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Mechanism Design and Analysis
Release 2001 T-889-320-01

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Mechanism Design and Analysis
Copyright © 2001 Parametric Technology Corporation. All Rights Reserved. This Mechanism Design and Analysis Training Guide may not be copied, reproduced, disclosed, transferred, or reduced to any form, including electronic medium or machine-readable form, or transmitted or publicly performed by any means, electronic or otherwise, unless Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) consents in writing in advance. User and training documentation from Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) is subject to the copyright laws of the United States and other countries and is provided under a license agreement that restricts copying, disclosure, and use of such documentation. PTC hereby grants to the licensed user the right to make copies in printed form of this documentation if provided on software media, but only for internal/personal use and in accordance with the license agreement under which the applicable software is licensed. Any copy made shall include the PTC copyright notice and any other proprietary notice provided by PTC. This documentation may not be disclosed, transferred, modified, or reduced to any form, including electronic media, or transmitted or made publicly available by any means without the prior written consent of PTC and no authorization is granted to make copies for such purposes. Information described herein is furnished for general information only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a warranty or commitment by PTC. PTC assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this document. The software described in this document is provided under written license agreement, contains valuable trade secrets and proprietary information, and is protected by the copyright laws of the United States and other countries. UNAUTHORIZED USE OF SOFTWARE OR ITS DOCUMENTATION CAN RESULT IN CIVIL DAMAGES AND CRIMINAL PROSECUTION. Registered Trademarks of Parametric Technology Corporation or a Subsidiary: Advanced Surface Design, CADDS, CADDShade, Computervision, Computervision Services, Electronic Product Definition, EPD, HARNESSDESIGN, Info*Engine, InPart, MEDUSA, Optegra, Parametric Technology, Parametric Technology Corporation, Pro/ENGINEER, Pro/HELP, Pro/INTRALINK, Pro/MECHANICA, Pro/TOOLKIT, PTC, PT/Products, Windchill, and the InPart logo. Trademarks of Parametric Technology Corporation or a Subsidiary 3DPAINT, Associative Topology Bus, Behavioral Modeler, BOMBOT, CDRS, CounterPart, CV, CVact, CVaec, CVdesign, CV-DORS, CVMAC, CVNC, CVToolmaker, DesignSuite, DIMENSION III, DIVISION, DVS, DVSAFEWORK, EDE, e/ENGINEER, Electrical Design Entry, e-Series, Expert Machinist, Expert Toolmaker, Flexible Engineering, ICEM, Import Data Doctor, Information for Innovation, i-Series, ISSM, MEDEA, ModelCHECK, NC Builder, Nitidus, PARTBOT, PartSpeak, Pro/ANIMATE, Pro/ASSEMBLY, Pro/CABLING, Pro/CASTING, Pro/CDT, Pro/CMM, Pro/COMPOSITE, Pro/CONVERT, Pro/DATA for PDGS, Pro/DESIGNER, Pro/DESKTOP, Pro/DETAIL, Pro/DIAGRAM, Pro/DIEFACE, Pro/DRAW, Pro/ECAD, Pro/ENGINE, Pro/FEATURE, Pro/FEM-POST, Pro/FLY-THROUGH, Pro/HARNESS-MFG, Pro/INTERFACE, Pro/LANGUAGE, Pro/LEGACY, Pro/LIBRARYACCESS, Pro/MESH, Pro/Model.View, Pro/MOLDESIGN,Pro/NC-ADVANCED, Pro/NC-CHECK, Pro/NC-MILL, Pro/NCPOST, Pro/NC-SHEETMETAL, Pro/NC-TURN, Pro/NC-WEDM, Pro/NC-Wire EDM, Pro/NETWORK ANIMATOR, Pro/NOTEBOOK, Pro/PDM, Pro/PHOTORENDER, Pro/PHOTORENDER TEXTURE LIBRARY, Pro/PIPING, Pro/PLASTIC ADVISOR, Pro/PLOT, Pro/POWER DESIGN, Pro/PROCESS, Pro/REPORT, Pro/REVIEW, Pro/SCAN-TOOLS, Pro/SHEETMETAL, Pro/SURFACE, Pro/VERIFY, Pro/Web.Link, Pro/Web.Publish, Pro/WELDING, Product Structure Navigator, PTC i-Series, Shaping Innovation, Shrinkwrap, The Product Development Company, Virtual Design Environment, Windchill e-Catalog, Windchill e-Series, Windchill ProjectLink, CV-Computervision logo, DIVISION logo, and ICEM logo.

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PRINTING HISTORY Document No. Date PU-889-320-01 T-889-320-01 05/16//01 09/06//01

Description Initial Printing of Pro/USER: Mechanism Design and Analysis for Release 2001 Initial Printing of Mechanism Design and Analysis for Release 2001

Order Number T-889-320-EN Printed in U.S.A

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For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited - .

Training Agenda Mechanism Design and Analysis Day One Module 1: Introduction to Mechanism Design Module 2: Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms Module 3: Configuring Joint Axis Settings Module 4: Defining Drivers and Motion Module 5: Working with Motion Analysis Results Module 6: Creating Cam and Slot Connections Module 7: Optimizing Mechanism Designs For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited - .

and course descriptions. Consulting Services.) Fax: (781) 370-5650 License Management Tel: (800) 216-8945 (U.S. directions to training facilities. registration information. For University Use Only .S. as well as information on PTC.S.) Fax: (781) 370-5795 Contracts Tel: (800) 791-9966 (U.S. Customer Support.) In addition. you can find the PTC home page on the World Wide Web can be found at: http://www.Friday) Tel: (800) 477-6435 (U.) (781) 370-5559 (outside U.) (781) 370-5332 or (781) 370-5523 (outside U.S.S.com. and Pro/PARTNERS. the Pro/ENGINEER product line.ptc.) (781) 370-5700 (outside U. The Web site contains the latest training schedules.PTC Telephone and Fax Numbers The following is a list of telephone and fax numbers you may find useful: Education Services Registration in North America Tel: Fax: (888)-782-3773 (781) 370-5553 Technical Support (Monday .Commercial Use Prohibited - .

.............................................................1-4 Using Mechanism Design Icons............................................... 3-2 Setting the Range of Motion . 2-9 SIMULATING MOTION..................................................................................................3-5 EXERCISE 1: Configuring Joint Axis Settings ..................................................................................................Table of Contents Mechanism Design and Analysis INTRODUCTION TO MECHANISM DESIGN 1-1 OVERVIEW .................3-2 Defining the Zero References .......................... 1-4 MECHANISM DESIGN INTERFACE ........................................................... 3-5 For University Use Only ............................................................................................................................................. 1-5 CREATING AND ANALYZING MECHANISMS 2-1 CREATING MECHANISM ASSEMBLIES ............................................................................................................................ 2-7 Working with the Body.......................1-2 IMPLEMENTING MECHANISM DESIGN EXTENSION................................ 1-4 Accessing the Object Sensitive Menu...........................................................2-9 Dragging Assembly Components .......................................................... 2-2 Selecting Connection Types.................................................. 3-4 Setting the Regeneration Configuration......................................................................................................Commercial Use Prohibited - . 2-13 Other Commands ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-4 LABORATORY PRACTICAL ............. 2-10 Adding Controls when Dragging .................................. 1-2 Mechanism Design with Cam and Slot Connections .........................................................................2-2 Comparing Connections to Constraints....................2-15 EXERCISE 1: Creating a Crane Assembly............ 2-11 Recording Configurations with Snapshots......................................... 2-15 EXERCISE 2: Creating Reciprocating Saw Components................................................................................................. 2-2 Calculating Mechanism Degrees of Freedom ...............................................................................1-2 Mechanism Design without Cam and Slot Connections ...................................................................... 2-14 LABORATORY PRACTICAL ................................................................................................................................................. 2-8 Redefining Assemblies as Mechanisms .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-20 CONFIGURING JOINT AXIS SETTINGS 3-1 JOINT AXIS SETTINGS ............................................................................................................................

................................... 7-2 Pro/ENGINEER Analysis ..............................................................................................................................5-2 Checking Motion Interference...............................................6-12 EXERCISE 3: Creating Slot Connections...................................7-2 Datum Analysis Features....................................................................4-8 Selecting Active Drivers.. 6-4 LABORATORY PRACTICAL ......................................5-5 Evaluating Trace and Cam Synthesis Curves ...............4-13 EXERCISE 3: Creating Geometric Drivers .................................................................................................................................................. 4-2 Selecting a Driver .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-2 Configuring Driver Profiles....5-3 Evaluating Motion Envelopes .................................5-6 LABORATORY PRACTICAL ........................ 5-8 EXERCISE 1: Viewing Motion Playbacks and Creating Trace Curves...... 5-2 Viewing Playback Results....................5-13 CREATING CAM AND SLOT CONNECTIONS 6-1 CREATING CAM-FOLLOWER CONNECTIONS .................................5-4 Capturing Measurements and Show Plots ...........................................................................5-2 Generating Movie and Image Files ..........5-10 EXERCISE 3: Checking for Interference...................................................................................................6-2 CREATING SLOT-FOLLOWER CONNECTIONS........................................................................................4-9 LABORATORY PRACTICAL ................6-6 EXERCISE 2: Synthesizing Cam Profiles ....................................................................................................................Commercial Use Prohibited - ............................................................................................ 6-6 EXERCISE 1: Creating Geneva Cam Mechanisms .............................................................................4-5 DEFINING MOTIONS.....................................................4-8 Running Motion Definitions...6-21 OPTIMIZING MECHANISM DESIGNS 7-1 BEHAVIORAL MODELING EXTENSION ...............................................4-16 WORKING WITH MOTION ANALYSIS RESULTS 5-1 REVIEWING MECHANISM ANALYSIS RESULTS....................................................................... 4-10 EXERCISE 1: Creating Standard Joint Axis Drivers...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................DEFINING DRIVERS AND MOTION 4-1 DRIVERS AND MOTION ............................................................................................5-8 EXERCISE 2: Creating Measures............... 4-7 Configuring Time Domain Settings ......................................................................................................... 6-2 Creating Cam Surfaces ...............................................................................................................................................4-10 EXERCISE 2: Creating Table Joint Axis Drivers ....................................7-5 For University Use Only ..........................

...................................................A-2 Defining the PTC Help Table of Contents ........ 7-9 Optimizing Designs.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. B-7 CONTACT INFORMATION........................ B-2 Opening Technical Support Calls via E-Mail ....... B-5 Using the Online Services...............7-9 Integrating MDX and BMX ......................................................................................................................... B-5 Software Performance Report Priorities ..........................................B-10 North America Telephone Information. B-3 Sending Data Files to PTC Technical Support............................................................................................................................B-9 Technical Support Worldwide Electronic Services.................................................................................................................................... B-9 Technical Support Customer Feedback Line .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-14 EXERCISE 3: Performing Sensitivity Analyses........................................................................................7-10 EXERCISE 1: Creating Motion Definitions in MDX......................... B-3 Opening Technical Support Calls via the Web ........................................................... B-4 Technical Support Call Priorities ......................................... B-11 Asia and Pacific Rim Telephone Information......... B-5 Registering for On-Line Support .........OPTIMIZING MECHANISM DESIGNS..................................................................................................................................... 7-19 SUMMARY........................................................................................................................................................................................... A-8 TECHNICAL SUPPORT B-1 Locating the Technical Support Web Page ....................................................................................Commercial Use Prohibited - .............. B-6 Finding Answers in the Knowledge Base ........................................................................... 7-9 LABORATORY PRACTICAL .................................................................................. 7-10 EXERCISE 2: Creating Analysis Features in BMX ........................................................ B-10 Europe Telephone Information .................................A-2 USING THE Pro/ENGINEER ONLINE HELP ................................................................................................................................................................ B-9 TELEPHONE AND FAX INFORMATION.......................B-18 For University Use Only . B-3 Routing Your Technical Support Calls ................................................................................................................................ B-15 ELECTRONIC SERVICES........................... B-2 Opening Technical Support Calls via Telephone............................ 7-17 EXERCISE 4: Optimizing the Hand Pump........................................7-21 USING PTC HELP A-1 DEFINING THE PTC HELP FEATURES ..........................................

For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited - .

Describe the major Mechanism Design implementation steps.Commercial Use Prohibited - Module Introduction to Mechanism Design In this module you will learn about the essential functions of Pro/ENGINEER Mechanism Design. Page 1-1 . The module also introduces the major steps of implementing Mechanism Design.For University Use Only . Objectives After completing this module. you will be able to: • • Describe the Mechanism Design applications.

you can investigate the design characteristics by animating the mechanism throughout the range of motion. assemblies created using MDX can also be used in Pro/MECHANICA Motion. Depending on whether there are cam and slot connections in the mechanism. IMPLEMENTING MECHANISM DESIGN EXTENSION Using Mechanism Design involves two fundamental steps: (1) defining a mechanism. the major steps of implementing mechanism design are slightly different. The results of the motion animation provide graphical illustration of the mechanism. Mechanism Design without Cam and Slot Connections 1. Create assembly connections . This can be done at the beginning of the product development process. For University Use Only .NOTES OVERVIEW The Pro/ENGINEER Mechanism Design Extension (MDX) is a kinematic motion simulation program. When used in conjunction with Behavioral Modeling Extension (BMX).2 Mechanism Design and Analysis . Once assembled.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 1. When a full dynamics simulation is needed. MDX enables you to build “kinematic intelligence” into your assemblies. MDX can be used to create optimized designs based on measured geometry information. You use it to obtain information about the behavioral characteristics of your assemblies. By defining “connections” during assembly creation. such as interference analysis and cam profile synthesis.Assembling the components that are intended to move using connections enables you to create a movable system instead of one rigid body. and (2) making it move. They also yield engineering information that can facilitate design optimization.

Move the assembly • Move the assembly interactively using the Drag functionality Using the Drag functionality.The motor-like drivers enable you to impose a particular motion on a mechanism. you can perform various engineering studies.You can use the joint axis settings to quantitatively describe the displacement.3 For University Use Only .Using the motion run results. set the range of the motion and choose the default configuration used in regeneration.Commercial Use Prohibited Introduction to Mechanism Design . • Setup drivers and run motion . you can move the mechanism through an allowable range of motion interactively. 3. 2. • Generate movie/image output • • Interference study Generate Motion Envelope P a g e 1. 4. Define Joint Axis Settings . the joint axis settings and the drivers. The mechanism will move according to your design intent that has been build in the connections. as well as generate movie and image files for visualization purposes. Applications of the results .NOTES Figure 1 Connections available in the COMPONENT PLACEMENT dialog box.

Define joint axis zeros. Icon Descriptions Define cams. as opposed to creating assembly skeletons. You can create the advanced cam and slot connections after you first assemble the component into the assembly using the regular connections. Perform Sensitivity and Optimization studies in conjunction with BMX . By using the advanced connections (cam and slot) you can capture motions that are very difficult to accomplish using the regular connections or skeletons.Creating intuitive and movable mechanisms drastically reduce the workload when setting up for performing studies. MECHANISM DESIGN INTERFACE There are three ways for you to access Mechanism Design commands: • • • Icons in the toolbar area Commands located under the MECHANISM menu Object sensitive shortcut menu in the MODEL TREE Using Mechanism Design Icons You can perform Mechanism Design tasks using icons located on top of the graphic pane. Define drivers. The built-in functionality allows you to continuously monitor parameters within the motion range. Table 1: Mechanism Design icons. For University Use Only .4 Mechanism Design and Analysis . Define slots. The following table lists the available Mechanism Design icons. Mechanism Design with Cam and Slot Connections The procedures to implement mechanism design in models that have cam and slot connections are very similar.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 1.NOTES • • Create Trace curve/Cam synthesis curve Graph measure results 5.

Figure 2 The Mechanism Design top level model tree. Review and redefine body. Generate measure results. Mechanism icon display.NOTES Icon Descriptions Drag assembly components. the MODEL TREE displays the entities exist in a mechanism design. drivers. motion definitions. Run motion.5 . Replay previous run motions. Run assembly analysis.Commercial Use Prohibited Introduction to Mechanism Design P a g e 1. and playbacks. Review body definitions. Accessing the Object Sensitive Menu When the Mechanism is activated from the ASSEMBLY menu. including the connections. For University Use Only . You can expand the junction box to display the detailed list of the entities.

Selecting an entity in the MODEL TREE will highlight the entity in the graphic pane.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 1. For University Use Only . Figure 4 Access the object sensitive menu from the MODEL TREE.NOTES Figure 3 Navigate the Mechanism Design model tree. The SELECT_ACTION paradigm streamlines the workflow and increases productivity. and this eliminates the need to select the entities from the graphic pane. The available commands are limited to the selected entity type. you can access the object sensitive shortcut commands by clicking the right mouse button.6 Mechanism Design and Analysis . After an entity is selected in the MODEL TREE. You can select and highlight the entity from the MODEL TREE.

Convert unmovable assemblies into movable assemblies. Page 2-1 .For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited - Module Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms In this module you will learn how to create assemblies using connections. Build mechanisms with connections. you will be able to: • • • • Describe the differences between connections and constraints. Objectives After completing this module. You will also learn how to simulate assembly movement using the interactive drag features. Simulate assembly movement using the drag functionality.

Selecting Connection Types The following table lists the eight available connection types on the Component Placement dialog box. For example. By assembling the movable components using connections. you should use connections with appropriate DOF. The connection types are defined by using the same kind of assembly components that you would use in a real-world situation. you can create a movable system instead of one rigid body. Degrees of Freedom Each connection type has certain translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOF). It will move in accordance with design intent defined in the added connections. Depending on how the component should move in the assembly. and so on. as well as the icons and DOFs: Table 1: Connection Types Connection Type Pin Cylinder Slider Planar Weld Icon in Graphic Window Icon in the Model Tree DOFs 1 2 1 3 0 For University Use Only .NOTES CREATING MECHANISM ASSEMBLIES One of the first steps in mechanism design is to simulate assembly motion. Each connection type is associated with a unique set of geometric constraints that are based on existing constraints used in Pro/ENGINEER Assembly mode.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2-2 Mechanism Design and Analysis . assembly connections are used to connect components together. bearings. a pin connection contains two geometric constraints: an axis alignment constraint and a plane alignment constraint. Comparing Connections to Constraints Similar to assembly constraints. An assembly created in this manner is partially constrained. These assembly components include pins.

The connected body is not allowed to translate along the axis.NOTES Connection Type Ball Bearing Rigid Icon in Graphic Window Icon in the Model Tree DOFs 3 4 n/a n/a Note: In addition to these types of connections. Translation DOF 0 .Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2. Rotation DOF 1 . advanced connections such as cam and slot are also available. Figure 1: Assembly created using a pin connection Constraints Required • • Align axis or Insert cylindrical surfaces. Pin Connections Bodies connected by pin connections can rotate about an axis. Planar Mate/Align or Point Alignment.3 .The connected body can rotate in one direction denoted by the arrow in the connection symbol. For University Use Only .

The connected body can rotate in one direction denoted by the arrow in the connection symbol. Planar mate/align to restrict rotation along axis. Rotation DOF 1 .The connected body can translate in one direction denoted by the arrow in the connection symbol. For University Use Only . Slider Connections The body connected by a slider connection can translate along an axis.Commercial Use Prohibited - P a g e 2. Figure 3: Piston assembly created using a slider connection Constraints Required • • Align axis or Insert cylindrical surfaces. Figure 2: Assembly created using a cylinder connection Constraints Required • Align axis or Insert cylindrical surfaces. Translation DOF 1 .NOTES Cylinder Connections The body connected by a cylinder connection can translate along and rotate about a specific axis.4 Mechanism Design and Analysis .

The connected body can rotate in one direction denoted by the arrow perpendicular to the plane. Translation DOF 1 .The connected body can translate in one direction denoted by the arrow in the connection symbol.5 . Rotation DOF 1 . For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2. Translation DOF 2 . Weld Connections Weld connections are used to rigidly fix two parts to each other.The connected body can translate in two directions denoted by two arrows within the plane.NOTES Rotation DOF 0 . Figure 4: Assembly created using a planar connection Constraints Required • Plane alignment. Planar Connections The body connected by a planar connection can move in a plane. They can be used to determine the reaction force between two contacting parts using Pro/MECHANICA.The connected body is not allowed to rotate in any direction.

Bearing Connections Bearing connections consist of a combination of a ball joint and a slider joint.6 Mechanism Design and Analysis .The connected body is not allowed to translate in any direction.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2.The connected body is not allowed to rotate in any direction.The connected body can not translate. Ball Connections A "ball-in-spherical-cup" joint allows rotation in any direction. Rotation DOF 3 .NOTES Constraints Required • Coordinate system alignment. Translation DOF 0 . Translation DOF 0 .The connected body can rotate in all three directions. Rotation DOF 0 . For University Use Only . Figure 5: Assembly created using a ball connection Constraints Required • Point to point alignment.

Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2.NOTES Figure 6: Assembly created using a bearing connection Constraints Required • Point aligned to edge or axis. The resulting mechanism DOF can be calculated using the following equation: DOF = 6 × (# bodies ) − 5 × (# pins ) − 5 × (# sliders ) − 4 × (# cylinders) − 3 × (# balls) − 3 × (# planars) − 2 × (# bearings ) Redundancies may occur when two or more connections constrain the same DOF. For University Use Only . Calculating Mechanism Degrees of Freedom In mechanical systems.The connected body can rotate in all three directions.The connected body can translate along the edge or axis. As a result. degrees of freedom (DOF) are the number of parameters required to define the position or motion of each body in the system. Rigid Connection A rigid connection is a way to access traditional Pro/ENGINEER constraints when you assemble a component using connections. Translation DOF 1 .7 . Each connection will remove certain degrees of freedom from the mechanism depending on the connection type. Rotation DOF 3 . Unconstrained bodies have 6 degrees of freedom. the DOF calculated using the above equation would be inaccurate. Parts constrained by a rigid connection constitute a single body.

MDX can capture the motion of models with redundancies.NOTES For example. the connecting rod in the 4 bar mechanism is constrained by a pin connection at each end. Using the equation above. this redundancy in the connections will prevent the accurate calculation of reaction forces at these connections. For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2. For example. Both of these pin connections constrain the motion of the rod in the direction perpendicular to the page. Because all bodies in MDX are considered perfectly rigid bodies. Figure 7: Degrees of freedom in a four bar linkage Working with the Body A body is a part or a group of parts that move as one rigid entity in a mechanism. In other words if a body consists of multiple components. can be created using 4 pin connections. it is redundant to constrain the same motion at two connections of a body. these components can not move relative to each other. There is no degree of freedom (DOF) within the body. the 4 bar linkage in the following picture should have 1 DOF. using Pro/ MECHANICA down the road. Using the MDX.8 Mechanism Design and Analysis . Because this rod is a perfectly rigid body. the resulting DOF of the mechanism should be as follows: DOF = 6 × (3) − 5 × (4) = −2 Interpreting Negative Degrees of Freedom The DOF of this mechanism would be negative due to redundancies in the connections. the 4 bar linkage.

NOTES

When creating an assembly, if a component is assembled using assembly constraint instead of connections, the assembled component and the component/components it is assembled to become one body.

Defining Bodies
The constraints used to place a component determine which parts belong to a body. Mechanism Design defines bodies automatically based on these constraints. In order to create a mechanism, you must understand the following rules: • • You can create connections only between distinct bodies. When defining the geometric constraints for a connection, you can reference only a single body in the assembly and a single body in the component being placed. Note:
It is possible to have multiple bodies in a component since a component could be a subassembly that contains a mechanism.

Components placed with Pro/ENGINEER constraints that reference the default assembly datums can not move with respect to the assembly. They are considered a special type of body ? ground. Any component that is placed with Pro/ENGINEER constraints to a ground body also becomes a ground. You can highlight all of the bodies in the assembly. Different bodies appear in different colors. Ground is always highlighted in green.

Redefining Assemblies as Mechanisms
An assembly created using traditional Pro/ENGINEER constraints can be redefined to a mechanism. When you do this using the component placement dialog box, if the constrains match a certain connection definition, they will be converted to a connection automatically.

SIMULATING MOTION
After a mechanism is created, you can move bodies interactively using the Drag function. This enables you to gain insight into how the assembly behaves or to place the assembly in a particular configuration.

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2- 9

NOTES

Figure 8: Drag dialog box.

Dragging Assembly Components
Dragging is a powerful way to move your mechanism through an allowable range of motion. Using the Drag icons in the DRAG dialog box, you can select a body that is not defined as ground and drag it with the mouse. You can also have a body translate along or rotate about the axis of a coordinate system. When dragging using one of the above methods, the following rules apply: • The entity that you grab will be positioned as close as possible to the current cursor location while keeping the rest of the mechanism assembled. Left mouse button—to accept the current body positions and begin dragging another body Middle mouse button—to cancel the drag just performed Right mouse button—to terminate the drag operation, leaving the bodies where you have just dragged them

• • •

The following table lists the icons available for in drag operation. For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2- 1 0 Mechanism Design and Analysis

NOTES

Table 2: Icons used in drag operations

Icon

Description
Drag point. Drag body. Translate along the coordinate system axis. Rotate about the coordinate system axis. Select a coordinate system.

Point Drag
Select a location on a body within the current model, a circle will appear at the selected location. This is the exact location on the body that you will drag. The body will move based on the movement of the cursor and at the same time satisfy the definition of the mechanism.

Body Drag
The body’s position on screen will change but its orientation will remain fixed. If the mechanism requires the body to be reoriented in conjunction with a change in position, then the body will not move at all since the mechanism would not be able to be reassembled in the new position. Should this happen, try using point dragging instead.

Moving about a Coordinate System
A body can translate along X, Y, Z or rotate about X, Y, Z of a selected coordinate system. Selecting one of the 6 options reduces the movement of the body to the selected direction for drag operations. Translation and rotation in other directions is locked.

Adding Controls when Dragging
Controls can be added during the drag operation. You do this to achieve predictable results and to study the motion of either the entire mechanism or a portion of it. The following table lists the icons available for creating and manipulating constraints.

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2- 1 1

NOTES Table 3: Constraint icons Icon Description Align. You can add controls using one of the following methods when dragging: • • • • Add Constraints Lock bodies Enable/Disable connections Enable/Disable constraints When using one of the above methods. Locking For University Use Only . If they are associated to a snapshot. Mate. Orient two surfaces. multiple bodies can be locked together and move (behave) as one body. they will be enforced when the snapshot is shown or updated. Paste the constraints to the current snapshot. the following rules apply: • • These added controls are valid only during the drag operation. Constraints Specify geometric constraints such as Align. Copy the constraints from the current snapshot. Locked Bodies In a system with redundant DOF. Delete the selected constraints. Enable and disable constraints. Body ? body lock. Enable and disable connections.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2. Mate and Orient to reduce DOF. To reduce the number of DOF.1 2 Mechanism Design and Analysis . the movement of a body may be achieved in more than one way. Assemble the model using the applied constraints.

Snapshots capture the existing locked bodies. Note: The bodies do not need to be in contact or adjacent to be locked together. For University Use Only . disabled connections. Snapshots can also be made available as explode states in assembly. A snapshot can be used for the following purposes: • • • A starting point for a motion run. When manipulating snapshots.NOTES bodies can achieve predictable movement result.Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2. i. hence improve the dragging performance. you can • • • • • Create multiple snapshots Remove snapshots Switch from one snapshot to another Update a snapshots to the current configuration Borrow part position from one snapshot to another The following table lists the icons available for creating and manipulating snapshots. Recording Configurations with Snapshots After you drag a body. you can save the current configuration.1 3 . To place an assembly in a particular configuration. the position and orientation of the components. and geometric constraints. As a result the drawing created from the assembly will have multiple view state.e. connections can be temporarily disabled. as a snapshot. Enabling and Disabling Connections To make more DOF available to explore different design alternative or to examine a portion of the system. Different position configurations can be displayed on one drawing sheet in a painless manner.

Other Commands You can access package move functionality in the drag dialog box. Borrow part positions from other snapshots. For University Use Only . Delete the selected snapshot. Icon Description Previous model configuration.NOTES Table 4: Snapshot icons Icon Description Snapshot the current configuration.1 4 Mechanism Design and Analysis . The following table lists the icons for the operations mentions above. Next model configuration. Package move. Make the selected snapshot available in drawings. Update a snapshot using the current configuration.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2. Display the selected snapshot. You can also switch among consecutive configurations.

PRT followed by Open . Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down. 2.PRT using the default constraint. Create a piston assembly.1 5 . 2. ! Click Component > Assemble . In the second exercise. you will create an assembly using the slider. pin. EXERCISE 1: Creating a Crane Assembly Task 1. and cylinder connections. you will create a crane assembly using the slider. ! Select F_CYLINDER. followed by <Enter>. In the first exercise. Click Component > Assemble . 4. and bearing connections. Assemble M_CYLINDER. For University Use Only . Method 1. Type in [piston] as the connection name.Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2. enter [piston] as the name. Select Slider from the TYPE drop-down list. Change the current working directory to CREATING_CRANE_ASSY under the MECHANISMS folder. 3. 1.PRT followed by Open .NOTES LABORATORY PRACTICAL Goal To create mechanisms using various connections.PRT using the slider connection. 3. 2. [Assemble at default position] followed by OK . ! Click Task 2. Create a new assembly. Select M_CYLINDER. pin. 5. Click File > New > Assembly . 1. Assemble F_CYLINDER.

PRT using the default constraint. The pin connection is composed of two constraints.PRT followed by Open . Click Component > Assemble . Select Pin from the TYPE drop-down list. For University Use Only . ! Select CRANE_PLATFORM. Assemble CRANE_PLATFORM.NOTES 6. [Assemble to default position] followed by OK . ! Click Task 4. followed by <Enter>. Assemble LOWER_ARM.1 6 Mechanism Design and Analysis . ! Click Component > Assemble . Click the FRONT datum planes from both parts as the references for the Translation constraint. The slider connection is composed of two constraints. enter [crane] as the name. 5. 7. Click File > New > Assembly . You can use Flip button to reverse the orientation of the part. 8. Click the flat surfaces of the tabs from both parts as the references as the Rotation constraint. 9. 7. 6. Create a new assembly. Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down. 1.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2. 10. The placement status indicates that the connection definition is complete and a slider connection icon is displayed.PRT and A-5 in the CRANE_PLATFORM. 3. 2. Select LOWER_ARM. 1. Click the A-1 in the LOWER_ARM.PRT followed by Open . Task 3. Create an assembly.PRT as the references for the Axis alignment constraint. Click the cylindrical surfaces from both parts as the references as the Axis alignment constraint. 2. 4.PRT using the pin connection. Save and close the window. Type in [arm_joint] as the connection name. Axis alignment and Rotation. Axis alignment and Translation. Click OK to finish.

Select PISTON.PRT should be oriented as shown in the following picture. 2. The small tab on the LOWER_ARM. 9. Assemble the piston assembly using the pin connection. The placement status indicates that connection definition complete and a pin connection icon is displayed.NOTES 8. Drag the cursor to move the LOWER_ARM. 3. Select Pin from the TYPE drop-down list.PRT to the configuration shown in the following figure.1 7 . 10.PRT and A-11 in the CRANE_PLATFORM. Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down. 1. 5. Click Component > Assemble . Click the A-3 in the F_CYLINDER.PRT as the references as the Axis alignment constraint. Press and hold <Ctrl>+<Alt> and the middle mouse button. 4. Figure 9: Assemble the lower arm to the crane assembly Task 5.Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2. Accept the default connection name. Click OK to finish. If necessary. 6. click the Flip button to reverse the part orientation.ASM followed by Open . For University Use Only .

PRT as the constraint reference because the references of the constraints within one connection must come from the same body.PRT and the CRANE_PLATFORM. For University Use Only . You will move it later.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2. Click [Point Drag]. Add a cylinder connection.PRT as the references as the Translation constraint. followed by Drag . [Specify a new connection]. Click the FRONT datum planes in F_CYLINDER. Task 6. 3. Click anywhere on the LOWER_ARM. Click Done/Return . Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. 5. Select Cylinder from the TYPE drop-down list. 2. Click the A-3 in the M_CYLINDER.PRT. Accept the default connection name. Click OK to finish. Task 7. The assembly might move to an undesired configuration. The placement status indicates that connection definition complete and a pin connection icon is displayed. 1. Do not click OK . Note: Adding a pin connection will result in redundant constraints.1 8 Mechanism Design and Analysis . 4. 8. 1. Drag the mechanism.NOTES 7.PRT as the references as the Axis alignment constraint. 3. Note: You can not use the FRONT datum planes in the LOWER_ARM. Click 2.PRT and A-3 in the LOWER_ARM.

You will set up the range of motion later.Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2.NOTES 4. 7. Close the dialog box and click Done/Return . For University Use Only . Figure 10: Drag the crane assembly 6.1 9 . The two piston parts may come apart. Notice that the piston subassembly changes its configuration. shown in the following figure. Save and erase the assembly.PRT. Drag the mechanism to a configuration. 5. Move the mouse cursor to move the LOWER_ARM.

PRT using the default constraint. Type in [shaft1] as the connection name. For University Use Only . Create a new assembly. 2. 5. 3.PRT followed by Open . 1. 3. Create a new assembly and assemble the first component. ! Click Component > Assemble . ! Select MOTOR_ENDPLATE. Select SHAFT1_W_CLIPS. Click Component > Assemble . Select Pin from the TYPE drop-down list.ASM using the pin connection. Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down. 4. ! Click Task 2. Click File > New > Assembly .2 0 Mechanism Design and Analysis . [Assemble to default position] followed by OK .Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2. 2. Assemble the MOTOR_ENDPLATE. Assemble SHAFT1_W_CLIPS.ASM followed by Open . Change the current working directory to CREATING_RECIP_SAW under the MECHANISMS folder. 1.NOTES EXERCISE 2: Creating Reciprocating Saw Components Figure 11: Reciprocating saw assembly Task 1. enter [saw] as the name. followed by <Enter>.

Task 3. The placement status indicates that connection definition complete and a pin connection icon is displayed. 1.PRT as the references for the Axis alignment constraint. For University Use Only . 5. If the components are obstructing your view.Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2. 9. Select Pin from the TYPE drop-down list.2 1 . 2. If the components are obstructing your view. Click the A-1 in CON_ROD.PRT followed by Open . 8. Click OK to finish. Assemble the CON_ROD.NOTES 6. Click Flip button to reverse the orientation of the part if necessary. followed by <Enter>. you can select the corresponding surfaces. Select CON_ROD. Click Component > Assemble .PRT and the A-2 in the shaft part as the references for the Axis alignment constraint. 7. 7. Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down.PRT using a pin connection.ASM and A-9 in the MOTOR_ENDPLATE. Click the A-1 in the SHAFT1_W_CLIPS. Type in [rod] as the connection name. 4. press and hold <Ctrl>+<Alt> and the mouse buttons to move the component.PRT indicated in the following as the references for the Translation constraint. Alternatively. Figure 12 Specify the translation references. 3. 8. press and hold <Ctrl>+<Alt> and the mouse buttons to move the shaft assembly. Click the end surface of the shaft and the surface in the MOTOR_ENDPLATE. 6.

Type in [shaft2] as the connection name. Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down.2 2 Mechanism Design and Analysis . followed by <Enter>. Notice the location of the long cutout in the shaft part.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2.PRT indicated in the following figure as the references for the Translation constraint. For University Use Only .NOTES 8. Click OK to finish.PRT. Reposition and reorient the SHAFT_2.PRT followed by Open . Click the surfaces of the clip part and the surface of the CON_ROD. Figure 13 Specify the translation references. 5. The placement status indicates that connection definition complete and a pin connection icon is displayed. Select Slider from the TYPE drop-down list. 4.PRT using a slider connection. Assemble the SHAFT_2. Select SHAFT_2. 10. 2. 3. 6. 9. Task 4. using <Ctrl>+<Alt> and the mouse buttons so that the assembly looks like the following figure. 1. Click Flip button to reverse the orientation of the part if necessary. Click Component > Assemble .

Click the A-1 in SHAFT_2. select the surfaces indicated in the following figure.Commercial Use Prohibited Creating and Analyzing Mechanisms P a g e 2. For the Rotation constraint references.PRT as the references for the Axis alignment constraint.2 3 . 9. Figure 14 Specify the rotation constraint references. For University Use Only . so that the mechanism looks like the following picture. 8.PRT and the A-14 in the MOTOR_ENDPLATE. Click Flip button to reverse the orientation of the part if necessary.NOTES 7.

Accept the default connection name. 4. 5. Click 2.2 4 Mechanism Design and Analysis . Click OK to finish. [Specify a new connection]. Add a bearing connection. 10.PRT using the slider connection. The placement status indicated that the connection definition is completed and a slider connection icon is displayed. For University Use Only . Select datum point A2BE in CON_ROD.NOTES Figure 15 Assemble the SHAFT_2.PRT as the ASSEMBLY REFERENCE. Select Bearing from the TYPE drop-down list. Task 5. Do not click OK . 3. The placement status indicates that the connection definition is completed and a bearing connection icon is displayed.PRT as the COMPONENT REFERENCE. 1.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 2. A-2 in SHAFT_2. Save and erase the assembly.

range of motion. Page 3-1 . Objectives After completing this module. you will be able to: • • • Designate zero references for joint axes. and the regeneration configuration. Designate range of motion.Commercial Use Prohibited - Configuring Joint Axis Settings In this module you will learn how to use joint axis settings to specify the zero references.Module For University Use Only . Designate regeneration configuration.

A body with only one connection (also known as a “Joint”) should be able to move freely in any direction that corresponds to the DOF of the connection. Then this current position can be captured as the zero reference position. The zero position can be defined by setting zero at the position of interest or using references from two bodies. In the following figure. Designating the Joint Axis Zero Joint Axis Zero can be set to any position of interest. You can also use them to limit the range of motion and to choose the configuration used in regeneration. Position of the body during the motion will be measured from the zero position. Right: 30 degree position. The direction of motion is represented using coordinate system axis.2 Mechanism Design and Analysis . a position of interest is used as the zero position. Defining the Zero References The position of a body in a specific joint axis direction is defined using Joint Axis Position with respect to the zero position. To do this. Joint Axis settings can be used to quantitatively describe the displacement in the direction of motion.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 3. first move the body to the desired position.NOTES JOINT AXIS SETTINGS Most mechanism design connections have one or more degrees of freedom (DOF). For University Use Only . Figure 1 Left: Make Zero position.

When defining joint axis zero references for rotational axes: • Point–Point Zero Reference—Mechanism Design draws a vector from each of the two points in a direction normal to the axis.NOTES Setting the User Reference Joint Axis Zero can be set using references on the two bodies. Right: 30 degree position. Plane–Plane Zero Reference—The distance between the planes is zero at joint zero. The points cannot lie on the joint axis Point–Plane Zero Reference—The plane containing the point and the rotational joint axis should be parallel to the selected plane for the joint zero.3 . It doesn’t allow point reference anymore! Plane–Plane Zero Reference—The two planes are parallel at the joint zero. • • When defining joint axis zero references for translation axes: • Point–Point Zero Reference—The displacement is measured as the distance between the two points projected along the direction of translation. In the following figure. Both planes must be parallel to the axis of rotation. the top surface of the crank and the top surface of the base are used as zero references. A joint axis reads zero when the references on the two bodies are aligned. Both planes must be perpendicular to the joint axis. These two vectors should coincide for the joint zero.Commercial Use Prohibited Configuring Joint Axis Settings P a g e 3. The point cannot lie on the joint axis. This displacement will be zero at joint zero Point–Plane Zero Reference—The distance between the plane and the point in the direction of the translation joint axis will be zero at joint zero. • • When defining joint axis zero references for planar or bearing connections: For University Use Only . The plane must be perpendicular to the joint axis. Figure 2 Left: Zero position.

For University Use Only . Setting the Regeneration Configuration Assembly configuration used in regeneration can be set by entering the desired joint axis position. It is a good practice to check whether the specified limits provide the expected range of motion using the drag command.4 Mechanism Design and Analysis . you can only define point–point or point–plane zero references for planar translation axes. you can only define plane–plane zero references for planar rotation axes. • Setting the Range of Motion The limits for a translational or rotational joint axis can be set by specifying the maximum or minimum values of the joint axis position. Mechanism Design aligns this reference to the point defining the bearing joint.NOTES • Planar Connection—To avoid unpredictable behavior. Bearing Connection—You must select a point or plane on the body that contains the line in the point–line constraint.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 3. Also.

4. Figure 3 Define the Joint Axis Settings using the MODEL TREE. Change the current working directory to CONFIGURING_JOINT_AXIS under the JOINTS folder. 2. Define the Joint Axis Settings for the piston assembly using the MODEL TREE. EXERCISE 1: Configuring Joint Axis Settings Task 1. 3. Open PISTON.5 . 1.Commercial Use Prohibited Configuring Joint Axis Settings P a g e 3. 5.ASM. In the exercise you will define the joint axis settings for the crane assembly. In the MODEL TREE. click the junction box to navigate to the translation axis. as shown in the following figure. Method 1.NOTES LABORATORY PRACTICAL Goal To configure joint axis settings. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. Click the TRANSLATION AXIS to highlight it. For University Use Only .

2. 1. 2. 2. Figure 4 Define the reference entities for the piston assembly. 3.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 3. as shown in the following figure. Set the joint limits.ASM. Set the reference entities. 1. Notice that the hydraulic cylinder is not over extended. Check the By Reference check box under the SET USER REFERENCES area. Verify the Joint Axis Settings. Task 4. [16] as the maximum value.NOTES 6.6 Mechanism Design and Analysis . The component is now moving within the specified limits. 1. Drag the mechanism using the procedures in the previous chapter. Task 3. For University Use Only . Click OK to close the JOINT AXIS SETTING dialog-box. Check the Limits check-box under the JOINT AXIS LIMIT area. Right click and choose Joint Setting to open the JOINT AXIS SETTINGS dialog box. Enter [0] as the minimum value. Define the references by clicking the [Select] icon and select the flat end surfaces of both bodies respectively. Task 2. Retrieve the CRANE.

Select the top flat surface of the platform CRANE_PLATFORM. Right click and choose Joint Setting to open the JOINT AXIS SETTINGS dialog-box. Enter [0]. 8. as shown in the following figure. Define the references by clicking the [Select] icon and select the top surface of the LOWER_ARM. 2. 5. Check the Use in Regeneration check box under the ASSEMBLY CONFIGURATION area. 1. 6. to navigate to the rotation axis in the ARM_JOINT.NOTES Task 5. 7. Check the By Reference check box under the SET USER REFERENCES area. 4.PRT as the Green Body Reference. 3. Figure 5 Define the Joint Axis Settings using the MODEL TREE. For University Use Only . click the junction box in the MODEL TREE. Set the configuration used in regeneration. In the CRANE assembly window.7 . Click the ROTATION AXIS to highlight it.Commercial Use Prohibited Configuring Joint Axis Settings P a g e 3.PRT as the Cyan Body Reference. Click OK to finish. The assembly should look like the following picture.

9.8 Mechanism Design and Analysis . Save and erase the assembly.NOTES Figure 6 Define the configuration used for regeneration. For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 3.

Page 4-1 . Objectives After completing this module. Configure motions with one or more drivers.For University Use Only . you will be able to: • • • Describe the purpose of drivers. You will also learn how to define motions using one or more drivers. Create drivers.Commercial Use Prohibited - Module Defining Drivers and Motion In this module you will learn how to define drivers.

Complex 3-D motions as opposed to single translation or rotation is needed. velocity. such as constant or ramp. Joint Axis Drivers Joint axis drivers are used to define the relative motion between two bodies in the joint axis direction. Selecting a Driver You can impose drivers on joint axes or on geometric entities such as points. Drivers behave like motors in that they exert forces between two bodies within a single degree of freedom (DOF). For University Use Only . for example: • • • The two bodies involved in the motion are not directly connected by a joint. You can add drivers to your model to prepare it for a motion study. DOF needed cannot be satisfied by any existing connection. Geometric Drivers Geometric drivers are used to define motion on points or planes.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4.2 Mechanism Design an Analysis d .NOTES DRIVERS AND MOTION As part of your mechanism analysis. They are useful when the motion cannot be defined using a joint axis. you can use a driver to study kinematic behavior in your designs. you specify: • • • Position – location in the mechanism Velocity – speed Acceleration – rate of change of velocity You can also control translational (straight line) or rotational motion. or acceleration. By specifying driver's function. you can define the motion profile in terms of position. When configuring a driver. and datum planes. planar surfaces.

• Plane-Plane Rotation Driver It moves a plane in one body at an angle to a plane in another body. keeping one plane parallel to the other. Thus. • Point-Plane Translation Driver For University Use Only . the location of the axis of rotation in the driven body may change in an arbitrary way. a plane–plane rotation driver is less restrictive than a driver on a pin joint or cylinder joint.NOTES Based on the types of the entities (point. the driven plane is free to rotate or translate in the reference plane. the following geometric drivers can be used: • Plane-Plane Translation Driver It moves a plane in one body with respect to a plane on another body.Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4. with the zero position defined when the driven and reference planes are coincident. such as a front loader. Note: Plane–plane rotation drivers can be used to define rotations around a ball joint. Thus. a plane–plane driver is less restrictive than a driver on a slider or a cylinder joint. plane) and the types of motion (translate. Because the axis of rotation on the driven body remains unspecified. The zero position occurs when the driven and reference planes are coincident. During a motion run. specify additional constraints such as a connection or another geometric driver. If you want to explicitly tie down the remaining degrees of freedom.3 . In addition to the prescribed motion. the driven plane rotates about a reference direction. rotate). Note: One application of a plane–plane translation driver would be to define a translation between the last link of an open-loop mechanism and ground. Another application of a plane–plane rotation driver would be to define a rotation between the last body of an open-loop mechanism and ground.

Note: You cannot define the orientation of one body with respect to the other using only a point–plane driver. The zero position of a point–point driver occurs when both the reference and driven point lie in a plane whose normal is the motion direction. By defining x. the point lies on the plane. Note: You cannot define the orientation of one body with respect to the other using only a plane–point driver. At a zero position. the driven plane moves in the specified motion direction while staying perpendicular to it. During a motion run. and z components of motion on a point with respect to a plane. You can lock these degrees of freedom using another driver or connection.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4. y. The shortest distance measures the position of the driven point to a plane that contains the reference point and is perpendicular to the motion direction. For University Use Only . except that you define the direction in which a plane will move relative to a point. Also note that the driven point is free to move parallel to the reference plane. 3D curve. you can make a point follow a complex. • Plane-Point Translation Driver A plane–point driver is the same as a point–plane driver. and may thus move in a direction unspecified by the driver. By defining x. 3D curve. y. You can lock these degrees of freedom using another driver or connection. you can make a point follow a complex. Also. and z components of motion on a point with respect to a plane. The shortest distance from the point to the plane measures the position value of the driver.NOTES It moves a point in one body along the normal of a plane in another body. • Point-Point Translation Driver It moves a point in one body in a direction specified in another body. note that the driven plane is free to move perpendicularly to the specified direction.4 Mechanism Design an Analysis d . The shortest distance from the point to the plane measures the position value of the driver.

y. • For University Use Only . The two choices are the joint axis zero or current position. Also note that the driven point is free to move perpendicularly to the specified direction. and z components of motion on a point with respect to a plane. you can make a point follow a complex. you would need six point–point drivers for this. An initial position has to be set. You cannot define the orientation of one body with respect to the other using only one point–point driver. In reality.NOTES Note: The point–point translation driver is a very loose constraint that must be used carefully to get a predictable motion.Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4. Configuring Driver Profiles You can use driver profiles to specify one of the following aspects or the motion: • • Position — This type specifies the position of the selected entity. and may do so if you do not specify otherwise. By defining x. Velocity — This type specifies the velocity of the selected entity.5 . Acceleration — An initial position and an initial velocity need to be set. 3D curve. Lock these degrees of freedom using another driver or connection.

Use to simulate a cam profile output. Can be used to simulate a trajectory Use for generic driver profiles y = L*t/T – L*sin (2*Pi*t/T)/2*Pi where L = Total rise. Required Settings y=A where A = Constant for all time y = A + B*t where A = Constant. Table 1: Driver profiles. The following table lists each driver profile. Use if you want a constant motion or a motion that changes linearly over time. Use to simulate a cam profile output. its description. you can use that table here.6 Mechanism Design an Analysis d . An error is generated if the driver value is not specified for the entire time domain of the motion run.NOTES There are eight types of driver profiles. B = Slope Cosine y = A*cos(2*Pi*t/T + B) + C where A = Amplitude. Name of Input file with tabular input in two column format. and the second contains value of the Driver. C = Offset.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4. B = Phase. The first column contains time. Profile Type Constant Ramp Description Use if you want a constant motion. T = Period SCCA Cycloidal Parabolic Polynomial For University Use Only . B = Quadratic coefficient y = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 where A = Constant term coefficient B = Linear term coefficient C = Quadratic term coefficient D = Cubic term coefficient Table Use for more complex motion profiles that you cannot specify with the other functions. and its required settings. Each type has its own input requirements. T = Period y = A*t + 1/2 B(t2) where A = Linear coefficient. Use if you want to make the mechanism oscillate. If you have output measure results to a table.

You define the way that an assembly should move by adding drivers to your mechanism.7 . copy. There is no limit on the number of drivers created on one entity.NOTES The following picture is a graphic depiction of the types of available profiles. Figure 1 Profile Types Once you define a driver. then setting the time domain variables of the motion. the driver profile can be graphically displayed. DEFINING MOTIONS Instead of using drag functionality to move a mechanism interactively. You can edit.Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4. you can use motion definitions to accurately control how a mechanism should move over a given time period. rename. For University Use Only . You can play back the output of the motion run or save the results to replay them at a later time. or delete existing drivers.

and at what rate the system captures the motion.NOTES Configuring Time Domain Settings Using time domain settings. These locked bodies will not move relative to ground during the defined motion run.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4.8 Mechanism Design an Analysis d . Selecting Active Drivers When there are multiple drivers available. you can select which ones to use in the motion definition. The activated drivers are “time conditional. independent For University Use Only . you can define when the motion starts. only two of the three parameters need to be specified and the third one will be derived automatically. There are three parameters available for defining how the software measures the time domain: • • • Length — The length of the motion run. To fully define the time domain settings. when it ends.” meaning that each driver can have its own start and end time. calculated using end time and start time (in seconds) Rate — The number of frames per second during the motion run which can also be defined using Interval (Rate = 1/Interval) Frame Count — Total number of frames captured for the motion run These parameters are related by the following formula: Frame Count = Frame Rate * Length + 1 As a result. You can also select a snapshot you saved on the Drag dialog box. Configuring the First Motion You can start the motion from the current screen configuration. you need to specify the Start Time and one of the following combinations: • • • Length and Rate Length and Frame Count Rate and Frame Count Locking Entities During Motion Runs You can lock bodies during a motion run.

Note: If there are multiple drivers defined for an entity.NOTES of one another. When running a motion definition. For University Use Only . you have probably defined drivers that require the mechanism to assemble in an impossible configuration. copy. for any given motion run. the movement of the mechanism will be graphically displayed.9 . You can playback and save the motion results by using Result menu. The result of the motion run resides in session. you can examine the mechanism in the last successfully assembled frame and try to determine if the driver definitions are appropriate. Exiting Pro/Mechanism without saving will delete all the motion results in session. This gives you more flexibility when creating your mechanism analysis. Running Motion Definitions You can create multiple motion definitions in a mechanism.Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4. You can also edit. If the motion run indicates that the mechanism could not be assembled at some frames. It could be caused by the following reasons: • • • An error in the way you defined the driver A conflict between multiple drivers Drivers try to move a point past its limits Whenever this happens. turn on only one driver for that entity at a time. remove and run and motion definition.

In the MODEL TREE. 5. a geometric driver is created to maintain the bucket horizontal while moving wet cement using a front loader. In the second exercise. click the junction box to navigate to the drivers icon. Right click and choose New to open the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. Click the DRIVERS to highlight it. Method In the first exercise. several table joint axis drivers are created to simulate a backhoe moving dirt.ASM. In the third exercise. 2.NOTES LABORATORY PRACTICAL Goal To create drivers and run motion definitions. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. EXERCISE 1: Creating Standard Joint Axis Drivers Task 1. 1. Change the current working directory to CREATING_STANDARD_JOINT_AXIS under the DRIVERS folder. 4. 1. 3. as shown in the following figure. Create a driver on the shaft1 joint. a joint axis driver is created to drive the reciprocal saw.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4. Retrieve the SAW.1 0 Mechanism Design an Analysis d . For University Use Only .

7.Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4.1 1 . For University Use Only . 8. click the DRIVEN ENTITY drop-down list to examine the available options. 6. On the Entities tab. Select the shaft 1 joint axis as shown in the above figure. 9. Click the PROFILE tab and fill out the dialog box as shown in the following figure. Figure 3 Saw driver profile.NOTES Figure 2 Add a driver using the MODEL TREE. Leave the default Joint Axis . Click Graph to examine the graph.

You can see that the rotation is transformed to reciprocating translation in this mechanism.1 2 Mechanism Design an Analysis d .Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4. 3. 11. Save and erase the assembly. You will also notice that the rotational speed gradually increases. For University Use Only . Pay attention to the snap ring on shaft 1. 10. Task 2. Right-click the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE and select New . Click OK to finish. Create a motion definition. Right click and select Run .NOTES Figure 4 Joint Axis Driver settings graph. Accept all the default and close the dialog box. Close the graph window and the GRAPH OPTIONS dialog box. Access the new motion definition under the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE. 1. 4. 2. 5.

6. Click the ROTATION AXIS to highlight it. 8.1 3 .Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4. Retrieve the BACKHOE2001. 7. Change the current working directory to CREATING_TABLE_JOINT_AXIS under the DRIVERS folder. click the junction box to navigate to the ROTATION AXIS under JOINT_23 . 9. Create table joint axis drivers. For University Use Only .ASM. 11. On the PROFILE tab. Select Table from the Magnitude drop-down list. 1. Enter [spin] as the name of the driver. Click Browse to locate the file on the hard disk. 3. In the MODEL TREE. as shown in the following figure. Figure 5 Add a joint axis driver at a specific joint. 2. 10. The joint axis is highlighted in the graphic pane as well. select Position from the Specification dropdown list. 5. 4. Investigate the existing connections using the MODEL TREE. Right click and choose Driver to open the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu.NOTES EXERCISE 2: Creating Table Joint Axis Drivers Task 1.

14. ! Use A_HYDRAULIC1_DRIVER. ensure that only the four newly created drivers are added to the ACTIVE DRIVERS area. On the DRIVER tab. Create the following position table drivers (each driver simulates a separate hydraulic actuator): ! Driver HYD1 on TRANSLATION AXIS in JOINT _31 .TXT.TXT the table file input. Click Close to close the GRAPH OPTIONS dialog box. ! Accept the Length and Rate from the drop-down list. Click Graph in the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box to view the table graph. Click OK to close the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. In the SELECT TABLE FILE dialog box. Click OK . 5.TXT as the table file input. ! Use A_ HYDRAULIC3_DRIVER. 15. ! Driver HYD3 on TRANSLATION AXIS in JOINT _30 . ! Enter [18] as the end time.1 4 Mechanism Design an Analysis d .Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4. 4. Create and run a motion definition. ! Driver HYD2 on TRANSLATION AXIS in JOINT _29 . For University Use Only . 3. 13. select All files(*) from the TYPE drop-down list. Task 3. Select and open A_SPIN. Leave the Use Time Domain Start and Use Time Domain End checkbox checked. Task 2. ! Use A_ HYDRAULIC2_DRIVER. 1. Create more table drivers using the same procedures. ! Select the Snapshot3 from the INITIAL CONFIGURATION drop-down list.TXT as the table file input. 1. 16.NOTES 12. Enter [move_dirt] as the name of the motion definition. 2. Right-click the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE and select New . ! Enter [5] as the rate. Fill in the following information on the TIME DOMAIN tab.

1 5 .NOTES 6. 7. Right click and choose Save . Save and erase the assembly. In the MODEL TREE. 8. For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4. expand the PLAYBACK junction box to display the MOVE_DIRT playback. Right-click the MOVE_DIRT motion definition in the MODEL TREE under MOTION DEFS and choose Run . Click Done/Return from the MECHANISM menu.

Highlight the DRIVERS in the MODEL TREE. 4. Create a geometric driver to keep the bucket horizontal when lifting the arm. 2.NOTES EXERCISE 3: Creating Geometric Drivers Task 1. The joint axis is highlighted in the graphic pane as well. ! Select Ramp from the Magnitude drop-down list. Open LOADER. ! Enter [1] for coefficient A. Change the current working directory to CREATING_GEOMETRIC_JOINT_AXIS under the DRIVERS folder. Enter [bucket] as the driver name. 3. Right click and choose Driver to open the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. In the MODEL TREE. Task 2. 1. 2. 3. 7. ! Select Position from the Specification drop-down list. Check the Rotation (in degrees) radio button. 1. select Plane from the DRIVEN ENTITY drop-down list. Right-click and select New . Click OK to close the dialog box. Create a joint axis driver to lift the arm. ! Enter [1.1 6 Mechanism Design an Analysis d .2] for coefficient B.ASM. 5. 6. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. For University Use Only . Enter [liftarm] as the driver name. 8. 4. On the ENTITIES tab. and fill in the following information on the PROFILE tab.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4. click the junction box to navigate to the TRANSLATION AXIS under the PISTON connection. Click the TRANSLATION AXIS to highlight it.

6. Select AA_1 in the LOADER. ! Enter [3] as the rate. Right-click the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE and select New . make sure the two newly created drivers are added and leave the Use Time Domain Start and Use Time Domain End checkbox checked. 9. as shown in the following figure. Select ASM_TOP in the LOADER.Commercial Use Prohibited Defining Drivers and Motion P a g e 4. 1. 7. Select the top surface of the bucket part as the DRIVEN ENTITY. For University Use Only .ASM as the REFERENCE ENTITY. Task 3. Figure 6 Select the bucket top surface and the driven entity. 5. Accept the default options on the profile tab. 8. Fill in the following information on the TIME DOMAIN tab. The 0 (zero) degree constant position driver will maintain the two planes parallel. On the DRIVER tab. Enter [move_mortar] as the name of the motion definition.1 7 . 2. Click OK to close the MOTION DEFINITION dialog box. ! Accept [10] as the end time. Click OK to close the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. ! Select the start snapshot from the INITIAL CONFIGURATION drop-down list. 3. Create and run a motion definition. 4. ! Accept the Length and Rate from the drop-down list.NOTES 5.ASM as the MOTION DIRECTION.

Click Done/Return from the MECHANISM menu. expand the Playback junction box to display the MOVE_ MORTAR playback. As you can see. Right click and choose Save. 7. 8.Commercial Use Prohibited P a g e 4. For University Use Only .1 8 Mechanism Design an Analysis d . In the MODEL TREE. the arm is lifted and the bucket is kept horizontal to the ground during the process. Save and erase the assembly.NOTES 6. Right-click the MOVE_MORTAR motion definition in the MODEL TREE and choose Run .

Create cam synthesis curves. Page 5-1 . Check motion interference. Create trace curves. you will be able to: • • • • • • Create static images and movies of your motion runs.Commercial Use Prohibited - Module Working with Motion Analysis Results In this module you will learn the results and applications of Mechanism Design. Measure and display plots. Create motion envelopes. Objectives After completing this module.For University Use Only .

you can control the resolution of the output file. which you can restore and run in other session. Restore—Restore previously saved result set from disk. you can playback and record the entire motion run or a specific portion of the run.NOTES REVIEWING MECHANISM ANALYSIS RESULTS Viewing Playback Results The result of every successful motion run is temporarily stored in session (in memory) as a “result set. For University Use Only . the longer it takes. you can record the motion as a MPEG movie file.2 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . By setting up the movie generation schedule. The saved file has a pbk suffix. Remove—Remove the result set from session. You can use these JPEG files as pictures in presentations or generate a movie using other application software. Export—Export a result set to files which can be used to create motion envelopes.” You can manipulate result sets in the following ways: • • • • • Play—Replay the selected motion run. Generating Movie and Image Files Another very useful Mechanism Design tool is its ability to generate movie and image files. Save—Store the result set in a file on the disk. Note: The results saved for a master assembly may be played back on its simplified reps or vice versa.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 5. To reduce the run time. When capturing the motion run results. When you playback a result set. you can change the background to a solid color or decrease the image size. The higher the resolution. You can also capture it as individual frames in JPEG file format.

NOTES Checking Motion Interference You can perform interference checks when playing back the motion run. Mechanism Design highlights the areas of interference. Figure 1 Checking For Interference.Commercial Use Prohibited Wo rk ing with Motion An aly sis R esul ts Pag e 5. Automatically selects Stop Playback as an option. The following mode options specify the types of interference check: • • No Interference—The MDX will not perform interference check. Quick Check—Does a low-level check for interference. Mechanism Design highlights the areas of interference. Stop Playback—This option allows the motion to playback uninterrupted when there is no interference. Global Interference—Checks for any kind of interference in the entire assembly. For University Use Only .3 . You can then play the motion in single step to examine the areas of interference in static frames. • • Options—Gives the options available for the type of interference check. The system detects interference without highlighting the areas of interference. This option saves time when performing interference check on a large system. • • Include Quilts—Includes surfaces as a part of the interference check. Two Parts—Allows you to specify two parts for which to check the interference. the motion stops. Whenever interference is detected.

The recommended method for creating a motion envelope model is to set a low quality setting and preview the results. The envelope is a surface representing the volume of space that the mechanism moves in. Since this envelope surface represents a “space claim.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 5. producing a roughly accurate representation of the object's shape. the system creates fewer. you can specify the quality level of the envelope. Setting Motion Envelope Quality Levels When creating a motion envelope. producing a more detailed. Quality is inversely proportional to the size of the triangles used to create the faceted model. The first technique is to export a separate part file with a surface feature. the system creates many smaller triangles. larger triangles. For University Use Only . more accurate representation of the object's shape. It is generated using the frame file captured during the motion run.” this can be applied in top down design techniques. It represents the volume of space in which that mechanism can exit. Motion envelopes can be created in two ways. This technique provides associativity since the surface feature will regenerate as the mechanism geometry or motion definition changes. Increasing the quality level results in a more complete representation but also increases the creation time. Configuring Motion Envelopes A motion envelope is a faceted solid model that represents the swept volume created by a mechanism motion run. The other way is to create an assembly analysis feature with behavioral modeling to create an assembly surface. At a higher setting. The envelope surface could replace the mechanism subassembly with the motion envelope in a higher level assembly for simplification and to automatically avoid interference during the design process of surrounding components. only gradually increase the quality level as necessary.4 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . At a lower setting.NOTES Evaluating Motion Envelopes Motion envelopes are a very powerful output from Mechanism Design for design purposes.

or you can see how a single measure varies with different motion run results. Measure analysis features used in conjunction with measures functionality in MDX can capture the measurement information during the motion run. Any available measure types in datum analysis feature can be tracked in Mechanism Design. Run one or more motion analyses for your mechanism in Mechanism Design. you must have completed the following steps: • Create one or more analysis measure features in Pro/ENGINEER.NOTES The following are the available output formats of a motion envelope: • • • • Part (selected by default)—Pro/ENGINEER part LW Part —Creates a lightweight Pro/ENGINEER part STL—Creates an STL file VRML—Creates a VRML file When output format is Pro/ENGINEER part.5 . The graph can plot a measure over time or a measure against another measure. This can help you understand and analyze the results of a mechanism and provide information that can help to improve the mechanism's design. Before you can calculate and view measure results in Mechanism Design. you may need to keep track of the distance and angle measurements of moving entities. For University Use Only . you can configure and plot the graph. It can be assembled in a higher level assembly as a component for interference checking. the motion envelope can be used in the same manner as a standard Pro/ENGINEER part. Capturing Measurements and Show Plots In many situations. Measure analysis features alone can only provide the measurement of a fixed configuration. • Upon finishing the steps above.Commercial Use Prohibited Wo rk ing with Motion An aly sis R esul ts Pag e 5. The measure results can be graphically displayed as plots or saved as table files that can be used for other applications. Measurements can be easily accomplished using the Pro/ENGINEER measure analysis feature. You have the option of creating a graph that displays multiple measures for one set of motion analysis results.

If you visualize a pen tracing on paper. the curve represents the motion of the pen. this location is like the tip of the pen. Mechanism Design uses the trajectory of this point to define the trace curve. The point must be on a different body from the one you selected for the paper part. Trace curves and cam synthesis curves can be used to generate slot curve. To create a trace curve you need to specify the point/vertex to trace. Point or Vertex —Select a point or vertex on a body. the paper part. The cam synthesis curve remains tangent to the selected pen curve of edge. solid geometry and cam profile. you need to specify the paper part. you can think of this part as the paper. curve type and result set.NOTES Evaluating Trace and Cam Synthesis Curves The Trace Curve command allows you to create trace curves and cam synthesis curves. You can visualize it as when drawing a curve on paper. • • • Trace curves can be used to create features such as: • • synthesize barrel cam profile generate slot profiles Representing Motion with Cam Synthesis Curves A cam synthesis curve is very similar to a trace curve except that the motion of a curve or edge is traced during the motion instead of a point. Representing Motion with Trace Curves A trace curve graphically represents the motion of a point or vertex relative to a part in your mechanism during a motion run. Curve type—A trace curve can be 2D or 3D. the edge or curve to trace and the result set. The trace curve you generate will be a feature of the part you select as the paper part. For University Use Only . • Paper Part—Select a body on your assembly or subassembly to serve as the reference on which to trace the curve. If you visualize a pen tracing on paper.6 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Result set—Select a motion run result set from the list of available sets in the current session or retrieve a result set from disk.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 5. To create a cam synthesis curve.

each resulting cam synthesis curve must reside in a plane. Mechanism Design automatically smoothes the curves you select. You can select an open curve or closed loop.7 . and the other from the series of farthest points. For University Use Only . Cam synthesis curve can only be generated in 2D. Mechanism Design generates two spline curves. Cam profiles can be generated using cam synthesis curves. As a result. Mechanism Design determines the two points on the curve that are closest and farthest from the rotational axis. If you select an open curve.Commercial Use Prohibited Wo rk ing with Motion An aly sis R esul ts Pag e 5.NOTES Mechanism Design uses the trajectory of the selected curve/edge to generate an internal and external curve for the envelope. at each time step in the motion run. You can also select multiple continuous curves or edges. one from the series of closest points.

Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 5. Read the information in the DESCRIPTION box.PBK file. Examine and accept all the other default options. In the second exercise.NOTES LABORATORY PRACTICAL Goal To apply the results of your motion studies. [Reverse Direction at Ends] and [Repeat 8. [Play] to run the For University Use Only . followed by Results > Playback to open the RESULTS PLAYBACK dialog box. 7. Click Play to open the ANIMATE dialog box. In the ANIMATION dialog box. De-select the the animation]. Playing Back the Motion. 2. It is also used to create a trace curve. Open BACKHOE2001. a result set is used to perform an interference check.8 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . In the third exercise. a measure is created and used to synthesis a joint axis driver to replace the geometric driver. Method In the first exercise. 1. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. Change the current working directory to VIEWING_MOTION_PLAYBACKS under the MOTION folder. 6.ASM. EXERCISE 1: Viewing Motion Playbacks and Creating Trace Curves Task 1.PBK from the current working directory. In the RESULTS PLAYBACK dialog box. the previously saved backhoe playback result is replayed. click Restore and open MOVE_DIRT. 4. 5. 3. click MOVE_DIRT.

The system creates points along with the trace curve. Turn on datum point display and select TRACE1 as the POINT.9 . 4.PBK from the current working directory as the result set. Select 3D as the CURVE TYPE.PRT. again. 5.PRT. Accept the default Trace Curve from the TRACE drop-down list. the trace curve and the datum points are created in the paper part. use the Note: The Capture option allows you to record the motion as a MPEG movie file and capture it as individual frames in JPEG file format. Select the DISC. As you can see. Retrieve the DISC. Click Preview . click the stop sign at the lower right hand corner of the graphic pane to stop it. Task 2. VERTEX.PRT as the PAPER PART. The system displays the trace curve. However. 10. Retrieve the MOVE_DIRT. If the hardware slows down when capturing. For University Use Only . 3. Close the ANIMATION and the RESULTS PLAYBACK dialog boxes. Click Done/Return from the MECHANISM menu. Close and erase BACKHOE2001. Click the [Reset the animation to the beginning]. Click Trace Curve to open the TRACE CURVE dialog box. CURVE END. and play [Speed scroll bar] to adjust the speed.Commercial Use Prohibited Wo rk ing with Motion An aly sis R esul ts Pag e 5.ASM and DISC.NOTES 9. Create a Trace Curve using the saved results. 1. capturing this motion is time consuming. This time. Click OK to close the dialog box. 2.

10 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . 6. Open LOADER. 9. select Distance from the TYPE dropdown list.ASM. 4. Click Close followed by [Build feature]. 5.NOTES EXERCISE 2: Creating Measures Task 3. 2. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. You may have to right-click the toolbar and select DATUM to display datum buttons. Create the plot of the measure analysis feature using the playback result. Select the end surfaces of the piston part. Change the current working directory to CREATING_MEASURES under the MOTION folder. Create a datum analysis feature.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 5. 7. Task 4. Enter [piston2] as the name. 2. Click [Insert an analysis feature]. In the MEASURE dialog box. Click Results > Measures . as shown in the following figure. 1. For University Use Only . Accept the default Measure under TYPE. Click Next . 1. 3. 8.

NOTES

3. Select PISTON2:DISTANCE measure from the MEASURE RESULTS dialog box. 4. Load MOVE_MORTAR.PBK from the current directory clicking the LOAD A RESULT SET FROM FILE button. 5. Click Show Plot to graphically display the measure result. 6. Close the graph window. Task 5. Save the measure results and used it as a table driver.

1. Click Save Table to save the measure results as a table file. 2. Click Close to close the MEASURE RESULTS dialog box. 3. Create a position driver on the TRASLATION AXIS in JOINT_5(PISTON2) . 4. Enter [inverse] as the name of the driver. 5. On the PROFILE tab, select Position from the Specification dropdown list. 6. Select Table from the Magnitude drop-down list. 7. Click Browse to locate the file on the hard disk. 8. In the SELECT TABLE FILE dialog box, select All files (*) from the TYPE drop-down list. 9. Select and open PISTON2.TBL. 11. Click Graph in the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box to view the table graph. 12. Close the graph window and GRAPH OPTIONS dialog boxes. 13. Click OK to close the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. Task 6. Create a new motion definition using the new driver.

1. Right-click the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE and select New . 2. Enter [move_mortar_new] as the name of the motion definition. For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Wo rk ing with Motion An aly sis R esul ts Pag e 5- 11

NOTES

3. Fill in the following information on the TIME DOMAIN tab. Accept the Length and Rate from the drop-down list. Accept [10] as the end time. Enter [3] as the rate. Select the start snapshot from the INITIAL CONFIGURATION drop-down list. 4. On the DRIVER tab, add the LIFTARM and the newly created driver. Leave the Use Time Domain Start and Use Time Domain End checkboxes checked. 5. Click OK . 6. Right-click the MOVE_MORTAR_NEW motion definition in the MODEL TREE and choose Run . As you can see, with the new driver, the arm is lifted and the bucket is kept horizontal to the ground during the process. 7. Click Done/Return from the MECHANISM menu. Save and erase the assembly.

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 5- 12 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis

NOTES

EXERCISE 3: Checking for Interference

Task 1.

Run a predefined motion definition.

1. Change the current working directory to CHECKING_INTERFERENCE under the MOTION folder. 2. Open HINGE.ASM. 3. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. 4. In the MODEL TREE, click the junction box to navigate to HINGE_MOTION under the MOTION DEFS . Right click and select Run . Task 2. Perform an interference check.

1. Click Results from the MECHANISM menu, followed by Playback to open the Results Playback dialog box. 2. Accept HINGE_MOTION as the result set. 3. Click the Global Interference radio button from the INTERFERENCE group, followed by Play to open the ANIMATE

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Wo rk ing with Motion An aly sis R esul ts Pag e 5- 13

3. the areas that interfere with each other are highlighted. Close the ANIMATE dialog box. followed by OK .FRA has been saved.NOTES dialog box. Close the RESULTS PLAYBACK dialog box. Click Create and close the dialog box.FRA. Export the frame file for motion envelope part creation. [Repeat the 5. Select Motion Envlp form the TYPE drop-down list. The message indicates that the HINGE_MOTION. 4.PBK file.PRT) window and save it. 6. 7. you can use the envelope part to perform the space claim analysis. Use the [Speed scroll bar] to adjust the speed. Save and erase the assembly. Activate the envelope part (HINGE_ENV0001. 6. Save the playback file for later use. 11. Click Done/Return from the MECHANISM menu. The system creates the envelope part. Click Save in the RESULTS PLAYBACK dialog box. 7. 10. 9. 4. Create an envelope part. For University Use Only . There may be a short delay before the dialog box appears. Click Export in the RESULTS PLAYBACK dialog box. As you can see. 8. 2.14 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . If you were going to assemble this assembly to a higher level assembly. Open HINGE_MOTION. Task 3.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 5. Leave the [Reverse Direction at Ends] and animation] selected. 5. Examine the options in the CREATE MOTION ENVELOPE dialog box and leave the quality level as 1. 1. Click File > Save A Copy. Click [Play] to play the saved motion. The message indicates that the result set has been saved to the HINGE_MOTION.

Create cams using cam synthesis curves. you will be able to: • • • Create cam-follower connections.For University Use Only . Page 6-1 . Create slot-follower connections. You will also learn how to synthesize cam profiles. Objectives After completing this module.Commercial Use Prohibited - Module Creating Cam and Slot Connections In this module you will learn the advanced connections: cam and slot.

For University Use Only . Surfaces with different extrusion depths. Mechanism Design automatically forms surfaces by extruding an arbitrary depth perpendicular to the curve plane. Mechanism Design rounds off the corners and automatically smoothes them by fitting spline curves to the cam geometry. If you select an open planar curve. The default depth is very thin. Surfaces that angle sharply from one to the next. • • • • • Selecting Curves You can select planar datum curves or edges on a body for cam formation. where Mechanism Design automatically closes the chain by looping an equivalent set of surfaces behind the surfaces you selected. The original curve will be the midcurve of the new cam—Mechanism Design extrudes an equal distance on either side of the original curve. To do this. Mechanism Design automatically forms a closed curve by adding an offset curve behind the initial curve and closing the ends.NOTES CREATING CAM-FOLLOWER CONNECTIONS You can use Mechanism Design to create advanced connections.2 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Creating Cam Surfaces You can create cam-follower connections from the surfaces on two bodies in your mechanism. Non-parallel surfaces. Chains of open surfaces. including 2-Dimensional (2-D) cams and 3-Dimensional (3-D) slots. Extruded surfaces must be perpendicular to the plane that the defining curve lies in. If you want your cam surfaces to be parallel. including interior holes and extrusion depth variations. you can select: • Any set of continuous. you should define constraints to keep them parallel. where Mechanism Design does not add constraints to make them parallel.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. extruded surfaces belonging to a single body. Surfaces that have arbitrary trimming. the surfaces can curve in only one direction (they cannot bow). the cams may tilt and pivot during a motion simulation. If you do not define constraints to keep your cam surfaces parallel. Also.

Mechanism Design displays the surface normal direction with a purple arrow. Automatically Detecting Tangent Surfaces Mechanism Design automatically chooses tangent surfaces for your cam. This happens after you select the first cam surface or curve. Mechanism Design sees the cams you create as being of infinite length in the extrusion direction. Orienting the Cam Depth Use these items to specify references to orient the cam on the surface. If the selected surfaces are on a volume.3 . the depth and orientation of the cam need to be defined. • • If you select a curved surface for your cam. If you select a flat planar surface for your cam. For University Use Only . the software displays it with an appropriate depth. the default normal direction will be out.Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6.NOTES Figure 1 Create a cam from a curve. Automatic—The program automatically calculates an appropriate cam depth based on the cam surfaces you selected. Selecting the Surface Normal Direction The surface normal direction indicates the side of the cam that Mechanism Design will use for cam contact. You can reverse the direction of the surface normal for the cam using the Flip command.

The slot-follower constrains the follower point to the defining curve. The Allow Liftoff option allows the two cams to separate and collide during a drag operation or motion run. You must select a follower point on one body. The follower point follows the slot in all three dimensions. Mechanism Design automatically smoothes multiple curves to ensure C2 curve results. the two cams will remain in contact.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. CREATING SLOT-FOLLOWER CONNECTIONS Defining 3-Dimensional Slots Slot-followers are point-curve connections between two bodies.NOTES Mechanism Design determines the cam direction as a best guess. Body 1 has a 3-Dimensional (3-D) curve (the slot) and Body 2 has a point (the follower). Front Reference and Back Reference—With this option. you can specify the orientation and depth of a cam on the flat surface. If you do not select Allow Liftoff. For University Use Only . Permitting Cam Liftoff You can specify whether the two bodies in your cam-follower connection remain in contact during a drag operation or motion run. Mechanism Design does not check for interference on the geometry containing the follower point and the slot curve. Selecting Curves in Slot-Follower Connections You can select from these curves types to define slots: • • • Planar or non-planar curves Edges Datum curves • • Open Closed The selected curves must be continuous (C0). but do not have to be C1 or C2 continuous. By selecting two points or vertices to serve as references for the depth.4 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . The cams will not interpenetrate if they collide. These references also orient the cam. and one or more curves for the slot on another body. the program determines a cam depth equal to the distance between the references. You do not have to ensure that the geometry of the slot and the slot-follower fit together precisely.

or a series of curves that form a closed loop.NOTES Selecting Follower Points in Slot-Follower Connections When selecting follower points: • • • The follower point must be on a different body from the slot curve. Your datum point must belong to a body—assembly-level datum points cannot be used for follower points. If you select a curve. the default endpoints for a slot-follower are the extreme ends of the first and last curves selected for the slot. the resulting slot will be an open slot. If you do not select endpoints. • • For University Use Only . Selecting Slot Endpoints in Slot-Follower Connections • You can select datum points. You can select a datum point or a vertex. If you select a closed curve. if you choose to define endpoints on a closed curve.5 . Click Flip to specify which portion of the original closed curve will become the open slot. vertices.Commercial Use Prohibited C re at ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. and surfaces for slot endpoints. However. edge. curves/edges. or surface. the slot endpoint is at the intersection of the selected entity with the slot curve. you do not need to specify endpoints. for your slot-follower.

Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. Enter [wheel]. click Set up > Name > Feature and pick the axis you just created. Click Done Sel . Create two axes and a datum plane in the top level assembly. Change the current working directory to CREATING_GENEVA_CAMS under the CAMS folder. 3. For University Use Only . 6. Click [Insert a datum axis].6 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . EXERCISE 1: Creating Geneva Cam Mechanisms Task 1. Click Done > Translate . Pick the WHEEL axis. Method In the first exercise you will create a Geneva cam mechanism with the Allow Lift-off option. Click File > New . Check Assembly and Use default template . 1. Create an assembly. In the second exercise you will synthesize a cam profile. Enter [Geneva] as the name. 2. 5. From the assembly menu. Rename the axis to WHEEL. 4. Create an axis to locate the GENEVA_WHEEL part.NOTES LABORATORY PRACTICAL Goal To create cam and slot connections. These are used to locate components. Click Done Sel . Copy the WHEEL axis to create an axis to locate the GENEVA_CRANK part. and to generate cam profiles. Click Two Planes . In the third exercise you will create a slot connection. Click Assembly > Feature > Copy > Move > Independent > Done . Pick ASM_FRONT and ASM_RIGHT to create the datum axis.

Click Done Move followed by OK in the GROUP ELEMENTS dialog box.375]. Select GENEVA_WHEEL. 9. Accept the default direction by clicking Okay. 10. Assemble the wheel and crank parts using pin connections. From the assembly menu. Click Done Sel .NOTES Pick ASM_FRONT as the direction reference. The GROUP COPIED_GROUP item will disappear from the MODEL TREE. Check the Features check box in the DISPLAY group and then click OK . Name it CRANK_PLANE.PRT followed by Open . Enter [2. 8. Rename the axis to CRANK. From the ASSEMBLY menu. click Component > Assemble . For University Use Only . 1.7 . click Set up > Name > Feature and pick the axis you just created. Figure 2 Assembling the wheel and the crank parts. Enter [crank]. 7. Task 2.Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. Offset from ASM_TOP a value of [0. Select View > Model Tree Setup > Item Display . Activate the MODEL TREE item display to show features. Click Done/Return . Create a datum plane to locate the crank part. Ungroup the copied group by right-clicking on GROUP COPIED_GROUP and selecting Ungroup from the short-cut menu.125].

7. 4. and ASM_TOP as the assembly reference. click Connections on the PLACE tab. and CRANK_PLANE as the assembly reference. Select GENEVA_CRANK. pick A_2 in the crank part as the component reference.8 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Click OK to place the component. 5. In the COMPONENT PLACEMENT dialog box. 1.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. For the Translation constraint. For University Use Only . click Connections on the PLACE tab.PRT followed by Open . 11. click Component > Assemble . pick FRONT in the crank part as the component reference. and the CRANK axis as the assembly reference. Define the joint axis settings.NOTES 2. From the ASSEMBLY menu. pick A_1 in the wheel part as the component reference. Task 3. 8. 9. 3. navigate to the ROTATION AXIS under CONNECTION1. 10. In the MODEL TREE. Accept the default PIN connection type. pick FRONT in the wheel part as the component reference. and WHEEL axis as the assembly reference. For the Axis alignment constraint. Right-click and select Joint Setting . Click OK . In the COMPONENT PLACEMENT dialog box. For the Translation constraint. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. 2. Press and hold the <Ctrl>+<Alt> keys and rotate the crank using the middle mouse button until the assembly look like the preceding figure. 6. Accept the default PIN connection type. For the Axis alignment constraint. Define the joint axis settings for the wheel part.

NOTES

Figure 3 Defining joint access settings. 3. Pick RIGHT in the wheel part as the Cyan Body Reference. Pick ASM_RIGHT in the assembly as the Green Body Reference. Check the Use in regeneration check box and enter [0]. Click OK to finish. 4. Define the joint axis settings for the crank part. In the MODEL TREE, navigate to the ROTATION AXIS under JOINT_1. Press and hold the right mouse button and select Joint Setting . 5. Pick RIGHT in the crank part as the Cyan Body Reference. Pick ASM_RIGHT as the Green Body Reference. Check the Use in regeneration check box. 6. Enter [180] so that the crank pin sits directly in the wheel slot. Click OK to finish. The model should still look like the preceding figure. Task 4. Create Cam connections with Allow lift off option.

1. In the MODEL TREE, navigate to the CAMS under CONNECTIONS . Right-click and select New . Accept the default driver name. 2. On the CAM1 tab in the CAM-FOLLOWER CONNECTION DEFINITION dialog box, check the Autoselect checkbox. Click the [Select] icon and select the pin surface in the crank part using Query Sel . Click Done Sel to finish. For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6- 9

NOTES

3. On the CAM 2 tab in the CAM-FOLLOWER CONNECTION DEFINITION dialog box, check the Autoselect checkbox. Click the [Select] icon and pick the round surface of the wheel part using Query Sel , as shown in the following figure. 4. Click Done Sel to finish. The system automatically includes all the side surfaces.

Figure 4 Select the second cam surface.

5. Check the Allow Liftoff checkbox, followed by OK to finish the cam definition. Task 5. Create a snapshot and drag the mechanism.

1. Click Drag to open the DRAG dialog box. [Take a Snapshot of the current configuration] icon 2. Click the before dragging the mechanism. 3. Drag the mechanism using the point drag. Note:
Regenerate the model if the components move to an undesired location.

4. Click Close after you finish manually actuating the mechanism.

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6- 10 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis

NOTES

Task 6.

Create a driver to actuate the crank pin joint.

1. In the MODEL TREE, navigate to the DRIVERS under MECHANISM . Right-click and select New . Accept the default driver name. 2. Select the crank pin joint axis as the Driven Entity . Click the PROFILE tab, select Ramp from the MAGNITUDE drop-down list 3. Enter [180] as the A coefficient, [360] as the B coefficient. 4. Click OK to finish the driver definition. Task 7. Create a motion definition.

1. In the MODEL TREE, navigate to the MOTION DEFS under MECHANISM . Right-click and select New . Accept the default driver name. 2. In the TIME DOMAIN tab, select Length and Rate from the dropdown list. Enter [4] as the End Time, [100] as the rate. 3. Start the motion from SNAPSHOT1. Click OK to finish. 4. Click Run Motion . 5. Click Run from MOTION DEFINITIONS dialog box. 6. Click Close after you finish. Click Ignore if any error messages are displayed. 7. Save the results by clicking Results > Playback > Save > Close . 8. Click Done/Return . 9. Save and erase the assembly.

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6- 11

2. Create a cam connection using a surface and a curve. Use the MODEL TREE to verify this. 4.12 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6.NOTES EXERCISE 2: Synthesizing Cam Profiles Task 1. 3. The icons displayed in the assembly shown that it includes two pin connections and one slider connection. click the junction box to navigate to CAMS under CONNECTIONS . 1. Open CAM_SHAFT. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu.ASM. Figure 5 Mechanism connection types. In the MODEL TREE. Change the current working directory to SYNTHESIZING_CAM_PROFILES under the CAMS folder. For University Use Only .

For University Use Only . 10. Click CAMS to highlight it. Select the flat Rocker surface. Drag the mechanism to the configuration shown in the following figure.NOTES 5. Ensure that the Autoselect option is unselected and select the Valve curves. Figure 6 Selecting the Cam1 surface. You must select both halves. The cam surface and the cam icon should be displayed. Figure 7 Selecting the Cam2 curve. Click OK to finish. Right click and choose New to open the CAM-FOLLOWER CONNECTION DEFINITION dialog box. 8.Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. as the Cam1 Surface/Curves. Click the Cam2 tab in the CAM-FOLLOWER CONNECTION DEFINITION dialog box. Ensure that the Autoselect option is unselected. 6. 9.13 . 7. shown in the following figure. as the Cam2 Surface/Curves. shown in the following figure.

Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. click the junction box to navigate to ROTATION AXIS under CONNECTION_1 .NOTES Figure 8 The cam shaft without the cam surface. Click the ROTATION AXIS to highlight it 3. One driver is a ramp position driver on the camshaft. After the cam surface is synthesized. The mechanism can then be driven by the shaft driver and two cam connections. 2. you need to create two drivers. 1. Note: This mechanism needs another cam connection at the location indicated in the previous figure. Task 2. Right click and choose Driver to open the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box.14 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Click the PROFILE tab. In the MODEL TREE. Enter [Cam_shaft] as the name of the driver. 5. Create a ramp position driver. 6. the valve driver should be deleted. Use the drop down list to select Position and Ramp . The other driver is a cosine drive to drive the slider connection on the valve part. For University Use Only . 4. In order to synthesize the cam surface.

Create a cosine position driver.Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6.NOTES 7. For University Use Only . 3. Close the graph window and the GRAPH OPTIONS dialog box. Click the PROFILE tab. 10. Click OK to finish. 2. Click Graph to examine the graph. 4. This driver is added to create a cam synthesis curve. In the MODEL TREE. Right click and choose Driver to open the DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. click the junction box to navigate to the TRANSLATION AXIS under JOINT_2 . Click the TRANSLATION AXIS to highlight it. Figure 9 Valve1 DRIVER EDITOR dialog box. Enter [Valve1] as the driver name and fill in the PROFILE tab as shown in the following figure. 5. 8.15 . 9. Task 3. Enter [0] for A. 1. [360 ] for B.

NOTES 6. Enter [cam_synthesis] as the name of the motion definition. 1. Fill out the dialog boxes as shown in the following figure. 2. Enter [0. For the Valve1 driver. 8. uncheck the Use Time Domain End checkbox. The driver represents one engine piston stroke. Click OK to finish. Define the driver start and end times. Right-click and select New . 7. Click OK . Click Graph to examine the graph. Access the new motion definition under the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE. Figure 10 Cam synthesis motion definition dialog box. The two existing drivers have been added by default.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. leave the Use Time Domain Start and Use Time Domain End checkboxes checked. Right click and select Run . 4.25] as the End Time. For University Use Only . For the cam_shaft driver. Task 4. Click the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE to highlight it. 3. Close the graph window and the GRAPH OPTIONS dialog box. 5.16 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Create and run a motion definition.

Define a cam synthesis curve. 2. Complete the following steps in the TRACE CURVE dialog box: Select the CAM_SHAFT. click Results > Trace Curve . Figure 12 Select the indicated edge to create a cam synthesis curve.Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. 7. as shown in the following figure. The system prompts you to save the playback result. Task 5. For University Use Only . From the MECHANISM menu. Select Cam Synthesis Curves from the TRACE drop-down list. Read the message and click No .NOTES 6. Save the playback result in the MODEL TREE as shown in the following figure. Click the circular edge of the FOLLOWER.PRT as the PAPER PART.17 . Click Done/Return from the MECHANISM menu. Figure 11 Save the playback result using the MODEL TREE. 1. Highlight the CAM_SYNTHESIS result set. Create a cam synthesis curve from a motion run.PRT as the CURVE OR EDGE. followed by Preview .

For University Use Only . Task 6. Figure 14 Viewing the cam trace.18 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Generate a cam surface using the cam synthesis curve.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. The cam trace curves should be displayed as shown in the following figure. The system should create two curves in the shaft part as shown in the next figure. 1. Open CAM_SHAFT. Figure 13 Cam trace curves. Click OK to finish.NOTES 3.PRT.

3. For University Use Only . 1.19 . Figure 15 Extruding a cam. redefine the cam protrusion ATTRIBUTES to be Both Sides . Task 7. 5. 2. Depth [1.NOTES 2.2]. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. 4. Activate the CAM_SHAFT. From the Insert pull-down menu.ASM window. click Protrusion > Extrude . and select the curve that is closer to the shaft. In the MODEL TREE. Click [Select Primary items].Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. Finalize the cam shaft assembly. Use the drag handle (two headed arrow icon) to resize the protrusion as shown in the following figure.

Create a cam connection between the newly created cam profile and the follower part: In the MODEL TREE.NOTES 3. For University Use Only . Click CAMS to highlight it. Create a new motion definition: Click the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE to highlight it. Delete the Valve1 driver using the MODEL TREE. right click and select New . Enter [1] as the End Time. Run the motion definition. click the junction box to navigate to CAMS under CONNECTIONS . Click OK to finish. Figure 16 New cam connection. A new cam connection should be created as shown in the following figure.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. Click the Autoselect check box. Click the CAM2 tab. Enter [cam_new] as the motion definition name. Click the Autoselect check box. 4. Click OK to finish. 5. 6. Right click and choose New to open the CAM-FOLLOWER CONNECTION DEFINITION dialog box. then select the outside cylindrical surface of the follower part as Cam2. [100] as the Rate. then select the cam profile surface as Cam1.20 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . It simulates one stroke of a valve-cam shaft assembly.

Open POWERSCREW. For University Use Only .21 . For the Translation constraint. you can save regeneration time by suppressing the helix cut. 7. select POWERSCREW. Assemble the POWERSCREW. Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down. 10. 3. 8.NOTES EXERCISE 3: Creating Slot Connections Task 1.PRT and examine the geometry. Change the current working directory to CREATING_SLOT_CONNECTIONS under the CAMS folder.Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. 9. 11. Click OK to finish. Click the Flip button to reverse the part orientation.PRT using a pin connection. Assemble the POWERSCREW. The connection definition status should display as complete and a pin connection icon is displayed.PRT and SCREW_AXIS in the assembly as the references. Tip: Due to the complex geometry.PRT in a separate window and remove it from the assembly window. 1.PRT followed by Open . For the Axis alignment constraint. The system displays the SCREW_AXIS. 6. Click Component > Assemble . 5.ASM and turn on the datum axis display. click the A-3 in the POWERSCREW. click the FRONT datum planes from the screw part and ASM_RIGHT from the assembly as the references. 2. Close the window. Display the POWERSCREW.PRT using a pin connection. Enter [screw] as the connection name. 4. Select Pin from the TYPE drop-down list. Open POWERSCREW.

Drag the cursor to move the FOLLOWER. Select FOLLOWER. Figure 17 Move the FOLLOWER. For University Use Only . 6.PRT to the configuration shown in the following figure. 4. Click OK to finish. 8.PRT and SCREW_AXIS in the assembly as the references for the Axis alignment constraint. The connection definition status should display as complete and a slider connection icon is displayed.22 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Click the A-1 in the FOLLOWER. 1.NOTES Task 2. 5.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6.PRT in the assembly window and press and hold <Ctrl>+<Alt> and the right mouse button. 9. Display the FOLLOWER. 7. 3.PRT while assembling. Enter [follower] as the connection name. Click Component > Assemble . Click Connections so that the arrow beside it is pointing down. Select Slider from the TYPE drop-down list.PRT using a slider connection. Assemble the FOLLOWER. Click the FRONT datum planes from the follower part and ASM_FRONT from the assembly as the references for the Rotation constraint. 2.PRT followed by Open .

Click Done/Return . click the junction box to navigate to SLOTS under CONNECTIONS . Right click and choose New to open the SLOT-FOLLOWER CONNECTION DEFINITION dialog box. For University Use Only . Create a Slot connection.PRT as the FOLLOWER POINT. Select the FOLLOWER_PNT in the FOLLOWER. as shown in the following figure. Select the curve in the screw part.23 . 4. Figure 18 Configuring slot follower connections.NOTES 10. Task 3. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. 1.Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. Click SLOTS to highlight it. In the MODEL TREE. as the SLOT CURVE. 3. Figure 19 Create a slot connection. 2.

as shown in the following figure. For University Use Only . 1. Create a constant velocity driver with coefficient A = -360. Use the start Snapshot as the Initial Configuration. Task 4. use point drag to move the follower part to the left end point of the curve. Task 5. 1. 1. 6. Create a snapshot as the start point of the motion run. Figure 20 Start snapshot. Select the two end points of the curve as the SLOT ENDPOINTS. create a driver on the rotation axis of the pin connection on the screw part. Create a snapshot. 2.NOTES 5. In the default view. Create a driver on the screw. 3. Enter [start] as the name and close the DRAG dialog box. Click Drag from the MECHANISM menu. Task 6. Click OK . Click OK to finish the connection definition. 3.24 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . 2. Enter [screw_driver] as the name.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 6. Using the MODEL TREE. 4. Create and run a motion definition. 2. Use the MODEL TREE to create a motion definition.

NOTES 3.25 . For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited C reat ing Cam and Slot Conne ction s Pag e 6. Accept other defaults. Save and erase the assembly. 4. Run the motion definition. 5.

For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited - .

Commercial Use Prohibited - Module Optimizing Mechanism Designs In this module you will learn to optimize mechanism designs using Behavioral Modeling Extension. Create the following types of analysis features: Measure Analysis Features Motion Analysis Features Relation Analysis Features • • Model Analysis Features Perform sensitivity analyses. you will be able to: • • • Describe the compatibility between Mechanism Design Extension and Behavioral Modeling Extension. Describe the purpose of feasibility and optimization analyses. Perform feasibility and optimization analyses using result parameters generated from the analysis features listed above. Page 7-1 .For University Use Only . Objectives After completing this module.

This is done to obtain a required volume with a design of minimum mass. Pro/ENGINEER Analysis Pro/ENGINEER contains tools for performing a wide variety of model analyses. Create feature parameters based on model measurements and analyses. In the following example. Using Pro/ENGINEER analyses.2 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . you can investigate models’ properties and behavior. BMX is used to optimize a container design by varying the height and diameter.NOTES BEHAVIORAL MODELING EXTENSION Behavioral Modeling Extension (BMX) is a set of tools that enables you to: • • • • • Capture design intent and optimize models. Perform motion analyses. Figure 1 Optimizing a container. The following analyses are often used when optimizing mechanism designs: For University Use Only . Analyze the behavior of measured parameters as dimensions vary. Automatically find the dimension values that achieve a desired model behavior.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7.

For University Use Only . The sensitivity analysis. • Goal: A goal is certain properties of the model that will be maximized/minimized in an optimization analysis. Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity analysis is used to determine whether a certain model characteristic or property is sensitive to a variable within a specified range. In the following example. feasibility. Feasibility Analysis When performing a feasibility analysis. It is often used to rule out the unimportant variables in the upcoming optimization.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. In other words.3 . and optimization analysis can be used to study the model behavior. There are several key factors that need to be defined in an optimization/feasibility analysis. an optimization analysis is a feasibility analysis with the goal of optimizing certain properties. the goal is to maximize the water volume pumped in one stroke. Optimization Analysis When running an optimization analysis.NOTES • • • • Measure Model analysis Sensitivity analysis Feasibility and Optimization analysis The measure and model analyses are used to study model characteristics. the system attempts to maximize/minimize certain model properties. the system attempts to find a set of dimension or parameter values within the specified ranges that satisfy all of the imposed constraints. Simultaneously. the system attempts to find dimensions or parameters within the specified ranges that satisfy all of the imposed constraints.

Sensitivity studies show that they are all crucial to the water volume.NOTES Figure 2 Maximize the hand pump functionality • Design Constraints: They are constraints that model parameters need to satisfy.4 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . “no interference” should be satisfied by the final design. as shown in the following figure. For University Use Only . In the hand pump example. As a result.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7. there are 3 dimensions in two components that can be altered. the system changes the variables within a certain range to find the best values that satisfy the constraints and optimize the goal. they are all used in the optimization analysis. In the example. • Design Variables: In an optimization/ feasibility analysis.

The result parameters and the result datum features in the analysis features automatically updates whenever the model changes. Datum Analysis Features BMX provides the capabilities of creating datum analysis features. automating the design optimization process.NOTES Figure 3 Three design variables used in the optimization. an analysis. Advantages • • Datum analysis features permanently capture the parametric information of the model. In addition.5 . • The following datum analysis feature types are often used in the mechanism design optimization. eliminating the need to manually measure the model. or a relation. For University Use Only . Analysis features may contain a measure.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. Definition A datum analysis feature is a Pro/ENGINEER datum feature that is used to capture model properties. user-defined analysis (UDA). Datum analysis features track design changes. the results of the analysis features can be used in feasibility/optimization analyses. an analysis performed by an external application.

the optimization can result in an invalid design. In the hand pump example.NOTES • • • • Measure Analysis Features Motion Analysis Features Model Analysis Features Relation Analysis Features Measure Analysis Features Measure analysis features can be used to capture geometric information such as. curve length. In the hand pump example. Figure 4 Analysis feature that measures the displacement of the valve.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7. angle and area. For University Use Only . This measurement can be used to calculate the water volume pumped in one stroke. the projection distance is used to ensure that the valve is always above the bottom of the cylinder during the optimization. Without it.6 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis . the distance between entities. as shown in the following figure. diameter. Using the Coordinate System as the projection reference when measuring the distance can track the direction of the displacement. a datum analysis feature is used to measure the distance between the bottom of the pump and the bottom of the valve.

NOTES Figure 5 Invalid design optimization caused by the improper measurement direction. a datum analysis feature is used to capture the clearance (minimum distance) between the rod top part and the cylinder part. Model Analysis Features Model analysis features can be used to view model mass properties. Figure 6 Analysis feature that captures the clearance between two parts. This ensures that no interference exists in the optimized design.7 . They can also be used to check for clearance or interference in assemblies. The result of this datum analysis feature can be used as a constraint in the design optimization.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. In the hand pump example. For University Use Only .

relation analysis features will correctly track information as geometry changes during sensitivity and optimization. however. a motion analysis feature can also create a motion envelope. Therefore. Since this motion envelope is contained in the motion analysis feature. a relation analysis feature is used to calculate the water volume pumped in one stroke. result parameters (Max_distance_Y and Min_distance_Y) of the motion analysis feature are used to calculate the valve displacement. it will be associative and will update as the mechanism changes. are regenerated in the order that they are created in the model tree. The result can be displayed in graphs as well as output as result parameters. Relation analysis features.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7.8 M echan ism D esign and An a ly sis .NOTES Motion Analysis Features Motion analysis features utilize the motion definition defined in MDX. In the hand pump example. With motion analysis features. Relation Analysis Features Relation analysis features can capture the inter-relationship among parameters. In the hand pump example. Figure 7 The maximum and minimum of a measure are created as result parameters. parameters such as distance and clearance can be tracked in the motion run. Volume=(Max_distance_Y:fid_pumping-Min_distance_Y:fid_pumping)*pi For University Use Only . In addition to tracking result parameters from analysis features. Ordinary relations are calculated at the beginning the regeneration cycle.

4. The number of frames will affect the accuracy of the optimization result. 3. More frames will provide results that are closer to the extremum. Track the parameters of interest.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. Create the necessary analysis feature for setting up the feasibility and/or optimization analysis. Parameters of interest are created using BMX. Create the motion definition in MDX.9 . 2. • Optimizing Designs To optimize mechanism designs using BMX: 1. Create the motion analysis feature using the motion definition created in MDX. It is a good practice to run a sensitivity analysis to rule out the unimportant parameters.NOTES OPTIMIZING MECHANISM DESIGNS Mechanism Design Extension (MDX) is fully compatible with Behavioral Modeler Extension (BMX). Result parameters generated from motion analysis features can be used as goals and constraints in the feasibility analyses and design optimization. relation analysis features. Perform sensitivity analyses. and model analysis features. including measure analysis features. They are tracked when running the motion definition during the motion analysis feature definition. Integrating MDX and BMX The integration of BMX and MDX occurs in the motion analysis features in the following ways: • • Motion definition created in MDX is used in the definition of motion analysis features. Optimizing the model by varying only the crucial parameters can greatly reduce the computation time. 5. For University Use Only . The output parameters will be the extremums and time when they occur. BMX can be used to optimize a design assembled with MDX. Perform a feasibility analysis and/or optimize the design using the result parameters generated from the previous analysis features.

1. Task 1.ASM. The design constraint is used to ensure that there is no interference in the final design. Three dimensions are varied to maximize the water volume. The frame number is chosen to capture the local extremum as close as possible. For University Use Only . In the MODEL TREE. The assembly was created using mechanism. 2. Task 2. Open HAND_PUMP. 1. Finally. Drag the handle to examine the built in mechanism. click the junction box to navigate to the connections. Method You will first retrieve and investigate the hand pump mechanism. EXERCISE 1: Creating Motion Definitions in MDX Goal In this exercise. Change the current working directory to OPTIMIZING_MECHANISM_DESIGNS under the OPTIMIZATIONS folder. 2.10 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Investigate the mechanism.NOTES LABORATORY PRACTICAL Goal: Optimizing the hand pump to produce the maximum amount of water. Click the connections to highlight them in the model. You will then create a point-plane geometric driver to simulate one stroke of the pumping action. you will create the motion definition.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7. The range of motion represents a comfortable reach for an average person. Retrieve the hand pump assembly. The handle motion range is captured using a geometry driver. you will create a motion definition for the purpose of generating a motion analysis feature. Click Mechanism from the ASSEMBLY menu. It represents a comfortable reach for an average height person.

Click Flip if necessary. Create a point-plane geometric driver to simulate one stroke of the pumping action. The range of motion for the handle is built in the driver. 3. select Point from the DRIVEN ENTITY drop-down list. Specify the driver type and the driven entity: On the ENTITIES tab. Drag the mechanism. 7. Select PNT0 at the end of the handle as the DRIVEN ENTITY. Close the DRAG dialog box when finish. 1. 5. 4. Right-click and select New . Use Drag Point to drag the handle part. T=1 8. so that the direction arrow of the driver is pointing up.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. Display datum points if necessary. Highlight the DRIVERS in the MODEL TREE. Click Drag . Specify the reference entity: Select Plane from the REFERENCE ENTITY drop-down list. 6. It represents a comfortable reach for an average person.11 . Click OK to close the dialog box. Click the Profile tab and fill in the dialog box as follows: Specification: Position Magnitude: Cosine A=12. Task 3. Enter [Hand_Motion] as the name. 2. C=31. Select the bottom surface of the cylinder. 4.NOTES 3. Select the Translation radio button from the MOTION TYPE group. B=0. For University Use Only . The assembly should appear as shown in the following figure. Click GRAPH to graph the driver profile.

Note: In this case. the initial configuration is actually determined by the position geometric driver. Accept the default 0. Create and run a motion definition. Enter [20] as the Rate . Enter [1] as the End Time . 4. Make sure the Interval updates to 0. 3.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7. Enter [one_stroke] as the name. Accept the default Screen INITIAL CONFIGURATION. On the Driver tab. Right-click the MOTION DEFS in the MODEL TREE and select New .12 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis .05. Fill in the following information on the TIME DOMAIN tab. Accept the default Length and Rate from the drop-down list.NOTES Figure 8 Create the geometric driver. For University Use Only .0 Start Time . 1. ensure that the newly created driver is added and leave the Use Time Domain Start and Use Time Domain End checkboxes checked. Task 4. 2.

Right-click the ONE STROKE motion definition in the MODEL TREE and choose Run . 7.NOTES 5. In the MODEL TREE.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. 6. the motion simulates one stroke of the pumping action. expand the PLAYBACKS junction box to display the ONE STROKE playback. Click Done/Return from the MECHANISM menu to exit MDX. Right click and choose Save . 8. Click OK to close the dialog box.13 . For University Use Only . As you can see.

NOTES

EXERCISE 2: Creating Analysis Features in BMX
Goal:
In this exercise, you will create various analysis features using BMX.

Method
You will create the following analysis features: • • • • A measure analysis feature that tracks the position of the valve. A clearance model analysis feature that ensures the optimization will not result in an unrealistic design. A motion analysis. A relation analysis feature that calculates the volume of the water.

Task 1. Create the Valve_Height analysis feature to track the position of the piston. 1. Ensure that the current working directory is set to OPTIMIZING_MECHANISM_DESIGNS under the OPTIMIZATIONS folder. 2. Open HAND_PUMP.ASM. 3. Select View > Model Tree Setup > Item Display, and check the Features option. Click OK . 4. Click [Insert an analysis feature].

5. Enter [valve_height] as the NAME. 6. Select Measure as the TYPE. Click [Next Page].

7. Select Distance as the measurement TYPE from the MEASURE dialog box. 8. Define the entity; use the entity type filter as necessary: Select the bottom surface of the cylinder as the FROM entity. Select the bottom surface of the valve as the TO entity.

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7- 14 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis

NOTES

Select the Coordinate System as the PROJECTION REFERENCE. Select the ASM_DEF_CSYS in the top-level assembly. Select Cartesian when prompted. 9. Click Compute and close the dialog box. 10. Create only the DISTANCE_Y result parameter.

Task 2. Create a Clearance analysis feature. The result parameter of the Clearance analysis is the clearance between the ROD_TOP.PRT and the cylinder. It is used to make sure they do not interfere with during the optimization. 1. Without closing the dialog box, click repeat]. Enter [clearance] as the NAME. Select Model Analysis as the TYPE, followed by [Next Page]. 2. Select Pairs Clearance as the TYPE. 3. Select ROD_TOP.PRT and CYLINDER.PRT from the MODEL TREE. 4. Click Compute and close the dialog box. 5. Create the CLEARANCE result parameter. Task 3. Create a motion analysis feature. The result parameters of the Motion analysis are maximum and minimum valve travel. They will be used to calculate the displacement of the valve. 1. Without closing the dialog box, click repeat]. Enter [pumping] as the NAME. Select Motion Analysis as the TYPE, followed by [Next Page]. 2. In the MOTION ANALYSIS dialog box: Accept the default ONE STROKE motion definition. For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7- 15

[build and

[build and

NOTES

Select the two available parameters. Click Run and view the graph. Close the graph windows. Click Close .
3. Create the following result parameters: MAX_DISTANCE_Y, MIN_DISTANCE_Y and MIN_CLEARANCE.

Task 4. Create WATER_VOLUME relation analysis feature to calculate the volume of the water pumped in one stroke. 1. Without closing the dialog box, click repeat]. Enter [water_volume] as the NAME. Select Relation as the TYPE, followed by Page]. 2. In the text editor, enter the following relation. [volume = (Max_distance_Y:fid_pumping Min_distance_Y:fid_pumping)*pi] Save and exit the editor. Note:
The radius of the valve is 1. It is not an important factor in this exercise.

[build and

[Next

3. Click

[build] to finish.

4. Save the model and erase it from memory.

For University Use Only - Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7- 16 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis

Preferences. and check the Animate Model box. 4. 7. Open HAND_PUMP. For University Use Only . Ensure that the current working directory is set to OPTIMIZING_MECHANISM_DESIGNS under the OPTIMIZATIONS folder. select the volume:water_volume . Click Dimension . 8. 5. Click the LINK part and select the LENGTH dimension. 6.17 . 9. you will perform sensitivity analyses to identify the crucial design variables.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. They all turn out to be important. The volume changes from around 25 to around 29.NOTES EXERCISE 3: Performing Sensitivity Analyses Goal In this exercise. The Sensitivity dialog box is displayed. It indicates that the volume is sensitive to the link length. Select Options. 1. Click Compute and observe the SENSITIVITY PLOT.ASM. 2. Click Analysis > Sensitivity Analysis . 3. Select the LENGTH dimension in the link part as the VARIABLE SELECTION. Task 1. Accept other defaults. For the PARAMETERS TO PLOT. Specify the variable range to be from 6 to 10. Perform a sensitivity analysis to the LENGTH: LINK. Method You will perform sensitivity analyses to three dimensions.

Task 3. 2. Repeat the procedures in the previous task and use the following settings: VARIABLE SELECTION LENGTH: HANDLE VARIABLE RANGE: from 18 to 22. use the model tree to navigate to the HOLE ID 153 in the handle part. 1. 2. 1. PARAMETERS TO PLOT: volume:water_volume.NOTES Task 2. 2. Repeat the procedures in the previous task and use the following settings: VARIABLE SELECTION PIN: HANDLE. 1. It indicates that the volume is sensitive to this variable.18 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . 4. VARIABLE RANGE: from 5 to 10. Observe the SENSITIVITY PLOT. To locate the pinhole. For University Use Only . It indicates that the volume is sensitive to this variable. Pin location in the handle part: ____________.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7. Perform a sensitivity analysis to the Pin locating-dimension in the handle part. Task 4. Link length initial value:____________. Take a note of the current value of all three variables. Save the model and erase it from memory. Handle length initial value:____________. Perform a sensitivity analysis to the LENGTH: HANDLE. Observe the SENSITIVITY PLOT. 3.

Select >= from the operand drop-down list. Ensure that the current working directory is set to OPTIMIZING_MECHANISM_DESIGNS under the OPTIMIZATIONS folder. Select Set and enter [0. Define the goal of the optimization.125 ]. 3. Task 1. Select OK followed by Cancel to finish. 3. 1. Method You will optimize the hand pump using the information generated in the previous exercises. Select Maximize and volume:water_volume from the drop-down list. Task 2.19 . Create an optimization analysis to optimize the water volume.Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7. For University Use Only . 2. Select clearance: clearance from the PARAMETER drop-down list. Define the Design Constraints to make sure the clearance between the cylinder part and the rod top part is no less than 0. 4. The FEASIBILITY/OPTIMIZATION dialog box is displayed. 1. 5. 1.125 in. 2. and the name. Click Add . you will optimize the hand pump. Task 3. Accept the default Optimization STUDY TYPE. Click Analysis > Feasibility/Optimization .NOTES EXERCISE 4: Optimizing the Hand Pump Goal In this exercise.

NOTES Task 4. Confirm to update the design. Click Compute . Click Close . 2. Investigate the new values of the three variables. Take a note of the current time___________.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e 7. 4. From the previous exercise. 1. 2. the iteration_________ and the final volume__________. 1. Task 6. Click Add Dimension and select all three dimensions used in the previous exercise. we learned that the water volume is sensitive to all three variables. 1. take a note of the finishing time_________. Define the Design Variables.20 Mechan ism D esign and An a ly sis . Enter MDX and run the motion definition. Save the model and erase the assembly. Run the optimization analysis. Verify the design change. 5. 3. For University Use Only . The computation time varies depending on the hardware capability. When the optimization is completed. and observe the convergence graph. Define the range as follow: Length:HANDLE: 18 TO 22 Length:LINK: 6 TO 10 Pin:HANDLE: 5 TO 10 Task 5. 2.

Feasibility and Optimization analysis. The following types of analysis feature are used in the mechanism design optimization Measure Analysis Features Motion Analysis Features Relation Analysis Features Model Analysis Features For University Use Only . The purpose of Sensitivity.21 .Commercial Use Prohibited Optimi zing Me chan ism De signs Pag e 7.NOTES SUMMARY You have learned: • • • The Mechanism Design Extension is compatibility with the Behavioral Modeling Extension.

For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited - .

Page A-1 . Obtain context-sensitive help while performing a task. Search for specific information about Pro/ENGINEER.For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited - Appendix Using PTC Help In this module you learn how to use PTC Help to search for Pro/ENGINEER information. you will be able to: • • • Start PTC Help. Objectives After completing this module. PTC Help provides quick references and detailed information on selected topics.

Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e A. It offers: • • • • A table of contents. an index. Online tutorials focussed on teaching different aspects of the software. USING THE Pro/ENGINEER ONLINE HELP The Pro/ENGINEER Online Help can be accessed: • Using the Main Menu . Click Help > Contents and Index from the Pro/ENGINEER Main Menu. Figure 1: Accessing Help from the Main Menu For University Use Only . Detailed information on the Knowledge Database is referenced in the Technical Support Appendix. as shown in the following figure. Expanded help topics available as special dialog boxes. 1. and searching capability. Context-sensitive help access.2 Append ix A .NOTES DEFINING THE PTC HELP FEATURES The PTC Help system is integrated into Pro/ENGINEER. the PTC Technical Support online Knowledge features thousands of suggested techniques. Database For addition help.

A list of topics displays in the left frame of the window. Figure 2: Online Help Homepage • Using Context-Sensitive Help .Commercial Use Prohibited Usin g PT C Help Pag e A. For University Use Only . Click any icon or any part of the Pro/ENGINEER Main Menu for detailed information on a particular item. Click the icon in the Pro/ENGINEER Main Menu toolbar. A browser window displays with a description of the item.NOTES The Pro/ENGINEER Online Help homepage displays in your web browser window. 1.3 . 2.

The lower left corner of the browser window displays a See Also link. as shown in the previous figure For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e A.NOTES In the following example. Figure 3: Model Tree Icon Figure 4: The Help Browser Window for the Model Tree Icon 3.4 Append ix A . clicking the Model Tree icon in the Main Menu toolbar displays a browser window explaining the Model Tree icon functionality.

Figure 5: The See Also List of Topics For University Use Only . as shown in the following figure. The See Also link provides a list of related topics.Commercial Use Prohibited Usin g PT C Help Pag e A.5 .NOTES 4.

2. Click the icon in the Pro/ENGINEER Main Menu toolbar. 1. The X-Section menu command in the Menu Manager displays the TOPIC ROUTER browser window with a list of two related topics. Select any menu command from the Menu Manager. as shown in the following figure. 4. A TOPIC ROUTER browser window opens with a list of topic links that explain the menu command.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e A-6 Append ix A . 3. Figure 6: Using the Menu Manager For University Use Only .NOTES • Using the Pro/ENGINEER Menu Manager . Select a topic link.

7 . Figure 7: Right-Clicking in Menu Manager For University Use Only .NOTES • Using Vertical Menu Commands . Right-click and hold on a menu command until the GETHELP window displays.Commercial Use Prohibited Usin g PT C Help Pag e A. 1.

NOTES Defining the PTC Help Table of Contents There are four branches in the PTC Help Table of Contents: Figure 8: Four Main Branches in Help System Figure 9: Foundation and Additional Modules in Help For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e A-8 Append ix A .

Appendix For University Use Only . Navigate the PTC Products Knowledge Base.Commercial Use Prohibited - Technical Support In this module you learn about the telephone hotline and the online services that provide 24 hour / 7 day Technical Support. Register for online Technical Support. Locate telephone numbers for technical support and services. Objectives After completing this module you will be able to: • • • • Open a Technical Support telephone call. Page B-1 .

Opening Technical Support Calls via E-Mail Send email to cs_ptc@ptc. Germany.S.ptc.com/support/support..ptc.K. France.NOTES Locating the Technical Support Web Page Select SUPPORT from the PTC HOME PAGE. www. U. Use the following format (or download the template from www. Singapore.ptc.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B-2 Append ix B .htm.com..Tokyo NNN NNN-NNNN x-NNNN NNNNNN description starts description continues description ends DESC_END For University Use Only . Use copen as the e-mail subject. or go directly to www.com.com/cs/doc/copen.htm): FNAME LNAME CALLCENTER TELEPHONE CONFIG_ID PRODUCT MODULE PRIORITY DESC_BEGIN First Name Last Name U.

follow the instructions at: www. • • The PTC product name. When logging a call.ptc.com/support. you must provide the following information to the Technical Support Engineer: • • Your PTC software Configuration ID. your data is deleted by a Technical Support Engineer.3 . Priority of the issue. You may request a Non-Disclosure Agreement from the Technical Support En gineer. Sending Data Files to PTC Technical Support To send data files to PTC Technical Support. Note: When a call is resolved.htm.ptc. Your data confidential and will not be shared with any third party vendors.NOTES Opening Technical Support Calls via Telephone For your local Technical Support Center.Commercial Use Prohibited T e c h n i c a l Su p p o rt In f o rm at i o n Pag e B. refer to the Contact Information telephone list referenced at the end of this module. Opening Technical Support Calls via the Web To open Technical Support calls 24 / 7.com/support/cs_guide/additional. www. under any circumstances. Your name and telephone number. For University Use Only . select PRO/CALL LOGGERY in the PTC web site.

NOTES Routing Your Technical Support Calls Call Customer question Telephone Call Web Call Tech SupportEngineer creates a call in the database Call is automatically created in the database Investigation Call Back and Investigation Support Engineer solves issue or reports it to Development (SPR) Software Performance Report SPR fixed from Development SPR Software Performance Report (SPR) SPR Verification through Tech. Support Engineer Update CD to customer For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B-4 Append ix B .

For University Use Only . then enter your CONFIGURATION ID. To find your CONFIGURATION ID. High Medium – Software issue that does not affect immediate work or a practical alternative technique is available.NOTES Technical Support Call Priorities • • • • • Extremely Critical Critical Urgent – Work stopped – Work severely impacted – Work impacted Non Critical General Information Software Performance Report Priorities • • • Top Priority – Highly critical software issue that is causing a work stoppage. go to www.5 . Complete the information needed to identify yourself as a user.Commercial Use Prohibited T e c h n i c a l Su p p o rt In f o rm at i o n Pag e B. click Sign-up Online. – Critical software issue that affects immediate work and a practical alternative technique is not available. Registering for On-Line Support To open a registration form.com/support.ptc. click Help > About Pro/ENGINEER . Note your username and password for future reference.

Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B-6 Append ix B . you will have full access to the online tools. For University Use Only .NOTES Using the Online Services After you have registered.

and Suggested Techniques offer up-todate information about all relevant software areas. Technical Application Notes (TANs).Commercial Use Prohibited T e c h n i c a l Su p p o rt In f o rm at i o n Pag e B. For University Use Only . Technical Point of Interest (TPIs).000 documents.NOTES Finding Answers in the Knowledge Base The Technical Support KNOWLEDGE BASE contains over 18. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).7 .

and click Technical Support > Online Support Applications > Knowledge Base Monitor . TANs also may provide alternative techniques to allow a user to continue working.8 Append ix B .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B. French. TPIs are similar to TANs. Figure 1: Knowledge Base Monitor Sign Up For University Use Only . go to www. on how to use PTC software to complete common tasks. TPIs are created by Technical Support to document the resolution of common issues reported in actual customer calls.NOTES Terminology Used by Technical Support TAN – A Technical Application Note provides information about SPRs that may affect more than just the customer originally reporting an issue. FAQs and Suggested Techniques are available in English. – A Technical Point of Interest provides additional technical information about a software product. TPI Suggested Techniques FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions provides answers to many of the most commonly asked questions compiled from the PTC Technical Support database. Getting Up-To-Date Information To subscribe to our KNOWLEDGE BASE MONITOR e-mail service. – Provides step-by-step instructions including screen snapshots.com/support.ptc. and German. You will receive daily e-mail with the latest information on your product. but do not reference an SPR.

htm (Support) www.9 .com/cs/doc/feedback_nums.com/company/contacts/edserv.Commercial Use Prohibited T e c h n i c a l Su p p o rt In f o rm at i o n Pag e B.ptc.ptc.com (for suggestions about the Customer Service web site) • FTP • ftp.htm (Education) • E-mail cs_ptc@ptc.NOTES CONTACT INFORMATION Technical Support Worldwide Electronic Services The following services are available 24 / 7: • Web www.com • Telephone www.com/support/index.com (for opening calls and sending data) cs-webmaster@ptc.com (for transferring files to PTC Technical Support) Technical Support Customer Feedback Line The Customer Feedback Line is intended for general customer service concerns that are not technical product issues. • E-mail cs-feedback@ptc.ptc.htm For University Use Only .ptc.

and Documentation Requests): • • Within the United States and Canada 800-477-6435 Outside the United States and Canada: 781-370-5332 • • 781-370-5513 Maintenance 888-782-3774 Education 888-782-3773 For University Use Only .NOTES TELEPHONE AND FAX INFORMATION For assistance with technical issues. contact the Electronic Services noted in the previous section. Europe. PTC has nine integrated Technical Support Call Centers in North America. Our worldwide coverage ensures telephone access to Technical Support for customers in all time zones and in local languages. and Asia.Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B-10 Append ix B . North America Telephone Information Customer Services (including Technical Support. License Management. or the Technical Support line as listed in the Telephone and Fax Information sections below.

Commercial Use Prohibited Techni cal Suppo rt Info rm at ion Pag e B-11 .NOTES Europe Telephone Information Technical Support Telephone Numbers • • Austria 0800 29 7542 Belgium 0800-15-241 (French) • • • • 0800-72567 (Dutch) Denmark 08001-5593 Finland 0800-117092 France 0800-14-19-52 Germany 0180-2245132 49-89-32106-111 (for Pro/MECHANICA® outside of Germany) • • Ireland 1-800-409-1622 Israel 1-800-945-42-95 (All languages including Hebrew) 77-150-21-34 (English only) • • Italy 0800-79-05-33 Luxembourg 0800-23-50 For University Use Only .

NOTES • • • • • • • Netherlands 0800022-4519 Norway 8001-1872 Portugal 05-05-33-73-69 South Africa 0800-991068 Spain 900-95-33-39 Sweden 020-791484 Switzerland 0800-55-38-33 (French) 0800-83-75-58 (Italian) 0800-552428 (German) United Kingdom 0800-318677 • License Management Telephone Numbers • • • • • • Belgium 0800-75376 Denmark 8001-5593 Finland 0800-117-092 Eastern Europe 44 1252 817 078 France 0800-14-19-52 Germany 49 (0) 89-32106-0 For University Use Only .12 Append ix B .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B.

NOTES • • • • • • • • • • Ireland 1-800-409-1622 Italy 39 (0) 39-65651 Netherlands 0800-022-0543 Norway 8001-1872 Portugal 05-05-33-73-69 Russia 44 1252 817 078 Spain 900-95-33-39 Sweden 020-791484 Switzerland 41 (0) 1-8-24-34-44 United Kingdom 0800-31-8677 For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Techni cal Suppo rt Info rm at ion Pag e B-13 .

14 Append ix B .NOTES Education Services Telephone Numbers • • • • Benelux 31-73-644-2705 France 33-1-69-33-65-50 Germany 49 (0) 89-32106-325 Italy 39-039-65-65-652 • • 39-039-6565-1 Spain/Portugal 34-91-452-01-00 Sweden 46-8-590-956-00 (Malmo) • • 46-8-590-956-46 (Upplands Vasby) Switzerland 41 (0) 1-820-00-80 United Kingdom 44-0800-212-565 (toll free within UK) 44-1252-817-140 For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B.

Commercial Use Prohibited Techni cal Suppo rt Info rm at ion Pag e B-15 .NOTES Asia and Pacific Rim Telephone Information Technical Support Telephone Numbers • • Australia 1800-553-565 China* 10800-650-8185 (international toll free) • • • 108-657 (manual toll free) Hong Kong 800-933309 India* 000-6517 Indonesia 001-803-65-7250 7-2-48-55-00-35 • • • • • Japan 120-20-9023 Malaysia 1-800-80-1026 New Zealand 0800-44-4376 Philippines 1800-1-651-0176 Singapore 65-830-9899 • South Korea 00798-65-1-7078 (international toll free) 080-3469-001 (domestic toll free) For University Use Only .

Commercial Use Prohibited - • • Pag e B.NOTES • Taiwan 0080-65-1256 (international toll free) 080-013069 (domestic toll free) Thailand 001-800-65-6213 • Callers dialing from India or China must provide the operator with the respective string: • • China MTF8309729 India MTF8309752 The operator will then connect you to the Singapore Technical Support Center.16 Append ix B . License Management Telephone Numbers • • Japan 81 (0) 3-3346-8280 Hong Kong (852) 2802-8982 Education Services Telephone Numbers • Australia 61 2 9955 2833 (Sydney) 61 3 9561 4111 (Melbourne) • China 86-20-87554426 (GuangZhou) 86-21-62785080 (Shanghai) 86-10-65908699 (Beijing) Hong Kong 852-28028982 India For University Use Only .

Commercial Use Prohibited Techni cal Suppo rt Info rm at ion Pag e B-17 .#306 (Bangalore) 91-11-6474701 (New Delhi) 91-226513152 (Mumbai) • • Japan 81-3-3346-8268 Malaysia 03-754 8198 For University Use Only .NOTES 91-80-2267272 Ext.

NOTES • • • Singapore 65-8309866 South Korea 82-2-3469-1080 Taiwan 886-2-758-8600 (Taipei) 886-4-3103311 (Taichung) 886-7-3323211 (Kaohsiung) ELECTRONIC SERVICES Up-to-Date + Information Worldwide ISO 9000 Certification Quality Control System = Maximum Productivity with PTC Products For University Use Only .Commercial Use Prohibited Pag e B.18 Append ix B .