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The Nervous System

The Nervous System

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A

absolute refractory period, 23
acetylcholine, 51–53, 95, 135
acetylcholinesterase, 87
actin, 81, 95
action potential, 22–25, 68
addiction, 121–123
A-delta fibers, 78
adenohypophysis, 129
adrenal medulla, 29, 49, 132, 134
adrenocorticotropic-releasing hor-
mone (ACTH), 135, 136
African sleeping sickness, 148
agonists, overview of, 56–57
Albert and the White Rat, 124
alcohol, 17, 33, 43–44, 109, 121–
122, 169
alpha motor neurons, 93–94, 95,
96, 97
alpha rhythms, 142–143
ALS. See Amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 74, 107,
136, 148, 165–166
amino acids, 17, 51, 54–55, 56
amnesia, 103, 106–109, 165
amygdala, 40, 73, 74, 78, 111–112,
115, 116–119
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(ALS), 157
analgesia, 56
anencephaly, 32
aneurysm, 106, 162
antagonists, overview of, 56–57
anterograde amnesia, 107, 109
anticholinergic drugs, 87
antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 127
antioxidants, 170
apraxias, 157
arachnoid membrane, 47, 76
ARAS. See Ascending reticular
activating system

arousal, wakefulness and, 139–140
ascending reticular activating sys-
tem (ARAS), 139
association areas, 88
associative learning, 100
astrocytes, 17, 18, 135
ataxia, 156
autoimmune diseases, 136, 153
autonomic nervous system, 48, 81,
126, 133, 135
autoreactive T lymphocytes, 136
axon hillock, 22
axons, 13, 14–16

B

balance, 44, 70–71, 92
basal cells, 73
basal ganglia, 40–41, 53–54, 88,
109–110, 154–156
basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC),
138
basilar membrane, 68
beta rhythms, 142–143
blood-brain barrier, 17
body senses, 74–78, 92
body weight, 131–132
botulinum toxin, 95
bovine spongiform encephalopa-
thy (BSE), 168–169
brain, 29–30, 37–44, 78
brainstem, 42–43
Broca’s area, 69
BSE. See Bovine spongiform
encephalopathy
butterfly-shaped area, 46–47, 49,
94

C

C fibers, 78
calcarine fissure, 64
calcium channels, 94–95
cannaboid receptors, 121
capsule, 75–76

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215

Index

carbohydrates, 131, 132
cardiac muscle, 81
cataplexy, 149
caudate nucleus, 41, 88, 110, 120,
154
cell theory, 11
central nervous system, 29, 35–37.
See also Brain; Spinal cord
cerebellum, 19, 43–44, 89–93,
109–110, 156–157
cerebral aqueduct, 19, 41, 118
cerebral cortex, 31, 39, 51, 54,
82–84
cerebrospinal fluid, 19, 47
cerebrum, 19, 39–41
channels, 20–22
charge, 21–22
chloride ions, 21–22
cholinergic receptors, 87, 111
chorda tympani, 72
chromosomes, 32, 63
cilia, 68, 70
cingulate gyrus, 78
cingulate motor area, 83–84
circadian pacemaker, 138
circadian rhythms, 132–133,
145–147
CJD. See Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
classical conditioning, 100
Clostridium spp., 95
cocaine, 33, 121
cochlea, 66, 67–68, 70
cognitive rehabilitation therapy, 113
color blindness, 63
conditioned emotional response,
116–118, 124
conditioning, 100
conductive deafness, 69–70
cones, 62–63
connective tissue, 75
corpus callosum, 40
corticobulbar tract, 85
corticospinal tract (CST), 85, 92
corticotropin-releasing hormone
(CRH), 129, 133, 135, 136
cortisol, 135, 137, 142, 148
cranial nerves, 42–43, 49, 74, 85,
93

craniosacral system, 49–50
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD),
168
cribriform plate, 73–74
crus cerebri, 85
CST. See Corticospinal tract
cytokines, 135–137

D

deafness, 69–70
dementias, 110, 156, 165–170
dendrites, 13, 14
dentate gyrus, 54
dentate nucleus, 92
depolarization, 51, 94–95
descending pathways, 84–88
development, 26–34
diencephalon, 19, 42
diffuse axonal injury (DAI), 164
disorders

of cerebellum, 156–157
dementias, 110, 156, 165–170
epilepsy, 157–160
motor neuron disease, 157
of neuromuscular system,
152–156
prevention and, 170–171
sleep-related, 148–150
spinal cord injuries, 160–161
stroke, 66, 109, 113, 161–163,
166
traumatic brain injury and,
163–165
dogs, Pavlov and, 100
dominance, hemispheric, 47
dopamine, 53–54, 120–122, 129,
135, 154
dorsal horn synapse, 94
dorsal root ganglion, 44–45
Down syndrome, 32, 165
dura mater, 47, 76
dynorphins, 56
dysmetria, 156

E

eardrum, 66
ears, 66–70

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

216

ectoderm, 26, 29
electroencephalograms (EEG),
141, 142
emotions, 74, 78, 92, 115–120,
122–123
encephalopathies, 168–169
end plate potential, 94–95
endocrine system, 126–127
endogenous opioids, 56
endorphins, 56
enkephalins, 56
enteric nervous system (ENS),
48, 50
entorhinal cortex, 105, 107
epilepsy, 32, 107, 157–160
epinephrine, 53, 111, 134, 135
EPSP. See Excitatory postsynaptic
potential
equilibrium, 70–71
Eriksson, Peter S., 31
euphoria, 56
excitatory postsynaptic potential
(EPSP), 112
exon terminals, 16
extensors, 82
eyes, 60–66, 81

F

facial nerve, 72
fast pain, 78
fastigial nucleus, 90–92
fear, 112, 118, 124
feedback, learning and, 100
fenestrations, 17
Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrich-
ment program, 113
fight or flight response, 48,
134–135
flexors, 82
flocculonodular lobe, 90, 92
focal epilepsy, 158–160
folic acid, 32
food poisoning, 95
foramen magnum, 44
forebrain, overview of, 41
Forel, August, 12
fornix, 105, 107
fovea, 63–64, 66

Fragile X syndrome, 32
frontal lobe, 39, 40, 73, 119–120
GABA. See Gamma-amino butyric
acid
Gage, Fred H., 31
Gage, Phineas, 119

G

galanin, 131, 141
gamma motor neurons, 93–94
gamma-amino butyric acid
(GABA), 54–55, 121–122, 135,
141
ganglions, 40–41, 44, 62
gastrointestinal tract, 50, 56
ghrelin, 131
GHRH. See Growth-hormone-
releasing hormone
Glia, overview of, 17–19
globose nucleus, 92
globus pallidus, 88, 110, 116
glossopharyngeal nerve, 72
glucocorticoids, 111, 131, 137
glucose, 17, 111, 132, 134–135
glutamate, 54–55, 71, 112, 120–
121, 133
glycine, 55, 95
Golgi, Camillo, 11
Golgi tendon organs, 77
gray matter, 39, 49, 84–85, 93–94
growth-hormone-releasing hor-
mone (GHRH), 129
Gulf War Syndrome, 87
gustation, 71–73
gustatory cortex, 74
gut peptides, 56
gyri, 39

H

hallucinations, 54, 150
hearing, 66–70
hemispheric dominance, 47
hemorrhage, 161
hindbrain, overview of, 41
hippocampus, 31, 40, 54, 105–109,
115
His, Wilhelm, 12
“H.M.”, amnesia and, 107

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217

Index

homeostasis, 130–131, 134, 142
HPA axis. See Hypothalamic-pitu-
itary-adrenal axis
Huntington’s chorea, 110,
154–156
hyperpolarization, 23, 51
hypnagogic hallucinations, 150
hypocretin, 139, 145, 149
hypothalamic nuclei, 126–127
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
(HPA) axis, 134, 136
hypothalamus
autonomic nervous system
and, 133
circadian rhythms and,
132–133
diencephalon and, 42
emotions and, 78, 118
endocrine system and, 126–
127
homeostasis and, 130–131
ingestive behavior and,
131–132
pituitary gland and, 127–130
sleep and, 140–142
smooth muscle and, 81
stress response and, 133–135

I

immune system, 135–137
inclusion bodies, 166
infectious prion disease, 168
inferior colliculus, 93
infundibular stalk, 126, 130
ingestive behavior, 131–132
inner ear, 66, 67–68, 70
insomnia, 148
instrumental learning, 100
insula, 70
insular cortex, 73, 78, 126
insulin, 131, 134–135
intention tremor, 156–157
intermediate zone, 92, 93
intracerebral hemorrhage, 162
inverse agonists, 57
involuntary muscle, 81

K

kidneys, 127, 131
Kleitman, Nathaniel, 138, 141
Korsakoff’s syndrome, 109

L

language, 47, 69
lateral geniculate nucleus, 64
lateral vestibulospinal tract, 70
lateral zone, 92, 93
lateralization of function, 47
learning, 51, 99–101, 104–113. See
also Memory
leptin, 131
leukocytes, 135, 137
limb rigidity, 92
limbic loop, 88, 116
limbic system, 84, 104–105, 119
lipid bilayer, 19–20
lobotomy, 120
locus coeruleus, 134
long-term depression (LTD), 113,
123
long-term potentiation (LTP),
112–113, 123
Lou Gehrig’s disease, 157
lower motor neurons, 44, 48
lumbar cistern, 30
lupus, 136

M

macula, 63, 66
mad cow disease, 168
malleus, 66, 67
mammillary bodies, 109
mammillotegmental tract, 127
mammillothalamic tract, 127
medulla, 19, 73
medulla oblongata, 42
Meissner’s corpuscles, 76
melatonin, 132–133, 145–147
membrane potential, 51
memory. See also Learning
acetylcholine and, 51
anatomy of, 104–112
emotion and, 122–123
phases of, 101–102

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

218

physiology of, 112–113
sleep and, 147–148
stages of, 102–104
meninges, 29, 31–32, 47, 75
mercury, 32–33, 136
Merkel’s disks, 76
microglia, 19, 135
midbrain, 41, 42
Moniz, Egas, 120
monoamines, 51, 53–54
monosodium glutamate (MSG),
71
motion sickness, 71
motor association cortex, 111
motor neurons, 13–14, 81–82,
93–95, 157
motor skill learning, 92–93, 101,
110
motor units, 82
movement

awareness of, 74, 77
basal ganglia and, 88
cerebellum and, 89–93
cerebral cortex and, 82–84
descending pathways and,
84–88
motor neurons and, 93–95
muscle types and, 80–81
overview of, 80
movement decomposition, 156
MS. See Multiple sclerosis
MSG, 71
multiple sclerosis (MS), 136, 153
muscle endplates, 94
muscle spindles, 77
muscles, 77, 80–81, 152–156
myasthenia gravis, 136, 153
myelin, 16, 18–19, 24, 30, 33, 78,
153
myosin, 81, 95

N

narcolepsy, 139, 149
neglect, stroke and, 162–163
nerve gas, 87
neural tube, 27–29, 30–32

neuroendocrine system, 135–137
neurofibrillary tangles, 166
neurogenesis, 31
neuroimaging studies, 92–93, 108,
109
neuroleptic drugs, 154
neuromelanin, 154
neuromuscular junctions, 94
neuron theory, 11–12
neurons, 11–16, 29–31, 154. See
also Specific neurons

neuropeptide Y (NPY), 130, 131
neuropeptides, 56, 130
neurotransmitters
acetylcholine, 51–53
amino acids, 54–55
amygdala and, 119
drug effects and, 56–57
immune system and, 135–136
monoamines, 53–54
neuropeptides, 56
overview of, 16, 50–51
reward mechanisms and,
120–123
seizures and, 157
toxins and, 95
neurulation, 28–29
nicotinic cholinergic receptors, 87,
94–95
Nobel Prizes, 12, 100, 120
nociceptors, 77–78
nodes of Ranvier, 24–25
norepinephrine, 53, 111, 121, 131,
134, 135
nostrils, 73
NPY. See Neuropeptide Y
NREM sleep, 142, 143–144
nuclei, overview of, 14
nucleus accumbens, 88, 116,
120–122

O

observational learning, 101
obsessive-compulsive disease, 136
occipital lobe, 39–40
oculomotor loop, 71, 88

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219

Index

odors, 73
olfaction, 71, 73–74
olfactory bulbs, 43, 74
olfactory receptors, 73
oligodendrocytes, 18
omega-3 fatty acids, 170
operculum, 73
opioids, 56, 135
optic chiasm, 64, 66
optic nerve, 43, 65–66
optic radiation, 64
orbital cortex, 126
orbitofrontal cortex, 119–120
orexins, 131, 139, 145, 149
organ of Corti, 68
organophosphates, 87
osmoreceptors, 130–131
ossicles, 66, 67
otosclerosis, 69–70
oxytocin, 127–129, 133

P

pacemaker, 81, 138
Pacinian corpuscles, 76
pain, 74, 76, 77–78
pancreas, 134–135
papillae, 71
paralysis, 95. See also Spinal cord
injuries
paraplegia, 160
parasympathetic nervous system,
48–50
paraventricular nucleus, 132, 134
parietal lobe, 39, 40, 69, 70
parieto-occipital sulcus, 39–40
Parkinson’s disease, 74, 110, 154
partial agonists, 57
Pavlov, Ivan, 100
PcD. See Pick’s disease
peduncles, 85, 90
peptides, 51
perception, defined, 59
perceptual learning, 99–100
periaqueductal gray area, 118
peripheral nervous system, 18, 37,
48–50
peripheral vision, 65–66

pesticides, 87
phospholipids, 19–20
photoreceptors, 62–63
pia mater, 47
Pick’s disease, 166–168
pineal gland, 132, 145–146
pituitary gland, 42, 127–130
plaques, 166
plasma membrane, 14, 19–22
pleasure centers, 120–123
polymodal cortex, 69
pons, 19, 42
positional sensation, 74
positron emission tomography
(PET) scans, 111
postganglionic neurons, 49, 145
postsynaptic neurons, 17, 50
potassium ions, 21–22, 68
potentiation, 112–113
praloxidime, 87
precentral gyrus, 82
prefrontal cortex, 88, 109, 119, 122
prefrontal lobotomy, 120
preganglionic neurons, 49
premotor cortex, 83
pressure, 74
presynaptic neurons, 16–17, 50
primary auditory cortex, 68–69
prion diseases, 168–169
processes, defined, 14
programmed instruction, 100
proprioreception, 77
prostaglandins, 76, 77
proteins, lipid bilayer and, 20–22
putamen, 88
putamen nucleus, 110, 120, 154
pyramid of the medulla, 85

R

Ramón y Cajal, Santiago, 12
rats, 100, 121, 124
Rayner, Rosalie, 124
recessive traits, 63
red nucleus, 92, 93
Reeve, Christopher, 161, 163
reflexes, 81, 96–97
refractory period, 23

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

220

relational learning, 101
REM sleep, 141, 144–145, 147–
148, 149, 150
Renshaw cells, 95
repetition, 103
resting potential, 23
resting tremor, 154
reticular formation, 42, 92
reticular theory, 11, 12
reticulospinal tract, 86
retinas, 60, 64, 132
retinohypothalamic tract, 132
retrograde amnesia, 107
reward mechanisms, 120–124
rubrospinal tract, 85–86, 92
Ruffini’s corpuscles, 76–77
runner’s high, 56

S

sarin, 87
satiety center, 132
schizophrenia, 136
Schleiden, Matthias Jakob, 11
Schwann, Theodor, 11
Schwann cells, 18
SCN. See Suprachiasmatic nucleus
scotomas, 65–66
secondary neurulation, 28–29
seizures, 157, 158
semicircular canals, 70
sensation, defined, 59
sensorineural deafness, 70
sensory neurons, 13, 48
septal nuclei, 107
serotonin, 54, 121
skeletal muscles, 80–81
sleep

circadian rhythms and,
145–147
memory and, 147–148
overview of, 138–139, 140–142
problems associated with, 139,
148–150
REM sleep, 144–145
stages of, 143–144
types of, 142–143

Sleep and Wakefulness (Kleitman),
141
SLUDGE symptoms, 87
smell, 71, 73–74
smooth muscle, 81
SN. See Substantia nigra
sodium ions, 21–22
somatic nervous system, 48
somatosensation, 40, 74–78, 92
somatostatin, 129
somnambulism, 149
sound waves, 66–67
sounds, 66–70
spatial learning, 101
speech production, 69
Spina bifida, 31–32
spinal cord, 28–29, 44–47,
160–161
spinal cord injuries, 160–161
spongiform encephalopathies,
168–169
sporadic prion disease, 168
stapes, 66, 67, 70
stimulus-response learning, 100
storage (consolidation), 101–102,
112–113
stress response, 133–135
stressors, 133–134
stretch receptors, 76–77
stria terminalis, 118
striatum, 92
stroke, 66, 109, 113, 161–163, 166
strychnine, 95
subarachnoid space, 47
substantia nigra (SN), 53–54, 88
subventricular zone (SVZ), 31
sulci, 39
superior colliculus, 93
supplementary motor cortex, 83
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN),
127, 132, 142, 145
SVZ. See Subventricular zone
sympathetic nervous system, 48,
134
synapses, 16–17, 112–113
synergistic muscles, 82
systemic lupus erythematosus, 136

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221

Index

T

tabun, 87
tardive dyskinesia, 156
taste, 71–73
tau protein, 166
TBI. See Traumatic brain injury
tectorial membrane, 68
tectospinal tract, 86–87
temperature regulation, 130–131
temporal lobe, 39, 40, 69, 74, 107
temporal sulcus, 69
tetanus toxin, 95
tetrahydrocannibol (THC), 121
thalamic nuclei, 78, 92, 110
thalamus, 41–42, 64, 73, 78, 92,
139–140, 163
thermal stimuli, 76
thermoreceptors, 130
theta rhythms, 143
thiamine, 109, 169
threshold potential, 22–23
thrombosis, 161–162
throracolumbar system, 49
thyrotropin-releasing hormone
(TRH), 129
tongue, 71–72
touch, 74
toxins, 17, 32, 95, 170
transduction, defined, 59
transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).
See Stroke
traumatic brain injury (TBI),
163–165
tremors, 154, 156–157
tryptophan, 54
tympanic membrane, 66
tyrosine, 53

U

umami, 71
ungated channels, 21
unipolar neurons, 13

V

vagus nerve, 72, 93
vasoconstriction, 130
vasopressin, 127, 129, 131, 133
ventral striatum, 88, 116, 120–122
ventral tegmental area (VTA), 54,
120
ventricles, 19
ventricular system, overview of, 19
ventrolateral preoptic nucleus
(VLPO), 141
vermis, 90, 92
vermix, 93
vertigo, 71
vestibular nucleus, 90–92, 93
vestibular system, 70–71
vestibule, 70
vestibulospinal tract, 86
vibration, 74
viruses, 32, 153
vision, 60–66, 113
visual acuity, 63–64
visual cortexes, 64–65
voltage, 22–25
voluntary muscles, 80–81
VTA. See Ventral tegmental area

W

wakefulness, 139–140. See also
Sleep
Waldeyer, Wilhelm, 12
Watson, John B., 124
weight, 131–132
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome,
169–170
Wernicke’s area, 69
white matter, 39, 84–85, 89

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