# Gears Design and Simulation for

Gears Design and Simulation for
Car Transmission
Car Transmission
Jiting Li, Weidong Guo, Mileta M Tomovic
School of Technology
Mechanical Engineering Technology
Outline
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Strength Design of the Gear Mesh
Finite Elements Analysis of Gears
http://www.purdue.edu/discoverypark/PLM/SME/car_transmission.zip
The transmission is used to increase the driving torque of the engine.
It is connected to the engine through the clutch, and connected with
drive shaft through U-joint.
Driving System Illustration [1]
Transmission Graphic Illustration [1]
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
-999 -3.38:1 Reverse
3,375 1:1 4th
2,538 1.33:1 3rd
1,679 2.01:1 2nd
999 3.38:1 1st
RPM at Transmission Output Shaft
with Engine at 3375 rpm
Ratio Gear
Assume that the transmission is required to have five different gear
ratios, listed in the following Table.
Input Shaft
Output Shaft
Counter Shaft
Idler Gear Shaft
Z
23
Z
35
Z
27
Z
33
Z
40
Z
18
Z
25
Z
31
Z
20
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
To meet the requirement, the mechanism of the transmission is designed
as follows.
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Z
18
Z
20
Z
40
Z
25
Gear
33 Z
33
18 31 Z
31
20 27 Z
27
40 35 Z
35
25 23 Z
23
Tooth number
Tooth number Gear
And the tooth number of the gears is listed in the following table.
Note! The transmission mechanism comes from literature [2].
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Then the simulation is carried on to validate the kinematic design
result. All the gears and shafts are first modeled and assembled in
certain solid modeling software, such as Solidworks and
Unigraphics, and then imported into the kinematic and dynamic
analysis software ADAMS/View to do the kinematic simulations.
First Gear
Z
23
Z
35
Z
40
Z
18
38 . 3
18 23
40 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
18 23
40 35
1
=
×
×
= =
Transmission ratio
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
First Gear Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Second Gear
Z
23
Z
35
Z
33
Z
25
01 . 2
25 23
33 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
25 23
33 35
2
=
×
×
= = Transmission ratio
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Second Gear Simulation
Third Gear
Transmission ratio 33 . 1
31 23
27 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
31 23
27 35
3
=
×
×
= =
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Z
27
Z
31
Z
23
Z
35
Third Gear Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Fourth Gear
Connecting Shaft
Transmission ratio 1 GR
4
=
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Fourth Gear Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Reverse
Z
23
Z
35
Z
40
Z
18
38 . 3
18 23
40 35
Z Z
Z Z
GR
18 23
40 35
rev
− =
×
×
− = − =
Transmission ratio
Z
20
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Reverse Simulation
Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
There are five pairs of gear mesh to be designed. Here we just take the first pair,
i.e., the gear mesh 1, for an example. The design method for others are same.
Note! All the Equations, Figures and Tables will be used are come from
literature [3].
Requirements: Design a 1.522:1 helical-gear reduction for a 18-hp, output shaft of
engine running at 3375rpm. The load is medium shock, providing a reliability of
0.95 at 10
9
revolutions of the pinion. Using through hardened steel, grade 1 material.
Solutions: Make the a priori decisions as
•Function:18hp, 3375rpm, R=0.95, N=10
9
cycles, K
o
=1.35
•Design factor for unquantifiable exingencies: n
d
=3
•Tooth system: Φ
n
=20°, helix angle: ψ=20°
•Tooth count: N
P
=23 teeth, N
G
= 35 teeth
•Quality number: Q
v
•Assume m
B
≥1.2 in Eq.(14-40), K
B
=1
Pitch: Select a trial diametral pitch of Pd=8 teeth/in. Thus, d
P
=23/8=2.875
in and d
G
=35/8=4.375 in. From Table 14-2,Y
P
=3.334, Y
G
=0.374. From
Fig. 14-6, J
P
=0.345,J
G
=0.375.
lbf 833 . 233
272 . 2540
18 33000
V
H 33000
W
ft/min 272 . 2540
12
75 π(2.875)33
12
n πd
V
t
p p
=
×
= =
= = =
From Eqs.(14-28) and (14-27),
404 . 1
72 . 70
272 . 2540 72 . 70
A
V A
K
72 . 70 ) 63 . 0 1 ( 56 50 ) B 1 ( 56 50 A
63 . 0 ) 8 12 ( 25 . 0 ) Q 12 ( 25 . 0 B
63 . 0 B
v
3 / 2 3 / 2
v
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
=
= − + = − + =
= − = − =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
From Eq.(14-38)
885 . 0 ) 95 . 0 1 ln( 0759 . 0 658 . 0 ) R 1 ln( 0759 . 0 658 . 0 K
R
= − − = − − =
From Fig.14-14,
874 . 0 ) 522 . 1 / 10 ( 6831 . 1 ) 522 . 1 / N ( 6831 . 1 ) (Y
862 . 0 ) 10 ( 6831 . 1 N 6831 . 1 ) (Y
0323 . 0 9 0323 . 0
G N
0323 . 0 9 0323 . 0
P N
= = =
= = =
− −
− −
From Fig.14-15,
791 . 0 ) 522 . 1 / 10 ( 466 . 2 ) 522 . 1 / N ( 466 . 2 ) (Z
773 . 0 ) 10 ( 466 . 2 N 466 . 2 ) (Z
056 . 0 9 056 . 0
G N
056 . 0 9 056 . 0
P N
== = =
= = =
− −
− −
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
From the recommendation after Eq. (14-8), 3p ≤ F≤5p. Try F=1.57 in.
From Eq.(a), Sec. 14-10,
061 . 1
8
334 . 0 57 . 1
192 . 1
P
Y F
192 . 1 K
0535 . 0 0535 . 0
s
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
From Eqs.(14-31), (14-33), (14-35), C
mc
=C
pm
=C
e
=1. From Fig. 14-11,
C
ma
=0.11 for commercial enclosed gear units. From Eq. (14-32),
037 . 0 ) 57 . 1 ( 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
) 875 . 2 ( 10
57 . 1
F 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
d 10
F
C
P
Pf
= + − = + − =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
From Eq. (14-30),
147 . 1 )] 1 ( 11 . 0 ) 1 ( 037 . 0 [ 1 1 ) C C C C ( C 1 K
e ma pm pf mc m
= + + = + + =
From Table 14-8, for steel gears,
psi 2300 C
P
=
° = =
Ψ
Φ
= Φ 17 . 21
20 cos
20 tg
arctg
cos
tg
arctg
n
t
o
o
in 341 . 1 17 . 21 cos
2
875 . 2
cos r r
t P bP
= ° = Φ =
in 040 . 2 17 . 21 cos
2
375 . 4
cos r r
t G bG
= ° = Φ =
in 125 . 0
8
1
P
1
a = = =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
[ ] [ ]
581 . 0 17 . 21 sin )
2
375 . 4
2
875 . 2
(
040 . 2 ) 125 . 0
2
375 . 4
( 341 . 1 ) 125 . 0
2
875 . 2
(
sin ) r r ( r ) a r ( r ) a r ( Z
2 / 1
2 2
2 / 1
2 2
t G P
2 / 1
2
bG
2
G
2 / 1
2
bP
2
P
= ° + −

− + +

− + =
Φ + − − + + − + =
in 393 . 0
8 P
p
n
=
π
=
π
=
143 . 0
1 8
8
2
20 sin 20 cos
1 P
P
2
20 sin 20 cos
I =
+
=
+
=
o o o o
669 . 0
) 581 . 0 ( 95 . 0
20 cos 393 . 0
Z 95 . 0
cos p
Z 95 . 0
P
m
n n N
N
= =
Φ
= =
o
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
in 963 . 0
) 862 . 0 ( 40000
) 885 . 0 ( 1
345 . 0
) 1 ( 147 . 1
) 8 ( 061 . 1 ) 404 . 1 ( 35 . 1 ) 833 . 233 ( 3
Y S
K K
J
K K
P K K K W n ) F (
N t
R T
P
B m
d s v o
t
d bend
= =
=
Pinion tooth bending.
With the above estimates of K
s
and K
m
from the trial dimetral pitch, we
check to see if the mesh width F is controlled by bending or wear
considerations. Choose the hardness of steel through-hardened HB=350.
From Fig. 14-2
Equating Eqs. (14-15) and (14-17), substituting n
d
W
t
for W
t
and solving
for face with (F)
bend
necessary to resist bending fatigue, we obtain
kpsi 40 12800 77.3HB S
t
= + =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
psi 41800 1 00 91 2 HB 22 3 S
c
= + =
From Fig. 14-5,
Then
in 790 . 0
) 143 . 0 ( 875 . 2
) 1 ( 147 . 1
061 . 1 ) 404 . 1 ( 35 . 1 ) 833 . 233 ( 3
885 . 0 ) 1 ( 141800
) 773 . 0 ( 2300
I d
C K
K K K W n
K K S
Z C
) F (
2
P
f m
s v o
t
d
2
R T C
N p
wear
=

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Decision
Make face width 1.2 in. Correct K
s
and K
m
:
046 . 1
8
334 . 0 2 . 1
192 . 1
P
Y F
192 . 1 K
0535 . 0 0535 . 0
s
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
019 . 0 ) 2 . 1 ( 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
) 875 . 2 ( 10
2 . 1
F 0125 . 0 0375 . 0
d 10
F
C
P
Pf
= + − = + − =
129 . 1 )] 1 ( 11 . 0 ) 1 ( 019 . 0 [ 1 1 ) C C C C ( C 1 K
e ma pm pf mc m
= + + = + + =
psi 768 . 10115
345 . 0
) 1 ( 129 . 1
2 . 1
8
) 046 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233
J
K K
F
P
K K K W ) (
P
B m d
s v o
t
P
= =
= σ
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
The bending stress induced by W
t
in bending, from Eq. (14-15), is
psi 768 . 10115
345 . 0
) 1 ( 129 . 1
2 . 1
8
) 046 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233
J
K K
F
P
K K K W ) (
P
B m d
s v o
t
P
= =
= σ
The factor of safety in bending of the pinion, from Eq. (14-41), is
852 . 3
768 . 10115
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
) 862 . 0 ( 40000
) K K (
Y S
) S (
R T
N t
P F
= =
σ
=
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Decision.
Gear tooth bending. Use cast gear blank because of the 4.375-in pitch
diameter. Use the same material, heat treatment, and nitriding. The load-
induced bending stress is in the rotio of J
P
/J
G
. Then
psi 507 . 9306
375 . 0
345 . 0
768 . 10115
J
J
) ( ) (
G
P
P G
= = σ = σ
245 . 4
507 . 9306
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
) 874 . 0 ( 40000
) S (
G F
= =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Pinion tooth wear.
The contact stress, given by Eq. (14-16), is
psi 593 . 74914
143 . 0
1
) 2 . 1 ( 875 . 2
129 . 1
) 046 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233 2300
I
C
F d
K
K K K W C ) (
f
P
m
s v o
t
P P C
= =
= σ
The factor of safety from Eq. (14-42), is
653 . 1
593 . 74914
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
1 ) 773 . 0 ( 141800
) K K (
C Z S
) S (
C
R T
H N C
P H
= =
σ
=
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
By our definition of factor of safety, pinion wear is
3 n 733 . 2 653 . 1 ) S (
d
2 2
H
P
= < = =
So make face width larger, F=1.57 in.
The factor of safety (S
H
)
P
is
863 . 1
551 . 66486
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
1 ) 773 . 0 ( 141800
) K K (
C Z S
) S (
C
R T
H N C
P H
= =
σ
=
psi 551 . 66486
143 . 0
1
) 57 . 1 ( 875 . 2
147 . 1
) 061 . 1 ( 404 . 1 ) 35 . 1 ( 833 . 233 2300 ) (
P C
= = σ
3 n 471 . 3 863 . 1 ) S (
d
2 2
H
P
= > = =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
By our definition of factor of safety, both of pinion bending and wear are
larger than n
d
.
Gear tooth wear. The hardness of the gear and pinion are the same.
Thus the contact stress on the gear is the same as the pinion,
The wear strength is also the same, S
C
= 141800 psi. The factor of safety
of the gear in wear is
906 . 1
551 . 66486
)] 885 . 0 ( 1 [
1 ) 791 . 0 ( 141800
) S (
G H
= =
psi 551 . 66486 ) (
G C
= σ
By our definition of factor of safety, both of gear bending and wear are
larger than n
d
.
634 . 3 906 . 1 ) S (
2 2
H
G
= =
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Rim. Keep MB ≥ 1.2. The whole depth is
in 281 . 0
8
25 . 2
P
25 . 2
P
25 . 1
P
1
d d d
t
= = = + = + =
The rim thickness t
R
is
in 337 . 0 ) 281 . 0 ( 2 . 1 h m t
t B R
= = ≥
For other pinions and gears in this transmission, we can use the same
method and process to calculate their bending and wear stresses.
Strength Design for Gear Mesh
Finite Elements Analysis of Gears
This will be done in a few days !
Reference
1. http://auto.howstuffworks.com/transmission.htm
2. Richard Stone and Jeffrey K. Ball, Automotive Engineering
Fundamentals. SAE International, 2004.
3. Joseph E. Shigley, Charles R. Mischke and Richard G. Budynas,
Mechanical Engineering Design (7
th
edition), Higher Education, 2003.
Acknowledgments
The authors wish to acknowledge the support from the
Society for Manufacturing Engineers - Education Foundation,
SME-EF Grant #5004 for “Curriculum Modules in Product
Lifecycle Management.”

Outline
About the Car Transmission Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Strength Design of the Gear Mesh Finite Elements Analysis of Gears

The transmission is used to increase the driving torque of the engine. It is connected to the engine through the clutch, and connected with drive shaft through U-joint.

Driving System Illustration [1]

About the Car Transmission Transmission Graphic Illustration [1] .

01:1 1.375 -999 .538 3.679 2. Gear 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Reverse Ratio 3.38:1 2.38:1 RPM at Transmission Output Shaft with Engine at 3375 rpm 999 1.33:1 1:1 -3. listed in the following Table.Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Assume that the transmission is required to have five different gear ratios.

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission To meet the requirement. the mechanism of the transmission is designed as follows. Z40 Z33 Z27 Z23 Input Shaft Output Shaft Z20 Idler Gear Shaft Z18 Z25 Z31 Counter Shaft Z35 .

Gear Z23 Z35 Z27 Z31 Z33 Tooth number 23 35 27 31 33 Gear Z25 Z40 Z20 Z18 Tooth number 25 40 20 18 Note! The transmission mechanism comes from literature [2]. .Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission And the tooth number of the gears is listed in the following table.

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Then the simulation is carried on to validate the kinematic design result. and then imported into the kinematic and dynamic analysis software ADAMS/View to do the kinematic simulations. . such as Solidworks and Unigraphics. All the gears and shafts are first modeled and assembled in certain solid modeling software.

38 Z 23 Z18 23 × 18 .Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Z40 Z23 Z18 First Gear Z35 Transmission ratio GR 1 = Z35 Z 40 35 × 40 = = 3.

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission First Gear Simulation .

01 Z 23 Z 25 23 × 25 Z35 .Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Z33 Z23 Z25 Second Gear Z Z 35 × 33 Transmission ratio GR 2 = 35 33 = = 2.

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Second Gear Simulation .

33 Transmission ratio GR 3 = Z 23 Z31 23 × 31 .Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Z27 Z23 Third Gear Z31 Z35 Z35 Z 27 35 × 27 = = 1.

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Third Gear Simulation .

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Connecting Shaft Fourth Gear Transmission ratio GR 4 = 1 .

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Fourth Gear Simulation .

38 Z 23 Z18 23 × 18 .Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Z40 Z23 Z20 Z18 Reverse Z35 Transmission ratio GR rev = − Z35 Z 40 35 × 40 =− = −3.

Kinematic Design and Simulation of the Transmission Reverse Simulation .

The design method for others are same. Figures and Tables will be used are come from literature [3]. Ko=1. R=0. 3375rpm. for an example. N=109 cycles. The load is medium shock.95. Using through hardened steel.e. helix angle: ψ=20° •Tooth count: NP=23 teeth. use grade 1 material •Assume mB≥1. Here we just take the first pair. grade 1 material.35 •Design factor for unquantifiable exingencies: nd=3 •Tooth system: Φn=20°. the gear mesh 1. NG= 35 teeth •Quality number: Qv=8. Requirements: Design a 1.(14-40). i.Strength Design for Gear Mesh There are five pairs of gear mesh to be designed..2 in Eq. Solutions: Make the a priori decisions as •Function:18hp. providing a reliability of 0.522:1 helical-gear reduction for a 18-hp. output shaft of engine running at 3375rpm.95 at 109 revolutions of the pinion. . KB=1 Note! All the Equations.

(14-28) and (14-27).334.72 A+ V   70. Thus.375 in.25(12 − Q v ) 2 / 3 = 0.Strength Design for Gear Mesh Pitch: Select a trial diametral pitch of Pd=8 teeth/in.375.272 ft/min 12 12 33000H 33000 ×18 t W = = = 233. π(2. From Fig.345. 14-6.875)3375 V= = = 2540.YP=3.374. JP=0.72 + 2540.25(12 − 8) 2 / 3 = 0.875 in and dG=35/8=4.63 πd p n p = 1. YG=0. From Table 14-2. B = 0.JG=0. dP=23/8=2.72  A    B 0.272    =  Kv =     70.833 lbf V 2540.272 From Eqs.63) = 70.404 .63 A = 50 + 56(1 − B) = 50 + 56(1 − 0.

6831(109 / 1.6831N −0.0323 = 0.466 N −0.522) −0.522) −0.056 = 0.874 From Fig.658 − 0. (Z N ) P = 2.522) −0.056 = 2.522) −0.056 == 0.0323 = 1. (YN ) P = 1.0323 = 1.862 (YN ) G = 1.0759 ln(1 − R ) = 0.0323 = 0.Strength Design for Gear Mesh From Eq.466( N / 1.773 (Z N ) G = 2.14-15.885 From Fig.95) = 0.658 − 0.056 = 2.791 .14-14.466(109 ) −0.0759 ln(1 − 0.466(109 / 1.6831(109 ) −0.(14-38) K R = 0.6831( N / 1.

Cmc=Cpm=Ce=1.0535  1.57 in.57) = 0.57 − 0.061 From Eqs. F Y   K s = 1. (14-33).0125F = − 0. 3p ≤ F≤5p. From Eq.11 for commercial enclosed gear units.875) .037 10d P 10(2.(14-31).0125(1. From Eq. Sec. C Pf = F 1. From Fig. 14-11. Cma=0.0375 + 0. 14-10.57 0.192   8   0. (14-35).334   = 1.0535 = 1.(a).0375 + 0. (14-32).Strength Design for Gear Mesh From the recommendation after Eq. Try F=1. (14-8).192  P    0.

875 rbP = rP cos Φ t = cos 21.Strength Design for Gear Mesh From Eq.341 in 2 4. C P = 2300 psi tgΦ n tg 20o Φ t = arctg = arctg = 21. (14-30).17° = 2.125 in P 8 .375 rbG = rG cos Φ t = cos 21.17° o cos Ψ cos 20 2. for steel gears.037(1) + 0.17° = 1.11(1)] = 1.040 in 2 1 1 a = = = 0. K m = 1 + C mc (C pf C pm + C ma Ce ) = 1 + 1[0.147 From Table 14-8.

95Z 0.581) cos 20o sin 20o P cos 20o sin 20o 8 I= = = 0.375 −( + ) sin 21.95(0.Strength Design for Gear Mesh 2 Z = (rP + a ) 2 − rbP [ ] + [(r 1/ 2 2 2 G + a ) − rbG 1/ 2 ] 1/ 2 − (rP + rG ) sin Φ t 1/ 2   2.875  4.341  + ( + 0.125) − 1.375 2 2 = ( + 0.143 2 P +1 2 8 +1 .393 cos 20o mN = = = = 0.95Z 0.875 4.393 in P 8 PN p n cos Φ n 0.125) 2 − 2.669 0.0402   2   2  2.581 2 2 π π p n = = = 0.17° = 0.

35(1. 14-2 St = 77. we obtain (F) bend = n d W t K o K v K s Pd K mK B KTK R JP St YN 1. Choose the hardness of steel through-hardened HB=350. we check to see if the mesh width F is controlled by bending or wear considerations. substituting ndWt for Wt and solving for face with (F)bend necessary to resist bending fatigue.Strength Design for Gear Mesh Pinion tooth bending.885) = 0.963 in 0.862) = 3(233. (14-15) and (14-17).3HB + 12800 = 40 kpsi Equating Eqs. With the above estimates of Ks and Km from the trial dimetral pitch.404)1.061(8) . From Fig.147(1) 1(0.833)1.345 40000(0.

Sc = 322HB + 29100 = 141800 psi Then (F) wear  Cp ZN =   SC K T K R  K C  nd W t KoK vKs m f  dPI  2 2  2300(0.35(1.885  .833)1.143) 141800(1)0. 14-5.790 in  2.147(1) = 3(233.061 = 0.773)  1.404)1.875(0.Strength Design for Gear Mesh From Fig.

0375 + 0.11(1)] = 1.875) K m = 1 + C mc (C pf C pm + C ma Ce ) = 1 + 1[0.2 in.0125F = − 0.0535 = 1.0125(1.192   P  0.0375 + 0.2 − 0.0535  1.Strength Design for Gear Mesh Decision Make face width 1.768 psi 1.334   = 1.2 0.019(1) + 0.046) = 10115.833(1.046 C Pf = F 1. Correct Ks and Km: F Y    K s = 1.192   8   0.2 0.019 10d P 10(2.129(1) = 233.35)1.2) = 0.404(1.129 Pd K m K B ( σ) P = W K o K v K s F JP t 8 1.345 .

046) The factor of safety in bending of the pinion. is St YN (SF ) P = 40000(0.833(1.862) (K T K R ) = σ [1(0.2 0. (14-41).852 10115.768 . from Eq.Strength Design for Gear Mesh The bending stress induced by Wt in bending. (14-15).885)] = 3.345 = 233. is ( σ) P = W t K o K v K s Pd K m K B F JP 8 1.35)1.129(1) = 10115.768 psi 1.404(1. from Eq.

and nitriding. Gear tooth bending. Use cast gear blank because of the 4. Then ( σ) G = ( σ) P JP 0.885)] = 4.345 = 10115. The loadinduced bending stress is in the rotio of JP /JG.507 40000(0. Use the same material.375-in pitch diameter.874) (SF ) G = . heat treatment.375 [1(0.768 = 9306.507 psi JG 0.Strength Design for Gear Mesh Decision.245 9306.

833(1.046) = 74914 .875(1.Strength Design for Gear Mesh Pinion tooth wear.143 The factor of safety from Eq. 593 psi 2.404(1. (14-16). given by Eq.653 σC 74914 . The contact stress.885)] = = 1.773)1 (K T K R ) [1(0. 593 . is (σ C ) P = C P W t K o K v K s K m Cf dPF I 1.2) 0. is SC Z N C H (SH ) P = 141800(0. (14-42).129 1 = 2300 233.35)1.

57) 0. (σ C ) P = 2300 233. pinion wear is (SH ) 2 = 1.6532 = 2. 551 psi 2.863 σC 66486.471 > n d = 3 P . F=1.733 < n d = 3 P So make face width larger.8632 = 3.833(1.35)1.57 in.551 (SH ) 2 = 1.875(1.885)] = = 1.061) The factor of safety (SH)P is 1.773)1 (K T K R ) [1(0.Strength Design for Gear Mesh By our definition of factor of safety.143 SC Z N C H (SH ) P = 141800(0.147 1 = 66486 .404(1.

both of gear bending and wear are larger than nd.791)1 [1(0.906 66486. . Gear tooth wear.551 (SH ) 2 = 1. (σ C ) G = 66486 .885)] (SH ) G = = 1. both of pinion bending and wear are larger than nd.634 G By our definition of factor of safety. Thus the contact stress on the gear is the same as the pinion.9062 = 3. 551 psi The wear strength is also the same.Strength Design for Gear Mesh By our definition of factor of safety. The hardness of the gear and pinion are the same. SC = 141800 psi. The factor of safety of the gear in wear is 141800(0.

.337 in For other pinions and gears in this transmission.25 2.Strength Design for Gear Mesh Rim.281) = 0.25 + = = = 0.281 in Pd Pd Pd 8 t R ≥ m B h t = 1.2(0.25 2.2. The whole depth is h t = addendum + dedendum = The rim thickness tR is 1 1. Keep MB ≥ 1. we can use the same method and process to calculate their bending and wear stresses.

Finite Elements Analysis of Gears This will be done in a few days ! .

Reference 1. 2003. .com/transmission.htm 2. Mischke and Richard G.howstuffworks. SAE International. Automotive Engineering Fundamentals. Charles R. Mechanical Engineering Design (7th edition). Budynas. Richard Stone and Jeffrey K. Shigley. Joseph E. 2004. Higher Education. http://auto. 3. Ball.

” .Education Foundation.Acknowledgments The authors wish to acknowledge the support from the Society for Manufacturing Engineers . SME-EF Grant #5004 for “Curriculum Modules in Product Lifecycle Management.