases " Vata ".:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. Kadimah. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Vegetable marrow. cultivated in many parts of India. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Sk. The plant contains glucoside saponin. :—Cultivated.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. cures cough. NS. LOC. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. G. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). : — E. increases " Vata" . Kushmand. LOC. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Root. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Melon pumpkin. Pitakushmand. Kaddu. Seeds are used as taeniacide. on hedges. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. FAM. LOC. improves taste (Ayurveda). Fruit contains vitamins A. tonic. H. H. COM. Ceylon. Dangari. Red squash gourd. fruits and seeds. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Dried fruit indigestible . etc.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Kushmand. N. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Kashiphala. allays thirst.

astringent. fatigue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. antipyretic. Seeds anthelmintic. bronchitis. fever. Fruit astringent. inflammations.—Amaryllidaceæ. FAM. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. carminative. :—G. Musali. and the root for making these more potent. Jire. diuretic and demulcent. ft contains vitamins A and C. cures leprosy. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. leucoderma. analgesic. COM. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. fattening. antidysenteric. enlargment of the spleen. vulnerary. Gaurajerka. Jirige. See—Condiments and Spices. cooling. stops epistaxis . haematinic. NS. fruit and seeds. DISTR. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. Ajjika. throat and eyes. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. scabies. allays thirst. astringent to bowels. ulcers. gonorrhœa. See—Vegetables. appetiser. H. H. M. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. . fever. Kalimusali. Mushalikand . carminative. stomachic. astringent to bowels. sweet. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Cures " Vata " tumours. LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruit. emmenagogue. Leaves—digestible. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. heals corneal opacities. eye-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. laxative. thirst. alexipharmic. abortifacient. asthma. cure haemoptysis. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Neltati gadde. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. Fruit—very cooling.—Umbelliferæ. Sk. Neladati. Seeds—diuretic. belching . Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. COM. FAM. increases appetite . also a lactagogue. Talamulika. biliousness. relieves hiccup. M. Kalimusali. tonic to intestine. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. Girautmi. LOC. G. tonic. leprosy. carminative. Kalimusali. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Kapha " and " Vata ". Fruit yields an essential oil. Dirghaka. Jiru. Dipaka. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. K. uterine stimulant. Zira. beneficial in consumption. good for teeth. anthelmintic. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. tonic. Jira. cures haemoptysis. Sk. purifies blood (Ayurveda). Seeds are taeniacide. :—E. aphrodisiac. K. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Cumin. LOC. remove biliousness.

:—E. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . black.— May-June. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. perianth segments elliptic.—grooved. . bitter.:—Sweet. oblong. useful in bronchitis. inflammations (Ayurveda). Java.— in racemes.5-12. colic. vomiting. gleet. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. sessile. FAM. clavate .-Sept. Kapurahaldi. shining . t. W. biliousness. fatigue. aphrodisiac. Karpuraharidra. Sd. yellow. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. Amhaladi.— in autumnal spikes 7. Peninsula. flowering bract greenish-white. LOC.—long petioled in tufts. linear or linear-lanceolate . blood-diseases (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating.3-2. Amragandha. pains in joints (Yunani). very short. appetising. Malay Archipelago. scabies. appetiser. DISTR. aphrodisiac. tubers thick. CHAR. Fr. alterative. Ambehalad. Bitter. M. 1545 X 1. oblong. G. Fl.5-15 X 3. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES. rhizome. root stock large. scape. LOC. Sk. Root—carminative. alexiteric. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. hairy on the back. distichous. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. LOC. cooling. Fl. Assam. gonorrhœa. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. H. :—Bengal. all skin-diseases.—Scitamineæ. useful in piles. emollient. lumbago. L.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. ophthalmia. K. Bengal. :—Konkan and Gujarat. ulcers on penis. expectorant. asthma. antipyretic. stomatitis (Yunani). useful in biliousness. NS. appetiser. laxative. DISTR. cylindric or ellipsoid. Ambahaladara. alterative and tonic. maturant.:—W. " Vata". t. Fl.8-5 cm. during convalescence after acute illness. diarrhœa. Fl. diuretic. gleet.5 cm. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. 30-45x7. bronchitis. Peninsula. :—A small herb. C—white or very pale-yellow. useful in inflammations. antipyretic. lumbago. often cultivated. COM. gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. :—Konkan and N. troubles in the mouth and ear. tonic. jaundice. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds.. PARTS USED :—Root. piles.—capsule. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. antipyretic. indigestion. tips sometimes rooting. Ambahaldi.5 cm. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. :—Stemless herb. fattening. debility and impotence. pale yellow inside . Kanara. hiccup. Mango-ginger. oblong lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. with a beak . hydrophobia. causes "Vata". L. common at the beginning of rains.—sessile or petiolate.

long. Sk. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. palmately branched. Haridra. It is considered tonic and carminative. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. appearing before leafing stem. H. appetiser . L. LOC. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. G. also stomachic. long. COM. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. lobes pale-rose. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. :—Western Peninsula. Halad.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Halada. Indian saffron. it is seldom used alone . Sholika. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. lip yellow. Vanhaldara. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink.— flowering stem sheathed. Sometimes cultivated. sometimes cultivated. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. FAM. in spikes 15-30 cm. Also cultivated in Konkan. Yellow Zedoary. Mangalya. biennial. LOC. G. Jayanti. NS. Fl. variegated above. PARTS USED :—Tubers. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. sessile. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell.—Scitamineæ. Harita. used as an application for skin-diseases. :—E. FAM. root-stock large. annulate. M. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. M. the dorsal longer. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Sk. Sholi. Banharidra. upper half funnel-shaped. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. flowering bracts cymbiform. Bengal. DISTR.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Banhaladi. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . 3lobed. :—Stemless herb. Vanarishta. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. lateral lobes oblong. . COM. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. CHAR. Varnadatri. H. base deltoid. flowers fragrant. K. NS. Kapur-kachali.-May. pale green.—Scitamineæ. C. green.5 cm. See—Condiments and Spices. Turmeric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Ran-halad.—tube 2. :—E. DISTR. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. Halad. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. Aranyaharidra. Arishina. rounded at the tips. t. forming pouches for the flowers. CURCUMA LONGA Linn.. LOC. Fl.

cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. fumes are used during hysteric fits . L. In coryza. In small-pox and chicken-pox. jaundice. carminative. M. Tuber is used as a stimulant. flowers yellow in spikes. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. heating. swellings. an alkaloid. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. CHAR. Kachuri.:—E. clothed with sheaths. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. Himalayas and Chittagong. itches etc. It contains vitamin A. Fl. diuretic. bruises. long. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. Bitter. used in prurigo. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. FAM . Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. DISTR. clouded with purple down the middle. bruises (Yunani). odour like camphor. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. asthma. inflammations. G. vulnerary. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. bruises. Hakhir. Shathi. H. Narakachora. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. laxative. pale-yellow inside. scabies. urinary discharges. taste bitterish spicy. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. good for liver affections. oblong. LOC. Gandhamulaka sara. 3-gonous. Kachari. piles. long. vulnerary. appetiser. The plant contains curcumin. and yields an essential oil. Karechura. boils. lobed . an ointment prepared from the rhizome. internally administered in blood disorders. 30-60 cm. said to be Wild in E. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. Fr. K.—4-6 with long petioles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. anthelmintic. Kachora. deepyellow. bronchitis. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. Jatala. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. emollient. scabies. heating. anthelmintic. lip 3-lobed. useful in " Kapha". alexiteric.—Scitamineæ. sprains (Ayurveda). cylindric. bitter.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. root-stock of palmately branched. NS. blood diseases. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. Zedoary. C. boils and urticaria. improves complexion.— flowering stem 20-25cm. fragrant. LOC. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis.—funnel shaped. antipyretic. See—Condiments and Spices.—capsule. maturant. leucoderma. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . :—Cultivated in the State. urinary discharges. externally applied to leech-bites. bitter. Kachora. :—Stemless herb. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. . small-pox. Sk. oblong-lanceolate. "Vata ". COM. flowering bract green tinged with red . annulate tubers. destroys foulness of breath. useful in leucoderma. appearing before the leaves. tonic. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. coma-bract crimson or purple .

It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth.—linear tapering upwards to a point. NS. long. gastric irritability. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. sharp hot taste. culm stout. leprosy. it is stimulant. others narrow and separating. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. DISTR. H. enlargement of spleen. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. FAM. It is an excellent stomachic to children. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). Purhati hullu. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Gandhatrina. alexipharmic. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. also used as a tonic and depurative. sheaths terete . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. Gavati-chaha. it is also a good application for ringworm. bitter. sharp.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. and is of great value in cholera. alexipharmic. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. LOC. L. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. sprains. CHAR. midrib whitish on the upper side. :—A tall perennial.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. good odour. carminative. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. up to over 1. epileptic fits. long. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. chronic rheumatism. and other painful affections. hot. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. Bitter. probably of Indian origin. K. appetiser. G. laxative. emmenagogue. nodding. Externally it is rubefacient. LOC. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. upto over 90 cm. M. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. useful in bronchitis. COM. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. of much use in typhoid fevers. Ligule very short. laxative. Sk. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion.—Gramineæ. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil.:—E. stimulant and carminative. Takratrina. high. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. expectorant. erect. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. toothache (Yunani). sheaths of the culm tight. useful in griping of children. tuberculous glands of neck. aphrodisiac.8 m. tonic to brain and heart. Bhustrina. carminative. Lilicha. Lemon grass. furunculosis. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. neuralgia. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). inflammations. . pains. It is also aromatic. emetic. Tubers yield an essential oil. velvety at the nodes.. LOC. glaucous green. applied to bruises and sprains. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. Putigandha. Majjige hullu.

Rhusghas. oblique or divaricate. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. margins scabrid. G. burning sensation. fatigue.-Nov. t. prostrate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. high. Bahuvirya. Country.5-5 cm. pains.:—Grows all over the State. S. upto 2. sheaths tight. widely creeping. pungent. Roshagavat. Konkan. Ghats. particularly the Deccan trap areas. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. soft. Africa to Morocco. Bujina. LOC. Dhro. Fl. H. forming matted tufts. :—Punjab. Mirchiagand. bad taste in the mouth. Vasanchullu. leprosy. Gharo. long. useful in biliousness. FAM. Shyamaka. Afghanistan. :—Cosmopolitan . usually broad. L.t. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. Durba. stem. G. 1. Durva. Saugandhika. skin . LOC. vomiting. :—Sourashtra. Deccan.3 cm. long. scabies. slender. COM. DISTR. subcordate or rounded at the base. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. leprosy. M. LOC. Roshdo. green or purplish.5-30 cm. NS. See-Oils.000 m. K. throat troubles. throughout India. Fl. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. :—E. Baluchistan. H. NS. 12-18 mm.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2.—throughout the year. wide below. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. Garikehallu. most warm countries. X 1 cm. Fr. stem. Geramium grass.—2-10 cm. through N. Mangala. K. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. W. FAM. M. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Bhutika. heart diseases. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. L. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. M. DISTR. useful in fevers. Harali. 1 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. epileptic fits. :—E. and Ceylon ascending to 3. hallucinations.—Oct. sweet. bitter. straw coloured. CHAR. glaucous beneath. Sk. Shatagranthi. Shatamula. Fl. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—A perennial grass . thirst. Durva.—spikes 2-nate. with erect flowering branches 7.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. carminative.. Fl. Kobbar. Sk.—grain. Dhoboghas. Rohisha. long.—Gramineæ.—Gramineæ. CHAR. bronchitis. Rohisha. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Burma. cooling. Sind. finely acute. long.—flat. Gujarat. high.4 m. smooth. in the Himalayas.5-2. COM. leafy. narrowly linear.

.—Cyperaceæ. Nagarmotha. it is diuretic. Sugandhi-granthila. Motha. L. anthelmintic. astringent. Bimbal. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. fevers. useful for ulcers and sores. Root— diuretic. emmenagogue. stomatitis. greyish black. erysipelas. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. vomiting. Kachhola. LOC. Sk Bhadramusta. hiccup (Yunani). most hot countries. cooling. bruises. M.. FAM. dysentery. 0. :—Throughout India. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers.5 cm. LOC. stomachic. USES :—Roots are commonly. blood diseases. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. diarrhœa. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia.82. blood diseases. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. epilepsy. very troublesome weed. Mustaka. Koranarigadde. diarrhœa. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. PARTS USED :—Tubers. spikelets 10-50 flowered. pain. expectorant. See—Fodder Plants.— in simple or compound umbel. vulnerary. juice is used in hysteria.—shorter or longer than the stem. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. Bitterish. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . t. Granthi. biliousness. Motha. pruritis. COM. CHAR. acrid. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. DISTR. NS. Fl. Tubers yield an essential oil. anthelmintic. epistaxis. H. useful in leprosy. fever. narrowly linear. epistaxis (Ayurveda). stolons elongate. epilepsy and insanity. difficult to eradicate. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. ophthalmia. useful in vomiting. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. Motha. dysentery. Tungegaddo.—Sept-Nov. Ceylon. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. Mutha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. :—Glabrous herb. K. Nut—broadly ovoid. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. In Ceylon. thirst. appetiser. dyspepsia. :—G. Fl. diaphoretic. trigonous. They are also diuretic and stimulant. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. erysipelas (Ayurveda). urinary concretions (Yunani).. fever. LOC. vulnerary. burning sensation. used as a diaphoretic and astringent.

. reflexed. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. divaricately branched. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . HABIT :—A common weed. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. inner curved high over the staminal column. Utran.—Solanaceæ.5 cm. green. CHAR. Kariyu-Um-Matta. very unequal at the base. COM. :—Annual shrub.—Sept-Dec. glabrous above. Kanaka. long 10-20. yellowish brown. K: Dhattura. DISTR. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice.—capsule. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. L. Fl.5 cm. Black-Purple datura. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. nodding. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. acute.— tubular. lobes spreading. Phalakantak. :—A perennial twining herb. velvety pubescent beneath. greenish-yellow or dull-white. L.2 cm.—7. CHAR. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma.-Jany. and sub-involution of the uterus. G. usually pubescent. Sk. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. Fl. packed. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps.—Asclepiadaceæ. paralytic ileus. ciliate. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. Sk.—purple outside. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. FAM. FAM. Sd. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). somewhat zigzag.2-7. Fl. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. on curved stalk 3. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine.—thin. Unmatta. corona outer and inner. Kanaka. M. t. beak long. solitary. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". high. entire or with large teeth or lobes. spur acute.:—E. diam. funnel-shapped. soft spiny. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kala-dhotara. Fr. white inside. across. 18 cm. Fl. afterwards racemose.—follicle. Utarni. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Kaladhatura.g.—many.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. double. LOC. outer truncate. C. Administered after the third stage of labour. covered with straight sharp prickles. ovate. Kaladhatura. Gujarat. LOC. 30-60 cm. M. :—H. a glucoside. long.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. broadly ovate or suborbicular. :—Deccan. e. Fr. Country.5-15 X 3. subglobose. M. Ns. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. Bhranta. t. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). S. tubular. stem hairy. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. Sd. Ceylon. Rajdhattura. H.—Aug. COM.. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also.

bitter. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Leaf-juice is given internally. nodes. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. heating. Carrot. GranthiPinda-Mula. LOC. febrifuge. Leaf poultice. emetic. tonic.—Umbelliferæ COM. Garjara. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. painful tumours. leaves and seeds. black (Kala) and white (Safed). The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. FAM. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Gajjari. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. Gajar. :—E. to increase their stupefying effect. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—Out of the two varieties. NS. mumps etc. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. ulcers. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Gajar. alexiteric. Gajra. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. black variety is considered to be more powerful. H. Sk. Cultivated in many parts of India. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. emetic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. in combination with subja. skin-diseases. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. anodyne. M. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. aphrodisiac. relieves pain. toxic. G. with curdled milk. jaundice. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. enlargement of testicles and boils. The whole plant is narcotic. . K. Europe. Seeds—narcotic. majum. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. anthelmintic. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. useful in leucoderma. chronic coughs. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. equal in effect to atropine. toddy. ganja. bronchitis. and antispasmodic properties. Gajar. PARTS USED :—Roots. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. PARTS USED :—Root. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. The plant as a whole has narcotic. :—Throughout the tropics. digestive and heating. anthelminitic . leaves and seeds. in gonorrhœa. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. febrifuge. nosetrouble. cause headache (Yunani). headache. biliousness.. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. piles. (Ayurveda). DISTR. Shikkikanda. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache.

PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. Ranbhal. Murele-honne.—onefoliate. asthma. " Tridosha ". Salwan. cardiotonic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). high. tropical Africa. other fevers. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. Country. bronchitis.—pod. upper edge straight. they are also diuretic. paler and hairy beneath. astringent to bowels. nausea (Yunani). . indigestible. burning sensation. cough. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. K. hooked hairy. Salpan. inflammations. See—Vegetables.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. stomachic. urinary discharges. biliousness. removes " Kapha". Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. H. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). cures biliousness. Sk. good for inflammation. Salparni. Roots contain vitamins A. dysentery .—in terminal or axillary racemes. expectorant. diuretic. vomiting and asthma. fattening. L. aphrodisiac. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. Burma. throughout India. It is used in fevers. abundant in Khandesh Akrani.—May-July. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). membranous. antidysenteric. good for liver. Philippines. useful in chronic fevers. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. aphrodisiac. Vidarigandha.2 m. LOC. M. Salwan. Shaliparni. Salpani. China. C—violet or white. Salwan. pains. :— G. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. carminative. DISTR. Fr. Tonic. piles. :—Konkan and N. LOC. cures typhoid. Darh. prevents death of fœtus in womb . Dirghamula. joints 6-8. COM. FAM. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Ceylon. :—A woody undershrub. t. chronic affections of chest and lungs. margins wavy. alexipharmic.6-1. vomiting. Fl. Kanara . Root marmalade is refrigerant. LOC. sub-falcate. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . standard cuneate at the base . piles. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. Fl. hairy. urinary complaints. CHAR. astringent to bowels. M. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. USES :—Externally. boiled with honey and fermented. vomiting. green and glabrous above. biliousness. stems and branches angled. " Vata". USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. used in bronchitis. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. tumours. thirst. NS. cures leprosy. hiccup. 0. B and C. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. anthelmintic. Deccan and S. asthma. ovate-oblong. they produce a spirituous liquor. alterative. chest troubles. Kitavinashini. Malay Peninsula and Islands .

Flowers—aphrodisiac.—G. Thailand (Siam). DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. Gujarat. G. diseases of bladder. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). bark. Tumari. heating. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. stems 30-90 cm. stolon very stout. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Timbwini. jaundice. diuretic. the basal fascicled. Wild mangosteen. :—Perennial tall grass. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Sacred Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Anilsara. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. COM. DISTR. Riber ebony. Tinduka. Tumaki Mara. oleaginous. Dab. branches short crowded. erect pyramidal or columnar. Fl.:—Saurashtra. Makurkendi. fruit and seeds. LOC. vesical calculi. Fruit—oleaginous. t. Pavitra. Davoli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Nubia. L. H. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. tufted. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. CHAR. ligule a hairy line . Zeeberwo. useful in blood diseases. cures ulcers and " Vata". margins hispid.3-3. See—Fodder Plants. Sphurjaka. sheaths glabrous. creeping. biliousness. NS. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. sedative to pregnant uterus. Gavandu. reaching 50 cm.—many. rigid. Sk.—Ebenaceæ. Ceylon. vaginal discharges. Wood cures biliousness.8 cm. covered with shining sheaths. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. M. LOC. cooling. diseases of blood. Durva. erect. DISTR. Temburni. aphrodisiac. Kalatendu. stout.) FAM. Sk. rootstock stout. Fl. strangury. :—Along the coasts of N. Kanara and the Konkan. FAM. M. Kalaskandh. interrupted. Darbha.. PARTS USED :—Wood. good for lumbago. -panicle 15-45 X 1. H. LOC. COM. Darbha. clothed with sessile spikelets. high. thirst. Banda. flowers. Konkan. Malay Archipelago. vomiting. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Syria. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). K. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). smooth. Tendu. :—Throughout India. in the beds of rivers and streams. astringent to bowels. skin eruptions. Dabha.—Gramineæ. asthma. . branched from the base. NS. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv.—Dec. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Gale. Egypt. Kusha. long.

intestinal colic. It is demulcent in calculus affection. :—Rhizome creeping. removes stone from kidney. Grains contain vitamin A. ovate. :—Tropics of the old world. stout. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures hiccup. generally on trees and rocks. Jurali. improves complexion. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. Sk. Sitetara. Kulathi. NS. See—Timbers. cures " Kapha". Bijapur and Dharwar. Hurali. FAM. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. Kulthi. Diuretic. Kulithaka. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. . fattening. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Konkan— Ratnagiri. "Vata". bronchitis. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. urinary discharges. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. tumours. variously lobed. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. DISTR. fertile ones long stalked. acrid. Kulith. piles. dry. eye troubles. G. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. grown to a certain extent in S. strangury. :—M. cordate. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Ashvakatri. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Kulit. K. NS. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).Gahat. liver troubles. leucoderma. Nasik. COM. FAM. hot. piles. Kulitha. Kulthi. appetiser. Horse-Gram. Country—Belgaum. antipyretic. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). ozoena. emmenagogue. LOC. Sori two in each primary areole.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. astringent to bowels. coughs etc. M. anthelmintic. Basingh. :—E. diseases of the brain and eyes. abdominal complaints.—Polypodiaceæ. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. hiccup. causes biliousness (Yunani). midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Sk. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Tans. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. enlargement of spleen. short. inflammation. pain in liver. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. Wandar bashing. base decurrent on the stipe. CHAR. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Kalvrinta. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. heart-troubles. LOC. M. densely clothed with red-brown scales. See-Food Plants. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. H. Surfaces naked. Texture membranaceous to leathery. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory.

subentire. biliousness. gleet. Kantaphala. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. NS. Shulio. branches widely spreading from the base. Garagadasoppu. inflammations. DISTR. " Vata". astringent to bowels .—Compositæ. Fr. S. often rooting at the nodes. useful in brain-diseases. LOC. Utkanto. also cultivated to a certain extent. tonic. :—Konkan. Fl. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. H. Plant stomachic. It is used in hoarse cough. the lobes triangular and oblong. FAM. Seeds—wholesome. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds.— Nov. Root— abortifacient. COM. Mochand.9 m. analgesic. . :—A much branched rigid annual. bitter.—sessile. Utkanta. FAM. hectic fever. cottony. antipyretic. Kantalu. improves taste. M.—heads white. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. strigose and hairy. Bhringraj. bracts 3seriate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. 0. Kadechubak. glabrous above. sinuate and spinescent. Country. cooling.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Balari. oblong. Utkantaka. yellowish. COM. K. Afghanistan. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. thirst. Deccan. cottony pubescent. Pitripriya. long. surrounded by strong white bristles. LOC. Utanti. dyspepsia. C.—Compositæ. L. Maka. Bhangro. Bhangra. Keshrangana. H.5 cm. densely villous. stimulates liver. deeply pinnatifid. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). spiny. Utkatara. intermediate produced in sharp spine.—achene obconic. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. hot. urinary discharges. LOC. dyspepsia and cough. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). globose. diseases of heart. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). causes " Kapha".3—0. Dadhal. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. M. :—More or less throughout India. high. CHAR. M. increases appetite. Sk. Konkan. involucre. :—G. Sk. used in ophthalmia. L. stems and branches strigose and hairy. Markara. Bhangra. chronic fever. :—G. used in strangury. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. wooly beneath.-Jany. pain in joints. NS. hysteria.:—Throughout India.—limb linear. t. usually oblong-lanceolate.— opposite. Kalobhangro . Sunilaka. sessile. Kadigga-garaga. pappus short. :—Kanara. spines 2. CHAR. Ajagara. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Utakatara.

Lesser—Malabar cardamom.—in heads. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Karangi. expectorant.—Scitaminaceæ.. leucoderma. a reputed and popular liver tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. COM. eyes. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Ela. FAM. anæmia. LOC. Yalakki.—achene. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. teeth. Sind. lustre of eyes. cures inflammations. . Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. "Vata". W. solitary or 2 together. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. M. disk ones tubular . cultivated. It relieves headache when applied with oil. Ilaji. stomatitis. Burma. cuneate with a narrow wing.:—India (Bengal. alexipharmic. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. DISTR. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). Veldoda. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. fattening. H. stomachic. anthelmintic. asthma. improves colour of hair. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. K. t. It is given internally in scalding of urine. and for strengthening gums. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. hernia. Panjab. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . Choti-Elachi. There are two forms erect and prostrate. tonic. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. Kanara (Siddapur. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. internal diseases.— Oct. cures vertigo (Yunani). :—Western valleys of N. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. fevers. heart and skin diseases. liver pain. Chandrabala.-Dec. LOC. Gandhkuti. NS. "Kapha". Gourangi. Bahula. Bitter . good for spleen diseases. Malaya. hot. prevents abortion and miscarriage. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. night blindness. ray flowers ligulate. syphilis. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. Velchi. G. Ceylon. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. See—Sacred Plants. Peninsula). involucral bracts about 8 . it is powdered and applied externally. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. bronchitis. Elachi. :—E.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. eye diseases. antipyretic. pappus 0. alterative. Fr. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. toothache. good for complexion. Triputa. hemi-crania. Sk. Madhya Bharat. C—often 4-toothed . hair. axillary. Fl.

Seed—fragrant. stomachic. Sk. brain and mouth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR.:—Western and S. M. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. clear head. LOC. PARTS USED :—Grain. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Boberang. In S. ear and tooth ache. tonic to heart. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. bitter. Bavato. diseases of bladder. useful in head.—Gramineæ. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Makra. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). K. H. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. NS. chest and throat (Yunani). FAM. Vayuvitang. DISTR. fruit and seeds. Grains contain vitamin B. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. tonic. diuretic. See—Condiments and Spices. K. See-Food Plants. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. fragrant. CUM. Kanisha. Ragi. stomachic. useful in biliousness. alexiteric .:—G. Pavaka. useful in asthma. piles. root is laxative and tonic. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Marua. cause biliousness . Vavoding. cooling. pruritus. Wavrung. It is stomachic. Nagali. laxative. consumption. FAM. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. India. kidney. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. strangury. fruit is tonic. cultivated. most suitable to hard-working classes. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. Bhasmaka. rich or poor. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. It is said to be astringent. carminative. Vidariga. diuretic. NS. Nachani. PARTS USED :—Root. Bidanga. H.. LOC. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. stimulant and emmenagogue. Vavading. M. Rajika. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. :— G. Rotka. scabies. Navalo-nagali. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. COM.—Myrsinaceæ. cooling. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. bad humours of liver. abortifacient. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. Sk. Narttaka. causes thirst. Varding. lessens inflammation. . pungent. LOC. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. Jantughna. bronchitis.

good for plethoric constitution. S. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Dhatri. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. Fl. useful in burning sensation. et. internodes long. analgesic. constipation. Fl. Malay Islands. L. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. reddens urine. elliptic-lanceolate. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours.—berry. racemes minute. sweats. nearly globose. . t. diseases of heart. Sk. dry. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. piles. alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Ceylon. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. LOC. 42-II-1932). Fr. anthelminitic. thirst. carminative. bark. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Deccan. purgative. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. cooling. fruit and seeds. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. poisoning. cures bronchitis . leprosy. leaves. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. paler and silvery beneath. HABITAT :—Rain forests. many.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ambala. Malaya. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). greenish yellow. bronchitis. :—Throughout India.—alternate. Paranjpe and G. smooth. antipyretic. branches long. dries wound discharges . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Dhatriphala. alterative.) FAM. alexiteric. vulnerary. tonic. Daula . Bhoza . H. shining above. COM. Ther. Embelic myrobalan. K. slender.—in lax panicles. anthelmintic . " Kapha'. hemicrania. K. flexible. NS.—Feb. :— E. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. Amlika. Amla. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges. LOC.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. laxative. " Tridosha ". useful in asthma. mental diseases. bark studded with lenticels . strangury. often planted in Konkan. coriaceous. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Adiphala. Bitter. Triphala. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. :—A large scandent shrub. Anward. with a sharp bitter taste. Anola. Nellika . Amlika. jaundice. inflammations. Dadi. anæmia. DISTR. ascites. black when ripe. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . urinary discharges. Western Ghats. Kanara. China. LOC. Pharm. vomiting. Gokhale. Arch. sour. anuria. Amalaka. China. Seed— acrid. Int. flowers. Avala. G. carminative. Konkan and N. dyspnoea. Ceylon. like a pepper corn when dried. succulent. alexiteric. cures tumours. :—Hilly parts of the State. biliousness. (Dymock). M. laxative. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. wild or planted. DISTR. good appetiser. erysipelas. S.

Saurashtra. :—G. stops nasal hæmorrhage. . Chhotakirayat. tonic. COM. Sind. :—Konkan. USES :—Root. variable. eye troubles. L.—sessile. LOC. M. Ind. tropical Africa. M. branched from the base. t. in axillary clusters all along the stem. narrowed at the base. biliousness. LOC. Fl.). liver complaints. Celyon. FAM. used as laxative and astringent. See—Timbers. Garbe. purifies body humours (Yunani). USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. H. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa.—Gentianaceæ. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". lobes 5.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Giant's rattle. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. bark and fruit are astringent. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. improves appetite. Fruit Trees. Fl. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Sk. Mackary bean. DISTR.— capsule. useful in heart-diseases. sour. expectorant. Mamejavo . (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. :—A perennial glabrous herb. Fruit—acrid. Tanavadi. Tans. cold in the nose.) FAM. Lady nut.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). vulnerary. rounded apex. high. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. K. Dyes. Unripe fruit is cooling. C—infundibuliform. opposite. Doddakampi. stems erect or procumbent. Malaya. Dried fruits. cooling. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C.—sessile. Nahu. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Tiktapatra. anthelmintic. mid-nerve strong. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. CHAR. ellipsoid. :—E. LOC. Fr. thirst. 3-nerved. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores.—Aug. 10—50 cm. NS. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Mabhipaka. Garambi. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. white. aperient. M. Kadvinayi. Grey). PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Nagajivha. sub-quadrangular or terete. diuretic and laxative. piles. Hallekayiballi. Country. West Indies. Gujarat. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Madvinashi. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. S.-Nov. R. astringent. COM.

. 3. C. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Halivan.. branches terete. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sundribans. Fr. Fl. cure urinary discharges. compressed. orbicular. Ceylon. rigidly coriaceous. woody. slightly curved. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. Sd. dark green. Arakan. t.. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". LOC. bark used in dysentery. often along river banks. Fl. Bangaro.S. long. for grapevines in Nasik district. Mandara.7-5x7. Nepal.5-10 cm. shining and brown.— Mar. Dadap. Var. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Pangara. hot. stomachic. 30-90 cm. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. they are given internally as an emetic. Mullumurige. Leaves—bitter. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). smooth. improve appetite. Panjira. PARTS USED :—Root. Hongara. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Andamans and Nicobar. Panderavo. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. . axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Raktapushpa. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. K. Pangara. PARTS USED :—Seeds. flowers.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.—pod. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. DISTR. Mochi-wood. H. COM. LOC. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. ORIENTALIS Merr. L. Paribhadra. Mandara. G. Indian coral-tree. Phandra . W. Panarvo.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). mixed with spices. :—Konkan and N. along sea-coast above high-water. Pegu.3-2 cm. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. N. Salaki. PROPERTIES AND LOC. wide and 3-8 cm. :—E.—2pinnate. indented between the seeds. bark. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Planted as support for pepper vines.—6-15. anthelmintic. pinnae 2—3 pairs. Peninsula. DISTR. Sk. 4. long. leaves.-May. Tennaserim. M. Kanara. in debility and glandular swellings . HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.—yellow. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. inflammations. diam. glabrous. :—Coast forests of Malabar. oblong or obovate.5-5-7 cm. Planted as ornament. USES :—Powdered kernel. leaflets 7-5 x 2. thick. the tropics generally. stalked. Kantakinshuka. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara.) FAM.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.

rugose. Nevli. Kodukalli. t. G. L. base unequal-sided. high. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Vajradruma. M. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. —throughout the year. COM. CHAR. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Sc. bowel complaints and cough in children. branches often 4-angled. NS.—ovoid-trigonous. Shirthahar. and to relieve pain of the joints. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Cong. Indian tree spurge. Paradeshi thora .) FAM. pale beneath. NS. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . :—E. dark green above. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Dudhi. Govardhan. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Pusitoa. Duddi. serrulate or dentate. H. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Dandalio thora.—opposite. See—Timbers. Achchegida. Plant is chiefly used for worms. gland minute. :— E. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Milk bush. crowded in small axillary globose cymes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. G. Sd.—Euphorbiaceæ. 18th Ind. Australian asthma herb. Fr. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. with or without a limb. The plant contains an alkaloid. COM. Bahukshira. K. . Sendh. FAM. Milk hedge. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Fl.—involucres numerous. K. Sahud. M. 15-50 cm. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Mondukalli. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Dandasruha. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). FL. Dudanali. LOC. reddish brown. :—Annual herb. appressedly hairy. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Bottugalli. Nagpur 1931).—capsule. H. Pill-bearing spurge. it is anthelmintic. Sk. Sher. Sk. Dudhi.—Euphorbiaceæ. erect or ascending. Ceylon. globose. Dudhi.

It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice.—small. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. tumours. 6-13 mm. pungent. rootstock woody .-light blue. smooth. t. linear. LOC. :—Sind. COM. Juice is purgative. Fl. alexiteric. Kalisankhavali. brightens intellect. also as an alterative. almost leafless. tropical and sub-tropical countries. jaundice. campanulate. Fr. stone in bladder (Yunani). improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). mostly female. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. 4valved.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. :—Throughout the State. :—A small tree. solitary or sometimes 2. colic. t. thin. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. tonic. useful in abdominal troubles. about 6 m. axillary. naturalised in India. Konkan and Gujarat. terete. biliousness. FAM. elliptic-oblong.-July-Nov. Sk. K. :—G. dropsy. enlargement of spleen. cocci velvety. Sd— glabrous. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS.—Convolvulaceæ. The plant contains an alkaloid. LOC. anthelmintic. H. peduncles very long. Vishnukranta. LOC. Sd. globose. useful in biliousness. spreading. usually clothed with long hairs . CHAR. Fl. L. dyspepsia. Jhinkiphudardi. Nilpushpi. whooping cough.—capsule. useful in gonorrhœa. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. useful in bronchitis. LOC. employed to raise blisters. Ceylon. leprosy. stems many.-Aug. M.—ovoid. asthma. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Vishnukranta. Shyamakranta . silky hairy. thick like quill. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). polished. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. long. epilepsy.-Sep. carminative. DISTR. Fl. Vishnukranti. prostrate. carminative.— capsule. L. Vishnugandhi. milk is alexiteric. long (appearing in rainy season) .—many. teething of infants . PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. leucoderma. :—Native of East Africa. . and with oil to promote growth of hair. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. more than 5 cm. :—A perennial herb. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. branches erect. branchlets whorled. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. wiry. leprosy and leucorrhoea. high. smooth. DISTR. alterative. Fr. base acute.

reduces tumours.-Oct. Circars. ellipsoid. Udichirayat. cures dysentery. Gujarat. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. in copious terminal cymes . COM." asthma. typhoid. CHAR. Cooling. Prabhodhini. in chronic bronchitis. M. Country. smooth. LOC. Punjab. emmenagogue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. good for liver troubles. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. obliquely obovate. flattened. spitting of blood. glandular hairy. smooth. LOC. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. DISTR. Coimbatore. petioles deeply striate. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. leaflets linear.—Zygophyllaceæ. small. Baluchistan. CHAR.-Aug. removes "Vata". Upper Gangetic plains.—solitary. fever. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—An erect annual. :— Sind. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. :—G. COM. alexipharmic. Barachirayat. westwards to Afghanistan. Fl. root fibrous. Ustarkhar. ophthalmia. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . purifies blood (Ayurveda). sessile. long. arising from between the stipules . . ovate. thirst. about 1. Hinguna. Waziristan. 5-nerved. Bark is used in scabies. Maval. NS. Sk. it has got cooling properties. DISTR. :—Konkan. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. erysipelas. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic.2 cm. FAM. Dusparsha.—very variable in size and form sessile. Kashaya. Sd. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Fl. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. removes "Vata. quadrangular. FAM.—Gentianaceæ. deeply 5-partite.—opposite. Dhanavi. Ind. M.-Nov. Mediterranean. yellowish brown. the middle the largest. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. high. M. L. Fr. t. N. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. pyramidal to the apex. pale rose-coloured. asthma. lower half white. Dhamasa. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. acute. Atmamuli.—capsule. reaching 60 cm. C—lobes 4-5. 1-seeded cocci.— ovoid. Arabia. Fl. :—Madras State. W. elliptic or lanceolate. Rajasthan. stem. L. Mysore. Deccan hills and S. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. more or less glandular. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. also used in chronic fevers. :— H. t. Ghats. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). FL.). toothache. NS. urinary discharges. Fr. 1-3 foliate.-Dec. LOC.— showy. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. scarcely branched. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. Dhamaso . of 5. vomiting. the upper blue. stomatitis. H. Iran. shining. cooling.

tumours. heart diseases. :—Cultivated all over the State. Leaves—very astringent. Kavit. difficult to digest. M. consumption. Manmadha. Byala. Elephant or wood apple.—coriaceous. Kavath. H. often cultivated. shining above. Bhringi. Banian tree. Sk. H. ovate to elliptic.—Rutaceæ. fruit and seeds. Monkey fruit. Kothun.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. NS.—Moraceæ. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Vad. K. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. Bargat. Nyagrodha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Vad. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Kapipriya. M. acrid. Fr. vomiting . K. Kathinyaphala. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. COM. diam. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. refrigerant . G. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Sk.5 cm. Fruit—sour . female.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Fruit Trees. . Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. LOC. hiccup. removes biliousness. G. India. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . with male.— globose. M. blood impurities. LOC. :—E. Grahiphala. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . S. Kotha. good for throat. often planted.. Bar. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. alexipharmic. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. Bahupada. Balin. high. LOC. Bargad. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. binding diuretic. :—Indigenous in S. fatigue. about 2 cm. strengthening to gums . L. PARTS USED :—Leaves. astringent. cordate or rounded base. dysentery.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. COM. CHAR. " Tridosha". Vata. Alada. useful in biliousness. :— E. Jatala. Malura. cures cough. See—Timbers. Ghats. leucorrhoea. Vadlo . NS. Dadhiphala. with spreading branches. Self-sown. DISTR. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Kapitha. 10-20 X 5-12. common in the Tapi Valley. country and N. aphrodisiac. Vat. Kait. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Avaroha. FAM. refrigerant. Java. Belada. Goli. Kanara. tonic to heart. Ala. asthma. Kavitha. Ceylon. liver and lungs . thirst. ophthalmia. Kathel. " Vata ". INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Seeds—antidote to poison. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda).

diseases of head and blood. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. nutritive. FAM. boils and carbuncles. diuretic. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. :—Baluchistan. Asia and Mediterranean. Aerial root is styptic. COM. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. stimulates hair-growth. W. NS. weakness. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. . DISTR. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. India. laxative. vaginal complaints. thirst. leaves. FICUS CARICA Linn. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kakodumbar. hill ranges of S. Anjir. Root—tonic. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. gonorrhœa. nose-diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. H. alexiteric. erysipelas. useful in piles. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. leprosy (Ayurveda). Seeds are cooling and tonic. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. Sk. seeds and milky juice. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Bijapur.—Moraceæ. Milky Juice—expectorant. Sacred Plants. biliousness. Cultivated in N. useful in inflammation . Simeyatu . ulcers. Anjir. :— E. useful in "Vata". LOC. leprosy. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. W. Fig. Anjir. vomiting. vulnerary. K. biliousness. dysentery. root-fibres. fever. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. Afghanistan. useful in leucoderma. LOC. in rheumatism and lumbago. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. ringworm. India. Dharwar. See—Famine Plants. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Fibres. Anjura. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. maturant. Grown scattered elsewhere. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). lithotriptic. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. useful in syphilis. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). aphrodisiac. inflammations. paralysis. USES :—Fruit is emollient. liver and spleen diseases. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. inflammation of liver (Yunani). tonic. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. pain in chest cures piles. demulcent. useful in "Kapha". lessens inflammations. bruises. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. M. Anjir. LOC.

menorrhagia. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Sk. :—Throughout the State near villages. Umar. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. acrid.—Moraceæ.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. bark. burning sensation. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. planted all over. PARTS USED :—Root. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Pippala. HABITAT :—Planted. K. good for bronchitis. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Milk—aphrodisiac. LOC. Sacred Plants. ground with onions. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. LOC. galactagogue.—Moraceæ. Rumadi. FAM. ulcers. Demera. Pimpal. cummin. biliousness. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Atti. leprosy. fruit. tonic. M. Yajnika. COM. . Fruit—astringent to bowels. allays thirst. given in leucorrhoea. Ragi. bark. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. G. Pipal. See—Timbers. Lalka. useful. burning sensation. Pipers. vulnerary. leucorrhoea. (Yunani). NS. Shuchidruma. good for foul taste. Pippala. G. Umbar. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. FAM. Gular. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Ashvatha. H. in diseases of blood. urinary discharges. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. H. good for gravid uterus. Pipli. Umar. Pipal. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. DISTR. styptic. diseases of kidney and spleen. fatigue. Bark. Sk. nose bleedings. Pavitraka. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Bodhidruma. LOC. is given to cattle in rinderpest. PARTS USED :—Root. K. uterus . biliousness. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. :—E. Vriksharaj. M. Bark is cooling. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Jari. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Arani. latex. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Hemadugdha. Peepal tree . loss of voice. Umbro. Gular-Country fig. Ashwatha mara. blood diseases. Udumbara. vagina. useful in "Kapha". The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. leaves and fruits. Fruit— useful in dry cough. leaves. COM. NS.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. DISTR. :—Widely spread throughout India.

Tambat. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Shalina. Finkel. Fruit—purgative. Bilangra . Badisoppu. H. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Soupa. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Kanara Jungles. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. bark. Potika. Mullutari. Sk. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Gajale. SAPIDA Roxb. HABITAT :—Hills. astringent in leucorrhoea. fruit. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Variari. :—E. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. DISTR. Bhakal. Bhanber. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Swadukantaka. N. M. Katar. Handi Kandai. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Tapaspriya. checks vomiting (Yunani). Hunmunki. Burma. COM. LOC. W. K. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). promotes granulations. M. :— G. good for lumbago. aphrodisiac. The juice is employed in hiccup. LOC. common in the Peninsula. G. cleans ulcers. FAM. FAM. heart diseases. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Akrani. Circars. seeds. COM NS. Variali.—Flacourtiaceæ. Young bark useful in bone fractures. NS. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Root good for gout. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Ghats. Kankod .MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. appetising and digestive. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Sacred Plants. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. See—Timber. See—Timbers. Country and N. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Sk. Satpura. K. and produces sterility in women. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Fodder Plants. Badishep. upper Gangetic plain. Khandesh. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Fruits are sweet. M. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Paker. gum.—Umbelliferæ. Bhuripushpa. Shateya. S. Hettarimullu. Fennel. .

Kokam . LOC. Kanara. dysentery. difficult to digest. FL.6-0. Oils. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—E.9 m.—Guttiferæ. Tittidika . cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. causing constipation . HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. K. useful in diseases of chest. common in S. fever. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta".—ellipsoid. improves appetite and allays thirst. Konkan and N. Mulgala. See—Timbers. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Leaves—improve eyesight. M. Amlabija. Kokam. cures "Tridosh". Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. furrows vittate. USES :—Bark is astringent. leaves (rarely). fissures of lips. biliousness. ultimate segments linear. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata".— decompound. It is much used as a nutritive. :—Apparently a native of S. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Bark. Wild mangosteen. stimulant. Wynaad. L. Kokam . The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. spleen. LOC. anthelmintic. Murjinhalli. kidney. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. in headache.—in large umbels . cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. ridges prominent. aromatic and carminative. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. cough and asthma. high. annual. dark green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. Fr. COM. :—Endemic in W. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. tumours. Sk. leprosy (Ayurveda). NS. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. 0. diuretic. burning sensation. thirst. anthelmintic. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. carpophore 2-partite. cardiotonic. . LOC. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—W. fruit and seeds. seeds-carminative. Ghats south of Bombay. USES :—used as stimulant. Coorg. useful in bleeding piles. demulcent and emollient. See—Condiments and Spices. Ghats. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. LOC. galactagogue. yellow. FAM. leaves and seeds. DISTR. Tintidika. G. DISTR. H. amenorrhœa. strengthen eyes (Yunani). dysentery. :—A tall glabrous. laxative. bracts and bracteoles absent. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. often cultivated. Atyamla. wounds. eye-diseases. " Vata ". wounds etc. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. Ratambi. aphrodisiac. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). lessen inflammations. (Mhaskar and Caius).

LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. Fl. Bikke. shining. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children.5x22. all dry districts of Madras State. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. oblong or ellipsoid.5-3. Cambi resin tree. HABITAT :—Open situations. DISTR. Sk. Western Peninsula.5 cm. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. Kanara. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. -June. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. See—Timbers. PARTS USED:-Gum. Pinda. t. first white then changing to yellow. See—Gums and Resins. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. 1-3 together. :—Common from Konkan southwards. 4.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. LOC. H. unarmed. COM. lucida. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. lucida (Ayurveda).8 cm. FAM. Dikamali. Suvirya. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. Dakamali. PARTS USED :—Gum. . :—E. Dikemali. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. CHAR.8 m. FAM. DISTR. Jantuka. Dekamari.-tubular. COM. Dikkamalli. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. Hingu. Burma.. As sold in the bazar it is hard.—Feb. NS. high.-sessile. :—India. C. relieves pain of bronchitis. M. same as for G. Northern ghats of Madras State. common on laterite in southern parts of N. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. Fr. not fragrant. about 1. L. NS. astringent to bowels. oblong. buds resinous.-subsessile. opaque. Peninsula). long. elliptic-obovate. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . Gums and Resins. :—India (W.—Rubiaceæ. Dikamari.—2. :—A deciduous shrub. LOC. G. Fl.—Rubiaceæ. LOC.

the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. tall. sometimes whorled. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. H. orange. Huliyuguru. bitter. Kalikari. alexiteric. Karianag. Tropical Africa.—sessile. COM. CHAR. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. perianth segments reaching 6. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Kulhari. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. filaments long spreading. :—G.. 7. Indai. Akkitang hall. Nangulika. inflammations.. Cochin-China.3 cm. linear oblong. root-stock of arched. L.2 cm. heating. Fr. Garbhapatani. changing colours from greenish yellow. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. Kalihari. given off from young tubers . The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. K. DISTR. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. NS. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. abortifacient. useful in chronic ulcers. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. Fl. abdominal pains. Khadyanag. t.. There are two varieties of the plant.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. . Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.—Liliaceæ.—large. scarlet. acrid. LOC. In Guinea. margins wavy. expectorant. M. leaves and flowers. PARTS USED :—Tuber. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). linear-lanceolate. solid. and crimson from blooming to fading. Agnimukhi. anthelmintic. piles. Sk. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. stems annual. FAM.-July-Oct. Malay Peninsula. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. thirst. FL. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. scattered or opposite.5 X 15 X 2-4. used to remove placenta from uterus. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. itching. Dudhio vachhonag.5 cm. branching climber . leprosy. :—Herbaceous. ovate lanceolate. Languli.—capsule. Ceylon. solitary. Sivasaktibalb . Kathari. laxative. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Tuber— astringent. :—Throughout tropical India. axillary .5-3. LOC. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. In case of retained placenta. The former is supposed to be male. Linn.

anasarca. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. fevers. urinary discharges. :— E. Devakapus. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. . Karibatti. Nurma . Tree cotton. LOC.:—E. M. root is also stomachic and laxative. Karpasam. common on Satpuda. burning sensation. Gupsi. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Shripani. flowers and seeds. Ceylon. Bachanige. useful in "Vata". Devkapas. In the Konkan. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. scattered in monsoon forests.—Verbenaceæ. leaves. :—Throughout the State and about temples. scalds etc. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. promotes hair-growth. alterative. Gambari. leprosy. Shiwan. Gumbhar. FAM. Shiwan. indigestible. :— Bengal. :—Throughout India. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. tonic. Rajasthan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. flowers and fruit. Sind. " Tridosha ". Oils. anthelmintic . Sk. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. See—Timbers. stomachic. leaves. Madhya Bharat. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Philippines. Flowers—astringent. Root extract is bitter and tonic. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Shivani. Provinces. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. G. W. thirst. COM. H. Deokapas. Kumbudi. :—Throughout the State. COM. anæmia. Savan. DISTR. catarrh of the bladder etc. Khandesh. Gambhari. NS. Shivan . White teak. PARTS USED :—Root. the root. LOC. useful in indigestion. useful in fevers . Var. abdominal pains. PROPERTIES AND LOC. laxative. Sk. improves appetite . piles. See—Fibres. M. Cashmere tree. Coomb teak. useful in hallucinations. DISTR. G. consumption. K. K. LOC. Hanji. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Kashmari. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds.—Malvaceæ. Mahabhadra. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. strangury. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. Root taken with liquorice. ulcers. FAM. Malaya. aphrodisiac. gleet. made into paste. NS. chronic cystitis. Fruit— diuretic. Gandhari. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk.

heart and blood disorders. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. preventing their access to wounds etc. Anagnika. DISTR. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. PARTS USED :—Root. acrid. Mesapotamia. good for throat . F. In India they are used to procure abortion. Egypt. :—Sind. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. DISTR. M. Buttiyu-dippa. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. probably in N. Hatti. analgesic. Sk.—Malvaceæ. M. LOC. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. sour. H. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. Parapera. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Kupas. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. NS. FAM. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Parusha. extensively cultivated. aphrodisiac. Phalsa. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. wild in Deccan. in hypochondria. Pharuah. Arali. extensively in Gujarat. scabies . bark. Gujarat and S. Mediterranean. Syria. Ripe fruit—sweet. Seeds— ' galactagogue. Arabia and Asia Minor. Karihariyale. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Seeds are laxative. Dhamin. :—Cultivated in the State. Tula. removes " Vata" and biliousness. expectorant and aphrodisiac. Phalsi. restore consciousness. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . COM.. cooling. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Oils. LOC. laxative . Tadasala.. in hills near Poona. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. NS. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). See—Fibres. :—E. S. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Karpas.Phalse. COM. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. East Tropical Africa. removes " Vata ". A. fruits and seeds. Province (Pakistan). K. fomentation for burning eyes . Roshana. good for all kinds of inflammations. Baluchistan. Kapus. Sutrapuspha. leaves. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Rui. cure all ear-troubles. U. :—G. leaf-juice good in dysentery. HABITAT :—Cultivated. fruit. Afghanistan. expectorant. Country. allay thirst. Iran. digestible. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. Seeds—aphrodisiac. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. cures inflammations. W. :— Cultivated in N.—Tiliaceæ. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Kapas . LOC. G. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Rui. (Yunani). FAM. fevers and consumption. Leaves remove " Vata " . H. Jana. demulcent. tonic. Sk. K. Cotton . enrich blood. M. increase flow of urine. used in orchitis. Badari.

Tanmani. L. young stems densely pubescent. CHAR.— opposite. Ugragandha. H. alterative. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. SK. Small Indian ipecacuanha. sweet. should not be eaten raw. asthma. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. M. stomachic. Gurmar. Mardashingi. Bedki. Kanphodi. Mahabaleshwar and N. S. :—A large woody climber. inflammations. Sannagerse. Shrikala. the stomachic stimulant. Tilparni. bronchitis. :—Throughout the State.— with thin marginal wing. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Br. Karalia . corona of 5 processes . Adiyakharan. Karnasphota. Meshashingi. elliptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kanara coast. Periploca of the woods. yellow . In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. LOC. COM. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. :— E.-May. Sd. FL. relieves thirst and hiccup. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". ovate.—in cymes . H. K. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Mabli. K. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). NS. strengthens chest and heart. Sk. :E. Fruit—sour. base rounded or cordate . FAM.—Capparidaceæ. Vakundi. LOC. G. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Churota. Sanngera. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. good in heart-diseases. Kabari. leucoderma. Hulhul. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Vishani. India. DISTR. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Hulhul. alexiteric. lanceolate. Pandhari tilwan. Tropical Africa. biliousness. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Ceylon. Meshavalli. LOC. — Asclepiadaceæ. common in hedges in Dharwar district. piles. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. ulcers. anthelmintic. The ease of administration. M. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Kavali. Bastagandha. Arkapuspika.— companulate . tonic. . The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). acrid. Fl. t. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. Merasingi. :—Western Peninsula. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. See—Fruit Trees. usually single. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. cooling. vitreous body) burning sensation. helps removal of dead fetus. Sati talvani. NS.—follicle. Caravella.— Apl. C. FAM. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). COM. much branched. Fr. cornea. Root and bark used in strangury. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine.

DISTR. LOC. white or blue. L. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Gujarat. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. PARTS USED :—Root. tumours.8-9 cm. :—Konkan—Karanja Island.—many. Avartant.5 cm. Sk. . Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. Murudseng. Fl. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation.5-20 X 3. H. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . :—An annual erect herb 0. Edamuri. Fl. C. t.12. FAM. :—Deccan. pubescent.—petals 4 with long slender claws. Fr. NS. ellipsoid . glabrous or pubescent above.—Sterculiaceæ. Kewan.—muricate.—capsule. COM. NS. elliptic-obovate. earache. pink . opposite. PARTS USED :—Root. Sinhgad hills. Fl. Gidesa Jitasai... PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. gynophore 2-2. vesicant. pain.-Feb. t. good in ascites. China. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. sessile.—Oct. elliptic-lanceolate. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. hills in Supa Taluka. high. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. hairy.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. :—M.—in dense bracteate racemes. leaflets subsessile.—rather rigid. :—G. COM. producing copious exudation. pedicels viscid hairy. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). long . CHAR. viscid. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. DISTR. stipules triangular. margins crenate-dentate. dark-brown . with divaricate herbaceous branches .—June. hairy. stomachic . tapering at both ends. Fl. (Kirtikar and Basu). HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Kavargi. FAM. Murdasing. ulcers. M. Kanara. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT:—Hills.—capsule. Murudi. Jonkaphal Maraphali. K. long.2 m. M. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Marosi. 5-9 cm. hills near Nagothana. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. Country. hairy on the nerves beneath. Fr. :—A small deciduous shrub. stem and branches hairy. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. removes "Vata". Katraj Ghat. S. leaves and seeds.6—1.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. acute. Mrigashringa. . LOC. L.—3-5 foliate. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. Sd.

—in axillary clusters 2-6 together.5 X 5-10 cm. Kapurimathuri. anti-galactagogue. good for brain. burning sensation.—throughout the greater part of the year. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. FAM. Fl. diarrhœa. Anantmula. eye troubles. Kanara ghat forests.— with silvery white coma . Burma. Country. L. Utpalashariva. Magrabu. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. L. Konkan. Ceylon. :—Upper Gangetie plain. uterine complaints. FL. HABITAT :—In hedges. bronchitis. 7. leucorrhoea. DISTR. CHAR. diuretic. Sk. cough. Upalsari.—Asclepiadaceæ.512. thirst. angular . urinary discharges.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. Br. bilabiate. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. stems thickened at the nodes . K.-Dec.— very variable. bark and fruit. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. :—Large shrub or small tree. astringent to bowels . Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. cures all skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. stem. H. G. diaphoretic. demulcent. root-Stock woody . Sugandhi-balli. ovate orbicular. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). asthma. long. They are demulcent.— in cymes in opposite axils. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. often variegated with white above. Australia and West Indies.—follicle of 5-6. Indian sarsaparilla . Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. NS.Sd. joint-pains. alexiteric. rat-bites. blood diseases. spirally coiled.. COM. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. M. . Fl. Anantmula.-biferous. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. tapering . :—Throughout the State. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). Dhaval kashtha. irregularly crowded. Sd. Stem lessens inflammation. “tridosh". asthma. red at first fading to lead colour. Root and stem—laxative. See—Fibres. 5-6. and leaves. dark-green. DISTR. fevers. Root useful in hemicrania. mildly astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. India. :— E. astringent to bowels. paralysis. liver and kidney diseases . foul body odour. obliquely cordate.—follicle cylindric. Hindisalse. common in hedges. "Vata' dysentery.3 cm. Durivel. Hamadaberu . t. LOC. useful in gleet. epileptic fits. Upalsali. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). greenish outside. beaked. low appetite. purplish inside. LOC. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. t — Aug. antidiarrhœal. LOC. Deccan and S. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—Root. C. scabrous above.—tubular. M. Fr. "Kapha". lessens griping. Malaya. poisoning. Fl.—numerous. syphilis.

and mixed with ghee. FAM. and as early as 1864. seminal weakness. t. cooling. Kempupundrika. It is said to purify blood. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Jasavand. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. :—A perennial shrub. K. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). irregularly serrate towards the top. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. Aruna. NS. C. syphilis and leucorrhoea. leaves. DISTR. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). yellow. diam. Jasuva. Root roasted in plantain leaves. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste .—axillary. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. urinary discharges. LOC. petals thrice as long as the calyx. remove burning of body. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. Fl. and the powdered root for menorrhagia.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Sk. CHAR. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. pedicel jointed above the middle. M. . bright red. tonic. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. tubular below. Jasut. PARTS USED :—Root. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. L. H. It is also diuretic. Japapushpa. Root is valuable in coughs. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cm.5. Shoe flower. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. glabrous. red. etc. flowers. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. astringent. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. In the Konkan. G. skindiseases. COM. Harivallaba. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra).—short petioled.—7.—Malvaceæ. involucral bracts 5-7. uterine and vaginal discharges.. Raktapushpi. fevers. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. See—Ornamental Plants. piles. solitary. bark and petals are demulcent. LOC. Native country probably China. Fl. crimson. Jasum. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. magenta. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Dasavala. Fr.—during most of the year. entire near the base. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. ovate or ovate lanceolate. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. demulcent. :— E. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Rudrapushpa.—no fruits produced in India. useful in loss of appetite. Dasanihu. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe.

CHAR. tropics of the old world. serrate. Madhavi. petioles silky. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz.—in erect racemes. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. t. 1. :—An annual. covered with minute hairs . globose. Madmalati. Lal ambari. stem and branches purple. NS. hairy. See—Vegetables.lobes oblong. long. Kanara. and adding a little salt. Rozelle. . NS. sedative and refrigerant. COM. Madhumalati. Ceylon. M. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Madhavi.—coriaceous. Sd. Haladvel.—purple with darker centres. 5th petal yellow at the base. fragrant. Lal ambadi. 10-18 X 4. Fibres. :—E. Sk. COM. calyx fleshy. black-brown. Atimukta. Sd. DISTR.) FAM. :—Throughout the State. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Madhavi. Vasantduti. purple. uppermost petal broader. often blotched with purple with darker centre. t. white. pepper.3-7.—petals 5. Red sorrel. flowers. Grows abundantly on the W. Madhavi. beaked.5 cm. Malati. purple. fringed. LOC. Pundi-bija or soppu. L. M.. orbicular. base cuneate. Kempupundrike. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. G. C. Kampti. acuminate. glabrous. L. Deccan. C. :—Cultivated. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. asafoetida and molasses. Fl. fruits and seeds. Atimukta.5 cm. LOC. Fl. erect. Patwa. entire glabrous.— solitary. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. H. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. Vasantduti.— Jany. (lower leaves sometimes entire). In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.—axillary. Ragotpiti. Madhalata. long. Chandravalli. H.—capsule. clawed. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Fl. elliptic-oblong. 3-5 lobed. :—G. on the margins.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. Fl. Lal ambadi. Kamuka. involucral bracts 10. Adimurtte Adirganti.—Oct.—1-3. K. FAM. CHAR. Konkan.-Mar. across. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. ovoid. K.—Malvaceæ.—5-7. 3-winged. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. mid-lobe the longest. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—Malpighiaceæ. Fr. Vasanti. much used in curries. young parts silky. HABITAT. Ghats. Fr.2-2 cm.—large.-Dec.

N. piles. long. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Karnatak. Kaduoindrajav. diuresis (Yunani). burning sensation. Malay Peninsula. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. insecticidal. cylindric. leucoderma . H. acrid. Kaling. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. Kuda. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. See—Ornamental Plants. Mt.—Apocynaceæ. good in erysipelas. Ceylon. ulcers. LOC. leaves. CHAR. flowers and seeds. styptic. burning sensation. LOC. Kutaja. tonic. Kuda. China. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. Flowers— acrid. colic. asthma. Burma. heating. COM. Siwalik. acrid. white. lessens inflammations. Sk. :—E. Seeds—carminative. t. NS. leprosy.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Kurchi tree. Circars. Assam. Andamans. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Hath. smoke good for piles. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. cause "Vata". Madras State. fatigue. anthelmintic. diarrhœa. remove muscular pains . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Pandhara Kuda.— in terminal corymbose cymes . USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. biliousness. Veppale. " Kapha". astringent to bowels cure pains. FAM. branchlets drooping. Karuindrayan. given in chest affections. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). broadly ovate or elliptic. :—Throughout the State. Abu. remove "Tridosh".-June. Kodasige. fevers.. good in chronic bronchitis. wounds. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. skin and spleen diseases. strengthens gums. Kudsalu. lumbago. Karohi. cures dysentery. Indrayana. cool the brain. FL. cooling. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma.—follicles 20-48 cm. Kura. K. vulnerary. Fl. boils. Fr. leprosy. Nepal. throat hairy inside. tonic. inodorous. PARTS USED :—Bark. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. good in headache. urinary discharges.. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. thirst and inflammation. Conessi bark tree. thirst. excessive menstrual flow. vulnerary.5 cm. bleeding piles. galactagogue. often dotted with white spots. Kumaon. DISTR. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. Dudhi. L. Thailand (Siam). skin diseases. biliousness. appetiser cure blood diseases. Hale.—10-20 X 5-11. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. cough. main nerves conspicuous . USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion.—Feb. Leavesastringent. Sd. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. G. C—tubular.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. bitter. aphrodisiac. LOC. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . PROPERTIES. Bark—bitter. Seeds—appetiser. M.

is used in China and Malaya as peptic. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Java. M. 1928). NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. DISTR. Divya. malt sugar and diastase. good for ulcers. kurchine. asthma. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. headache. Jawa. The grains contain vitamin B. Knowles. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Satu. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. Aug. and kurchicine. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. lowers the pulse. G. appetiser. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. Yava. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. widely cultivated in temperate regions. aphrodisiac. dysentery and intestinal worms. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). anæmia. Suj. diarrhœa. See—Food Plants. bronchitis.—Gramineæ. K. Ymvah. nor styptic. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Jav. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. (R. LOC. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. Sk. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. especially cod-liver oil. causes constipation. Germinated barley. sweetish. Gaz. useful in biliousness. burns. useful in fevers. PARTS USED :—Seeds. pains in chest. Shaktu. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. fevers (Yunani). FAM. nor astringent. fattening. India. Barley. Ind. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. acrid. They are also used after delivery. —Cultivated chiefly in N. . febrifuge. Hayapriya. They are astringent. inflamed gums. allays thirst. COM. Med. :—E. useful in bronchitis. with radicle attached to it. Jav. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. Javegodhi. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Tasteless. improves voice. LOC. demulcent and expectorant. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats.

8-7. See—Oils. Sd. CHAR.—Rubiaceæ. Bhutabi. globose or ovoid. Garudphala. DISTR. dioecious .—berry. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. acuminate. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Gandele. 12.—solitary or in racemes. :—K. M. Fr. broadly ovate. Common in N. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Doti. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. size of small apple. t. Ghats. Dondra. common in Travancore. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats.—Bixaceæ. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Bihar. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Kowti. NS. For scald-head. LOC. :—W. Bhringamallika. Bhoswar. Niradivittulu. Bandaru. Amarachala. DISTR. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. LOC. L. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Sk. FL. flat. Garudphala. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . bitter. Bharnarasalya. FAM. white. Kadukavata. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ugragandha. . high. Malabar. NS. M.5-23 X 3. young parts brown pubescent.—Apl. COM. sometimes along river banks.—ovate or oblong lanceolate.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . sulphur. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Betaga. Kastel. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. more or less coriaceous. H. Kanara evergreen forests. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. M. Madhya Pradesh.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. COM. Bhanina. Country and Kanara. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. Peninsula. K. camphor and lime-juice. Southern and Western India. C. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. Bhrijatuaka. increases taste and appetite. :—G. tomentose. good for the throat.. Kshiradru. Dondru. Sk.—Jany. pungent. Fl.—numerous.) FAM.5 cm. S. Bhorsal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Phaldu.

upper constricted. PARTS USED :—Root.-Dec. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. See—Timbers. trailing on mud or floating. M.5 cm. the powdered wood is used for herpes.. thick. Fl.—in axillary and terminal. acute. t. Country. LOC. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. . Fl. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). Kalidudhi. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Sd. FL.—Apocynaceæ. black with white scanty coma. Fl. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. LOC. Fr. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . L. K. C.—follicle.—Nov.5x 3. Australia. Krishnasariva. Common in the evergreen forests of N. Kalaka. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. 10-15 cm. throat and tube dull purple . LOC.2 -7. aphrodisiac. trichotomous cymes. rooting at the nodes . FAM. prostrate. middle portion much inflated. Sk. Bhadra.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Karmi. Gorwiballi. Fodder Plants. NS.—tube with narrow portion below. " Vata ". thirst. greenish white. CHAR. Fr. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Gopini. L. :—Annual or biennial herb. cordate or hastate. Potuasaga.—4-5-7 X 2-3.-Apl. CHAR. base rounded. Kanara. Sariva. numerous . USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Shradhashaka. hollow. very slender.—5-12.—capsule. Nalanibhaji.—1-5 flowered peduncles . Chandangopa. cylindric . The outer layer is tasteless. fever. :—Konkan. H. straight or slightly curved. :—More or less throughout India. stems long. Kalaghantika. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. pubescent. Kantebhovari.—linear. Java. FAM. Siamalata.8 cm. blood diseases. :—H. Nalichibhaji. :—G. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. cures " Kapha ". Nadika. glabrous above. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. Br. :—Throughout the State. ovoid . rusty pubescent. COM. Sd. biliousness. Kalmisag. X 4 cm. t. Kalambika. cooling. stalks and leaves. M. Karihambu. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Pechuli. Ceylon. DISTR. lobes obscure .— Nov. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. NS. In Indo-China. S. C.—4 or 2. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. vomiting. very common in Gujarat. COM. elliptic oblong.—Convolvulaceæ. :—A large twining shrub . Sk.

liver complaints. twining. gonorrhœa and inflammation.8—6. PARTS USED :—Root. near sea coast. Fl. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. leprosy. blood diseases. leaves. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. biliousness. tropical Asia. burning sensation. (Yunani). dry. jaundice. Bhuikohala. Africa and Australia. t.3 cm. FAM. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. appetiser. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. Bilaikand . In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. Giant potato . deeply palmately divided. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. carminative. to children in case of emaciation. Australia in moist climate. " Kapha " . alterative. bronchitis. Africa. Swadu Vidarikand. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. . enclosed in fleshy sepals. CHAR. (Ayurveda). the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. entire. anthelmintic . ovate-lanceolate. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. long. often broader than long. improves voice and complexion.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.-July-Sept. DISTR. useful in syphilis.—capsule. root large. In Burma.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. Fr. tonic. aphrodisiac. 3. M. Bhunichahragadde. Root—heating. useful in leprosy. demulcent and lactagogue. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). vomiting.—in. :— E. expectorant. Flower causes " Vata ". many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. stimulant. 4-valved. Ceylon. alterative. galactagogue. pale. NS. See—Gums and Resins. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. America. Bhumikushmanda. Leaves enrich blood. Fl. :—Throughout India.—Convolvulaceæ. K. LOC. glabrous. ovoid. lessens inflammation. diuretic. useful in leucoderma. lobes 5-7. 4-celled. LOC. thick. debility and want of digestive power. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. tropical Asia. long. aphrodisiac. :—Perennial. H. COM.—10-15 cm. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. anthelmintic. Carminative. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. peduncle solitary axillary. indigestible. Sk. stem long. Kanara sea coast. stomachic. galactagogue. useful in fever. being regarded as tonic. (Yunani). purple. Sd. also useful in liver complaints. L. cures biliousness. flowers (rarely). biliousness and fevers. Nila-kumbala.

FAM. lobes ovate.—dark chestnut coloured . K.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . headache. L. :—G. filiform. Musekani. subglobose. H. blue tinged with pink. Kalokumpo. Krishna—Shyama-bija. surrounded by ciliate sepals. G. CHAR. E. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. HABITAT :—Water-logged places.—3. LOC.5 cm. Ganribij. M. NS.—Convolvulaceæ. .8-5 cm. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). PARTS USED :—Seeds. axillary.-5-12. Vrishchikparni. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). cultivated and wild up to 1800 m..—Sept. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. Deccan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. diam. scabies and biliousness. NS. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. DISTR.—1. :—Konkan. Nilpushpa.— 4-6. :—E.5 cm. DISTR.:—Throughout India. Fr. LOC. Fl.— yellow.—Convolvulaceæ. Ceylon. dries the phlegm.) FAM. Sd. M. See—Ornamental Plants. pains in joints. L. Undirkani. creeping and rooting at the nodes.3-2. Fr. Kaladanah. Sk. LOC. anthelmintic. Indian jalap. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Shyamala-bijak. M. sparsely hairy. S. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). glabrous . reniform or ovate-cordate. ovate-cordate. broad. carminative. stems twining. :—Western Peninsula. CHAR. The plant contains a glucoside. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. Fl. subglobose or ovoid. Purgative. clothed with long hairs. Kaladana. long tubular funnel-shaped. bechic. S. tropical Africa. Africa. C.-Oct. crenate. abdominal diseases. Mirchai. t. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Nilvel. H. :—A herb . :—An annual herb. Fl. cures inflammations. deeply three-Iobed. useful in liver and spleen diseases.—capsule. leucoderma. bronchitis (Ayurveda). in the Himalayas. stems many. Morning glory. 3-celled. Sk. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.—capsule. Country. believed to be of American origin. COM. Sd. bracts linear. K. fevers. Undirkani. petioles hairy. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. diseases of head.

laxative.—white. antipyretic.-Jany. Sk. Malay Islands. bronchitis. removes bad humours. Triputi.—Oct. Fl. inflammations. Fl. useful in loss of consciousness. Br. Mauritius. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. base cordate or truncate . fevers. like others of the genus . also in the Konkan and N. globose. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). LOC. Rechani. purgative. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). pedicels thickened upwards. much branched. often pinkish. G. Common in southern Gujarat. good in pain. HABITAT :—Wild . red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). strangury. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. DISTR. root long. expectorant. Turbith root. cooling. LOC. useful in bilious fevers. Indian rhubarb. paralysis.—5-10 X 1. Nandi. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. lungs. Ceylon. C. Root with bark should be used. laxative.—capsule. urethral discharges. rarely slightly lobed. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. PARTS USED :—Root. heart and abdomen. bechic. angled and winged. useful in spleen enlargement. Nahatara.. :— E. CHAR. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. L. useful in bilious tremors of body. Kalaparni. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. useful in diseases of kidney. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. white variety is a mild cathartic. Kanaka. when used alone . Nishoth. COM. It is also alterative. H. twining and twisted together. bracts large. mucronate.8-5 cm. Philippines. inflammations and abdominal diseases . bladder. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ.3-7 cm. applied in diseases of eye and gums. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. muscular pains. Root— bitter. wounds. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. fleshy. Pithori. good for weakness. Nashotar. acrid. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). leucoderma. stems very long. Trivrit. LOC. :—Throughout India. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). paralysis. M. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. FAM. burning sensation and intoxication. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. pains of chest and joints. long. enclosed in enlarged sepals .—Convolvulaceæ. NS. carminative. Nishottara. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. tropical Africa and America. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. fistula. ovate or oblong. anthelmintic. False-Indian jalap. uterus. pungent. brain diseases. sometimes cultivated.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. . K.—in few flowered cymes. anæmia. t.

CHAR. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. L. pale when dry. HABITAT :—Cultivated .—throughout the year. white. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. Jati. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn.—Oleaceæ. also along river banks. Pendgul. :—E. Fl. 5-12. COM. often tinged with pink outside. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. fleshy. petiole and rachis margined. sessile. Ceylon. very common in Konkan and N. Chambeli. purple when ripe. DISTR.9 m. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Fl. coriaceous. FAM.—July-Sept. pale when dry.—globose. K.. Fl. stipules with a long rigid point. LOC. Bakali. IXORA COCCINEA Linn.—tubular. oblong. Sk. Priyanvada. NS. terminal rather larger. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. across. 5-10 X 3. Anemallige. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Jai.5 cm. proximal petiolulate. Parali. wild. leaflets 7-11.. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. stipules . smooth.3 cm. L. :—E. Flame of the woods . COM NS.— Rubiaceæ. LOC. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. obtuse . :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. DISTR. lobes 4 (rarely). G. C.2-6. 3. intermediate sessile . :—A large subscandent shrub. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. H. distal pair confluent with the terminal.—ripe carpels 2. M.8 cm. M. Sk. FAM. high. Kepala. Fr. oblong. very slender . Jajimalle.2-6. CHAR. imparipinnate. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. . hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat.—opposite.3 coriaceous. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Chambali. sessile. :—Western Peninsula. :—Cultivated throughout India. See—Ornamental Plants. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Ajjige. of stems and roots. :—Bombay southwards .—3. Bandhuka. Kisukare. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. t. t. Surabhigandha. tube long. Fr. Guddedasal. Raktaka.—opposite. obtuse. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. size of a pea. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. FL—numerous. K. Pankul. Chambeli.

black. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. suppurative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. very fragrant. CHAR. Flowers—tonic. Root—purgative. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. Iravantige. good for pains in joints and ear. and for scabies (Yunani). it is used in cases of insanity. base rounded or subcordate. LOC.—white. biliousness. headache and weak eyes. Leaves are also used in toothache. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. head. abundant in April-May. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). aphrodisiac. paralysis. alexiteric. mouth and skin. caries of teeth. cures headache. Banmallika. Sambac. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. surrounded by calyx-teeth. Flower has bitter taste . Mogara. tonic to brain. useful in stomatitis.—more or less throughout the year . eyes and ear. Sk. . fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. soporific.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Chamba. t.—Oleaceæ. Arabian Lily. useful in diseases of eye. membranous. Plant—deobstruent. Fl. Mogro. rheumatism. Oil—lessens inflammations. Mogra. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. G. softens skin. alexiteric. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . In Goa. Navamallika. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. given in blood diseases. FAM. Vanchandrika. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. aphthae. brain tonic . The plant contains an alkaloid. :—E. emetic.—opposite. Mallige. diseases of mouth. Motia. leprosy. variable in shape. heating. biliousness (Ayurveda). teeth. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers.—ripe-carpels 1-2. subglobose. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. See—Ornamental Plants. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. anthelmintic. entire. COM NS. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. flowers and oil. L. otorrhoea. Pramodini. intoxicating. allays fevers . good in asthma. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. alexiteric. K. expectorant. :—A sub-erect shrub. diuretic. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Ananga-mallika. vulnerary. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. Fr. LOC. H. scarcely climbing. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. emmenagogue. :—Cultivated throughout India. M. Tuscan jasmine. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. stomatitis. Fl. ear.

PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. have suppurative effect. abdominal complaints. juice sticky opalescent. Bhadradanti. LOC. K. DISTR. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. French or Small physic nut. corolla lobes 5. Fr. FAM.—in flat-topped cymes. 7. across. anaemia. biliousness. NS. The seeds act as drastic purgative. disk of female flower urceolate. broadly ovate. Barbados Physic nut. leaves.—Euphorbiaceæ. large.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn.—Euphorbiaceæ. K.5 cm. CHAR:—A handsome. L. Vilayati haralu. when applied to boils. multifid. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Seeds contain active principle curcin. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Wood. The acrid. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. Virechani. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. 7. stipules capillary. useful in chronic dysentery.8 cm.5 cm.5-12. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. :—Native of tropical America. LOC. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Jangali erandi. subfleshy. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. Fl. coral-red. Simeavadala. Sutashreni. FAM.—ovoid oblong. 1. long. Dundigu. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Sd. NS. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. CHAR. black. long-petioled. Ratanjot. fistula. thirst. urinary discharges.— ovoid. Jangali—Pahari erand. " Tridosha". Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. M. Kananerand. COM.—E. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. Sk.5-12. villous within. Fl. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock).— alternate. Sk. COM. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. 10-15 X 7. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. garden shrub . Mogali—Ran-erand. . Akhuparnika. G. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases.5 mm. 3-lobed. longer than calyx.—capsule.—monœcious. :—E. yellow.. male flowers. cordate. herpes. dull brownish black. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—orbicular. and also promotes healing. H. Coral plant. diam. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. Jyotishka. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. L. Fr.

—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. skin-diseases. " Vata ' and "Pitta". Nachukaddi. COM. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). useful in bronchitis. K. :—H. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. in interrupted spikes. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. LOC. In Cambodia. NS. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. CHAR. native of N. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient.—capsule. often met with in Bengal. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda).—Acanthaceæ. Karinchki.—Ghati pitpapda. :—Bomb.6-1. eye diseases (Ayurveda). wild in Tenasserim. DISTR. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Sk. wounds. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. vaginal discharges. Kalmashi. purple within.2 m. Bakas. Shindhuka. Seed— oleaginous. FAM. clavate glabrous. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. dry . heating. inflammations. . 7. rheumatism and dysentery. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . long. fevers. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. Nilmanjari. Leaves are used in scabies. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Shady positions.5 cm.—Acanthaceæ. M. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. bitter. high . M. fattening tonic . :—A native of China. Bhutakeshi. COM. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. Nilinirgandi. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. LOC. NS. America. LOC. tympanitis.—white spotted. pains. FAM. Kala adulsa.5 cm.5-12. leaves. DISTR. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. purgative. Fr. 5-12. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. L.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. enlarged spleen. Krishna-nirgundi. Karambal. hot. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. branches subterete with raised lines. Fl. causes " Kapha ". all over the State. dyspepsia.

enriches blood. Tubers yield an essential oil. obtuse at both ends. Western Ghats . increases " Vata ". teeth.—finely tuberculate.—capsule. Fl. Plant diuretic. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. spreading horizontally. strengthens lungs.. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). ovate or lanceolate. oval. PROPERTIES AND LOC. purifies blood in skin diseases. FAM. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Chandramala. t. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). Fl.3-12. DISTR. pale violet pink. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling.—612 from the centre of the plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR.—in cylindric terminal spikes. Fl. Kachchura . Deccan. C. stops vomiting. petioles channelled. (Yunani). removes indigestion. root-stock tuberous. Panchgani. Sk. constipating . gives lustre to eyes. LOC. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. elliptic.—lobes lanceolate. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. Madras State. aromatic.:—Stemless herb. . Australia. South Konkan. NS. :—N. diaphoretic. constricted between the seeds . COM. DISTR. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it.—Oct. burning of body. deep green.— June-July. expectorant. thirst. urinary discharges.—Scitaminaceæ. Fl. t. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. oblong shortly pointed. softly pubescent. Sugandhavachai.5 X 4. Ceylon. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). fever. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. lower 3-lobed . vomiting. L. :—Western Peninsula. pure-white. LOC. P. Cultivated in gardens.-Mar. tube funnel-shaped . Kapurkachri. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins .—variable. CHAR.—2-lipped. biliousness. Maval in the Deccan. Fr. Malay Islands. :— H. M. Chandramulika. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Malaya. Travancore. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. lying flat on the ground. K. L. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. good in spleen diseases. upper lip notched. 6. diuretic. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. :—More or less throughout India. Sd. Kachri. thin. intoxication. fugacious. :—Konkan.. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. Konkan. stomachic. wandering of mind.—2.5-9 cm. PARTS USED :—Tubers. tired feeling. round. fragrant.

Bottle-gourd. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Kadu bhopala. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Danta-bija. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Katutumbi. LOC. N. Nelasampige . petiole as long as blade. oblong.— inflorescence. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. Labuka. . female cylindric.—30X7. Alkaddu. rootstock reaching 5 cm. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. :—Mysore. remedy for itch. L.—Cucurbitaceæ.—globose 3. :—Konkan. crowded in a globose bead . COM. spathe 7. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . :—E. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. DISTR. M. Ceylon. simple. FAM. H. Country. NS. thick. creeping. tubular below. Lauka.-Apl. L. anthers crowded. very poisonous . USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. Kadu—Mithi tumbi.8-5 cm. Fl. CHAR. annulate . long. COM. Cochin. :—M. Calabash. FAM. COM. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. Halagumbala.5-23 cm.—Aroideæ. entire. Kanara. Fr. t. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.-Mar. K. :— G.— sweetly fragrant. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. semicylindric. NS. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. t. —Feb. Malay Islands. M.5-10 cm. Fl. Bhuchampaka. HABITAT :—Marshy places. elliptic-oblong.—Scitaminaceæ.5 X 5-12.. Dudhi. Coorg. Travancore. Dudio Tumbada. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. midrib very stout. Sk.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Dudhya bhopala. margins undulate.. G. in many cycles. Vatsanabhi. LOC. inflorescence of many ovaries. HABITAT :—Cultivated. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. H. K. :—An aquatic herb. Fl. Sk. DISTR. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . promotes suppuration. diam. M. CHAR. yellow. Bhuichampo . S. furrowed. NS. Bhuichampa . Tumbaka. Tubers yield an essential oil. coriaceous. :—Stemless plant.. It is useful to anasarcous swellings..5 cm. The whole plant. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—narrowly oblong.. FAM. of various shades of purple and white. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kaddu. Bhuichapha. used in the form of poultice.—15-37. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. PROPERTIES AND LOC.

HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. See—Timbers. :—Western Peninsula. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. PARTS-USED :—Root. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. increases "Vata". cures asthma. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. Nirbendeka: M. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. LOC:—North Kanara and S. piles. wholesome to fœtus. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. earache. improves taste.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. vulnerary. cardiac and general tonic. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. muscular pains. alexiteric. Seeds—good for hot constitution. bronchitis. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. Challa. USES :— Leaves are purgative. bark. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. causes bronchitis. leaves. fruits and seeds. flatulence. laxative. pains (Ayurveda). useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . brain-tonic. leaves. Arjuna. refrigerant and anti-bilious. NS. lessens inflammations. COM. Arjuna. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. Tarul. fruits and seeds. inflammations. ulcers.—Lythraceæ. flowers. LOC. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Seeds emetic (Yunani). :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. dry cough. in many cases only cultivated. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. fattening. aphrodisiac. There are two varieties. cures leucorrhoea. "Vata". bitter variety is diuretic. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. cooling. :—H. anti-periodic. Bandhara. antipyretic. Sk. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. fever. China. wild (rarely).) FAM. Konkan Ghats. cures blood diseases. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. LOC. Malaya. sweet. Bark and leaves are purgative. . anti-bilious. Ceylon. styptic. Fruit good in bronchitis. cause haemoptysis. Flowers cooling. In the Andamans. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. K. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. scalding of urine. oleaginous. See—Vegetables. earache. DISTR. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. emetic. Ornamental Plants. bitter. LOC. Taman. Assam. diuretic. Holematti. seeds are narcotic.

CHAR. :—W. lameness. DISTR. glabrous above.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). G. Chickling—White vetch. Fr. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. (Ayurveda). Gorantha. heart-troubles. causes much flatulence. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. :—A much branched large shrub. Wooly-headed gnidia. Kanara. M. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam.8 cm.. Yavaneshta. D. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. K.. Khesari. dense terminal heads 2. silky beneath. Mehndi.—Thymelaeaceæ. DISTR.—in erect. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Mukute. 5-7. Sk. inflammation. (B. Kukurgal. The bark is used to poison fish. Belgaum hills . LOC. Peninsula—Ceylon. common at Mahabaleshwar. perianth-tube densely silky villous . G. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. L.—Lythraceæ. COM. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Medika. FAM. subsessile. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Henna plant. Triputi. Fl. FAM. Madaranga. enclosed in the perianth . COM. Ragangi.—opposite or scattered. :—E. Tree mignonette. pain. pointed. FAM. burning. but dangerous cathartic.5 cm. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. tonic. Mendi. Fl. S. COM. M.—Dec-May. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. piles and wandering of the mind. oblong flat. See—Food Plants. Latri. .5-3. yellow.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. Grains contain vitamin A.—ellipsoid-oblong. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. swellings etc. Rametha. Kassar. Sk. Lang. Rami. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Medi. NS. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. bark mottled. lobes 4. H. N. improves taste. t. Deccan hills. common on the Supa Ghats.5 X 2-2. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. Basu). Sandika. :—Konkan southwards. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. M. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Lakh. K. :—E. diam. NS. M. Nakharanjaka. LOC. oblong lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. cooling. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated.

diseases of spleen. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. Ceylon. :—E. K. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. cure leucoderma. LOC. cure insanity (Ayurveda). DISTR. Gurubija. enriches blood. boils. Fr. Masur. diuretic. ulcers.—Apl-July. improve appetite. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. G. E. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. veined outside. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. Masur. mucronate.—in terminal. LOC. Flowers are refrigerant. expectorant. DISTR. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds.—opposite. planted as hedge.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. LOC. indigenous in S. scabies. Leaves—bitter. supported by persistent calyx. many. dysentery. globose. Fl. skin diseases . applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. white or rose coloured . Masura. favours hair-growth. pyramidal and panicled cymes. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. Sd. bronchitis. Sk. COM. Masuridal. diuretic. fragrant. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. See—Dyes. often ending in spinous point. finger nails and hair. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. syphilitic sores. in diseases of heart and of . allay burning sensation. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. Asia. Chanangi. useful. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. :—Grown in Nasik. Fl. Gabholika.—angular. wild in Arabia. seeds. NS. vulnerary. Sura. Massur. t.). & Gib. flowers. cure strangury tumours.—capsule. lumbago. FAM. lateral branches 4-gonous. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. useful in headache. Belgaum and Poona districts. HABITAT:—Cultivated. stomatitis. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. truncate. The oil and essence keep the body cool. L. PROPERTIES. Europe and in temperate W. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. M. H. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). Iran and Baluchistan. The plant contains a glucoside. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. amenorrhœa. Ragadali. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. ophthalmia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Lentil.

emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Allibija. Seeds contain fatty oil. galactagogue. NS. :—E. H. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated. good for pain in abdomen. They contain vitamin B. LOC. FAM. Fr. Asia. Chavnsar. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Grains contain vitamins A and B. bitter. aphrodisiac. Raktabija. Suvasura. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. PARTS USED :—Root. the lower petiolate. Asahio. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). CHAR. LOC. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. Ahaliva. Hurfi. bronchitis. blood and skin diseases. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. and muscular pains. L. good in inflammations. chest complaints. Kurutige. tonic. Halim . :—An erect glabrous annual. white. K. constipating. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . :—Cultivated throughout India. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Seeds—indigestible. often with linear segments . Garden cress . cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. useful in diseases of chest. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.—Cruciferæ. upper sessile. The covering is styptic and astringent. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Ashalika. G. tumours and injuries.—small. See-Food Plants. very likely indigenous in W. tonic. Sk. LOC. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). affections of spleen. leaves and seeds. Fl. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Leaves are used as pot-herb.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. cures dysentery .132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). Hot and dry. enrich blood. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Chandrika.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. See—Vegetables. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Chandrashura. Halim. stomatitis . diuretic. M. . bechic. COM. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). bronchitis. laxative. aphrodisiac . DISTR. C—petals 2-4 or 0. aperient. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). rheumatism.

Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. flowers. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. FAM. inflammations. hard to digest. usually alternate. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. boils. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. L. diam. Jivanika. t. causes loss of appetite. branchlets densely tomentose. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). emmenagogue.—May-July.:—A small evergreen tree. remove biliousness. Seeds contain vitamin A. Haimwati. COM. Linseed. Madagandha. gouty and rheumatic swellings.5 mm. Alashi. H. urinary complaints. 7.— globose. aphrodisiac . CHAR. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. lead to impotency. glossy dark-green above. "Pitta". base narrowed. H. urinary discharges . HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. aphrodisiac. Maidalakadi. M. Common tallow laurel. . seeds and oil. galactagogue.—Lauraceæ. colds and throat complaints.—Linaceæ. DISTR. K. Alsi. good for cough and kidney troubles. Tisi. bark somewhat corky. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. Sedhavi. black. "Kapha". Alshi. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam.:—E. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Fl. Sk. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). back-ache. pale beneath. lenticellate. Medini. dysentery. FAM. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. Common flax. Kanara.. bronchitis. Seeds—mucilaginous. :—E. Sk. burnt bark styptic and healing. bad for eyesight. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. tonic. perianth lobes wanting. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout India.—crowded at the ends of branches. Garbijaur. NS. G. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. LOC. native country probably Egypt. Country. hot. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. COM. Alashi. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). M. Fibres. NS. M. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. 8-12 together in heads. leaves. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Malina. diuretic. Roasted seeds are astringent. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. See—Oils. Alasi. LOC. Tailottama. used in consumption. supported by the thickened pedicel. remove "Vata". cure leprosy. Fr. yellowish. Javas .. Maidelakri. Alsi. PARTS USED :—Bark. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. heal ulcers.

:—E. Devnal. heating. spleen diseases. Fl. Kadudodka. high. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness.—capsule. Malay Islands. AMARA Clarke. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. :—E.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. overheated brains. white. lobes linear. L. finely serrulate. much curved. Karvituri. Sk. uterus. Australia. FAM. COM. DISTR. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . "vata". Narsala. K. cure cough. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. stem stout. Root—astringent. Ghontali.—alternate. LOC. C—2-lipped. Jhinga. H.—numerous. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. lanceolate. Deccan and S. Ridge gourd. Ranturai. terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. lower much longer. leaves. CHAR. erysipelas (Ayurveda). tonic. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. FAM. stomachic. bitter. M. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. LOC. Dhaval. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var.-Mar. diseases of blood. expectorant. Nal. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. opening by 2 valves. light green. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. aphrodisiac. M. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. midrib white. G.5-3. vagina. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. heart. M. Leaves are mucilaginous. fever. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. 1. 2. COM. subglobose. all oblong. NS.—. t. very small. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. throat troubles. Wild tobacco. Kahire. useful in biliousness. burning sensation. aphrodisiac. fruits and seeds. It acts as anodyne. bark. Divali. burning sensation. Narttaka. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. Mrityupushpa. Nali. long.2-3 m. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. bronchitis. branched upwards. Ceylon. Devanala.—Lobeliaceæ. useful in inflammations. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. SK. LOC. 3 usually connate throughout . leprosy (Ayurveda).100 m. strangury. Fl. hollow. thirst. Fr. H. Jalini. Dhamana. diuretic. many. nearly sessile. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). :—Konkan. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Bibhishana.9 cm. Sthulanala. consumption. Country. pains in joints. Katukoshataki. paralysis.—Cucurbitaceæ. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". Kandele. long.—Nov. G. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. galactagogue. aphrodisiac. yellowish brown . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. . K. Kalahogesoppu.

also in Konkan and N. pale green.:—A large climber. bitter. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. :—Throughout India. liver complaints. anæmia. at length scabrid. Hunage. thrives in Deccan trap. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. digestible. M. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. Mahula. Mhowra. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). carminative. asthma. recommended in splenic enlargement..8 cm. :—Plant is bitter. inflammations. thick. DISTR. piles. Mowda. LOC. LOC. leucoderma. LOC. cures "Vata". long and about 2. Bengal to the W. uterine and vaginal tumours . Moha. flowers and fruits. Burma. haemorrhoids and leprosy. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. 5-7 lobed. tonic to intestines. 10-ribbed.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. 5-10 cm. at first whitish and softly villous. diuretic. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). tumours. tonic and diuretic. Mahua. tuberculous glands. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. cures urinary discharges. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). "Kapha". fruit and seeds. Madhuka. Mahura. COM. :—E. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. hydrogogue. Fl.—petals yellow with green veins . L. W. bronchitis. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. biliousness. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. solitary in the same axil as males.—monœcious. jaundice. base cordate. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). Mahuda. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). ascites. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. especially in western Peninsula. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. bitter. PARTS USED :—Bark. cough. alexiteric. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Madhya Pradesh.—Sapotaceæ. piles.—obovoid.—small. G.) FAM. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. asthma. Madhusrava. USES. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Root-bark is abortifacient. t. Gudapushpa. Ceylon.53. Fruit cures fever. laxative. Fl. Mowa. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. stems 5-angled. Mahua tree. leaves. Butter tree. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. acrid. obtusely conical at both ends. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. tendrils usually 3-fid. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. useful in rat-bite. palmate. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. Doddippa. DISTR. females. H. NS. Fr. Kanara (rare) . Pokka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR.—Sept. cathartic. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. . C.

anthelmintic. thirst. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Kamala. fattening. See—Timbers. NS. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. cures biliousness. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. M. Ippe. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Oils. Fruit-tonic . heals wounds . H. astringent. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. COM. Hullichillu. DISTR. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Famine Plants. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. used in fractures. leprosy. consumption. tonic and nutritive. Shendri. Monkey-face tree. cooling. :—Konkan. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. See—Timbers. Oil is good for skin-diseases.. and appetiser (Sushruta). yields two important products. Sk. ulcers. Flower—sweet. G. :—Western peninsula. Karnatic. There is a trace of alkaloid. Honey tree. Flowers—oleaginous. Kapila. Ceylon. Kapila. and Kanara. carminative. Moha. Huli. Liquors. causes "Kapha". Kesarimavu. flowers and oil. flowers act as a mild purgative. H. FAM. Kampillaka. USES :—Astringent and emollient. aphrodisiac. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. good in heart diseases. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Mahuda. K. expectorant. Kapilo. India . Mohwa.—Euphorbiaceæ. Mahuva of S. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. :—-E. Mysore. Oil—emollient (Yunani). Madhuka. LOC. M. bronchitis. K. aphrodisiac.—Sapotaceæ. :—E. burning sensation. tonic. and Upper Burma.) FAM. Mohache jhad. LOC. G. Sk. often planted. and also a remedy for itch. Kambhal Raini. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. Movaro. COM. fatigue . HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. galactagogue. Movanuhjad. NS. fixed oil and a spirit. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Mehua. Oils. cures blood diseases. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. . Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. PARTS USED :—Bark.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid.

removes bad smell from mouth. Gum . diseases of abdomen. Amri. vermifuge and. appetiser. chronic dysentery and gleet. improve taste and appetite. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Mango tree. dysentery. NS. useful in skin-diseases. purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. Sk. bad blood. a good collyrium (Yunani). useful in bronchitis. tumours. astringent to bowels. leaves. carminative. clears brain. flowers. LOC. improves complexion. vaginal troubles. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. :—Throughout tropical India. anthelmintic. it exudes a pink coloured gum. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. LOC. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. Burma. dispels langour and burning of body. Sikkim. Astringent. Bihar. "Kapha". vulnerary. DISTR. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. good in dysentery. leaves. laxative. K. thirst. detergent. "Pitta". Cuckoo's Joy. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). Fruit—heating. diuretic. Bhutan. throat troubles. aphrodisiac. cure leucorrhoea. sour. wounds. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. in "Tridosh". liver. Amra. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. M. tonic. lessen intestinal pains. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. enriches blood. G. Australia. anthelmintic. Kanara. aphrodisiac. Dyes. Mavin-mara. beautifies complexion. sweet. cooling. tonic to body. cooling. hiccup. good in cough. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). Amba. See—Timbers. :—Tropical Himalayas. Malay Islands. cure "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Am. fruits and seeds. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. styptic. :—E. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. wild and cultivated. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. Ghats and the Satpudas. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. ulcers. liver pain. stomachic. H. spleen. Rasala. Chuta. fruits and seeds. maturant. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. :—-Throughout the State. Ambo. piles. Seeds-astringent to bowels. purgative. LOC. China. Introduced. heals ulcers. Kamarasa. styptic. improves cough. bronchitis. used in chronic diarrhœa. Sahakara. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. cause flatulence and constipation. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). urinary discharges. good in heart trouble. Mavu. Ceylon. Khasia Hills. alexiteric. stone in bladder. biliousness. cultivated throughout the State. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. Sind. FAM. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm.

flattened. Limbada. with lenticels and black dots. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. burning sensation. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. CHAR. Sk. Juss. G. Hemajyoti-valli.5 cm. Suparnika. Fl. Kharkhodi. Ambri. K. 7.) FAM. Fruit Trees.—6. few glands above the petiole cordate . coma copious . leucoderma. urinary discharges. Paribhadraka. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. K. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Juice of kernel. Harandori. It is also anthelmintic. asthma. USES. Nimba.. astringent to bowels. . broadly ovate or suborbicular. corona lobes large. LOC.—follicles.—Apl. :—Bengal. Assam. stops nasal bleeding.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Ripe fruit is laxative. inflammations. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. older branches ash coloured. NS.5-11.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant.—Meliaceæ.3-15 X 4. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Madhumalati. rat-bite (Ayurveda).) FAM.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. tumours. margined. C. :—Deccan and S. antipyretic. Nimbaka. See—Timbers.5-10 cm. NS. Nim or Margosa tree. Nakchhikni. Fl. Nimba. aphrodisiac. Dodi. green or yellowish green. Java. M. Bevu. Khandodi. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. :—A large twining shrub. useful in bleeding piles. all plains districts of Madras State. if snuffed. Limbra. :—G. Nimla. Kadulimb. H. Dugdhike . Hari. biliousness. Sk. cures "Vata". The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing.—many. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. useful in diseases of eye.—rotate with broad lobes. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. M. rugosely striate. Nim.—Asclepiadaceæ. Ceylon. overlapping to the right. Sd. alexiteric. fleshy. Country. COM. t. good for dyspepsia. Confection made from ripe mango juice. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. H. Balant nimba. M. L.—broadly ovate. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. COM. DISTR. cooling. pale yellowish brown. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Fr. long. :—-E. piles. LOC.

Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. convalescence. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. flowers. it is also used internally as anthelmintic." vomiting. stimulant and stomachic. cough. skin diseases. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections.. leucoderma. M. Tonic. DISTR. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. alexiteric. bad taste in the mouth. maturant. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. Small melilot. urinary discharges. refrigerant. relieves "Kapha". Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. leaves. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. it is a general vermifuge. H. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). The flowers are stimulant. See—Timbers. earache. piles. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. FAM. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. Vanmethika. resolvant. Sk. valuable in consumption. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . bark. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. boils. pectoral. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. toothache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. insecticidal. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. useful in syphilitic sores. good in ophthalmia. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. Burma. asthma. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. expectorant. NS. bruises. "pittadosh.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). and loss of appetite. fruits and seeds. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. LOC. lessens inflammation. fever. carminative. chronic leprosy. antiperiodic. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . thirst. COM. . in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. Ranmethi. general debility. LOC. anthelmintic. cures ulcers and inflammations . for unhealthy ulcers. Banmethi. tumours. tonic. fatigue. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. biliousness. rheumatism . stomachic. sprains. leprosy. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). good for leprosy. blood complaints. piles. astringent. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. :—E. lumbago. tonic and antiperiodic. swollen glands. aphrodisiac. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. Oils. burning sensation near heart. maturant.

Fr. glabrous. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. :—E. of terminal rather long. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short.—size of a pea. Fl.—pale yellow. Fl. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. at first green and variegated with yellow. NS. tapering at both ends. FAM.—variable in size.—monœcious . USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. very hispid . Ghugri. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . :—An erect annual herb. NS. t. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. slightly echinulate. LOC. HABITAT :—In hedges. lobes dentate or serrate . LOC. in spicate close racemes. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. K. Malaya and Africa. COM. deltoid-ovate entire. Pudinah. finally red. glabrous or slightly hairy. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—pod. M. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient.—Labiatæ. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. stem angular. Sd. standard exceeding the wings and keel. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). oblong-ellipsoid. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Country and Gujarat. Ceylon. DISTR. L. COM. scabrid. oblanceolate. especially in strained back. introduced into many other regions. L. 30-45 cm.. :—India (tropical zone). Pudina. S. Externally used as a fomentation. M.—3-foliate.—one. CHAR. Pudina. It has expectorant properties to some extent. rounded. brown. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Khasia. Assam. north Bengal. :—Common in Deccan. ellipsoid. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. leaves and seeds. base cordate. H. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. also in S. Agamaki. truncate at the apex. Fr. Chatinmaragu. tendrils simple. male fascicled on short peduncles. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa.—Cucurbitaceæ. Bilari. Afghanistan. DISTR. females sessile. Fl. "Sikkim. Iran. :—H. young parts white-hairy. poultice or plaster for swellings. :—Western Peninsula. high. Europe. .—small. C. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. M. G.— Jany. given as a gruel (Murray). leaflets toothed. Corn-March mint.

digestive. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). tonic to kidneys . Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. indigestion and cephalagia. lanceolate. China. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Fr. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Ceylon. Naghas. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. M. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. blood and heart troubles. NS. infusion is given in fevers. Konkan and N. hiccup. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Western Himalayas. cough. vomiting. S. Europe. Nagakeshara. dry. expectorant. Andamans. In N. Bengal. :—E. oblong. smooth. LOC.—in axillary distant whorls. LOC. :—A perennial erect herb . USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. lilac. The plant is used in chutneys. emmenagogue. :—E. lined with hairs and hairy outside. E. USES :—Root. Kanara. Nagchapha. alexipharmic. none at the top. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.—Guttiferæ. Burma Tenasserim. Nagkinjalka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR.-narrowed below. Ceylon Iron-wood. Travancore. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. FAM. flowers and fruits. Assam. Nagkesara. stem short. Fl. MESUA FERREA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. good for fevers. leaves. asthma. Himalayas. hairy. binding. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. H. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. Gums and Resins. Assam Iron-wood. Nagsampige. toothed. and stimulant. Suvarna. Carminative. Nagkesara. M.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Country. cardiotonic. diuretic. COM. DISTR. Sk. L. See—Timbers. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. ovate. foul breath. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. K. Oils.—nutlets dry. DISTR. good in asthma and sweats. Kashmir. the upper similar and large. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. North and West Asia. . pains in joints (Ayurveda). C. biliousness. sorethroat. sweats. headache. stalked. skin diseases. useful in liver and spleen diseases. thirst. used for cough. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. small tumours. LOC.

—Magnoliaceæ. Pivala chapha. Muthmurika. diuretic. L. M. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Nachike-gidda. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. clothed with glandular hairs . Dyes. Lajjavati. Sk. 45-90 cm. removes worms. H. nausea and fevers . DISTR. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Yunnan. in vertigo. in globose heads. . gout. India. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Raktamula. sensative.5 cm. Pilochampo. long. Champo. Sk. CHAR. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. LOC. digitate. Flowers— expectorant. Lajja. aphrodisiac. Champa. diuretic.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Ghats. high. PARTS USED :—Root. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Vanamallika. :—A diffuse under-shrub. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. bile.-pod flat. NS. Risemani. rheumatism. LOC. 57. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. rachis bristly. bark. Fr. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Flowers-stomachic. M. stimulant. diaphoretic. Hem-pushpa. destroys poisons. IndoChina. hairy beneath. Golden champa. Burma. also used as purgative. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. W. pinnae 1-2 pairs. pink. cultivated. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Suvarna champaka. Sonchampo. "Vata". :—E. Lajalu. K. K. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. blood affections. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. good in leprosy. COM. slightly recurved. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Yellow champa . FAM. flowers and fruits. t. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Sensitive plant. ophthalmia. :—Cultivated all over the State. NS. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. leaves. acrid. See—Timbers.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Fl. glabrous above. Fruit. Champaka. near temples and in gardens. Assam. FAM. evergreen rain-forest of N. Fl. G.—Sept. G. H. Kanara. useful in cough. remove biliousness. Sankochini. COM. S. petioles hairy. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter.-Oct. Sampige.—bipin-nate.—4-merous. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Thailand (Siam) and Malaya.. Lajjika. stems and branches sparingly prickly. facilitates micturition. rheumatism. Lajalu.. Champaka. Champaka. Sone-chapha. Lajari. Humble plant. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. :—E. Sparshalajja. Lajalu. Surabhi. "Kapha".

Seeds fix loose teeth. H. Root is resolvent. leprosy. Bolsari. Root. cure blood diseases. stomachic. acrid. Varsuli. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. LOC. Baphuli. Kalhala. DISTR. smallpox (Yunani). FAM. liver complaints. M. inflammations. bilious fevers. flowers and fruits acrid. cultivated in the tropics. alexipharmic. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. K. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Sharadika. dysentery. See—Ornamental Plants. headache. cooling. It is also resolvent and alterative.:—Western Peninsula. often planted in gardens. Bakula. nose diseases. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . cooling. NS. vulnerary. alexipharmic. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). fruits and seeds. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. biliousness. in piles and fistula. good for gonorrhœa. flowers. useful in blood and bile diseases. Sk. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. cures biliousness. leprosy. leucoderma. Bakul. cures "Kapha". blood diseases (Ayurveda). ulcers. asthma. :—Naturalised throughout India. LOC. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Anangaka. bark. cure biliousness. COM. fatigue. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. cultivated in gardens in pots. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Malaya. Kanara and Konkan. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N.—Sapotaceæ. Juice is applied externally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. :—G. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). astringent to bowels. Mulsari. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. piles. anthelmintic. Fruit causes flatulence. Kanara. probably a native of tropical America. DISTR. Ceylon. Bark cardiotonic. jaundice. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. oleaginous. LOC. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. burning sensation. Flowers give taste. sweet. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. vaginal and uterine complaints. Ranjal. Mugule. Borsalli. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Flowers—expectorant. alterative. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. Mukul. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Vovali. teeth and gum diseases. Bakul. PARTS USED :—Root. In Brazil root is used as emetic. Bakul. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums.

Leaves are maturant. . Sk. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. FAM. Karela. cordate. Carella fruit. brightly coloured (dark crimson. It is also tonic and febrifuge.—Cucurbitaceæ. L. DISTR.—membranous. Hagala. blackish. :—Grown throughout India. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn.—Nyctaginaceæ. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Hagalkai. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Karala. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Gulbasa . each one surrounded by an involucre.—E. FAM. Oils. yellow. native of tropical America. Karela. See—Ornamental Plants. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. t. Four o'clock plant. Karelo. Guleaabbas . and rather fleshy stems . USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. :—E. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. H. Karavalli. Krishnakali. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. G. M. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. Kareli. it is applied to relieve headache. Marvel of Peru. Fl. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. See—Timbers. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. NS. K. Fl. Fruit Trees. CHAR. M. COM. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. COM. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. good for syphilitic sores. lessen inflammations (Yunani). K. LOC. :—A herbaceous plant. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape.—continually in bloom. 30-75 cm. LOC. Sk. NS. Karli. often ribbed or rugose. H. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Kandura.—large. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. HABITAT -Cultivated. Fr. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible.

Kanta. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. bronchitis. leaves and fruit. hearttroubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. Nagarali. Karehiballi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. rheumatism. Fruits contain vitamins A. It is useful in gout. Country and Gujarat. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. and America. stomachic. asthma. B and C. hot alexiteric. cures biliousness. stomachic. antipyretic. blood diseases. asthma. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India. eye and heart. Vishakankini. leprosy. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. cure "Vata". COM. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. bronchitis. ulcers. Fruit—bitter. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. Vandhya. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. aphrodisiac. :—G. anthelmintic. stomachic. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. Ceylon. Fruit— bitter. DISTR. tonic. Leaves—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. appetiser. used in syphilis. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. cooling. leaves and fruit. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. urinary calculi. Fruit is tonic. boils. all kinds of poisoning. jaundice etc. Karkotaki. S. cure "Tridosh". :—Throughout India. "Kapha". digestible. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Plant cures diseases of blood. urinary discharges. NS. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. Fruit—very bitter. Sk. etc. tumours. . USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. piles. laxative. See—Vegetables. longpepper. hiccup. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . diseases of spleen and liver. lessens expectoration . Kantolan. also in Malaya. LOC. Gid-hagalu. Malaya. erysipelas (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. anthelmintic. anæmia. rheumatism. H. piles. LOC. laxative. and externally in ague as an absorbent. Leaves act as galactagogue. antibilious. Golkandra.—Cucurbitaceæ. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. PARTS USED :—Root. excessive salivation. M.'. laxative and authelmintic. LOC. carminative. urinary discharges. K. M. fever consumption. burns. China. Kartoli. tropical Africa. Kantoli. Beksa. sparingly in Konkan.

FAM. Ainshi. bark. astringent to bowels. Burma. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. FAM. Nuggi. NS. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Mochaka. Root-tonic to body and lungs. leaves and fruits. Achi. also in the Oudh forests.—Moringaceæ. tuberculous glands in neck. "Vata". K. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. G. Sajina. Murangi. Seglo. :—E. Segua. digestible. causes burning sensation. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. biliousness . M. Sk. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. fruits and seeds. Introduced var. Tagase . M. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. "Kapha". HABITAT :—Cultivated . spleen enlargement. Drum-stick Tree. Guggala. Haladipavate. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. earache. Al. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. stuttering. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. :—E. removes all kinds of pains. aphrodisiac. improves appetite. tumours. NS. also wild. eye diseases. makes blood impure . bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. emmenagogue. COM. Tikshnamula. Shevaga. Aal. Achchuka. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Ak. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. LOC. Ab. LOC. anthelmintic. COM. alexiteric. Indian mulberry. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). all "tridosha" fevers. Munigha. dyspepsia. .146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. ulcers. Mochaka. inflammations. Saraoji. cultivated throughout India and Burma. Ugra. H. K. China. useful in heart-complaints. analgesic. See—Vegetables. Rochana. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. Indian horse radish . See—Dyes. flowers.—Rubiaceæ. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Bartondi. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Formosa. Sk. fattening. DISTR. Mulgule. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Famine Plants. leaves. Ashyuka. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. DISTR. Sargavo.

good for inflammations of throat and chest. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". stomatitis. good for brain. . Root is purgative. aphrodisiac. Fruits contain vitamins A. epilepsy and hysteria. The plant contains an alkaloid. anthelmintic. diarrhœa. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. ulcerated intestines. DISTR. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. bark. aromatic and acid flavour. heart. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. diuretic. NS. Tuda. appetiser. LOC.—Moraceæ. Tuta. piles. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. it is cooling laxative. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. laxative. enriches blood. G. enlarged spleen or liver. bronchitis. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. expectorant. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. :—E. sour. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). LOC. Madhu pippali. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. gout. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. Fruit—tonic. increases biliousness. B and C. Shetur. turmeric. See—Vegetables. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. K. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. obstinate asthma. Sk. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Seeds yield a fixed oil. burning sensation (Ayurveda). leaves and fruit. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in small-pox. common about villages in N. spleen. Ambat. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. Tutri. Oils. Karihannu. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Tut. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. fattening. FAM. cooling. rheumatism. White mulberry. M. wounds. Siahtut. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. lumbago. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. with garlic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. Tut. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. Kanara. Kambali. carminative. Peninsula. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). loss of appetite. diuretic. salt and pepper. enriches blood. MORUS INDICA Linn. cures gleet. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. expectorant. Gums and Resins. urinary discharges. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. lumbago. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. sweetish. See—Fruit Trees. Fibres. Leaf paste. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. COM. biliousness.

NS.5x1. flowers and fruit.) FAM. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. G. Fl.—pod.—5-6 small. leaflets membranous. Bale. H.. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . Kivanch. common in hedges. Rambha. Hasaguni. Banana.—Scitaminaceæ. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. They are used as anthelmintic. Ceylon. Adam's Fig. grey-silky beneath. DISTR.—Oct-Nov. HABITAT :—Humid areas . Root—emmenagogue. :—E. HABITAT :—In hedges. K. PARTS USED :—Root. improves blood. covered with tawny stinging hairs. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). turgid-shaped. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Maoz kela. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Kela. Kadvare. MUSA PARADISIACA L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook.. COM. Seeds— alexipharmic. Havanch. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. tonic. Sk.3 cm. tonic. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Kivanchha. dark-purple. cures blood diseases. Atmagupta. M. DISTR. Kadali. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. Kuhili. PARTS USED :—Root. which produce intensa irritation of skin. Kela. biliousness . Turashi. Cowhage.2 cm. juice given for headache. COM. with honey is given in cholera. :—E. FAM. NS. Kavach. LOC. laxative. . LOC. M. " Vata ". Tikshna. silky. lateral very unequal sided. leaves. Plantain. Dirghapatra. sometimes cultivated. LOC.—3-foliate. spermatorrhoea etc. Sd. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . :—Punjab plains. Urustambha. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Vanari. Kapikachu. K. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). CHAR. Goncha. cultivated. consumption. pods and seeds. L. H. Kavatch. Sk. petioles 6. Nayi songuballi. 5-7. G. Himalaya up to 1200 m. Kela. Fl. Kunth. long. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. stem. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Fr. :—An annual twiner. 6-30 flowered. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Var. Strong root infusion. SAPIENTUM O. t.—in drooping racemes.3-11. terminal smaller. used in powder form in leucorrhcea.

PARTS USES :—Root. COM. broad at base. Andamans. heart-burn and colic. lobes broadly ovate. Lawsat. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia.--in terminal cymes. t. diabetes. diseases of uterus and vagina. buds densely hairy. astringent to bowels. NS.. very hairy outside. aphrodisiac. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Assam. Tropical Himalayas. useful in "Kapha". LOC. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . strangury. linear. Shrivalli. Fl. Bhutakes. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . thickens blood. Bedina. Hastygida. broadly elliptic. Fruit—sweet.—Rubiaceæ. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. antidysenteric. tube slender. DISTR. biliousness. :—A rambling shrub. menstrual disorders. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. improves complexion (Ayurveda). tonic. indigestible . gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. leprosy. stipules twin. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kanara. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. K. Ipparati. Bellotti. consumption and bronchitis. deep golden yellow. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. causes bronchitis . subglobose. good for dry bronchitis. C. FAM. urinary discharges. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. flowers and fruit. tonic. :—Konkan and N. B and C. See—Fruit Trees. appetiser. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. hairy.—tubular. L. Fr. blood diseases. CHAR. pubescent. leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. aphrodisiac. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. :—S. Nagavalli. Root-juice. ear-pain. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Sk. increases appetite. in thirst. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. . Fibres. Burnt stem is vulnerary.— July-Oct. kidney troubles (Yunani). with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. in " Vata". astringent to bowels. and are used in acidity. sore-throat. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. dyspepsia. :—H. M. anthelmintic. Root-juice is anthelmintic. Serwadh.— berry. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. Fl. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice.

cures headache. applied locally to relieve pain. CHAR. Malabar. M. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. It is used as a substitute for true mace. Malati. allaying pain. Murad. Ram-patri. Myrtle. L. Condiments and Spices. DISTR.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. COM. COM. diuretic. They are given in asthma. PARTS USED:—Seeds. Malati. Kamuka. as .— solitary. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. FAM. emmenagogue. Sk. promotes growth of hair. is regarded as. very sweet smelling. False nutmeg. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. :—A shrub. Kanage. See—Timbers. LOC.—berry. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. DISTR. small. Fl. ellipsoid. Vilayantimendhi. common in the Kumta taluka. especially epilepsy. Kaiphal.—small. intermittent fevers and dropsy. white. Fr. Habules. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. NS. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. used in stopping vomiting. smoke beneficial to piles. Kanara Ghats . fruits and oil. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Pliny. :— E. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. A decoction is employed. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Himalayas. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. axillary on slender peduncles.—Myrtaceæ. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. K. enriches blood. LOC. It is credited with opposite qualities. :—Western Peninsula. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. Dioscorides. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. Galen and the Arabian writers. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children.— Myristicaceæ. M. :—Konkan and N. :—E. W. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. FAM. H. black when ripe. LOC. ovate to lanceolate. all over the State. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers.

fleshy. Kamal. Padma. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. anthers with clavate appendages. Kandabahula. curved. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. concave or cupped. ovoid. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. Tavari-bija or gadde. biliousness. leaves. alexiteric. Sarasija. :—A large aquatic herb. 3-valved. Pankaja.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. Fl. linear spathulate. radiately nerved. COM. NS. bronchitis. white or rosy. 3-foliate. FAM.—alternate. elliptic. Fl. petals 5. disk annular. muricate. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. spongy. axillary. Kamal. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Chinese water-lily. ulcers (Ayurveda). Sd. petioles very long.6 m. Fl. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Timpani. COM. K. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. CHAR. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. . Ambuj. free.-Dec. t. :—A small branching undershrub. Pitmari. elongate.—solitary. erect.—capsule. with slender. long. Papra-vel. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. Ripe carpels. C. petiole winged. Pundarika. Fl. 10-25 cm.—white. LOC. CHAR.-Nov. Nelanaringa . :—E. diam. K.3-0. LOC. Belakanji. Ambuja. L.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. LOC. :—Konkan. high. from Iran eastwards to Australia.. :—E. M. solitary or 2 together. dysentery. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. :—W. Fr.—pendulous. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. G. Kamal. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. H.—July.. ovoidglobose. Padam. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. rough with distant prickles . plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla.—Meliaceæ.) FAM.5 cm. Sk. Indian sacred lotus. See—Ornamental Plants. L. glabrous. stem. peltate. Sk.—membranous. torus 18 mm. in diam. Goanese ipecacuanha. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. DISTR. Amlavalli. Kanara. Kandalu. cells 2-seeded. & A.—Nymphæaceæ. top flat. 0. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. orbicular. Aravinda. Suriyakamal. vulnerary.—petals many 5-12. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. entire. M. Kapurbhendi. Kamala. hæmorrhage. t. cures asthma.

—in threes. leucoderma. Kanher. See—Ornamental Plants. also cholera. . small-pox. Paddali. throat scaly. menorrhagia. Kanagile. Karber. improves watery eyes (Yunani). S. good in blood-complaints. vomiting. India. Baluchistan.—red. useful in burning sensation of the body. spermatorrhoea. flowers. astringent to taste . Cool. long. coriaceous. long. Fl. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. allays thirst. :—Madhya Bharat. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Vishavrikshanka. Upper Gangetic Plains. Kanel. LOC. Cool. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). linear-lanceolate. Waziristan. :—E. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . Sk. CHAR. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. at length separating. Sweet scented oleander. t. cures cough. Salt Range. 10-15 cm. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . also as a hedge plant. slightly bitter. Karvira. Filaments are astringent and cooling. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ".—Apocynaceæ. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. K. fever. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. seeds. biliousness. Pratihasa. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. chest-pains. ulcers and sores of mouth. H. In China and Malaya dried red petals. diuretic. leaves. COM. G. Kaner. PARTS USED :—Root. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . diseases of skin and eye . Fl.—funnel-shaped. Sd. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. NS. useful in fevers . Karvira. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. aphrodisiac. 15-23 cm. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. fragrant. useful in piles. stem. strangury. fruit. planted in gardens throughout the State. allays thirst. Kaner. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. honey. good in throat-troubles. in fever and liverdiseases. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . inflammations and poisoning. Ashwa-marak. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. gives tone to breast. L. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. NERIUM ODORUM Soland.—flowers more or less throughout the year. FAM. flowers. heart and brain tonic . also recommended as cardiac tonic. tapering into short petiole. rose or white. DISTR. removes worms. leaves. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Sind. dark green and shining above. rigid.—follicles. M. lobes rounded. C.

a mental stimulant. inflammations. tonic. about 1. tubercular glands of neck. Flowers— aphrodisiac. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. lobes spreading. G. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). across. sores. FAM. skin diseases. LOC. emetic. M. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Native of America.—capsule. headache. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. An ointment made . Tambak. especially root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). Tambakhu. C. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fr. Dhumrapatrika. Tamaku. Kalanja. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases.8 cm. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. :—E. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. CHAR. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. funnel-shaped. carminative. Tobacco. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). scabies (Yunani). USES :—All parts of plant. USES :—Leaves are narocotic.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Sk. K. useful in caries of teeth. Krimighni. L. Root—aphrodisiac. foul nose. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. NS. Poisonous to fish. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. DISTR. oblong or elliptic. water from hookha is diuretic. Tamarakuthika. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. are poisonous and are used externally. bronchitis. tonic. disinfectant. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. H. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). nervous depression and sleeplessness. also applied in leprosy. smoke constipating. useful in bronchitis. very poisonous. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. scabies. caries of teeth. anthelmintic.—alternate. asthma. Tamakhu.—pink or white. base wedgeshaped . wounds. Tabak. laxative. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Bujjarbhang.—Solanaceæ. dimness of sight. The plant contains a glucoside. good for lumbago. large (especially lower ones). cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda).—in open corymbose panicles . cultivated in all tropical countries. conical. inflammations. COM. sedative and emetic. M. the surface is plain or bullate. Hoge soppu. LOC.

K. :—A large shrub or a small tree. bark. solitary.—capsule. useful in bilious fevers. Parijataka. Sephali. Sephalika. rough above with bulbous hairs. Harsing. ovate acute. Fl. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. in terminal trichotomous cymes. young branches quadrangular. M. flowers and seeds. . CHAR. Nilophhal. obcordate or merely orbicular. abundant July-Sept. Buds are tonic. Cultivated in many parts of India. It is used with honey in chronic fever.—Oleaceæ. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Burma. Assam. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Bark cures bronchitis. Bilitavarai. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Prajakta. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid .5-6. stomachic. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. K. southwards to the Godavari. densely pubescent beneath. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). (Ayurveda). Sk. scalp affections etc. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal.. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. :—E. Chotakanwal.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. DISTR.—Nymphæaceæ. tube orange-coloured. cures fevers. :—E. Lotus. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. tonic to hair. Nyadale huvu . Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. astringent-to bowels. Lalkamal. NS. axillary. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. LOC. Fr. bark. 2-celled. a decoction of root. Fl. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Madhya Bharat. NS. Nalkumkuma. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. L. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. H. Alipriya. leaves.— fragrant. H. Kharapatraka. COM. Har-singhar. Sk.— more or less throughout the year.3 cm.) FAM. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Prajakta. hairy. LOC. HABITAT :-Cultivated. Parijata . rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. peduncles 4angled. Shonapadma. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Kumuda.—lobes white. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. Kanval. Har. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. t. compressed.—opposite 5-10x2. lessen inflammation. Parijata. Kanwal. See—Ornamental Plants. Bengal. Indian Mourner : G. carminative. COM. Aravind. M. Jayaparvati. G. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. C.

alexipharmic.—Labiatæ. oblong.— ovoid. C. long.—2-lipped. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . hot taste. Sk. ellipsoid. asthma. Damaro. t. Sabja. useful in diseases of heart and brain. roundish.— in whorled racemes . Tungi. PARTS USED :—Roots. submerged . thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. anthelmintic. glabrous. glabrous or pubescent. Fr. cultivated throughout the greater part of India.—3 cm. ripening beneath the water. Manjarki. Sd. "Vata". cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). purple stem. Fr.—solitary. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. "Kapha". peduncles very long . entire. LOC. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. black and pitted. pink or purplish. juice gives lustre to . deeply cordate at the base. Bahari. terminal raceme longer than the lateral.—petals about 12. Ajagandhika. Var. fleshy. pale rose or white. irregularly sinuate-dentate.9 m. causes burning sensation. leaves.5-20 cm. petioles very long. :—An erect herb 0. 8-13 mm. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Nasabo. flowers and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Fl. stems and branches green or purplish. COM. aphrodisiac . short. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. 15-25 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. DISTR. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). filaments dilated at the base . leucoderma. Sajjebija. rough. long.—all the year. leaves and flower. diam. globose. toothed or lobed. Africa. Philippines. " Kapha". Hungary. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. "Vata". K. cooling . Tukhamariya . Plant has a sharp. diarrhœa and piles . Sabzah. febrifuge. thyrsiflora.6-0. :—E. Common sweet basil. LOC. Surasa. root stock tuberous. high. stamens about 40. :—Var. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. Ceylon. obtuse. Barbar. M. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. DISTR. chronic pain in joints. G. :—Large aquatic herb . bitter.—ovate. diuretic. Rihan.—nutlets about 2 mm.—peltate. Surabhi. inflammations. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. See—Ornamental Plants. lessens bile. Fl. L. bitter taste. biliousness. FAM.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. allays thirst. enlarged spleen. erect. red. H. C. green. improves taste . itch. white. useful in diseases of heart and blood. antipyretic . pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. diameter. CHAR. Java. across. stomachic. LOC. acute. NS. Barbar. Fl. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). and nigropunctate above.. open in the morning only. bracts stalked. removes impurities from blood . Burma. cylindric. Sabja. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. emmenagogue. Ramkasturi. 7.

alexiteric. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. L. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. gland-dotted. Rantulasi. Country. diuretic and demulcent properties. G. :—E.— in simple or branched racemes. often cultivated : Ceylon. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. Fl. :—Konkan.. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). Deccan. pubescent.-July-Oct. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. Ram Tulasi. carminative. inflammations. skin diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. aphrodisiac . Fl.—nutlets subglobose. M. Sumukha. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. Large basil. strangury . LOC. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Fr. heating. The flowers possess. useful in vomiting. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. lower lip longer. pale greenish yellow. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. headache. removes foul breath. sharp taste . given in infusion in gonorrhœa. high. young ones pubescent.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. DISTR. liver and spleen. Gujarat. useful in diseases of brain. rachis quadrangular . good for toothache. rugose. Java. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. LOC. elliptic-lanceolate. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. S. It is also styptic. M.8 m. :—A perennial shrub. branched. During fever when the extremities are cold. earache. " Vata". diuretic and stimulant. " Kapha". CHAR.5 X 3. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. in close whorls . USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. BanMal tulasi. they are also aphrodisiac. Avachi-bavachi. coarsely crenate-serrate. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. fits. stems and branches subquadrangular .2—1. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective.—Labiatæ. stimulant. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup.7 cm. t. Lemon—shrubby basil. FAM. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.8—5. Ajaka. Rama-Ran tulasi. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. Plant has bitter. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. woody below . The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. COM. heart. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. strengthens gums. .—6. H. C. Sk. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. brown. 1. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn.—2-lipped. good for griping and piles (Yunani). LOC.3—12.

cholagogue. . Tulasi. Asia to Java and the Philippines. leaves and seeds. elliptic-oblong. purulent discharge of ear. antipyretic. purplish. especially in children. G. M. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Damanpaper. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. L. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. t. LOC. Fr. alexiteric. Tulasi. DISTR. NS. :—Konkan.:—E. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. high. asthma.—on filiform pedicels. Country. LOC. varying from 7. anthelmintic.—2. globose or pyriform .— capsule. entire or serrate. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. clothed with soft hairs . Papli. painful eye. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . L. Fl. West Asia. and are given with honey. Tulasi.—Rubiaceæ. :—Throughout India. Vranda. high. lumbago pains. See—Sacred Plants. angular. useful in heart and blood diseases. usually 2-3 cm.—pale brown. lobes acute. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . M. bitter. long. Kala tulasi. pubescent. :—An annual herb. Fl.5-5 X 1. C. Fl. Sk. :—An annual plant. FAM. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Arabia. " Kapha". Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. CHAR. stems and branches subquadrangular. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). NS. Sk. Parpat. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. DISTR. minutely gland-dotted. stipules with bristles . smooth. Phapti. H. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. M. linear or linear-lanceolate. obtuse or acute. of children and in hepatic affections . CHAR. stems numerous. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vrinda.—Labiatæ.5—38 cm. Suravallari.—2-lipped. foul smells. " Vata". margins recurved and scabrous. strangury. long in close whorls . vomiting. Vishnuvallabha. stomachic. Tropical E.. Malay Archipelago. heating. used in catarrh and bronchitis . Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. 30-60 cm. bronchitis. :—G. hiccup. yellow with black marking.—Sept-Nov. H. Krishna tulasi. Deccan and S.6— 3. purplish. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Parapate. Australia.2 cm. LOC. FAM.— in racemes 15-20 cm.— nutlets. leucoderma. COM. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. upper lip pubescent on the back. Manjari. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. Pavitra. Sd. Tulasa. HABIT :—A common weed. K.—subsessile.

Nagdali. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. lumbago. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. alexiteric. recurved. subulate. flowers and fruits. Prickly pear. DISTR. Zhoratheylo. outer segments ovate red in the centre. largest 3.—7. digestive. 3 m. carminative. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. loss of consciousness. urinary complaints. rusty brown. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. Plant juice—heating. Mullugalli. perianth rotate. FAM. good for leucoderma. Slipper thorn. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. across. or more high. Nagaphana. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . anæmia. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. leucoderma. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). stomachic. spleen enlargement. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. inner spathulate. CHAR. inflammations. Fr. K. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. laxative. COM. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa.—Cactaceæ. Vajrakantaka. . juice cures earache (Yunani). :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. " Vata".158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Snuka. Plant bitter. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. yellow at the edges. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. M. Nagadru. obovate or elliptic. ulcers. cures bronchitis in children. cures inflammations. reddish purple when ripe. purgative. ascites. Phadyanivdung. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). NS.— berry. LOC.—5 cm. Nagaphana. Grown as hedge. H. piles. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. xerophyte. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. tumours. pyriform. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. Nagaphani. rather thin. carminative. reddish at the tips. :—E. diuretic.5 mm. Sher. Sk.5 cm. Chorhothalo. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. LOC. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. long. L. burning. long. antipyretic. angular or warty. yellow or orange. Joints variable in size. it is also used in liver complaints. dull bluish-green. cures biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. spleen enlargement. introduced into India. vesicular calculi. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. Hathathoria. G. used in ophthalmia. liver complaints.

Chokha. HABITAT :—In moist-forests.S. PARTS USED :—Grain. improves taste. G. FAM. leucoderma. DISTR. Chaval. Podval. useful in " Vata". COM. COM. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit.—Gramineæ. cooling. Tans. Akki. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. sweet. G. Mayarjangha. anthelmintic. Vrihi. Ullu. DISTR. improves appetite. dysentery. tonic. NS. Sk. NS. K. HABITAT :—Aquatic. FAM. aphrodisiac. M. See—Timbers. Tandula. :—The Konkan and the N. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. oleaginous. :—E. aphrodisiac. stomachic. astringent to bowels . Rice . Bhat. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). M. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Seeds are purgative. K. Arlu. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Shali. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—E. Ghats. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Dyes. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). asthma. biliousness. Pharri. Tetu. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. piles. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Malaya.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Ava. Alangi. Fruit—expectorant. H. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. intestinal worms. LOC.). Mokka. H. M. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. appetiser. Shyonaka.—Bignoniaceæ. Tuntaka. LOC. Tetu. Sk. fevers. Bagi. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. useful in biliousness . Araluka. fattening. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. :—Widely cultivated. Ceylon. Tetu. K. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. R. LOC. good in heart and throat diseases. inflammations. Indian trumpet flower. Fruit—acrid. It is astringent and tonic. Rice. Cochin-China. anal troubles. Kanara ghats . Nivara. diuretic. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Dirghavrinta. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Tandula. tonic. LOC.

PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . oblong. buboes. Sk. M. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. good appetiser . FAM. Changeri. NS. brown.— Oct-May. See—Food Plants. dysentery and scurvy. It is an excellent application to abscesses. pubescent. Ambuti. LOC. Ceylon.—petals 5. Marudbhava. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. DISTR. K. Sd. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R.—axillary. 5-angled. Dugdhika. beaked. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . Amrul. also in burns and scalds. Chukrita. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water.—Asclepiadaceæ. linear-oblong. NS. gives great relief. Kyirin . bowels or kidneys. Sk. margins ciliate. C. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . inflamed piles. Rice water. M. It is a pleasant. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. cures dysentery. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. H. Fl. obcordate. Shuklika. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Dudhatani. L. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. measles. K. Indian Sorrel. Dugdhica. scarlet fever. In dysentery. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. FAM. sub-umbellate . In chronic bronchitis and coughs. COM.—palmately 3-foliate. t. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. astringent. :—G. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . :—E. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. to which a little lemon juice is added. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Throughout the State. leaflets 1. Dugdhike. . Jaladudhi. petioles very slender. if applied to chest. rounded at the apex. boils. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. Ambastha. Dudhani. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. long.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Dudhari. yellow. bruised. Kshiravi. The grains contain vitamin C. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. transversely striate. COM. easy to digest. removes " Kapha ". used externally. ovoid. CHAR.5 cm. H. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. Br. small-pox.2—2. Dudhialata. diarrhœa.— capsule. Dudhialata.—Oxalidaceæ.— many. Amlalonika. ulcers. " Vata " and piles. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. Fr. LOC. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. base cuneate subsessile. Fl. stems rooting.

strikingly handsome. PARTS USED :—Plant. M.9—1. Sundarbans. . 4.. 0.—glaucous green. linear or linear-lanceolate. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. small-pox. indigestible. laxative. leucoderma. causes flatulence. corona staminal. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. heat of body. HABITAT :—Usually near water. Fl. :—E. Poona Sangam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent.3 cm. FAM.8-6. Giripriya. L. somniferous. LOC. Chama-pushpa. L. expectorant. t. Mundige. stem supported by aerial roots . Ketaki. Ketgi. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. Ceylon. diuretic.5-9 cm. Fruit—tonic. fruit. long. dry. diseases of heart and brain. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. LOC. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. Fl. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. pain. " Kapha ". :—Konkan. often planted. yellow or red. high. Screw pine. Kevada. Keora. mouth with pubescent ring. Kanara. Kedige. Sd. margins and midrib spiny. Anthers useful in pruritus.—deciduous. syphilis. stems many. Kanara. Leaves are useful in leprosy. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. pale rose or white. 3. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. Dhulipushpika. with flavour. juice is used in gleet. much branched. PARTS USED :-Root. Fr. alexiteric.5 m. Fl. black. Country— Belgaum.—Dec. DISTR. CHAR. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). tonic. coma present. :—A shrub up to 6 m. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . pain in the muscles.— large. NS. Gogandhul. aphrodisiac. leaves. LOC. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. rarely erect. Andamans. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. X 3. useful in strangury and tumours.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. S. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). coriaceous ensiform. Deccan. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water.—very numerous. lobes ciliate. Umbrella Tree. bitter. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). fruit and oil from bracts. Java.—Pandanaceæ. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". thin. K. DISTR. palegreen. Sk. cough.—follicles.8 mm. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. C.—oblong or globose. aphrodisiac. female flower spadix solitary. anthelmintic. milky juice. aphrodisiac. long. M. H. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. purple veined. Gandha-pushpa. Fr. anthers. Flowers improve complexion. Burma. Kewoda.—dioecious. :—Konkan and N. COM. scabies. Ketaka. anthelmintic. G.



Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.



LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as



curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.



PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

cure biliousness. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Ranmath. CHAR. good in fevers. Kalli-chalu. cures consumption. Kallu. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. M. LOC.—in sub-capitate. leaflets 1. inflammations. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. t. astringent.—Oct. K. USES :—The pulse is considered cool.—3-foliate. wild date palm. H. Kherk. Swadi. Dharwar. petioles grooved. Kurangika. NS. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. dry. Boichand. light and astringent. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Khandesh. Adavada. thirst. Belgaum. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. biliousness. dysentery. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration.3—2. astringent to bowels. slightly recurved. . COM. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. peduncles 10-23 cm. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. LOC. Sk. Kolaba and Kanara. long. Sendhi. G. bitter.5 cm. Khaji. gout. Shindi. Fr. layer. piles. Date sugar palm. Magavala. Koshila. Kidney diseases. K. digestible.— pod. :—G. " Tridosh". Ranmug. straight subcylindric. Kharjuri. wiry. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). Kohesaru. membranous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. long. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder.5—5 cm. Konkan. antipyretic. laxative. Malay Islands. Sd. eye troubles. good for the eyes . Shimbiparni. PARTS USED :—Seeds. COM. FAM. nose complaints. :—E. styptic.—Palmæ.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. throat inflammations. Seeds— tonic. The grains contain vitamins A and B. long.—6-12. LOC. headache. Burma. Mugani. Ichela-mara. good for eyes. Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. as a kharif crop. NS. and southwards to Ceylon. burning sensation. anthelmintic. Kajuri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. " Kapha". Fl. Kashayi. Abyssinia. See—Food Plants. FAM. blood diseases. glabrous or hairy. H. Kapila. Afghanistan. L. yellow. Satara. Adabanmagi. few flowered racemes. Fl. broadly spathulate. Indian wine palm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). prostrate. bronchitis. mugawana. cough. :—Annual or perennial. aphrodisiac. Sind. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Kharjurika. :—Largely grown in. Trianguli. Ahmednagar. Ahmedabad. Khajuri. Sk. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Tadi. enrich blood. Siyindu. LOC. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m.:—Very common throughout the State. Vanmudga. DISTR. 2.

oblique. spinous. Jalpippali. Jalapipali. :—Found fairly in Surat.—opposite. spiny at the base. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. spadix 60-90 cm. densely fascicled. greyish-green. Siwalik. petioles compressed towards the apex. L. Fl. t. fruit and juice of the tree.—2. :—G. COM. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. 3-4. erect.—rounded at the ends. Poona and Belgaum districts. M. triangular. constipating. long. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. vomiting. L. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. LOC.— dioecious. NS.5 m. flowers distant. large and thick.. Baluchistan. Fl. Mysore. :—A creeping perennial herb. Agnijwala. 15-45x2-2. oleaginous. sharply serrate in upper part. Sk. much branched. CHAR. wild or more often cultivated. oblong.5—3. cooling. Sd. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene.—Fibres. lower 3-lobed. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. LOC. Fl. Bihar. :—A tall graceful palm. Ratoliya. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places.—pinnate. Sholapur. outer Himalayas. Fr. Fl. Fr. long. good in heart and abdominal complaints. 9-15 m. upper 2-lobed. clothed with appressed white hairs . and in beds of streams and water courses. This is called neera. LOC. blood and eye. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. crown hemispherical. subsessile. rounded at the apex. Toyavallari. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. scented. Vashira. t. roundish. aphrodisiac. Langali. Ratoliya.5 m. pointed. long. rigid. cardiotonic. Ratuliyo. Famine Plants.—globose. wandering of mind. Rohilkhand.—Jan-Feb. H. Coromandel Coast. female spadix and spathe as in the male. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. pinnules many. high. usually along banks. stems rooting at the nodes. orange-yellow. Africa. Sharadi. spatulate. oblong-ellipsoid. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). .MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR.—Verbenaceæ. aphrodisiac.—more or less all the year. :—Throughout India.) FAM. Okra. flowers very many. See. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. C.2 cm. 2-lipped. Bhuiokra. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. anthelmintic. :—Tolerably common throughout India. alexiteric.—sessile. fattening. useful in diseases of heart. fevers. male white.—white or pale-pink. Jalapimpli. DISTR. deeply grooved on one side. angular. DISTR. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Bengal. Ceylon. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). ensiform. cooling.

gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. cooling. It is valuable in scurvy. Kiranelligida. milky-juice.useful in fevers. Leaves are stomachic. very numerous. stem branched at the base. :—Throughout India.—Euphorbiaceæ. Tropics generally. globose. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. fruit. bronchitis.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. hiccup.— numerous. Ceylon. elliptic-oblong. angular. scabies. of female. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. Sk. NS.—yellowish. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. asthma. Infusion is a good tonic. Bhuianvalah. L. :—Konkan and Deccan. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. scarcely lobed. bronchitis. COM. ringworm (Yunani). monœcious. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. Bhumyamalaki. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. Bhumyamali. Sadahazurmani. M. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. smooth. dry. Sukshmadala. Bhumyamali.. LOC. except Australia. axillary. urinary discharges. Ajata. longitudinally ribbed on the back. males 1-3. disk of the male of minute glands.— July-Aug. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. The whole plant. Vituntika. Plant—hot. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. leprosy. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. high . . :—G. lobed. biliousness. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). LOC. Jaramla. CHAR :—An annual herb. Amala. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. K. alexipharmic . good for sores and in chronic dysentery. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. t. Fl. sores. Fl. annular. H. asthma. Bhuiavli. burning sensation.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. LOC. and without salt may be applied to bruises. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Sd. anuria. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). 6-13 X 3-6 mm . useful in thirst. thirst. wounds. 30-60 cm. diuretic. very small. good for ulcers. Fr. females solitary. distichous. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). anæmia. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Stomachic. maturant. wounds. DISTR. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. FAM. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). leaves.—3-gonous.

K. Golmirch . Sk. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. M. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Betel leaf vine. styptic (Yunani). alexipharmic. Betelleaf. Saptashira. tonic to brain. LOC. Kalaka. Pan. spleen diseases. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. COM. Sholapur. Sk. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. FAM. It sweetens breath. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. G. K. carminative and astringent. aphrodisiac. pains. Mensinballi. LOC. hot. FAM. bronchitis. heart and liver. Satara. given with milk in hysteria. Nagavalli. Kaphavirodhi. Kalamirich. vulnerary. anthelmintic. useful in toothache. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Panu.—Piperaceæ. " Kapha ". Eleballi. urinary discharges. It contains an aromatic essential oil. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. clears throat. improves appetite (Ayurveda). tonic and digestive. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). acrid. liver and muscular pains. Kanara. :—Wild in the N. Vidyache-pan. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. carminative. Betel pepper. Fresh leaves. foul smell in the mouth. Poona. Vileyad-ele. purgative. Bhakshyapatra.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. :—E. Linn. increases biliousness.—Piperaceæ. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kalamiri. DISTR. . H. leavs. M. asthma. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. NS. It increases saliva. ozœna. Kanara forests. COM. generally in Konkan. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Warm leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. stomachic. smeared with oil. LOC. strengthens teeth . useful in "Vata". Malimirich . Pan. laxative. Black-pepper. elephantiasis . useful in "Kapha". ozoena. bechic. piles. alterative. DISTR. Marich. and fruits (rarely). cultivated in Konkan and N. Tikshna. Pan. inflammations. G. satyriasis and to allay thirst. See—Condiments and Spices. Tambola. Kalimiri. throat diseases. tonic. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. carminative. removes all foulness from mouth. Menasu. aphrodisiac. Vata". heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. :—E. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. NS. Tambulavalli. improves voice. night blindness. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. PARTS USED :—Fruits. Menasin-kallu .

and possesses narcotic properties . leprosy. NS. Greater plantain . Konkan. It is a good expectorant. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. COM. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. COM. used as febrifuge. Bartang.5 cm.5-12. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It yields an essential oil. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. coma. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. & A. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. chest affections.—lobes 4. entire or toothed. L. In physiological action. long.— alternate. piperidine and an essential oil. various forms of cutaneous diseases. Burma. base tapering into petiole. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. H. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. used in chronic bronchitis. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. Kanara in ghat forests. Khasia Hills. paralysis . Lahuriya. Vehkali. LOC. See—Timbers. hills of S. Fr. lumbago. M. sprains. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . facilitates menstruation. vertigo. Khandala (pretty common). piles and some skin-diseases . :—K. tonic and a local stimulant. DISTR.—Pittosporaceæ. dries body humours (Yunani). :—E. Fl. Externally it is rubefacient. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. W. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. . NS. LOC. ovate or oblong. N. C. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . bruises. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. radial 2.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. FAM. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. ophthalmia and phthisis.—Plantaginaceæ. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism.—capsule. CHAR. Arcot and Salem. See—Condiments and Spices. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. Vikhari. weakness following fevers. chronic fevers. variable in width. petiole longer than leaf-blade. Deccan. lanceolate or greenish . FAM. sciatica. Bark contains a glucoside. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. the oil is alterative. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. Tammata. ovoid.

Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Mahang. Fl. stems herbaceous. rosy scarlet. Raktachitraka. Chitra. erect. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Agnishikha. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. t. lax spikes. afford relief. alterative. Ghats. COM. :—Konkan : Deccan. LOC. HABITAT :—Along river banks. Palni hills. high. top coming off as a conical lid.—3-5 cm. striate . zeylanica. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. obtuse. Burma. exauriculate petiole.-Feb. Nilgiris. t. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia.. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . H. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. :— E. alterative and diuretic. Lalachitraka. Rosy-coloured leadwort. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. NS. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. angled.Kempuchitramula. :—Temperate Himalayas. long in long terminal axillary.-4-8. W. Fl. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. PARTS USED :—Roots. Fire plant. Chitraka. limb wide. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. L. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Ceylon. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. LOC. Lalchita. LOC. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. oblong. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Lalchitrak. Lead-wort. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Assam.Sept. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling.—large. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. attenuate. and seeds. leaves. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Baluchistan. DISTR. FAM. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts.—throughout the year. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fl. M. Sd..—tube slender. LOC. base passing into amplexicaul. Lalchitrak.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Malaya. DISTR. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Fattening.—Plumbaginaceæ. Ratochatro. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. C. G. K. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. dull-black.

leucoderma. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific.—Aug. ovate. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. See—Ornamental Plants. vesicant. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. itching.6-1. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. astringent to bowels. wild in Western Peninsula. useful in laryngitis. Fl. Fl. NS. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. attenuated into a short petiole. January 1933). L. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . t. Bengal. PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. alexipharmic. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite.—in elongate spikes. See—Ornamental Plants. lobes 5. aborti-facient. diarrhœa. leucoderma. bechic. terete. leaves are caustic. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. tonic. scabies. spreading. . good in anæmia (Ayurveda). Bile-Chitra-mula. expectorant. :—Throughout India. striate. bronchitis. root-bark. anthelmintic. piles.—thin. Sk. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. pointed. rachis glandular .172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. K. Ind. C. stomachic. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. a favourite medicine for flatulence. alterative . oblong. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. piles. it is useful in dyspepsia. Medi. skin disease. LOC. diseases of liver. Chitramula.-Sept. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Chitra . FAM. Vallari. Chitaro Chitrak. Chitra. anasarca. G. stems 0. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. It is used in procuring abortion. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. M. dysentery. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Chitra . long. DISTR. ascites. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. leaves. cultivated . cure intestinal troubles. " Tridosha" . :—E. Chitrak.5 m. Tropics of the old world. juice. hot. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. The use of Pl. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. laxative. Jyotishka. woody. LOC. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. " Vata" and " Kapha". Chitraka. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort.—white. and in leucoderma. Journ. In S. stomachic. rheumatism. COM. carminative. H. leprosy. Agnishikha. a paste is made with milk. Res. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies.—Plumbaginaceæ. diseases of spleen. ring-worm. Vahni. entire. appetiser. Ceylon. Root—bitter.—capsule. Chitranga. Malay Peninsula. consumption.

Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. bark. Golainchi.-nutlets ellipsoid. L. C. Fl. Root-bark is purgative. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. ulcers.8 m.. smooth.8-9 cm. Kadu-sampige. venereal sores. long.—Apocynaceæ. FAM. ascites (Ayurveda).-May.2—1. :—A small shrub 1. Radha-champo. irregularly doubly toothed. . Deccan. :—Native of tropical America.—salver-shaped. 12 cm. NS. Pangli. many flowered. shining black. Devagangile. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. :—Konkan. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. whorls close. long. purple. Fl. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. :—All throughout the State. cylindrical. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. rounded. Mahabaleshwar. Sk. Fl. Rhuruchapha. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. useful in leprosy. broadly ovate. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. rarely maturing. L. inner face angular. Fl. M. cultivated. 15-30 cm. divaricate. See—Ornamental Plants. 7. NS. Frangipani. high. lower lip white. H. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut.—Dec. abundant. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. carminative. Champakam. upper lip white shot with purple. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. Goleurchampa. Kanara. entire. t. shining.—practically throughout the year. 4-lobed. abundant from Mar. heating.—2-lipped.5-18x3. :—M. stems and branches quadrangular. urinary discharges. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. C.-Feb. COM. Fr. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. very fragrant. Phangla. COM. common. oblong-lanceolate. pains. Fr. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. acrid. LOC. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. K. pungent. acute at both ends. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). spirally arranged. PARTS USED :—Root. white with a pale yellow centre. LOC. Belchampaka. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. leaves and milky juice. CHAR. CHAR. useful in gleet. G. M. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. laxative . FAM. with an intra-marginal vein. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India.—follicles. itching. t.— large. 3-lobed.—Labiatæ. DISTR. :—E. Khairchapha. LOC.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised.:—More or less throughout India. Country. DISTR. Pagoda tree.

carminative. ulcers. M. anthelmintic. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Agetha. F. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Gaura. skin and in keratitis . LOC. cures biliousness. fruits and seeds. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Pavaka. G. purify and enrich blood. PARTS USED :—Root. K. rheumatic pains. . Seeds—acrid . cure earache. bark. NS. Aran. Honge. Karanjmara. Indian beech. Karanj. good in scabies. Sk.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). lumbago. itching. USES :—The fresh leaves. Ustabunda . wounds. See—Timbers. FAM. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. Oil—styptic. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. skin diseases. Chamari. :—E. head and brain diseases. Huligili. liver pain. M. In Satara. flowers. COM. :—G. bruised. K. H. good for tumour. cures eye diseases. Karanj. Naktamala. J. also planted. piles. LOC. H. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. NS. Kirmal. chronic fever. Kanja. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Agnibijaka. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Karanja. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Kanaji. Karanja. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Oils. vagina. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. DISTR. along Deccan rivers . chronic fever and hydrocele. Arni. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. chest complaints. " Kapha ". Jayanti. leprosy. wounds (Ayurveda). urinary discharges . PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. COM. relieves inflammation. Gracie). lumbago. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. Ichu. juice is given in colic and fever. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. " Vata ". Arni.) FAM. alexipharmic . useful in diseases of eye. ascites. Kanika. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. leucoderma. Agnimandha. Sk.—Verbenaceæ. leaves. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Oil—anthelmintic. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Arand. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast.

aphrodisiac . causes "Kapha". PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. sour. PARTS USED :—Leaves. C. Perala. useful in anaemia. used in bronchitis. Gum is tonic. Peruka. G. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Safedsafari. LOC. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. cylindric. LOC. Peru. lobes 4. L.2-6. DISTR. M. fruits and gum. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Flowers cool body. LOC. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. heating.3 cm.—tubular. Fr. Kanara. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. cooling. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. chyluria. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Sd. Fruit—tonic. Perala. Fl. dyspepsia. Young leaves are tonic in the . rough-tubercled . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Fl. cool heated brain. fever. broadly elliptic. as an astringent to bowels. .—5-9 X 3. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. good in colic and for bleeding gums. constipation. NS.—hard. Ash—caustic (Yunani). piles. bark yellowish. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Jamud-rukh. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). flowers. small. H. blue-black.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). :—Cultivated all over the State. bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. DISTR. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. for unhealthy ulcers."Vata". Guava tree. entire or upper part dentate. Piyara. applied to sore eyes. diabetes.—Myrtaceæ. seated on the calyx . high. inflammations. Ceylon. Jamphal. Peru . See—Famine Plants. laxative after food.— June-July.. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Dridhabija. pungent. COM. Sk. common about Karwar. It is also employed in scurvy. hairy in the throat. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. Jamb. smooth. FAM. Andamans. Gova. stomachic. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. laxative. Amrut. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Root is laxative. stomachic. cooling. Vastula. Nicobars and Malaya. t. :—E. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils.— globose. K. Anthers—dry wound. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. greenish yellow. It is given in the form of decoction.

Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. COM. K. CHAR. NS. diuretic. HABITAT :—Waste places. Vanguji. Bukchi.8 X 2. bitter taste. laxative. aphrodisiac. H. alterative.5—5 cm. smooth. Fruit—diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. clawed. vulnerary. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. alexiteric. G. scabies. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. biliousness. urinary dis charges. Bavachi. nephrites and cachexia. FAM. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn.—Aug-Dec.—one. white hairy. Chandralekha. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini".—pod. leprosy. standard orbicular. Country. See—Fruit Trees. black. LOC. Babachi. Bakuchi. vomiting. . stomachic. M. cures "Vata". nigro-punctate. :—An erect annual. LOC. :—Throughout India and Ceylon.2 m. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Fl. anthelmintic. antipyretic. causes biliousness. fruit and seeds. cures blood diseases . Babachi. Fl. 0. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections.—bluish purple . Kushtaghni. good for heart troubles. C. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). Bhavanj. high. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Seed—purgative. DISTR. Sk. bronchitis. Ripe fruit is a good aperient.—simple. inflammation. raw one is used in diarrhœa. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. piles. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. skin diseases. t. closely-pitted.—in dense axillary. anthelmintic. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Sd. Bowach-chi. ovoidoblong. improves hair and complexion. PARTS USED :—Root. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. 10-30 flowered racemes . heals ulcers. leaves. solitary. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. 3. Bavachi. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. M. improves appetite.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. stem and branches grooved. Konkan and S. good for leucoderma. Seeds— refrigerant. studded with glands and white hairs.6-1. difficulty in micturition. " Rakta-pitta". anæmia. :—E. L. stimulant. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. mucronate. Kalameshi. Fr.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths.

K. Dharimb . urinary discharges (Yunani). Bibla. leucoderma. Dadima. Gum. burning sensation. :—Leaves. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Dhalim. enriches blood. India. :—E. Kabul and Baluchistan. Gum—bitter. blood diseases. leprosy. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Bibla. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. diuretic. used in sore throat. fattening. erysipelas. G. :—Western Peninsula and S. " Kapha ". gleet. COM. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Dalimba. Bijak. earache. spleen complaints. LOC. COM. Flowers— improve appetite. :—Wild in Iran. Bija. Dalimb . stomatitis. body eruptions. Bibla. laxative. Indian kino-tree. NS. Valka-phala. FAM. cures " Vata ". anthelmintic. fever. laxative. chest troubles. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Honi. Anar. alterative . vulnerary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. anal troubles. Dadam. :—E. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Bark—astringent. in Akrani. Kanara. DISTR. Honne. LOC. allays thirst. sore eyes brain diseases. useful in vomiting. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). cultivated in many parts of India. griping. ophthalmia. " Tridosh". prolapsus ani. Ceylon. K. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. used in piles. Gums and Resins. ascends to 1100 m. styptic. G. LOC. useful in all body diseases. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. anthelmintic. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). strengthens gums. thirst. Common in N. urinary discharges. also in Konkan. Raktabija-pushpa. DISTR. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Flowers—check vomiting. Bigsah. biliousness. H. Sk. Sunila. ulcers. Hirdokhi. sore-throat. Dadimba. applied to hydrocele. M. scattered but not gregarious . Malabar kino-tree. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. elephantiasis. heart-disease. called kino. Bia.—Punicaceæ. tonic. Bio. flowers and gum. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. Fruit-appetiser. NS. scabies. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. good for biliousness. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. boils. tonic. somewhat milder in action than catechu. Khandesh and Dangs. Pomegranate tree. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Pitasar. Mahakutaj. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. . useful in eye troubles. useful in biliousness. See—Timbers. colic. bark. H. M. liver tonic. Benga. Sk. PARTS USED:—Root. Hulidalimb . Dadima. flowers and fruits.

Malaya. calyx tube long.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Rangoonchavel. Chinese honeysuckle. Pinditak.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. C—petals 5. S. Mindhola. elliptic. glabrous above. Madana.— ellipsoid. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. H. acutely 5-angled. Sk. jasmine . hairy beneath. M. Gelphal. Minkare. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. numerous. COM.—opposite. See—Ornamental Plants. Midhola. LOC. nearly 6 cm. widely cultivated all over India. K. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. H. Dharaphal. Country and Kanara. Konkan. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . :—E. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. long. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. at first white then deep red . Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. . dark green. M. COM. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness.—Rubiaceæ. DISTR. :—A strong climber. acuminate. Fruit contains vitamin C. :—E. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Fr.5 cm. Karigidda. The rind of the fruit. Barmasinivel. LOC. LOC. USES :—In Amboyana.—in axillary and terminal spikes. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. pendant. Gela. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Lalchameli. NS. Fl. Rangoon creeper. G. Fl. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. base rounded. Karhar Mainphal. NS. M. Mangari-kai. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Rangoonkibel. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. lanceolate . L. It is given in the form of decoction. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. FAM.—Combretaceæ. Emetic nut. t.-Aug. CHAR. 7. In China.—Mar. G. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. FAM. Annam.

:—E. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. tumours. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. its action is very safe. boils. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. antipyretic. good for spleen and in paralysis. NS. See—Timber. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. leprosy. DISTR. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. The plant contains glucoside saponin. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Mali. Bitter. Sumatra. S. Java. inflammations. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. Bili Mulangi. Ruchira. G. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. tonic. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). Muro. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. stomachic. bitter. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha .—Cruciferæ. binding.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. Muri. emetic. LOC. laxative. Mura. inflammations. Ksharmula. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. piles (Ayurveda). and all inflammations . certain and regular. H. produce alopecia (Yunani). paralysis. heating. it is equal to it in every respect. Mula. used in diseases of the brain. useful in diseases of heart. COM. carminative. Tropical Africa. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. carminative. leucoderma (Yunani). K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. aphrodisiac. alexiteric. It is also used to poison fish. PARTS USED :—Root. eruptions. E. fruit and seeds. asthma. Radish. juice relieves earache. Hastidanta. M. It also contains an essential oil. useful in chronic bronchitis. Mulak. emmenagogue. ulcers. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. destroys "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. muscular pains. Seeds-sharp. emetic. cholera. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. FAM. China. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. sweet. hiccup. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. Sk. flowers. leprosy. Juice of . skin-diseases. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. amenorrhœa. cures abscesses. carminative. bad taste. DISTR. Ceylon. anthelmintic. leaves. :—Throughout India. good in tumours. " Vata" and " Kapha". Mula. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn.

irregularly. B and C. pungent. pale beneath.-in whorls of 3. HABITAT :—Moist forests. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. nodular. See—Vegetables. NS. Fr. :—H. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. M. ajmalicine. with a long. :—H. Gaja-karni. used in hyperpiesis .. laxative. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. leaves (rarely). NS. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Palakjuhi. specific for insanity. Doddapatike.-May. Kanara. DISTR.—Acanthaceæ.. white. Nai. . cures " Tridosha ". In the Konkan. corrective and emmenagogue. CHAR. ajamalinine. Sarpakshi. L. single or didymous. heating. C. Group B — Serpentine. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. t. Chandrika. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees.. bright green above. K. seeds are considered peptic. thin. Sarpagandha. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions.9 m. carminative. PARTS USED :—Root. It is hypnotic. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. ulcers (Ayurveda). K. 7. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. Sk.— Mar.3 cm. swollen a little above the middle. serpentinine. and black salt. Root contains vitamins A. often tinged with violet. Chhotachand. Nakulikand. Garudpatala. Fl.—Apocynaceæ. Western Peninsula. acute. diuretic. Harkaichand.—in irregular corymbose cymes. Java. sharp. Harki. Fl. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. sedative.—tubular. M. COM. Juipani. FAM. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. LOC. COM. LOC.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Andamans. bright red . RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. acrid.5-6.5-18 X 2. shady open places near rain-forests. anthelminitic . Chandrika. Sk. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Sivanabhi.—drupe. Ceylon. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. :—An erect perennial shrub. Yuthikaparni.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. expectorant. black shining. lanceolate. yellowish root stock. Mungusavel. ginger.

vaginal pains. Chitrabija. leprosy. hills near Belgaum. FAM. :—Deccan. piles. anal troubles. stems obscurely angled. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. some fevers. fevers. pointed. COM. Mahabaleshwar. pubescent: C. white. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. 0. LOC. Palma christi. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative.—capsule. Vardhamana. widely cultivated in tropical countries. LOC. LOC. S. Cattle are fed with leaves for . ring-worm. Erand.—lipped. bracts ovate lanceolate. H. paralysis. Erand. intestinal worms. tumours. lumbago. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). liver and spleen diseases. eructations. Tirki. useful in pains. Leaves—galactagogue. useful in inflammations. Divaligo.—5-10 X2-5 cm. :—E. useful in skin-disease. leaves. Sholapur). asthma. Country. body pains. ascites. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil.-Jany. inflammations. inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR.—nearly sessile. Straits-Settlements. carminative . Sk. amenorrhœa (Yunani). piles. :—Probably of African origin. DISTR. alterative. G. increase biliousness. boils. HABITAT :—Hills. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. good for burns. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. solitary. ascites. M.— tuberculate. Erand. NS.. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch).5 m. ascites. tropical Africa. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. black. pain in back. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. earache. purgative. M. typhoid. Fruit— appetiser. Khandala. Belgaum. rheumatism. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. velvety hairy Sd. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). leaves and seeds. Seed and oil—cathartic. upper lip bifid . asthma. Fl. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Ceylon (wild) . Madagascar (cultivated). elephantiasis. entire. lumbago. K. night-blindness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. useful in liver troubles. Castor oil plant. generally cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. Country (Dharwar. Fr. :—Undershrub. Eranda. Haralu. flowers and seeds. LOC. cultivated. Root-bark—purgative.—Oct. t. high. pains. Vardhaman. Fl. glandular. useful in heart diseases. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Very little in other districts of the State. alterative. M. convulsions. :—Throughout India. L. Triputiphala. diseases of rectum and head.9—1. Arand. DISTR.—Euphorbiaceæ. Divald. hairy outside . aphrodisiac. narrow. dropsy. glands. oil—anthelmintic. Java. leprosy. elliptic lanceolate. strangury. increases "Kapha".

In constipation it is used as an enema. Fr. PARTS USED :—Flowers.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. liver. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. antipyretic. used in heat of body. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. chronic fevers. . LOC. France. They are also applied to painful joints. astringent when dry (Yunani). Oil from seed is a non-irritant. L. Soumyagandha. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. :—A perennial shrub. good for eyes. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. H. cultivated all over India. cephalic. Fl. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. double. Lakshmipushpa. NS. Sudburj. laxative. stems with stout and hooked prickles. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. intestinal affections.5-6. dry. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. CHAR. biliousness. aperient removing bile and cold humours.—Rosaceæ. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. head-ache. Greece and Germany. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. mild and safe purgative.. with a good odour. Ati-manjula. tonic.5 m. expectorant. adults. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. sweetish. Sk. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. :—E. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. " Vata". Punjab and U. 2. acrid. kidneys. serrate.3 cm. inflammations. Gulab. long. LOC. :—Origin unknown. Tarana. M. Gulab . from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. See—Ornamental Plants. See—Oils. Gulab. seldom griping or causing flatulency. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. they are cold.— usually corymbose. tooth-ache. cures leprosy. Fl. cardiotonic. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. Italy. etc. attaining 1. P. stipules scarcely dilated. much used in lotions and collyria . Shatadala. ovate oblong. aphrodisiac. Pannira. burning sensation. hairy. Flower—bitter. Ghazipur is a chief centre. excessive perspiration. red. pink or white. FAM. sometimes glandular. stomatitis. benefits lungs. t. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . DISTR.—pinnate. removes bad odour from mouth. improves appetite (Ayurveda). cooling. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . cardiotonic.—obovate . which is a powerful poison. COM. K. sometimes striped .— all the year. laxative. petioles prickly. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients.

H. L. one pair with longer petioles ovate. NS.-Jany.—white or pink.5 cm. laxative. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. DISTR. inflammations. anthelmintic. prickly. :—Root. improves voice and complexion . NS. Root—bitter. COM. dysentery. vagina. Raktasara. ulcers. t-Oct. Fr. cylindric. :—Annual. CHAR. Java. H. Country. smooth. .5—7. paralysis. analgesic. LOC. PARTS USED. rheumatism. diuretic. :—E. Tamravalli. blood. Manjishha. pains in joints. antipyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. urine and even bones red. base cuneate. Chukra. leucoderma. Manjishtha. branches quadrangular . with a thin red bark. analgestic. HABITAT :—Higher ghats.. ear. used in eye-sores. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction.—in terminal panicled cymes. Manjishtha. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). greenish. M. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. roots very long. increase appetite. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. alexiteric. M. Amlavetasa.—in whorls of 4. Fl. Dock. high. Sk. spleen-enlargement. five-nerved. leaves and fruit. heating. and was much used in dropsy. Malay Peninsula. FAM. lethargy. Gulmketu. petioles triangular. Fr. Majit.—Polygonaceæ. the Konkan and S. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. COM. diseases of uterus. all scabrous with white prickles. it powerfully affects the nervous system. Bladder. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. ulcers and skin-diseases.—2. Leaves-sweet. oleaginous . Rohini. Manjit. liver complaints. inner perianth-segments membranous. leucoderma. elliptic. erect glabrous herb.—Rubiaceæ. Fl.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . tropical Africa. jaundice. obtuse. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Decoction tinges blood. CHAR. :—E. L. Sorrel. paralysis. Chuka. shining. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. purplish black when ripe.—didymous or globose. ovate. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. urinary discharges. Ceylon. antidysenteric. lactagogue. branched from the root. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. LOC. Sk. cordate or hastate. grooved. eye. Indian Madder. cures " Kapha ". uterine pains (Yunani). Japan. FAM. acrid. Aruna. jaundice. Chitralata. leucorrhoea. K. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. Ambat Chuka. Fl. erysipelas. orbicular . :—Perennial climbing herb. bitter. emmenagogue. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. stems very long. piles. lower leaves larger. valves hyaline. 15-30 cm.

ciliate. Cooling. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. :—A herb .—suborbicular. Pismarum Sadab.—capsule.—Rutaceæ. Vishapaha. Fl. USES :—Leaves are cooling. then erect. upper emarginate. M. Khatselio . they are prescribed. Africa. See—Vegetables. S. NS. . HABITAT :—Common everywhere. aperient and diuretic. LOC. flatulence. stems usually decumbent. acute . 2-lipped. Common—Garden-rue . bronchitis. FAM. H.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. K. tonic. useful in heart troubles. t. PROPERTIES AND LOC. laxative. with darker spots. pains. Fr. Country. generally in the Deccan. Satap. The juice allays tooth-pain. The seeds have the same properties . blue or pink. Afghanistan. diseases of the spleen.-Jany. :—G. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Trans-Indus Hills. COM. in dysentery. Konkan.—Acanthaceæ. while fresh they are bruised. N. dyspepsia. roasted. NS. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. toothache. alcoholism. Kharmor. useful in scabies. stomachic. :—Common throughout the State. Sk. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. CHAR.—Nov. vomiting. COM. DISTR. Sadabu. Ghati pittapapada . :—Western Punjab.— subsessile. L. C. constipation. LOC. Sk. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. oblong lanceolate. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). Sadapaha. Havananju. pale brown. G. :—E. H. Kanara. Satri. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. FAM. checks nausea and promotes appetite. Persia. with scarious faces and hard ridges.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. also considered as a vermifuge. Sd. analgesic. M. Parpatha. Nagadali. often rooting near the base. bites and stings of poisonous animals. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Ceylon. Fl. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. piles. bracts elliptic. acute. LOC. rugose with furrow. hiccup. tumours.—white. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Satapa . M. lower shortly 3-lobed. leucoderma. Deccan. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. asthma. ovoid oblong.

Ganna. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. Poona. :—Egypt and Algeria. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. heating to body . Tanigarbu . C. glandulose punctate. all over the State. decompound. Us . :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. The oil is the best form for administration. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). Sugarcane. forest and mountain. S. oleaginous. :—A strong smelling herb .. amenorrhœa. Sk.—petals 4. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. emmenagogue. Rikhu. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. aphrodisiac. HABIT :—Cultivated. petioled. grown in gardens.—capsule. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. useful in fatigue. colic. Sherdi.-alternate. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. M. Gudakastha. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. it may be given internally in hysteria. H. diuretic.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. Naisakar. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. anti-aphrodisiac . abortifacient. cultivated throughout India. DISTR. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. yellowish. Ukh . thirst. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. cooling. The plant contains glucoside glutin. in pots. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. M. flatulence. . epilepsy. Powdered and combined with aromatics. garden.—Gramineæ. Sd. LOC. Kumad. Fl. LOC. leprosy. obtuse . oblong-obovate. particularly Deccan. FAM. Madhuyashti. COM. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. Gudatrina. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Kabbu. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. :—Grown everywhere in India. digestive. flawed. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Satara. K. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. LOC. heats body. etc. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. See—Ornamental Plants. Fr. The plant is tonic. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. L. indigestible. and externally used as a rubefacient. Ikshu.—angled. S. diuretic. laxative. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. spathulate or linear-oblong . Rasala. NS :—E. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Ingotu. increases mental activity. segments cuneate. G. There are three varieties .

—very thin. bile. near the coasts of Gujarat . Kharijal. deeply cleft. H. NS. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Abyssinia. causes " Kapha. Asia. PARTS USED :—Bark. lessen inflammation . HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. FAM. Tooth-brush tree. Brihat madhu pilu.—Nov. LOC. erysipelas. anthelmintic. Leaves—bitter. Pilu. globose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. useful in biliousness. Khakan Mirjoli. scabies. Sk. Pilu. red when ripe. smooth. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Sugar causes " Kapha". useful in biliousness. lobes much reflexed. carminative and diuretic. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Mahaphala. often planted near Muslim tombs.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. In cases of poisoning by copper. COM. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. . inflammations. often mucronate at the apex. :—Dry districts of the State. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Pilu. stomachic . M. shining. opposite. improves appetite. analgesic. piles. ulcers. Piludi. See—Food Plants. It is good in calculous complaints. astringent to bowels. corrective. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). diuretic. tonic to liver. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. G.—drupe. laxative. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. Fl. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. LOC. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. tonic and aperient. Egypt. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Kanara in littoral forests. useful in heat.. diam. In the Punjab. Fruits are deobstruent.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. anæmia. DISTR. L. fleshy. numerous. delirium. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. carminative. Fl. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. improve diuresis (Yunani). Jal. 3 mm. useful in nosetroubles. :—E. branches numerous. Fruit—aphrodisiac.-Feb. oil is digestible. Pilu. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. Seeds—purgative. C. :—Drier parts of India. bad for liver (Yunani). leaves. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . t. alexiteric. aphrodisiac . finely striate.". fattening. white. leucoderma. Sind. the Konkan and N. disorders and wind. greenish-yellow. drooping. dry regions of W. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. Cane—sweet. good for lungs . sometimes it raises blisters. Ceylon. K. LOC. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. Fr. purifies blood . sugar is considered heavy. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. diuretic. deobstruent. Goni. pectoral and aphrodisiac.—Salvadoraceæ. fruits seeds and oil. strengthen teeth.

alexiteric. useful in chronic dysentery. abortifacient. astringent to bowels . Kumblabijaka. K. DISTR. Kanara. Malayaja. gonorrhœa. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Sukhad . ground. Country and N. . to temples in fever. Soap-Nut tree. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. G. :—E. alexipharmic. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. diarrhœa. Chandal. stomachic. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Ritha. head-ache (Yunani). to allay heat and pruritus. M. acts as diaphoretic. Ritha . :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Bhadrasara.—Santalaceæ. lumbago. strangury. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). useful in diseases of heart. LOC. Mysore and parts of Madras State. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. epileptic fits of children. Burugukayi. Sandal-wood Tree.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Ceylon. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. cold in head. chiefly in S. H. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Sk. bronchitis. Chandan. in skin-diseases. aphrodisiac. Ringni. alexiteric. Shrigandhalmara. :—Western Peninsula. LOC.—Sapindaceæ. Phenilu. tubercular glands. COM. Sandal. COM. Bhadrasri. Phenila. vaginal discharges. Rishta. Aritha. FAM. antipyretic. Root—expectorant. tonic. H. FAM. USES :—Wood. India. S. PARTS USED:—Wood. cholera. Suket. NS. gleet. Cultivated elsewhere. Chandan. often planted. cures "Tridosha". M. Arishtaka. fruit and seed. LOC. K. up with water into a paste. laxative. Antharalo. Anthuvala. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . is applied to local inflammations. Arithan . Agarugandha. Sk. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. Oil. :—Indian Peninsula. DISTR. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. M. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. biliousness. " Kapha ".. allays uterine pains. paralysis. small-pox (Ayurveda). Bhogivallabha. thirst. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Fruit—bitter. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. hemicrania. emetic. exhilarating. G. useful in inflammations. Oils. Chandan. :—E. Mangalya. Kugale. much cultivated. burning sensation.



LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.



PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.



FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.



FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

:—G. Sk. Waziristan. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. gouty joints. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes.—20-30. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. pendulous. They have been used to procure abortion. suppurating wounds. Jayantika. biliousness. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. Jayat. NS. oil. eye diseases . leaflets 914 pairs. slightly torulose. asthma. hair-tonic. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . K. cooling. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. useful in diarrhœa. L. Jinangi. spleen troubles. Janjhan. into claw. long. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). leaves. There are three varieties of seeds : black. scabies. astringent to bowels.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. applied to gouty joints. opposite. See—Oils. beaked. Baluchistan. They are nourishing. bleeding piles. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair.5-15 cm. bark. septate between the seeds. DISTR. lung diseases. seeds. inflammations. Fr. burning sensation.—standard as broad as long. and as an oildressing for ulcers. Fl. Nadeyi. applied to ulcers and piles. mottled with purple on the outside. yellow. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. HABITAT :—Cultivated. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. Jayanti. few flowered axillary racemes. They are also emmenagogue. diseases. COM. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). seeds. syphilitic ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary concretions. cure menorrhagia. diuretic and lactagogue. Jayanti. Black variety is common. LOC.. in height. CHAR. of eye and ear. probably a native of tropical Africa. C. small-pox. FAM. Jayanti. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. long. M. inflammations. an emollient poultice is also made from them. tonic. leaves. 7. aphrodisiac.—in lax. H. Seed-oil—fattening. strangury. oleaginous. white and red. :—Cultivated all over India. etc. galactagogue. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. Shewari. Raysingani. Seeds contain vitamin A. diuretic.— abruptly pinnate. cures . PARTS USED :—Root. strengthening. such as dysentery etc. enrich blood. anthelmintic. obscurely angled . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. 4-5 m. Rasin. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. Jaya. Sd. :—A soft-wooded shrub. indigestible . useful in sorethroat. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. linear-oblong. carminative. promote hair growth. removes "Kapha". useful in dry cough. 15-23 cm. alterative. inflammations (Yunani).—pod. branches striate. tonic.

SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. epilepsy. C. LOC. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Ornamental Plants. leprosy. cure quartan fever. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. cure itching. tumours . LOC. An infusion is given in small-pox. astringent. Hatiya . Agathio. ulcers. Fl. NS. flowers. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. stimulant. long. LOC. dysentery and paludism. Bark—astringent. Dirghashimbi. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions .5-8. K. rubbed into a paste with water. high. Leaves—indigestible. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Vegetables. Munidruma. fevers. The plant contains vitamin A. . alexiteric. bronchitis. maturant. Sk. Agusta. Leaves—purgative. useful in ozœna. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Seeds—emmenagogue. FAM. demulcent. useful In diseases of spleen. diabetes. leaflets 16-30 pairs. improve appetite . very showy. allays thirst.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 2-4 white or red. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. Agasta. gout . Kempagase. 15-30-cm. Fr. See—Fodder Plants. anaemia. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. gout. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. H. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. cures " Tridosh " pains. Bark— astringent.— pod. Agasti. Bak. 6-9 m. Vranari. relieves throat-troubles. :—A soft wooded tree . fruits. DISTR. "Kapha" and inflammation. t. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic.— flowers at various times. leaves.— pinnate. linear oblong.—in racemes . :—Cultivated in many parts of India. night-blindness. is applied in rheumatism. Kanali.8 cm. Indigenous from Malaya to N. long. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". anthelmintic. Agati. Fruit—laxative . Basna. :—G. long. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). anthelmintic. biliousness. improves taste. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. leucoderma.—7. Flowers—cooling. Agase. Australia. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). M. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). useful in ophthalmia. 50 cm. is applied in painful swellings. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. CHAR. L.

infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Chittuharatu. Country. Fr.Dec. M. Chikna.-Nov.—Malvaceæ.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. strongly reticulated. L. Chikna. :—E.. FAM. bark. :—Hotter parts of India. t. " Pitta ". Fl. H. digestive. K. Tukti. t. Barial. yellow. branches slender. LOC.3 cm. CHAR. Samanga. Kharanti. Kherati. LOC. pedicel jointed much above the middle. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. minutely hairy. Country Mallow. Rajbala. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. Deccan and S. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. PARTS USED :—Root. COM.—solitary or few together. awns 2. :—Konkan (common). Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Kareta. Fl. " Kapha " . NS. softly hairy all over. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub .—1-2 in each axil. astringent. Kisangi.5-6. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. CHAR. useful in fever. Sd. Pata. Hettutti-gida. scabrid-hairy. Jayanti. carpels 5-9. Vatyapushpi. black. DISTR. H.—Nov. leaves and seeds. diam. M. L. removes " Vata ". ovate-oblong.. Bala. useful in blood and throat diseases.—6-8 mm. Root—cooling. cooling.-Oct. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. FAM. lanceolate. with ginger. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. C. long. G. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. sharply serrate. NS. long. Khareti. HABITAT :—Moist places . decoction. Sk. Baladana. DISTR. glabrous. a weed.. upper margins ciliate. cordate.5-5 cm.—smooth. Bala. obtuse. diam. dorsal margins toothed. awns 2. puberulous.—Malvaceæ. bleeding piles. linear. diuretic. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms.— yellow. Prahasa. stomachic and tonic. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Pata. COM. M.—5-6 mm. K. Kumghi. is given . Country. LOC. Gujarat and S. linear . M. pedicel jointed about the middle. LOC. Bariara. strongly reticulated . base rounded.—2. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. dorsal scabrid. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. Batyalaka. carpels 7-10. :—Konkan. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). Sk. crenate. Fr. Bala. emollient. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. :—A shrub.—2. aphrodisiac . Fl.

triangular-ovate. Pilibadkadi. juice is used for healing wounds.—Nov. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. NS. all running down wing-like into petiole. 0. LOC. Fl. Fl. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. stem stiff.—yellow. It is also used to favour menstruation. 5 outer clavate. t. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. . rhomboides Roxb. also in colic and tenesmus. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea.2 m. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. facial paralysis.—opposite. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. tinged with purple. deeply and irregularly toothed. black. Fl. 5 inner boat-shaped. Country. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased.-Dec. :—Throughout India. CHAR. L. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. FAM. S. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. administered in hemiplegia. noise in ears. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. involucral bracts 2 rows. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Katampu. and head-ache. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Compositæ. cystitis. common. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. high. COM. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. those of the ray red beneath.6—1. :—A large annual herb. slightly rough.—heads small in leafy panicles . stiff-neck. M. DISTR. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. diaphoretic. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. Ceylon. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Fr. :—G. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. Externally. pappus 0. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. erect. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Bala—Sida cordifolia. :—Deccan.—achene. Linn. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. M.

very. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". NS. LOC. LOC. M. fever. lobed. or triangular-ovate. Vange.. Fl. Ceylon. t. covered with stellate hairs.— berry. C. NS. Ranringni. digestive. bad for piles if taken internally. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Baingan. high. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub.—Solanaceæ. Bhanta. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. improves appetite. H. G. vomiting.5—7. prickles large. China. pruritus ani. Mhotiringni. analgesic. Kattarta.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes.3—1. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. prickly. Philippines. COM. FAM. stem stout. :—E. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. M. Badanikai. Bhantaki. 0. Vantak. " Vata".196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. clothed outside with purple hairs . :—Widely cultivated in India. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. sharp. aphrodisiac. Kadusonde. Barhanta. DISTR. fruit and seeds. ovate. asthma.-Oct. Mahotika.-Aug. enriches blood. removes foulness of the mouth. :—E. COM..—Solanaceæ. DISTR. Vengni. anthelmintic. rarely wild. bronchitis. Habba-Kirigulla. useful in leucoderma. cardiotonic. astringent to bowels. FAM. Nilaphala.—5—15 X 2. G. LOC. Vadikadheri. Egg Plant. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). eye diseases (Ayurveda). dark-yellow when ripe.5 cm. base unequal-sided. K. petiole prickly. Fr. :—Throughout tropical India. 8 mm. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Brinjal. leaves (rarely) and fruits. HABITAT :—Cultivated. maturant. H. Rigana. globose.—minutely pitted: Fl. Vrittaphala. lessens inflammations. Dorli. Hinguli. It is seldom used alone. L. Sd. subentire. Root is applied to lessen pain. laxative. . The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. Fruit—cardiotonic. causes biliousness. pain. Bhantaki. Sk. diam. " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. Sk. K. Brihati. recurved. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Vayase. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. beneficial in cardiac troubles .—pale-purple.5 m. Vartaki. Malpya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. loss of appetite. Indian Nightshade.. Ubhi-bhuringni. PARTS USED :—Root. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. leaves. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Hinguli.

Ceylon. diarrhœa. stem erect. :—E.—Solanaceæ. Seeds—laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. tapering into petioles. bronchitis. griping. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. leucoderma. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Tiktika. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. and used with success in psoriasis. . C. vomiting. liver inflammation. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. tonic. aphrodisiac. cathartic and diuretic. ovatelanceolate. in pains. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). useful in giddiness. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. Hound's Berry.— berry. :—A variable annual herb . worms in ear. Piludi. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous.—Sept. hiccup. Vayasi. :—Throughout India. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. Morellel. K. NS. gonorrhœa (Yunani). yellow. bronchitis. eye-diseases hydrophobia. heating. CHAR. Kakamunchi. The seeds are used as a stimulant. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). useful in heart and eye-diseases. Fruit contains vitamins A. good for neck ulcers. G. FAM. laxative. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. bark. diuretic. Kakamachi. piles. urinary discharges. alterative. L. Kakamachi. LOC. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. Fl. diam. fever. entire or sinuate toothed. Black Night-shade. asthma. throat burning. improves appetite. " Tridosha". LOC. taste.—discoid. Makoi. See—Vegetables. Kabaiya. In S. 3-8 flowered cymes . USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. bitter. PARTS USED :—Root. subumbellate. dysentery.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . smooth. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. M. COM. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. chronic fever.-Jany. inflammation. t. It acts as a hydrogogue. leaves and fruit. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. Fl. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. much divaricately-branched . DISTR. Fr. improves voice . useful in diseases of eye. Sk. Kamoni. Gurkamai.. H. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. dysuria and asthma. Root-bark—laxative . USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. fever. Sd. in extra-axillary. itch. B and C. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic.—small. minutely pitted . 6 mm. inflammation. not to be given to pregnant women. Katuphala.—many. shining. ear and nose . but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation.

surrounded by enlarged calyx . muscular pains. Sk. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. Sundia . good in inflammation.-5-10 X 2. leaves. they are used in the burning of feet. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Ceylon. "Vata" and " Kapha". HABITAT :—Cultivated. pains. Dirghashara. aphrodisiac. often exceeding 1. C.7 cm. Malaya. Leaves—good application for piles. lumbago. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout India. dysuria. Vrittatandula. E. Fl. 3-2 cm. S. heating. K. Seeds—anthelmintic. NS. :—A very prickly diffuse. yellow or white with green veins. Kateli. LOC. Kantakari. Nele-Rama-gulla . Great Indian millet. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. ozoena. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Jondhala. Jowar. H. catarrhal fever and chest pain. fruits and seeds. stone in bladder.3 cm. COM. DISTR. Bhoyaringni. CHAR.. M. Fl. petiole prickly.—Solanaceæ. Bijapur and E. straight. Dhavani.— June. Yengara . LOC. Basu).198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. heart disease. expectorant and febrifuge. Root—aphrodisiac. flowers.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes .—purple. K. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). pruritus . M. asthma. Shalu. Africa. Sind.—Gramineæ. Kenjal. sinuate or subpinnatifid. urinary concretions. NS. Sorgho. Nidigdhika. appetiser. fevers. Jonera. H. Nirgol.5-5. chronic bronchitis. FAM. sterility in women. :—Common in the Deccan . Yuvanala. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. & Wendl. FAM. Bhui-Kate-ringni. prickles compressed. It is used in asthma. LOC. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Fruit—laxative. stems. stomachic.. anthelmintic . asthma. lobes deltoid. Brihati. hairy on both sides. :—G. tropical Australia. :—E. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. D. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . hairy outside. ovate or elliptic. Khandesh claim about three-quarters .—berry. Ikshupatraka. biliousness. Sholapur. COM. Jundri. Durrah. t. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Kantakini. laxative. fever. L. diam. long. stem zig-zag. bright green perennial herb . Konkan. strangury. Katai. Chikka-sonde. yellow and shining. Jowari. Jolah. thirst. G. Fr. Sk. piles. useful in bronchitis. Ringni. base unequal-sided.

LOC.—Meliaceæ. Agniruha. :—Bark-acrid. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Juss. Gorakmundi. Gorakhamundi. DISTR. Gorakhmundi. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Bodiakalara. Ahmedabad. stem and branches cylindric. Rawtarohan. PROPERTIES AND USES.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Bijapur and E. Pravrajita. aphrodisiac. LOC. FAM. :—Seeds. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. CHAR. leprosy and dysentery . :—Dry forests of W. Munditika. :— E. Rohani. ulcers. M. Rohun. FAM: —Compositæ. Sumbi. general debility. hairy. good for sore-throat. improves appetite and taste. Poona. ulcers. :—Widely cultivated in India. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . Some. NS. M. fevers. high. L. K. laxative. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. useful in " Kapha". with toothed wings. Aruna. indigestible. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Sk. anthelmintic. Rohini. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). :—The grain is cooling. Mahamundi. :—Bark. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Open situations. vaginal injections and enemas. Ruhin. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . DISTR. piles. Grains contain vitamin B.—sessile. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. K. COM. while Belgaum. introduced into America and Australia. Rohina. on dry stony hills. Tans. Gums and Resins. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. See—Food Plants. Karanda-gida. Indian Red-Wood. common in Gujarat. diseases of blood. . Dharwar. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. biliousness. Bastard Cedar. tumours (Ayurveda). Country. NS. Swami-mara. hence used in intermittent fevers. M. G. bladder and kidney complaints. H. Khandesh and S. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. constipating. refrigerant. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. Fibres. H. PARTS USED. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. See—Timbers. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). COM. Sk. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. :—G. cures " Tridosha ". Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. glandular. Kumbhala. tonic and antiperiodic . Vritta. Asia and Africa.

Plant is also used in glandular swellings. PARTS USED. FAM. indigestion. ovate-oblong. compressed . L. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Common in the Konkan. :—E. fattening. gleet. long. HABITAT. DISTR.. all warm countries. sometimes grown in gardens. used in insanity. Powdered root is given as tonic. t. irregularly crenateserrate. scalding of urine. Celyon. :—Deccan. Pellitary . :—Root. elephantiasis. :—Throughout India. strangury. Fr. :—Throughout India. jaundice. stem and branches hairy. Malay Islands. . :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. peduncles reaching 10 cm. digestible. urethral discharges and jaundice. cooling. cools brain. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . in cases of worms and indigestion. and tonic (Stewart) . spleen diseases. tonic. biliousness. leaves. increases appetite. anæmia. glaborous.—Nov-Jany. anthelmintic. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. good for eyesore. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. solitary or subpanicled. leaves and flower-heads. alterative.—Nov. COM. M. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. M. Fl. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. peduncles with toothed wings. alexipharmic. Pappuso. used also for local application. Fr. emmenagogue. :—Wild and cultivated. looseness of breasts. LOC. epileptic convulsions. stalked. CHAR. Fl. Sk. useful in skin diseases. Country and Kanara. They are chewed to relieve toothache. pain in uterus and vagina. Fl. :—Root. with honey they are given in cough. H. dysentery.—purple.—compound heads. the latter when present minute. They are given in powder form.—Compositæ. PARTS USED. laxative. biliousness. USES. NS. globose ovoid. depurative. enriches blood . HABITAT. Akara-karava. urinary discharges. tuberculous glands. leucoderma. laxative. piles. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. rectal pain. chest diseases. lessens inflammations . :—Hot. hemicrania (Ayurveda). scabies. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic.—in heads ovoid.—opposite. Australia. Fl. t.. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. boils. base usually acute. Akarakara . LOC. DISTR.— achene. serrate or dentate. ciliate near the ends . Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. :—Common in rice-fields. PROPERTIES AND LOC. C. flowers and seeds. truncate. LOC. bronchitis. asthma. Akkalkara . :—Annual herb. gives lustre to eyes . ring-worm of waist. oblong. vomiting.—Achene. Africa. bark. Ceylon. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. ovate. involucre bracts linear. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. glandular hairy. Tonic. S.

Indian Archipelago. Burma. refrigerant. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Kariguddada. ovoid. :—H. blood complaints . NS. Indian Hog-Plum. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. t. Ali-vallabha. high. . Sk. Pahad. :—Cultivated. :—A tree 9-10. PARTS USED. Hongkong. Avatekayi. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Gujarat. Kapichuta. Sk. Dr. S. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. C.5 cm. Toyadhivasini. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Pitana. Amate. Kamduti. Gum is demulcent. appetising.—Anacardiaceæ. COM.-usually 1. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Hulave. oblong. hard. Ran-amba . Padal. Fr. destroys " Vata ".—Bignoniaceæ. Sd. Parur. Patala. DISTR. :—Bark. yellow. NS. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. enriches blood . In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. pinkish green. Andamans. See—Gums and Resins. K. Konkan.8 cm. It has been found useful in dysentery.8-7. long. :—Leaves-tasty. Salt Range. M. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. Amra. biliousness.5-18 x 3. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. trunk straight. bark smooth. stone woody. Amrataka. Hude. CHAR. Ambodha. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. Padiala. tonic. Kumbhi. K. ovate oblong. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. 3. LOC. L. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. W.. HABITAT. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. long. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. astringent. Kanara. FAM. Bile Tree. Ceylon. :—E. H. M. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Wild Mango. widely planted. round with furrows and cavities. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).-Apl.—drupe. :—Often planted throughout the State. Patala. Fl. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. good for sore-throat.5 m. Padal.. ash-coloured . Kalavrinta. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Marahunise. Western Peninsula.. Giri Hadari.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. LOC. Tungi. Ambada. Fruit—indigestible.— petals 4-5. aphrodisiac.Feb. PROPERTIES AND USES. phthisis. burning sensation. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. branches nearly horizontal. cures rheumatism. ulcers. Fl. leaves and fruit. entire. M. Country. oblique. Pandri.

Vishamushti. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. diuretic. seeds. "Kapha". Travancore . PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). fruit. blood diseases.—Loganiaceæ. Circars. Visha-druma. tonic. bitter. :—In forests south of Bombay. piles. cures leucoderma. antipyretic. DISTR. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). heating. Kupaka. heating. emmenagogue . Hemushti. :—Monsoon-forests. flowers. H. Burma. loss of taste. Karnatak. Kuchala. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. LOC. lumbago. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. fevers. poisonous. itching. Kakatinduka. Kajavara. G. K. Travancore. Ceylon. Indo-China. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. DISTR. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. FAM. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Kelakutaka. Fruit—bitter. :—Wood (rarely). COM. fruit. diuretic. Ittangi. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. It is regarded as cooling. astringent to bowels. Kangira. pungent. :—Fruit-acrid. Flowers— acrid . "Vata". sub-Himalaya. NS. See—Timbers. anæmia. Sk. Kuchla. Nirmal. N. :—Root. Crow Fig. LOC. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. useful in bilious diarrhœa. piles . appetiser. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). vomiting. burning sensation.. jaundice. ring-worm. asthma. Planted in Ceylon. aphrodisiac. Laos. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. inflammation. thirst.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Poison Nut. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. PARTS USED. :—More or less throughout tropical India. cures pains in joints. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. leaves. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . :—E. :—Root-bitter. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . Kuchla. blood diseases. Karaskara. Kachita. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. ulcers. Kanara. Kajra. PARTS USED. tonic. eructations. tonic. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. Fruit—useful in hiccup. heating. LOC. west coast of Madras State. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Kajra. Kanara. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . M. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N.

Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. diaphoretic. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. astringent to bowels. See—Timbers. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Ceylon.—Loganiaceæ. good for liver. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. gonorrhœa. Seeds—bitter. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Nivali. tonic. NS. aphrodisiac. Madhya Bharat. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. LOC. Ambuprasadini. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. PARTS USED.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. lithotriptic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nelmal. COM. alexipharmic. diuretic. Kanara and Khandesh. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. cures inflammations. urinary discharges. FAM. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. . jaundice. head-diseases (Ayurveda). causes biliousness. M. Aduguchali-bija. :—Root cures leucoderma. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. anæmia. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. :—Western Peninsula. emetic. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. :—E. kidney complaints. cure strangury. Sk. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Chittu bija. Fruit useful in eye diseases. also in Konkan. HABITAT.. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. poisoning. (Rasendrasarasangraha). :—Root (rarely). See—Timbers. :—Deciduous dry forests. DISTR. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. Seeds—acrid. Nirmali. Burma. fruit and seeds. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. hallucinations. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Country. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Shodhanatmaka. Clearing Nut Tree. alexiteric. thirst. H. :—Sand-stone hills of S. improve eye-sight. K. Kataka. relieve colic (Yunani). increases "Vata". The demand for strychnine is increasing. LOC.

Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . DISTR. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. :— E. alexiteric. :—The whole plant is bitter. diseases of blood. FAM. Lodh. Deccan. E. 5-nerved . COM.. dysentery. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Loder. Lodh is used in raw condition. M. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. leprosy. Balaloddujinamara. NS. DISTR. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe .—Gentianaceæ. broadly ovate.9 m. Californian Cinchona. LOC. stem densely leafy. :—Western Ghats . good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). COM. vaginal discharges. Shavaraka. t. acrid. Sk.— lobes 4-5. throughout N.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo.3-0. :—Hilly parts. useful in abortions . :—M. :—Bark-acrid. NS. colloturine and loturiaine. S. PROPERTIES AND USES. C. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling.— sessile. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. . Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. HABITAT. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. PARTS USED. LOC. C. China Nora. CHAR. white with blue veins.-Jany. Bhilli. bleeding gums . SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Country. ovoid or oblong. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. Chota Nagpur. Dyes. Torna fort. :—W. winged . Fl.—many. K. See—Timbers. astringent to bowels. Lodhraka. Lodh . quadrangular. in powder or in fresh decoction. Deccan . L.—Symplocaceæ. :—Bark. useful in eye-diseases. Fr. cooling. high. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. PARTS USED. Lodh Tree. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)".— Oct. Bark—bitter. Sd. LOC. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. eye-diseases and ulcers . :—Root. Peninsula.. etc. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). digestible. emmenagogue. Tillaka. H. C. Fl. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. :—An erect herb. :—India (W. decussate. PROPERTIES AND USES. Broughton).—capsule. 4-winged.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . Peninsula). FAM. flowers (rarely). M. Burma. 0. Lodhra . cures cough. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. inflammations. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. aphrodisiac. Mahabaleshwar. :—Konkan and N. 2-valved. Kadu. Bose). Tiritaka. Lodhra. biliousness.

Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. carminative . Shukapriya. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. digestive. increases "Vata". bronchitis.) FAM. Fruit—acrid. :—Throughout the State. both wild and cultivated. dysentery. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. enriches blood. Shukapriya. dry. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Nenda. H. LOC. common at Mahabaleshwar. ulcers. Jambul. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. NS. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Jambu. strengthens gums and teeth. Jam. K. Sk. common along river banks. Gulabjaman. cooling. :-Black-Java Plum. :—Throughout India. Jambura. Nerate. blood impurities. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Jambu-Nayinerale. DISTR. sprouts. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. NS. Gulab-Jamb. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Pannerali. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). See—Timbers. LOC. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. thirst.—Myrtaceæ. PARTS USED. Kokileshta. Malay—Rose apple. very often planted. M. Surabhipriya.—Myrtaceæ. Jambu. fruits and seeds. carminative and diuretic. Jambu. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jambula. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. astringent to bowels. Neralu. :—E. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. also used in spongy and painful gums. COM. Jambul. removes bad smell from mouth. Fruit Trees. sweet. good for sore-throat. Australia. Malaya. Sk. anthelmintic. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. K. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. astringent to bowels. Seeds—diuretic. Jamburaj. .) FAM. also wild. M. G. useful in spleen diseases. good gargle for sore-throat. LOC. Ceylon. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. asthma. Jambu. Pharenda. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. fruit vinegar is tonic. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. H. Nilphala. Jamen. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. gargles and washes . :—Bark-acrid. astringent. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. :—Bark. Jambudi. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. etc.

. Fr. H. weakness of limbs. divaricate. digestible. :—E. Tagara. See—Timbers. Chandani. glossy green above. wood and oil. The plant contains an alkaloid. pale beneath. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. bronchitis. Nandi. G. E. bitter. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. emmenagogue. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. Khasia Hills. strangury. heavy speech. cures epilepsy. used in asthma. with milky juice . blood-diseases (Ayurveda). with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. lessens pains in limbs and joints .5-15 X 2. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. fruit and seeds. Root—bitter .— opposite. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes.5-5 cm. Tagar. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. :—Root. used in syphilis (Yunani). NS. HABITAT. Garhwal. 1-3 ribbed. Kottuhale. Fruit—sweet and tasty. LOC. Ananta. Root chewed relieves toothache . PARTS USED. acrid. astringent to bowels. Br. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. fragrant at night. fatigue. margins wavy.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Burma. PARTS USED. Bengal. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. :—Bark. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Fl. used in liver complaints. dysentery. removes bad humours. LOC. salver-shaped. cultivated in many parts. Fl. double. Taggar. Trinidad . across. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. . thirst. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub.—snow-white. Yunnan to Australia. LOC. 7. L. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. :—Sikkim Terai. heating. lobes 5 in single. useful in "Kapha.—Apocynaceæ. Seeds are astringent to bowels. :—Bark is sweet. inodorous during the day. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. Assam. CHAR. Tagar ." biliousness. improves voice. t.—rainy season. orange within. tonic to brain. :—Root is acrid. Sk. K. tonic. alexipharmic. indigestible. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda).—follicles. Maddarasa gida . :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.. useful in paralysis. purgative. and an essential oil. Cultivated in many places. astringent to bowels.5-5 cm. COM. Wax flower. tonic to brain. Ashvathabheda. liver and spleen . :—Cultivated in gardens. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES.) FAM. hot. Hills of Visakhapatanam. C—lobes overlapping to the left. indigestible.

:—E. NS. useful in scabies.5 cm. COM. wood. L.4-4. grown in gardens all over India. M. M. Gultora. Halmeti.. NS. Chinchika. Fl. kidney troubles. :—Native of Mexico.— Mar-Apl. DISTR. :—Malabar.—follicle. Fl. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. COM. Amli. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. Amlika. divaricata. Genda. good for teeth . astringent.—Apocynaceæ. Teter. Chinch. PARTS USED. Tintidika. Leaves—good for piles. Fr.—surrounded by red pulp. Zendu. :—Flower-pungent. yellow when ripe. Kanara. their juice is given in ear-ache. :—Rain-forests. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. H. French Marigold. Travancore up to 7.—opposite. PARTS USED. Maddarssa.— tube inflated near the top.000 m.5-20 X 3. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). See—Ornamental Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. common in rain-forests.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). rough. FAM. coriaceous. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Kalaga. Makhamala. Tamarind. Nuli. lessens inflammation . K. :—Same as T.. 2.5 cm. LOC. Sk. somewhat boat-shaped. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. :—E. acrid. Sd. FAM. :—Leaves and flowers. : K. Amala. CHAR. LOC. :—Cultivated. carminative. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. C. Pandarakuda. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Makhamal. t. high. Makhamali. bark grey. . TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. 7. Flower—bitter.2-7. G. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR.. muscular pains. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). HABITAT. across in pedunculate cymes . LOC. Nagaskuda. :—Root. Sthulapushpa.—white. Chinch. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. oil.5 m. HABITAT. Amlike. Imli. stomachic. Sandu. Guljharo. M. Tintrani. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Amli. Amla. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. H.—Compositæ. G. FAM. NS. belching. Nagakuda. HABITAT.. Zanduga. internally they are said to purify blood. throughout the Konkan and N. oblong lanceolate . bitter.

LOC. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. fruit and seeds. :—E. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Mahapatra. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. anthelmintic.. Bark—astringent. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. NS. tumours. Teka. digestive. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. H. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. thirst. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). earache. and laxative. Anil. Kanara. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Tega. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". heals wounds and fractures. leaves. Sagwan. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Sagach. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. carminative. Sag. Madhya Bharat. Tegu. Condiments and Spices. tonic. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. eye-diseases. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. :—Bark. such as body-burning. Burma. boiled they are used as a poultice. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. bark. Seeds are good astringent. COM. small-pox. wood. indigestible. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Fruit—sour. flowers. Flowers— appetising . stomatitis. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Sagun. urinary discharges. Circars. K. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat.. vomiting. abundant all along the slopes of W. :—Throughout India.—Verbenaceæ. Sagwan. M. DISTR. causes cough. sore-throat. Arna. Fruit-sour. Sk. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Kanara. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. and for sizing materials.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. . :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. biliousness. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tropics generally. Seeds astringent. aphrodisiac. flowers and seeds. costiveness. useful in liver-complaints. laxative. heals ulcers. tonic to heart. DISTR. PARTS USED. Teak. astringent to bowels. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. G. See—Timbers. Sumatra and Java. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. intoxication &c. Cultivated also. sweetish. heating. laxative. Malay Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. tasty. scabies. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. FAM. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Sag.

Sharapunkha. Wood good for head ache.—pod 3—4.2 cm. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). FAM.8 X 0. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. DISTR. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). increase "Vata". biliousness. Unhali. cures diseases of liver. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings .—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. sedative to gravid uterus.—petals clawed. Udhadi. Gujarat. Flowers—acrid.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. Sd. useful in scabies. Empali. M. Country. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. long. :—Plant-digestible.8—1. leaflets 11—21.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. COM. HABITAT:—Open situations. t. ground and made into a pill. Sarpankho. useful in lung and chest diseases. enriches Blood . PARTS USED. high. asthma. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. it acts also as a vermifuge. useful in piles. burning pain over the region of liver. :—All over India. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Leaves—tonic to intestines . Sarphonka. Kogge. along forest borders. anthelmintic. poisoning. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. spleen diseases. spleen. suborbicular. silkyhairy beneath. S. Fl. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . Wood—acrid. :—The whole plant. blood.—5-6 . pubescent on the back. linear. Sarphoka. asthma. Fl. "Root—diuretic. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. alexiteric. biliousness. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. allays thirst. improve appetite. Kalika. liver. L. branches spreading. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. fresh root-bark.. alterative. C. Ghodakan. :—A perennial herb. LOC. heart. . gonorrhœa (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. mucronate. 30—60 cm. LOC. expectorant. cultivated lands and roadsides. :-G. Deccan. M. CHAR. leprosy. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. root. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. Malay Peninsula. useful in bronchitis. H. oblanceolate. dry. glabrous above. good in piles.—Oct. tumours. Bark is an astringent.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). cures diarrhœa . antipyretic.5 cm. red. Sk. long. anthelmintic. Phanike. K. Fr. LOC. mucronate. syphilis. useful in bronchitis.. 2—2. laxative. cooling. Konkan. standard.-June. Plihari. bitter. slightly curved. Jhila. See—Timbers. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. ulcers. boils and pimples. urinary discharges. allays thirst. NS. leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. inflammations. Sharapunkha.

anthelmintic. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache.—Combretaceæ. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Kahu. Madras State. LOC. Rajastan and Sind. biliousness. See—Timbers. styptic. Madhya-Bharat. digestible. :—Alexiteric. Tari. Chota-Nagpur. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Koha. very common in South Konkan. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Ceylon. Bedda Nut.. false presentation of fœtus. strangury. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. biliousness. useful in bronchitis. aphrodisiac. externally in wounds and fractures. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Bibhitiki. COM. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. :—E. Aksha. Bahara. PROPERTIES AND USES. Expectorant. Madhya-Pradesh. Karvirak. White Marudah. Sadado. G. Sadura. Sk. Dhanvi. laxative. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. acrid. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. :—Throughout the forests of India. LOC. PARTS USED. Kalidrum. Kakubha. Arjuna. excessive perspiration. Arjun-Sadada. Hela. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Bera. urinary discharges. Indradruma. tonic. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Karshaphala. H. . diuretic. in Khandesh Akrani. Behada. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. PARTS USED. LOC. Vibhata. tumours. :—Bark. Bahaza.. NS. heart disease. Sagona. Kushika. PROPERTIES AND USES. & A. leucoderma. " Kapha". blood-diseases. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. COM. M. G. intoxication. with milk. Tara. except in dry arid regions. Buhura.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Voting. Beheduk. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb.. asthma. inflammation. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Baire. fruit (rarely). M. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Arjuna. fruit and seed. DISTR. Arjun Sadada. strangury. anæmia. DISTR. ulcers. FAM.—Combretaceæ. Bastard Myrobalan. Arjan. Behedo. leaves. useful in biliousness. :—E. K. Vibhitika. Fruit-pungent. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Belleric Myrobalan. K. Sk. useful in fractures. :—Bark. :—Konkan and Deccan. Burma. tonic. in the sub-Himalayan tract. Arjuna. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). FAM. H. sore-throat. NS. Shantimara. anthelmintic . in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis.

nose. useful in caries of teeth. Burma. :—Fruit-dry.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. —E. DISTR. tonic. Kanara. LOC. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. useful in thirst. PARTS USED. useful in dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. brain tonic (Yunani). decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. bleeding and ulceration of gums. useful in asthma. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". NS. heart and bladder. Harade. strengthens brain. enriches blood. mixed with honey.—Combretaceæ. ascites. biliousness. Seed—acrid. aperient. antidysenteric. Ceylon. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. dyspepsia. Alate. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. in Travancore. Abhaya. used in paralysis (Yunani). Hirda. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. urinary discharges. Gums and Resins. Har. good in ophthalmia. M. heart and bladder. LOC. vesicular calculi. diseases of eye. expectorant. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. tumours. corneal ulcers. applied to eyes. gout. elephantiasis. USES. Kernel has narcotic properties. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. vomiting. antipyretic. diseases of spleen. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. heating. leucoderma. diarrhœa. which is considered a good digestive. the fully ripe or dried fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. intoxicating. bilious headache. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. eyes. Sk. Jivantika. piles. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. Ripe fruit—purgative. G. gums. Haritaki. piles. cold in head. tonic. Fruit-astringent. H. Hirdo . Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. Dyes. inflammations. diseases of eye. Haritaki. eye diseases etc. COM. Haria. Black myrobalan. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. strangury. FAM. piles and diarrhœa. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. anaemia. bleeding piles. itching pain. LOC. carminative. hoarseness. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. hiccup. delirium (Ayurveda). sore-throat. :—Bark and fruit. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. Harara. attenuant. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. stomachic. tonic. Chebulic myrobalan. See—Timbers. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. K. carminative. thirst. alterative . Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. constipation. common in Khandesh Akrani. is used as an application in ophthalmia. typhoid fever. Jivanti. vomiting.

Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). See—Timbers. Sacred Plants. Bengal. H. produces worms in intestines . :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. flowers and fruit. Fibres. Phalisha. Bhend. LOC. Suparshuakan. leaves. Bugari. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . PARTS USED. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Kandarala. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Bhindi. Sk. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Mhaskar and Issac). largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. :—Bark. Parisha..—Malvaceæ. It is also used in chronic dysentery. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". K. Arasi.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Tans. COM. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Paras-piper. also planted as roadside tree. Portia Tree. G. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. DISTR. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Kuberaksha. . Paraspipal. Hucerasi. Parasipu. especially centipedes. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. Paraspiplo. Kanara. :—E. aphrodisiac . See—Timbers. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Bhandi. Gajadanta. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. profuse discharge. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ranbhendi. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. Jogiyarale. Dyes. LOC. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. M. :—Fruit-sour. burning of body . acrid . increases " Kapha " . Eastern and Western Peninsula. :—Coast forests of India. difficult to digest. Tulip Tree. Burma. Gandarati. NS. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). FAM.

bark corky. 5 cm. .. C. 5—10 cm. Sk. LOC. Vatsadani. L. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . Zard kunel. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. :—Bark.-spirally arranged. See—Ornamental Plants.—Apl. M. Gulancha. linear. Gulvel. root. Exile or yellow Oleander. wounds. HABIT :—In thickets. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. 1—3. Sd.—Apocynaceæ. :—Stem. CHAR. bright green and shining above. endocarp corky. Gulvel. H. worms.—drupes. Shatakumbha. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. lobes 5. NS. elliptic. PARTS USED. G. cures " Vata " . Andamans and Ceylon. but its use is attended with considerable danger. DISTR. :—E. DISTR. and blood vessels .5 cm. yellow. M. fevers. exocarp fleshy. COM. yellow. Gado. seeds and milky juice. America and W. Sk. grooved . growing on mango and other trees. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. Pila kaner. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). leucoderma. Gurch. with milky juice. 7. Fl.—in axillary and terminal racemes. FAM. Jwaranashini.—Menispermaceæ. throat campanulate. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. bronchitis . Fl.—membranous. tubular. Pittaghni. :—Often planted. pungent. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. NS. mesocarp bony. Ashvaghna. Gulhel. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. size of a pea .—generally 4. across.. eye-troubles. piles. Pivali kanher. t. :—Throughout tropical India. HABITAT. skin diseases. useful in urethral discharges. :—Native of S. dorsally convex. Haripriya. Karvira. FAM. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. LOC. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. hot. females solitary. Gulo. Indies . Uganiballi. red. very poisonous (Ayurveda). :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. K. Amarvel. frequently planted. ventrally flat. Amritvalli. it has no action on digestive enzymes .. L. often planted in India.5—12. bladder. COM. H. 7—9 nerved. acrid. crowded . The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. Heart-leaved moonseed. Amrita-Valli. Fl. :—An extensive climber. Fr. astringent to bowels.—broadly obovate. Fr. Pila kanir. Burma. corona in the throat. G. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge.—in terminal cymes. male fascicled. LOC. CHAR. long. PARTS USED. virgin uterus.

K. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. diarrhœa. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. white. vaginal and urethral discharges. anæmia. Lopezroot Tree. Stem-bitter. renews blood. enriches blood.8. good in cough. Kadu-menasu.-Jany. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. 5-10 X 1. (Kirtikar). Manger. tonic. vomiting. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. Konkan and Kanara. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. useful in skin diseases. 15 m. 5-7 lobed. L.—Aug. pitted on the rind. leaves. Macimullu.—Rutaceæ. chronic fever. Fl. size of a large pea. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. female flower buds oblong. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. Mirchi. stigma sessile. Sumatra.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. USES. :—All over the Madras State . digitately trifoliate. :—Rain-forests. causes constipation. male flower bud globose. Root-bark is aromatic. China. Dahan. unisexual. Kumaon to Bhutan. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. t. bark. Gangalaki.—globose.. :—Stem-bitter. Ceylon. intermittent fever and dyspepsia.—Dehan. Forest Pepper. Sk. antipyretic. also in the Deccan hills. DISTR. H. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. high. :—E.—in axillary cymes. . Limri. Kaduhakukare. LOC. piles. stimulant and anti-periodic. common in S. FAM.8-3. expectorant. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND LOC. CHAR. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. oblong.— alternate. allays thirst. FT. LOC. juice useful in diabetes. stomachic. stomachic . Khasia Hills. cures jaundice. Jangali-Mirchi. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. M. stimulates bile secretion. Philippines. fever. tonic appetiser. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. HABITAT. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. diuretic. armed with small hooked prickles . jaundice. tropical Africa. burning sensation. dark shining green above. 3-5 grooved. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). crenulate. vomiting. leaflets sessile. fruits. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. NS. Java. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. ovary rudimentary. PARTS USED. COM. :—Root. Root and stem are bitter. Fl. coriaceous. giddiness. especially acid. orange coloured.

headache. indigestible. removes " Kapha ". Shingoda. Malaya. digestible. COM.—Onagraceæ. NS. Chittagong. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. astringent to bowels. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). tonic. cures leprosy. astringent to bowels. :—E. Shringa-kanda-taka. Nand-vriksha. :—Bark and flowers. causes " Vata " . aphrodisiac. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. M. LOC. Lud. M. Mandurike. :—Fruit. LOC. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. :—Aquatic (in tanks). itching. Toon. Garige. often cultivated. Trikone-phala. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. Singodi. HABIT. of India). Tundu. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. useful in . Sk. :—E. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. Lim. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. tropical Africa. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. :—Throughout India. Gandhagarige. Chota-Nagpur. Mahalimbu. biliousness. Singhara. fatigue.) FAM. Kuruk. PARTS USED. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Water-chestnut. Kalingi. Bark—bitter. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Burma. Gums and Resins. DISTR. burning sensation. leprosy. Waitz). cures fevers. Sk. K. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Indian Mahogany.—Meliaceæ. :—Bark-acrid. See—Timbers. cardio-tonic. antipyretic . Tun. Apina. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. :—Throughout the State in tanks. urinary discharges. expectorant. removes " Tridosha". Assam. cooling. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. H. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. PARTS USED. LOC. fattening. astringent to bowels. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dyes. Shingada. COM. inflammation. Kaechaka. G. anthelmintic. Sandal Neem. burning sensation. H. Jalakantaka-valli.. "Tridosha". NS. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Deodari. useful in ulcers. Tuni. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Kuberaka. biliousness. Trikota. aphrodisiac. blood diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Kanara. FAM. strangury. good for scabies and gleet. :—Cooling . Tunika.

stems and branches pilose.—globose. lumbago. bile and phlegm. in Kashmir. DISTR. Deccan and S. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. t. H.:—Saurashtra. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. Chhota gokhru. useful in chronic fevers. Ceylon. Gujarat. sore-throat. Shadanga. Sd. Gokhura. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. Kurangaha.—throughout the year. LOC. LOC. appetiser. :—A procumbent herb. Sumatra. See—Food Plants. NS. Sk. hairy. Gamhar. Sk.—several in each coccus . pain. :—H. :—E. Hussuk. K. See—Timbers. solitary. one pair longer than the other . Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. LOC. Karahate. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. each with 2 pairs of hard. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. :—Throughout India. oblong. along nalas and in swampy localities. bronchitis. biliousness. yellow. Trikantaka. Gokhru. antipyretic. Pindara. abruptly pinnate. COM. LOC.. FAM. Country. sharp spines. considered cool and sweet. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections.—opposite. Seeds abound in starch. NS. COM. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. M. M. leaflets 3—6 pairs . In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. FAM. Gokshura. bad-teeth (Yunani). :—Plant is cooling tonic. CHAR. Negalu . DISTR. Gokshri. Fl. Ceylon. used as food. Malay Peninsula. one of each pair smaller than the other. Tumri. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Fibres.—Euphorbiaceæ.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). improves taste . They are also used in the form of poultice. of 5 woody cocci. Kere Padye. Sarata.. mucronate. PROPERTIES AND USES. upto 3300 m. Pindara. Kadu Kange Kumbala.—Zygophyllaceæ. :—The whole plant. L. Gokharu. PARTS USED. Kanara. The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Assam. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Calthrope. a common weed of the drier parts. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . :—Throughout the Konkan and N. base oblique. M. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). Kantaphala.. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. Petari . all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Aphrodisiac. young parts silky. . K. Gokhru. alexiteric. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. thirst. Java. G. Fr.

bloody urine. pappus shorter than the achenes. Physiaran. cough. L. :—Cooling . diuretic. useful in strangury. inflammations. piles. purifies blood .— Dec. West Rajastan. which is taken in large quantities. Country. lumbago . used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). pruritus ani. seeds. Kanara. Brahma-dandi. USES :—Fruits are cooling. Mt.—heads 6—8 mm. M. —achene. Diuretic. tonic. :—The whole plant. . gleet. Kantapatraphala. oblong. aphrodisiac. S. "Vata". K. Aja-dandi. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . tonic . USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). vesicular calculi. NS. urinary discharges. :—Western Peninsula. Mota-Motachor. alleviating burning sensation. Brahmadandi. ciliate. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC.— purple. reduces inflammation .—sessile. spinous toothed or serrate. DISTR. LOC. COM. M. cures skin and heart diseases.—Compositæ. Konkan. urinary disorders and impotence. appetiser. Central India. Kanara. branches angled and ribbed. Talakanto. HABITAT. H. cures "Kapha". Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. copious. faintly ribbed. the Deccan. enriches blood . Abu. bitter. Brahmadandi. emmenagogue (Yunani). Brahmadandi. :—Root. : — G. :—Hot. :—Wild in places. PARTS USED. alterative . The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). yellowish brown. ovoid. leprosy . FAM. Sk. Fl. Fl. cures strangury. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. long. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. :—A glabrous herb. stem erect. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). LOC. suppression of urine. S. gonorrhœa. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. S. Fr. Brahmadandi. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. fattening. diuretic. CHAR. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. linear-oblong or lanceolate. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). reduces inflammation. fruits. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. C. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. increases menstrual flow. t. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . asthma. leaves. slender. tonic. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. improves appetite . pain . stomachic. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. removes " Tridosha ".

NS. lobes ovate-oblong. pungent. useful for boils and intestinal worms. Avagude-hannu. burning sensation. Fruit—hot. Wild Snake-gourd. paler beneath. :—Root. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. woody below. Fr. the Deccan. base cordate . long. Panduka.. DISTR. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. Jangali chichonda. long.—Cucurbitaceæ. reniform or broadly ovate. base deeply cordate. L. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. Kaundal. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cures bronchitis. M. CHAR.5 cm. — surrounded with red-pulp . long as well as broad. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. deeply 5-lobed. Sd.5 cm. Mahakala. Katuka. laxative. :—E. NS. L. erysipelas. scarlet when ripe.-male in axillary . leucoderma. variable. antipyretic.-5-12. headache and boils..5—7. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Makal. Malay Peninsula. LOC. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. it is given in decoction with ginger. PARTS USED. stem robust. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jangli— Kadu padval. allays thirst. tendrils 3-fid. cures itching.—July-Oct. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. leaf-juice is emetic. white.. dentate or serrate. H. chireta and honey. tendrils 3 cleft. slender. alterative. FAM . eye diseases. Sk.—2. Mukal. fruit. orbicular. M. Kiripodla. K. ovoid-fusiform. distantly denticulate. alexiteric. H.3-12. stems 3. CHAR. COM.3 cm. Betlada padaval. asthma. palmately 3-5 lobed. Perula. Lal-indrayan. blood diseases. oil. Jyotsna. bitter. :—Root-cathartic . :—A scandent annual. FAM.—monœcious. N. leaves. anasarca and ascites. :—Throughout India. dark-green above. HABITAT:-In hedges.6—4.5 m. females solitary. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. slightly hairy. with a long sharp beak. K. Sk. Kadvi-padyal or patola . Australia. COM. antipyretic. Fl. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. G. Malaya. furrowed. ulcers. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.-6. Ratan-indrayan. Fl. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Patola. LOC. —G. stomachic.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Leaves—good for biliousness. Ceylon. t. Indrayan. Root-juice is very purgative. In Bombay. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. Fl. male in axillary racemes.—Cucurbitaceæ. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). green with white stripes when raw. axillary. long.

used in epilepsy. :—M. stem and branches hairy. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. Fl. 30-60 cm. high. on the Himalayas. LOC..— Apl. inner slightly longer than outer. HABITAT. leprosy. black. :—Wild in hilly parts. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. fringed. middle lobe smallest. peduncles very long. ligules yellow. Ceylon. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani).75-1 in. Japan. gargle good for toothache. Ray flowers ligulate. China. Ekdandi. FAM. diam. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. Malaya. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. which is found abundantly all over the country. CHAR. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. . ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda).—1. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens.—many . L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes.75 X . glandular. outer involucral bracts ovate. Fl.—throughout the year. acute. purgative. Australia. Country. DISTR. slender. sparsely white hairy.5 cm. bruises and wounds. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. Sd. :—Abundant in the Deccan. :—Throughout India. Fl. abortifacient. N. :—Fruit is useful in asthma.—globose 3-8. LOC. axillary. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . Fr. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. many years ago. COM. :— Wild in Konkan. Kirkee. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. white. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. Fr.— achene. limbweakness. all over the State. 3-partite. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. rheumatism. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. NS. PARTS USED. DISTR. LOC. bracts large.. hairy. :—A perennial straggling herb. ophthalmia. M.—head solitary..—Compositæ. female solitary. PROPERTIES AND USES.. :—Root and fruit. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. ovate-elliptic. cures hemicrania. lessens inflammations . PARTS USED. :—Leaves. petioles densely hairy. Juice of fruit or root-bark. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. densely silky hairy. t. Deccan and S. very hairy.-July. Fruit—carminative. heat of brain. PROPERTIES AND USES.—petals wedge-shaped. t. boiled with gingelly oil. C.

Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. COM. Country. LOC. Antamul. Methi. Pitabija Vedhini. 7. M. :—Leaves and seeds.-Nov. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. piles. Janglipikvan. also in low and sandy localities. Jyoti. K. antipyretic. PARTS USED. :—H. enlargement of spleen and liver. much used in colic. Konkan. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. See—Vegetables.— broadly ovate. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. L. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Fl. Fl. Kanara. tonic. aperient. :—A twining perennial. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Muthi. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. large for the genus. corona gibbous below. astringent to bowels. LOC.—Asclepiadaceæ. dropsy. ovate or elliptic oblong. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). :—Cultivated. cures leprosy. Methi . Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Methi. HABITAT. .—opposite. dysentery. and the seeds contain vitamin A. anthelmintic. Methi. fleshy. NS. removes bad taste from mouth. M. emmenagogue. useful in dropsy. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. FAM.—follicles. PROPERTIES AND USES. C. flatulence. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. t. suppurative. Hot and dry. Menthe—palle. appetiser. greenish-yellow outside.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. FN. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic.5—10 cm. Sk. CHAR. COM. base cordate. :—Punjab. LOC. roots many. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. K. "Vata". 5-10 x 2. Nepala . H. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A.5-5. tonic and carminative. long. tapering to a fine point at the apex. they are also aphrodisiac. Chandrika.—Aug.—in umbellate cymes . Kashmir. DISTR. long. diarrhœa. with coma . bronchitis. S. :—Hot. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. purplish within..—deeply lobed. Pitakari (Pitamari). enlargement of spleen and liver. diuretic. vomiting. FAM. narrowed at the apex to a free point. Fenugreek . chronic cough. cultivated in many parts of India.7 cm. Sd. :—South of Bombay. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. :—E. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. M. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. Methini.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS.. G.

:—A perennial shrub. CHAR. Indian Squill.9-1. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR.. stalks long. FAM.. white.8 m. Fl. Bihar. FAM. :—Throughout the plains of India. scape erect 30-45 cm. PARTS USED. folded on one another. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. Panjala. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. Pitvan. PARTS USED. Ceylon.. :—Sandy places. URARIA PICTA Desv. Malay Islands. :—Konkan. Fr. CHAR.— flattened. COM. joints 3-6. :—Wild.—capsule. HABITAT.—purple.—Aug.-Sept. long. :—Bulb. high.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Roots and leaves. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. :—A herb. 5-7 (rarely 9). stems downy with hooked hairs. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. :—Western Himalayas. L. Ceylon.— Liliaceæ. diaphoretic and expectorant.. H. G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tapering to both ends . drooping. :—E. Sk. pale lead-colored. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. USES. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine.— petals lanceolate. 0. LOC. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). C. 15-45 x 1. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. flat. :—Common on sandy shores. linear-oblong. KolaPutakand. tropical Africa. Philippines. blotched with white above.. HABITAT.5 cm.—appearing after the flowers. USES. :—Throughout India. Malay Islands. 20-30 cm. found useful in dysentery. ellipsoid. W. LOC. Sk. black. Pithavan. M. H.—in racemes 15-30 cm. 10-20 cm. Pitavan . t. Peninsula. Ranganja . Vanapalandu.3-2. Fr. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Borneo. linear.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. :—G. hairy beneath. long. Dried leaves are emetic. Sd. long. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Dabra.. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Fl. . Thailand (Siam). tropical Africa. Chota-Nagpur. Jangli-Ran-khanda. NS. C. glabrous. Fl. Jaglipiaz. perianth campanulate.— pod. NS. L. polished. Burma. COM. Prishna-parni.— imparipinnate. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. light-brown . Rankanda. Shankaraja .

Bandanike.. scilla of Great Britain. Gaz. scandent by simple or branching roots . (In Med. inflammations. lessens inflammations . diseases of nose. stem 30-60 cm. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Rasna. Rasna. tremors (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. Persara. Travancore.. useful in paralysis. acute. maritima of U. obtusely keeled. Fr. lip bluish dotted with purple. erect. useful in dyspepsia. asthma. rheumatic pains. and was found useful (Koman). diuretic. Atiras. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. and U. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. alexiteric. heals fractures (Yunani). rheumatism. anthelmintic. 15-20 X 1.5—9 cm. long. LOC. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders.—Orchidaceæ. :—The bulb is pungent. tonic to brain and liver. cardiac. bronchitis. heating. The bulb is stomachic. :—Root is bitter. praemorse.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. stout. Banda. skin diseases. Gujarat and Kanara. CHAR. long. Nakula. complicate. :—An epiphyte. LOC. Vanda. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. FAM. lumbago. diseases of the abdomen. dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. L. tip. alexiteric. Ceylon. 2-lobed. internal pains (Yunani). :—Konkan. recurved. indica is in no way inferior to the official U.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914.—thickly coriaceous. Fl. bronchitis. LOC. DISTR.—capsule.. long. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. USES :—Expectorant. S. Peninsula. M. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. renal calculi. The plant contains an alkaloid. t. hiccup. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. laxative. :—Root and leaves. HABIT. Rasna. Madhya-Pradesh. boils in the scalp. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. emmenagogue. purgative. H. Bihar. pollinia ellipsoid. 1931. good for piles.— July. COM. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). stimulant and diuretic. :—G. anthelmintic. Vriksharuha. Br. heating.3-2 cm.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. antipyretic. . A. alexiteric. :—Epiphyte. and an acute interposed one. Chota-Nagpur. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. W. toothache. Sk. NS. Sarpagandha. column very short. bronchitis. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. Root is bitter. Rasno. K. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. :—Bengal. Fl.

NS. urinary discharges.—5-10 X 2. hemicrania. PARTS USED. young branches and panicles pubescent. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . deciduous and monsoon-forests. itch (Ayurveda). G. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. :—Madras State.—petals 5. cures cough. whitish). Kubbila. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. anæmia. :—E. globular. alexipharmic. diarrhœa. :—North Kanara. in chronic bronchitis. Khandvel. with an offensive odour. Gums and Resins.-Jany. yellowish. NS. Bilidhupa. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. resin. tonic and stimulant.. Dhupa. C. Mysore. M. :—Western India. H. Fr. Dhupa. See—Timbers. M. Raktavalli. also planted. Madidhupa. USES. LOC. amenorrhœa. Sk. Ragatarshado. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. FAM. Tenasserim. Poppli. Haruge. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative.-nut about 5 mm. Shandike. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. :—Bark. tuberculous glands. ulcers and wounds. :—Bark. diam.—in large drooping terminal panicles. entire or crenate. :—Bark-hot. dysentery. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. PARTS USED. abundant in S. DISTR.—Rhamnaceæ. Safed-damar. Sekalyel. Kundura. detergent. greenish. good for sore-throat.8 cm. Kanara and S. dark. t. Lokhandi. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. useful in atonic dyspepsia... alexipharmic. (T. Pitti. also in N. COM. Country. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stomachic. rheumatism. Malamaitra. Sk.—Dec. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. Fl. eardiseases. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. tonic. buds 5-angled. boils and ringworm. K.5-3. LOC. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). Oils. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Sandras. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. piles. Coorg in Ghats. useful in leprosy. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. fruit. COM. bechic. :—E. LOC. FAM. K. acrid. Shala. debility and slight cases of fever. Sarjaka. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). DISTR. Travancore. Ceylon. M. :—A large much branched woody climber. expectorant. skin eruptions. L. CHAR. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Kanara. Red Creeper. prolonged into a linear-oblong. . carminative. Kaharub. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. 1-nerved wing.

Sk. warted. M. :—Plant. :—Seeds-acrid. rachis glandular pubescent. Kadvojiri. on long petioles. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. FAM. Vishamushti. The juice mixed with mustard oil. yellow. L.-achene oblong cylindric. PARTS USED. truncate. Purple Fleabane. CHAR. and leaves. CHAR. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. used in skin-diseases. Ceylon. leafy herb . Seeds— anthelmintic. Vapehi. Agnibija. H. high. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. "Vata" and "Kapha". :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S.. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. squeezed out by pounding.Feb. Kulhala. HABITAT:-Waste places.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. K. in equal proportions. PARTS USED.—Scrophulariaceæ. lyrate. M. NS. hairy. Somaraj.—capsule. 10-ribbed.5—3. H. t. China. lobes 5. M. t— Jany. :—Throughout India .-radical 5-10 x 2-3.. Fl.—heads subcorymbose. lanceolate. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). robust. high .—Compositæ. Kalhara.2 cm. pappus reddish. all coarsely dentate. NS. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. LOC. :—Throughout India. Kalijiri. Fr. DISTR. Kulara. :—An annual herb. Deccan . Kalejire.-May.) FAM. hairy. with purple tips . stems 60—90 cm. involucre bracts linear. ofter cultivated. Gujarat. :—Annual. hairy on both sides. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. branched near the top. rounded.. Kutki. PROPERTIES AND USES.—oblong. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. Fl. Java . Bhutakeshi. Bakchi. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Dec. Afghanistan. cure ulcers. COM. 5—9 x 2. sub-globose. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. about 40-flowered. LOC. Country. DISTR. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe.-rotate. astringent to bowels. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. coarsely serrate. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. compound or pinnatisect. :—Konkan . Ceylon . anthelmintic. COM.. :—E. Fr. stem 0.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. LOC. . :—G. Vanajiraka. often cultivated. innermost the longest. K. L. Fl. erect. Sd. Kalizhiri.8 cm. hairy.6-0. G. Gadar-tambaku. Sk. Fl. Somaraj. Sundika.9 m. The juice of the whole plant.—alternate. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. C.

USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. stomachic. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. . The expressed juice is given in piles. Australia. awned. Osari. pubescent.—Gramineæ. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. flowers. astringent. tropical Asia.—simple. Fr. Sind. Sk. Lavancha. cures "Tridosha". oblong. Sahadevi. silky on the back. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. :—Throughout India. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Sahadevi. They are also used as tonic. LOC. USES :—Root is given for dropsy.—Compositæ. Ash-coloured Fleabane . about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. alternate. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. G. Cuscus grass. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra).-Feb. Vecrnam. Sadori. G. H.. Ardhaprasadana. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. consumption. M. Khas. :—Annual. FAM. high. NS. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle.—achene. Sedardi. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. seeds. Koosa. stem stiff. :—E. kidney troubles. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. bronchitis .— pinkish violet. erect herb. The plant with quinine. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. FAM. :—Plant. LOC. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Ushira. bruised seeds ground up in paste. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. clothed with white hairs . cold. Vala. Fl. K. COM. applied in inflammatory swellings . The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. pappus white. made into a bolus with lime-juice. LOC. Valo . was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). striate. tonic. Bena. Dandotpala. Fl. are used in destroying pediculi. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). CHAR. COM. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. Sahadevi. K. Sadodi. used for asthma. hiccup . asthma. good for sores and itching of eyes. :—A common weed throughout the State. In Ceylon. M. Africa . Panni. Sk. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. heads small. plant is used in fever convulsions. Bala. remove blood from liver. L. Kuruvelu.—Jan. a depilatory (Yunani). VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. DISTR. Devika. with lime-juice. Mudivala. t. NS. stomachic and diuretic. 15—75 cm. :—E.

NS. :—Root. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. H. Sind. anthelmintic. Nigod. Nirgundi. The roots contain an essential oil. LOC. tonic and vermifuge.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Lakki. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. K. diuretic. FAM. Nirgud. :—Common in Gujarat and N. :—Throughout India. bitter. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. foul breath. bilious fevers. West-Indies and Brazil. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. Konkan and Deccan. useful in burning sensation. :—Roots. Sinduvara. cephalic. Nirgari. :—Cooling. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. Sambhalu. Sessile spikelets. throughout the Malayan regions. biliousness. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. also cultivated. lower ones keeled and fan-like. promotes hair-growth. DISTR. useful in spermatorrhoea. M. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. stimulant and tonic. rachis stout. inflammations and irritability of stomach.. long. Afghanistan. LOC. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). febrifuge. alexiteric.—panicle up to 30 cm. Nilpushpi. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. astringent. expectorant and diuretic. erect. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. refrigerant. thirst. Nirgundi. stomachic. Ceylon. Sk. margin spinously rough. PARTS USED. LOC. PARTS USED. :—Throughout the State. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. strangury.—Verbenaceæ. Bilenekki.. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. Nukki. COM. L. The otto is used as a tonic. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. high. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. bronchitis. soporific. stomachic. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. heating. Culms stout. asthma. Philippine Islands. Kanara in damp places. blood diseases (Yunani). spleen enlargement. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling.-leaf sheaths compressed. consumption. up to over 1. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. leaves. useful in eye diseases. slender. Nirgundi. bitter. colour varying from yellowish to black. Cooling to brain. sweats. Leaves are aromatic. leucoderma. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . long. bitter. pale green. head-ache.8 m. Fl. racemes up to 5 cm. USES :—Root is tonic. inflammations. :—G. usually sheathed all along. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Indrani. astringent.

fever. Gujarat and S. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Darakh. :—Deccan. stones in bladder. M. fruits. cooling. stops bleeding from mouth. Madhurasa. blood diseases. Angura. liver and kidney. Yakshmaghni. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Angur.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. The plant contains an alkaloid. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. emmenagogue. Fruit is nervine. sweet. Draksha. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. purifies and enriches blood . fattening .. Seeds—aphrodisiac. K. astringent to bowels. skin should not be eaten. laxative. useful in old fevers. good in chronic bronchitis . Draksha. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. burning. Draksha. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. and given in coughs. :—E. produces constipation. aperient. Sap of young branches. cures thirst. The fruits contain vitamin A. appetiser. hoarseness and consumption. difficult to digest. M. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. Flowers—expectorant. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. cough. strangury. produces alopecia. See—Timbers. allays vomiting. good for lungs. stomachic. Guchaphala. good for eyes and throat. cooling . LOC. fever. G. heat of body. :—A native of western Asia. asthma. NS. testicle swellings and piles. catarrh and jaundice. PARTS USED :—Stem. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. allays vomiting. Grape-vine. . FAM-—Vitaceæ. piles. aphrodisiac. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. tonic to liver. :—Cultivated. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). expectorant. spleen inflammation. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. diuretic. leaves. DISTR. causes gases in the stomach. HABITAT. cooling useful in thirst. bad effects of drinking. sparingly in Poona. seeds. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. LOC. jaundice. laxative. Country. emmenagogue. Khandesh. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. flowers. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". diarrhœa. COM. a remedy for skin diseases. Sk. Ahmednagar. syphilis. H. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. PROPERTIES AND USES. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. diuretic . India. W. Drakh . and traces of vitamins B and C. fattening. Fruit— digestive. There are numerous cultivated varieties. applied in scabies. :—Fruit-acrid. Draksha. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa.

Wakeri. See—Fruit Trees.5 cm. :—Root and bark. C. insomnia.. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). Ashvagandha. bronchitis.—yellow. rachis grooved with soft hairs. leucoderma. minutely hairy. inserted on the top of.—5-10 X 2. H.5-5 cm.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. heating. :—In the drier regions of India . HABITAT. Gujarat. favours constipation (Yunani). diam. Canaries. Asgund. constricted between them. chest troubles etc. Punir. inflammations. Vajini. Winter-cherry. high. "Kapha".—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Hirimaddina-gadde. CHAR. Hooliganji. oblong. leaflets 5-7 pairs. CHAR. Fr. Asgundh. :—A branched erect undershrub. lumbago. 23-30 cm. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. scabies. :—A robust woody climber. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme .—3-4.—Solanaceæ. Asan. coriaceous. long. oblong. :—Deccan. :—K. Sd. entire. L. smooth.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. M. Kamrupini. :—The roots are given in pneumonia .—greenish or lurid yellow. t. pretty common in the ghats. spathulate. green berries. Amangura. psoriasis. good in asthma. pinnae 4-6 pairs. base dentate. Wagati. marasmus of children. Fr. obovate. PARTS USED :—Root. consumption. anthritis. :—Tubers-bitter. acrid. leaves. hoary tomentose . aphrosidiac.-Feb.-Jany. hard. :—Konkan jungles.. linear oblong. Gandhpatri. Sd. Wagati. LOC. (not common. somewhat scurfy. Deccan. Tuber—bitter. anthelmintic. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. Fl. ovate. M.—berry. branches armed with recurved prickles . dark-orange.—pod. Kanara. FAM. Kanchuki. asthma.. COM. USES. ulcers. G. . senile debility. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. tonic. abundant in Sind .— Sept. DISTR. FAM. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests.) DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. dark-green.—petals 5. 0. emmenagogue . 6 mm.5-12. enclosed in inflated calyx. K.3-1. NS. L. red. :—Drier regions. Sk. main rachis armed with prickles. aphrodisiac. Mediterranean regions. Fl. tonic. Drakshasava—used as tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. calyx-tube. seeds. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. t. NS.—2-pinnate. useful in "Vata". Sogada-beru. 7. inflammations. :—E. alterative. Balada. Cape of Good Hope. Fl. slightly 5-angled. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula.5 m. swollen above the seeds. LOC. Ceylon. alexipharmic. bony Fl. PARTS USED. Asoda. COM. Ghodasoda. branches terete. long. long. armed with prickles .

menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Fl. emaciation of children. NS. :—G. alterative. Dhaw. Khirni. Kuda. Santha. See—Tans. Are. Hayamaraka. useful in leucorrhoea. :—Monsoon-forests. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. common in the Konkan and N. COM. dysentery. PARTS USED. Fl. scarlet.3-2. t. Kanara near the sea-coast. branches long. 1 cm. Dec. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Indrajav. Japan. China.5 cm. Dhawai. PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. toxic. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. NS. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. leprosy.—numerous. leaf-infusion is given in fever. HABITAT.— numerous. diuretic and deobstruent. COM. 5-9X 1. brown. ulcers and painful swellings . blood diseases.—Apocynaceæ. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Fr. irregularly dehiscent. Dhavani. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Madhuindrayava. :—Root is regarded as tonic. lumbar pains. Dhateki. :—Pungent. Hale. Dhaiti.. Indrajav. Phulsatti. Kodamurki. LOC. used in thirst. tropical Africa. velvety above. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption.) FAM. Kalikari. Br.—Lythraceæ. Baluchistan. Sumatra. Java. It is narcotic. Swetakutaj. Dyes. :—Throughout India. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. on trap in the Akrani. Indrajav. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. DISTR. . ovate-lanceolate.-May. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . acrid. alexiteric. long. Dhawadina. Madhavasini. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. haemorrhoids. Madagascar. :—Bark and flowers. Ornamental Plants. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). K. erysipelas. The plant contains an alkaloid. L. anthelmintic . wedge-shaped. Dhavani. Bela. and in derangement of liver . M. Tamrapushpi. simple. Sk. LOC. :—G. H. Hallunova.—mostly opposite. cooling. Sd. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Ceylon. uterine sedative.—capsule. H. Kalakuda. smooth. Sk. in 2-15 flowered cymes. K. nigro-punctate beneath. Dudhi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . USES. M. debility from old age. Vanhishikha. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. rheumatism.

fattening. complexion. fertile heads few. PARTS USED. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular .-E.. See—Timbers. West-Peninsula. Gadrian. Sarpakshi. NS. Khandesh at 1050 m. Fl.5 cm. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. tonic. the bark is specially useful in piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. Timor. M. :—Bark and seeds. Bur-Weed. G.—Compositæ. Itara. rough with short hairs . :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Dutundi. . PROPERTIES AND USES. cures leucoderma. LOC. Fl. Dumundi. hard and tough. voice. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. in W. Sk. long. alexiteric. :— Throughout India. :—Rajastan. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. with 2 erect beaks. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. improves appetite. Aristha. digestive. tonic. LOC. Ceylon.. :—The whole plant. 3-lobed. oblong ovoid. CHAR. long and broad. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. all over the State. axillary. Shankhahuli. stout. Sankeshwar. Madhya Pradesh. involucre of fertile head. :—Annual herb .—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. laxative.. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. t. antipyretic.1-6. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests .230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. compressed . COM. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. antidysenterica (Yunani). biliousness.Feb. PARTS USED. Kambu-Vanamalini. LOC. L. FAM. USES :—Root is bitter. anthelmintic. irregularly incisoserrate . skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). stem short. at the top. epilepsy. especially root and fruit. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. useful in cancer and strumous diseases.—Jany. 1-3 cm. DISTR.—many. DISTR. Clot-Cockle-bur. 5-7. fever. memory. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. Banokra. H. hairy on both sides.achene. LOC. salivation. barren heads many. In S. :—Cooling. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. Fr. poisonous bites of insects. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. ovoid in fruit. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs.

Hasisunthi. G. carminative. laxative. carminative. Indian Cherry. vomiting. See—Condiments and Spices. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. K. removes pain due to cold. Alen. tongue and increases appetite. Koli. Bore. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. alexiteric. FAM. H. flatulence. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Beri. eructations. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. :—Rhizome-pungent. Ber. dyspepsia. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Ber. inflammations. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. Badari. asthma. . pains. Bor. HABITAT. Ipanji. Shringavera. Sk. :—Cultivated. good in piles. "Kapha". FAM. Ginger. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. G. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . appetiser. Dridhabija. NS. aphrodisiac. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. stomachic. :—E. M. Alla Adrak. on poor soil and in rocky places. it is also given in the form of infusion. gives lustre to eye. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. LOC. Anupama. Adrate. Plum. Kandara. It is stimulant. anthelmintic. lumbago. Bogari. Alen. pains (Yunani). ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. :—E. M. Ajapriya. Boyedi. Egasi. K.. Bordi. Bor.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. expectorant. piles. :—Rhizome.—Scitaminaceæ. useful in heart and throat diseases.—Rhamnaceæ. loss of appetite and piles. PARTS USED. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. colic. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. COM. Chinese Date. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. Ada. vomiting. Ardraka. Sk. head-ache. useful in elephantiasis. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). it cleans throat. rheumatism. bronchitis. stomachic. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). Rhizome—pungent. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. tonic. aphrodisiac. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. DISTR. H. COM. Gulmmula. to prevent nausea and griping. Kuvali. NS. and dry situations. "Vata".

abundant in the Deccan. cure asthma. DISTR. reduce obesity. China. Africa. Ceylon. See—Timbers. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. tonic. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. head-ache. Afghanistan. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). laxative. causes cough. thirst. Burma. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Root. bark. aphrodisiac.. Root and Bark tonic. useful in fevers. leaves. Seed—astringent. Australia. removes biliousness. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. . fruit. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. frequently planted as a fruit tree.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Kanara. burning sensation. PARTS USED. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. seeds. tonic to heart and brain . indigestible. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. good in consumption and blood-diseases. Leaves—anthelmintic. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. vomiting. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. on the laterite near the coast in N. wounds and ulcers. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . biliousness. :—Root-bitter. Leaves form a plaster to boils. Fruit Trees. cooling. Fruit— cooling. allays thirst (Yunani). good in liver complaints. Leaves antipyretic. Fruits contains vitamin A. Bark—causes boils . heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . causes diarrhœa in large doses . Fruit—sweet and sour. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles.

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