EWSD

System Description

EWSD - System Description
1.0 Introduction :
The Department of Telecommunications had announced ambitious plans for the addition of 7.5 million lines to the existing 5.8 million by the end of the 8th plan (1992-97) as compared to only 3.2 million in 1982-92. Consequent upon delicensing of the Telecom. equipment and throwing it open to foreign investments, six new technologies were planned to be validated. These foreign suppliers set up their validation exchanges, each of 10,000 lines capacity (including two RSUs of 2K each), at different places, e.g. EWSD of Siemens (Germany) at Calcutta, AXE-10 of Ericsson (Sweden) at Madras, Fetex150 of Fujitsu (Japan) at Bombay, OCB-283 of Alcatel (France) at Delhi etc. EWSD is one of the technologies selected for TAX and is also the technology for Intelligent Network and Mobile Communication. This article gives a general introduction to the EWSD system, its features, architecture and facilities.

2.0

System Features :
EWSD Digital switching system has been designed and manufactured by M/s Siemens, Germany. The name is the abbreviated form of German equivalent of Electronic Switching System Digital (Electronische Wheler Systeme Digitale). EWSD switch can support maximum 2,50,000 subscribers or 60,000 incoming, outgoing or both way trunks, when working as a pure tandem exchange. It can carry 25,200 Erlang traffic. It is claimed that the system can withstand a BHCA of four million with CP-113C in case of EWSD Powernode (two million in case of EWSD Classic). However, the effective dynamic call set up performance depends on the available features and the actual call-mix. It can work as local cum transit exchange and supports CCS No.7, ISDN and IN and V5.X features.

3.0

System Architecture :
The main hardware units of an EWSD switch are as under:(1) (2) Digital line unit (DLU) - functional unit on which subscriber lines are terminated. Line/Trunk Group (LTG) - Digital Trunks and DLUs are connected to LTGs.

EWSD

System Description

Access DLUC DLU C LTG GP

Switching Network

LTG GP

Common channel signaling/ Signaling CCNC/ System Network Control SSNC

SYPC

EM Coordination OMT

SYP MB
CCG

CP

MBC

SGC

Distributed controls in EWSD

The access function determined by the network environment are handled by DLUs and LTGs .

EWSD (3)

System Description Switching Network (SN) - All the LTGs are connected to the SN which inter connects the line and trunks connected to the exchange in accordance with the call requirement of the subscribers. CCNC and CP are also connected to SN.

(4) Coordination Processor (CP) - It is used for system-wide coordination functions, such as, routing, zoning, etc. However each subsystem in EWSD carryout practically all the tasks arising in their area independently. (5) Common Channel Signaling Network Control (CCNC) Unit or Signaling System Network Control (SSNC)- This unit functions as the Message Transfer Part (MTP) of CCS#7. The User Part (UP) is incorporated in the respective LTGs. Block diagram of EWSD is given on previous page. It also shows that the most important controls are distributed throughout the system. This distributed control reduces the coordination overheads and the necessity of communication between the processors. It results in high dynamic performance standard. For inter-processor communications , 64 kbps semipermanent connections are set through SN. This avoids the necessity for a separate interprocessor network. 3.1 Digital Line Unit (DLU) Analog or Digital (ISDN) subscribers, PBX lines or V5.1 interface are terminated on DLU . DLUs can be used locally within the exchange or remotely as remote switch unit , in the vicinity of the groups of subscribers. DLUs are connected to EWSD sub-systems via a uniform interface standardized by CCITT, i.e., Primary Digital Carrier (PDC) to facilitate Local or Remote installation. A subset of CCS# 7 is used for CCS on the PDCs. One DLU is connected to two different LTGs for the reasons of security. A local DLU is connected to two LTGs via two 4 Mbps (64 TSs) links, each towards a different LTG. In case of remote DLUs, maximum 4 PDCs of 2 Mbps (32 TSs) are used per DLU, two towards each LTG. Hence total 124 channels are available between a DLU and the two LTGs, out of which 120 channels are used for user

EWSD

System Description

Subscriber lines and PBX lines for small and medium-sized PBXs

Local application

4 Mbps LTG DLU 4Mbps

Subscriber lines and PBX lines for small and medium-sized PBXs

Remote application

PDC0 with ccs PDC1 without ccs

DLU

PDC2 with ccs PDC3 without ccs

LTG

SN

Remote application : in same directory number area, in another directory number area, as extension to conventional exchange.

CCITT standard interface G.703

CP

Applications and connection of Digital Line Unit

information (speech or data) and signaling information is carried in TS16 of PDC0 and PDC2. In case of a local DLU interface, TS32 carries the signaling information.

EWSD

System Description Within the DLU, the analog subscribers are terminated on SLMA (Subscriber Line Module Analog) cards (module). Similarly Digital (ISDN) subscribers are terminated on the SLMD modules. Each module can support 16 subscribers, hence has 16 SLCA/SLCDs (Subscribers Line Circuit Analog/Digital) and one processor SLMCP. One DLU can carry traffic of 100 Erlangs. A standard rack of DLU (local ) can accommodate two DLUs of 952 subscribers each. In case the link between a remote DLU and the main exchange is broken, the subscribers connected to the remote DLU can still dial each other but metering will not be possible in this case. For emergency service DLU-controller (DLUC) always contain up-to-date subscribers data. Stand Alone Service Controller card (SASCE) is provided in each R-DLU for switching calls in such cases ( call setup and release for analog and ISDN subscribers and enables DTMF dialling for pushbutton subscribers). This card is also used for interconnecting a number of remotely situated DLUs (maximum 6), in a cluster, called a Remote Control Unit (RCU), so that subscribers connected to these remote DLUs can also talk to each other in case the link of more than one DLU to the main exchange is broken. All DLUs are provided with a Test Unit (TU) for performing tests and measurements on SLCAs, subscribers lines and telephones. An ALEX (ALarm EXternals) module is used for forwarding external alarms, i.e., fire, temperature, etc. to System Control Panel (SYP). Numbers of SLMAs are accordingly reduced to accommodate these modules. The main components of a DLU are: • • SLMAs and / or SLMDs Two Digital Interface Units for DLU (DIUD) for connections of the PDCs. Two DLU Controls (DLUC)

• Two 4 Mbps networks for the transmission of user information between SLMs and the DIUDs. • Two control network for the transmission of control information between SLMs and DLUCs. • Test Unit (TU), External Alarm module (ALEX) Alarm modules.

EWSD

System Description

PDC0

SLMA Analog and ISDN Subscriber lines, PBX lines SLMD Test line Test

DIUD0

PDC1

DLUC0

DLU
DIUD1

to two LTGs
PDC2 PDC3

DLUC1
4096 kbps network 0 4096 kbps network 1 Control network 0 Control network 1

TU

Main Components of a DLU

EWSD DLUG :

System Description

The latest type of DLU is DLUG which can accommodates upto 1984 analogue subscribers with 32 ports per SLMA but the SLMD still accommodates 16 subscribers. It can be connected to four LTGs with 16 PDCs with a provision of one signalling channel (CCS) per LTG. It can handle up to 390 Erlangs of traffic. 3.2

Line/Trunk Groups
The line/trunk groups (LTG) forms the interface between the digital environment of an EWSD exchange and the switching network (SN). Maximum traffic handling capacity per LTG is 100 Erlang. The LTGs are connected in any of Erl the following ways : (i) Via 2/4 Mb/s PDCs with remote/local DLUs to which connected subscribers are

(ii) Via 2 Mbps digital access lines to other digital exchanges in the network ( MF R2 Trunks, CCS#7 Trunks) (iii) Via Primary rate Access lines to ISDN PBXs (ISDN subscribers with PA) (iv) V5.2 Trunks, Announcements Trunks, OCANEQ, X.25 Links for PSPDN, IP (SSP) Functions The primary functions of the LTG are as follows: (i) Call processing functions, i.e., receiving and analyzing line and register signals, injecting audible tones, switching user channels from and to the switching network, etc. (ii) Safeguarding functions, i.e., detecting errors in the LTG and on transmission paths within the LTG, analyzing the extent of errors and initiating countermeasures such as disabling channels or lines, etc. (iii) Operation and maintenance functions, i.e., acquiring traffic data, carrying out quality-of-service measurements, etc. The LTGs can work with all standard signaling systems (e.g. CCITT No. 5, R2, No.7). Echo suppressers like DEC120 can be incorporated in the LTGs for the connection of long-haul circuits (e.g., via satellite).

EWSD

System Description

DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL TYPES IN LTG

Functional TYPE B Function LTG
(For DLUs[L&R], PRI,V5.2,OCANEQ,C OU)

Frame TYPE
A Type (For DLUs[L&R], PRI, Trunks)

C Function
(For Trunks on CAS & CCS and CCS#7 signalling channels)

LTGN
B Type (for special functions like COUC, PHMA ( V5.2), ATE:N, OCE:N)

In case of LTGP, A type frame is used for all type of functions except for user interactive LTG where B type frame is used

Although the subscriber lines and trunks employ different signaling systems, the LTGs present signaling-independent interface to the switching network. This facilitates the following:

EWSD

System Description - flexible introduction of additional or modified signaling procedures, - a signaling-independent software system in the CP for all applications. The bit rate on all highways linking the line/trunk groups and the switching network is 8192 kbps ( 8 Mbps ). Each 8 Mbps highway contains 128 channels at 64kbps each. Each LTG is connected to both planes of the duplicated switching network. The functional units of the line/trunk group are: • Line / Trunk Unit (LTU) is a logical unit that comprises a number of different functional units, i.e. Digital Interface unit ( DIU30 ) for connection of 2 Mbps digital trunks and either DLU or PA. One LTG can comprise four DIU30. Code Receivers (CR) are Multi-frequency code receivers for trunks or DTMF subscribers. Conference Unit, module B or module C (COUB or COUC) for conference calls. This is installed in special function LTGMs or LTGNs. Automatic Test Equipment for Trunks (ATE:N) checks trunks and Tone Generators (TOG) during routine tests. This is installed in special function LTGMs or LTGNs.

Signaling Unit (SU) comprises Tone Generator (TOG) for audible tones, Code Receivers (CR) for MFC signaling and push-button dialing and Receiver Module for Continuity Check (RM:CTC), etc. Group Switch (GS) which functions as non-blocking time stage switch ( 512 TS) controlled by the GP. Link Interface Unit (LIU) connects LTG to SN via two parallel 8 Mbps SDCs.

• •

EWSD

System Description

SU LTU DIU:LDIB DIU30 or CR TOG CTC

GS

LIU

COUC LTU COUB or

SPHI
SPHO

SIHI SIHO

(8Mbps)

to/from SN (8Mbps )

SN0

SN1

LTU CR or

Address signals

OCANEQ LTU PHMA ATE:T GP (PU, MU, SMX and GCG)
SILC

Internal Structure of LTG

EWSD •

System Description

Group Processor (GP) controls the functional units of the LTG. The received signals from LTU, SU, GS and LIU are processed with the help of GP software.

In LTGG, GS and LIU have been combined into GSL module. One LTG rack can accommodate 40 PCMs in five LTGG frames, each containing two LTGGs. LTGM was the next standard type of LTG. Only three modules are necessary for a complete LTGM namely DIU120A or DIU:LDIM, GPL and GSM. Upto 30 LTGM can be installed in one rack with each frame containing 5 LTGM. LTGN was introduced next to LTGM. Only one module (GPN) makes up a complete LTGN for the basic tasks. Upto 16 LTGN can be installed in frame F:LTGN(A) and a rack can contain 64 LTGN. However, if module like COUC, PHMA for V5.2, ATE:N, DEC120 or OCE:N is to be accommodated alongwith GPN to implement a special function, only 8 LTGN can be accommodated in F: LTGN(B). LTGP is the latest release of LTG. One GPP module accommodates four LTG with a provision of one additional module like PHMA, DEC120 or OCE:N etc for each GPP to implement a special function. Up to 32 LTG can be installed in one frame F:LTGP(A) and a rack can accommodate 192 LTG using six frames. However, if one of the LTG is to work as a user Interactive LTG requiring module OCE:N and one or two modules VPU:N, the frame required will be F:LTGP(B) which can accommodate 28 LTG in one frame.

EWSD

System Description

SN SDC:LTG LTG 1 SDC:SSG SDC:LTG LTG n SDC:CCNC CCNC TIME STAGE SDC:SSG GROUP SPACE STAGE GROUP

MB

SDC:TSG

CP

SDC:SGC SGC SDC:SGC SGC

Switching Network

3.3

Switching Network Different peripheral units of EWSD, i.e., LTGs, CCNC, MB are connected to the Switching Network (SN) via 8192 kbps highways called SDCs (Secondary

EWSD

System Description Digital Carriers), which have 128 channels each. The SN consists of several duplicated Time Stage Groups (TSG) and Space Stage Groups (SSG) housed in separate racks. Connection paths through the TSGs and SSGs are switched by the Switch Group Controls (SGC) provided in each TSG and SSG, in accordance with the switching information from the coordination processor (CP). The SGCs also independently generate the setting data and set the message channels for exchange of data between the distributed controls. The switching network is always duplicated (planes 0 and 1). Each connection is switched simultaneously through both planes, so that a standby connection is always immediately available in the event of a failure. Each TSG can accommodate 63 SDCs from LTGs and one SDC to MB. One SDC is extended from SGC of each TSG and SSG towards MB. Thus one TSG can handle upto 63 LTGs. The switching network can be expanded in small stages by adding plug-in modules and cables and if necessary by assigning extra racks. Optimized switching network configurations are available in a range of sizes. The smallest duplicated SN:63 LTG configuration which can handle 30,000 subscriber lines or 7,500 trunks when fully equipped is installed in a single rack and can handle 3150 erlangs traffic. In its maximum configuration, the EWSD switching network has 8 TSGs and 4 SSGs (in 12 Racks) to connect 504 LTGs and has a traffic - handling capacity of 25,200 erlangs. SNs for 126 LTGs and 252 LTGs are also available which can handle 6300 and 12600 erlangs traffic respectively. SN(B) has only 5 types of modules and each TSG and SSG is accommodated in only two shelves of the respective racks. Remaining four shelves accommodate LTGs.

Main Functions:
*Speech Path Switching
*Message Path Switching *CCS#7 signaling channels connection (NUC)

EWSD

System Description

Maximum configuration of CP113C Basic configuration of CP 113C, 11 . . 0 IOP IOP 11 . . 0 IOP IOP

IOP

IOP

IOP

IOP

B:IOC

B:IOC

CAP0

CAP5

AMP0

AMP1 BAPM

BAPS

IOC0 IOC1

IOC2

IOC3

BCMY1

BCMY0

CMY1 CMY0

Hardware Structure of CP 113 C

EWSD 3.4 3.4.1 Coordination Area Coordination Processor

System Description

The coordination processor (CP) handles the data base as well as configuration and coordination functions, e.g.: - Storage and administration of all programs, exchange and subscriber data, - Processing of received information for routing, path selection, zoning, charges, - Communication with operation and maintenance centres, - Supervision of all subsystems, receipt of error messages, analysis of supervisory result messages, alarm treatment, error messages, alarm treatment, error detection, error location and error neutralization and configuration functions. - Handling of the man-machine interface. The CP113C is multiprocessor and can be expanded in stages. In the CP113C, two or more identical processors operate in parallel with load sharing. The rated load of n processors is distributed among n+1 processors. This means that if one processor fails, operation can continue without restriction (redundancy mode with n+1 processors). The Basic functional units of CP 113C are as follows: Base Processor (BAP) for operation & maintenance and call processing, Common Memory (CMY)- 64 to 1024 MB in 4 memory banks consisting of 4 Mb DRAM chips. Input / Output Controller (IOC) - 2 to 4 IOCs coordinate and supervise accessing of CMY by IOPs. ATM Bridge Processor (AMP) – If a SSNC (EWSD powernode) is connected, the AMP is used (usually instead of the second IOC pair). It represents the interface between the ATM equipment in the SSNC and the CP. Its task is to convert the ATM oriented data streams from SSNC to the internal EWSD format. Input/output processors (IOP) - Various types of IOPs are used to connect the CP113C to the other subsystems and functional units of the exchange as well as to the external mass storage devices (EM i.e., MDD, MTD, MOD), the two O&M terminals (OMT/ BCT), to OMC via data lines etc. Maximum 12 IOPs can be connected to one IOC. The figure is shown on next page.

-

EWSD

System Description The other functional units of CP 113C are call processors (CAPs) which deal only with call processing functions. Hardware wise they are similar to BAPs

3.4.2

Other units assigned to CP are: • • Message Buffer (MB) for coordinating internal message traffic between the CP, the SN, the LTGs and the CCNC in an exchange. Central Clock Generator (CCG) for the synchronization of the exchange and, where necessary, the network. The CCG is extremely accurate (10-9). It can, however, be synchronized even more accurately by an external master clock (10 11). System Panel Display (SYPD) to display system internal alarms and the CP load. It thus provides a continuous overview of the state of the system. The SYP also displays external alarms such as fire and air-conditioning system failure for example. It is installed in the Equipment Room or in the Exploitation Room. Operation and Maintenance Terminals/ Basic Craft Terminal for Input/output. Two OMTs/ BCTs are provided for O&M functions. External memory (EM), for Programs and data that do not always have to be resident in the CP, An image of all resident programs and data for automatic recovery, Call charge and traffic measurement data.

• •

To ensure that these programs and data are safeguarded under all circumstances, the EM is duplicated. It consists of two magnetic disk devices (MDD). The EM also has a magneto optical disk ( MOD) and/or magnetic tape device (MTD), for input and output.

EWSD

System Description

BIOC0
IOP:UN1
IOP:MB CCNP IOP:MB IOP:MB

MDD
MOD

BIOC1 Number depends on SN size.

MTD OMT/BCT/

MBG
IOP:MB

NetM boot

IOP:MB

Data lines
IOP:UN1

CCG

IOP:MB

MDD
MOD

Alarm function : monitors fans of CP racks
Normally with EWSD Classic

IOP:TA

MTD OMT/BCT/

IOP:TA

NetM boot

Data lines
IOP:MB

SYPC

IOP: SCDP
IOP:MB

LCUB
(IOP:LAU)

LAUB ((LAU) LCUB
((LAU)

X.25 links to e.g. OMC, CT or billing center

LCUB
(IOP:LAU) IOC0 BCMY0 BCMY1 IOC1

normally with EWSD Classic

Structure of the CP113C input/output system with 2 IOCs

EWSD 3.5 Units for Message transfer part (MTP) of CCS#7

System Description

The CCITT- standardized signaling system No.7 (CCS#7) is one of the systems that is used for interexchange signaling in EWSD. To promote flexibility in the use of this system a distinction is made between a message transfer part (MTP) and the user parts (UP). The user parts vary according to the specific application (e.g. TUP: telephone user part, ISDN-UP: ISDN user part, MUP: mobile user part). The common MTP functions in an EWSD exchange are handled by the common channel signaling network control (CCNC) or Signaling System Network Control (SSNC). The UP is incorporated in the software of the relevant LTG. (a) Common Channel Signaling Network Control (CCNC) A maximum of 254 common signaling channels can be connected to the CCNC via either digital or analog links. The digital links are extended from the LTGs over both planes of the duplicated switching network and multiplexers to the CCNC. The CCNC is connected to the switching network via two 8 Mbps highways (SDC: CCNC). Between the CCNC and each switching network plane, 254 channels for each direction of transmission are available (254 channel pairs). The channels carry signaling data via both switching network planes to and from the LTGs at a speed of 64 kbps. Analog signaling links are linked to the CCNC via modems. For reasons of reliability, the CCNC has a duplicated processor (CCNP) which is connected to the CP by means of similarly duplicated bus system. The CCNC consists of : Upto 32 signaling link terminal (SILT) groups, each with 8 signaling links and One duplicated common channel signaling network processor (CCNP).

The functions of the CCNC depend on its position in a signaling link. In the originating or destination exchange in associated signaling, it operates as signaling end point (SEP) and in transit exchange in quasi-associated signaling, it operates as a signaling transfer point (STP). The CCNC, equipped in one rack can handle upto 48 signaling links. Equipments handling upto 96 signaling links can be equipped in additional racks.

EWSD

System Description

CCS via analog data links

Modem

Multiplexer

CCS via digital data links
7

0 SILT group 0

7

0 SILT group 31

0

31

0

31

CCNP 0

CCNP 1

CP bus system Common Channel Signalling Network Control

EWSD

System Description

System Data
Call-handling capacity No. of Subscriber lines No. of Trunks Switchable traffic -48 V nominal direct voltage Maximum relative frequency deviation : plesiochoronous 10-9; synchronous 10-11 All conventional signaling systems, e.g. CCITT R2, No.5, No.7 Various loop and shunt resistance possible. Push-button dialing, Multi-freq. signaling to CCITT Recommendation Q.23 Rotary dialing: 5 to 22 pulse/s Basic access Primary rate access Digital trunk accesses Traffic routing 2048 kbps Per destination one primary route and max. 15 alternate routes. Sequential or random selection of idle trunk of a trunk group Number of trunk groups per exchange: Max. 1000 incoming and Max. 1000 outgoing and Max. 1000 bothway 160 kbps(2B+D+sync.) B= 64 kbps, D= 16 kbps 2048 kbps(30B+D+sync.) max. 250 000 max. 60 000 max. 25 200 E.

Supply voltage Clock accuracy

Signaling systems Analog subscriber line and trunk accesses

ISDN accesses

EWSD Call charge registration

System Description Periodic pulse metering, AMA Automatic Message Accounting or Detailed Billing (CAMA, LAMA) IACHASTA Inter Administration Charging and Statistics Max. 511 zones Max. 6 tariffs per zone Tariff switchover possible in 15-minute timing intervals Transmission of communication data to computer center (output on tape also possible)

Environmental conditions

Ambient temperature Relative humidity

5°C to 40°C 10% to 80%