principles of modern physics
principles of
modelrn physics
NEIL ASHBY STANLEY C. MILLER University of Colorado
HOLDENDAY, INC. San Francisco
Cambridge London Amsterdam
o Copyright 1970 by HoldenDay, 500 Sansome Inc., Street
San Francisco, California All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 71l 13182 in Manufactured
the United States of America
HOLDENDAY
SERIES
IN
PHYSICS
McAllister Hull and David S. Saxon, Editors
preface
This book is intended as a general introduction to modern physics for science and engineering students. It is written at a level which presurnes a prior course integral The particles. in classical calculus. material Some of discussed here includes such as probability, relativity, and quantum probability, quaIlturn opilnion worlk meare methat nuclear physics and elementary mechanics physics, and a knowledge of elementary tull year’s and differential
chanics, atomic physics, statistical mechanics, these top&,
statistical
ordinarily not included in textbooks at this level. However, we have felt that for proper understanding of many topics in modern physicssuch as chanics and its applicationsthis material is essential. It is our presentday science and engineering students should be able to
quanti
tatively with the concepts of modern physics. Therefore, we have attempted to present these ideas in a manner which is logical and fairly rigorous. A number of topics, especially in quantum1 mechanics, are presented in greater depth than is customary. In many cases, unique ways of presentation are given which greatly simplify the discussion of there topics. However, few of the developments require more mathematics than elementary calculus and the algebra of complex bers; in a few places, familiarity with partial differentiation will be Unifying concepts which halve important applications throughout nurnnecessary. modern
physics, such as relativity, probability and the laws of conservation, have been stressed. Almost all theoretical developments are linked to examples and data taken from experiment. Summaries are included at the end of each chapter, as well as problems level. The with course wide variations be in difficulty. sophlomore for or by omitting some topics; example, This book was written for use in a onesemester course at the iunior could shortened
Chapter 7, Chapter 12, Chapters 13 through 15, and Chapter 16 contain blocks of material which are somewhat independent of each other. The system of units primarily used throughout is the meterkilogramsecond system. A table of factors for conversion to other useful units is given in Appendix 4. Atomic mass units are #defined with the C” atom as
tihe
standard.
We are grateful for the helpful comments of a large number of students, who used the book in preliminary term for a number of years. We also thank our colleagues and reviewers for their constructive criticism. Finally, we wish to express our thanks to Mrs. Ruth Wilson for her careful typing of the manuscript.
vii
contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1 3 .4 .5 (6 :3
1 .l HISTORICAL SURVEY 1.2 NOTATION AND UNITS 1.3 UNITS OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM 1.4 ATOMIC MASS UNIT 1.5 PROPAGATION OF WAVES; PHASE AND GROUP SPEEDS 1.6 COMPLEX NUMBERS
2 PROBABILITY
2.1 DEFINITION OF PROBABILITY 2.2 SUMS OF PROBABILITIES 2.3 CALCULATION OF PROBABILITIES BY COUN’TING 2.4 PROBABILITY OF SEVERAL EVENTS OC:CUF!RING TOGETHER 2.5 SUMMARY OF RULES FOR CALCULATINIG 2.6 DISTRYBUTION PROBABILITIES FUNCTIONS FOR COIN FLIPPING OUTCOMES EXPECTATION VALUES 2.9 2.1 1 EXPERIWIENTAL DETERMINATION NORMALIZATION OF PROBABILITY
II
1 :2 1 :3 14 14 1:s 16 19 20 2 ‘I 2 ‘I 22 24 24 25 27 28 30 3:! 34 35 37 3Ei 421 42 ix
2.7 DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR MORE THAN TWO POSSIBLE 2.8
2.10 EXPECTATION VALUE OF THE NUMBER OF HEADS 2.12 EXPERIMENTAL ERROR 2.13 RMS DEVIATION FROM THE MEAN 2.114 RMS DEVIATION FOR COIN FLIPPING 2.15 ERRORS IN A COINFLIPPING EXPERIMENT 2.16 ERRORS IN AVERAGES OF REPEATED EXPERIMENTS 2.17 PROBABILITY DENSITIES 2.18 EXPECTATION VALUES FROM PROBABILITY DENSITIES 2.19 GAUSS1A.N DISTRIBUTION SUMh\ARY PROBLEMS 2.20 EXPECTATION VALUES USING A GAUSS1A.N DISTRIBUTION
3 SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
3.1 CONFLICT BETWEEN ULTIMATE SPEED AND NEWTON’S LAWS
3.2 CLASSICAL MOMENTUM AND EINERGY COINFLICT 3.3 CONSERVATION OF MASSCOlNFLICT
CONSERVATIONWITH WITH EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT 43 44 47 47 49 50 51 52 53 54 54 55 57 59 59 60 64 65 67 71 74 76 79 79 80 81 83 85 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 96
3.4 CORRESPONDENCE PRINCIPLE 3.5 INERTIAL SYSTEMS 3.6 NONINERTIAL SYSTEMS 3.7 AXES RELATIVE TO FIXED STARS 3.8 3.9 GALILEAN 3.10 SECGND 3.11 THIRD LAW GALILEAN VELOCITY TRANSFORMATIONS TRANSFORMATIONS TRANSFORMATIONS TRANSFORMATIONS EXPERIMENT RELATIVITY OF
LAW OF MOTION UNDER GALILEAN UNDER GALILEAN
:3.12
MICHELSONMORLEY 3.13 POSTULATES
3.14 EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE SECOND POSTULATE 3.15 GALILEAN TRANSFORMATIONS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY 3.16 TRANSFORMATION OF LENGTHS PERPENDICULAR TO THE RELATIVE VELOCITY 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.21 LENGTH LORENTZ TIME DILATION CONTRACTION
TRANSFORMATIONS
3.20 SIMULTANEITY TRANSFORMATION OF VELOCITIES SUMMARY PROBLEMS
4 RELATIVISTIC MECHANICS AND DYNAMICS
4.1 4.2 DISCREPANCY 4.3 4.4 BETWEEN LORENTZ EXPERIMENT FROM A TRANSFORMATIONS AND NEWTONIAN MOMENTUM MOMENTUM THOUGHT EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF MASS FORMULA 4.5 RELATIVISTIC SECOND LAW OF MOTION MOMENTUM RELATIVISTIC ENERGY 4.8 KINETIC ENERGY
4.6 THIRD LAW OF MOTION AND CONSERVATION OF 4.7
4.9 POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 4.10 EXPERIMENTAL ‘VERIFICATION OF EQUIVALENCE OF MASS AND ENERGY 4.11 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY AND OF MOMENTUM AND 4:12 R E S T M A S S (OF ilo F R O M E X P E R I M E N T 4.13 TRANSFORMATION PROPERTIES ENERGY MOMENTUM
10 6.4 PHOTOELECTRIC 5 .3 TRANSFORMATION EQUATIONS FOR WAVEVECTOR A.13 UNCERTAINTY IN BALANCING AN OBJECT ENERGYTIME ENERGY AND INTERPRETATION OF VVAVEFUNCTllON .8 5.16 LONGITUDINAL DOPPLER EFFECT SUMMARY PROBLIfMS 5 QUANTUM PROPERTIES OF LIGHT 5.14 6.Contents 4.2 INVARIANCE OF THE PHASE OF . 5 COMPTON EFFECT EFFECT 110 111 112 113 115 1119 123 126 128 129 131 13i 136 136 138 139 141 143 144 145 146 147 148 152 152 155 155 156 158 160 162 164 165 5.18 OPERATOR FORMALISM FOR CALCULATION OF MOMENTUM EXPECTATION VALLJES 6.12 UNCERTAINTY 6 .19 ENERGY OPERATOR AND EXPECTATION VALUES 6.AW 5.5 PARTICLE INCIDENT ON INTERFACE SEPARATING DIFFERENT POTENTIAL ENERGIES 6.16 PROBABILITY EIGENFUNCTIONS OF 6.4 PLANE WAVE 6.4 PHASE SPEED OF DE BROGLIE WAVES 6.11 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR PARTICLES AND 6.17 EXPECTATION VALUES FOR MOMENTUM IN A PARTICLE BEAM 6. POSITION OF UNCERTAINTY AMPLITUIDES SUMMARY PROBLEMS PROBABILITY INTERPRETATION 6 MATTER WAVES 6.15 6.1 PHASE OF .GG E Q U A T I O N DIFFRACTION OF ELECTRONS SINGLE SLIT DIFFRACTION UNCERTAINTY MOMENTUM OPERATORS 6.7 DE BROGLIE RELATIONS 6.H U N T L.7 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR LIGHT WAVES 5.20 SCHRODINGER EQUATllON 6.15 TRANSVERSE DijPPLER 4. 3 T H E D U A N E . 9 BRA.1 ENERGY TRANSFORMATION FOR PARTICLES OF ZERO REST MASS 5.2 FORMINVARIANCE OF E = hv 5 .14 TRANSFORMATIONS FOR FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH EFFECT 99 101 102 104 105 xi 4.6 PAIR PRODUCTION AND ANNIHILATION 5.6 WAVE RELATION AT INTERFACE 6.8 EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF A 6.9 MOMENTUM.ND FREQUENCY 6.A PLANE WAVE 6.
11 ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN QUANTUM MECHANICS 8.4 STEP POTENTIAL. HIGH ENERGY E > V.12 MOMENTUM AND UNCERTAINTY FOR A PARTICLE IN A BOX 7.5 QUANTIZATION IN THE BOHR MODEL 8.15 GENERAL WAVEFUNCTION AND ENERGY FOR THE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR 7. 7.2 PACKET AT t = 0 7.7 SCHRoDlNGER EQUATION FOR HYDROGEN 8.8 PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF DERIVATIVES WITH RESPECT TO r 8.xii Contents EQUATION FOR VARIABLE POTENTIAL 6.23’ BOUNDARY CONDITIONS SUMMARY PROBLEMS 7 EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF SCHRiiDINGER’S EQUATION 7.22 SOLUTION OF THE SCHRijDlNGER EQUATION FOR A CONSTANT POTENTIAL 6.16 COMPARISON OF QIJANTUM AND NEWTONIAN MECHANICS FOR THE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR 7.8 TUNNELING FOR A SQUARE POTENTIAL BARRIER 7.11 STANDING WAVES AND DISCRETE ENERGIES 7.21 SCHRijDlNGER 6.2 BALMER’S EXPERIMENTAL FORMULA FOR THE HYDROGEN SPECTRUM 8.6 REDUCED MASS 8.9 PARTICLE IN A BOX 7.14 HARMONIC OSCILLATOR 7.10 BINDING ENERGY AND IONIZATION ENERGY 8.1 FREE PARTICLE GAUSSIAN WAVE PACKET 7.1 PARTICLE IN A BOX 8.5 BEAM OF INCIDENT PARTICLES 7.12 ANGlJLAR MOMENTUM COMPONENTS IN SPHERICAL COORDINATES 167 169 170 172 175 178 178 180 181 183 185 186 187 188 190 192 192 194 195 196 198 204 207 208 209 213 213 215 216 217 218 220 221 223 225 230 230 231 .3 SPECTRAL SERIES FOR HYDROGEN 8.10 BOUNDARY CONDITION WHEN POTENTIAL GOES TO INFINITY 7.17 CORRESPONDENCE PRINCIPLE IN QUANTUM THEORY SUMMARY PROBLEMS 8 HYDROGEN ATOM AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM 8.6 TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTION COEFFICIENTS 7.3 PACKET FOR t > 0 7.7 ENERGY LESS THAN THE STEP HEIGHT 7.9 SOLUTIONS OF THIE SCHRijDlNGER EQUATION 8.‘13 LINEAR MOLECULES APPROXIMATED BY PARTICLE IN A BOX 7.4 BOHR MODEL FOR HYDROGEN 8.
2 NUMBER OF STATES IN AN n SHELL 9.AND PARAH’YDROGEN !jUMMARY PROBLEMS 10 CLASSICAL STATISTICAL MECHANICS 10.6 MAXWELLBOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION 10.M NUMBER 8.3 PROOF THAT P(E) IS OF EXPONENTIAL FORM 10.8 HALOGENS 9 .9 MAXWELLBOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION INCLUDING POTENTIAL ENERGY 10.25 SUMS OF ANGULAR .7 EVALUATION OF /I 10.18 SPLITTING OF LEVELS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 8.4 PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE 9.1 DESIGNATION OF ATOMIC STATES 9. 9 ALKAILI M E T A L S 9.8 EVALUATION OIF NP(O)p lo.2 BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION 10.12 ORTHO.20 NORMAL ZEEMAN SPLITTING 8.3 INDISTINGUISHABILITY OF PARTICLES 9.1 1 XRAYS 9.26 ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN EFFECT 8.14 SQUARE OF THE TOTAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM 8.21 ELECTRON SPIN 8.1 PROBABILITY DISTIPIBUTION IN ENERGY FOR SYSTEMS IN THERMAL EQ~UILIBRIUM 10.10 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 9.5 EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE AND ATOMIC ELECTRON STATES 9.C o n f e n t s *‘* XIII 8.6 ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS 9.5 PHASE SPACE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS 10.22 SPINORBIT INTERACTION 8.23 HALFINTEGRAL SPINS 8.13 EIGENFUNCTIONS OF L.4 PHA!jE SPACE 10.17 ZEEMAN EFFECT 8.27 RIGID DIATOMIC ROTATOR SUMMARY PROBLEMS 9 PAW E X C L U S I O N P R I N C I P L E A N D T H E P E R I O D I C T A B L E 9.7 INERT GASES 9.24 STERNGERLACH EXPERIMENT 8.15 LEGENDRE POILYNOMIALS 8..MOMENTA 8.10 GAS IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 240 241 242 242 243 244 246 249 254 255 256 256 258 260 262 263 265 265 266 270 273 273 275 279 280 281 282 283 285 287 288 291 292 293 . AZIMUTHAL QUANTU.19 SELECTION RULES 8.16 SlJMMARY OF QUANTUM NUMBERS FOR THE HYDROGEN ATOM 8..
5 DENSITY OF STATES IN THREE DIMENSIONS 11.10 FREE ELECTRONS IN METALSDEGENERATE CASE 11.15 SPONTANEOUS EMISSION 11.1 EFFECTS OF THE EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE ON STATISTICS OF PARTICLES 11.8 LINEAR CHAIN WITH TWO MASSES PER UNIT CELL 354 .17 TIME REVERSIBILITY SUMMARY PROBLEMS 294 295 296 298 300 303 305 306 308 312 313 313 315 316 318 319 11 QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS 11.3 CRYSTAL BINDING FORCES 12.xiv Contenfs 10. I N B O S O N T R A N S I T I O N S 1 I .18 BOSEEINSTEIN DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION SUMMARY PROBLEMS 112 SOLID STATE PHYSICS 12.4 ONE DIMENSIONAL DENSITY OF STATES FOR PERIODIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 11.11 DISCRETE ENERGIES 10.16 DETAILED BALANCE 10.6 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM DENSITIES OF STATES 11.7 FOR THE DISCRETE MEDIUM OF SOLUTIONS 320 320 321 323 324 325 326 328 331 332 333 335 336 338 341 341 342 346 347 349 351 352 NUMBER 12.3 FERMI ENERGY AND FERMIDIRAC DISTRIBUTION 11.12 DISTRIBUTION OF THE MAGNITUDE OF MOMENTUM 10.11 HEAT CAPACIITY 11 .8 NUMBER OF STATES PIER UNIT ENERGY INTERVAL 11.9 FREE PARTICLE FERMI ENERGYNONDEGENERATE CASE 11.1 CLASSIFICATION OF CRYSTALS 12.lm 11.NCK OF AN ELECTRON GAS 11.17 ORIGIN OF THE FACTOR 1 + II.14 PLA.12 WORK FUNCTION 3 PHOTON DISTRIBUTION RADIATION FORMULA 11 .6 SOLUTIONS OF THE WAVE EQUATION 12.4 SOUND WAVES IN A CONTINUOUS MEDIUM 12.2 REFLECTION AIND ROTATION SYMMETRIES 12.2 DETAILED BALANCE AND FERMIDIRAC PARTICLES 11.16 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPONTANEOUS AND STIMULATED EMISSION 11.15 SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATORS 10.5 WAVE EQUATION FOR SOUND WAVES IN A DISCRETE MEDIUM 12.14 DISTRIBUTION OF ONE COMPONENT OF MOMENTUM 10.13 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF MAXWELL DISTRIBUTION 10.7 EFFECT OF SPIN ON THE DENSITY OF STATES 11.
2 NUCLEAR 1 4 .15 ENERGY BANDS OF ELECTRONS IN CRYSTALS 12.4 CROSSSECTIONS 13.16 BLOCH’S THEOREM 12.21 HOLES 12.10 ENERGY OF LATTICE VIBRATIONS 12. SEMICONDUCTORS 12.15 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS SUMMARY PROBLEMS 14 14. AVEl?AGE OF HARMONIC OSCILLATORS AND LATTICE VIBRATIONS 360 361 362 364 365 366 367 368 369 371 372 373 374 377 381 381 383 385 386 387 390 390 391 393 394 395 397 398 400 402 404 405 408 408 410 411 414 416 418 ENERGY PER MODE AS A FUNCTION O F TEMPERATIJRE 12.12 QUANTUM THIEORY 12.4 THE 14.14 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE RLJTHERFORD S C A T T E R I N G FORMlJLA 13.11 RUTHERFORD SCATTERING ANGLE 13.1 A NUCLEAR MODEL 13.H’) NEUTRONS THE 14.contents 12. 1 NUCLEC\R IN STRUCTURE MASSES NUCLEUS (.ALL 356 357 359 xv 13 PROBING THE NUCLEUS 13. INSULATORS.12 RUTHERFORD DIFFERENTIAL CROSSSECTION 13.18 TYPES OF BANDS 12.20 CONDIJCTORS.2 LIMITATIONS ON NUCLEAR SIZE FROM ATOMIC 13. EQUATION OF ORBIT 113.9 ACOUSTIC AND ‘OPTICAL BRANCHES 12.13 PHONONS.3 PROPERTIES OF THE NEUTRON AND PROTON 14.5 DEUTERON NUCLEAR FORCES FORCES 1 4 .23 H.9 RUTHERFORD MODEL OF THE ATOM 13.17 NUMBER OF BLOCH FUNCTIONS PER BAND 12.10 RUTHERFORD THEORY.11 ENERGY FOR A SUPERPOSITION OF MODES 12.2.8 a AND @ PARTICLES 13.13 MEASUREMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL CROSSSECTION 13.19 EFFECTIVE MASS IN A BAND 12.! nTYPE AND pTYPE SEMICONDUCTORS EFFECT SUMMARY PROBLEMS ‘12.14 LATTICE SPECIFIC HEAT OF A SOLID 12.7 BARN AS A UNIT OF CROSSSECTION 13. 6 YUKAWA .6 NUMBER OF SCATTERERS PER UNIT AREA 13.5 DIFFERENTIAL CROSSSECTIONS 13.3 CONSIDERATIONS SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS 13.
3 BARYONS 16.2 HALFLIFE SERIES 15.5 DETECTION OF PARTICLES 16.12 LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS 15.7 MODELS OF THE NUCLEUS SUMMARY PROBLEMS 421 427 429 431 431 433 433 433 441 443 447 450 452 453 454 454 456 457 458 458 461 464 464 466 467 468 472 473 474 477 478 479 483 491 496 504 505 507 1 5 TRANSFORMsATlON OF THE NUCLEUS 15.6 THEORY OF ALPHADECAY 15.MMA DECAY AND INTERNAL CONVERSION ‘15.8 PHASE SPACE AND THE: THEORY OF BETA DECAY 15.6 HYPERCHARGE.1 LEPTONS 16.7 BETA DECAY 15.14 NUCLEAR THRESHOLD FISSION AND ENERGY FUSION 15.4 CONSERVATION LAWS 16.10 ELECTRON CAPTURE 15.15 RADIOACTIVE CARBON DATING SUMMARY PROBLEMS 16 ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 16.8 MESONS IN TERMS OF QUARKS SUMMARY APPENDICES APPENDIX APPENDIX PROBLEMS 1 3 APPENDIX 2 APPENDIX 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX .3 LAW OF DECAY FOR UNSTABLE DAUGHTER NUCLEI 15. ISOTOPIC SPIN PLOTS 16.13 15.2 MESONS 16.xvi Contents 14.7 QUARKS 16.4 RADIOACTIVE 15.11 GA.9 ENERGY IN p+ DECAY 15.1 LAW OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY 15.5 ALPHAPARTICLE DECAY 15.
principles of modern physics .
.
From a logical standpoint. the approximation is. relating measurements in two relatively moving inertial frames. w h e r e v is the frequency and h is a constant. concern three the ultimate structure of classical and interactions of space main branches mechanics physicsmechanics. enabled 1 . number of phenomena had been discovered which were inexplicable on the basis The first major s t e p t o w a r d a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e tivity (1905) resolved the inconsistency between mechanics and and time measurements was due to Albert Einstein. among other things. the laws of mecharlics should be expressed in the same mathematical form by observers in different inertial frames of reference. which are moving with constant velocity relative to each other. two in this and prior century. According to the G&lean principle of relativity. recognized Newton. extremely good when the bodies move with speeds which are small compared to the speed of light. however. followed. and electromagnetism were not quite consistent by the wireless. time. Inature of space electromagnetism obtained to by Lorentz from similclr considerations by around of form1900 a invariance of classical Maxwell’s equations. classical technology received host Yet of new the impetus: theories the of telephone. expressed in the famous e q u a t i o n E = mc2. and provided a foundation for many of the engineering accomplishments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The transformation equations. electric light and power. special relativity lies at the heart of modern physics. The hypothesis that electromagnetic radiaticmn energy is quantized in bunches of amount hu.1 introduction I .1 HISTORICAL SURVEY The term modern physics generally refers to the study <of those facts and theories developed matter. Among the impeltant results obtained by Einstein was the equivalence of mass and energy. that Newtonian mechanics is only a first approximation to a more general set of mechanical laws. to that The 1900. with the heat and electromagnetismwere developed over a period of approximately centuries Newton’s dealt successfully motions of bodies of macroscopic size moving with low speeds. and a other applications mechanics with each other. whose special theory of relaby showing. With Maxwell’s discovery of the displacement current and the completed set of electromagnetic field equations. Furthermore. were not consistent with the transformations applied theories.
however. nuclear other byproducts involved these nuclear which are still extrernely active. At about this time. the and Similarly. From one point of view. exclusion principle was rigorFollowing the discovery of electron spin. that waves were associated with material particles. particles. At the present time some details of the inner structure neutrons and particles actions are just beginning to be unveiled. (In practice. Most of the elementary particles are particles are ordinarily created by collisions between highenergy particles of usually unstable and decay illto other more stable objects in a very short time. providing the explanation for the structure of the periodic table of the elements and for many of the details of the chemical properties of the elements. that the foundations of a correct quantum theory were laid. was later discovered.. This occurred several years before Einstein published his special theory of relativity in 1905. called a positron. Schrodinger in 1926 proposed a wave equation describing the propagation of the new of these particlewaves. achieved only limited success. Following de Broglie’s suggestion. intervariables which appear in the equation for systems of more than two or three properties of atomic nuclei have become known and understood in greater and detail. Bloch’s treatment of electron waves in crystals simplified the application of quantum theory to problems of electrons in solids. of Bohr’s postulatethat lines in electron’s These first angular momentum in the hydrogen atom is quantized in discrete amountsexplain positions ad the spectral hydrogen. Statistical properties of the systems of many particles were studied from the point of view of quantum theory. when Louis de Broglie proposed. of Nuclear protons. special to Einstein also applied the quantum hypothesis to photons the in an explanation of the photoelectric effect. while investigating the possible first order wave equations allowed by relativity theory. This hypothesis was found to be consistent enabled a with him of relativity. revolutionized and developed a quantitative explanation of atomic spectral line intensities. These are only a few of the many discoveries which were made in the decade from 1925l 935. Basic understanding of atomic properties was in principle achieved by means of Schrodinger’s equation in 1926. the success wave mechanics physics. discovered that a positively charged electron should exist. working out the implications of the Schrodinger wave mechanics for atoms and molecules is difficult. Dirac. The study . These nuclei or electrons. It was not until after 1924. studies. this particle.2 introduction Planck to explain the intensity distribution of blackbody radiation. In a few years thereafter. using the conceptual tools of relativity and quantum theory. Pauli’s ously established. Over fifty of the some other type. enabling Sommerfeld to explain the behavior of electrons in a metal. these. on the basis of relativity theory. guesses at a quantum theory were followed in the first quarter of the century by number refinements hoc quantization rules. s’ocalled elementary particles have been discovered. modern physics has steadily progressed toward the study of smaller and smaller features of the microscopic structure of matter.) greater Starting iIn1 1932 fission with and the discovery fusion due to the large number of of are the neutron by of in Chadwick.
by working with mathematical expressions for the kinetic and potential energy of a system. we shall begin in Chapter 2 with a brief introduction to the concept of probability and to the rules for combining probabilities. they had to be described in terms of probabilities.2 NOTATION AND UNITS The wellknown meterkiloglramsecond (MKS) system of units will be used in this book. deterministic theory. not feeling comfortable with a probabilistic theory. later declared that he would never believe that “God plays dice with the world.1) . the stable stationary quantum systems definite strictly energy. Heisenberg’s of the Schradinger uncertainty principle. De Broglie’s quantum relations connected the frequency and wavelength of the wave motions associated with particles.dinger’s mathematical variational states of operations principles. laws Energy as a conserved however. Instead. were and the of interpretation wavefunction. at a point where the electric field is netic field is as F for force. in the the The most sophisticated expressions of modernday relativistic quantum theory are involve states of is a expressed quantummechanical form. Einstein showed that energy and momentum are closely related in relativistic transformation equations. Isuch per second. and established the equivalence of energy and mass. there were no fundamechanical introduced. And. is the Lorentz force: F = Q(E + v x 6) (1.” As a matter of convenience. quantity the was wellknown variational It should be emphasized that one of the most important unifying concepts in physics new in classical physics. with the Another very important concept used throughout modern physics is that of probability.7. sources distress to Einstein who. 1. moving with velocity v in meters B E volts per meter and the mag webers per square meter. present chapter consists of review and reference material remainder on units and notation. famous principles of Hamilton and Lagrange expressed Newtonian lows in a different form. It is somewhat ironic that probability was first introduced into quantum theory by Einstein in connection with his discovery probability of stimulated emission. This material will be used extensively in later chapters on the quantum theory The ond on statistical of the mechanics. Newtonian mechanics development of quantum theory. it eventually became clear that microscopic events could not be precisely predicted or controlled. with the particle’s energy and momentum. is that of energy. placed here to avoid the necessity of later digressions. the force on a point charge of Q coulombs.2 Notation and of these particles in and their interactions forms an important branch of unifs 3 presentday research modern mentally physics. In these units. perhaps most important. however. From the time of Newton until Einstein. S:hrb. Vectors will be denoted by boldface type. performed which are on wave equation is obtained by certain expression energy for of the a energy system of a system.
. respectively. = 1 .. x 10m3’ kg)(3 x lo6 m/sec)2 = 4 . leading to the definition of a unit called the MeV: . 1 = (1. Boltzmann’s constant will be denoted by A table of the fundammental constants is given in Appendix 4. 6 eV In nuclear physics most energies are of the order of several million electron volts. the kinetic energy would be 1 2 mv’! = 1 9 11 2(.9 x lo9 newtonsm2/coulomb2 (‘4 (1. for a particle with the mass of the electron. To convert energies from joules to eV. The electron volt is defined as the amount of work done upon an electron as it moves through a potential difference of one volt. moving with a speed of 1% of the speed of light. II where the constant t0 is given by I (4Tto) . For example. with k. in atomic and nuclear elecfron Thus 1 eV = e x V = e(coulombs) = 1.6 x lol8 i i/eV) (1.6) x loI9 = 2 ..5) physics several other units of energy have found widespread use. abbreviated eV.3) These particular expressions from electromagnetic theory are mentioned here because they will be used in subsequent chapters. In conformity with modern notation. or from eV to joules. one divides or multiplies by e. Most of the energies occurring in atomic physics are given conveniently in terms of the volt. 1 x 1 Ol8 ioules 4 .4) will be denoted by 300K. The potential in volts produced by a point charge Q at a distance r from the position of the charge is given by Coulomb’s law: V ( r ) = 2. 3 8 x 10mz3 joules/moleculeK (1.3 UNITS OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM While in the MKS system of units the basic energy unit is the joule. The electron volt is an amount of energy in joules equal to the numerical value of the electron’s charge in coulombs. 1.4 Introduction where v x B denotes the vector crossproduct of v and B. a temperature such as “300 degrees Kelvin” k .602 x lol9 joules x 1 volt (1.
T h e = p(in Suppose. E(in MeV) Thus.1.4 ATOMIC MASS UNIT T h e a t o m i c m a s s u n i t . is exactly 12.351 x lol8 kgm/set (1.i ~( 1 . On the other hand. after using Equation (1. An older atomic mass unit. containing six protons and six neutrons in a nucleus surrounded by six electrons. In addition.667 x speed of light. book are based on the physical scale. while momentum has units of that = 4 . Then if the energy in MeV is numerically equal to p. using Equation (1. in MKS units. This unit is convenient when discussing atomic masses.9 MeV/c)(c) 1.4 Atomic moss unit 1 MeV = 1 m i l l i o n eV = 106eV = 1.8) (speed)2. i s c h o s e n i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e m a s s of the most common atom of carbon. for photons MeV/c) (1.9) where c and e are the numerical values of the speed of light and electronic charge.7) 5 For example. 7 MeV Since energy has units of mass x a unit of momentum called . such as E = pc. 6 7 x 10m2’ kg)(3 x IO7 m/sec)2 .7). for mony applications in nuclear and elementary particle physics is defined in such o sway 1 MeV . and 8 electrons. a slightly different choice of atomic All atomic masses appearing in this mass unit is commonly useu in chemistry. the venient when working with relativistic relations between energy and momentum. a b b r e v i a t e d amu. traveling with 10% of the of approximately energy 1 ( 1 . .10) kgm/set.9) we find that 1 . that a photon hos a momentum of 10m2’ energy would be pc = 3 x lol3 joules = 1. 6 x lol3 i/EheV) (1. for instance.6 x lol3 ioules = ( 1 06e)joules (1. a proton of rnass 1. 8 neutrons. would .lo6 e kgm/set C C = 5. which are then always very close to an integer.UeV/c mass x speed.. if p is expressed in MeV/c.9 MeV. using carbon as the standard. Mv2 have zx a kinetic 10mz7 kg.9 MeV. This unit of momentum is particularly conmomenturrl p in MeV/c is known. in general. p = 10m2’ kgm/set = The photon energy is then E = pc = (1. The conversion from amu on the physical scale to kilograms may be obtained by using the fact that one grammolecular weight of a substance contains . 9 MeV/c = 1. is no longer in use in physics reselzrch. based on on atomic mass of exactly 16 units for the oxygen atclm with 8 protons.000000000 . amu. for photons. respectively.
If the angular frequency w is a function of . is (1. light waves. and 1 amu = +2 x = 1 . of the form (1. many different types of wave propagation will be considered: the de Broglie probability waves of quantum theory. a n d w h e r e t h e w a v e l e n g t h a n d f r e q u e n c y o f t h e wave are given by (1. of molecules. some physical quantity. is called a dispersion relation and arises because of the basic physical laws satisfied by the particular wave phenomenon under investigation. and so on. 6 6 0 x 10m2’ k g (1. then the net displacement is simply the sum of displacements individual waves.022 x 10z3. to indicate that the freq u e n c y i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e w a v e l e n g t h . the resulting displacement (1. Individual crests and troughs in the waves propagate with a speed called the phase speed.14) t) = A c o s ( k x . PHASE AND GROUP SPEEDS In later chapters. atoms contains N. atoms. .12) t) = A cos ( k x z t z of + 4) where A and 4 a r e c o n s t a n t s . grams of C’* At.11) 1. exactly 12. These wave motions can be described by a displacement.5 PROPAGATION OF WAVES. Thus. Newton’s second law of motion and the adiabatic gas law imply that the dispersion relation is w = vk where v is a constant..6 fntroduction Avogadro’s number.12).13) Here the angular frequency is denoted by o = o(k). For example. Consider two or more wave trains propagating in the same direction. given by w=o k principle the of superpositionnamely. from the that if waves from two or more (1. o r w a v e n u m b e r k . If the negative sign is chosen in Equation (omitting the phase constant b. the wave phenomena which we shall discuss obey the sources arrive at the same physical point. 01 = w(k). . T h i s frequencyw a v e l e n g t h r e l a t i o n . = 6. lattice vibrations in solids.15) (1.000 .16) In nearly all cases. for sound waves in air. (f)f.w t ) = A c o s [+ .] This represents a wave propagating in the positive x direction.) #(x. or amplitude of vibration of #(x.
23) . These group speed vg AU vg = A k in the limit of sufficiently small Ak. density.Yz Aw)t] (1. = A <OS [(k + % Ak)x . since w = vk. is $ q = $1 + ti2 =: (2 A cos ‘/2 (Akx .15). and waves Reinforcement another of or destructive different of differing wavelengths travel at different speeds. for surface gravity waves in a deep seo.L~ = Here.B). wavelength and frequency. given by cessive regions of destructive interference. the dispersion relation is w = {gk + k3J/p)“2 J is the surface tension and p is the where g is the gravitational acceleration.21) and the phase and group speeds are equal. we derive d (vk) =F”Yw “g dk (1.18) This expression represents a w a v e t r a v e l i n g w i t h p h a s e s p e e d w / k .(w . such as of the same amplitude but of slightly group speed. the spatial distance between two successive zeros of this curve at a given instant is r/Ak. and Ak. Then the phase speed is wTw= k (1.(o F % AC+] I.19) 2 A cos % (Akx . for sound waves in air.w t ) (1. consider two trains of waves of the form of Equation different I). On the other hand. k and A (OS [(k . T h e r e s u l t a n t d i s p l a c e m e n t . speed constructive or destructive interference advance is known as the (1. To calculate this speed. interference The can then with 7 occur which as the one regions wave of gains on wavelength.Awt) I} cos (kx . Ao are the differences between the wavenumbers and angular frequencies of t h e t w o w a v e s . phase and group speeds the wavelength or wavenumber. dw (k) ak=o dk (1.% Ak)x .Propagation of waves.20) Thus. and is the distance between two sucregions propagate with the . u s i n g t h e identity 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + 13) + cos (A .Awt) = 2 The amplitude is a cosine curve. a n d w i t h a n amplitude given by A cos ‘/2 Ik (1. then the phase speed can be a function of the wavelength.17) u are the central wavenumber and angular frequency.
l. Twodimensional vector representation of o complex number 1c/ = o + ib. Because the use of complex numbers is essential in the discussion of the wavelike character of particles. The real part of $ is a. to front. then the phase speed is g + 3k2J/p (gk + k3J/p]“2 than the group speed.l . and the y component with the x component of the vector identified with Re($).25) a + ib can be represented as a vector in two dimensions.ib . of the vector identified with Im (Ic/). crests disappearing at the front and reappearing at the rear of the group. This can easily be observed for waves on a pool 1. within a group of w a v e s . and the imaginary part is b: Re(a + ib) = a Im(a A complex number $ == + ib) = b (1. Figure 1 .L* = a . iz = .t r a v e l f r o m remcrr of water.8 Introduction whereas the group speed is dw 1 “cl==dk 2 wavelength.e. a brief review of the elementary properties of complex numbers is given here. and (1.6 COMPLEX NUMBER!.1. or an increasing function of greater individual crests within a region of constructive interferencei.24) If the phase speed is a decreasing function of k. as in Figure 1 .26) #* a n d i s o b  ib is denoted by the symbol tained by replacing the imaginary unit i by i: I. A complex number is of the form # = a + ib. where u a n d b a r e r e a l n u m b e r s a n d i is the imaginary unit. The square of the magnitude of the vector is ( # 1’ = a2 The complex conjugate of $ = a + + bZ (1.
.31) Since (e”)* = ej8. is of particula* power series e Ia = .6 Complex numbers We can calculate the magnitude of the square of the vector by multiplying its complex conjugate: I$ 1’ =: #*$ = a2 .29) Then.ib = .o$+li)+. we have de Moivre’s theorem: e in8 = co5 f10 + i sin n0 = (cos 0 t i sin 01” (1.e” ~ i I* i (Cos 0 x + i sin T .1) i =(I +0l) 2 __ =  (1.a . this function may be defined by the =km n=O n! imaginary terms.28) $ by 9 The complex exponential function.34) (1.‘a..37) = i i . o r e x p (i@.ib a2 + b2 is The integral of an exponential function of the form ecX = C + constant C L1 ecx (1. * e”dfj s 0 =: $8 * % = e .35) 12 = 10 = 1 (a + ib) a 1= ___ x .36) and this is also valid when c is complex.1 a n d c o l l e c t i n g r e a l a n d e i6 = 1 +s+.+2. + (j(q) + 0’ 2! + 03 3! + . .32) (1. importance. w h e r e 0 is a real function or number. .I .(jb)’ = a2 + b2 (1. replacing i2 e v e r y w h e r e t h a t i t a p p e a r s b y . we find that (1. ..__ + ib a .30) Since {e”}” = eIns. 5! ) ( = cos 0 + i sin /3 (1..‘fj _ + em”‘) . For example.em’“) (1. we also love the following identities: Re eia =: ~0s 0 = i (e’” Im e” / e’a _ 1 _ = sin (j = + (e” =: . .ib a .+. e”.33) (1.
.40) n = 0.*1. Conversely.39) (1. if exp 0 are B = 2rn.38) or exp (2nlri) = 1.. the only possible solutions for (1. if n is any positive integer or negative integer.IO introduction The complex exponential function is a periodic function with period 2~.&3 . e i(o+zr”) = e’o (1.~2. . Thus et’s’zr) = c o s (19 + 2 7 r ) + i s i n (0 + 27r) z cos 0 + i sin 0 18 More generally.. (i0) = 1.
To avoid of necessity to the digressions elements probability probability the development statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Probability is thus seen to be a relative thing. which questions were to be on the examhe could probably improve his chances of passing by studying some other sections. This is simply because the number of molecules is so great. most situations in which we act are characterized by uncertain knowledge of the facts and of the outcomes of our actions. it is also an indispensable the tool of in studying the on of abstract concepts during theory. since 1926 the development of quantum be given in terms of probclbilities. Had he known enemy reinforcements would arrive. he would have revised the estimate of his chances downward. however. mechanics has indicated Secondly. impossible to know exactly the positions or velocities of all molecules in the jar. Such studies Jorm the subject matter of a branch of physics called stofistical mechanics. necessary to describe quclntitatively systems with many degrees freedom. In everyday life. h e d i d n o t m e a n t h a t i f t h e Battle of Waterloo were fought a hundred times. In the theory of probability. There are several reasons for this. For a example. of modern later physics. such as a jar containing 10z3 molecules. it is. 1815 The commonplace meaning of the word “chance ” i:j probably already familiar to the reader. as a practical matter. Napoleon at Waterloo. and to take chances. We are thus forced to make guesses. a student might decide to study only certain sectiom of the text for an exam. and so it is impossible to predict exactly whalt will happen to each molecule. we present here a brief introduction basic When Napoleon utterecl t h e s t a t e m e n t a b o v e . quantitative application of the concept of chance is of great importance.probability We have ninety chances in a hundred. The theory not only provides a systematic way of improving our guesses. he would win it ninety times. great it is frequently of In physics. and French would not. whereas if he knew what the professor knewnamely. depending on the state of knowledge of the observer. He was expressing an intuitive feeling about the outcome. It is then necessary to develop some approximate. which was based on years of experience and on the facts as he knew them. statistical way to describe the behavior of the molecules. These results frown that the description of mechanical properties of elementary particles can only quantum mechanics have 11 . the concepts of probability and chance are given precise meanings. using only a few variables. As another example.
Thus. or something in between.72 lb. the probability of flipping a tail in one try is In this example. All measuring instruments limitations. so the quantitative measurements we make always have some uncertainties associated with them. they sometimes called the postulate of equal are a assigned priori equal probabilities. however. have similar or 176. we must define the concept of probability in a q u a n t i t a t i v e w a y .. or % T h e n w e s a y t h a t p r o b a b i l i t y P(heads) P(heads) P(tails) = = % . Consider flipping a silver dollar ten The theory of probability was originally developed to aid gamblers interested in improving their inc~ome. be impractical to actually repeat the experiment many times (consider for example the impossibility of fighting the Battle of Waterloo more than once). or postulates. on the average it will come down heads five times out of ten. Thus. and the assumptions of probability theory may be simple games. the probabilities of various outcomes may be computed. it is assumed that the coin is not loaded. Here. This is probabilities. repeated measurements of a quantity will frequently give different values for the quantity.1 DEFINITION OF PRCIBABILITY To make precise quaniii. ‘The fraction of occurrences of heads on the average is ‘. but most scales are not accurate enough to tell whether the weight is 176. one could experimentally determine the probability by making a large number of trials and finding the fraction of occurrences of the desired result. naturally illustrated v&th times. the probability of a particular result is simply the expected fraction of occurrences of that result out of a very large number of repetitions or trials of the experiment.tative statements about nature.68 lb.7 lb. This is equivalent to saying that the two sides of the coin are essentially identical. Thirdly. It is hoped that the assumptions hold to a good approximation in the actual physical situatiomn. with a plane of symmetry. which is now conceived and interpreted using probabilities. It may. 2. by means of which. If the silver dollar is not loaded. a person’s weight might be measured as 176. experimental measurements are always subject to errors of one sort or another. It IS then reasonable to assume that since neither side of the coin is favored over the other. This illustrates an important assumption of probability theory: When there are several possible alternatives and there is no apparent reason why they should occur with different frequencies. C o n s i d e r a n e x p e r i m e n t h a v i n g a number of different possible outcomes or results. that is a mathematical approach based on a simple set of assumptions. given a limited amount of information about the situation. Such uncertainties can usually be best described in telrms of probabilities. . on the average one side will turn up as often as the other. of flipping CI head in one try is % . Further. We then use the theory of probability. Similarly.1 2 Probability profoundly affected the physicist’s picture of nature.‘.
t h e e v e n t s B . which says the probability of either A or B is the sum of the . the probability that some one face will turn up is the same as the probability that either face one. .5) event of the rule given in E q u a t i o n (2. a n d l e t P . this equation expresses the convention that the probability of an which is certain is equal to . It also utilizes a generalization probabilities of A and of B.cannot occur.I. Also. (2. C . . In every trial. b e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t f a c e i turns up when the die is thrown. refer to mutually exclusive alternat i v e s . Some one face will definitely turn up. C.2 SUMS OF PROBABILITIE’S Some general rules for combining probabilities are also illustrated by the coin flipping experiment. The above relation for combining probabilities simply amounts to addition of the fractions of occurrences of the various events A. or tails” must be unity. B. a n d t h e above equation reduces to 1 = % + %. . t o f i n d t h e t o t a l f r a c tion of occurrences of some one of the events in the set A. events that occur with probabilities M o r e g e n e r a l l y . . Imagine t h e f a c e s n u m b e r e d b y a n i n d e x i that varies from 1 to 6 . . P(C). or face two. M a t h e m a t i a l l y .2) In the special case of the fak c o i n . the fraction of lheads added to the fraction of tails must equal the fraction of “either heads or tails. the probability of an event which is certain is taken to be 1. 6. b o t h P ( h e a d s ) a n d P(tails) are ‘/:t. consider an experiment with six possible outcomes. it is certain that either heads or tails will turn up.3) P(A). C. This will be equal to the sum of the individual probabilities P. The fraction of occurrences of the result “either heads.. and so the total probability that some one face will turn up will be equal to unity.2. C..” and so P(either heads or tails) = P(heads) + P(tails) (2. . These relations may easily be generalized for any number of alternatives. or. 1 =f:P.2 Sums of probabilities 13 2. or face three. the probability of elither A or B or C occurring will be P(either A or 6 or C) = (2. .4) Here it is assumed that the labels A. then the probability of either A or B occurring will be given P ( A ) + P ( B ) + P(C) (2. or face six will turn up.1) In other words. i f A . and so P(either heads or tails) = 1 (2. a r e by the sum of the probabilities: P(either A or B) = P ( A ) + I’(B) Similarly.=I In words.3). such as the six possible faces of a die which could be turned up wheil the die is thrown. . . s o t h a t i f t h e e v e n t A o c c u r s . P(B). .. and so on. . B a n d C . Further. For example. 6. . . .
to the fatal number of ways o/l possible events can occur.1. PI = that P.1 4 Probability 2. the number of ways a two dot face can turn up.3 CALCULATION OF PROBABILITIES BY COUNTING Given a fair die. Then ~~=I = P. Second heads tails heads tails Flip Since there are two possible outcomes for each flip... = 6P. Likewise.4 PROBABILITY OF SEVERAL EVENTS OCCURRING TOGETHER Next we shall consider o slightly more complicated situation: flipping a coin twice. divided by the total number of ways all faces can turn up. f o r a l l i . = P2 = P3 = P.1(52 possible cards) or P = “/:. is ‘/. = P. the probability that it will be an ace is (4 aces). or any other side. T h e t o t a l . A general rule which is very useful in such calculations may be stated as follows: The probability of a particular event is the ratio of the number of ways this event can occur. =: P. ‘/. what is the probability that it will be the ace of spades? Since the ace of spades can be drawn in only one way. . 2. the answer is p = (1 ace of spades) (52 possible cards) o r P = %. T h i s s i m p l e c a l c u l a t i o n h a s y i e l d e d the numerical values of the probabilities P. If one card is drawn at random from a pack of cards.1 Different possible for flipping a coin twice. there is no reason why the side with the single dot should come up more often than the side with five dots. there are two times two or four possible outcomes for the succession of two coin flips. Hence. We can also consider this to be the sum of the probabilities of drawing each of the four aces. TABLE o~utcomes Krst F l i p heads heads tails tails 2. a n d h e n c e . = ‘/.. or P. six faces can turn up. and.. Therefore. Since there is no reason to assume that one of these four outcomes is more probable than another. we may assign each of the four outcomes equal probabilities of VI.P. indeed. Thus. if one card is drawn from a pack. There is only one face that has two dots on it. = 1. What is the probability of flipping two heads in succession? The possible outcomes of this experiment are listed in Table 2.... when a die is thrown. according to the postulate of equal a priori probabilities. out of a total of 52 ways for all possible cards. = I/. we may say that P.
5 Calculating probabilities number of outcomes is the product of the number of outcomes on the first flip and the number of outcomes on the second flip.b.2. T h e s e r e s u l t s i l l u s t r a t e allother g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y o f p r o b a b i l i t i e s : I f t w o events A and 6 are independentthat is. the probability of two independent events both occurring is equal to the nple product of the probabilities of the individual events. eye both times? t. if they do not influence each other i n a n y w a y .) = ‘/.on P(snake eye twice) = (‘/. If you throw a sixsided die and draw one card from a pack.8) In words. t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a particular event is the number of ways the particular event may occur. or (1x4) (6 in this case. dilvided the total number of ways all possible events may occur. by the total number of ways of getting all possible 2. ( 2 ) I n a s e t o f e v e n t s that c a n o c c u r i n s e v e r a l w a y s . P(two = heads in succession) 15 # of ways for heads on flip 2 # of ways for head..) x (I/.X=2 2 4 lp/e If a die is rolled twice in suc’:ession. by so . on flip 1 _~ x # of 0’Jtcomes on flip 2 # of outcomes on flip 1 t I t P(heads on flip 2) (2. Thus.t h e n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f b o t h A a n d 6 occurrin’g is P(A and 6) = P(A)P(B) (2.7) what is the probability of rolling the snake = P(heads on flip 1) x 1 1 1 =.5 SUMMARY OF RULES FOR CALCULATING PROBABILITIES We may summarize the important features of the probability theory disf:ussed far in the following rules: (1) The probability of an event that is certain is equal to 1. while the number of ways of getting two heads is the product of the number of ways of getting a head on the first flip and the number of ways of getting a head on the second flip. the probability that you throw a six and pick an ace (any ace) is equal to Another way to obtain the answer is to divide the number Iof six and any ace (1 x results (6 x 52). x 52) = 1 78 ways of getting the 4).
For example..termls correspond to the four possibilities in Table 1.10) 2. the distribution functions themselves are proportional to the probabilities of the various outcomes (in some case’s they are equal to the probabilities). (PHI + PTI)(PH? + Pn)**(PHN + PrrJ) = 1 (2. for example. This is equal to the probability of getting a tail. We n. Let nH b e t h e number of times heads turns up in a particular experiment... heads will turn up out of N flips.{n. a single experiment consisting of flipping a coin N times. and that each term gives the probability of getting the heads and tails in a particular order. the product of Equation (2. If we were interested only in the probability of . Distribution functions are functions of one or more independent variables which label the outcomes of some experiment..Pr2 = 1 . we define PHI t o b e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of a distribution function. I f t h e s e t w o e x p r e s s i o n s PHIPK + PTlPH2 + PT1PT2 = 1. this P.6 DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR COIN FLIPPING In order to introduce the idea of a distribution function. In N tosses. H e r e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s nH.9) (5) If A and 8 are independent events that occur with probabilities P(A) a n d P ( B ) . when N might be some large integer. % for a weighted coin).. we continue with some examples of cointossing. then nH probability will be denoted by a n d t h e q u a n t i t y P. then the probability of either A o r 6 occurring is the sum of the individual probabilities: P ( A o r 6) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) (2.(nH). we get P HlPHP + Note that these four . can vary from experiment to experiment. i s a n e x a m p l e than N. Likewise folr the second toss.).ty (3) (Postulate of equal a priori probabilities): In the absence of any contrary information. (4) If A and B a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r w i t h p r o b a b i l i t i e s P(A) and P(6). shall calculate the probability that which for fixed N is a function of n. P HZ $. equivalent possibilities may be assumed to have equal probabilities.. The variables might be discrete or continuous. are multiplied together. Then P. + P T1 = 1. (rt”). If we repeat this experiment many times.PH2PT3. a head and a tail. t h e n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f b o t h A a n d 6 occurring is the product of the individual probabilities: P(A and B) = P(A)P(B) (2. in three tosses. the various terms give the probabilities of getting heads and tails in a particular order. of getting a head in the first toss and PT1 to be the probability of getting a tail ( b o t h a r e % for a fair coin but differ from. Imagine.11) and when the products on the left are carried out. in three tosses. In this case. in that order.1 1) contains eight terms. one of which is PT.1 6 hbobi/. the function only has meaning if nH i s a nonegative integer not glreater To get at the problem of finding P.
in this case n. c a l l e d a p r o b a b i l i t y disfribution f u n c t i o n . regardless of order. This is equivalent to dropping all numerical subscripts and combining terms with similar powers of P. Thus.2~1.. The function P. either one or two or three or four heads? ‘ion The probability of getting at least one head is the same as the probability of not getting four tails.7599 . which is one minus the probability of getting four tails.(nH) of Equation 2.. In this case. ‘I 0..n. . the graph approaches a continuous curve with a symmetrical belllike . the required probability is = 0.l)(n .)“H(PT)Nm”H.!(N . regardless of the subscript numbers. we 17 the form P.)“(P. objects from a total of N objects. (P..I& (PH)‘(P.)4 = ~0. or in our case.13 is plotted as o function of nH for N = 5. (P. = getting nH heads in N tosses.. The reader may recognize the binomial coefficient N!/n. i.6 Disfribulion functions for coin flipping getting a given total number of heads nH in N tosse..3.. in the special case of a fair coin when P.. a given term is the total number of different ways of getting nH heads times the probability. It may he seen that as N becomes larger.)* IPI~ 1 (b) What is the probability <of getting at least one head in four tries. t Pr)” the term proportional to (PH)“H(PT)NnH ond theorem.2401. (PH + Pry = 2 “H=o N ! [rlH!(N t rlH)!] 1 PH “” N“H pr (2. Therefore..4.. The probability of flipping a tail is then PT = 0.. is expanded.7.2.. the number of ways of getting nH heads in N tosses. lple l(a) Consider a coin which is l o a d e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y ‘What is the probability of flipping two heads in four tries? lion U s e E q u a t i o n ( 2 .0.) i:.shape. regardless of order.n. and simply find their sum.. because id gives a probability as a function of some parameter.n.)! as the number of ways of selecting n. There!/2..!(N . the probability of fore.I S the probability of = 1.)! 1 2N In Figures 2. I\ccording where zero factorial (O!) is defined to be one and n! = n(n . nH = 2. is N ! PN(“H) = . P ( a t l e a s t o n e h e a d ) = 1 . the probability P.1 through 2. regardless of order.12) ..2646 PH of flipping a head is PH = 0.e. 1 3 ) w i t h N = 4 .. of getting nn h e a d s i n a’ne PT = of these ways. tails in N tosses. If the expression on the left of the equation. P (getting all four tails) = & (P..j %would take all the terms which contain nH factors of regardless of order...2) * * * 3.2401 = 0.(n. 30 and 100. getting nH heads to the binomial N .
. in 10 tosses.2 0 0 Figure 2.2 P 100 In. i n 30 tosses. Probability of getting nH heads in 5 tosses.3..) .l 0 20 40 60 I I I 100 I ia 24 30 Figure a0 Probability of getting nH heads 2.2 0 Figure 2 4 6 a 2. .2. Probability of getting nH heads Figure 2.3 P5 fflH 1 .1.4.3 P 30 (""I .3 . I 6 12 I I I:A.rl. Probobility of getting nH heads in 100 tosses.
Then the desired probability is {is (0.1)‘(0. 6 occurs ‘n. the term proportional + PC + PD)N to = 1 (2.7 DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR MORE THAN TWO POSSIBLE OUTCOMES Suppose we consider another experiment in which therl? are four possible results. in o single tricrl.15) T h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t A occclrs nA t i m e s . = N ~ nA . = 1 side of the equation (PA + PB is expanded.(0.flA .p .rrlN. 6 o c c u r s n. with nr.16) The generalizotion to the ca’se o f a n y n u m b e r o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t h e r e s u l t s o f a single trial is obvious. of course.9 each time. a n d C o c c u r s nc times in N trials is therefore PN(nA. C occurs nc times and.nn . and D. Pg. C. times.r)! 1 Npq. .1. xpyqz’w (2.nBtnC) = nA!nB!nc!l:N N! .nc)! 1 (2. D occurs no times. N! [ p!q!r!(N . t i m e s .271 !. PA.Ps  P. PC a n d Pr.ns . If the quantity on the left is the probability that in N trials result A occurs nA times.q . what is the probability of getting all forms filled out properly only once successive ion The probability of not getting the forms correct is 0..9)’ = 0. A generalized multinomial expansion may be written OS follows: (x + y + z + W)N = y’ ‘A p+pdT. B..2.243 p/e 2(b) What is the probability of filling out the forms correctly in one or more of the three registrations? ion This is one minus the probability of doing it incorrectly every time or 1 .7 More than t w o p o s s i b l e oufcomes 19 p/e 2(a) If the probability of getting during registrations in three ail the forms filled out correctly at registration terms? is 0. respectively.nc.9)3 = 0.14) PA . The probabilities for each result in this trial ore. A.
the numerator is c n f(n). N o w w e c a n . 93 once. as a function of n. where the summation is over all possible n. The denominator is then the total number of exams or the sum of all the f(n). rather than the probability of occurrences of the grade n.20 Probobi/ify In throwing a die three times. Thus. and.5 is a plot of the number. the grade 92 occurs twice. 5 90 IFigure 91 2. one must add up all the numerlical grades and divide by the total number of grades. the probability of throwling two fours and a three is 2. 92 93 94 95 Grade distribution function. f(n). f(n). To compute the average grade. a formula for the denominator is c f ( n ) . 94 occurs four times. we have 91 + = 92 (n) t__ 93 + 94 + 94 + 94 + 94 + 95 + 92 + 1+‘1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 95 (2. the grade n occurs f(n) times. Using the symbol ( n ) to d enote the average of n.17) In the numerator. the grade 91 occurs once. but it is not a probability distribution function. there is a 1 for each occurrence of an exam. This function f(n) is also called a distribution function. the numerator may be written as (1 x in terms of n and 91) + (2 x 92) + (1 x 93) + (4 x 94) + (2 x 95) or. with six possible outcomes on each throw. In the denominator. of times the grade n was made. Suppose that over several months a student took ten examinations and made the following grades: 91 once. Figure 2. 95 twice. We shall obtain a general formula for the computation of an average using a distribution function.8 EXPECTATION VALUES One of the important uses of a probability distribution function arises in the computation of averages.5. 94 four times. Thus. since f ( n ) is the number of occurrences of the grade n. s u m m e d o v e r a l l n . 92 twice. in general.
the average grtgde turns out to be 93. we return to the flipping of a coin. To obtain this evaluate (nH) = 2 hP. the number of heads would be N/2.21) . value of your grade value. in some applications it might be necessary to know the expectation values of n2. Since the sum of the probabilities of all events is unity. we shall would expect that. and 90 on three be (80 + 2 x 90)/ As a further example. T h e expectation (1 + 2) = 86.18) (” = 5 f ( n ) In this case. suppose you made grades of e x a m i n a t i o n s . then.2.I S aI so called the expectafion tion values are of considerable importance in quonturn mechanics. However.(nH) ““TO (2. on the the sum average. 80. As was seen before. For this reason.lO EXPECTATION VALUE OIF THE NUMBER OF HEADS For a more detailed example of an expectation valut: calculation.4. Expecta Nould 2 . one rnay use the equation: (A(n)) = c n n $p (2. when f(n) is a probability distribution E q u ation (2. (n). or (17~) = N/2.9 Normolizotion 2 1 write a general expression iq terms of n and f(n) for the average value of n. . such as A(n). (n). to find the average or expectation value of a function of n. if a number of experiments are performed in each of which the coin is flipped N times.67.4. It 1: f(n) == N . the average. or n3. It is c n f(n) (2. In general. w e s a y t h a t normalization is l/N. on the basis of past (experience. or of some other function of n. 9 NORMAUZATION For any distribution function f(n). 90. 18) r efer s to the expec tation of the nd ep endent va ri a b l e. If the student were to take several more examinations. it could be expected that the average grade on these new examinations would be 93.20) . we result mathematically using Equation (2.18). the value of the reciproc:al f(n) is normalized to the value N. and the function. it is normalllzed to ‘Jnity: Cf(n) = 1 of the sum c f(n) is called the normalization of the distribution function.
= P(tails).11 EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF PROBABILITY Our previous discussion has suggested that we could experimentally measure the probability of some particular result by repeating the experiment many times. we get = 2. note that the term corres p o n d i n g t o nH = 0 does not contribute to the sum because the factor nH is inside the sum. F r o m E q u a t i o n (2.p (2. First. the following identities: s = (nH ’ . and in the denominator there is O!.25) Then..26) This result agrees with our intuitive idea of an expectation value.) = i N g0 F$~‘). The result does not mean that.. .N! .26).1 . Therefore. PN(n.l)! (N n.24) (“‘) = :i N “$. the sum goes effectively from 1 to N.! _ m)!.) = 1 . .(n. That is. way and it might be difficult to calculate to find out what P(heads) is.N!/[2NnH!(N . would be One . b u t h e a d s w i l l o n l y c:ome N tosses many times. It is easily verified that after usinlg N! = N(N I)!. you c a n n o t a s s u m e t h a t P(heads) these probabilities theoretically.!(N . H e n c e .n.22) ‘The result is indeed N/:2..) is a probability distribution function ‘ w i t h a n o r m a l i z a t i o n Iof u n i t y .+) = ~~~=on. The reader who is not interested in the rest of the details W e h a v e t o e v a l u a t e t h e s u m m a t i o n i n (n. in an actual experiment.I])!] (2..2 2 Probobi/ify Herexf(n) = cP+. (nH) = C ~ [2NnH!(N of the calculation can skip to Equation (2. since P.&m’. instead of going from 0 to N.) = N!/[2N n.!  [nH .)!! f o r a f a i r c o i n ..l (n. t h e s u m m a t i o n o v e r nH f r o m 1 t o N c a n b e r e w r i t t e n N . for as follows: m = n.)! = (N 1 [nH  nH and II)! (2. the probability of an event should be equal to the fractional number of times it occurs in a series of trials..nH)!j (2. = i N(i + 1)“’ = i N (2. which is defined to be 1.)!]. T h e r e f o r e . if you know a coin is loaded..13).(n. t h e d e n o m i n a t o r h a s b e e n o m i t t e d . up ‘/2 N t i m e s o n t h e uverage after repeating the 2. [~N‘Q.23) p Then factoring out an N/2. For example.n. We can calculate this by a little bit of relabeling. n. .. heads will come up exactly % N times.
!k = N 1 2 (2. compute n. As N becomes very large. From the graph we see that for N=l. N “H=O. N “” N = 0./N. we should find that !k =(nH) N N /‘(heads) de)erminofion of probability 23 and set the result equal to P(heads). (2. Thus.6.~5. Graph of fractional number of t eads in N tosses. N = 1 0 . ““=o.27) 0. therefore.4 % N 0.> N = lim NX Although. In this case. if N is very large. as N .3 ti N Figure 2.6 is a graph of n./N for any finite N may ‘I?.5 0. and generally could oscillate about % in some ran .6  0.2.28) one may N = 100. Figure 2./N P(heods) = (n.52 tends to % .3.1 I Experimenftrl to flip the coin many times. it is seen that n./N as a function of N in an actual experiment. o n e w o u l d o b t a i n a u n i q u e v a l u e f o r P(heads). see from the graph that in actual practjce be greater or less thman the value of n. Note the logarithmic horizontal scale.
13 RMS DEVIATION FROM THE MEAN How can we define a precise numerical measure of the error? One way would be to average the distances of the points n.24 Probability dom fashion. generally of the speaking. 6 7 actual fractions n.(nH))“. N = 4./N from the mean value (nH)/N. This is called the mean squared deviation from the mean. In Figures 2.8. as usual. N = 10./N. we might calculate that the error was zero. in practice. we expect increases. which is not reasonable. 2 3 4 5 Experiment number Figure 2.2. J u d g i n g roughly from the scatter of the values of n. let us imagine that a coin is flipped N times. The mean called the for a large number of experiments N should be M N. however. Consider the . root To illustrate what is meant.12 EXPERIMENTAL ERROR Since. one might expect the error made in stopping at N = 4 to be about 0. from This the difference mean is deviafion from deviation would difference nH b e j u s t (nH .(nH) for a the single mean. experiment The squared with N flips. we would like to know how much error we are making on the average when we do this. 2. A similar measure of error which is better ior many purposes is the square root of the average of the squared differences of the points from the mean value. the amplitude of these oscillations should decrease. is the average of nH over many . of Thus. in the second./N l. In the first experiment. whereas in Figure 2. H e r e (nH).7 and 2.7. if we took !some distances as positive and others as negative. as N increases. we have to stop an experiment after some finite number of repetitions of the measurements. In using such a measure we would have to be careful to take the magnitude of the distances.8 it would be as slightly the smaller.lN in Figure 2. One can see qualitatively that the points in the N = 10 case lie generally closer to the mean value of % t h a n t h e y d o i n t h e N = 4 c a s e .8 are given the l&l/N 1 N=z:4 n.1 0 0 1 Experiment number Figure t2.ON . obtained in several repetitions of an experiment in which a c o i n w a s f l i p p e d I N times.. the error to decrease number repetitions measurement 2.7.
t h e r o o t mean s q u a r e d deviaticn e r r o r for short. the mean is equal to the average of the square of the variable. and use the probability P. and (n.?. we have (2.2.(nH:))‘). hence. then this averaged 25 experiment many times and averaged this squared deviation from the mean.30) But from Equation 2. we shall consider the case of coin flipping with a fair coin.nff) = N ! n. 2 0 .38.(n”))*.))‘).31) C(n. (CnH) = obtain ((h . (n. .J (2.(n.)and hence (?n.. f o r a n y c o n s t a n t C w e h a v e Combining these results. squared deviation from the mean would be a measure of the square of expected o measure of the expected error would be from the mean.).. iust the same constant. we This result is quite general. over the experiments to obtain error. Then (nj!+:) = (nH(nH . A l so f r o m E q u a t i o n 2 .1)) + (nH).))’ = fli . minus the square .. As in the evaluation of nH p r e v i o u s l y .. or r m s V/h ..(n.(n. the II.)! The result of the calculation IS ni = details of this calculation should skip $ VI N2 + % N. for the mean squared err’sr o f a n y q u a n t i t y .. If we repeated the ((n.n. . := nH(nH ..1) + nH.14 RMS deviation for coin ffipping experiments.. We knolv t h a t (nH) = N/2..20.. First.)’ = N2/4. w e s h a l l u s e o relabelling trick to evalu ate the sum. i t w a s derived here using the variable II.!(Z“‘!. then..!(N 1 .. in this case. Thus.).2n. the average of a constant is s o ((#) = (“H)Z. The mean squared error may be reduced to another form which is also sometimes useful. To calculate (II. since the average of a sum of terms may be computed term by term. .)(n.)) = 2(n. b u t t h e d e r i v a t i o n w o u l d b e t h e s a m e f o r mean s q u a r e d d e v i a t i o n f r o m a n y o t h e r v a r i a b l e . We write n. Anyorle not interested in the to the result in Equation 2.29) .)! p to calculate the rms error as CI function of N.i.14 R M S D E V I A T I O N F O R C O I N F L I P P I N G To illustrate the use of rms error as a measure of el.(n.(n.(q (2. is the result for any one experiment.) I f w e t a k e t h e a v e r a g e o f tloth sides of this equation.ror. lhe e q u a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t t h e of the average of the variable. we need to find “go n. arid use the fact that the average of a sum is the sum of averages.(%/))2) = (4) . write 1 nH out the square as follows: i.
1)). (nH) = N / 2 .2)! . or l/N times the rms m/N = we 1/(2~%).now t h a t (nn) = Yz N . The fractional error in N tosses. The fractional error is therefore Yz after N flips in which nH heads turned up.38) This rms deviation from the mean is the approximate number of heads by w h i c h w e c o u l d u s u a l l y e x p e c t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f nH to differ from the expectat i o n v a l u e . the error in finding (nH)/N.2. in one series of N flips. i.)’ = . in atto say that to measure a probability such as P(heads).! (N  1 (nH .1 ) ) + (nH) = $N(N .1) n. Then (2.. Now we will use the following identities to reduce the sum to something we can evaluate: nH(nH . the probability would be equal to the . would have Thus. the root mean squared deviation from the mean is Gy (nH))‘) =z VT. deviation.)! ..I)) = ahf(N  1) 2 nH=2 [2N2(nH ( N . = 0 a n d the presence of the fac:tor nH(nH nH = 1 do not contribute because of 1) in the numerator.l)(N .) .l)PN(nti) ““=O (2. We could call this the approximate error in finding the expectation value experimentally if we do one experiment with N flips.34) Factoring out ‘/4 N(N . we need to calculate only .2)!.(n.33) The terms corresponding to n.aN2 = k fi (2. .In.. The sum then goes only o v e r v a l u e s o f n.1) + fN = ~N(N + 1) (2. 2N = 4*2N2 (2.n.35) The sum may be evaluated by letting m = nH . w e (nH(nH .e. tempting is then the error divided by the number of tosses.37) Finally.2 6 Probability Since (nH(nH we already k.{s+ 1) . from 2 through N. 2])!.. we have (ni) = (nH(nH .l). This is (nH(nH .. 2)! = N ! (N get = 2 N ( N ..2])!] (2.1 ) ) = 2 nH(nH .36) Collecting the results. [II.2)!(N 2 .
(n.0050 0. each experiment (corresponds to N = 4. probability? ution Yz / v x = % (1) = 0.7.05? ufion 0 . the theory gives the fractional rms deviation to be % /fi = 0. Next. To do this.0050 = 0. low error. one would need it is necessary to take large numbers of counts. We may then obtain roblIe ~Experiment Number ~1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TABLE 2.6 the dashed lines are drawn at % =I= 1/2/.0320 0.0320 0. 0 5 = % /vTi o r N = ‘/I /(0.2140 .071 0. 1. in counting experiments.321 0.0320 0.0050 0. A f t e r o n e f l i p o f a f a i r c#Din.7 and 2. The exipectation value [(nH/N) .179 0.179 0.2: over the seven (nH/N) is just the average of the results of these experiments and is 0.2.8. one simply counts the number N of decays in some time t.fl t o g i v e a n i d e a o f the limits within which one could expect the graph to vary.15 E R R O R S I N A COINFLIPIPING EXPERIMENT We may now compare this theory of the rms error with the experiments depicted in Figures 2. To get the counting rate correct around one million cfounts. and it can be shown by arguments very similar to those for coin f l i p p i n g t h a t t h e f r a c t i o n a l terror l/ v’% to three in the measured rate is of order of magnitude Thus. How many times would you have to flip the in the measured probability from 0. in experiments in which the rate of decay of radioactive substances is measured.071 0. we will use the data of Figure 2.2 Deviation 0.the a v e r a g e o f experiments.1030 0.179 0. i. coirl to reduce the uncertainty mp/e 2. we simply calculate the square root of . The measured counting rate is then N/f.5. In Figure 2. In Figure 2. For this value of IV. to obtain good statistics./N)]’ 2.5 to 0.071 !ium (Deviation) ’ 0.05)’ = 100 flips.e.15 Ernxs in a coinffipping experimenf fraction nH/N P(Heads) = but with a fractional error (nH/N) f l/(2%‘%).571.25.7 to find the experimental rms fractional deviation for this particular set of trails. w e w o u l d w r i t e 27 mpk 1. For example. significant figures or a fractional error of 0. This square root type behavior of an error occurs in many other places in physics. H e n c e .001. what would be the rms error in the measured l/(26).
39) Likewise for the third experiment. or expectation.25 The reader can perform similar calculations for the data given in Figure 2. Based on these seven experiments. which supposes a very large number of experiments instead of seven and gives for the case N = 4. . = 0.175. it should give a new average value that does not differ from the previous one by much more than the error. Here the experimental result for the rms deviation from the mean is 0. if the number of mearurements.GES OF REPEATED EXPERIMENTS also arise when of some physical Errors of the type we have described.X We can then get a measure of the experimental error by computing the rms error.16 ERRORS IN AVERA.21417 = 0 . Call the error EN.N individual measurements in one experiment are . This is in reason able agreement with the theory.175.. x1 . such as the diameter of a cylinder or the length of an object. averaged over many experiments of N measurements each.28 Probability T h e a v e r a g e d e v i a t i o n s q u a r e d i s t h e n 0. This would be the average of an extremely large number of measurements... The deviation from the true value X in a particular experiment is x. The expectation value would be equal to the average N. value of the quantity is X. Then we ask: What is the error in the average value? If the experiment is repeated.750 f 0. depending on l/a. and the result of an experiment is the average value of the quantity for these N measurements.500 & 0. + x2 + ** N + XN ~. It must be kept in mind here that a single experiment means N measurements of the value of the quantity. x. sup(x1 + x2 + * * * + x. .)/N. The theoretical result is = 0. .8 in the case N = 10.. The result of the experiment is then pose the true. approached infinity. repeating experiments which measure the average value quantity. a n d t h e r m s d e v i a t i o n is 06 experiment = 0. 0 3 0 6 ..175 (2. the result of the first be expressed as could the11 nH 0 77 = 0.105.500 zt 0 . What is being measured here is an average itself. (n. This average is not the same as the expectation vallue. Suppose that an experiment is performed in which the quantity x is measured N times. 1 5 8 2.x2. S u p p o s e t h a t t h e .500 + 0./N) = 0.
011 a r i s e i n t h e s q u a r e [(x1 the expectation values of the crossterms which . .X)‘)] N2 (x1 .X ) ) . i s t h e r m s d e v i a t i o n i f w e rather than N rneasuremeasurement . . N2 li However. (2.47) .X)(x.X)‘) = ((x2 .tion the only remaining E.) + ((x2 . a n d t h e expecta.X).2. C o n s i d e r t h e t e r m ((x1 . + (x. since there are N terms like ((x. and so is (x2 .45) order in nothing more than the . on the average.X)]” w i l l b e n e a r l y .the which the measurements are made.x. Hence :2.X)) will be zero. ((x.X ) + (x2 zero.. or quantity ((x. (2.X ) ( x .. . we expect that.X ) ‘ ) i s a l w a y s positive. (2.K.X)‘) + 2((.16 Errors in overages of repeated experiments Then 29 To illustrate how this may be worked out.x. we can say ~_~~__ I((+ . W h e r e a s c~ t e r m l i k e ( ( x .X ) + * . their product will also be negative as often as it i s p o s i t i v e . since the svbscripts on the x’s denote .. EN = ~__. . are independent of each other. .X)‘) will be the same for ail x. only two EN = measurements in an experiment.X ) ( x . positive... averaged over many experiments. H o w e v e r i t i s e a s y t o s e e t h a t a ment applies for any N.X)‘)} ~. ..46) We call this average ET. X) and (x2 X) f o r N = 2 .X ) Since the is negative about as often as it is values of (x. Therefore.. terms = produce: & .X)‘) t ((x2 x. Then = (((x.44) silmilar arguv a l u e ((x1 .‘) + . . Then. we shall take the case N == 2.1/ This was for the case N = w> + ((x2 N2 Xl’)1 (2.Jo’) = E: ment. That is.‘) = ((XN . since it is the mean squared error of a singlle measureE. 1 . for any N. . * + ((XN . consider that the experiment consists of one ments. .X)‘).
090 Av. then we can compute the mean value and the error for these 24 experiments.09 4.07 4. Then the experimental E4 i s E.075 Av. however.10 4. N = 4. To see how this works in practice.018/4.0775 Av.009 cm. In this case.09 4. in centimeters. Table 2. we have consi. (2) (3) 4. . obtained using (2. we can find the experimental deviations of the averages from the mean.06 4.dered variable.3 Results of Six Experiments. An estimate of this error. this itself has an rms error associated with it.04 4.08 (‘5) the true value. 0.08 (1) Av.3 gives the actual results of 24 measure ‘TABLE 2.05 4. is X = 4. I f w e regard these as 24 separate experiments in which N = 1. = 4.[Bevlation.018 cm OS 4.10 (5) 4.06 4.3 0 Probobil. By subtracting the overall average. =: x(deviations)’ = 0.009 cm. in which the quantity being measured is the average of four measurements.0775 Overall average of the results = 4.49) Equation This compares favorably with the result.08 4.05 4. i s El/v/24 = 0.0754 cm and the 24 Let us next regard the data as six experiments of four measurements each.ty Thus. so . while we used the mean of 24 experiments as the true value.065 Av.47). using vernier calipers.0754 cm ments of the diameter. Consider.f averages)l = 0. T h e r e a d e r m a y w e l l reflect that these differing measures of error for the same data look somewhat suspicious. for .08 _.06 4. the error in the result of an Nmeasurement experiment is less than the error in the result of (1 onemeasurement experiment by CI factor of l/\/N..09 4. = 4. = 4.0037 c m . this simply means that quoted errors often depend on the method of data handling. = 4..0675 Av.09 (4) 4.0081 cm (2. of Q cylinder. 2.0754 cm. which we shall take rms error El for one measurement is li. Distances in Cenfimeters.47). 4. 4.06 4.06 4.the error in the average of the four measurements should b e a b o u t E4 = E. = 4.17 PROBABILITY DENSITIES So far. The mean of the 24 measurements. Each Consisting of Four Measurements of the Lellgth of CI Cylinder. again using E q u a t i o n (2. Actually.10 4.06 4.08 4. = 4.07 4. the distribution functions which are functions of a discrete independent variables are continuous. In many cases. = .11 4.90 =: . from each of the averages of the six experiments./6 = 0.
A probability density is thus the probability per unit x.17 Probability densities 31 example. Similarly. a thin circular disc on a horizontal axle. the probability will be zero. was a constant. the probability that x w i l l b e Figure 2. In our example.9.why the in d0 will come P. and given the probability density p(x). but if. P& i s c a l l e d o 0 in the range ~(19) i s c a l l e d probability density. if the probability of finding d0 is given by an expression of the form Pdo = p(H)do. with a different plhysical range dx will be P& = p(x) situation described by a variable x. If there is no reason ... f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s variablle d0 i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r s will come to the top will be the integral of d8/2r between the limits of x/6 and H. for instance. denoted top more often than any other portion.o = d8/2rr.. Thus.. it can be used to find the probability that an event takes place in a given range.2. since one point is only one of an uncountable infinity o. the probability that x is to be found in the dx. and describe points on the rim in terms of bcrn of the disc should come to probability by that is some portion angle 0. then the the infinitesimal range to describe all different points on the rim.o..f points along the rim. In gen0. the wheel w(ould be more likely to stop in certain positions.50) Once an infinitesimal probaloility of this nature is known. If the disc is given a spin and then allowed io come to rest. In this spec:ial case. The coefficient of e r a l . the probability density is l/:271. P. the probability that some point in the portion of the rim between ?r/6 alld T h e r e s u l t i s 5/12.. for the continuous variable x. let us introduce a coordinate system fixed in the wheel. the probability density. what is the probability that some one point on the rim of the disc will be exS3ctly on top? Obviously. thei? the probability density. We can check this because (2. there were more friction on one side of the axle than the other. However. and p(0) would not be independent of 8. Crosshatched area Jnder the probability density curve is the lpobobility that a measurement of x will yield a value between x1 and x2 . p(B). Moreover. with 0 varying continuously from 0 to 2s one portion up. The factor 27r in the denominator is chosen so that the total probability that some point (any point) on the rim comes to the top is unity.
Probability densities have the property that.18 EXPECTATION VALUES FROM PROBABILITY DENSITIES We shall next show how to compute an average using a probability density.) that it lies in the range Ax...p(xi) Ax. so the normalization is 0 ‘/2. (x) = P(x. The limits on the integral are 0 and compute the integral .rIX. is a point in Ax. we should In this case also.). or / p(x)c/x =: 1 .51) example 1. when integrated possible values of x. of the dis @) = c xi Phi) where c. Now consider the entire range of the continuous variable x to be broken up into small increments Ax. the limits on the integral will be from 0 to ‘/2 The integration may then be performed as follows: (x) = /. jp(x)dx = s”’ 2 d x = 1.. This is just xz (see over all t h e a r e a u n d e r t h e ‘ c u r v e o f p ( x ) .9)./xp(x:)dx. Consider the probability density defined for 0 5 x 5 1 b y P(X) = o t. You recall that for a discrete probability distribution function. 0 . 2.) It is unnecessary to divide by here. 1 0 ..‘J2 2 x d x = . when x > % . 4 0... v e r s u s x b e t w e e n t h e l i m i t s x1 a n d Figure 2. It will be correctly normalized if the integral asx p (X:I dx l is equal to one. To find the expectation value (x). 2 . O‘<Xl% 1% 5 x 2 1 A plot for p(x) is given i n F i g u r e 2 . (2. p(x) is equal to zero. since the sum of the probabilities is unity.. Thus. where p(x) is the probability c. the result must be the total probability that some value of x occurs. will be given approximately by density. P(x. because in this special case. t h e n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y P(x. P(x.) Ax. Taking the limit as Ax. correct. the rneon value of x is given by P(x.) = p(x. In this case. If x.) i s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t xi occurs. we get (x) = /xp(x)dx. we should first check to see that p(x) is correctly normalized. I f w e w i s h t o c o m p u t e t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e of some quantity using the given p(x). crete variable x.3 2 Probability “2 found in the range b’etween x1 a n d xz w i l l b e g i v e n b y s x1 p(x) dx. x.
i s g i v e n b y equation. Consider a particle in a one . 1 G(x) / ‘?. Outside this range. In quantum mechanics the probability density is 1G(x) 1 ‘. This probab’ility p(x) is zero.78 Expecfofion voloes from probability densities 33 p(x) . S u p p o s e t h e p r o b a  / #(x) / 2 = p(x) = for 0 5 x 5 2.2. 2 . w h e r e t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n #(x) s a t i s f i e s a w a v e e q u a t i o n callled t h e Schrtidinger bility density.10. 2. b o x w i t h e n d s a t x == 0 and x = 2 . A plot of this p(x) is correctly fulnction is.11.dimensional The probability density for finding the particle outside the box is zero. s h o w n so that density normalized 1 Figure 2.x 1 Figure 2. p ( x ) in Figure 2.1 1.
x’)dx . This is a measure of the spread of the wave function q(x). called the gaussian arises fl’ lpping in the majority of physical measurements fair coin is flipped an extremely large number of times.. w Probabi/ity e can calculate the averuge value or expectation value of x x p ( x ) d x = . is ‘/. the expectation value Hence we wish to calculate (i:x .Q] (2. a r i s e s w h e n a random errors.$ x4) d x lb2 x 5 24 )I .390 The same result can be obtained by straightforward calculation of 2+ y)p(x)dx but the algebra is more tedious.=I Let us also calculate the rms deviation of x from the mean. In An interesting probability density.‘) “2 We know that the expectation value of x.31) It is Then the rms deviation from the mean is j/qzs)3 = ~ ~5. PN(“H) = (2N”“qy . This same distribution involving a coin N times. +).. = 5 12(x4 .3 4 as follows: 2 s0 p(x)dx = ‘..)3 =12(x2  = 0.‘x(x2 . 2.52) .19 GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION distribution.1518 ((x .13). from Equation (2.:)‘) = (x’) .(x)’ = G’) .(x). J.g (x2)p(x)dx .. the discrete probability distribution function was. The rms deviation is ((x .. from Equation (2.
let us find the root .1 value through of 2. It may be seen that for N = 100.22 Expectation values using CI gaussion distribufion 35 In the limit of very large N.toking integral volues. the opproximotion of Equation (2.1 r 0.53). when N is sufficiently large we can lump many of these integral values together and regard Pr. The corresponding discrete curve of pm ‘n. The Gaussian curve is drawn with o dashed line.53) is olready extremely good.(n. A graph of Equation (2. a Gaussian.) with op Comparison of the discrete probability distribution PI. % IN. leads to the following approximate result p. nH.2.) ‘2 $ exp I. N. 50 60 70 (n.(n”) as a probability density. ure 4 is shown on the some graph. by using Stirling’s approximation for the factorials: For large n.53) is shown for N = 100 in Figure 2.kN* If [ % w h e n N i s l a r g e a n d nH i s n e o r i t s a v e r o g e . f o r l a r g e N . called a goussian or normal distribution... To illustrate the types of integrals which arise.. proximate function. T h i s t e n d e n c y m a y b e s e e n b y r e f e r r i n g t o Figures W e c a n o b t a i n a n a p p r o x i m a t e a n a l y t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r PN(nH).’ 0. T h e e x p o n e n t i a l c u r v e o f E q u a t i o n (2. together with the approximation In (1 + for b) PN(nH): E h  b2 for small b.A? 0 40 Figure 2. this distribution function is sharply peaked about the average 2. It p e a k e d s y m m e t r i c a l l y a b o u t Yz N.06 ( 1 L . 20 EXPECTATION VALUES USING A GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION In other chapters we will need o number of expectation values using the goussian distribution.12.12. Although nH is still a discrete variable . In (n!) E % In (2x) + (n + Y2)ln ‘/2 (n)  n. is occurs often in probability theory and on in classical statistical mechanics.4.53) Fig 1 (2. This.
this is (2.x1)‘) = . ( ( x .54) = ~ ( x . given by dx pf:x) d x = & e x p [y(x2izx1)?] Here x ranges from .x1 w i t h d x = d y . we check that this probability density is normolized to unity.55) The first integral on the right is zero because the integrand is odd in (x .4. XPb)dX In the case of the gaussian. This is !jo we first need to calculate the expectation value. Table 2. w e f i n d t h a t In calculating the rms deviation from the mean of x.4 Tobleof Integrals a n d l e t t i n g y = x . Since the distribution is symmetric about x = xl. Thus.xl).3 6 Probability mecrn squared deviation of x for the gaussian probability density p(x). TABLE 2. of the peak: (x) = x1. If this were not equation obvimous. the average value of x could be calculated by the I” (x) = J_. Referring to’ t h e table of definite integrals. Cl . a n d t h e q u a n t i t i e s x1 a n d c are constonfs.x .‘h the average value ‘The second term is x1.. for a goussian peaked about xl. we need first to fincl t h e mean. it is clear that (x) =: x1. ) e x p [*2+] dx + & 1: e x p [3(x] d x (21. First.2 to LC. j m ( x . of x is just the position of the center Let us next calculate the rms deviation from the mean.x1)2 e x p li [mm’“2i2x’)2 d x ] (1’.56) .
then the probability distribution is given by P(n) = f (n)/xC. If f (x ) . with the substitution y = x Table 2.li able x. then likewise.x1)‘) = r~‘.4. Hence. .180. which is a function of some discrete variable n. PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AND DENSITIES’ A probability P(n).x1. Therefore. the rms deviation from the mean is equal to u. which is a function of the continuous variable x. we might take the distance from x1 to x x. The normalization of a probability distribmutiorl A quantity p(x). As a characteristic width of the gaussion curve.II II s p(x) dx = 1 funsction P ( n ) If f (n) is a distribution function. and which g i v e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e e v e n t characterized unity: C P(n) = 1 all” by n. such that p(x) dx is the probability of finding x in the infinitesimal interval dx. is called a probability density.I S a function of the continuous vori . = ~5 the polsnt where the curve is half its maximum. p(x) = f (x)/If(x) dx.Summary 37 Again. This is at = 1. is called a probability function is distribution function. If A and 6 a r e t w o i n d e p e n d e n t e v e n t s . divided by the total number of ways of getting all possible results. CALCULATION OF PROBABILITY The probability of an event is equal to the number of possible ways of getting the particular result. Thus we see that the width at holfmaximum ln2& and the rms deviation are about the same. this reduces to the second integral in . t h e t o t a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g either the result A or the result is is equal to the sum of the probabilities of getting A and of gettiny 6 separately: P ( e i t h e r A o r 8) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) The probability of getting both A and B is equal to the product of the probabilities of getting A and of getting B separately: P(both The total probability of getting A a n d 8) = P ( A ) P ( 6 ) all possible results in a given situation is unity.((x . n f (n).
2. what is the probability that they are all aces? Answer: (4 . If you draw 4 carcls from a standard deck of playing cards. what is the probability that exactly one is Ban ace? Answer: 4 . If you draw 4 cards from a standard deck of playing cards.49) = 69.46 .2 . (48 * 47 .46 .3 8 ~robobilit~ EXPECTATION VALUES The average value of any quantity g(n) or g(x) is defined as: (9’) = Cg(n)f(n) = Cg(n)P(n) I Cf(n) or (ah =z . wherl average values are computed. in the measured value of the quantity. nH )‘) = from the mean is defined as V’(Ti> (nH ‘) nf+ ‘The rms deviation from the mean of a measured quantity is a good measure of the error. 1. because in repetitions of the experiment. If you draw 4 carcls from a standard deck of playing cords.725. then the experimental definition of the probability of the event ff is Jim .f(x)dx The average value is also called an expectation value.725.= P(H) NX N The root mean square (rms) deviation of nH l/((n.4)/(52 .50 . . the probable error in the average is proportional to l/V?7 times the probable error for one measurement. ‘Jgg(x) f(x) dx) =: jg(x) p(x) dx /. it is to be expected that their values are equal to the expectation value.‘270.184. 4.45)/(52 . If a measurement is repeated N times. what is the probability that it will be white? Answer: 4/7.50 . and the event Ii occurs a total of nH times.4:7 . .916/54.145. A jar contains 3 black balls and 4 white balls.49) = l/270. EXPERIMENTAL DEFINITION OF PROBABILITY If an experiment is performed which is repeated N times. what is the probability that none is an ace? Answer: ( 4 8 .5 1 50 .49) = 38. If you draw 1 ball out of the iar. 1)/(52 * 51 .5 1 .3 . 3. or uncertainty.
. Answer: (3N)!22N/331qN!(2N)!. If. 10!55/(5!)2CI’O = 21.05. A jar contains 4 black balls and 10 white balls. What is the probability that he will pick a salad fork? Answer: 0. 9 9 7 4 3 . According to quantum mech~anics. If there are N such no’ninteracting a t o m s . the other contains 99 regular forks and ‘I salad fork.95)‘5”~(0. then what is the probability of catching clt least 2 rabbits if a herd of 160 rabbits runs by one at CI time? What is the probat)lllity of catching exactly 2 rabbits? Answer: 1 . o 2 comes up 5 times? 9. in deep 6. which is stosred cans.95)‘59 160!(0. + mz + . What is the probability that in 10 throws of a die. If.n .&I with equal probability either in the positive or the negative x direction. and then letting them condense to form the crystal. w h a t i s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e a r e ml w i t h z components of % nA.616. 7. If o rabbit runs past you and the probability of catching it is 0. o free atom may hove on intrinsic ongu~lar tum G + 2)A/2 associated with it. 6 and C.m)! 14. what is..)]! 12.. . Answer: N!/3Nn!m!(EJ n . 10!43/5!2!3!6’o = 35/13122. mzwith(%n Answer: . where n is an integer and Pi a constant. . because of the forces involved. Two of the cans contain forks.% nh to % ni?. Suppose a prism whose cross section is on equilateral triangle has the three faces forming the triangle marked A.05) = 0 . the triangular cross section is not equilateral but is such that in one drop of the prism the probability that side A is down is 1. . = 0. If a particular component IIS measured.00961 momen 1 1. If the triangle is dropped on a table. .875/1. in the previous problem. N!p”q”(l . 21022 = 10(3 * 102') (3N)!2N/33NN!(2N)!. and that side 6 is down is q. the probability of n A’s and m 6’s in N trials? Answer: 15. a 2 come:: 3 comes up 2 times? Answer: 10. He sticks his hand at random into CI can and picks a fork at random from the forks in the can. it can have with equal probability n + 1 equally spaced values from . [N .160(0. H m times.n . and C (N .times and CI to hit in 350 shots? What is the probability hat in 10 throws of CI die.p  q) N“mm/n!m!(N . and is moved successively by the fixed amount . what is the probability that the final crystal wiil consist of %A atoms if there ore 3N total atoms? What is the probability in terms of N that it will consist of % B atoms? Find the ratio of these prsobabihties if N = 10”.(0. + m. If it is dropped N times.05)2/158!2! o(O.N N!/(n ... A crystal is grown by evaporating A and 8 type atoms.I  Problems 39 5. find an expression for the probability that the A face is on the bottom n times. 13. If . If the probability of missing the bull’seye target shooting is 0.+ m. on A as likely to stick to the crystal OS atom is twice a B atom. Answer: 14.505.679. how many bull’seyes would you expec:t Answer: 8.(m.l)Ii.96.95)Iea ~.m ) ! A particle can move along the x axis. One can contains 1 salad fork. A blind mon in ~1 cafeteria comes to pick up his silverware. what is the probability thai both will be white? Answer: (10 x 9)(14 :x: 1 3 ) = 45/91. it is equally likely that any of these faces is on the bottom.(ml + m2 + e.)with 1’znfi? + l)Nml !mz! . up 5 .m) times. If you draw 2 balls out of the iar.
inside V and lies in the momentum range dp. and p. is a constant called Boltzmann’s series whose sum is given by constant. If in a trial the probability of getting result 1 is p and that of getting result 2 is q = 1 .lk~ constant. Suppose N noninteracting particles are confined in a volume V.. and all momenta are equally probable so long as their components lie between p.value. and p(H) =: 0. See Problem 16. 1. Answer: 20. (V’/V)N. inside the momentum bounds? What is the total probability that these N particles are in . N p .dz. Answer: N!/2N (!F)! (!+L)! 16. when the Kelvin J) f: ev(WhJ) n=O where k.dy.549. the probability that it has an temperature is J.p. Answer: Also find the expectation value of the square of the number of times one gets result 1.. w h a t i s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t i t i s n LL i n t h e p o s i t i v e x direction away from where it started? Assume N and n are both even integers. In quantum mechanics. dp. = (n + %)Xtiw. it is found that a harmonic oscillator consisting of a mass m where Ii is a 17.40 Probability i t i s m o v e d N t i m e s . is em (E. VI/V. show that in N trials the expectation value of the number of times one gets result 1 is Find this expectation .6.N p q . Suppose N noninteracting particles are confined in a volume V. + f:. with the mean of nH. As you will see in the statistical energy L.. w = Qrk/m. Calculate the rms deviation from pr pz and pz + P.. and a spring of constant k can have energies of E.. and pY + PY. The denominator is a geometric Show that the expectation value of the energy is given by and evaluate it.. N2p2 t. Answer: hw(1 + l/[exp(hw/ksJ) 111. What is the iprobability that any one particle will be found Inside a volume V’. dp. mechanics chapter. What is the probability that the ith particle Ilies in the volume dx. which is inside V? What is the probability of finding all N particles in V’? Answer: 19. 18. An unfair coin is tcssed 10 times. and n is an integer or zero.
Problems 4 1 dx. Answer: 1/(2a). hl’3.o.. . 7ri’/3. of a large set of objects is given by the distribution function f(x) = elox. mc~ss executing harmonic motion is given by x = xg In terms of dx.f: ’ (VPj. ‘/. (xj = 0. Find f(x). What in terms of the distance y down from the top. dzi dp. Estimate the ratio of the probability that heads 25.000 timsea (assume 0. etc. t. 24. A piece of sand falls in an hourglass a distance h. At the instant it hits. = 1/2x& w h e r e 0 5 x 5 J. dp..flx2. the 10.). of 21. ..dxN.C~OO the gaussian Answer: distribution).. dy.. :_. what is the The time it spends in dx is d’x/ 1v ) In a given half cycle. . ‘/. .H and P. Find the expectation value for x and x2.00387. dyN a n d dzN. another piece starts falling. . where f(x) is the distribution function. where 1 Y ) = 1 wxc.. 6 N dilnensional space of coordinates and Imomenta Answer: dx. a n d o f %* if % v a r i e s b e t w e e n .dz. a n d dp. w. (x’) 22...? T h i s is called phase space. sin wt ) . all directions are equally probable. The distribution of weights x i n l b .. is the probability of finding a piece of sand in the increment dy at the distance y < h? What is the expectation value of y for a moving piece of sand? Answer: dy/2 dhy. W h a t i s t h e normalizaf(x) = l/. turn up 179.000 times. .P. The displacement of a A half period is r/w. Find distribution function t(H) d% i s f ( % ) d % . where the probability that it points in the increment is the probability density? What is the average value of the weight x? What is the rms deviation from the mean? If an arrow is dropped on a uniform table. dp.dy.. .I. F i n d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n v a l u e o f 8.. Answer: dx/ 1“x0 sin cllt ) .PJN ’ cos tit. to the probability that heads turns up 180. . times. xg. A fair coin is tossed 360. 0 . dp. vP. probability finding the mass in dx? This probability can be written as f(x) dx.. .dp. tion constant C such that C’f(x) Answer: 23. . +r. dxl dy. dzN dp.
it is now a wellknown fact. If the electron starts from rest. such as for particles going at very high speeds. the acceleration is w h e r e s is the distance the particle has experi F/m = 1. we shall first look at some other discrepancies between the predictions of classical physics and experiment. when used to describe objects of very high energies. This law agrees with experiment for most ordinary situations. F = ma. but it breaks down in extreme situations.1 CONFLICT BETWEEN ULTIMATE SPEED AND NEWTON’S LAWS In Newtonian or classilcal any particle of mass lrll mechanics. However. or traveling at very high speeds. are due to Albert Einstein (1879l 955). which agrees with experiment. an electron of mass 9. We shall discuss how length and time measurements are related in frames of r e f e r e n c e whic4 are moving with respect to each other. when speeds are comparable to that of liight.6 x 10w3’ kg acted on by an volts/m over a distance of ten meters. the primary experiment which helped convince other physicists that Einstein’s theory was correct was the MichelsonMorley experiment.3 special theory of relativity In this chapter it will be seen that the laws of Newtonian mechanics.1 1 electric field of lo6 times the field or 1. moved.12!.9 x 1 O9 m/set. give predictions which disagree with experiment. such discrepancies also necessitate the introduction of the theory of relativity. the final speed is v = 1. to be disc u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 3. for example. Howe ve r. In this example for s = 10 m. The force is the charge x IOl3 nt. the basic law which describes the motion of under the action of a net applied force F and with1 ac celeration a is Newton’s second law of motion. Imagine. These relationships are called the Lorenfz transformation equations and are basic to the later development of the laws of physics. The understanding of the fundamental reasons for these disagreements and the discovery of the theory of relativity. 3. substantiated by multitudes of 4 2 . the kinematic expression for the speed v is v = v?%. His theory is based on some simple experimental facts and on a careful analysis of the processes of measurement of length and time.76 x 1017 m/set’. Historically. By Newton’s second law.
3. w h i c h w e r e s e e n t o b e o f s u s p e c t v a l i d i t y b y t h e preceding example. Comparison of our prediction for high speed experiments will show a discrepancy. a n d vz a r e t h e v e l o c i t i e s o f t h e t w o particles a f t e r t h e c o l l i s i o n . since the kinematical relation follows directly from the definit i o n s o f v e l o c i t y a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n . or in the kinematics. For a particle of mass m and velocity v colliding elastically with another of the same mass initially at rest. The error is eithtsr x 10’ m/set (hereafter for c). Thus.2) + mvz Y Y X Before Figure 3. H o w e v e r .9974 we will use 3 x 10’ m/set experiment.1 . that no particle can be made to go faster than the speed of light. mv = conservation 171y~ of momentum or v = v. c = 2. giving further evidence that the laws of motion must be modified.1. and that the definitions of energy and momentum will also have to be modified if we are to retain our concept of the existence of conserved physical quantities. o r b o t h . Now we shall apply these classical conservation principles to the problem of an elastic collision between two bodies of equal mass.2 CLASSICAL CONFLICT The laws of MOMENTUM WITH AND ENERGY CONSERVATION EXPERIMENT of mechanical energy and momentum follow from conservation Newton’s laws of motion. gives + v2 us (3. conservation of energy gives w h e r e v. Collision of particles with equal After rest moss. w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t i t i s t h e law Iof motion which must somehow be modified in order to resolve the discrepancy. ‘V2 . Newtonian mechanics disagrees with in the second law of motion. 3.:I Likewise. (See Figure 3.2 Classical momcsnfum and energy conservofionconnict wifh experiment 4 3 ments with cyclotrons and other accelerating machines.
We would expect energy to be conserved in this collision. Of the two other conservation laws known in classical physicsconservation of angular momenturn and of chargeexperiment shows that whereas the first must be modified valid for high all energy particles. since the same mass was used on both !sides of the equations. Therefore. Figu r e 3 . In experiments directly chemical reactions.6747 x The sum of the masses is: 3. As in Figure 3. and an x electron initially at rest in the emulsion.3431 x 10e2’ kg. mass the conservation forces i t i s w e l l s u b s t a n t i a t e d ifrom law is are sometimes electrical called in Dalton’s and mass after the reaction occurs is equal to the . This is less than the total original mass. much different from the prediicted ninety degrees. *v2 i s z e r o . The photographs in Figures 3. Atsomic by distalnces sup nuclei are bound together very tightly by a different. In Figure 3 a track is shown in a nuclear emulsion of a c o l l i s i o n between an electron traveling with a speed of nearly 3 10’ m/set.. The mass of a proton is: 1. conservation of mass was assumed.totaI involved nature reactions. Also. 3. chemical This 2H2 + O2 + 2H20. the charge conservation law remains generally under circumstances. one or more of these classical laws must be incorrect. 2 i s a multiple flash photograph of two colliding billiard balls of equal mass. pose a proton and a Ineutron combine to form a deuteron. the mass of the resulting deuteron is 3. When these particles combine. i f n e i t h e r f i n a l velocity is zero. if the energies of interaction are high enough. Into the classical prediction went the classical laws of energy and momentum conservation. it is found to be essentially ninety degrees. kg. extremely strong force. This leads to nuclear interaction energies that around million chemical reactions.2. T h e n .3471 x 10e2’ kg.3) Comparison with Equation (3. such as experiment that the . significant departures from the conservation of mass law can be observed. the angle between the outgoing particles is found to be around 19 degrees.total mass Law.1) shows that v .3 CONSERVATION Let us finally look OF at MASSCONFLICT relating WITH to EXPERIMENT the conservation of mass. The angle between the paths of the outgoing balls can be measured directly from the photographs. . times which greater acts than between in particles separated For meters. the angle between the final velocities must be ninety degrees. o f t h e o r d e r o f 10l’ meters. as predicted. ‘V2 + v: l(3. Therefore.6724 x The mass of a neutron is: 1.2 and 3. so that mass is not conserved. the plane of motion is the same CIS the plane of the paper. because conservative forces are involved and little radiation is emitted during the collision.4 4 Special fheory of relotivify The scalar product of the latter equation with itself leads to ” 2 = v: + 2v. 1 Om2’ 1 Om2’ kg. From the photograph.3 show some experimental results. act between particles separated by distances of the order of 10l’ called are the strong a interaction. example. before In such the reaction.
Elastic collision of two billiard bails.2. .outgoing t outgoing incoming Figure 3.
aln electron.. From The Study of Elementary Particles by the Photographic Method. commonly held. It * . ’ 0. since the velocities are in the relativistic region. . . ‘. Powell.. This observation therefore proves that the particle produced in the decay of the pmeson is of small restmass and gives very strong support for the view. The tracks before and after the collision are long enougih to allow the mom e n t a o f t h e partic:les to be determined. An analysis of the dynamics of the collision can therefore be made. .. Fowler and Perkins. track (b) is due to and if ‘ . P lmay thus be shown that if track (a) is clue to the recoiling electron. the mass of the particle producing the track (b) is 3 f 2m. \ .5 f 1 . .. Om.” the subsequeni directions of motion of the two particles are not at right angles. that it is an electron. the mass of the other particle is I . Although the collision is almost certainly due to two particles of equal mass..Figure 3. . .. assuming it to be elastic so that no appreciable energy is emitted in the form of photons.. of which one was originally “at rest. .3 Collision with an electron of the charged particle formed by the Pdecay of a pmeson The charged parWe emitted in the Pdecay of a pmeson makes a collision with an electron in the emulsion. *... ‘.
on a with Consider. The newer theory. and one which also applies in special relativity. 3. Also in correspondence discussed principle. in modern accelerating machines particles are accelerated to speeds (approaching the speed of light. Newton’s first law of motion: If the net force ascting body is zero. The correspondence principle is also satisfied in the other examples above. serves as a useful guide in finding the generalization of a law that is valid for one range of a variable.5 Inertial sysfems 47 3. The difficulties with Newtonian mechanics show up mainly when we are dealing with high speeds. Then in the cas#e to the predicted result of Newton’s laws of motion. v <: c. might accorcl w i t h t h e to chemical old theory in the special cases ito s.4 CORRESPONDENCE PRINCIPLE In the next chapter we will develop the generalizations of mechanics. the body will either remain at rest or will continue to lmiove . Another way of stating the correspondence principle is: Any new theory which contains an older theory as ~a special case must give the same predictions as the which the old theory applies. special relativity explains why the mass of a deutelron not equal the sum of the neutron and proton masses. the special theory of relativitymust give the same results as Newton’s laws of motion when applied. of very l o w s p e e d . relativity gives Dalton’s law when applied reactions. c. we would expect any deviations from the predictions of Newton’s laws of m o t i o n t o b e v e r y s m a l l . One of the most important restrictions. The new theoryin our case. to problems involving motion of artificial satellites. must give the same predicted results as the old theory in those experiments with which the old theory is in agreement. lo5 mi/hr or 5 x lo4 m/set. Newton’s laws are so well verified in terrestrial and astronomical exiperiments that they must be an accurate representation of nature in those cases. About the highest speed available in such experiments with large objects is the speed of the p l a n e t M e r c u r y .pecial theory of relativity. H o w e v e r . to be disc:ussed in this section. but which hos to be modified for another range of that variable. for example. Since this speed is small c:ompared to c.3. due to Albert Einstein. the predicted results of this new theory must be identical As we will see. we shall now proceed to analyze in more detail the conditions under which the laws are known to hold. is that the laws can be valid only in certain frames of reference called inertial1 frames. The correspondence principle. the applies to all particles going with any speed up to c. that will resolve the difficulties encountered above.5 INERTIAL SYSTEMS Newtoman laws of motion do not Hoving seen in preceding sec:tions t h a t t h e always agree with experiment. Suppose there existed a t’heory of mechanics that gave results in agreement w i t h e x p e r i m e n t f o r a l l s p e e d s v 5 c. for instance. and Newton’s second law does not apply. The correspondence principle states that any new theory which applies to a broader range of experiments than an old theory.
there must be no force on the book. the motion of the book in G. remains.‘s (At coordinate system is at rest and has no net this point. for him also the force is zero by Newton’s first law. we need a coordinate system.‘s we are is an neglecting inertial the earth’s force acting on it. and its origin in the middle of some railroad tracks with the x axis pointing parallel to the rails. An inertial frame. T h e n e t force acting on it is t!herefore zero. w i t h i t s z axis pointing up. since the b’ook inertial rotation system and of in G. We shall call their coordinate systems G and R. would be an coordinates. For example. mtYtYtu . in accordance with Newton’s first law in R. To measure the position and velocity of a particle. and therefore by Newt’Dn’s first law. and the one on the tracks R. calling coordinate the observer on the trcin G. A passenger in the train might observe a book lying on the seat and !say that relative to the x’y’z’ system. is one in which the first lawthe law Iof iInertiaholds. R. is the x’y’z’ set. A system of coordinates in which Newton’s first law of motion is satisfied is called an inertial system because.‘s set. the book is traveling with constant velocity. by definition. the x’y’z’ coordinate system (the G system). the book is at rest. R. is the xyz set. Two inertial reference frames..4. We call this system the x’y’z’ system. to observe the motions of bodies. R. satisfies the first law since the Likewise. Figure 3. G. set up with clocks and measuring rods (rulers) at rest in it. a n d x ’ a x i s p a r a l l e l t o the tracks. To simplify the disc:ussion. Also. as in Figure 3. There are many different coordinate systems we could choose.4. we shall designate the observers by letters. Thus. let us pick a second coordinate system with origin fixecl in a train going along the tracks with constant velociity v relative to the tracks. Therefore. Now according to R. system. ‘we could pick a reciangular xyz system. system system . a person standing in the middle of the railroad tracks might say that the book is traveling with constant velocity v relative to the xyz system. goes and R. G. motion. the inmertia of a body causes it to continue in a state of rest or of motion with constant velocity.‘s book is at rest. respectively.‘s system. V. On the other hancl. when no force acts on it. with z’ a x i s u p .constant velocity in a straight line.) planetary Likewise. G. G.
5. a coordinate system fixed on the surfac:e of the earth is not exactly an inertial system. 6 Noninerfiol sysfems 4 9 3. the first law of motion is invalid in this rotating coordinate system. 1 x 1 0 m5 mi/sec == 0 . A ticket stub lying on the ground a distance d f r o m t h e a x i s o f r o t a t i o n w i l l h a v e x ” a n d y ” c o o r d i n a t e s . not an inertial system. Clearly.5. T h e e q u a t i o n o f t h e p a t h o f t h e s t u b i n x”y” c o o r d i n a t e s . We have defined an inertial system as a system of coordinates in which the first law of motion holds. velocity w. Imagine a rotating coordinate system (x”y”z”) fixed in a merrygoround. is thus (x”)’ + (y”)’ = d2. the first law will not hold because an object not acted on by forces will appear to accelerate. Y that is. 1 1 ft/sec’ The acceleration of a car which speeds up from rest IO 15 mi/hr in 60 seconds . The net force acting on the ticket stub OS from all physical causes such gravity and contact with the grouncl is zero. therefore. The origin of the coordinate system is on the axis of rotation. both because of the centripetal acceleration coordinate that bodies have on the earth’s surface and because it is a is rotating system. Then the earth s u n u n d e r g o e s c i r c u l a r motic’n relative to such a coordinate system fixed in the earth. which is rotating Figure 3. Thus. The magnitude of the centripetol acceleration of a man on the equatolr a2r = (2~/864ClO set per revolution)2(about 4000 miles) 2 = 2 .6 NONINERTIAL SYSTEMS Not all coordinate systems are inertial systems. A coordinate system fixed relal’ive to the eorth also rotcltes once a day. x ” = dl c o s wt. The earth we live on rotates approximately once per day relative to the sun.6. The path of the stub in the x”y” coordinates is a circle.) We conclude that this coordinate system fixed in .3 . as in FiGlure 3. as seen by an observer fixed to the merrygoround.the is. Coordinate system fixed in a merrygoround which is rotating wiih angular with the angular velocity w.f CI circle. the equation o. and it is not an inertial system. I. relative to the ground. Therefore. = d s i n wf. (See Figure 3. if an observer is accelerating.
which is of the same order of magnitude as the centripetal acceleration at the equator. one axis normal to the plane of our galaxy and another along the line from the center of the sun to the center of the galaxy. because the coordinate system will rotate once a year. 3 . t h e m a n o n t h e e q u a t o r i s n o t i n a n in’ertial reference frame. From here on.ticket stub lying on the road. because it has negligible acceleration and negligible rate of rotation. s i m i l a r l y . We can go a step c:ooredinate system with origin at the sun’s center. also.6.5 0 S p e c i a l t h e o r y o f relotivi~y N t Figure 3. Then the path of a free particle (no forces acting on it) relative to this system will. however. we shall assume that. to a high degree of approximation. the toward the sun. but with the x axis pointing along the direction of orbital motion and the y axis pointing toward the sun. Suppose a coordinate system were fixed in a car which is accelerating.1. a coordinate system with origin fixed at the center of the sun and axes pointing toward “fixed” stars is an inertial system of coordinates. However. /’/ Q)the car’s coordinate system. as seen in Table 3. t h e acceler’clting system is not an inertial system. As seen from stub is accelerating. the is 6. and that a passenger in the car is observing a .9 x 1O5 mi/sec’. This is again not an inertial system. to a good approximation. we choose a set of axes with center at the center of the earth..ystem fixed on the surface of the earth is a noninertial system. appear to be a straight line. Then the net force on the stub from all physical causes is zero. 7 A X E S R E L A T I V E TO F I X E D S T A R S Suppose that instead1 of axes fixed in the earth. T h e r e f o r e . first l a w d o e s n o t h o l d . . This is still nlot earth has a small centripetal acceleratioln further and take a an inertial system. because the acceleration of the sun toward the galactic center is very small compared to ordinary accelerations we measure on earth. A coordinate :. since Newton’s. this is close enough for most purposes. because the sun orbits around the galactic center.
R. as well as ta R.7..5) Also. two coordinate systems. motion of a free particle looks like straight line. moving with same constant velocity v relative axes parallel ta v. can be expressed as.. and z’ is parallel ta z.8 Ga/i/eon tranrformotions TABLE 3. at the same instant t’ = 1. and R.8 GALlLEAN TRANSFORMATIONS !sun. we have. if the y’ axis is chosen parallel to y.. R and G inertial frames. constant velocity motion.y. since G.4) We will later see that this equation. a n d Suppose R. as shown in Figure 3. 1 1 . IIII order ta find fransformatian relations between the G.‘s measure . 5  point on equator center of earth sun x 10e5 mi/sec’ x 10e6 rni/rec’ X lol3 rni/sec’  3.‘s and R. referring ta Figure 3. as measured by R. are inertial systems. so the systems of bath G. ta G. the Newtonian assumption of absolute time gives f’ = f (3. We shall exumine this in mare detail. in the x’y’z’ system. G moves with velocity v relative to. is not valid in special relativity.z). is at rest relative ta the inertial system with origin in the ta R. as measured by G. the free particle is at the point (x. I f i n G and R there are clacks w h i c h b e a t s e c o n d s a n d w h i c h a r e s e t t a t = t ’ = 0 at the instant the origins in G and R pass each other. The Y / Y’ /’ / // v / id x Figure 3. Let’s choose x and x’ consider G. As measured by clocks in the time is t’ w h e n t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s m a d e . which seemed 1~0 o b v i o u s t a N e w t o n a n d to generations of physicists tllereafter. the origins are separated by OI distance equal ta vt.‘s system. travels with speed v relative ta R. X ’ = x .1 acceleration of Accelerations of Origins of Possible Reference Frames towards center of earth sun center of galaxy ___a = v’/r 51  2 .8. After time t.3.. the fallowing relations between G. Thus.vt (3.7. Suppose that at a certain instant t. the position x’ of the particle at the instant t’ =: t. 5 1 .
9 5 . and G.8.7) 2 . However. and velocity relative to R. respectively. and (3. a l l i n e r t i a l frclmes with constant velocity. position: y’ = y. then G. when the relative speed R becomes large.tont H e n c e . It will be seen that. is moving with cons. indicating that intuition can’t always be Irusted. 3. i n N e w  called the Galilean transformation equations. f. such as the assumption that all lengths appear the same in the two coorclinate systems. a r e t’ = t w a s .6). The x cornponents of velocity in the . these assumptions are erroneous. as measured in the two coordinate systems.8) R. of the significance of this discussion of inertial . other intuitive assumptions equations.4). let us find the relation between the particle velocities.I ___. The equation went into the other of G and tonian mechanics. it is valid in every other iriertial T h i s r e s u l t i s a f i r s t indication frames.52 Special theory of re/otivi:ty i’ 2:’ G t ‘t R (xyz) (x’y’z’) Particle v t 1 s x I !xI Figure t3.two systems.6) Of course. in an inertial system. results in i’=iv (3.where the dots mean time derivatives. using the Galilean transformations. ments of the particle’s Separation between origins at time t is vt. The similarity of the statements of . Similarly. if the first law is valid in one inertial frame. R.5). Equations (3. since if time is (absolute dt and df’ are equal.. i’ :3 lif (3. Equations (3. will observe the particle are completely equivalent as far as the statement of frame. (3.the first law of motion in various in G. R and G. i” = z (3. Hence. Differentiation of Equation (3. are dx/dt and dx’/dt’.5) lead to p’ The result states that Imoving = y. The four equations. must each use measuring rods at rest in their respective coordinate systems. so is G. is. the first law of motion is concerned.5) with respect to f. simply taken to be selfevident. we don’t have to distinguish between them. if R.9 GALlLEAN VELOCITY’ TRANSFORMATIONS Next. remembering that v is constant. observes a particle going with constant velocity.
t h e n m ’ = m. In Newtonian mechanics. a’.with respect to absolute uniformly.9) l3y using Equations (3. a book weighs the same on on the ground as on a scale in a car moving at constant velocity. Differentiating these equations with respect or t’). Absolute time flowed observe\. Nevertheless. it is always assumed thIat m’ is the particle’s moss OS F. = a”. a’ in the other inertial frame. which was supposed to be absolutely at rest. m’. t o d e n o t e F’. this low. One inertial frame is as good as another. for qualntities general m e a s u r e d b y G . and the belief in the existence of absolute time was the origin of the 10 !SECOND LAW OF MOTION UNDER GAULEAN TRANSFORMATIONS ltet 1~s look at the expression of the second law of motion in the two relativel.. the third law. Scl for a given particle. are equal to the F’. W e s h a l l a s k IIOW t h e of a particle. One may draw the analogy of attempting to pick a better origin for coordinates for the expressiofl of the rules of plane analytic geometryactually. Similarly. we find that a. independent of the motion of the assumption in Equation (3. In Newtonian motion corresponding physical quantities chanics. . in all inertial frames.y Imoving coordinate systems. is the same in various inertial systems.e. the second law. = a. and m is its mass as measured ma sc’ale R . the accelerations ore the same in the two inertial systems. m ’ . forces ore absolutes. 10 Second law of motion uqder Galileon transformations 53 ertial frames means that there is no way to pick and choose among the infinity of inertial frames (using the first law). Newton and of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries maintained a belief in the existence of an absolute space and an absolute time.the same in two inertial systems. in the hope that by judicious choice the expression of the law might b’e Imade simpler. We see that the three quantities in ‘corresponding quantities F’ F = ma.EAN TRANSFORMATIONS Finally. “Absolute referred to space coordinates measured with respect to one preferred frame. measured by R.:I. if measured in G. i. the second law of motion has the same form inertial frame in which the law would be different. Then accelerations a’ a n d a. all observers will measure a particle to have ill the same mass. w e c a n f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o Thus. It follows that = m’a’. ay . R and G. For example.8). a. Hence no mechanical law can lbe many other phy!jicists space” inertial to draw essential distinctions between inertial frames.4). m’. the low is forminvariant under Galileon trans . F’ = F:. in other words. It will be seen below that this equivalence proper*y of the law of inertia is used also satisfied by the other laws of motion. a. cannot be used to pick out some prc:ferred I1 THIRD LAW UNDER GAUL. therefore. to’ time (f (3.. one origin is as good as another. and are assumed to be . We shall put primes on all quantities such as F’. the law of action and reaction.7) and (3. = a. mass is an absolute quantity. are related1 to the rnem. quantities a’. space.
F = F’.54 Special theory of re/ativi. b y t h e Gal&an v e l o c i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . observers in motion with respect to the ether should be able to observe light rays propagsating at various speeds.. R e l a t i v e t o t h e e t h e r . Jaseja 1881 1887 190204 1921 192324 1924 1924 192526 1926 1927 1927 1929 1930 1962 Potsdam Cleveland Cleveland Mt.ty formations. 3. in other words. We can see this because if particles A and B interact in the R system. the third law gives F.i n v a r i a n t u n d e r Galilean transformations. l i g h t w a s s u p p o s e d t o p r o p a g a t e a t t h e s p e e d c. Wilson Pasadena M t . Rigi Mt. Therefore. Newton’s philosophical beliefs led him to assert that there existed a preferred inertial frame. people came to believe that light waves were supported by a medium called the “ether. Hence. E q u a t i o n (3.n BI = F.7). H e n c e . Later on in the nineteenth century. by means of experiments with light. c.i n v a r i a n t u n d e r Galilean transformations. h e n c e . T h i s w a s a n e x p e r i m e n t TABLE Trials of the MichelsonMorley Experiment 3. A very accurate experiment designed to detect the absolute motion of the e a r t h w a s p e r f o r m e d b y . Wilson Pasadena & Mt.. and which we could s. or with respect to the ether. Wilson Jena long Island 175 20 90 375 1000 Place to of expected time observed  differences 2 40 80 15 40 80 15 13 35 . oil t h e N e w t o n i a n l a w s o f m o t i o n a r e f o r m . The apparent variation in the speed of propagation of light would mean. Joos Townes.ay is absolutely at rest.” which was at rest in absolute s p a c e . appeared at first to be feasible. So this equation is the same as F’(AonBj = F’(BonAj. But for any force. that the laws describing light waves are not forminvariant under Galilean transformations. in which the laws of mechanics take a simpler mathematical iform. Javan. on A).12 MICHELSONMORLIE’Y EXPERIMENT I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t a// c l a s s i c a l m e c h a n i c a l l a w s a r e f o r m . detection of the motion of an observer with respect to the absolute rest frame.Michelson a n d M o r l e y i n 1 8 8 1 . at rest in absolute space. depending on the direction of propagation and on the motion of the observer with respect to the ether. Wilson Cleveland Cleveland Heidelberg Mt.2 Ratio Observer Year Michelson M i c h e l s o n & Morley Morley & M i l l e r Miller Miller Miller (sunlight) Tomaschek (starlight) Miller Kennedy lllingworth Piccard & Stahel Michelson et al.. there is no hope of finding one preferred inertial system. which is the third law for the same interaction i n s y s t e m G . Murray.
G.I moving charges. is in an . i s m o v i n g w i t h v e l o c i t y v r e l a t i v e to me. This tends to Iindicate that absolute motion is simply not detectable by means of optical experiments. “I am at rest in absolute space and (3. we can say that. “ G . performed a preferred inertial system. along these two arms could be measured with precision great enough to detect the earth’s orbital v e l o c i t y .9.x’ direction with respect to R. Only relative motion is observable.9. Einstein concluded from this that it must be a fact of nlature that there is no experiment of any kind. (See Figure 3. Inever If there is nt3 way elf detecting a preferred frame of reference. When the experiment was first performed. R. . one is at rest absolutely. 3. always with a null result.. placed parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the earth’s orbital velocity. I3 Postdotes of relativity in which light was sent along t. Many other extremely telescopes. and R. of equal length’s. the experiment gave a reasonablethat the null result. etc. can say. Y’  / Figure 3.” but not.fundamental or to select iln an inertial system. physicists were surprised to learn that the time difference was zeroI. The difference in light speed. or travel time differences.!2.. by means of which it is possible to detect absolute motion A deeper analysis of the rellations Inecessary.3. This experiment has been performed many times since 1881 with greatly increased accuracy. is moving.e.” If G. This means that. who are moving relatively to each (other in inertial frames. lby We have also seen that no preferred inertial system can be detected means of Newtonian mechanics.wo arms of an interferometer. the light speed is independent of direction and hencewhich is lnot ‘earth seemed to be at rest in absolute space. 3 0 km/set. interferexperiments results.) Thus. moving 55 ometers with unequal arms. to within the accuracy of the experiment. of two observers. Reference frame G moves with velocity v along the positive x. Some of accurate given null tliese results are given in Table involvim. performed to detect the earth’s motilon h a v e 13 IPOSTULATES OF RE:LATlVlTX All of the efforts to de.tect the absolute motion of the earth by optical experiments have failed in spite of the lal~ge magnitude of the expected effect. between the inertial systems G and R is .
) Both G. This is one of the basic assumptions of the theory of relativity. independent of direction. if G. . the experiments he performs using apparatus at rest in that system would be desc:ribed If R.. using apparatus at rest R in his inertial frame. and R. there is no difference in which express physical laws discovered by G. see light from the flashlight moving with the same speed c Figure 3. This principle is a general statement which restricts the possible physical laws to those having the property of forminvariance with respect to transformations.10. which would be the experiments these experiments would be described by physical laws in the form of the equatit>ns same in form as the physical laws in G. I f t h e l a w s d e s c r i b i n g l i g h t w a v e s a r e v a l i d l a w s o f physic:j. relative to R. between inertial systems. traveling at velocity v R.. it were measuring. shines his flashlight in the +x’ Thus. measures the speed of a light wave in vacuum. i t w i l l b e c . Both would measure the speed to be c even if it were the same light by Einstein as the second fundamental assumption of his theory: I n v a c u u m t h e speed of light.5 6 Special theory of relativify inertial system. a n d m a y b e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : A// t h e l a w s of p h y s i c s a r e t h e s a m e i n al/ inertiul f r a m e s . irrespective of the state of motion of the source. in principle. will observe the same ‘Nave the principle has very broad impli direction. is a ~onstanf. Measurements at the (earth’s surface show that light propagates in a vacuum w i t h s p e e d c z 3 x lo8 m/set. (See Figure 13. Henc:e cations. it follows that he will observe a light wave that travels with speed c. performed identical by some set of equations which express physical laws. If R. relative to themselves. So. AlthoLlgh it is consistent with the results of mechanical and optical experiments. wave whose speed they and if G. called the p r i n c i p l e ol’ r e l a t i v i t y . traveling with the same speed c. or that all p h y s i c a l l a w s h a v e b e e n d i s c o v e r e d . it is not true that all conceivable experiments have already been performed. and those discovered by R. This very important principle was taken should be c.10. measures the speed of some light wave. c.
has a light source at rest in his lab and he measures the speed of \ \ \ \ I / : Figure 3. 14 EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE SECOND POSTULATE Most of the experiments performed to test the predictions of relativity theory largely confirmed the first por. the Galilean transformations mu’st b e i n correct.11. c.5) a n d by R. Light emitted from positions A and B on the sun’s equator colnes from r. (3. Suppose R. as indicated by experiment.6). Since the Galilean transformations depend solely on distance ond time measurements.ourtes moving with different velclc~~ties relative to the earth.tulate but did not test the second postulate directly. Equations postulate 57 (3. II. These are: I. The equations expressing the laws of physics have the same form in CIII inertial systems. The principle of the constancy of the speed of light: The speed of light. somehow the must be modified in relativity so that the speed constant. that the speed of light is a constant independent of the motion of the light soLlrce. I4 Experimental evidence for seconcll This contradicts the Galilean velocity transformations. which tell us that the speed of light wave sent out by G. is. Summarizing. a u n i v e r s a l c o n s t a n t i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e s t a t e o f motion of the source.. Einstein was led to base a new theory on two postulates. if the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light is correct. and since a slseed distance of light and time a measurements universal remains is a distance divided by a time. We shall now describe an experiment which was performed to test the volidity of the second postulate. as observl?d is c + v. l(3. Therefore.3. .4). The principle of relativity: No inertial system is preferred.
T h e s u n r o t a t e s a b o u t aln axis which is nearly normal to the line of sight of G. w h e r e t h e figure ~230 m/set indicates the size of the probable error in the measurements. who is supposed to be on the earth. it is seen that they are of the same form as the first four except for the sign of the relative velocity and the interchange of primed a n d u n p r i m e d variabll.ec = 2 0 0 0 m/set. the speed difference was observed to be 63 f 230 m/set. is slitting in a lab at rest on the sun’s equator.15 GALlLEAN TRANSFORMATIONS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY The Galilean Transformations connecting the measurements of G.j. m e a m/set if the Galilean transforma sures the speed of lislht.Es.9 x 10m6 r’ad/sec. is moving away from R.‘s light s o u r c e . page. Then. f in terms of x’. away from the earth is The speed with which a point A or or B (see Figure 3. The difference between these two observed speeds would be 2v. When the experiment was actually performed by the Russian physicist BonchBruevich. given the rlzsult 63 & 230 m/set and the predicted result of the Galilean transformation Iof 4000 m/set. is moving toward R.v.10) f’ These transformations are completely consistent with the principle of relativity (Postulate I) taken by itself. y.1 1. Imagine that R. with those of R.1 1) at the edge of the visible equator moves either towalrd ‘v = o r = 2 km/!. the chance that the Galilean transformation could be right is 1 in 104. i f G .11) = t’ Examining the last four equations. This formal difference in the two sets of transformations. This may be seen by solving for x. as in Figure 3.‘s light source with speed v. is one manifestation of the which occurs in the sign of the relative velocity. The sun has a radius of 695. This experiment is in far better agreement with the principle of the constancy of the speed of light than with the Galilean transformations. for both points A and 6. (emitted by a source at rest relative to R.58 Special theory of relativity light using apparatus at rest in his lab. A reproduction of that paper is given on the following 3. w i t h s p e e d v . he should see a difference of 4000 tions are correct and 170 difference if the second postulate is correct.000 km and rotates with angular velocity 2. He finds the speed to be c. if G.. If G. z’t: x t = x’ + vi’ Y = Y’ z = z’ (3.vf = t Y’ z’ = Y = z (3. y’. t h e G a l i l e a n transformations imply that the light’s speemd i n G w o u l d b e c . z. may be written as: Xl = x . H e n c e . BenchBruevich calculated that. but c + v if the Galilean transformations are correct. the light’s speed in G woulol be c if the second postulate is correct. .
2.73 (1960). a n d i n t h e decacles tl. ‘l’ilf~ sunvs e q u a t o r i a l e d g e s w e r e wed a s :. over A . (1956). Opt. . A. of is 1045 classical valid.at velocities i f t h e clsssical were valid. i n alother using excited atoms or s o u r c e “1. A . Astrophys. 5.LETTERS TO THE EDITOR A DIRECT EXPERIME:NTAL CONFIRMATION OF THE SECOND POSTULA’TE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY (in connection A. 9. s h o w n . 20.tulate.l first postulate is . . lionchliruevict. The second postulate of the Theory was not based on direct experi m e n t a l Iesults. Ser.9 km/s. 8. relatiw that ltlle velocity t h e velocity of he b a s i c to ttle Vzvilov zmgo.along the b a s e w h e n t h e t r a n s i t i o n w a s m a d e f r o m “IIC’ e d g e o f t h e sun t o tt16’ other. 1 7 6 1 ( 1 9 5 9 ) .e2 see. 2. 9 t h e s e e. Fiz. Nature 183. Dfi”gle t p u b l i s h e d a n o t e o n this r e c e n t ly.s direct o f m o r e tllan 1 7 0 0 measure’rents o f A t = t 2 .10 6 From Optics Spectrosclz. <due t o i significance of t h i s po. author i s variation Tile e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a p p e a r c o n v i n c i n g t o u s . and Nauk V. 6. r#f tile confirm the second postulate ?5’ as a moving REFERENCES 1. . repeated over t h e S p e c i a l T h e o r y of Rczlativity. BenchBruevictl.at several decades after tile formulation of the negative results of repeated attempts d e t e c t a p r i v i l e g e d ~coordinatr system) in consequence b a s e L o f tte l i g h t e m i t t e d b y t h e l e f t a n d right e q u a t o r i a l edgg s o f t h e s u n w a s A t == (1. MolLchanov. Experiments for this purpose. Acad. Izvest. Ann. +563 ( 1 9 2 6 ) . l’roc. 891 S c i . Piccard and E. SSSR. hl.stern edge t o t h a t o f i t s weL. 184. a s Academician S. 17. ard u s e d t o comttlat the c l a s s i c a l motion times law n o t acauainted experiment to directly. w i t h t h e r e s u l t : . Optique Rend. I n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . ?l. Compte (1927’). radiaticn) at present (for icons instawze.:perimfental results can be a l o n g d:tlferent o r relativistic velocities are par? t h e A t f o r o u r a p aratus 8ould h a v e value 7 5 X lo. compounding quantity had the We note tt. P1.12 s e c . o b s e r v e r i s i m p o r t a n t . BenchBruevich.p o w e r f l u o r o m e t e r w a s t h e n l’sed t o m e a s u r e t h e p h a s e s h i f t Ap o f t h e m o d u l a t i o n of the light trawling . a comparisc~n was made o f t h e t i m e s t l a n d t2 require<1 f o r liglit e m i t t e d I. 141 (1957). Acad.h resolv i n g .. i Spektr. A . W e usec a p h a s e method to show to the required accuracy that under l’ile i n t e n s i t y o f t h e l i g h t r a d i a t e d a l o n g the b a s e b y t h e l e f t o r r i g h t e q u a t o r i a l e d g e s o f the s u n w a s m o d u l a t e d a t a f r e q u e n c y OS a b o u t the hase these L remains conditions cons‘cant. .o~rces.y t w o m o v i n g s o u r c e s t o t r a v e r s e a distance L = 2000 metgirs. 1. 3.l. Ttlis siiows t h a t the probability that the velocity of of l i g h t is i n d e p e n d e n t o f the vel”:ity o f t i e s o u r c e exceeds b y tllc p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e compounding velocities probabilities s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed l i n e s . Yicilelson. A . (1005) R . 4 8 1 ( 1 9 5 6 ) .1) x 10. D o k l a d y Acad. 5. S t a h e l . Ptys. :he transit time ea. T h e Special T h e o r y “C Relati\.4+5. Einstein. T h e p h a s e m e t e r o f a t#l&. 621 (1926).t:ern e d g e corresponds to changing the velocity of the s o u r c e o f r a d i a t i o n b y 13. ‘1. 451 RI?“.cc in the 12. A . 1 0 . 7. Picard a n d E. Spektr. I a p p e a r s from t h i s n o t e tllat thf. Kenredy. l a w the o f the tered in setting experiments. A. a n d i t seems o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e t o r e p e a t then. i A . have c o n f i r m e d t h e f i r s t p o s t u l a t e with i n c r e a s 25 ing accuracy. the value At = 0 l i e s inslde t h e s e l i m i t s . 596 Akad. N6t1. I.t l s h o w e d t h a t i n our e x p e r i m e n t the change in tlie transii time over o b s e r v i n g o p t i c a l a n d electricaL pheonomena. In addition. Opti V . Il. A s was. Dingle. Shirokov. with Dingle’s note) Benchliruevich OF THE Received 18 February 1960 It is well known that the Sptxcial ‘Ttleory A statIstica analysis of the results The of to o f R e l a t i v i t y i s b a s e d 83” t h e poz’tulate of t h e r e l a t i v i t y o f motion a n d t h e p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y o f li&t i s cor1stant. 113 (1956) . I . 9. 1 2 MC/S. p o i n t e d o u t m o r e t h a n tczn year:. Nauk SSSR 1 0 9 . plane of the ecliptic. f o l l o w e d i t w a s n o t c”nEirmed directly b e c a u s e o f t h e great ditficult]eE encounup the approprrE#te f a r o u t s i d e tile l i m i t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l error. Sci.lnal suppc’rt. Molchanov. ConchBruevict a n d ‘J. a N”“f2 laws of compounding valid. 4. 6 5 1 2 (1927).xhich l i e s d i r e c t e x p e r i m e n t showing of light is independent of the source o f r a d i a t i o n t h e l e s s . Stahel. M. A . S w i t c h i n g f r o m t h e r a d i a t i o n oj t h e s u n ’ s carried out in 1955. A.lty no l o n g e r n e e d s a n y additi.
To find G.. Experimentally. along the y or z directions.‘s stick. and arrange the two sticks parallel to the y.16 TRANSFORMATION OF LENGTHS PERPENDICULAR TO THE RELATIVE VELOCITY We shall now begin . T o f i n d the m o d i f i e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s .‘s tween the nails in R. and R. and that then G. w e w i l l c o n s i d e r s e v e r a l thought experiments. Hence the correct trans formation laws in relativity must have a the transformations.6 0 Special principle theory of relativii’y that neither of the inertial systems is preferred. !similar property. drive nails into the sticks at the ends to provide definite markers for the end points. suppose that G. then G R Figure 3. .the ‘derivation of the correct transformation laws which will replace the Galilean transformations. each have meter sticks which. and R. when at rest relative to each other. with some large constant velocity v along the x axis. the largest possible magnitude Iof the relative velocity of two physical objects is c. If the nails in G. When the relative velocity v is such that v << c. Thought expqeriment showing lengths oriented perpendicular to the direc tion oi relative motion ore unchanged by motion. moves past R.‘s stick pass bemeter stick was con tracted due to its motion.‘s coordinate y’ in terms of the unprimed coordinates measured by R. Because R. are identical. the correspondence principle requires that the mor’e general transformations reduce to the Galilean transf o r m a t i o n s . it is mainly the conmaior changes in the form of stancy of the speed oi light which brings about 3. Then lay one meter stick with midpoint on each of the z and z’ axes. we would have to say that G. y’ axes as in Figure 3. is moving with speed v relative to G. Imagine that G.. These new transformations will have to be valid for all physical values of the relative velocity v.12. that is. We first consider the rneosurement of distances oriented perpendicular to the direction of relative svelocity b e t w e e n t h e ‘two frames. Ihowever.12.
13) (3. Since z’ = z and z’ = I’ for the mirror. light travels from 0’ to the stationary mirror M’ and back. I7 Time dilation by the principle of relativity. a n d R.‘s p a s s b e t w e e n G. Thought experiment as seen by G.‘s n a i l s p a s s b e t w e e n R. t h e o n l y w a y This can be consistent is if the nails hit each other.13.3.14) Next we consider th’e same light ray from R. will find that the light ray travels with speed c. w e s t i l l h a v e t o o b t a i n x ’ a n d t ’ i n t e r m s o f x a n d t.‘s.12) 61 So no matter what the relativto velocity is. oriented along the x axis vary from one inertial frame to another. SuF18pose puts a mirror a distance L’ out along his z’ axis at M’ in Figure 3. This would tell us. The time it takes to go from 0’ to M’ and back to 0’ is then (3. the dclshed rectangle represents the position of the mirror at the time the ray strikes it.‘s. Let’s call the time . H o w e v e r . will observe that the mirror is out in the z direction a distance L = I’. ranges it so that a light ray which passes from his origin 0’ to M’ will be reflected right back to 0’. F!. We assume here that 0 and 0’ coincide when the light ra’y emitted. transforrnat i o n s . it is not consistent to say that G. that the transformation between y and y’ is: Y’ = Y A similar argument results in: z’ = z (3. R. A 1’ I  Figure 3. and ark . w e m u s t s t i l l h a v e y ’ = y a n d z’ = z.14.‘s time interval At for pain: of view.13. H o w ever. In Figure 3. in general. just as in the Galilean less straightforward process.. The principle of the constancy of the speed of light means that G.‘s n a i l s .‘s nails must also pass between G. w h i c h i s a 17 TIME DILATION ltet us consider another thougllt experiment to see how time intervals ancl lengths G. as long as it is normal to the y’ and z’ a x e s . and calculate the is first the light ray to go from 0 to M’ and come back to the origin 0’.
ic) (1 . “ray [vA~.t by that for At’ . at which R. the time it takes for light to go from 0 to M’ will be given by At _ (L’2 + [vAtgo]‘)“’ P .16) When this equation is solved for At.. strikes mirror.” + Since the speed of light relative to R. G. light travels obliquely from 0 to the moving mirror M’ and black to 0’.~]‘)‘. m o v e s w i t h v e l o c i t y v .vZ/cZ)“2 (3. the ratio of At to At’ can be obtained.ic) ( 1 . is c.vZ’/c ) (3. Thought experiment as seen by R.19) __ 2 I. At. In the triangle OMX in the figure. x’ = 0 R.18) x = “Af = P’/c) and Af = 2 I. the Iresult At 90 = c!‘) (1 .? (i!L’. Therefore.vz/c ) (3.? (1 .62 Special theory of relafivity Equal lengths Figure 3.17) W e h a v e t h u s a n a l y z e d a n e v e n t . For example. The x coordinate of this event.14. the hypotenuse OM is therefore of length (L.t h e c o l l i s i o n o f t h e l i g h t r a y w i t h Orfrom two different points of view. the total time..20) There are several things ‘we can do with this information. observes that the ray strikes the mirror At. for the ray to go from 0 to M to 0’ is 2At!). as to go from 0 to M’.v’/c 2 II2 ) It takes as much time for the ray to come from M’ back to 0’.... says that for this event. and A+’ z 2L’ C (3..). . w i l l b e (v)(At.c7 is (3.” i f G . says that for this event. Division of the equation for A. or At = (2L’.
the observer at rest must use at least two clocks to see the effect. it must be true that clo&s moving relative to a system beat slower than clocks at rest in the system.v2/c ) = % S u p p o s e t h a t i n 1 0 s e c o n d s . A t ’ = At . You would observe that in ten seconds. o r Af = ( 1 Atr . So if G. if Y = 4c/5. H o w e v e r .?/c2)1’2 (X21) That is. . G. appears t o b e a t m o r e s l o w l y t h a n t h e t w o c l o c k s i n t h e “ r e s t ” s y s t e m .‘s clocks. then a clock at rest in R. the clock carried by the “moving” observer.2 x lo* s e c .‘s system cannot be the same clock because w e a s s u m e d i n t h e tllought e x p e r i m e n t t h a t a l l R.. 1 v2/c2 = ‘/.‘s system. will beat slower than G.‘s clock at 10’ was the only clock he used in making the meas u r e m e n t s . he counts that his heart beats 10 times. j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e o f E q u a t i o n (3. a t 0 ’ . j.. u s e d a t l e a s t t w o c l o c k s . by h i s o w n reckoning.3.‘s c l o c k . h e w i l l t h e n b e y o u n g e r t h a n y o u w h e n h e g e t s back. T h i s d e c a y can be thought of as an internol clock in the meson.v’/c’)‘~!. This shows that the student should not attempt to learn the equations of relativity in terms of primed and unprimed variables. of R . When the mesons are moving . R . so you would observe that his heart beats only tii times. If h e g o e s t o M a r s ancl r e t u r n s . Suppose someone your own age gets in a rocket ship and moves past you with a 1 ‘I2 s p e e d Y s u c h t h a t ( 1 . _. useed one clock at his origin to mark the time the ray went out.s a n d At = At1/(9/25)‘/2 = (%)At’. which is at the position of 0’ when the ray strikes it. r e a d s 3 set elapsed time. H e n c e t h e “ m o v i n g ” c l o c k . In this latter experiment. G. will have beat 5 seconds. by the principle of relativity. t h e r e f o r e .‘s c l o c k s r e m a i n a t r e s t i n R .. W e m a y c o n c l u d e t h a t f o r t h e speesd light to have the same value for all observers. his clocks have recorded less than ten seconds. and one clock at the final position to mark the time of arrival of the ray back at 0’. b e a t s m o r e s l o w l y t h a n R.17 The dilation 63 g i v e s At/At’ = (1 . pmesons decay into electrons after arl a v e r a g e l i f e t i m e at rest of 2.!I! FC2 ‘\ ) (3.‘s c l o c k . while the moving observer carries one clock along with him. then by the principle of relativity we must find that a single clock carried along by R. t h a t 01: R .‘s system as the rest system. In this experiment. regarding but the in terms of of the the physical interpretation and of the equations. This time dilotion effect has been observed in experiments in which the average lifetimes of high speed particles called pmesons are measured. This effect is called time dilatron. the observers obtain different times for the occurrence of the event. in which we regard G.. or (% )( 10) = 5 set.22) . However. To give a numerical example. I n this experiment G. effects is confusion then less sense various contraction dilation likely to result. I f w e a n a l y z e a s i m i l a r experimerit from the point of view of G.‘s c l o c k s . These two clocks in R.27). by your own reckoning. _.
so the meson’s average lifetime appears to be longer. 3 psec 13.0 psec 15. Tmvwtsg. (3.21).990 .5 psec 13. (3.6 k 5. The measurements were obtained by B. B.8 psec  Tareroge (Cal4 9 . for G. along <with independent measurernents of speeds of the speed could be found. has a measuring rod along his x axis. during which G.3 gives some experimentally observed lifetimes. it appears to us that the internal clock beats slower. Table 3.3 f 5.8 psec 15. from which we obtained the time dilation effect. who counted the number of cosmic ray /J mesons at different ealrth’s surface.64 Special theory of relativity rapidly. measured by G. a f t e r g o i n g f r o m 0 ’ to M’ a r r i v e s b a c k a t 0 ’ .‘s system Ax. p’s. the number of p’s counted at a given heisght was a measure of the number of being created in the primary collisions. Suppose R. It is also the distance between 0 and 0’. together with correspolnding Rossi values calculated from Equa tion (3. From these measurements. measured after the time.7 psec 3.9853 0. (ohs.6 k 3. scratches is. T h e n t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n Ax’ = vAt’ Division of the expression for (3. between the scratches is a distance bewhen the light tween scratches on a rod which is moving with speed v relative to him..21) for differing values of v/c. Ax At Hut from the time dilation ‘equation. and D.23) Ax’. is moving away with speed v. Since the p’s are produced by high energy p’s surviving after heights above the cosmic ray particles striking the earth’s outer atmosphere. on which he makes a scratch at his origin 0 and another scratch at the point ivhere the light ray hits 0’ after reflection from the moving mirror. Hall. Ax’ = _ !f’j’* Ax c2/ (3. Equation (3.18 LENGTH CONTRACTION The results of the thought experiment.27) .) 10.9739 0.24) leads to Ax’ by that for Ax Ax’ . A x = vAt Now the distance.. At’.25) (3.26) Therefore. can also be used to derive a length contraction effect for rods oriented parallel to the relative velocity. Let us call the distance between scratches in R.= At’.3 MMeson Lifetimes As o Function of Speed v/c 0. Since Ax is the distance between 0 and 0’ after tile time At. the lifetimes as a function of TABLE 3.
vt) equation relat This applies if P’ is any point whatever.‘s stick appears to be less than a meter. It should be noted that if the physical situation is.. o b s e r v e s t h e e v e n t . we note that Ax’ is a distance between points at rest in the We (and m o v i n g s y s t e m G . except for the factor . W e w i l l a s s u m e i n o u r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h a t t = f’ = 0 w h e n t h e o r i g i n s 0 a n d 0 ’ c o i n c i d e . lequatiolls a r e u n c h a n g e d : y ’ == y a n d z ’ = z . (1 . Hence. we can now find which frorn give the relativistic relations Two between of the coomrcli notes events. F o r e x a m p l e . a s i n t h e c a s e o f t i m e d i l a t i o n .. i f v/c =: ys. S o . w e o b t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g transforlmation ing x’to x and t: x :( 1 I . 1 5 i s a t r e s t r e l a t i v e t o G . To G. the object is. S u p p o s e a n o b j e c t a t P ’ i n f i g u r e 3 . S u p p o s e G . a n d R . f r o m x = 0 t o P ’ . I9 lorenfz tronsformarions 65 Here Ax is the length of aln object measured in a system in which thtr at Irest.</(1 . 19 L O R E N T Z TRANSFORMATIIONS W i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n gainecl the Lorentz of transformations observed from these thought experiments. appears to be shorter. t h e d i s tance J(’ = from 0’ to P’ is AK = x vt.v~/c~)“~. Ax’ = (7s ) A x . object is The object is moving with speed v relative to the G system in which the c o r r e s p o n d i n g lengttl A x ’ i s m e a s u r e d . But as we found above. versed so that the length is at rest relative to G. Since y = y’ and z = z’. in whic:h moving of rods appear contracted in the direction of motion. The two observers simply disagree about what measurements are simulre taneous. . a n d t h e n m e a s u r e t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e p o s i tions. T h u s A x i s l e s s t h a n A x ’ b y t h e f a c t o r ( 1 . as we shall see. if some event occurs relative to R at position x and at time f. 2 8 ) is the same as the ‘corresponding Galilean equation. Also. it appears contracted in the dimension parallel to v by the factor.3.v’/c’)” Ax’. i t i s t h e d i s t a n c e m e a s u r e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e x oxis. T h u s .v t . i f a n o b j e c t i s m o v i n g rlelative t o the observer with velocity v.27) woul’d become Ax = (1 .vZ/cZ)“2 ( x . n o t c h a n g e d i n s i z e i n d i r e c t i o n s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o v . T h e distclnce x i n t h e f i g u r e i s t h e x c o o r d i n a t e o f P’ r e l a t i v e t o R .. Ax’ == x ’ Ax = x .tion e q u a t i o n g i v e s t h e v a l u e o f 10 a t w h i c h G .‘s stick is less than a meter lonlg. then substitution of x and t into this transforma. T h e r e f o r e . Equation (3. A s me’asured b y R .v2/c2)‘? then have Ax’ = A. the length of G. T o R. T h i s r e s u l t s a y s t h a t a s t i c k o f a n y l e n g t h A x a t to R. Also to G. b o t h Ihave m e t e r s t i c k s p a r a l l e l t o t h e x a n d x ’ a x e s . This effect.. E q u a t i o n ( 3 . R. is a necessary consequenc’e the assumption that the speeld of light has the same value for all observers. o n e s h o u l d n o t learn the equation in terms of where the prime goes but iln terms of the physical situation corresponding to the given equation.. the distance O’P’ is simply Ax’. T h i s c a n b e d o n e b y s i m p l y setting the clocks to ziero at that instant..t reloltive by G.v’/c’)“~. How can each measure the other’s stick to be! shorter? The reason is that to measure a moving length one must find the positions of the t w o e n d s simultaneously. when measurecl res. different inertial frames.
we use the expression for x’ of Equation (3.31) and (3. Hence.30) t’ = 1 (1 . 2 9 ) . As v/c app roaches zero.32). both reduce to principle is satisfied. (3. the two equations. Equation the sign of v reversed.31) ) This is the desired relationship giving t’ in terms of t and x. These equations were found using the length contraction equation. To do this. The equation .x. T h e r e s u l t i n g equation is x = 1 ______ (‘I .66 Special theory of re/ativ. the correspondence 1 (lv21c) 2 l/2 . the correspondence principle is satisfied. Therefore.Yz/cz)“z .vz/c2)“‘.ify z .: C (3. we find that 1 (:3. We con see this by supposing that a single clock is at rest in the rnoving system G at x’ = 0. we must have t= fore.15.“2/C ) 272 ( t . but with T h e p r i n c i p l e o f relativlity implies that the equation giving x in terms of x’ and f’ is of the same form as the transformation equation.if’ + 5) \ (3. expressing f in terms of t’ and x’. Likewise from the principle of relativity.28) to eliminate x ’ i n E q u a t i o n ( 3 .Yz/cz)“2 1 ( 1 Finally. l/( 1 . x coordinate of on object at rest in G and observed by R. T h e r e  For v << c.( x ’ + Vf’) . this factor approaches one. we must have X= .vf) + vt’ On solving this last equation for t’. x’ d Figure 3. in terms of x’ and t’.32) 1’ = t. we want to find the transformation equation which gives the tirne t’ in terms of measurements made by the observer R.vZ/c2)“2 [ 1 ~ ( x ( 1 . (3. They also agree with the time dilation formula.28).
34) gives y’ = z’ = 0.. A number of explosions ot different positions along the x axis are simul . .c2)l/2 t ( yi (:3. read on this single clock at rest in the moving system G. observe it? htion F o r v/c = 5/13.20 1 t :I: !jimultcmeity 6 7 t’ ( 1 . T h e n substitution into Equations (13. ( 1 . They were derived by repeated use of the two postulates of the theory oif relativity.2 (x . t’ = 0 . We have seen that they satisfy the correspondence principle. is therefore less than the time t meas.3.v~/c~)~“~. The time by a coincident clock in the rest system R. is moving away from R. imp/e Suppose that G. t := 10m4 set..v2/c2)“” = = ‘/. have found between transformations x’ t’. 0 0 0 m .ured (3.v % v/c) t’ q : (.K’ . 9 4 4 x lo‘!sec.ransformations. Lorentz transformations differs from Y the equation for t’ i n t h e transformations by a term the Galilean Figure 3.1 6 6 7 m .16.. for this clock.13). I. x = 1 0 . t = t’/(l .“2/C2)“2 ( + YXI cz ) (3.:34) These are called the Lorentz t.Y’/c’)~‘~. _ 1 v2. found The previously set of from a thousyht we =: (1 experiment.33) becomes. This agrees with Equation x’y’z’t’ and xyzt are: 1 2 2 . where and when does G. I f R . toneous in R. in the positive x direction at a speed s u c h t h a t v/c =: %. sets o f f a f i r e c r a c k e r a t y = z = 0 ..20 SIMULTANEITY Aside from the time dilation factor (1 . .
halfway between two light detectors /I1 and r Dl rl \ \‘\A/ D2..68 . suppose that R. sets off a number of explosions along the x axis. turns on the light. as in Figure 3.‘s position at the However. Thus. a n d t h e e v e n t s w h i c h w e r e in G. t e l l s u s t h a t f o r vx/c2(1 t’ = t = 0 but for different positions .~‘/c’)“~.18. says that the timer at D2 is set fast compared to that at D. Hence events that appear simultaneous to R. ( S e e F i g u r e 3 . while D. G.v~/c”)“~. all of which are observed simultaneously in R. these clocks in G appear to be set behind what R. the timers are not synchronized in G. T h e n . Therefsore.Specia/ theory of relotidy proportional to x. Light emitted from o point halfway between two detectors at rest in R arrives simultaneously at the two detectors in R. Perhaps we may understand this by considering the observer R.‘s system.17. a t t h e insstant t = 0 . for positive x.17. D2 before it hits D. standing. i.‘s system. he sees D. at t = 0. that record the time Figure 3.. as to D2. if.t’ = . would say that the light hit the detectors simultaneously. then. That is. the light wave going forw a r d a n d t h e d e t e c t o r D2 a p p e a r s t o h a v e traveled are approaching each other.j m o v i n g p a s t instant R. i s m o v i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h e l i g h t w a v e g o i n g b a c k w a r d .. as shown in Figure 3. R. t h e detectors record equal times when light hits them. and1 02 r n o v i n g b a c k w a r d wit11 speed Y. To see the physical significance of this term. the light hits simultaneous in R are Inot simultaneous in G. but D1 a n d D2 record the same time. T h e l i g h t w a v e g o i n g f o r w a r d . turns on the light bulb he is holding.vx/c2)/(l x. 1 6 . would call the correct time by the amounts vx/c2(1 . G. These are then the readings on the various clacks of G. at which light hits them.v2/c2)““. do not appear simultaneous to G. for the different explosions. is concerned. since it takes the same time for the wavefront to travel from R.. If R. i n G.thus less distance before it strikes the detector. which depend on position. then as far as G. which by his own clocks occur s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Simultaneity is thus a concept which has no absolute meaning. S i n c e G . the tirnes of their occurrence depend on the x positions of the events. . to D. b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e l i g h t h i t s D2 first. R. ) T h e e q u a t i o n (t .
for ends of the rod must be marked at the same time. x r.) Thus. t’ := 0.19. To measure the length of a moving rod. c o u l d m e a s u r e i t s a p p a r e n t l e n g t h L b’y noting the position of its the lef+ e n d . a r o d o f l e n g t h I a t r e s t i n G .19)‘/2 When a length melasuremcmt R of a moving object is made. ~tion 1O5)(O.19.1(&100)/(3 x 105)(0. xR. Suppose. Whlen are these events observed by G. a t xR .+ 1 . and then measuring the difference . for example. . XI and xR.3 . R .Simu/taneify 6 9 Figure 3.V”/C’)“’ 0.‘s velocity in the positive x direction relative t o R h a s m a g n i t u d e c/10? (Assume 1’ = t = 0 w h e n x’ = x = 0. R. T w o e v e n t s a t x := +lOO km a r e o b s e r v e d b y R . Light emitted os G. same time.) ution t ’ = VX/C’(l =: . if G. If the relative velocity ha:. makes marks simultaneously at the positions of the left o nd right ends. the positions of both 3. 2 0 . L = Lrnarkr. (See f’igure Figure 3. a t t h e i n s t a n t t = 0.18.9(*100)/(3 :< magnitude 9c/lO. mp/e 2. passes the midpoint between two moving detectors does not arrive at the detectors simultaneously in G.88 when are they seen? X 10e4sec. and the position of its right end.‘99)“2 = +3. = b6.XL.35 X 10e6 s e c .
> t’. the R system moves a distance vAt’ to the left. mark the positions of two ends of the rod at time 1. R. Then.v2/c2~‘2. the distance between the marks is Lma. if to G.LV2L c2(1 . L. the distance between the marks is 1 korkr = I’ ./C 2 ‘I2 Also.Since these times are not the same. The difference between these times is given by At’ = V(XR . as seen by G. the 10m3 seconds to mark the right end of the rod after he marks the left end.‘s measurements of the length of the rod in G.t.time (f . the At’ = t. the apparent dR I I I xL moves to left before is marked Rat instant XR I I with t’. R.tr length of the rod.VXR/C2)/(1 .Y2/c2)1’2 (3.20.. the time t. the length of the rod is I’..Y2/c2)“2 = (3. The error he would make in his length measurement would be (1 OOOO)( 1 Om3) Lorentz 1..70 lipecial theory of relativify that when G.35) In this time. it appears the right end is marked first.000 ft/sec.XI) 2(1  “2/c2)‘12 = c2(1 Vl . = transformations. = (t . waits = 10 ft.vq/c2)/(l marks do not appear to be made simultaneously in G.37) To R. t: Figure 3. xI i s m a r k e d . the righthand mark approaches the left end of the rod by a distance “At’ ‘2 I. G.. from the right mark was made at the . G. Hence. would say Let R. = ~ 2(1 .“2. rather. relative to G. .2/C’) “2 Thus..‘s speed is 10. . of course. would say the left mark was made at ) . .
z + d z .313) This quadratic equation for *y h a s s o l u t i o n s l/(1 . velocity transformations.v2/c2)” and :r = ( 1 .ty viceversa. and dt’ in terms of the unprimed differ ential quantities. that R.v~/c~)“~. The first solution agrees with the length contraction found previously from another thought experiment. Since the second solution becomes 1 as v/c goes to zlero. and dz’/dt’. observes z Figure 3./y. dx. dy’. The velocity colnponents in G are then dx’/dt’. Suppose. observes the very same particle dt’.21. where y is some constant depending on relative speed. The use of the velocity definitions just stated will then lead to the .y. between the two frames. to G. as is illustrated in Figure 3. The position vector of o particle changes by dr in time dl’. Iiowever.time dt from the point with coordinates x. y’..21. . we see that this is the basic reason why lengths in one system may appear shortened in another system.vZ/cZ)“2 y = (3. dz’.. = I. t h e r o d a t r e s t i n G i s m o v i n g . dy/dt.2 I Tronsformotion of velocities 7 1 The above result can be used to check the length contraction effect.37). Y LAark. so Thus. z’ to a particle moving in . for suppose the ratio of the apparent length of a moving rod to that of an identical rod at rest is denoted by ‘I/y. from Equation (3. y + d y . I n R t h e v e l o c i t y t h e n h a s c o m p o n e n t s o f dx/dt. the marks at rest in R are moving with the same speed. it does not satisfy the correspondence principle and may be discarded. land going from x’. Since tke present argument is based on the disagreemelnt regarding simultanei. T h e n s i n c e t o R . Suppose G.z’ + dir’ in the time interval dy’/dt’. 1 := yl  21 cZ(l ...k. We shall use the Lorentz trclnsforma tion equations to find dx’. y’ + dy’. Lma.z to x + dz/dt. x’ t dx’. = L = l’/y. eliminating L’ alld Lk. ranId 2 1 TRANSFORMATION OF VIELOCITIES It is extremely useful to know how velocity measurements made by different observers are related.3.
likewise in G.v) ~ ( ‘ I .“2/C ) 277? tx!5 i C2 1 (:3. we have . Equations (3.T2 (x . dividing numerator and denominator by dt.vdx/c2 (:3. for example. f = dx/dt. u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e rellotive ilncre1 (:3. if .3 particle goes with an x component of velocity. for the differential dt’.39) equation dx’ = This was obtained simply by velocity of the two observers is kept constant. w e h a v e d y ’ = dy.’ = dy/dt and jr’ = dy’/dt’. we obtain 3. X” in the denomi .44) Thus. x = .42) Hence.43) is.. dx’ = .“. (We shall use the dot notation for in this notation.46) .“f/C2) (:3.= dt’ (* .4 (1 .% c relative to R.) Equation (3.e.72 Special theory of relofivify One of the equations of the Lorentz transformation.dx . Also.i/C2) (3. = ( 1 ( 1 . that v is constant.42).vdt df .v in the numerator and 1 . the x’ component of velocity is dx’ = dt’ . i s x’ zz the differential form of this 2 . we may use the expression in Equation (3. Therefore. The ment dt’ is obtained in the same way from the equation..VW (1 . dy ’ ” = z = dyV1 v2/c2 (3.v2/c ) differentiation.v2/c ) is 1 2 1/2 (dx .34). on the righthand side we get (dx/dt) . will measure the i’ component of velocity to be X I = (tic  %c) 4 =3’ 0 (l+%) O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . t h e G a l i l e a n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w o u l d g i v e i’ = ic . “dxlc2) Hence. then G. i’ = dx’ldt’. t’ = It is c/t’ = 1 (1 . the x component of velocity ir R. S i n c e y ’ = y . anu v = % c.v(dx/dt)/c’ nator.1vZ/cZ)“2 9 .time derivatives.43) If we divide the numerator and denominator through by dt. i. To obtain the transformation equation for 9.v =  % c  % c = c.41) (:3.45) (dt.
v2 sin2 /I)] . for example. show that in another inertial system tlhe is also c.Since .44). V COS e/c).(.‘Zcv (i’)’ + (y’)’ = L. (3.3 ?h d(12.2 I Jransformafion By a similar derivation. lo4 km/set.v cos B/c). . Equations (3.. so that the principle of the constancy of the speed of light is sati’sfied..‘)2 c o s 0 + v’) + (c’ sin2 B . If all terms involving factors of v/c i n E q u a t i o n s (3. C2 ) C2 ( .5 +..000.44) shows clearly that the principle of relativity is (3. lo4 km/set.the lp/e with Equation (3. to move with velocity components (10.44) are the desired velocity transformations. we get for i’: i:’ = ( 1 ( 1 . 7 0 10”)/(59/.44) for j.47) are neglected.46). fion 1 41 Vic/C2  . (3.i _ “.47). i = c cos the magnitude of the velocity is c..v)/( 1 ..(2v/c) [c:! . passes R. we obtlgin If a light ray in R has velocity components 3 = c s i n 0. cos 0 + Y2 cos2 e] I.3. in terms of X ‘: or X’ 1 . with a speed 5’~ c i n t h e p o s i t i v e x direction.[104][1. als~o thalt The other transformation equations.000.48) giving . by solving Equation (3. lhave . 42.42 x x x lo5 km/set.1 . 10512 = v2/c2 i’ == (lo4 .46) and this property. thus showing correspondence principle is !satisfied.$= 1 X’ + + ” “i(‘/C2 (3SCl) lComparison :satisfied. Equations (3...ClS 0 + (v’/c’) cos2 H] = c2.2 i’ = x 104)/(5y. the Galilean transformation.. (2v/c) c o s I9 + (vZ/c2:1 cos2 81 cos2 13 + sin2 0 = 1. p’ = % fi(4.for formations from G to R are of the same mathematical form.?/c2)“2 .” =: o/C2 C !sin f9/(1 .c2 cos2 0 . Ijon 1’ =: (c cos 0 . . We may show this.8 x (3.20..46) and (3. t h e i n v e r s e trams These transformations satisfy the principle of relativity. except for thle sign of v..I:= :x: 105]/[3 *. what = will 1 = be the velocity components x he observes? ‘%. 128.vi/?) i of ve/ocifit~s 73 (3.) = 3 . .47).000) km/set._ !i = i’ _ vi’x .47) lple If a particle is observed by R. so tholt speed (3.i(l +$)=. then when G. this becomes + (y’)’ = ____[l . 5 x 10’)/(55$o) = 1. [l . 8.) = 11.
74 Special theory of relafivity LAWS OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS In classical (Newtonian) mechanics. all of the corresponding conservation laws are modified except conservation of charge. then it should be possible to detect the motion of the earth through tlhe ether. It states that any new theory containing an old. but applic~oble over a greater range of phenomena. CORRESPONDENCE The correspondence PRINCIPLE prinlciple is a useful guide in the derivation of new theories. momentum. wellestablished theory as a special case. In relativistic mechanics. energy. must give the same prediction as the old where the old applies. The coolrdinates relative to the inertial system S of events in a system are given by the S’ m o v i n g w i t h v e l o c i t y v transformations: Galilean r’ = r . angular momentum and charge.N TRANSFORMATIONS A system moving with constant velocity r#elative to an inertial system is also an inertial system. there were five quantities conserved: mass. as did many other experiments designed to detect the motion of the earth through the ether. performed with an interferometer. The MichelsonMorley experi ment. A good <Approximation to an ing an origin of axes at the negligible. gave a null result for this velocity. Then the acceleration and rate of rotation of the axes are GslLd3i. INERTIAL SYSTEM An inertial system of coordinates is on’e satisfied. center in which the first law of motion is system may be obtained by choos inertial of the sun and allowing the axes to point toward fixed stars. and if the Galilean transformation laws are correct. .vt t’ = f MICHELSONMORLEY EXPERIMENT If the ether exists. and light propagates with speed c relative to the ether.
in all inertial frames. oriented parallel to the direction of relative velocity v.v=/c= as measured by an AL SIMULTANEITY Simultaneity is a conc:ept w h i c h d e p e n d s o n t h e o b s e r v e r . relative This time dilation is observed experimentally in the decay in flight of pmesons. will observe the length AL of the moving rod to be shorter than its length AL’ observer at rest relative to it. T w o e v e n t s w h i c h a r e simultaneous when viewed in one inertial frame are not necessarily simultaneoLls . then At. Principle of the Constanscy a constant irresloective of the Speed of Light: The speed of light. II. If the velocity of the moving clock is v. It follows that an observer in any inertial frame will speed c. AL’ = 1 1 . with rods placed at rest. shows that liight does not obey the Golilean law for the addition of velocities. LENGTH CONTRACTION An observer comparing the length of a moving rod. which reads the time interval At’. is of the state of motion of the source. c.Summary 75 POSTULATES OF RIELATIVITY The postulates of relativity al’e: I. w i l l bse observed to beat more slowly. obselrve light to travel with BONCHBRUEVICH’S EXPERIMENT The experiment of BanchBruevich in which the difference of the speed of Ilight coming from opposite limbs of the sun was found to be zero. TIME DILATION A moving clock. when clompared with a series of clocks at rest relative to tile observer that read the time interval to the other clocks. P r i n c i p l e o f ReleDtivity: All the laws of physics are the same in form.
If the origins are chosen so that t = formations are: x’ = 1 1 . 2. stars of calkd mass. where the two t’odies Prove thot Newton’s second low of motiorl is not forminvariant under o transformation between an inertial acceleration relative number their to of the 4.v x 61 2/c= ( 2) VELOCITY TRANSFORMATIONS If a particle in the S’ system has velocity components (i’. which is moving with relative speed v with respect to S in the x. What conservation lows do you hove to assume in order to prove this? Answer: 3.7 6 Special theory of relativity when viewed in an inertial frame moving relative to the first. . ‘ 1 . when the origins pass. I’. t’ = 0. eclipsing binaries.!?I. There are a double revolve star about common center As seen from earth. w h o s e r e l a t i v e velocity toward each other is V = V2 . c= 1 .f”/C2’ d. Prove that the clossicoil low of conservation of momentum in o twoparticle collision is forminvoriont under Golilean transformations. i ’ ) a n d t h e S’ system moves with speed v in the x direction relative to S. x’ directions. then the Lorentz trans z’ = =. y’ = y. in each revolution one passes in front of the other so that the second star’s light cannot be seen. An observer S’ o b s e r v i n g e v e n t s w h i c h t’o S a p p e a r s i m u l t a n e o u s a t x1 a n d ~2. conservation of moss. 1. if moss is conserved. will see a time difference of magnitude LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS The Lorentz transformations are a set of four equations giving relations between coordinates of events as measured in the inertial system S’. show using Newtonian mechanics that the kinetic energy lost is an invariant under Golilean transformations.. If two objects.iv/c2 p’=. of masses ml a n d m2 a n d v e l o c i t i e s VI a n d V2.VI collide inelastically and stick tog’ether. Conservation of momentum. then the unprimed and I Tz primed velocity components are related by: i = kv X 1 . f’ = f .v=/c= (x vf). system and o second coordinate frame which has CI constant first.
180/181 set.with speed v. find the time.year is the distance light travels in a year). 0.) 1 Angstrom = lo” m. 0. What is the apparent length of a meter stick if it is moving relative to you palallel to its length at a speed of (a) 0. 30. because his clocks would Irun slow compared to earth clocks. derive the time dilation formula by analyzing melaA beam of protons coming out of an accelerator is contaminated by r+mesons which have a lifetime when ai rest of 2. as far as he is concerned.n by the spaceman. and that Galilean cussed in the previoLls problem that this cannot be the case. Argue from the observations on eclipsing binaries dis a light ray out with a component of velocity V parallel to the direction of relative motion and a component perpendicular to that direction. S’ observes the light moving parallel to his y axis ~(y being normal to V). this be consistent with special relativity? If in one second a moving s.999 m. what wculd be the wavelength of the light you would observe? (Use the time dilatiorl Answer: 13. of lightyears away (one light. 1:2.99 c? Answer: 14. (c) 0.600 m: 0. A hydrogen atom emits some light of wavelength 6563 Angstroms in the frame of reference at rest with respect to the atom. how fast is it moving relative to you? Answer: 8. 158. 1 l/61 sec. 71 10 Angstroms.869 m. the time it takes on earth for the roulnd trip is 2L/v.9c? Answer: 9. 7. (b) 0. Since these !stars may be thousands. Repeat the previous problem if in its rest frame the meter stick is at 60” relative to the betore striking the target? Assume the mesons have 3 lifetimes in their rest system befoe striking target. S’ is moving relative to S .8 c. how much change of time would a stop watch register if it were moving at a speed relative to you of (a) 19/181 c. In one second of your time. make. he would be younger than the stayathome twin. {the! 77 periods for thEs eclipse are found to be identical. Assuming y’ = y.995 m.916 m 0.990 c. HOW far from the beam port must a target be placed in order that nearly all the mesons will have decsayed Answer: 160 m .5 per min. It wos at one time suggested that the speed of light is not constant relative to an ether but is constant relative to the object emitting it.866~. 0. (b) 4/5 c. what would be the apparent pulse rate if he were moving ot a speed of 0. the constancy of the speed of liclht. S shines Consider two observers. ‘and surements that S and S’ coulcl 1 ‘I .Problem When photographs of these stars are made in different colors or wavelengths. S ancl tramsformations could then be used.opwatch in good working condition is seen to register % set. (c) 60/61 c. Answer: 1lD. If a person’s heart beats 70 times per minute. what conclusion can you draw about variation of the speed of light with wavelength? 5. How car. If the atom were moving at %3 thle speed of light relative to you in a direction perpendicular to the displacement of thle atom relative ta you. The electron beam in the picture tube of a TV set can move across the screen at a speed faster than c. 6. velocity.54 x 1 O* set and travel with speed 10. Using the distance of the trip as see. S’. .1 c. 3/5 set. Answer: 0. If the traveler’s speed is v and the planet’s distance away is L.141 m. 0. formula to find the ratio of frequencies and the fact ihat the wavelength is the speed of light divided by the frequency.. It was pointed out that if one twin went to another planet and back.
peed o f t h e e l e c t r o n s an t h e i n e r t i a l s y s t e m i n w h i c h o n e o f t h e beams of electrons is at rest? Answer: 0. a number of clocks relative to the system. G. They wish to choose their speeds so their age difference upon returning to earth is zero. = 41 ~ v2/c21 .d. i s c o n c e r n e d . a n d s h o w t h a t t h e i n v e r s e a l g e b r a i c a l l y f o r X.vt). so f a r a s R . . and vP s u c h t h a t $ ( 1 . . ” are to make trips to distant planets. f d2. S u p p o s e G . d .41 . w i t h t h e l e f t mend a t x = 0 . 5 x lOmE s e c . s e e s G .“f/CZ) = $ ( 1 . How much time did the student have for the exam? Answer: 20. and measures the length L’.( . are sufficient to account for I’ 19. how far apart in the direction of your velocity do clocks appear t o b e which t o y o u a r e 1 set o u t o f synchron’sm? A n s w e r : 21. Show that they should choose t h e i r s p e e d s “. What is the relative r.v.(d: . The student stops writing when the light signal reaches him. a n d i n t e r c h a n g i n g p r i m e d a n d unprimed 18.“. a n d d2 a w a y . t’ = V2/c2)‘(t “x/c’). a n d A?. A student is given an examination to be completed in 1 hr by the professor’s clock. m e a s u r e t h e t w o e n d s ./c’)“‘] [v. and sends back a light signal when his clock reads 1 hr. w i t h d. 22.s a t r e s t i n h i s s y s t e m .( 1 . The professor moves at a speed of 0.)/c’]+2d./c~)“~] ~___ 1 . x’ = (~~~2~‘(x .a/ theory of relativity A n s w e r : 16.971: relative to the student.c r e l a t i v e t o y o u a p p e a r t o b e Two clocks on the s y n c h r o n i z e d . T w o c o l l i d i n g b e a m s Iof e l e c t r o n s e a c h h a v e v e l o c i t i e s o f ./c2) or equivalently. A.[l S o l v e t h e v e l o c i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n equoitions X ‘. 2v2d2(1 .‘s m e a s u r e m e n t o f I ’ . care s y n c h r o n i z e d .‘s c o n t r a c t e d measuring rods as seen by R. H o w m u c h d o t h e c l o c k s a p p e a r t o be out of synchronism in the rest frame of the clocks? A n s w e r : 2 .50 c a s o b s e r v e d i n t h e l a b .8 c. i i n t e r m s o f result from changing ” t o v traInsformations symbols. C o n s i d e r (\/l t h e Lorentz t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . s h o w t h a t t h i s l a c k o f s i m u l t a n e o u s m e a s u r e m e n t a n d G. F i n d t h e t i m e s a t w h i c h R .G. “1 z d. 3 x lo9 k m . i'.78 Spec. r e s p e c t i v e l y . = \/ 1 . y . I m a g i n e t h a t R . I f y o u m o v e a t 3 0 km/set In an inertial system. h a s a s t i c k o f l e n g t h L a l o n g t h e  x ax. x axis in a system moving at “/. J 1 1 + v/c ~ v/c 1 hrs. 17. T h e y a p p e a r t o b e 1 0 m (apart.v2/c2 L. distances T w o t w i n a s t r o n a u t s . m a r k s thfe e n d s of the stick simultaneously in the primed system at Show that I’ t ’ = 0. i’.
moves past R.1. momentum and angular momentum. The reader should already be familial vvith the Newtonian laws of conservation of energy.1. . . where G. which is expressed by the famous equation. energy. .relativistic mechanic:s and dynamics J Elecause relativistic of the modi. but by the Lorentz transformations. anc4 tlhe E’ equivalence of mass and energy. However. momentum special relativity must be redeiined so that the laws of physics are formkvariant vvith respect to Lorentz transformations. .l LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS Rlecall t h a t w h e n t w o o b s e r v e r s a r e m o v i n g r e l a t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r . such as the variation of mass with velocity. It is still possible in relativity to define momentum. If primed q u a n t i t i e s (x’. then new effects arise. Inertial systems of R. = mc’. 7 9 . These effects will be derived and discussed in this chapter. and G. .. of of the velocity transformations and angular introduced momentum by in effects. angular momentum and energy in such a way that the general conservation laws are valid. their observations of the spacetime coordinates of an event alre related not by means of the Galilean transformations. with velocity v. t’11 Figure 4. a s i n F i g ure 4.fications the concept:.
v w h e n m0 is the Newtonian mass? The mass of a proton is 1. i.‘s measurements. t) are used to denote R. which are high energy particles space. are x’ = 41 1 t’ = ~ z/iv2/c2 tvx ( CZ ) (4..v’/c2 (x the Lorentz vf). The maximum speed a proton can have is c = 3 x 1 Oez7 10’ m/set. one can work backward to find the initial mom. by using the general thought experiment. 1 ~ . ac:cordwe can predict what we might expect the experimental results to be. the relativistic quantity which we shall call momentum must reduce to the Newtonian expression. z’ = z. then its velocity components relative to G. if a particle moves so that its velocity components relative to R. when the speed is much less than c. . v) i’ = 1/ ’ 2 vx/c2). is The question when a is. Such large particle momenta can be measured in momentum. Z = ‘2 1/ 2 ( 1 :. if this x expression is correct. Then the momenta of each of these particles can be measured by measuring their mass and velocity. By assuming that momentum is conserved. ing to the correspondence principle. are .2) f .:& (4.c’) We shall frequently refer to these transformations in discussing momentum and eniergy. First of all. 4. sharing their momenta. y’ transformations = y. mass times velocity. and so on. thus giving up other particles. . Hence. and unprimed quantities (x. i . I X (i =(1 . then allowing the proton and the other particle to collide with principle by allowing th(e proton to collide with another particle.0 striking the earth from olutet lOm8 some lC)19 kgm/set.entum of the incident proton. cz ( 1 . can we also mechanics previously which discussed conserved to analyze particles collide? conserved relativistic we have We ultimately have to do this by looking to experiment.1) Also. We conclude that the . the maximum momentum a proton can have is ti. fast protons having momenta on the order of kgm/set are obsel*ved. x Let us next ask. . can a relativistic expression for momentum still be given simply a s m.67 kg. However. until the proton has caused a large number of particles to be traveling with generally low speeds. i n s o m e cosmic rays.2 DISCREPANCY BETWEEN EXPERIMENT AND NEWTONIAN MOMENTUM Momentum in Newtonialn total find momentum a quantity principles is in mechanics is defined as mass times velocity.8 0 Re/ofivisfic mechanics and dynamics are used to denote measurements made by G. and the when particles collide. are i .. H o w e v e r .
Suppose that G.e.3 MOMENTUM FROM A THOUGHT EXPERIMENT Nevertheless..2.4. G.3) He sees no x component of velocity for the bullet. = .m. we shall attempt to find theoretically an expression of ithe form mv for the relativistic momentum of a particle. Bullets fired with rruzzle speeds U in their respective rest systems.‘s bullet. the y’ component of velocity that G. plying v is not a constl3nt have discovered that there indeed exists however. From our above arguments The mass m0 that a particle has at rest we shall call the rest mass. i.) R.c< ‘correspondence principle requires that m about cosmic rays. w e m e a n t h a t t h e b u l l e t s h a v e e q u a l r e s t m a s s e s .4) x IFigure 4. := 0. The guns are assumed to shoot the bullets out with equal muzzle velocities. ... (See Figure 4. When we say “ i d e n t i c a l ” b u l l e t s . If Y . .3 Newtonian expression ‘case of high velocities. d e n o t e d b y U. i. i.dC2 (4. We shall define m as the mass.. watching G. c. Momentum from o thought experiment 81 mov cannot be a valid expression for momentum in the 1. we would expect m to increase as the speed increases. = (J (4. the = mo. sees a y component of velocity. Experilnenters such a vector quantity.. Thus. such that the total momentum is conserved in collisions. multiIindependent of speed. arrange~d ‘so that a collision occurs. see. 1 Au i.2. in relativistic mechanics the factor m. ii:. and R. shoots his ioullet along the negative y’ axis. have identical guns that shoot identical bullets.
By the principle of relativity. and G. So if momentum is to be conserved. is mRU + rnGic = 0 (4. Frorn the neither coordinate the system is preferred. of G.7) and solving for mG. Thus. . the total y component of momentum of the two bullets before collision must also be zero in both systems of coordinates.e.nal y velocity which is parallel to the original y velocity of his bullet and which has a positive sign. respectively. a n d G . Suppose he observes that his bullet has a mass mR.7) mG a n d a y c o m p o n e n t velocity jlG. then. a velocity component which is parallel to the original velocity of his bullet. this means that the final y component of mom’entum of the two bullets is zero. I t w i l l t h e n have a y component of velocity. respectively. as observed by R. has a y’ com (4.2.U.. must observe a fi. Thus. of )jR = +u ponent of velocity when observed by G.6) A prime or lack of a prime on the velocity component means it is observed by G’. of Then he sees a momentum for this bullet of m. or R. If G. the final y component of velocity of the bullets after collision must be zero. from the results of the Lorentz velocity transformations. i cannoi b e p o s i t i v e w h i l e Jo’ is negative. Tlhe subscript G or R means the bullet is shot by G. . However. b o t h R .v~/c~)“~U.2.‘s b u l l e t o b s e r v e d b y R . in their own systems of coordinates. This experiment has been set up so that there is complete symmetry between the coordinate systems. i s (1 . YG. are shooting bullets that have the same rest masses.c2y (4. of (45) Again using Equations 4. systems.‘s b u l l e t . the total momentum seen by R. the bullet shot by R. B y E q u a t i o n (4.. Now we suppose that the bullets collide and stick together. then R. or R.2). Let IR. if and G. as seen by R. with the same muzzle velocities. t h e v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t . a s o b s e r v e d b y R . They both shoot normal to the direction of relative motion between the coordinate systems. Both R. Equations 4.. since iR = 0.. coordinate systems. m u s t o b s e r v e the same experimental results in their respective symmetry between two coordinate observes a final y’ velocity that is negative. Let us look at the initial momentum from the point of view of R.4).82 R&f&tic mechanics and dynomks by Equations (4. and that momentum in the y direction is conserved during the collision. Since we assumed that the momentum is mv. then the y component of momentum of this bullet. i. On substituting this into Equation (4.8) .:. s h o o t h i s b u l l e t a l o n g t h e p o s i t i v e y a x i s . we find that mG = (.. has a mass is mGiG.
8’)“* = 0. i s g i v e n b y m 1.. Equation (4.‘s bullet is at rest relative to R.c2Y. Given in Table 4. and is equal to v.370 .. a n d mR = mO.059 1. is given in terms of its rest mass m0 and its speed Y by m (=mo) := (. The speed of G. rather than of R.667m. Then m = m0/0.!?) Thus. bullet. (theory) 1..055 1. arbitrarily large momenta npk are possible without having arbitrarily large velocities. R.106 1. In the limit as v becolnes This result is in agreement very small compared to c. The subsequent deflecelectrons tion of the electrons in a magnetic field gave the mass. the momentum must be of the form p = (.7).8 the speed of light. In the limit iln which U.. y/2 If we had written down the law of conservation of momentum.1 are the v a l u e s o f m/m.v~/c~)“~.4286 0.. w h i c h h a s canceled out. the mass m of a particle of == mO.__V/C 0..6879 Increase of Moss With Speed m / m . . 1 ~.v~/c*)“~ is unity.2 (relativistic mass) (4. the because in this limit (1 correspondence principle. i s t h e n t h e same as that of G. “&02. mo/(l . the rest mass. I n t h e limit as v approaches c.vZ/ci’)“20ver the mass the same obiiect possesses when at rest. from the point of view of G. the muzzle velocity.3173 0.. the results would have been the same: The mass of a moving object is increased by the factor (1 . if the relativistic momentum of a rapidly moving particle is proportional to v. Thus.c2 for momentum to be c:onservedl. Hence.‘s b u l l e t r e l a t i v e t o R . a s a Vunction of v/c for the electrons observed by Biicherer. with rest mass ml.4 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF MASS FORMULA The increase of mass with veloscity w a s o b s e r v e d i n a n e x p e r i m e n t p e r f o r m e d b y Biicherer in 1908.6 = 1. he was able to select electrons into crossed electric and magnetic of known velocity. approaches zero. The TABLE 4 . By projectling fields. Consider the expression for the mass of a particle.‘s) as observed by R.376 m/m0 (observed) 1. this mass increases without limit. If a particle moves with 0.107 1.4 Experimental verification of mass form& 83 T h i s e q u a t i o n i s v a l i d f o r a l l vulues of U. what will its mass be in terms of the rest mass? tion ( 1  0. .4. the moss of the moving (G.6. _ yi.
648 1.3..6) formulas referred to by Bikherer liegen bizher nicht VOT.} Ann denselben geht hervor. Ordnet man nach aufsteigenden Potenzen von 8.729 1. are shown in the following tablle. . .) bestlltigt...5160 0 6879 1WS 1%70 1. the author finds values which he claims to be a confirmation of the LorentzEinstein Scien(ie Abstracts. .l”(*)l}. da& den Cfrenzfall sehr langsamer Bewegung ausgenommen.i o n Tlwxy . Meesende showing the “Maxwell” nm Versnche bei mittleren Geschwindigkeiten Q!? = 0. Anoh rtirde diese Formel wohl bier nicht so gute Dienste leizten.. Kaufmann a u f Cfruud s e i n e r Messungen aber d i e A b l e n k b a r k e i t d e r Becquerelstrahlen im Iutarvalle (B = O#O bis p = 0.95 etwa) Figure 4. auf einer gegebenen Strecke dem Elektrou erteilte Oeechwindigkeit beetimmen. principle of relativity. ).p+ . (15 b) fir Impuls and Energie. W. Uiese Form& fCr longitudinak und tiansversak Masse beziehen sirh sowohl auf Yolumenladung.p+ f . 152 (1902. so erh< man die fir /? < 1 konvergenten Beihenentwickelungen: pw h=PoIl+ 1 . x. die kngirudirrcrk Marae rtcb . the magnetic fields used being of the order 125 gauss : 1 0.9’+6:7. grenze der Verencbe (1 Proz.n&n der Physik I O . : of 0.+(. relche etwa zur Prtiung der Formel (lee) herangezogen werden Mnnten.4286 \rlurs o f (c nt..( I +ti~6. bis 1. Ek faud d i e Formel i n n e r h a l b d e r F e h l e r . A p01’3e from A” gepriift warde.. The close agreement of the results on this principle ’ ’ * 6’37 (’ 908). x 1 0 .730 (16e) 1 (1Rf) / a = ~~IlOX~. Die Formel (1Sf) ist es.. .6 Proz. relche direkt die vom PuSeren Felde in einer gegebenen Zeit bez.730 I. in which p denotes the ratio of the speed of the electron to that of light.3792 0./9’+& PO+.I+.p+ ‘9’.. (16h) p.s bis @ = 0. Ebensowenig liegen Versuche &ber longitndinale Beechleunigung razch bewegter Elektronen vor.730 1. wie auf Fl&hmladung..)+&& P. die von Hm.=P*Po’wo~ ~@=.5i8 1.SCIENCE ABSTRACTS.. Kijln.)Repeating one of Kaufmann’s experiments as to the deflection of ttic electrons in an electric and magnetic field. with special precautions to obta:n the best possible results as to the values of c/m0 at high velocities.((~~).=j+. wie die Formeln (lea).
: or (c) some other intermediate expression. These conclusions do not seem reasonable.9). its correctness is borne out by experiment. the velocity solution This is easily verified by substhution into the differential equation.6 Third law of motion and conservation of momenfum . d (4. Newton’s third law of rnomentLlm conserved motion states that if particle number one acts on particle number two with a force . leads to an unreasonable result. in the x direction.6 THIRD LAW OF MOTION AND CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM If the force is given by show that relativistic F = o’(mv)/dt. (See Figure 4. for instance. under thte Inserting from (answer this in part by considering a constant force iin the x direction. This force could be obtained by letting tlhe [uniform electric field. . in the nonrelativistic case. F. F. We may F. the question arises in relativistisc Imechanics as to whether the correct relativistic expression is: (a) or (b) F = m dv/‘df. this form is also valid for Newtonian mechanics. F =z where m is a constant. so that the expression for m from Equation (4. v. F = d/dt (mv) leads directly to the law of conservation of momentum for collisions between particles.c = is negative. Imagine an electron starting action only of the constant force. for v says that for the time when.t/m. In the following section.11) . = F0 = mdv. = v. we do not have to consider the effect of changes in m. in fact.third column gives the corresloonding numerable for experiments found since above.4. The expression 3a/2. 1908 have values calculated from Equation continued is always to be in excellent in 114.(mv) dt r3f course. In other words. v = 0.3) Also experiments verify that with the expression momentum nomentum conserved collisions particles. So the possibility F = mdv/dt is eliminated. Let us take case (a). However.6).v’/c’ d dv . t (4. Thus case (b) seems highly reasonable. Hence.t/moc). Ini 8 5 agreemenlt between with theory.12) . it will be shown that case (b). is then if the third law is also valid.5 IRELATIVISTIC SECOND LAW OF MOTION the second law for a particle can be written I n N e w t o n i a n mechariics.. FO. acting on an electron electron move in a and show that it rest. F = d(mv)/dt. The dt. we c:an in a collision. m0 we have >l This can be assumed on w r i t t e n : dv/\/l v is that at t = . m dv/dt. and./dt. force is time rate of change of momentum: F = .= F. they disagree with experiment.v2/cz = Fo/mo 0. More important. Also. The initial condition we is v = c sin (f. the velocity has a magnitude of c periodically.
19) We can reinterpret the right side of this equation by writing the the dr and noting that dr/dt dE = = v.7 RELATIVISTIC ENERGY In Newtonian mechanics.20) All the quantities on the right side of this equation are functions of the velocity.17) where c is a constant. the momentum is constant. This is also true in relativity. The result can be extended for a system of an arbitrary number of particles. In other words. during a collision. If E is the energy of a body. or total momentum after the collision is equal to the total momentum before the collision.14) F dP2 lon2 = 37 (4.v. and a force F exerted is moved through a distance dr in doing work on the body. is the momentum of particle number one.v) dt u n d e r n e a t h (4. then the increase in energy E is: dE Since = Fedr (4.18) F = d(mv)/dt.. then (assuming no other F Similarly. 4. We shall express the right side as an exact differential in order to find an expression for energy in terms of velocity. Hence.13) F. Then d(mv)*v = dm(v. = 0 forces act) If p.v) + m(dv.onz + ho. (4. = m. the expression for dE becomes (4.86 Relativistic mechanics and dynamics F Ion21 and if particle number two acts on one with F2 on . and work is still defined the same way. goes into increasing the energy of the body. v.16) p. we find 4pl + ~2) = o dt Integration once over the time gives (4. + p2 =: c (4. the work done on a body when a force is exerted which moves the body through some distance.15) Adding these two equations and using the law of action and reaction. the third law of motion leads to conservation of momentum in collisions. 2on’ dpl = it (4. We first write the scalar products in .
then m0c2 (d&jc~ .ms. It is simply the total energy mc2 minus the energy with no motion. Then the = (1.50 x lo“i N e x t s u p p o s e t h e p r o t o n i s t r a v e l i n g a t s p e e d (ys )c r e l a t i v e t o a n o b s e r v e r . % mod(v2) dm :Substituting we get dE = moc2 % d(v2/c2) (1 ..c2.Therefc. If this is done.re.67 x 1027)(3 x 1O8)2 = 1. I t s kinetic energy is 1 1 = (1.21). If we denote kinetic enel’gy T = by the symbol T.21) The m here is the relativistic mass.8 Kinetic energy 87 terms of the scalar speed v: vv = v2 a n d v * d v = ‘/z d ( v * v ) = ‘/2 dv’.. mo/( 1 .v2/c 2 312 = [c2(1 _ v2/c2)3/2] (4. this may be interpreted as the rest energy a body .a KINETIC ENERGY That part of the energy which is due to the particle’s motion is called kinetic: energy.1) (4.50 x 10l’) 5 (3 1 1 = 1. Another has by virtue of the fac:t that it possesses mass.. Its mass is 1.22) ter. the energy is E = m.c2.00 x lC‘Oi T = mOc2 ( v’l57  .26) mc2 . thing which is implied is that if v = 0.m0c2 = de Let us first find the rest energy of a proton. S o dli = dm(v2) + k md(v’) (4.4./2 + c o n s t a n i ) E = _.25) One thing which this implies is that associated with an increase in mass is an i n c r e a s e i n e n e r g y a n d v i c e v e r s a .moc2 (1 .v2/c It is very convenient to set the constant of integration equal to zero.v2/c2 )“2. this expression for d m i n t o E q u a t i o n ) ‘The right side can now easily Ibe integrated. and combining (4. m.67 x 1 Omz7 rest energy is E = mot 2 kg. the result can be expressed in terms of m: E = L mc2 (relativistic energy) (4. yielding 2 .
If a conservative force.. 1 5 7 x 10mz7)(2. (4. b = + v2/c2.dr I = m2c’ . We see from this example that when the speed is much less than c. the reiativistic and classical kinetic energy agree. we use the bi+ .idered so far are changes in kinetic energy due to forces which may be either conservative or nonconservative.dr = (V.27) Note that just as the classical expression.4 x 10s)’ = 0 . (a b)” = (1 . Then. is present. = m2c2 t V. ) ((4..29) On equating the right sides of Equations (4.)c. Then. 4 8 x 10l’ i. F. 0. assumed 1 = moc2 [(I + Jj 5)l] = imov2 (4. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . is not correct for the kinetic energy at high energies. Here we are (dropping terms of order v*/c” or higher because they approximately. neither is % mv2. For this.28) and (4. We may prove that the expressions agree in general for small v/c.c2 1t4. are a n d n = Yz.28) where V is the potential energy depending only on the position and not on the integration path. 4. i t f o l l o w s t h a t ( 1 to be very small.  V . with and to this number of si~gnificant na”‘b a = 1. then F. from the definition of energy. If there are no forces other than the conservative ones. we find that mlcZ This is the conservation of + V. This is in accord with the corre’spondence principle. J” dE = 6” F.29) and rearranging. i f t h e s p e e d o f t h e t h e r e l a t i v i s t i c k i n e t i c e n e r g y i s 1 .v’/c’))” a” for small v/c. result.88 Relativistic mechanics and d’ynamics The classical expression for the kinetic energy would give % m. .. % mov 2. . 8 8 x lol3 i. m.30) energy equation.9 POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY The energy changes cons. We shall need to exioand nomial theorem. figures the classical expression gives the same p r o t o n i s a s s m a l l a s (‘/.v’/c~)“~ i s approximately 1 % v’/c’.v’ = % ( 1 . .
rion ( 9 x 1013)(1/[3. for very precise measurements of the difference between the kinetic energy of the incoming proton and the total kinetic energy of the He nuclei gives A E = ( 2 . Thus. 0 0 5 ) x lol2 i. 3Li7.0073 7. o r 0. T h e s e mass units were discussed in Chapter 1.0030 amu. Am.. If this energy could all be converted into electricity and sold at a rate of 6a per kilowatthour. how much would it be worth? = 1. I 1 Relationship between energy and rnomenNtutm 10 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF EQUIVALENCE OF MASS AND ENERGY Equation (4.3Li7 + .2He. Flowever. 2 m 2m (4 3’1) Newtonian mechanics. which splits into two fast helium nuclei.c’. a n d a p r o t o n .p’. The rest masses of these particles are given in Table 4. 0 1 8 6 amu.c2 = 2. combine to form an unstable nucleus . .2 Massesof particles participating in reaction P + Li . the relationship between kinetic energy and momentum .He“ + 2He4.. It thus appears that the increase in mass is accounted for quantitatively by a corresponding ~pk A mass of 1 gm has a rest energy of mgc2 := (lo’ kg)(3 x 10’ m/set)’ = 9 x 1013 i.309 x 10e2* kg. (1 amu is the mass of tan atom of C”. 7 7 0 & 0 .0216 amu.6~60 x 1O27 k g . that there is energyrest (energyassociated with the rest ma’ss.78 x lo” i.p’ I. rest mass is not conserved. and mass that mass can be converted to energy and vice versa.0143 4. The total rest mass of the outgoing particles is 8. is There is plenty of evidence in indeed equivalent to energy. in amu P Li He 1. T h e i n c r e a s e i n r e s t m a s s i s 0 . i. energy is conserved in the overall nuclear reaction.06) 11 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY AND MOMENTUM In is 1 % (mv)’ p2 1 =: my2 = ~ = .2.25) indicates as we have seen. Then the increase in rest energy is decrease in kinetic energy. in atomic mass units 1 amu = 1.5 million dollars. An example of this occurs when lithium is bombarded by fast protons: thle lithium nucleus.4.0015 The sum of the P and Li masses is the total mass of the illcoming particles. (amu). it is 8. E0 = nuclear physics that indicates that rest 89 m.6 x 106] kwhr/i)(0.He4: .) TABLE 4.e.
872 MeV/c.51 1 MeV. the correct value is 0. this would be = 4.12 REST MASS OF A0 FROM EXPERIMENT We shall now consider in detail a more elaborate example. the binomial theorem may be used to expand the ___ r i g h t s i d e o f t h e equaiion E = m t mzc4.34) Since the rest energy plus kinetic energy should be positive.33) E2 . = m2c4 = dc4 ( 1 .v’/c’) (4. T = E . The rest moss of an electron is approximately 9 x 10m3’ kg. = m’c4)‘/“c’ 2moc2) = 0.. number: The t.32) c2p2 Then.6 x lol3 ]/MeV = 0 .65 x 1O22 kgm/set..v’/c’) mic2v2 (4.5(0.34) can be solved for E by taking the positive square root: E = dp2c2 + mic4. If you wish to follow . upon s q u a r i n g E q u a t i o n (4. In Chapter 1 a unit of energy called the electron volt (eV) w a s d e f i n e d a s 1 eV = 1. = m0c2 = (9 x 103’)(3 x 10*)2/l.. Find its rest energy in MeV.5 MeV. We have. The rest mass of the particle will be measured using bubble chamber photographs in w h i c h a ho p a r t i c l e d e c a y s i n t o a p r o t o n a n d a 7r meson. To three significant figures.761 MeV’. 2.c2 = p2/2m(. If an electron is emitted from a nucleus in a beta decay with a kinetic elnergy of 0.9 0 R e l a t i v i s t i c m e c h a n i c s o n d d’ynomics A general relation betwleen energy and momentum is of considerable utility in special relativity. t o o b t a i n . so 0. E.602 x lol9 ioules = e ioules. Equation (4.25).5 + J(J + In kgm/set. 1.511]) = momentum in MeV/c is numerically the square root of this p = m = 0. E2 In the same way. a p p r o x i m a t e l y .. to obtain such a relation mathematically.10) and (4. 2[0. (0.m.6 x 1 Ol3 i/MeV) ( 3 x lo*) 4. We may use the expressions for energy and momentum.25). dJti0~ what is its momentum in MeV/c? E2 = c2p2 + mzc4 E is J + moc2. example in agreement with the Newtonian result. in terms of known masses and measured energies and momenta. 1 MeV = lo6 eV.tr/e=. c2p2 z f71iC4 114. 5 MeV. subtracting.872)( 1. I n t h e limit asp becomes very small. = ~~ ( 1 . Also. IEquations (4.$:. which shows how one may use the relativistic equations to find experimentally an unknown particle mass.
a flexible plastic ruler and a slide rule. .I0 decay.4.35) electrically with the fluid molecules to produce K(’ a r e u n reaction: will not be visible. are not easily visiblse. These Kduce particles called pions the following reactions: K+ KThe charged particles interclct p+ A0 + TO 6 K. In negatively charged the experiment discussed here. according to the i o n i z a t i o n w h i c h l e a d s t o o b s e r v a b l e b u b b l e s .tracks.36) p+ and X. their tracks in the cllamber time the A0 decays into a proton and a A0 Since both p+ + r (4.72 Rest mass of A0 from {experiment 9 1 along on the measurements. neutrons and electrons. A magnetic field applied to the chamber causes charged particles curved paths.m e s o n s w a s a l l o w e d t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o a b u b b l e c h a m b e r liquids. photons.. in + tAA’+ (4. e. showing p’ and K. Diagram of a typical bubble chamber photograph of .. However. you will need to use a protractor. The 7r” would decay into unclqarged A diagram representing a typical series of such events is shown in Figure 4. which again./z=== Figure 4. S i n c e t h e A0 a n d charged. A very charged tiny particle that moving render rapidly its through visible a bubble that chamber call leaves a trail of bubbles track and be photographed.g. their tracks will be visible in the chamber. so that there were large numbers of the matter.4.. in a very short xmeson. for which the radius of curvature is proportional to the to move in momenturn. protons..are charged. KK .4. a beam of very high enerlgy particles called more ordinary filled with a mixture of orgclnic constituents of present in the chamber. having mesons (the superscript means a partic:le a negative charge) may combine with the protons (p’ ) and neutrons (n) to pro(r) a n d u n c h a r g e d (” superscript) A0 hyperon:.
for the purpose of measuring the rest mass m. then. according to one of the reactions given in Equation (4. measured as indicated in the diagram.000 gW.._ .Vi/c2 If the pion and proton are created initially with total energies spectively.92 Relotivisfic mechanics and dynamics Here. The track length.i of the invisible A0 particle.38) Further. !jince the decay products are oppositely charged. since all the K. E.5..disappears.we Figure 4. the forces due to the magnetic field are in opposite directions for the two particles. . which we will assume has velocity vd line and energy. we have En = E. In Figure 4..5. the energy and momentum may be measured whenever previously determined range versus momentum curves are avaoilable..ic2 Eh = 2/1. are the initial angles at which the pion a n d p r o t o n a r e projected.tracks are easily identified. a n d 0. w h i c h t r a v e l s t o 6.. T h e p+ a n d r. the dashecl represents the path of the i1o. if I?. At point A. or range.4ngles used in the calculation of the A0 rest mass. and will finally slow down and come to rest.M A ..5. In this example. By measuring the range. a IK.. by conservation of energy...gradually lose their kinetic energies in collisions with the molecules of the liquid irl the chamber.. where it decays.. the K.tracks. a n d Er. and their tracks will curve in opposite directions. given particle moving in any particular medium is a welldefined function of the particle’s initial momentum or energy. by conservation of mo . then.37) m0... + E.. for any B = 13. (4. Referring to Figure 4...35). A A0 i s p r o d u c e d .. this occurs at C and D..m e s o n s h a v e t h e s a m e curvature.. we shall apply the relativistic laws of conservation of energy and momentum to the decay which occurs at 8. coupled with range and direction measurements of the p+ a n d K. re (4..
22) pp = [44(44 + 1876)]“2 = 291 .) J 1s.. VA P. t h e ranges may be measured by laying a flexible plastic rule along the curved paths of the X.38) + 6) leads cos 0. = 31”. = 17” and 19. may be (measured with ruler and protractor.72 Resf mass of :i” from experiment mentum. = 0 .rest energy is 139.40) we have ~3 = pT sin 0. hence.6 is a reproduction of a carefully selected bubble chamber photog r a p h . i n w h i c h t h e Ii0 d e c a y p r o d u c t s t r a v e l i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e p i c t u r e . The rest energy of the proton is 938 MeV. + ppc (Er and (4.39) (4. = 0 . dashed lines have been drawn on the phot’ograph 0.2)]‘/2 = EFf .. 93 p. for From the curves. we find the ranges R.pP D i v i d i n g E q u a t i o n ( 4 .4 cm range These ranges may be converted into kinetic energies by using the tvvo energy curves in Figure 4.42). After applying the correction. . Figure 4. A centimeter calibration scale is reproduced on the photograph for this correction. tained directly or indirectly from the photographs.C = (p*c cos 0. C2 m’ay be ob All the quantities on the right side of Equations (4.4 = pr cos 0. 3 8 ) a n d u s i n g p =: mv = Ev/c’. N e x t . = 60 Me\. 9 6 a n d c o s along the path of the A0 and also along the paths of the r. + E.= . 3 9 ) b y E q u a t i o n ( 4 . so its momentum is F’r = [60(150 + 279.4. The measurement gives 8. T h e angles 0. = 17.a n d p+. To aid in the measurements. = 2. from Equation (4. The ranges measured in this way must be corrected because of the fact that the reproduction is not lifesize.6 MeV. from Equation (4. 8 6 .and p + . the kinetic energies are T. + and pp cos H. a n d 0. = 44 MeV land the proton and pi meson.37) The combination of Equations to mob c 2 = (E.43) T.y”’ The A. respectively.41) and (4. therefore.42) the rest mass of the 11’ may be determined. The proton momentum is. sin eP (4. Then the momenta may Ibe obtained momentumenergy equation: dE2 P = m:c’ = d?Y2xZ C from tlhe 7 (4.7.iC .) E* (4.45 cm and R. T h e n cos0.
+ : pi.:.:* . . . . : Figure 4. ? 2 . : .: . ! :c : z .r ’ . . .6.* j. i \ :. Bubble chamber photograph of A0 decay. .
z c2 = [ ~(139. Range curves for photographs in Figures 4. from the Equation 4. in the direc:. 11 15 MeV.12 Rest mass of A0 f r o m e x p e r i m e n t 95 FigurY 4. values photograph. 31”291 sin 17” 0 = 143 sin 0 = 7485 which agrees as well as can be expected.42).6 a nId 4 .96)] [ ( 1 3 9 .(0.7. b u t i s o dirlect experimental veriAs one further check. Similar analysis of other This not photographs gives results which agree closely with the value. t h e 11’ rest energy is m0.t5 + 6 0 ) + ( 9 3 8 + 44)] [l . From Equation (4. from Equation (4.20.41).tion t r a n s v e r s e t o t h e Using the measured A”s motion. to the accuracy with which the angles were measured. 6 + 6 0 ) + ( 9 3 8 + 44)] = c”340 Finally. VA C = [ (143)(0. . fication of the validity of relativistic mechanics.86) + (291)(0. 8 . one may test whether relativistic: momentum. is conserved according to o n l y p r o v i d e s a v a l u e f o r t h e l a m b d a ’ s m a s s .4.34)‘!]‘/‘= 1 1 1 1 MeV The accepted value for this rest energy is 1115 MeV.
= / G is dt’. E q u a t i o n (4. the corresponding time interval in dt.I S f o r m . Let u b e t h e v e l o c i t y o f 17 r e l a t i v e t o SO. This result applies to any infinitesimal time interval between specific events along the path of a particle. to obtailn the mo.8./7 dP. Instantaneous rest system of o particle. measured by two relatively moving observers. where . with (4. in this section. Then.. = df . there is a time interval dt in I ?. measured by the two observe r s . R . u a n d u ’ . a n d G .. Figure 4.i n v a r i a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o Lorentz transformations. we shall. We may use the involriance transformations for momentum and energy. Imagine a particle of rest mass placed at the origin of So.46). we have the equation.46) I n o t h e r w o r d s . In deriving these transformations. corresponding to the plroper time irlterval dt.c C2 Combining the last two rlesults. clock and a particle are at rest. three inertial systems So. in SO. we shall need to use the time dilation formula. as So is the system in which a in Figure 4..8.44) Similarly. t h e veloc:ities directions relative to each relative to the particle.96 Relofivr’sfic mechanics and dynamics 4. derive the transformation laws connecting the energies and momenta of a particle. t h e quolntity df v5Tp . Then with our choice of velocity u of R r e l a t i v e t o . a n d let cl’ b e t h e v e l o c i t y o f G r e l a t i v e t o So. can be in any arbitrary o f t h e i n t e r v a l . which says that o c l o c k m o v i n g w i t h s p e e d v r e l a t i v e t o a n o b s e r v e r appeolrs to that observeI* to beat slow by the factor m./G (4. Consider.13 TRANSFORMATION PROPERTIES OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM As a preliminary to the discussion of the forminvariance of the laws of quantum physics. other.
It is just py = . L a s t l y . Lorentz transformations given previously.48) However./l . r e l a t i v e t o G t h e i.51) B u t u s i n g t h e i n v a r i a n c e p r o p e r t y i n E q u a t i o n ( 4 . w i t h v e l o c i t y v a l o n g t h e x).v d t ) we obtain 1 ” = xx.52) In terms of pX and the energy E = mOc2/d 1 .55) .V ( d x . from the Lorentz transformation between between pY and pi is !simply Pi = P Y R and G for the y coordinate.53) (4. t o o b t a i n t h e transfmormation formation for the time interval dt’ = dt’: . 13 Transformation properties of energy and momentum +u r e l a t i v e t o R .‘/.u2cz.49) In a similar fashion._mT!?~1~~ Relative to G. that G and R are related by the Consider the y component of mo 9 7 SO.47) /&qI & of momentum is (4. S i m i l a r l y . the rest system R.46). for the x components of momentum.$dx) (4. mentum of the particle measured by R. the y componelnt = (4. t h e p a r t i c l e w i l l h a v e a v~elocity particle will have a velocity iu'. 4 6 ) a n d t h e expressioll f o r d x ’ which arises from the Lorentz transformation..’ ~:ou2. this reduces to px’ _: &T&i (px Thus. we need . We shall assume that G is moving relative to R. d x ’ =z fi.50) p: W e n e x t f i n d t h e iransformation the definition of momentum. it is earily p r o v e d t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n z c o m ponents of momentum is = pz (4.’ p+dt ‘. modx .4’..v=/cz .fi u2/c2 i dt . d y ’ = d y .e.!5 c2 ) the Lorentz trans p: depends on both the energy and momentum of the particle measured in for energy.~ ) (4.x a x e s . w e f i n d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n (4. U s i n g t h i s a n d t h e r e s u l t i n E q u a t i o n (4. From (4.
581.’  The invariant may be evaluated in the E = moc2... Its energy in terms of m.2.56) In terms of E/c2 and pX. relative to R. ) (4) t’ = &&$x). PC = PY P: = p.u’~/c~.y.c2 (p. (2) (3) y’ 2’ = = y . p2c2 + mic” E = pc. is then .58) J u s t a s t h e q u a n t i t y c2t2 . z.x2 .p:’ . T h e transfsorma __ (‘1 1 x’ = $& (x . and v. this reduces to E’ _ = :1 &+i C particle.98 Relativisfic mechanics and dynamics This combined with Equation (4..pZ. suppose a particle of rest mass direction. rest frame of the particle where p = 0 and c~(E’/c~)~ . we have used the definitions of energy and momentum of a dt& .p.Id).of a sl”herical z2 i s a n i n v a r i a n t ( i t i s t h e e q u a t i o n light wave if set equal to zero). T h i s g i v e s a g a i n t h e energymomentum relation for particles of rest mass mo: E2 = or. v c2 f. relative to G.3. to derive the transformation formulas of a particle as measured by observers (pX. m.y2 .f) tions are: ( cE2 . and the invariance relation for energy and momentlJm tions Iof (x. s= fi&Tp _ 5 pa ( cE2 ) 114. There is a complete analogy between the Lorentz transformaand the transformations of E/c’).46) and the expression for energy in terms of rest mlass.u’/c’ = df’dl . so is the quantity  pt  p:  p2 a r e l a t i v i s t i c i n v a r i a n t a s m a y b e wen b y f i n d i n g p:’ using Equations (4. E’ = moc2/V/1.2 fL ) To summarize. g i v e s u s (4. relative speed v.z. for zero rest mass. has a speed of magnitude v in the negative x As an example of the application of these energymomentum formulae. pL = fi : v2.u”/c’. moving1 towith gether with the Lorentz transformations.p.4).
14 TRANSFORMATIONS FOR FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH (4. In relating the frequencies u’ ( i n G ) a n d Y (in R) o f t h e w a v e . These transformairions will provide a means of (comparing with enerlgy is formin m e a s u r e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a l i g h t w a v e w i t h p l a n e w a v e f r o n t s b y countinS observed directions of propagation be denoted by angles 8’ number of fronts which pas:.. the We imagine that observers G. situated at their respective origins. variant under Lorentz transf(Drmations.4.9. their origins in some specified time intervsal. w e Figure 4. The situation is diagrammed in Figure 4. also occurs when one observes the frequency of a moving light source. Let t h e (in G) and 6’ (in h!).28): for frequency cd wavelength 9 9 = mot” (++) 1. known as the Dijppker effect. We shall obtain the relativistic transformations relating the frequencies and wavelengths of a light wave as measured by two observers.9. E = hv. x axes. . w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p o s i t i v e x ’ ( i n G ) .14 Transformations given by Equation (4.60) The reader is probably familiar with the decrease in apparent frequency of a sound wave as a moving source approaches and then recedes. G. and R. x (in R) axes. This phenomenon. and R. parallel x’.. as G moves relative to R with a speed v along their mutuallly momentum transformations to see if the quantum relation. Measurement of frequency of a light wave by observers in relative motion.
65) A’ h . count wovefronts passing 0: he will obtain iv. the origin of G is moving with respect to that R SO of that at any given instant there may be wave fronts which have passed R.from Z Z Figure 4. beginning at the some number of fronts which he counts is then t’v’. the clock at the origin of G beats slower than the clocks in R. is vt/Ax fore.. t and t’ are related by the simple time dilation formula. in Figure 4. and second. have been counted by R. t h e Similarly. A ’ = AZ ’ s i n B’. So. both on a clock at 0 and on one at 0’.9. G.dyzqp.v’/c’ (1 .61) cos 8/c.100 Relotivisfic mechanics and dynamics must take into account tweo effects: First.64) by The relotion between the angles of propagation 8’ and 0 may be obtaineld noting that. t’ (on a single cloc:k at 0’) is measured in the moving frame G. at the same i n s t a n t . But tv is not equal to t’u’. this would be identical to the Doppler effect in sound for an observer moving relative to o source. but not by G. instant.9. by the hori0 = C/Y cos 0. a n d t h a t t h e i r o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c y i s v ’ . S u p p o s e t h a t s t a r t i n g a t t h e i n s t a n t t = t’ = 0 when the origins coincide. we obtain (4.y cos8)tu If t were equal to f’.= sin 8’ sin 6 (4. Ax = X/cos so the odditionol number of fronts measured by R. Hence. Hence. :since ulxr = ux = c: x’ = __ XVF. z’ axes are related by z. substituting for t in the above equation ond canceling u( 1 . X = AzsinB (4. since measurements of distance z’ = along the z. counts wove fronts for 0 time t’. The number of these fronts lying between 0 a n d 0 ’ m a y b e f o u n d b y d i v i d i n g t h e distance between origins. But .66) . = vvt zontal distance Ax between fronts. From Figure 4. There t’u’ = (1 .v/c cos f9) uI = ~= 67/C= t’ = . vt. the two observers agree that the distances between two successive points w h e r e t h e w a v e f r o n t s i n t e r s e c t t h e z o r z ’ a x e s a r e e q u a l : A ’ = A . since there are fronts between the two origins which. but hove not yet reached G. In this expression. t refers to o time measured in the rest frame R. t’. we obtain t)d + COS 8 vly(41.9.63) From this we may also obtain the transformation formula for wavelengths. tu = Solving for t’~‘. let R.v / c COS e) (4.
.67) The cosine of the angle t9’ may be obtained by simplifying the trigonometlric formula: ~~~~.v/c = ~_1 . y’ = dl u .64). e a c h wave that passes 0 will simultaneously (to R.v2/c2 (4.‘s clocks beat more slowly.V/CCOSe) ~&ect 101 (4.69) This change in frequency is simple to understand solely as the result of the time dilation effect. direction of motion. but order that equal numbers of wavefronts be counted by both observers. (4. Since R. we shall now discuss a few applications.10).. to the direction of motion of G. or redshifted. so the frequency of the waves will appear higher to G. thfsn observes the light transversely.~>l c o s 6 ’ = As i n ’ 8’ = _____.63).68) 0’ = where the positive sign of the square root was chosen in order that cos cos 0 in the special case v = 0.63) becomes perpendicular. the direction of propagation is and Suppose that to an observer in the rest system Equation (4.71) Thus the wavelength will appear to be increased..64).4.68) alre the principal results of this section.v’/cZ) zr cos2 6 ~ 2v/c cos 6 + v2/c2 . or transverse. (4. the wavelength will be (4. sees the waves propagating parallel to his z a x i s .v / c c o s I!?)’ cos 6 ..) pass 0’ (see Figure 4. both observers agree on the number of wavefronts they have counted.15 Transverse DSppler a n d f r o m E q u a t i o n (4._ 1/ (11 .70) and since XV = c. in the frequency will be given by u = u() 1v’ C2 lf (41. If R . Thus.67) and l(4. when the observers are not in relative motion T h e r e l a t i v i s t i c trollsformation E q u a t i o n s (4. Then 6’ = 90”.v/c cos 0 (4.. Suppose G. at 90” from the G. carries along a source of light which emits plane waves of natural f r e q u e n c y V’ = vO. The transverse Dijppler effect could be used to obtain a direct experimental verification of the time dilation predicted by special relativity. s i n 8’ = sin 6 ( 1 1 . such experiments are . .v2/c2 .15 TRANSVERSE DijPI’LER EFFECT R. however.
In this case. Therefore. substituting 6’ = 0 in Equation (4. the observed light is traveling parallel to the direction of relative motion of the source. and hence we must imagine the source to be positioned far out on the negative x’ axis and approaching the observer R.9.v/c (4. 4.v/c)/41 v c ” . Figure 4. by R.74) . S u p p o s e again that G. Errors in angle will whereas the transverse effect is of order (“/c)~. s i n c e t h e f a c t o r ( 1 . T h e diagram. 19 = 0 or K.10. a n d t h a t 8’ = 0 .73) we have y=vo 1 + v/c 1/ 1 .v/c. comes in at exactly 90”. difficult.102 Relafivisfic mechanics and dynamics L’ ‘G R ” C” z A //  *x’ Figure 4. .2/ can be simplified by writing it as (4.yield because it is hard to Transverse Doppler effect matters so that an appreciable amount of arrange light of known proper frequency vc corrections of order .16 LONGITUDINAL DijPPLER EFFECT In the longitudinal Doppler effect.63). is drawn so that the light is propagating to the right (0 = 0) in R.72) we obtain the expression for the frequency v observed O r . carries along a light source of frequency v..: ug = $+g (4.
158 0.v/c ~ + v/c If the source is receding. S i n c e X v = c .595 0.1 3c 345 3~ 48 3c 279 1116+12 PHL 256 PHL 938 BSO 1 0.264 0..8 3 1667A The longitudinal Doppler effect can be used to interpret the spectra of liglht received from distant galaxies. Catalogue Number Redshift z = AX/h Recession velocity.93 1.536 2.0. The observed wavelength I f .311 0. the observed wavelength would b l u e s h i f t e d a n d Equoltion (4. cJ!+=//r x where H. the apparent wavelength is moving is (4.1 la 0. This is expre. by Kohn and Palmer.131 1.. 11 +v.122 0. t h e c o r responding expression for wavelength is 103 x=x. produced on earth.791 0...715) redshifted.8 5000 A p== 1 + 0. u=uo This If v be i\=(5000& a = indicates source 4c/5 that of for a i1 1 . Press.405 0.4.813 0.24 0.) TABLE 4. 19’67).cJ source. Hubble’s (constant.. is approximately 75 km/set per lo6 parsecs.26 lightyears.v/c .75) would apply.1 . Bright spectral lines from these galaxies alre identified by comparison with spectra of the elements.ssed Hubble’s relation.303 0.668 . p = v/c 3c 2738 3c 249. Harvard Univ. we have instead.146 0. by reversing the sign of v (or / 11 . the fractional redshift AA/x is direlztly proportional to the distance. The identification shows the lines are systematically redshifted.367 0.3 Redshifts of Some QuasiStellar Objects (Quasars. For nearby galaxies whose in distances can be measured by observing cepheid variable stars.436 0. velocity be woulld 1/ receding natural wavelength 5000 Angstroms with directly toward the observer. changing 19 from 0 to a).16 Langifudinal Diippler effect for an approaching source of proper frequency v. (1 parsec = 3..
and t. The redshifts.v/c cos 0) .tic mechanics and dynamics Recent observations of quasars.) p:=fJr P. wavelength A’ and angle of propagation 19’ of a light wave.PX) P: = The four quantities p. indicating that the objects from which this light was emitted may be receding from our galaxy at speeds of over 80% of the speed of light. are thus analogous to X.v/c c o s 0) “’ = ___ \/TTp x’ = xvK7p (1 . are given by p: = d. p’ as observed from a system of reference moving with speed v along the x. p.v / c COS 6) 19ti .v’/c’ (1 .Z TRANSFORMATIONS FOR FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH The transformation formulae for frequency v’. p for the same particle. x’ axes relative to an observer who measures the values E. The gallactic redshifts are the primary experimental evidence on which the big bang theory of the orligin of the universe is based. TRANSFORMATIONS OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM The transformation formulae for energy and momentum of a particle E’.x’ axes. imply that the entire visible universe is expanding and hence that at some distant time in the past all the matter in the universe must have been concentrated in one region.104 Relativi!. if interpreted as D6ppler shifts. A.v/c)sin /j’ = s i n ( 1 .. are V(1 . E/c’. observed from a system of reference moving with speed v along the x.“2. for which no independent distance measurements are available. have revealed enormous redshifts.c2 (PA. E’ = C2 d&J..   . relative to an observer who measures the values u.v/c cos f3) (0s 0 = (cos e . I. Some of these recent observations are given iln Table 4.Y.3. and 0 for the same wave. pr.
these are identical to the momentum of a particle of transformation 105 p and zero rest mass. small time. 9 9 9 9 8 7 ~ . 196m. A .5 x lo8 km ond the 6. then light is obselrved For an approaching source. Answer: 9 . 5. Calculate the fractional loss in mass from the sun in ‘IO” years (age of the universe).1 x 10e3’ kg and a proton of mass MO := 1. Show that the power expended by the force is m. An oilpowered ship obtains energy at the rate of 4 x 10” Cal/lb from its fuel.Y~/c~)~‘~. Suppose a force Facts on a particle in the same direction as the velocity. 1 . 10mz7 kg are each accelerated from rest through a total po’tential energy difference 4.0 x 103’ kg. 9 x 106. find x as a function of time.6 x 10l’ i.43 c. 7. How much would the mass change? (Fiat I. If it is acted on by a constant force F in the x direction. 0. 7 3 kg.. then the frequency is redshifted due to time dilation: If the source is receding from the observer with speed v and the parallel to v. Also show that the speed approaches c as t approaches infinity 73 Answer: x = (c2mo/F)[ V 1 + (Ft/moc) .5 x heat. the speed of the particle. from the radiation of neutrinos. What is the increase in mass of each particle? What is the fractional increase in mass of each particle? What is the final speed of each? Answer: 0. An electron of mass m. 1 .) Answer: i/cm’/min 3 .3. the sign of v is reversed. 0 . i. Suppose 1. Check to see if this gives the same as the nonrelativistic equations given for small velocity. The energy radiated from the sun in the form of neutrinos has the inteinsity of water at 0°C were changed to ice by extrac:ting of fusion == 80 kcal/kg := 3. 1. is initially at rest at x = 0. = 9.107Mo.78 x 1028kg.v(dv/df)/( the energy of the particle is mc’.e. 7 8 x 10mz8kg.11. 3. lf the light is observed at 90” from the direction of motion of the source. Suppose a particle with rest mass m.. 2.12 at the eorth’s surface.. Show that dE/dp := v. DijPPLER E F F E C T A light source of natural frequency v0 (wavelength X0) will have its frequency shifted when measured by on observer moving with respect to the source.00 cubic kilometer 10’ i/kg.Problems S i n c e E = hv and equations for energy = h/h for light. and hence show that sun’s mass is 2. 0.6’7 x of 1. The earthsun distance is 1.
pr. use the facts that total energy and total momentum conserved. In the following collision problems. and that of the (proton laboratory? The rest moss of the electron is 9. Also find E’ in terms of Et.106 Relativistic mechanics and d’ynamics nuclearpowered ship obtains energy by converting about 0. Find the correction terms of order v’/c4to the kinetic energy expression % mOvz in the correspondence limit.v /c . This is an olternate way of working Problem 13. tportont in studying nuclear reactions. pj = pz. where mc is the rest mass. By squaring the energy equation twice.320 times QS far.vE/c2)/ E2 = p2c2 + mic”. t transformations. for transformation of velocity components. a n d E’ = ( E . It hits o similar particle (rest moss mo). Express the total momentum pX ond the total energy of the two particles tel*ms of thai E ’ = If.e.. calculate the ratio of the distances the two sllips should be able to travel. dy. Eliminate Y to show is at rest. 6 8 x lo* m/set.67 x 1O27 Mnswer: 13. Using the results of Problem 13. equations for on inertial system in which p has the components p. 9. 10. an inertial frame in which the particles is zero.! 14. quantities like fl?ii con be eliminated. The solution is much simpler in that system./c = me(cdf)/dr. i. then in another system moving at velocity v in the positive x = py. the energy is E. 5 4 x lo5 m/set. p. 2 4 x lO*m/sec. This total energy in the center of momentum system is immuc / CY ET mic’/(E.52 x 10l’ i. ’ = 0. show that dy2 + dz2)/c2 = Z/dtz(dx2+ didore infinitesimal dis under lorentz transformations. y. /c.6 :X 10I3 i.)/ 1 . similarity to the x. the momentum and energy ore dP: *dm. Nuclearpowered ship travels 7. Here dx. of 11. 6 7 x 10mz7 kg. An alternative procedure would be to tronsform to the center of momentum system css indicated in Problem 15.VP.11 x 1O3’ is 1. which 15. show that when energy of 1. Find its rest mass in kg. Answer: Vi mOc2 (v’/c’). 12. has o total energy (rest plus kinetic) of E.p. and is incident on a proton at rest in the laboratory. moc2. Et + mcc . If o particle has a momentum of 5. Show that the momentum and E/c = by p = m0 dr/dr. Show that in terms of the kinetic energy. Note the direction relative to the first. An electron has a kin’etic teotal momentum of b’oth kg. find. Answer: 8. ‘What speed do particles of this kinetic energy have? 2 . kinetic energy for which the instrument works is T = 1. since dr is an invariant. = 2(PX2 . is moving with what speed relative to the kg. z. Using and the 4 . For o given moss of fuel. in terms of E. and E. Suppose 0 particle of rest moss mc.0003% of its fuel from moss to energy. dz placements of D particle and v is the speed of an inertial system relative to the rest frame of the particle. and met’.N2 . The center of momentum frame. the momentum E/c transform like r and ct. the speed v of the system in which the momentum is zero. + met’).Y = 2 ‘hji. in and v.mic2. moving in the positive x direction. T. find its speed. . LJsing the Lorentz tronsformotions dr = is invoriont for coordinates. Answer: are v+. the magnitude of the momentum is pc = 6&T. a n d m0c2.+I )(moc2).22 In ct certain kind of instrument used for focusing o beam of high energy particles onto o point. the maximum Answer: times the rest energy. Answer: 2 . 1 .60 x 1 Ol9 kgm/see and a kinetic eneirgy 7. d pz + mic’ are given Thus.
dp: + mfc’ t/b>: + collide elastically. .m._ mfc2 + mic’ 2PlP2 rn:c’ + t’x+ m:c’ GtTzp) . v. find the rest mass of the A0 from this photograph.rn: + rni + 2m2~@/c)’ + ( rn: ’ ) m: ./c The transformation of the f eld components perpendicular to v is: E. + mf Two particles have momenta p and p. If both have rest mass mc. = f2 ’ v 1 . respectively. 23.Problems 16._ rnpz’. Verify that light moving parallel to the y axis in one inertial system goes at the angle relative to the y’ axis in a system moving with velocity v along the x axis relative to the first system. what are the final momenta’? A n s w e r : Ill2 + dJ/42 + m: 2pm. and the other had momentum p.of the combination? (It is not m. = I (E:f v x B).” /c P. If the final velocities are the same in magnitude. What is the final speed of the combination if they stick together on collision? What is __. What are Ithe magnitudes of the final momenta. E. BI.:I along the same straight line. 180” (this is the center of momentum frame for these particles). One particle was Two particles of the same rest mass. initially at rest. what are the final velocities? Answer: 17. (1) = cosdj7TYp r_ ( X/p2 + rnic’ . = E. what is the angle between these velocities? Nonrelativistically. . and the final velocities are along the same straight line. and p2.y?Ic? # 0. + 24 p: + myv$yc&~ 20. respectively. A particle with momentum p and rest mass ml hits anothqer 107 If the final velocities are altlng the same straight line. Two particles with rest masses ml and m2 have momenta .\/.mot + 3moc ).. = 0. the rest mass Answer: c(pl I. Two particles of rest masses m t and m2 have momenta pt and p2. what is the final momentum of particle l? Answer: pi = pl(mY .___. 19. = B.p.p2)/(dp: + mfc’ + q+ mzc’).v x E/c2) __.njZ)c” + 2p+p1p2 + . _ _ 2(p. 0. . and what is the angle between them? Answer: p. In Figure 4. B. mc. Prn: t rn: + 2ms ~(P/c)~ 18. at rest with mass m2. In the first system. another at rest.. = E. If the final velocities after an elastic collision are along the same straight line. Using the method illustrated in the text.p2 .. ttlis would be 90”. ~~~~__VG:+ rnz 21.1 I is given another bubble chamber photograph of the production and decay of a :I0 hyperon. = 8. They collide elastically.__ . p. + m2 . A particle with speed v hit!. Answer: 22.
. Bubble chamber photograph of A0 decay.e . + : ..+ ! Figure 4.1 I.: ::.: .
= 6. 2 . A light source emits light in its rest system of 4000 Angstroms wavelength at the violet end of the visible spectrum.. = 0. and the fact that at the end of the trip both G. . Calculate the observed wavelength alld frequency. travel with speed v out towardc a di!. then returns along the same path to his starting point Nith speed v. 109 # 0. Consider two twins R.k.x + k. 28. find how the B component parallel to v transforms. The phase ofplane o/Gk. Light of wavelength 5000 Angstroms from a flashlight you hold hits a mirror moving away from you at 0. to show that the travelling twin . 29. the magnitude of the momentum of a photon i:j kh/2T. If in a second system the light goes perpendicular to the relative velocity and has a wavelength of 7000 Angstroms at the red end of the visible spectrum. k. Ei = Eli. := B.93 X loI9 i = 6 . ct do. light at the natural wavelength 6328 Angstroms is emitted from a source which is approaching at 0.Problems Find what the transformation wave to be trclnsverse in B. 6 7 . = E. and let G. What is the frequency of the light reflected back to you? Answer: X = 3 8 9 7 A n g s t r o m s .tant light source.k. v = 7 . w/c energy is hrf one system must look like a wavecrest in another system.v /c is younger by the factor t’Km21 ..21 eV 27. . what is rhe Answer: 0. = hph/2*. 1.8~. and R.0666 Angstrom. G. observe light of a definite frequency coming from the distance source. and G. 5400 Angstroms.45 the speed of light. !jince k = 27r/X. and R. If the light source were receding. 7 0 x 1014 set l. If E. k.y + k. what is the relative velocity? Answer: 25. Suppose both G. CI point at the surface of the sun on its equator has a speled relative to the cerlter of 1 . Use the equations of the longitudinal DGppler ei?ect. for a total distance I as observed by R.85 km/set. = E.z ./c of the E components parallel to v must be for the liclht the second system. 4 6 x 10’ m/set.K 1013 set’ sinusoidal wave. will have counted the same total number of wavecrests. y. + kz.. 24.. Show that this is so if transform under a Lorentz transformation just as x. what would be the observed enlergy of single photons received from the source? Answer: 1. wavelength difference for this light emitted from op posite edges of the sun’s equator as seen from the earth? 26.. A wavecrest I. Answer: fl’l = IT. and likewise tlhe Verify that these are consistent with the transformation equations for momentum and energy. If an atom at rest emits light of wavelength Due to the sun’s rotation.wf with c = w/k = in is invariant under a Lorentz transformation.
these electric and magnetic field amplitudes could have continuous arbitrary numerical values. other electromagnetic phenomena had been discovered. 110 . If an atom is pictured as a heavy positively charged core with an electron revolving in some orbit about the core. The resulting theore*ical calculations gave a distribution of energy with frequency which disagreed with experiment.these phenomena were the emission of electrons from a metal surface when irradiated by light (photoelectric effect). Thus this classical model contradicted the fact that an atom can be a stable physical system. then the electron should emit energy because it is continually being accelerated toward the core by the Coulomb attraction. An important prediction of the classical theory was that an accelerated charge should always emit radiation. Another important consequence of the classical theory was that the intensity of energy transported by a light wave through free space is proportional tso the square of the amplitude of the oscillating electric (or magnetic) field. By the early part of the twentieth century. the theory predicted that all frequencies should be present in the emitted radiation. This led to serious difficulties in explaining the observed properties of the electromagnetic radiation contained in a cavity inside a hot body. Further. This is in contrast to the observed fact that often a hot gas emits light only at a discrete set of frequencies. corresponding to the fact that all rotation frequencies are possible in the classical orbits. however. except at very low frequencies. Also. The classical theory of this “blackbody” radiation assumed that the radiation inside a large cavity consisted of standing electromagnetic waves with a continuous distribution of energies. This energy loss should cause the electron to spiral in toward the core and eventually collide with it in about lo” seconds. and led to many useful applications.5 quantum properties of light The classical electrodynamics of Faraday. not dependent on the frequency. the change of wavelength of light scattered by free electrons (the Compton eRect). Ampere and Maxwellas expressed in Maxwell’s equationswas successful in predicting the existence of electromagnetic oscillations. and the energy distribution with frequency of radiation emitted by hot bodies. Among the most significant of . which could not be adequately explained by the classical theory. culminating in the invention of radio in 189t5. the discreteness of optical spectra emitted by hot gases.
w h e r e v is the freq u e n c y a n d h i s a c o n s t a n t blaving result of Plan&s when theoretical Thus. energy.1 Energy transformafion M a x Planck blackbody for particles of zero1 rest mass 111 was the first to give an acceptable quantitative explanation of Instead of assuming that the distribution of energies of the radiation. transformation equations for energy and momentum of particles were obtained. eac:h of energy hu. and hence also tell us how to relate space and time measlurewavelength. or photons.1 ENERGY TRANSFOE!MATICBN ZERO REST MASS FOR PARTICLES OF In the previous chapter. in which case the latter expression becomes indeterminate: .S. W e m a y t h e n a p p l y t h e relativistlic transformations to the Plan& relation E = hu. When propagating from one point IO a n o t h e r . The subsequent absorpto antion of energy hu by another wall of the cavity can. from the point of view of special relativity.elation E = hu is to be a valid physical law. The reality of this portic:lelike field has been the verified in many light of a particle (a photon) from one ~1311 experiments. i t m u s t s t i l l b e h a v e l i k e a w a v e b e c a u s e i t i s capablle of exhibiting interference and diffraction.11) In order that the energy and rnomentum be nonvanishing for m. 6 3 x lo” agreed with Y of frequency are ioulesseconds. h v . hypothesis that crete amounts E = hu. according to Plan&s h y p o t h e s i s .. may be seen from the comparkon of the two alternate expressions for energy ‘rhiis E = d(pq2 + (moc2)’ = s’:. be considered equivalent to the pa:. electromagneti. when interacting .: waves t h e v a l u e 6 . a l i g h t w a v e c a n b e con’sidered to a’ct like #o particle which.e a particle. m e n t s . because the particle has speed c. ancl momentum measurefrequency. t h e n u m b e r of photons of this frequency inside the cavity will increase by unity. The standing waves of frequency u insidle a cavity can be thought of as consisting of a number of quanta. Photons of many different frequencies can be present in the cavity. a definite discrete amount of energy is transferred. h o w e v e r . differing in ama’unt by integral multiples of hu. i. We now wish to investigate the possibility that. When energy hi i s e m i t t e d b y o n e w a l l o f t h e c a v i t y . the energy has to be emitted or absorbed in amounts f = when a particle is emitted or absorbed by matter. a light wave appears in this respect to act very [much 1ik. it fol lows from the first postulate of relativity that it must be valid in any inertial frame. = 0. must have zero rest mlass. we mwst = C. in some respects.. standing waves is continuous. If the t. in or all absorbed1 The b. The equations of rela4vity ments.y calculation experiment emitted respects. to see if it is forminvariant with respect to Lorentz transformati~ons.5. Silnce. waves are particles whic:h carry energy in dispicture of the states Iof t h e electromagrletic I n t h i s c h a p t e r w e s h a l l begiln by examining. m a d e b y o b s e r v e r s i n r e l a t i v e m o t i o n . matter. he assumed that the waves could have only discrete energies.sage other. have v (.with matter.
in the G coordinate system.7zero 2 l(5.2 FORMINVARIANCE OF E = hu In fact.v / c cos0) ___ Ifi.V/CCOS@ l(5. for example. it is a remarkable fact that the only possible relativistically invariant relation between energy and frequency is precisely the relation which enabled Planck to explain all the properties of blackbody radiation.2) But then the former expression reduces to simply E theory of a plane electromagnetic wave.4) and (5. the relation hv is the only possible relation between energy and frequency which is IrelaT h i s r e l a t i o n w o u l d n o t b e Irela tivistically invariant. T h e P l a n c k e q u a t i o n i s invariant. E =: pc for electromagnetic waves. l(5. Suppose. as it E’ = h (v’)” (LYLYL)‘ 115. V(1 . Thus. provided the constant h has the same numerical frames.57). t h u s rellativistically value in all inertial responding relation in the G system must be E’ = hu’. Substituting into we get (E/c2)(l ..= C2 pi = E’ cos et/c. and therefore could not be a valid physical law. then p. T h e r e l a t i o n E = pc is entirely consistent with the classical electromagnetic (Energy density) = c x (Momentum density) or.5). = p cos 8 = E cos O/c.. it is at once clear that if Plan&s equation E = hv for a single photon is the cor valid in the system R. E = hv = pc. that Planck had proposed E = where n is some exponent not equal to unity. if E = hv. . the trallsformation equation (Equation 4.1 12 Qoonfum properties of light zero E=Am. w h e r e 19 is the direction of travel of the particle with respect to the x axis in R. E’ .ALb$” C x (5. leads to the relation tivisticolly forminvariant. IE = hu”. Further.7) . then upon using the transformations (5. Also.3) Since for zero rest moss particles we have E = pc. if the energy is a function only of frequency.4) Note the similarity to the transformation equation for frequency.5) 5.v2/c2 l(5. where = pt.6) in the other reference frame. in 0 given volume. there is a definite relation between momentum and wavelength. and XV := c. which can be derived by noting that Solving for p in terms of the wavelength X. Furthermore.
we shall consider experiments in whic:h termined independently. 5.3 Since this relation be*tween it is also forminvarialit. t h e o~nly possible relation is E = hu.5. if there exists a discrete energy related only to quency r e l a t i v i s t i c a l l y i n v a r i a n t . The DuaneHunf law 113 m o m e n t u m a n d w a v e l e n g t h i s e q u i v a l e n t to E = h. In the following sections. Note that the expression for energy is proportiontal energy does not contain the amplitude of the electromagnetic field oscillations. file We may conclude that. The value of experiments wash = 6. consisting mainly of a hot h 13 t Figure 5. Also. Figure 5. w h e r e l e n g t h h a s t o b e p = hX.3 THE DUANEHUNT LAW O n e p h e n o m e n n n wbiich rna>f b e e x p l a i n e d b y u s i n g t h e q u a n t u m r e l a t i o n li = xray hu is the shortwavelength cutoff (highfrequency cutoff) o’f the continu’ous spectrum. are subject to verification by experiment. On the other hand. Therefore. If there are rt photons. the expres p should each be multiplied by n. which is considered to be a particle of zero rest mass. T h u s : ) ti = hv == pc p = for light. then to be h is a uni versal constant. the only possible relation between momentum and wavee h/X for photons (5. the physical meaning of the T h e r e l a t i o n s . the quantization of to the squared amplitude of the fields. .v. E q u a t i o n (5. Production of x rays by stopping fast electrons in dense materials. and in which the value of h can be d’e h obtained from blackbody radiation ioulesseconds..811.1. in classical electromagnetic theory the squared amplitwde will have to be reconsidered.1 represents a typical xray tube.8) These relations for a single photon state the relationship of momentum and ene r g y t o w a v e l e n g t h sand sions for E a n d frequency under the assumption that light transports energy and momentum in discrete amounts.547 x 10ey energy carried by photons is important.
000 volts.. The electrons then strike a dense target.. hu. and also that there is for each V a minimum wavelength (or maximum frequency) emitted.1 14 Quantum properties of light cathode which emits electrons. S u p p o s e I(X)dh is the amount of energy emitted with wavelengths in the is a quantity which can be obrange from h to A + dX.6 . in which I (A) is plotted as a function of A.2. The electron is initially accelerated and is {given kinetic energy by passage through a difference of potential V. a n d a r e blcought suddenly to rest. so the kinetic energy it gains there will be T = eV. V is and observed experimentally.. and a source of potential which can accelerate the electrons from the cathode up to many thousands of electron volts klinetic energy. .a . then the frequencies of emitted radiation lie in the xray region.7 .2 Figure 5. such a decelerated If the charge should emit radiation. TUNGSTEN TARGET A20 KILOVOLTS B25 ” c30 ” Dm35 I’ Ez4D ” . Note that as the accelerating voltage V is increased..9) . This can be understood as follows: We assume that the x rays are radiated discontinuously in the form of quanta of energy hv when the electron comes to a stop. accelerating potential upwards of 10. would be the maximum frequency of a quantum which could be (emitted.. i.9 1 .4 .) served experimentally.e. a typical set of experirnental results is given in Figure 5. T h i s u. there is a general increase in the intensity of x rays produced.. if in the collision all this is given to a single quantum of frequency umax.o WAVE LENGTH IN ANGSTROM UNITS Intensity distribution of x rays produced at different accelerating voltages. According this is to what classical is theory. = eV then (5..2.3 .5 . Some electrons may emit many quanta. but it is possible that an electron is stopped so suddenly that all its kinetic energy goes into a single q u a n t u m o f e n e r g y hv.. By conservation of energy. usually made of tungsten or molyb~denum. they are decelerated. This intensity /(A.
6 x lol9 coul.3.48 x 6.5 . when he showed how the photoelectric effect Metal Figure 3. . which is plotted in terms of wavelength. In terms of vmox.000 25.61 6 .2./c ~_ 10m3’isec.405 .31 . lo” isec. so in terms of Xmi.61 X xtnin h = eVX..61 ilarly.255 6.E 5. the minimum wavelengths can be read off for given accselerating Potential.10) For example.35 x 6. Thle with the value of h determined from blackbody radiation experiments.2.000 40. Photoelectric Effect: A single incident photon of energy hv con (cause on electron to be ejected from a metal surface if the frequency is sufficiently high.i. = C .1 D u a n e .49 . gives. expressed as eVL h=C Xmi.000 50. lo“isec._ _ _ .4 PHOTOELECTRIC EFF:ECT Historically the first alDplication of Planck’s equation E = hu t o a n o t h e r p h e  nomenon was made by Einstein. at V = 40. lo” isec. I t c a n b e c h e c k e d a g a i n s t t h e 115 mDuaneHunt experimental data given in Figure 5.000 35.80 X _ _ . X 10m3’ jsec. from the graph is 0.35 .000  6. This x 10m3’ isec. x._     (Angstroms) _ _ . 5 6 X 20.(avera!ge) .000 30. From the graph._ 6.000 volts._  . are given in Table 5.53 x 6.H u n t L a w . using e = 1.62 .i.31 Angstroms. other values for h can be obtained from the data of Figure 5. the constant h could “mox b’e (5.1. SimreslJlts a value for h: h = 6. lo” isec. 4 Photoelecfric e&d This equation is called the kaw. the values all agree reasonably well with each other and  V (volts) TAEI1. 10m3’isec.
some electrons inside the metal have less kinetic energy than others to begin with. The energy of this photon is E = hv. or quantum of light. w h i c h g i v e s i t j u s t e n o u g h e n e r g y to overcome the work function and escape. 7 3 eV 4 . I f hu w e r e l e s s t h a n 9. and show how they rnay be explained using E = hu and the concept of the photon.. Also. and from experiments on thermionic emission these energies can be OS measured. 2 0 eV 5 . before it could get out. and the intensity. ejected electrons. We shall consider these features one by one. 0 3 eV 4 . TABLE 5. d e t e r m i n e d b y v. It takes la cer tain amount of energy to overcome this attraction at room temperature. t o r e m o v e a n e l e c t r o n . the more energy should be available to make the elec Electrons are normally kept from flying off the surface of a metal by the Coulomb attractions between the electrons and the positive ions. light is allowed to fall on a metal surfac:e as illustrated in Figure 5. such that for lesser frequencies. I t mig. Typical values of the work function are given in Table 5. The minimum energy required to remove one electron is defined the work function @ of the metal. 5. of the incident light. no electrons will come off unless the trons frequency come off. and electrons of various kinetic energies are and the numbers of then ejected from the surface due to absorption of light energy. For . I n terlms o f Cp. 3 0 eV Suppose an electron absorbs one photon. which is independent of the intensity of the incident light.1 16 Quantum properties of lighf may be explained. V. Five important features of this effect could not be explained by the classical theory. as functions of both the frequency. no matter how intense the light is. b e c a u s e an electron far down inside the metal might have to collide with several obstacles.4. These are only the minimum energies required to remove an electron from a metallic surface. This is difficult to understand classically. T h e r e f o r e .2 Work Functions for Some Typical Metals Element Molybdenum Nickel !iilver Tungsten Zinc Work Function 4 . because the more intense the light is. In the photoelectric effect. One may measure the kinetic energies T of the ejected electrons.1 Emission from a given surface does not occur unless the frequency of the light is greater than a certain critical frequency denoted by v. hu = Cp. t h e r e i s a c r i t i c a l f r e q u e n c y .ht a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e m o r e e n e r g y t h a n hu.. t h e e l e c t r o n c o u l d n o t e s c a p e . thus losing energy. 5 4 eV 4 .3. exceeds v.2.. That is. These work functions are typically of the order of a few electron volts. . an electron cannot escape by absorbing a photon. = a/h.
Suppose that we consider next the case of incident frequencies greater than the critical frequency. olt a frequency lower than the critical frequency.pression for kinetic energy. So we shall consifder only those electrons coming off with maximum possible kinetic energies..eVh h = 1.60 x 10. then the maximum kinetic elnergies are (6.= e X 4.. the more a particular electron could absorb. hu = T. (5.5. Thus.. I =: nhu. Then the photoelectric equa.) The incident light beam. T.04 eV and visible light of wavelength X = 4000 Angstroms is used.07eV .v’.11) This is known as the Einstein pIbotoelecfric Poe equation.. = .63 x 10m3” iset) x (3 x 10’ m/set) = ___ (4 x 1 O’ m) X (1.tion can be written in the form: 1 max 1 == . could be made more intense Iby increasing the number of quanta in the beam.. the critical frequency .04 eV For such problems..I9 i/eV) = 1. the electrons will come off with a distribution of energies be’cause of losses due to collisions inside thle metal.+ 2 of the incident light.04 x 10’5 set 1 1. we can use the approximate nonrelativistic ex. 7 = % m. However. the photoelectric equation does not predict any dependence of J. and not nhu.. the intensity is given in terms of n and v by I = nhlj. Since the light is absorbed in quanta of amount hv.. on the intensity. !<o if n quanta per unit area pelr unit time fall on the metal. while the rest energy of an electron is 510. increasing the intensity of the beam will not cause electrons to come off in this case.. it would seen that the more energy contained in the incident light. If Cp = 2.. is a few electron volts. to obtain the maximum electron velocity.19 coul x 4. = hu . The energy absorbed from the light.000 eV.30 eV = 6.for Zinc is a *.. + @ (5. In general..mo&. hu.4 Photoelecllric example.310.. Then electrons can come off when quanta are alpsorbed.2.6 X lo. does not depend on the irltensity Classically. by conservation of energy.12) . and so forth.2 T. goes into overcoming the work functioll and in giving kinetic energy to the electron.63 x lo” iset effecl 117 (Note that work functions in the table are given in units of electron volts. since T. .
.. Then the change in potential energy as the electron travels from the metal surface to the electrode is just eV. / / e Figure 5.O I 7. Graph of stopping potential vs..5 i l. increases with increasing This follows directly from the photoelectric equation. I . The intercept on the frequency axis should be Q/h... the slope of the curve should be equal to h.. P E 5 a P 'B 0. with respect to the metal.5 L T.... If T.. This is illustrated in Figure 5.1 18 5.. T. and if V is P 0 . that is.5..4. m a y b e by placing an electrode near the metal surface and applying to it a V.3 Quantum properties of light frequency of light.a. until V is just large enough to turn back electrons with the energy T.4... Rough diagram of apparatus for measul. is measured1 and plotted as a function of frequency.. S o eV = hu . T.4. a n d i s e q u a l t o 1. This stopping potential V is increased until no current is collected by the electrode.10'4 Frequency in cycles/second Figure 5. frequency. The energy measulred negatilve potential.ement of h/e.
so that the number completely. r(sgardless of the intensity of the light. The intensity is related.will have to be at least one quantum present. 5.5 eV. T h e v a l u e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e g r a p h i s h = 6. so an electron could absorb it and Suppose. lleave the surface. for examlzJe. Ion the average. Hence. if therr. six electrons would come off every hour. tlhen for every sorbed. the number n of quanta is doubled. Classically. on the basis of the cluantum picture. low t h a t 5 .ity of this electrons fact given off should also be doubled. keepquantum theory explains ing the frequency fixed. If the inten!. 5 Compfon measured and plotted as a function of frequency. T. only one electron can be given off.0 eV 131: . This means that if the intensity is made smaller and smaller.5 .. 1. then.65~ x the increase in available energy as the intensity is increased shouldn’t increase v > uc. p r o v i d e d t h e intenGty energy to be absorbecl by an atom in the metal is any light at all. is then doubled. which says the quanta present.the frequency of the inciden? light were such that !sible hv = 5. immediately after the light is turned on. w i t h but it is not clear why ph’oton a b constant can be i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e t e r m i n e d . the. this is consistent with conservation of enell. however. 0 eV of energy every ten minutes were incident on a surface of work function 2. Hence the electron will be accelerated. This will be discussed below iln square of the amplitude is proportional to the intensity.t h a t i s . that the intensity were so . Thus.5 COMPTON EFFECT If light waves strike a free electron. They would do so at prob[random times. as in Figure 5..4 The number of photoelectrons emitted per second is proportional to the intensity of the light. It is not too difficult to arrange for the intensity tc’ be so low that it should take several hours for 5. using the knowrl value of the electronic charge e.0 eV. rather than regularly every ten minutes. there is proportional to the square of the amplitude. then no matter how small it is.6. Plan&s 10e3’ isec. 1. some electrons may come ‘off. only the probability of ejecting an electron at a given instant can be predicted. and should emit radiation at the same fre . but it turns out to be imposto predict exactly when thlese electrons would come off... the intensity is n h v . the slope of the curve effect 119 should be equal to h/e. However. This lability can be correcily calculated using the classical formula. the electric (Geld vector should cause the electron to oscillate.51 are given some experimental data for the measurement of V as a function of frequency for a particular metal surface.gy. T h e n .5 Emission of photoelectrons may occur immediately. if. In Figure 5. according to classical electrodynamics. o n t h e average. to the number ‘of detail. o n d t h a t . IFrom t h e data.
This. Classically. considering only the light scattered at 90” from the incident direction. Electric field in an electromagnetic wave striking an electron causes the electron to accelerate. of course. i s a v e r y s m a l l s h i f t i n w a v e l e n g t h . it is necessary to do the experiment with x The effect can be understood as the absorption of a photon of energy. radiation of the same frequency should be emitted. E’ = hu. p = h / h .024 Angstrom.120 Quantum properties of light I 1 oe ti Figure !i . 6 . and momentum. . I n rays.7. with a recoil of the electron from hv’. p’ = h / X ’ . hf A’ mc’. and momentum. However. For example. quency as that of the incident light. a subsequent reemission of a photon of different hu’. but a shift of wavelength with angle is observed. Diagram of collision between a photon of energy E = hv and a free electron. experiments show that the change of wavelength of the light is LIP = 0. energy. rnv Figure 5. E = order to observe this shift. experimental observations Ishow E that the light reradiated by the electron is changed in frequency (and so in wavelength).
This gives the conservation law. The relationships between the momentum vectors are diagrammed in Figure 5.8. of magnit u d e s h/X’ f o r t h e p h o t o n a n d mv for the electron. and before the collision the total energy is that of the photon. hu. mc. We shall tIpeat collision.5. The rela m = 41 .e. after the at on angle 4 relative to the incident direction.c 2 = hu’ + mc2 (5.8.15) Next. the energy of the electron is mc’. a relativistic collision between two particles. Referring to (5. h/X’ 4 mv \ h/h Momentum conservation diagrams for photonfree electron collision.7. a n d t h a t o f t h e electron at rest. The initial momentum is that of the incident photon only. we have For conservation of they cotnponent .5 Compton effect 121 the state in which it was initially at resti.c o s 0 + mv c o s 4 A’ of momentum. The x component of momentum is conserved. After the collision.13) Figure 5. (5’. since the electron is initially at rest.vz/c2 Let us write down the conservation of energy equation. we write down the conservation of momentum equations.c2. So the law of conservation of energy is hu + m. /. the new photon has an energy hv’. h x := h .14) or since u = c/~A a n d u’ = c/X’. has velocity v tivistic mass m is then m0 the electron as CI relativistic particle which.! Figure 5. This initial momentum is equal to the vector sum of the final momenta.
There are several ways to proceed with the algebra.$) + (i .1 = jouleset.18).19) 2m.x A’ S q u a r i n g t h i s l a s t e q u a t i o n a n d s o l v i n g f o r mic2 .x in Angstroms gives us .b) (5. p. eliminating p2 b e t w e e n E q u a t i o n s ( 5 .ristic mechanics for the electron.mot ’ . At a scattering angle of 0 = 90”.122 Quanfom properfies of light 0 = h sin 0 .17) manipulated in various ways to yield useful informa tion about the collision process. P2 lengths. The re This last equation gives the change in wavelength 0.mf.. which irl this The final momentum. Note that the equations combine relati. and simply eliminated the unwanted variables involving the electron. For the electron. m0 = 9. and the scattering angle .22) Then.15) as (5. T h e n . s i n c e ’ We may now obtain an expression for p2 In t e r m s o f t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l w a v e conservation of energy mc = mot h h + . 5.63 . X. h/mot. For our purposes. combination of (5. variables 4 and v.21) p2 = 2moc (t .c’.23). with the equations E = p c = hu for the photons.x = & (1 .rnic’. and upply case gives us PZ = (mv)’ = h2 + 0x h2 A’ 0 2h2 cos X’h /I (5. E q u a t i o n ( 5 . and 5. In in terms of the universal frorr conthe s t a n t s .m2c2 o equations m2v2 = = (5.) (5. Write the z m2y2 = m2c:) .c(f and .1Om34 calculating X’ .15.18) can be eliminated by m e a n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n EZ = P2c2 + mic’ o r pz = E2/c2 E = mc’. apart r e l a t i o n s h i p p2 = E2/c2 momentum h/mot. (5. This means that in the above three equations. 2 3 ) p r e d i c t s t h a t A’ .17). the derivation.m2c2 0 equation (5.$) + gives us (a .19) .x”. of the electron in Equation (5.X. through which the photon is scattered. we gel m c 2 2 .16.X’.8. one may solve for X’ . after some cancellat i o n a n d redvction to common sult is A’ .mv sin C#J A’ T h e s e e q u a t i o n s c a n bme (5.cos e) 0 denominators.1 1 x 10 m31 kg.1 8) the law of cosines. The quickest way to eliminate the angle 4 is to use the vector triangle in Figure 5. the result is given in Equation (5. of the we used conservation equations for energy and momentum. we wish to calculate the wavelength X’ of the scattered photon in we must eliminate the terms of X a n d t h e a n g l e 0.21) Thus. and h = 6. 2 2 ) a n d (5.
one at a position corresponding to zero change in X. so the shift of wavelength is negligible. Here. in place of the moss m0 for electrons in the Compton wavelength. I. and hence with more tightly bound electrons.h = ____. In elements with higher valuer of Z. Notice there are two lines.0243 A n g s t r o m (!j. for scattering by the electrons in a number of substances.6 PAIR PRODUCTION AND .ANNIHILATION whllch the quantum properties of light enter is pair Another phenomene2n in .c a characteristic 5. . and is called the modified line.9 are shown graphs of intensity versus wavelength of the lines observed at a scattering angle of 90”. 1 1 x 10m3’kg x 123 3 x .5. w h e r e a photon of sufficiently high energy (called a gamma ray). there are relatively fewer free electrons. and so the intensity of the modified line becomes smaller in comparison to that of the unmodified line. Modified and unmodified Compton lines. = 2. (2nd parable to atomic mosses due to other The is due to scattering from bound electrons. I2 is called the Compton wavelength a n d lis with the electron.9. x 10 length quantum associated In Figure 5. The displaced line is that Compton scattering from free electrons.production. Silver Radiator Figure T h e c o n s t a n t h/m.= .6 Pair production and alnnihilation A’ Ct.2!4) 108m/sec This is in extremely glood aslreement with the experimental value for the shift at 90”.42.9 . a mass comshould be used.63 X 10m3”iset . is called the unmodified line. the other slightly displaced from it.
which has positive charge 1 e 1 and rest bolically. the process is pictured as in Figure 5. if the highenergy gamma ray passes near a very heavy particle. simultaneously be arrive at a contradiction: The process as we have assumed it to occur is imposconserved in free space in this process. of energy. This is because not energy .I24 Quantum properties of light reacts to form an electrcsn and another particle. mo. for Figure 5. by dividing the second equation into the first. hv Conservation of momentum gives hv C 2moc2 = ____ __ VL v2/c2 2mclv 477p Eliminating the frequency v from the above equations. In this process. represented by Sym where “e I’ represents the electron and “‘e”” the other particle. we assume the photon of energy hrt and momentum hu/c that the positron and electron continue along in equal speeds v as in Figure 5. and. and almost all . then the heavy particle can soak up all the momentum without carrying away a significant amount of energy. Assuming different speeds or directions for the two particles would alter However. and henc’e sible. conservation Pair produc.10.10. the same direction together. with us ask whether such a process can occur in free space. for example. for simplicity. To show this. Let disappears. This can be done.these and momentum (cannot conclusions. giving us c = 2 YV (15.tion by a photon in free space is impossible as energy and momentum cannot be simuh~neously conserved. one can solve for the speed v.27) we or v = c. the process is rrlass equal to the rest mass of the electron. This immediately implies that the rest mass must vanish. we have. a positron. a positron.11: The y gives much of its momentum to the heavy particle. Applying the conservation laws.
which is small compared to the If all the momentum of the x ray is assumed to go into momentum of the heavy particle. i f v+ arld v_ are the velocities of positron and electron. rest energy of a heavy particle such as a proton. are minimum.6 Pair production and ormihi/arion 125 IFigure 5. respec. Such a minimum kinetic energy for a process to occur is called the threshold energy. A highenergy gamma ray passing near matter can create an electronpositron pairmaterial nuclei soaking up momentum but not energy. the ratio R is very small. we have v = hu//Mc. l e t u s s e e w h y t h i s i s s o .28) where we may use the nonrelativistic expression for the heavy particle if the most energetic y rays we lconsidelr have energies of no more than about ‘IO M’eV. then hu moc2 = .+ \/‘I TV:/7 creatlion p r o c e s s . but it takes up enough to allow the reaction to take place. a n d illlq threrhold = 2mOc2 . T h u s . we have only to consider energy conservation in the pair tively. This will occur when v+ = v. its energy to the electronpositron pair. and the fraction of energy carried away by the heavy particle is negligible. In general. Solving this last equation for v.0 ygv3/. then hvjc = Mv. not all the momentum is given to the heavy particle. even when it takes up all the momentum. Having accounted for mom#entum conservation with the presence of the heavy particle.5.i The minimum gammaray energy required to create a pair will occur when the final energies of both particles. we get R = ~‘W’WW2 hu = 1 hv __I 2 MC’ Thus.= 0. ljubstituting v into the ratio R. T h e r a t i o R Iof energy carried off by the heavy particle to energy available is l/2 Mv2 R= hu (5.1 1. since hu << MC’. after some cancellation.
5. For example. which may decrease the volume . and that total energy and momentum of the particles in a reaction are both conserved.022 MeV pass through the threshold gamma energy matterso that many heavy It is indeed observed experimentally that when gamma rays of particles are presentelectronpositron pairs are created. Each photon will then have to carry away an energy of 0. then in order to conserve momentum they must go off in opposite directions. This is observed experimentally. If two photons are emitted. which Figure 5. momentum could not served because the initial momentum is zero. whereas the final single particle would have to possess some momentum. T h e i r t o t a l e n e r g y i s 1 . their energies will be equal (see Figure 5. Suppose the electron and positron were initially at rest.511 MeV.511 MeV. 0 2 2 MeV.126 Quantum properfies of lighf Since the rest energy of an electron is 0. Whereas the phenomena of pair creation and annihilation do not give an independent way of measuring Plonck’s con:#tant. An electron and a positron can also combine annihilate each other annihilate each other. energies greater than 1. at least two photons must be emitted. photon is much too high1 because the frequency of the to be measured. Before Pair annihilation ot rest causes at least two photons to be given off. to measure the temperature of a gas. travel in opposite directions with equal energies. a thermometer must be introduced into the gas.022 MeV. with momenta of equal magnitudes. Thus. they show clearly that the photon must carry energy and momentum.12).12.7 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR LIGHT WAVES It is a general physical fact that any which measurement may alter of a physical of the quantity physical generates uncontrollable disturbances the value quantity being measured. in a collision in which they If they be conarld give off a burst of radiation. Thus. giving off one photon only. is 1.
Even if the wave is a pure sine w a v e .30) Here.5. there will be a corresponding uncertainty frequency. so that repeated measurements of N would not always give t h e s a m e v a l u e . which the measurement extends. suppose we chop the pure sine wave so that it only lasts a time At. In counting of a superposition of several frequencies.31) Thus. since in counting crests we may miss one or more Icrests at the ends.3$2). In addition. To put it another way. there might be slome h e a t 127 exchange between gas and thermometer. times the uncertainty in the measurement ot energy of a p h o t o n . If the wave is nlot a Ipure perhaps. When analyzed in detail. we have to count the number N of wave p o i n t i n a g i v e n t i m e Al. From Equation (5.32) becc’use of the wave nature of the light.33) AEAt ” h This result states that the product of the time Af o v e r w h i c h t h e m e a s u r e m e n t is conducted. N. it is not only valid for light but for all other classical wave disturbances. t h e n f o r a iparticular measurement we might not know whether we should include the last portion of a wave as a crest or not. is approximately h. the product: Av in our measurement of AvAt ‘u 1 This result arises purely (5. so to measure a frequency. the number of crests. t h e n t h e f r e q u e n c y w i l l b e At (5. At is the time interval mover sine wave. Consider a measurement (of frequency. I t i s Inot difficult to make an orderofmagnitude estimate of the range of uncertainty. w h e n w e c o u n t c r e s t s o v e r a f i x e d t i m e i n t e r v a l A t . various difficulties may arise. then it will consist. all physical measurements can be shown to have a similar disturbing character. AN of N. A frequency is a number of ‘cycles crests that pass a gtiven given by N “= per unit of time. so the uncertainty by AE = frequency h Au. if the uncertainty in IV is AN e 1. and repeated measurements of N will not agree. The energy of a photon of frequency v is in energy will be related to the uncertainty in Therefore. and this will be (5. . We are interested here in the uncertainties introduced into the values of frequency (energy) and wavelength (momentum) of light waves by attempts to measure their values. w e scan obtain a corresponding uncertainty relation for energy. Then the sharp variations in amplitude at the ends can be represented in terms of a superposition of waves of many different frequencies. Thus. It will be about 1. E = hu. v and X.7 Uncertainfy principle for light waves slightly and hence heat up the gas. (5. and also for other waves such as those oNrising in quantum theory.
which relates mornenturn and distance. repeated measurements may give differing values for N. lit is 1.8 MOMENTUM.33). Numbers of counts in repeated measuremen Its: 100404 100485 100486 100484 100485 100485 100485 100485 100485 100485 100485 100485 100485 100485 100485 100486 100485 100484 100484 100485 100485 100484 100485 100484 100486 100485 100484 100479 100482 100482 100483 100483 100484 100482 100483 100484 100482 100482 100484 100483 100484 100485 100485 100485 1. Imagine freezing a pure sine wave and measuring the number of wave crests. the uncertainty in N will be roughly and the corresponding uncertainty in momentum will be AN * 1.3 1 RMS deviation from the mean of the number of counts = In Table 5. The momentum will be However.3 are given the numbers of counts in repeated measurements by an electronic wave crest counter. which has counted crests of a wave put out by an audio signal generator over a time interval at = 1 . The root mean square deviation from the mean of N can be taken as a measure of the uncertainty in N.1. Ap = At or ApAx N h (5.28 set‘. Then the wave length X i s g i v e n b y X = ax/N.OO sec. one can find the uncertainty in frequency of the measurements.34) .28 in accord with the uncertainty principle. POSITION UNCERTAINTY An uncertainty relation may be obtained in a similar way. From the table. 5. again because near the endpoints it will not be clear whether we have included the last wavecrest correctly or not. Average number of cawnts = 100484. within the distance Ax on the meter stick. N. Thus the uncertainty product is AuAt . Equation (5.3 Typical Data From a Frequency Counter: Time Interval At = 1 .28 100485 100485 100484 100485 100484 100485 100484 100486 100485 100485 100486 counts.O sec.128 Quantum properties of lighf TABLE 5. Again.
9 Probability interpretation of amplitudes 129 Figure 5. lt turns this uncertainty relation can be made more precise. we could say that I x Ip 2 h/4x. Ax Ap = h/4a.. and that when they interact with matter. in terms of the measured value X = Ax/N.36) for light waves.1x >h/4r (5. i. photons are emitted and a b s o r b e d a n d h a v e Imany particlelike properties. states that a measure ment of momentum of a light wave which is carried out over a spatial interval Ax will have an uncertainty such that the product of Ax times the uncertainty in momentum is greatser than h. the Iuncertainty with c and in X is c constants. As one might guess.13. No conceivable measurement process can give rise to knowledge of physical quantities which violates these relations.5. Basic OS uncertainties arise in attempts to measure wavelength or momentum. So. Ap a minimum. We now have to reconcile . In terms of wavelength.. in general. AXAX > x’ 4ir The uncertainty relation I/I . there i s a w a v e s h a p e t h a t m a k e s t h e u n c e r t a i n t y p r o d u c t Ix o u t t h a t t h i s m i n i m u m o c c u r s w h e n t h e w a v e s h a p e i s a s i n e w a v e m~odulated by a gaussian.35) and this gives. protons and atoms. later. These results show that there are basic limitations on our ability to simultaneously measure certain properties of light waves.9 PROBABILITY INTERlPRETATllON OF AMPLITUDES E = hv a n d m o m e n t u m We have seen in detail how light waves carry energy p = h/X./4Ir. of the form CC??~‘~“~. (5. For this wave. we shall see that very similar uncertainty relotions hold for material particles such as electrons. If we take a measure of Ap and Ax the rms deviations from the mean.
we are actually dealing with photons of frequency v. the experimental results are very well explained by using wavelike properties. That is. In order to explain the form of the diffraction pattern. Doubleslit diffraction pattern for light must be interpreted in terms of probabilities. Mathematically. t h e s q u a r e 1 #(6’) 1 ’ of the amplitude #(O) is proportional to Figure 5. namely superposition of wave amplitudes. and there will be many flashes on the screen. if. so that whenever a photon strikes the screen at some point. when point the is intensity of the to incident square photon of the beam is large. of photons going into the olngle thus the square of the amplitude would be proportllonal to the number of photons going into the angle 19. according to the quantum theory of light.130 Quonfum properfies of light these results with the fact that in calculations of interference and diffraction. this is made evident by a visible flash./i(S) from each $(/I) i s of the individual point sources of Huyghen’s wavelets. However. However. Then. it is said that the energy going into the angle 0 is proportional to the absolute square. Imagine that the screen on which the photons are allowed to fall is fluorescent. w h e r e obtained given by as a linear superposition of contributions #. Sometimes. then I = nhu. Then only one flash at a time will be seen on the screen. In a diffraction calculation. The number of flashes at a given proportional the amplitude calculated classically.14. suppose the screen is replaced by a film and a long exposure is made. of the total amplitude #. at some definite position. the flash will be at one point. there are many photons. or magnitude of the square. is reduced to such a low value that only one photon at a time goes through the slit system. illustrated i n F i g u r e 5 . so that over a long . and if the flux 0 is n. sometimes at another. the intensity is where k is some proportionality constant. 1 4 . the exact position at which a given photon strikes the screen will be unpredictable. the intensity of the light arriving at the screen at the angle 0. Suppose now that the intensity of the beam.
the diffraction pattern. u.but it does tell what happens on the average to many photons. or superposition. the squared amplitude does not tell exactly where a photon will gowhich is unpredictable. so that one might think photons could not interfere with each other. ability of finding a given photon at position 0. This probability interpretation squared THE PLANCK RELATION EIEiTWEEN ENERGY AND FREQUENCY FOR LIGHT In order to explain the observed properties of blackbody radiation.. they acquire kinetic energy eV. This law is relativistically f o r m . contribute to $(0). of the amplitude Then is of To obtain the probability that a photon will be found at the angle probability amplitudes 131 1 $(0) / ’ = ( c.Summary period many. the pa.(0) j ’ is proportional to the probverified by many experiments. E = quanta. If the frequency of the light is The total energy could be nh. Therefore. it follows that p = h/X. where n is some integer. Then. G. one which a m p l i t u d e . x 10m6 im/coul. i s t h u s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a g i v e n p h o t o n will be found at the angle 8.e. 8. DUANEHUNT LAW If electrons are accelerated through a potential difference V. many photons hit the film.v..6262 x Another useful constant is: hc . 2 3 9 9 e 1Om34 joulessec. +(B) is th en calculates the sum. Thus. The presently accepted value of h is: h = 6.. S i n c e E = pc for photons where p is the momentum. The square of the referred all the to as a probability amplitude.:= 1 . 1IF/(@ 1‘. It can only lbe interpreted as a probability.i n v a r i a n t . When this experiment is performed. one still obtains the diFfraction pattern. the maximum energy that can be emitted by an electron will be eV = hu. even though only one photon at a time goes through the slit system. one at a time. postulated that light carried energy in discrete bundles called photons. i. if thsey are susddenly stopped. then the photon energy is Planck or hu. .ttern on the film is precisely that predicted classically.
PAIR PRODUCTION AND ANNIHILATION A photon of energy greater than 2moc2 can. when passing near a heavy particle. is independent of the intensity of the is proportional to the intensity nhv given1 by hu. The critical frequency v.. If two photons are produced. then the scattered photon has its wavelength changed an amount where 0 is the angle through which the photon is scattered. The maximum kinetic energy T. which lasts over a time interval.cos 0) 0 initially at rest.. no electrons can come off... be changed into an electronpositron pair. itself W h e n a p h o t o n o f i n i t i a l w a v e l e n g t h X is s. they each have energies of mOc2. the number of the light.cattered given by: A’ . T h e v a l u e o f of electrons T. of an electron is given by the Einstein photoelectric equation.x = $c (1 . At. is emitted incident light. In a measurement of of a photon. If light of frequency u is incident on the surface. = a.. where the position of the photon is known to within an there will be an uncertainty Lp in momentum given by LIP. . COMPTON EFFECT by a free electron.IX 2 h/4*. necessarily has on uncertainty given by certain by an amount Ax. . PROBABILITY INTERPRETATION OF AMPLITUDES Experiments performed with low intensity light waves indicate thot the squared amplitude of the wave may be interpreted a’s the probability that a photon will be found at a certain position. w h e r e of a photon.AuAt ) 1. Then the energy is unmome’ntum acculracy AEAt 2 h.132 Quantum properties of light PHOTOELECTRIC The work function EFFECT @ of a metal surface is defined as the minimum energy necessary to remove one electron from the surface. at which some electrons are barely able to escape. 1 max = hu + If hu < a. electrons may be ejected.. An electron and positron at rest can annihilate each other to produce two or more photons. UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE A single measurement of frequency LIIF.
Find the kinetic energy in MeV of an electron with momentum equal to c times its rest mass. Answer: (v’?F l)moc2 = 0.867 h4eV.. Take the relative velocity parallel to the velocity of the first proton.128MeV.. 0.770 MeV/c. and momentum ym.tem to find the energy and momentum in a frame moving with speed v’ relative to tble laboratory system. maximum velocity of y.vz. What would be the wavelength of the most energetic x rays produced by electrons of 50 keV kinetic energy striking a lead target? Answer: 8. and momentum. Two particles travel in the lab system with equal but opposite speeds and collide. 4. Answer: 0.0163 MeV. of the following energies: (a) 10. Compare with % m(. Answer: sponding to the shortest waIvelength emitted by a hydrogen atom. hits a proton at rest in the laboratory system. (a) in the same direction as the electron velocity in the first system. Find the wavelengths for plhotons x ray. (c) 500 MeV gamma my. 4.c2 = 0.(b) 0. The electron rest mass corresponds to 0.1243 Angstroms.c2. Find the energy in MeV of the outcoming photon.49 x 10s Angstroms. This center of momenfum Show that in thot system.669 MeV/c. If the kinetic energy of each particle is 9 times the rest energy (moc2) as observed from the lob. A proton with total energy .Problems 133 1. % mev2 = 1/4m. the momentum is zero. ymov. (c) 2. Use the transformation equations for the total energy. Find the magnitude of the momentum of the electron in MeV/c in a system moving relative to the first at c/2. (b) 1. to (a) the electron velocity in the first system. (b) perpendicular Answer: 7.249 Angstrom. . then what is the kinetic energy of one of the particles as observed from a system in which the other particle is at rest? Answer: 198moc2. where y = l/\/‘EF (y + l)m0c2.2 eV corre 2. = and thus that the total energy in the center of momentum system is fi(y 6. of the twoproton sy!. 5. What energy would an electron require in order to have the same momentum as an 8 MeV photon? Answer: 8..212MeV. (b) 100 keV (a) 1216 Angstroms.51 1 MeV.7 MeV is Compton scattered at an angle of 60” from free electrons. An electron has a klinetic + l)moc2 energy of 1 MeV in one inertial system.83 Angstroms. of the speed of light? A gamma ray of energy 5. 3. Show that if v’ = yv/(y + l). 0. light will photoelectrons ejected from zinc have a For what wavelength of inc:ident Answer: 9.ymoc2 and v is the proton speed. 1 /l’zry’2/C2 (Y+ 1) 2 r system is classically the center of mass system.
Ke and image charge would satisfy the condition that they must be perpendicular to the c o n d u c t i n g s u r f a c e . A n s w e r : 0 . Verify qualitatively that the lines of force between electron Metal surface Electron :\. Compute the electron potential energy at that distance and compare in order of magnitude with work functions given in Table 5.v. 1 5 . a n d c a l c u l a t e t h e m a x i m u m photoelectrons would have if photons of wavelength 4000 Angsiroms were incident on the surface. w h e r e v i s t h e f i n a l ele. the product of the initial frequency and electron rest mass divided by the product of the final f r e q u e n c y a n d f i n a l e l e c t r o n m a s s i s 1 .65 x lo’ A n g s t r o m s . I . Answer: 2. An xray photon is scattered by a free electron at rest through an angle of 60”. This image force should no longer be present once the electron is a distance from the surface comparable to the metal atom spacings.:tron speed and @ is the angle between the scattered electron and photon. Show that when a photon is scattered by a free electron at rest. 16. 12. inducing a positive charge inside the surface.2. C a l c u l a t e . 11.0486 Angstrom. 14. What is the incident wavelength? Answer: 0. 6 eV. The potential barrier of electrons at the surface of a metal which leads to the work function is due to electrons which get slightly outside the surface. 2 4 x 1C”secI. Answer: 7 .20 eV. as shown in the diagram. T h e t h r e s h o l d wavelerlgth energy in eV for emission of electrons from a Cs surface is 6540 A n g s t r o m s . Answer: 1 . The wavelength changes by 15%. 5 7 eV. 1 3 . Find the maximum kinetic energy in eV of electrons knocked out o f a s u r f a c e w i t h a work function of 1.5 eV b y l i g h t o f w a v e l e n g t h 6 0 0 0 A n g s t r o m s .‘c c o s @. . F i n d t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n c y o f i n c i d e n t l i g h t t h a t w i l l k n o c k e l e c t r o n s o u t o f t h e s u r f a c e o f a m e t a l w i t h a w o r k f u n c t i o n o f 3 eV. Shmsw t h a t t h e e l e c t r o n h a s a p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y o f where e2/(167rt0x) x is the distance to the metal surface.134 Quanfum properties of light 10. 9 0 eV. A n s w e r : 3 . This leads to a force which is the same as if an i m a g e c h a r g e e q u a l arld opposite to that of the electron were attracting the electron. say 1 Angstrom.the w o r k f u n c t i o n o f C s i n eV. C o m p u t e t h e w a v e l e n g t h s h i f t f o r p h o t o n s b a c k s c a t t e r e d (0 = 1 8 0 ” ) f r o m f r e e protons.
4 Angstrom. A. X.728 MeV. If the resulting two photons have equal energies find the angle between their momenta. 5 1 1 MeV.17MeV.000 eV photon collides with a free electron at rest and scatters at 90”. the distance between field maxima for the scattered photon can be T h i s c a n b e tmoken OS high CIS Ax = X/sin 8. If the resulting electron has a kinetic energy of !/4 MeV.\ A+ A h ’ where AX = X’  X. by CI photon of energy 19.001.6”. Answer: hu = 0. if it takes around lo* place. An electron traveling with speed hu and is brought to o dead hv’ of the final photons in MeV. A 150. Find AxAp. 22.Problems 17. Calculate the energy hv of the initial and == 0 . Answer: 90.. Answer: 0. Show that due to the scattering of a photon with momentum hu/c. Answer: 135 J = /IV .. is hit hieadon There is a scattered photon which goes back along the path of the incident photon. In the hydrogen atom the light given off when an electron goes from one energy state to another is not quite monochromatic. A positron of kinetic energy 1 MeV annihilates with an electron at rest. hv’ Y = (‘L )c <stop. as the error in position measurement of the obiect. that in a plane perpendicular to the lens axis.. in terms of the initial photon energy hu and the initial and final wavelengths. seconds for such a transition between energy states to take 23. I Suppose that the position of an object is to be measured by means of scattering photons from it and observing the single photons through a microscope. the Iuncertainty in momentum of the Show object is of order Ap = (hv sin /3)/c.h’ of the photon. 20. . . what is the kinetic energy of the positron? 0. Estimate the wavelength spread in light given off at close to 6563 Angstroms using the uncertainty principle. The radius of the obiective lens subtends B at the object. What is the final kinetic energy of the electron? Answer: 34 ke’r’. 21. A 2 MeV photon creates an el’ectronpositron Answer: pair. 18. Derive an expression for the kinetic energy of the recoil electron which has just been Compton scattered.
Since experimentally it is found that atoms emit light at only discrete frequencies. it might be expected that a wavelike character of particles would provide the key to an understanding of atomic spectra. associated with a particle of speed V. w h i c h w e s h a l l d e r i v e b e l o w . Just as the discrete frequencies of a stretched string are due to standing ‘waves on the string. Let us begin by examining the transformation properties of plane waves of any kind under Lorentz transformations between inertial frames. The propagation vector the wave fronts. neutrons and others can also display wavelike character under appropriate experimental conditions. 0 from its original direction is proportional to the classically calculated diffraction Another remarkable fact of nature is that particles such as electrons.6 matter waves Ilt has already been seen how in some situations electromagnetic field quanta may have particlelike attributes: They carry energy in discrete amounts IE = hu. 136 . De Broglie assumed that. ~1 = 27rv. just as a stretsched string only emits sound waves at a discrete se? of frequencies. We shall take up the fundamental study of these wavesde Broglie wavesin this chapter. When traveling through a slit system. under Lorentz transformations.1 PHASE OF A PLANE WAVE A plane wave may be conveniently described in terms of its propagation vector is X. t h e n t h e p r o p a g a t i o n v e c t o r i s d e f i n e d a s a v e c t o r o f m a g n i t u d e far a plane wave is thus normal to k and angular frequency. in the sense that the probability that a photon will be found at some angle intensity pattern. He was led to this discovery when he noted certain similarities in the properties of particles and waves. was a wave having some phase speed not equal to c. The wavelike properties of particles were postulated by Louis de Broglie in 1924. 6. This phase speed w is related to V by a silnple e q u a t i o n . a n d a r e e m i t t e d a n d a b s o r b e d b y m a t t e r a s t h o u g h t h e y w e r e p a r t i c l e s . T h a t a pha!je speed can be associated with a particle in a consistent way depends on some special features of the relativistic Lorentz transformations. however. pointing in the direction of propagation of the wave. they can still behave like waves. I f t h e w a v e l e n g t h i n t h e i n e r t i a l r e s t s y s t e m R 2r/X. so the discrete frequencies of atomic spectra could be due to standing waves within the atoms.
* = Aec!xp[. r .2f)] where A is CI c o n s t a n t a n d u = w/27r is the frequency. r (6.y + k. E q u a t i o n ( 6 .5) S o .6) then.w t ) ] .6): This could also be obtained by differentiating k. t h a t i s . the positions r which satisfy this equation move with a velocity w. r is (6.x of some point in space.(zp . i n t e r m s o f k a n d 0. x u = = 27r k Equation (6.x = k.$=w (6. If the wave amplitude has a t r i g o n o m e t r i c f o r m s u c h a s $ = A c o s (k. r . k is parallel to the x axis.the definitions: w = ux 2iTu.the x .8) . a n d t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n w o u l d b e A e x p [i(kx c o s 0 + ky siln 0 . and hence the phase velocity is just the velocity with which the wave. This wovefunction is more simply expressed in terms of the angular frequency w a n d t h e w a v e n u m b e r k = 1k /: $. k.y p l a n e a t a n a n g l e o f 0 r e l a t i v e t o t h e x axis.fronts propagate. Thus. if r is the position vecior kx = k.2) The term kx can be written in vector form. r . These points of constant phase define a wavefront. Each time the phase of the wave changes by 27r. 1 P h a s e o f a plone wave 137 For a wave propagating along the positive x like wave form has tile wcrve clxis. = 0. For example. 4 ) g i v e s the wavefunction no matter what the direction of propagation is.wt = c o n s t a n t (6. k r := k x c o s 0 + k y s i n 8. one possible sinusoidal amplitude.Wt) (6. = k sin H (6. since in this case. = &“‘” . The wavefunction in terms of k .4) S i n c e t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i s n o w wriitten in terms of ve’ctors. or wave function. t h e n t h e p h a s e i s t h e argument of the trigonometric function. wt i s c a l l e d t h e p h a s e o f t h e w a v e .cot). = k c o s I). The function k. then + k. If we fix our attention on a locus of points of constant phase. t h e p h a s e i s the coefficient of i in the exponent of the wavefunction. as the time increases. The phase speed can be written in terms of k and w b y u s i n g . := k. then the x and y components of k would be k. such crs k. the wave amplitude goes through one complete cycle of oscillation.6 . called tile phase velocity.z = k. i f t h e w a v e w e r e p r o p a g a t i n g i n .3) because k.
wt) = wit = 24x. So for every wavefront in R. the phases of the plane wave as observed in the two inertial frames are equal. Thus we arrive at the main point of the discussion so far: The change in phase of the wave is proportional to. suppose the wavefront of zero phase passes the origins 0 and 0’ in Figure 6. A plane wave observed in two inertial systems. it is easy to see that the phase of a p l a n e Figure wave is o relativistic 6. If this wavefront is observed at some later time at position P’(r’. o b s e r v i n g f o r a t i m e At = 1 2 T = 24x/w change of phase A results in a for the wavefront is parallel to the direction of propaga (k. This invariance will allow us to derive some interesting things about the transformation properties of k and W .2 INVARIANCE OF THE PHASE OF A PLANE WAVE A pure sine or cosine wave in an inertial frame R will also appear to be a pure sine or cosine wave in another frame. and hence is a measure of. t) i n R . kw = w. which coincides with P(r. If N wavecrests propagate past a given point.1. sponding physical points in all inertial frames. F o r e x ample.1 at the instant 0 and 0’ coincide. there will be a w a v e f r o n t i n G . that is. t h e n it will still have zero phase.138 Matter waves Since the velocity dr/df t i o n . r . it has the same numerical value at corre invariant. at a fixed point r. and the phase is a relativistic invariant.O~ T h e p e r i o d i s T = 27r/w. Then. this means that the phase has changed by 27rN. the number of wavecrests which pass a given point. . 6. at any point in space and time. the amplitude is observed for 12 periods of oscillation.t’) in G. by considering Figure 6. if the ‘wave amplitude is the solution of a wave equation which is relativistically invariant.1. Zeros of the amplitude in F! will appear to be zeros of the amplitude in G. Thus. We will assume this to be the case. example If. The same holds for every other plane of constant phase. what is the net change in phase of the wave? SOIU~. and silmilarly f o r t h e m a x i m a a n d minima.
Hence.6.s for wavevector and frequency If 139 t = t’ = 0 when the origins coincide. k: We get k:x’ + k. and all observers.y’ + k.w’t’ = k.10) This equation is valid for ail values of the two sets of space and time coordinates a n d t i n t e r m s o f x’.10) gives the result. such OS (6. r . t h e n . can agree on the number of wavecrests which pass by a given physical point.wt. and of k’: k: . = k. w e h a v e t h e L o r e n t z trans fi~i.~‘t’ =: k. and the phase in G is k’ .9).y kjz’ . ~3 TRANSFORMATION EQUATIONS FOR WAVEVECTOR AND FREQUENCY U s e o f t h e i n v a r i a n c e p r o p e r t y .w’f’. the equation reduces to k:z’ = k. therefore. allows formation equations for us to obtain the trans k’ and w’ in terms of k and w.y.z’ and t’. (6. if’.z .z’ (6.z.wt This equation reflects the fact that a wavefront. has physical reality. k. k.z’ . Equations (3.true for all values of thatx’ = y’ = x’.formations. For ex ample.z’  __~ ~ (6:12) T h i s l a s t e q u a t i o n m u s t n o w b e .y’ + k.ki. the phase in R is can be written as: k. they can agree on the value of the phase. We first write out the in variance equation in more detail. if we consider an observation on the z axis when the origins coincide so f’ = 0 w i t h z ’ f 0.z’ and which refer to the same physical point and which are. using components of k: k.x + k..16) and (3. So in mathematical form tile invariance of the phase k’ ’ r’ .w’t’ = k. r .y’ + t into Equation (6. we obtain k.wt (6. E q u a t i o n (6..z . r’ .9) a maximum of the wave amplitude. I f w e e x p r e s s x. k:x’ + k. connected by the L o r e n t z tramsformations.14) .18): 1 x = = Y = Y’ z = z’ (6. ( x ’ + v t ’ ) + k. s i n c e R m o v e s w i t h s p e e d v r e l a t i v e t o G .. (x’ + vi’).y’.y.1 1) ljubstitution of these values of x.3 Transformation eqoofi0n..y’.13) After cancellation of I’.y + k.
r .23) This is a very suggestive comparison.v2/c’  wvx’/c2 . and w.15) x’ un equal to zero. we have the transformation equations: 116.19) for throlJgh (6. w e c a n s h o w t h a t k. using x’ = y’ = z’ = 0 a n d t ’ # 0. they would lead back to the equations for the Doppler effect for light found in Chapter 4.vkx) Collecting the four results. y’ # 0 .w t ) i s a r e l a t i v i s t i c i n v a r i a n t ..17) Lastly. To obtain k: in terms. we can find w’ in terms of (r: a n d k. We get k:x’ = k. (6. (6. of k. the speed of light.. we were led directly to the transformation equations for k and w.transmomentum particle. which are: t’ Px I = P: = Pr P: = P.16) (6. we set y’ = z’ = 1’ = 0 with (6.20) (6. = k. . h a s t h e s a m e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e i n ail i n e r t i a l frames.TTT (6. In other words. C o m bining this with the Lorentz transformations. = k.22) and resemble energy of very a closely the relativistic .21) (6. the phase (k . These results were obtained simply by showing that the phase of any ‘Plane w a v e .18) k: = k. y’.19) (6.x’ VT. The result is w’ = +&=Y~ (w . by taking x’ = z’ = t’ = 0. If we considered these equations in the limiting case of phase speed w = w/k = c.22) k: = k. z’ and on both sides of the equation. g o i n g w i t h a n y p h a s e s p e e d . by equating coefficients of x’.1 4 0 Matter waves Similarly. Equations formation laws (6.
we will see that if particles have waves sible relations must be of the form p=hk where% is a constant. the only pos Let us first derive the relation between phase speed and particle speed. w’/c2 is analogous to g o u s t o p ’ .19)(6.t o f t h e i n v a r i a n t .p was a relativistic invari. which consists of zero re:. H e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e e n e r g y i n t h e w a v e vg = dw/dk. the group speed in terms of w is C2 vg == w (6. El/c?. with w the hypothesis of de Broglie. w2/c2 of angular frequency w and wave number particle’s mass. In associated with them. In the a b o v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ‘ e q u a t i o n s . In the same way. namely that with each particle there can be assosome phase speed w which may be different from the particle speed V. ciated a wave which travels along with the particle ‘we as can examine in detail the particle moves. we get vg dw =:=c 2k W dk Since the phase speed is w = w/k. t h e n t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n v a r i a n t w2/c De Broglie’s hypothesis was that.k’. The group speed vg variant expression in Equation result is 2w/c 2 dw (6. and k’ is analoE=%w E of the particle.24) c’(w/c’)’ .e speed of De Broglie waves 141 .27) . In the special case of light. this where C is a constant independent of the inertial frame in which w and k are measured. we could show that ceon be expressed as: (6.4 Phsa:. speed w. The differentiatling = dw/dk mass particles. associated with OI particle having speed V. i s e q u a l t o z e r o .k2 might be related to the p a r t i c l e .25) Solving for the group speed. w h i c h w a s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e can be calculated using the inwith respect to k.22). b y dk  2k = 0 (6.6.24). w a s a w o v e h a v i n g ph’ose troveled along with o group speed p’orticle speed V. I t w a s p r o v e d e o r l i e r t h a t c~(E/c~)~ ant.4 PHASE SPEED OF DE BROGUE WAVES With the transformations in Equations (6. the value . Mathematically. The transformation equations suggest that the wave vector k and angular frequency might be closely related to the momentum p and energy fact. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t w h e n a w o v e k is associated with a material .k2 is a r e l a t i v i s t i c i n  variant or that it has the same value in all inertial frames.
Indeed. particle Although speed V. in this example.2. W e k n o w t h a t w = w/k. imagine the analogy. ‘V a n d W cz in V = c2. The result is (w/k)(p/m) = E.30) w E =k P . A plane wave hitting a screen obliquely. The individual wave crests travel with the phase speed. or (6. momentum. b y a n a n a l o g o u s a r g u m e n t . i s f o r m i n v a r i a n t . a n d P = mV. Thus. This speed can approach infinity. o n e w o u l d o b t a i n . Hence. the group speed. this does not contradict special relativity.29) V = ci. To illustrate the relation between phase and group speeds.lm. s i n c e i t s d e r i v a t i o n w a s b a s e d o n a relativistic invariant. WV = c’.29) a useful relation between energy. W = c2 (6. w’V’ = c’.142 Matter waves If we identify the particle speed V with the group speed. as in Figure 6. t h e e n e r g y t r a v e l s a l o n g t h e screen only with the speed V = c sin i. in general the phase speed will be greater than c. wavel e n g t h a n d f r e q u e n c y o f a p a r t i c l e c a n b e d e r i v e d . upon a screen at an angle i from the normal. the which phase is speed is greater than the speed of light. H o w e v e r . ii i a p p r o a c h e s 0 . From Equation (6. of a plane light wave traveling with speed c incident Figure 6. By means of these three relations. if in another inertial system G the particle speed is V’. whereas the energy travels with the speed of the envelope of the waves.2. beidentical with the group speed. E = tllC2. we can eliminate w.28) “!3 or WV This relation. for particles whose velocities approach zero. the corresponding cause the phase energy speed travels must along approach with the infinity. then =“A w (6. then upon identifying the group speed dw’/dk’ in G with the particle speed V’. The point of intersection of a wavefront with the screen travels along the screen with a speed w = c/sin i. Since particle speeds must be less than c.
are conserved. to the surface. In Figwre 6. since V is used into a metal. The only force acting on the particle is one acting parallel to the surface normal are to the surface. for example.3. the components of There is no force acting pclrallel p. as the particle passes the surface. this situation could be realized tion assuming we are dealing with particles. We can obtain more informiation which the particle (wave) is ncident fractive medium for the wave. is the incident Potential v/o Figure 6. the refraction takes place befor potential energy here. Let’s first treat the situa = c2.) For electrons. This phase speed. and we have established that for a wave of phase speed w to be associated with a particle of speed V. The quantity p2 is the momentum after the particle passes into the region of constant potential energy. In terms of i a n d r .31) P2 = Pl _ sin i _ sin r (6. where A is a constant. p. at an angle r from the normal. U # 0. so the components of In other words. As far as the oarticle about p and k by considering a situation in on a piece of material which acts like a rerefraction simply corresponds to a (change in is concerned. A particle passing from one region of constant potential energy into another of different potential energy. in the directions along which no force acts.5 1. it is necessary that W V valid. this can be written mathematically as pj or sin i = pz sin r (6.5 PARTICLE INCIDENT ON I’NTERFACE The discussion above had to do with arbitrary Particle incident on inferface 143 particles (waves) traveling through wish to free space.32) . are cause the new region has a different constant potential energy U t h a n t h e p o tential energy in free space. momentum at an angle of i from the normal to the surface. Now we show that relations of the form p = hk and E = hw. (\Ne use IJ approximately by letting an electron pass for particle speed. and p2 equal. the angles of inciclence and refraction.3.6. momentum.
and A travels with speed w. f r o m A J i A wave passing from one medium into another. to 6 in time Lt. so the product across the pa/k surface. such as asderivative continuous .6 WAVE RELATION AT INTERFACE Next. the T h u s . let us treat the situation assuming we are dealing with waves. = _ sin I sin r sin i we can write (16. Angles OAB and OCB are right angles. The derivation is the same as that used in deriving Snell’s law.4. where the phase speed is Figure 6. since angle A06 w.32) and (6. remains constant. Thus. it is just Snell’s law. PIWl = PZWZ (15.4. P2 Pl sin I . as w2 = = i a n d a n g l e O B C = r.At = O B s i n r and w.36) potential. by dividing out At and 06. and side OB is common to both triangles. OA is a wavefront in free space. changes direction tly Huyghen’s principle.34) (6. w = is wk.33) If this result is applied to light waves. different. a s t h e p a r t i c l e ( w a v e ) t r a v e l s i n t o t h e r e g i o n o f nonzero product pw remains constant.._  WI and therefore. Combining the results of Equations (6.144 Matter waves 6. In terms of suming that the wave amplitude or its k and w. In Figure 6. T h i s l a t t e r s e t o f e q u a t i o n s c a n Wl sin IT _ sin i ((5. we h a v e i.35) w2 .33). Now if a linear boundary condition is assumed.Lt = OB s i n be written.
Since p/k mo. the amplitudes would get out of phase and the boundary condition could not be satisfied for all time. since pw/k does not change in crossing the surface. it will be seen later that linear boundary conditions do exist and.38) a universal constant. Thus. k. ___~ (6. Hence. 6. answer particles. this result is independxent of the frame of reference and should be relativistically invariant. therefore. 1 9 ) t h r o u g h (6.41) .6. If it tllen unchanged. the ratio p/k remains constant.37) h bar) is a coristant Broglise. Although we do not yet know all the physical laws obeyed by de Broglie waves. no matter what the speed of the particle is. otherwise.requency. independent of speed. u =: w/2~. w e c a n d e r i v e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g It was shown that in free space. a n d wz must be equal. w/k = E/p [see Equation (6. t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n E ’ a n d W’ in G must be E’ = $0’ (6.22). in terms of p. PI P2 =k.fed into a third medium.39) E = hw IIn terms of the frequency. p = %k. the frequency remains thle same. p/k would still remain un changed. If de Brogiie waves carry momentum relation between energy and f. or. E = de Broglie relation 1 the energy can be written as: 21rtiu = hu (6. with (6. the quantity p/k remains the same. CJne such experiment is discussed in the next section.40) comp’arison of If E = kw a n d p =: h k in the inertial system R. and kZ.:30)].7 DE BROGUE RELATION As the electron moves across an interface between two media. Thus. since p = hk. The theoretical discussion does not tell whether A depends on the kind of particle or is a constant independent of particle type. ThIe to this question show must that be the obtained constant by is performing independent experiments of particle on various Experiments type. k. then from the for the transformation equations for energy and momentum with the transformations k a n d w i n E q u a t i o n s ( 6 . remains unchanged.p?..7 De Broglie relation 145 the frequencies w. This is precisely the re lation assumed by de Since a general inertial frame of reference was used. we can write: __p whereh (read p/k will remain =hk L de Broglie Relation I (6. and1 thus this J? is the same as that discussed in connection with photons.
if a particle has wavelike properties so that a wave of phase speed w is associated with the particle in Free space. one may compute the wavelength X.c.1 4 6 Matter WlJYBS and the relation between p’ and k’ must be p ’ = I=.42) E2 C2  P2 = m2c2 0 (6. tion angle $ a n d t h e w a v e l e n g t h X. which strike a crystal of Ni and are diffracted back at an angle 4 into a detector. there is only one set. potential V.ip . with E = trw and p = . of the incident electrons. one may compute the electrons’ momentum. 6.. (6. These m a t t e r w a v e s w e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d i n 1 9 2 7 b y Davisson and Germer. Finally. provided the constanth has the same value in every other inertial frame.ve the relation between the diffracto the result in Equation (6.24). When these waves enter a crystal with regular lattice spacing.48). Anyone not interested in the details of this derivation should sk. h/m.8 EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION De Broglie predicted that electrons OFti behave like waves with a wavelength would X = h/p. Further. The result is From Equation (6. or k = Hence. who observed diffraction peaks in a beam of electrons scattered from a Nickel crystal. where V is the particle or group speed.43) can be used to calculate the unknown constant C in Equation (6. w e s h a l l deri. The experimental arrangement is diagramed in Figure 6. This is called Bragg diffraction. If these waves carry energy and momentum.c/% is 27r divided by the Compton wavelength. all these relations are relativistically forminvariant. instead of two different sets of transformation equations.k’ The de Broglie relations are thus relativistically forminvariant. then the invariant. we see that for electrons the constant m. then WV = c’. then the transformation laws for k and (I) a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o t h o s e f o r p a n d E. The positions of the diffraction maxima are determined by constructive interference between waves scattered from different sets of parallel planes within the crystal. and knowing c$ and the lattice spacing of Ni. if E = Iiw and P = Ak. I n t h e n e x t f e w paragl*aphs. The hot cathode F emits electrons which are accelerated through the electron gun. To summarize briefly the logical arguments leading to de Broglie’s relations. much as light does on a grating. So.38).5. Knowing the accelerating 2n/X. they should scatter and show interference.fik. one can measure the value of h for ellectrons.
6.. We will first find the Bragg equation for diffraction maxima.9 Bragg equation 147 1. and let the waveis. . . .. .7 is an enlarged picture of a portion of two atomic planes. Dsavisson and The experimental avangement in the electron diffraction experiments of Germer. outside the crystal. Figure 6. thlen inside the crystal the be X2.d electron beams near the surface of a nickel crystal in beam and the normal to some set of parallel planes. P. in general. To golvanometer Nickel crystal Figure 6. . Lines A and B a r e t w o p a r t i c l e w a v e r a y s w h i c h reflect partially at 0.‘. For . reflecte. Figure the 6. hcls The because electron wavelength different incident normally on the crystal surface and pass straight into the crystall. undergo Bragg diffraction from some set of parallel planes of atoms inside the crystal (See Figure 6. o n p l a n e P. on plane P. a n d P. ? BRAGG EQUATION X. Let 0 be the angle of incidence between the incoming . a n d at 0.6. inside.6). experiment. respectively. . . Incident and DavissonGermer .5. different The inside the are They kinetic energy electrons Let the wavelength of the particles be length crystal. .
46) = D sin 28 6. D a n d t h e a n g l e 28 (2 cos 0 sin 0 = (6. t h e p a t h d i f f e r e n c e . It is found that the dominant diffraction comes from the planes indicated in the diagram of Figure 6. sin 4 =sin 28 W? Wl XIV cz A. Beams incident on different partially reflecting parallel planes interfere due to different path lengths. From Equation (6. a s s h o w n In Figure 6.10 DIFFRACTION OF ELECTRONS The diffracted electrons come back toward the crystal surface.148 Matter waves Figure 6.44) be an integral number is n times the wavelength X.15 Angstroms for nickel. . x2 bu (6. in terms of 0.7.2. from Snell’s law.. the angle of o b s e r v a t i o n . QO.S Then the Bragg condition is 2d cos = 2d cos 0 0 = nX?.45) Therefore. n =: 1. the distance 001 of the From triangle d cos 8. in terms of sin 28). IIX.8. there will be CI w a v e length change when the electrons pass back into the freespace region. their anglse of incidence on the surface ils i = 20.. for Bragg diffraction. the two reflected rays t o a d d c o n s t r u c t i v e l y .S. Q. . where the dots indicate lines normal to the paper containing nickel atoms. must or QO.6. and their angle of refraction is 4. rays O2 tance. (6. The spacing between the crystal. d = Dsin6’ (6. Since the frequency does not change. For the two parallel planes in the diagram. The distance packing in the diagram is diffracting planes can be expressed in terms of the D between planes of densest distance D between atoms in D = 2.47) . 0.33). The path difference is then twice this dis The most intense diffraction peaks will occur due to reflections from planes rich in atoms.
it is the wavelength of the electrons. 27rIi. The lattice spacing D of nickel is known from xray diffraction analysis to be 2. plotted of different angles 48V in polar scattering.47). T h e quantity incident this A. at 44v Curves. In Figure 6.9 are the experimental results. Taking n = 1 in Equation (6. showing 60V the intensity 64V of the scattered 68V maximum occurs when V = 5 4 v o l t s a n d $J = 50”. It is seen that a diffraction 4ov Filgure beam 6.48) for the first order maximum. = D sin4 E q u a t i o n ( 6 . and 0 from equations (6. These results may be used to c a l c u l a t e t h e c o n s t a n t .9.e. 4 8 ) c a n b e usecl ‘to e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e t h e w a v e l e n g t h .8.65 x lo” meters (6. i. W h e n t h e e l e c t r o n wove e x i t s f r o m t h e c r y s t a l .1 4 9 Fllgure and the 6. will be equal to 1 in case. is the wavelength outside the crystal. The intensity is plotted for various accelerating voltages V (in volts) in polar coordinates. The angle #J is the angle of observation of the diffracted elec tron beam and n. we find for the wavelength: A. which is the order of the diffraction peak. we obtain (6.46) and (6. 54v coordinates. := 1. Its a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e i s 2 6 ’ angle of refraction is 6.49) .48) Eliminating A. nX. the angle of observation.15 Angstroms.
0466 eV. universal experimentally. i s X = % = 2 .50) lol9 coul. appears and Hence. = 9.97 6. relating Planck’s electrons. these experiments. What is the wavelength of the de Broglie wave associated with the particle? dJiiOll The momentum i s mv = 3 0 kgm/set. as Thus. A particle has III mass of 1 kg and a speed of 30 m/set. . 6 1 x 10e3” m e t e r s A wavel engt h as small as 1O34 meters could never be measured in a direct experiment because the smallest diffraction gratings available are crystals. T h e n the wavelength. Hence.6 x = eV.55 x lo“) x ( 1 . using h = 6 . 9 7 x 10~m24 k g m/set (6. So the electron’s energy was 54 eV. of an electron can be computed from the de In terms of h. Dovisson and Germer observed about 30 diffraction peaks under varying conditions of detector orientation and incident electron energy. etc.675 x length of such a thermal neutron? meters. protons.. Neutrons have a mass of 1. a n d w e f i n d : 2ah = = (3. just as for a photon. which is much smaller than the rest energy. knowing that the accelerating potential was 54 V. X = h/p. 6 3 x 1Om34 iset.53) = h Planck’s constant ___ In fact. In their original experiment. of several constants constant. m. show the same numerical value for 27rA as we obtaineol here. 2rh i Planck’s constant.150 Matter waves Next we calculate the momentum. the wt3velength Broglie relation. 6 5 x lo“) iset x 1034isec (6. (6. or p = GoeV (6. Planck’s constant. about like a softball. nature h. the result is: p = 3 .1 1 X: 1 O3’ kg.5 1) 2rli/X o r T h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f 2~h for this case is obtained from p = hk = Xp = 2xh.27 kg. instead only of one momentum constant wavelength. we can use the nonrelativistic kinetic energy change to find the momentum: p’2m0 Using e = 1. 1O. usually% is defined as an abbreviation for the symbol h/2r. exomp/e 1. to be such there in that is terms well OS others using neutrons. Slow neutrons coming out of a What is the wave nuclear reactor have kinetic energies of about T = 0.. which have a grating space of about lo” example 2.52) we Within experimental accuracy this value of 27rfi is equal to the value of 2x5 w o u l d h a v e o b t a i n e d i f w e w e r e d e a l i n g w i t h p h o t o n s w h e r e Xp = h.
The appearance of diffraction rings of similar radius is a direct demonstration of the wave nature of electrons. Figure 6. The upper half of the photograph is the pattern produced by diffraction of a monoenergetic electron beam.10. . the lower half is the pattern produced by x rays.Superposition of two photographs of diffraction patterns produced by beoms of particles passing through polycrystolline oluminum. The slight discrepancies in the radii of the rings results from the use of electrons and x rays of different wavelengths.
To illustrate the uncertainty principle for particles. and could therefore be observed. the uncertainty in momentum LIP h. X +i Figure 6. So we would expect an uncertainty principle for matter waves similar to that for light. in terms of the uncertainty of energy. a n i n e v i t a b l e u n c e r t a i n t y Sv in the measured frequency would be present. for a measure ment of momentum in a single measurement which takes place over a spatial infor a light wave is given by (15. Avat N 1. This uncertainty was such that. In a similar way. w i t h e n e r g y r e l a t e d t o f r e q u e n c y .54) These considerations were based principally on the wave nature of light and did not depend on the wave speed.152 Motfer waves so/ution The nonrelativistic expression for kinetic energy may be used.1 1. one could measure the energy of a particle by measuring u. AEat N AE. particles can undergo diffraction. Then x = + = 1. a n d momentum related to wavelength in just the same way as for light. 6. hence p = 2/2moT = 5 . . W h e n w e d i s c u s s e d l i g h t w a v e s e a r l i e r . to within an order of magnitude. 6.33A This wavelength is comparable to crystal atom spacings. Since E = hv. the product of AE a n d at must be terval ilx. a beam of particles represented by a plane wave propagating in the +x direction.11 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR PARTICLES We have seen how particles of energy E and momentum p have associated with t h e m w a v e s o f f r e q u e n c y v a n d w a v e l e n g t h X. particles have de Broglie w a v e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m . Similarly.1 1. imagine. w e s a w t h a t i n a s i n g l e measurelnent w h i c h l a s t e d o v e r a t i m e At. A beam of particles traveling in the x direction is represented by a plane wave propagating in the x direction. as in Figure 6. Hence. or one could measure p by measuring X. 0 0 x 1 O“’ isec.12 UNCERTAINTY AND SIINGLESLIT DIFFRACTION Due to their wavelike nature. for example.
in terms of 0. by definition.55) their wavelike character. as in Figure 6. Then the Apr in y momentum.12. the uncertainty Ay is then roughly. it is found that upon using a beam of many electrons. if p = lows that. For these particles. one knows nothing about the y coordinates of the particles. From the dia maximum magnitude of the momentum pr. Apv” x h sin 19 (6. does not depend on y or z. Ay =: r . Mor#t of the particles will go into the central diffraction Thus. To make a rough estirnate of the uncertainty in this momentum. There is just as likely to be a particle at y = + 1 lm as at y =: O m . h/X. the amplitude or wavefunction.6. the width of the slit. a n d /I is the position of the first diffraction minimum. the particles will be diffracted due to (6. however. let us assume that all the particles go into the central diffraction peak. Apv. all particles passing through have had their y coordinates measured to within an accuracy equal to a. a singleslit diffraction peak is observed which has the same form as that observed for light. such that a particle goes into this region. of the particle is Ay. other than in the straightforward direction. only those particles will get through whose y positions are somewhere inside the slit. Thus. so tile particles in the wave all have y components of momenta equal to zero. since the wavefunction does not depend on y. This we could do by putting a slit of width a in the path of the beam of particles. it fol and so.12. The y momentum. in order to account for the particles going peak as illustrated in Figure tj. we must assume that the particles will have acquired some indefinite amount of y momentum in passing through the slit. Then i Figure 6.12 Uncertainty and sing/es/it diffraction 153 In this plane wave. so the uncertainty in y momentum is ApY = 0.13. Ay e a On passing through the slit. is roughly equal to the uncertainty gram. Experimentally.57) . However. A slit placed in the path of the particle beom causes the particles passing through the slit to have their y positions measured to an accuracy of Ay z the slit width. So if the uncertainty in the y positilon 0. is definitely known: pY = Let us imagine making a measurement of y position.
. the relation ap. beam of particles passing t h r o u g h a s l i t g i v e s r i s e t o a s i n g l e . an uncertainty in y momentum is introduced by the measurement process.57). Analyses of other kinds of measurements always show that there are uncertainties in momentum and position connected by the above relations.s l i t d i f  But from the study of singleslit diffraction. the uncertaintier. and similarly for Apx a n d LIX.> % A.. Ap. it can be shown that there is one such relation for each coordinate of a particle. we obtain the following rough uncertainty relation: which is of the order of magnitude of Ii. In this hypothetical measurement of y position of a particle. are defined to be the root mean square deviations from the mean. a n d AZ. 2 sin ti diffrac:tion (6. etc. Ax. LIP. A fraction pattern. combining this result with Equation (6. nz . so we also have for the uncertainties. we find that Since a is the uncertainty in y position. .. it is known that the first minimum occurs at ‘Vi X = a sin 19 or a = x .58) Thus. More rigorous calculations show that the correci uncertainty relation is In general.154 Matter wa’ves Figure 6. In our discussion above we used only order of t u d e v a l u e s f o r ay a n d Lip. a = Ay.113. As in the uncertainty principle mognifor light.
15). (See Figure 6. 0 (balance) il ” / “. If the particle is not at rest. or about 5 seconds with the reasonable choice of 4 a n d m g i v e n a b o v e ( s e e Problem 6.the particle exactly a b o v e t h e p o i n t o f c o n t a c t o f t h e p o i n t w i t h t h e t a b l e t o p . as well as for light waves. both the position and momentum of the particle must be exactly determined. then Ap z h/2Ax E ti/O. 4 ENERGYTIME UNCEiRTAINTY It is also ordinarily true for particles. the icepick will fall over because of the initial velocity.. one c o n s i s t i n g o f a C are single particle of mass m concentrated at the position of the center of mass of the w i t h i t s p o i n t a d i s t a n c e ! a w a y . that AEAt ‘u ft. One way to interpret this is as follows. then the position of the particle is undetermined. according to the uncertainty principle. illustrated in Figure . gravity will make it fall over. so gravity will make the icepick . w  i 7  X Figure 6. This means that to balance an icepick. The uncertainty in momentum of the particle will become v e r y l a r g e .zh (falls) over. which contradicis the uncertainty principle. it is \x\P. so the icepick will fall fall over. The uncertainty prlnmciple implies that an icepick cannot be balanced on its point.14 Energytime uncertainty 155 13 UNCERTAINTY IN BALANCIING AN OBJECT To illustrate one effeci of the uncertainty principle. one has to place . However. If the particle is exactly at rest. so if the position of the particle is such that the particle lies exactly over the point. for both position and momentum of the center of moss would then have to be clefinitely known.14. ( R e a s o n a b l e v a l u e s f o r m alnd to balance the icepick .14.6.m = 100 g. both the position and the momentum cannot be determined precisely at the same time. Suppose a wavetrain.) Thus. a n d h e n c e t h e mc~mentum will likely be large. consider the problem of bala n c i n g a n icepick on its point. and one also has to place the particle at rest.) C:lassically. on its point! It is not too hard to c:alculate on its poinit if one it is approximately impossible to balance an icepick starts with the smallest possibl:z roughly the average time one c:an expect to keep the icepick AxAp. and 4 = 20 cm.\x 0 l I) IP. Let the icepick b e a n itdeal icepick. If the particle is n o t e x a c t l y over the point of contact.
o r i n e l e c t r o n v o l t s .15 PROBABILITY INTERPIRETATION OF WAVE FUNCTIONS wavefunc Since particles have waves associated with them. actions may sometimes be thought of mesons exist only for a time 10mz3 OS AEAt ‘v h. time. If a hydrogen atom with a diameter of about lo” considered as a wave train.006 eV. the uncertainty in their energy would be roughly 5 x lo” ioules. 3 example x 10’eV.1 5 6 Matter Wo”eS . in which the intensity of the beam is so low that only one electron should go through the slit system at a . If one performs a single slit diffraction experiment with a beam of electrons. nuclear intermesons. 6. The uncertainty in energy __ 1 ol3 is = roughly. 1 o34 ~ zz 1 ol3 1 Oe2’ joules ti In electron volts.15. then for AEAt zz ii/2. this uncertainty in energy is lo“/l. it takes about lol3 set t o p a s s b y a n o b s e r v e r .6 x lol9 = 0. 3 8 x 1O23 j/K. which is ksl’. t h e n the spread in frequencies of the wave tram is in order of magnitude about lOI set ‘. The train can be thought of as a superposition of woves of many frequencies and the spread in frequencies AU is roughly given AvAt N 1/27r. This uncertainty may be compared to the average thermal energy of an atom in a gas of hydrogen atoms at room temperature. One should be able to describe such phenomena as diffraction through a slit in terms of this wave function. Then it is impossible to associate a d e f i n i t e f r e q u e n c y w i t h t h a t w a v e t r a i n . Amplitude of 01 wove train passing on observer in time At. w i t h ka = 1 . around 293 K. one might expect a tion #to exist which could be used to describe whatever quantity it is in o particle which is wavelike. due to an exchange of 7r set. passes the position of the observer. m moves at about lo3 m/set.15. and that the wave train lasts for since it lasts only for o bite by a time At. The uncertainties are about the same to within an order of magnitude. If the then to within an order of magnitude. Since the corresponding spread in energies is SE = hAu. For example.__ AfFigure 6. 6.
.erving for a long time. II/ for particles is called a amplitude. the diffraction intensity was found experimentally to be proportional to thle probability of finding a photon in the small range of angles..p :'1611 2  I Figure 6.6.. it is folJnd experimentally that after observing many elect r o n s . For lighlt waves.the w a v e f u n c t i o n d e s c r i b i r i g t h e l i g h t w a v e a t t h e screen.~. and #2 when slit 2 only is open. Therefore. then the directions. but with the wave a m p l i t u d e . 1 G(O) ) ’ times some Thus. it is observed experimentally that if the beam intensity is high. o n e c a n s a y t h a t t h e s q u a r e d m a g n i t u d e ing a particle in the range of Ipositions . after ob. No better interpretation has ever been found for #. the total probability amplitude at P must be $ = $1 + $2 (6. and that they obey the principle of superposition. set up so that.24) . Then to explain mathematically the doubleslit diffraction pattern which is actually observed when both slits are opened.. so that there are Inany particles incident on the slits. However. Thus. the same thing happened. and $2 from two sources add at P. slit 1 only is open. the probability amplitude for finding a particle is $.15 Probability interpretafion of wove funcfions time.~. It is thus natural to assume that for a p a r t i c l e t h e r e e x i s t s a w a v e f u n c t i o n # s u c h t h a t ( 4 . Wavefunctions $. In that case. the intensity is proportional to 1rl/ / ‘. If the beam intensity iz. it is found that the probability with which they go into some range of directions dB is just proportional to the calculated diffraction intensity for waves.probabi/ity Suppose we had a Idouble tion point P a t ht range d6’ o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e d is proportional to the probability of finddo.16. electrolls as they pass through seem to go randomly in various it appears that we cannot predict exactly where any one elec 157 tron will go. if $ is . one cannot predict the position of any one particle. then the individual particles passing through go off in various directions.~:. as in Figure 6. $. then the usual doubleslit intensity pattern is seen. When both slits are open. ’ is propo&onal to the probability of finding a particle near a point. t h e p r o b a b i l i t y w i t h whi’ch just proportional to the calculated they go into some small range of directions is diffraction intensity for waves. so low that only one particle at a time can go through the slits.16 at the observa19. w h e n I I I 1 . However.. We may conclude that these waves obey Huygen’s principle..
particle in dx is proportional to I #I(X) + b(x) I “dx 6. which describes the behavior F of = dp/dt. Hence. particles which are traveling with exactly known momentum in the positive x direction. We will obtain the wave equation by analogy wittl the equations of motion of ordinary mechanics. a wavefunction density. we must find an equation waves. Also.16 EIGENFUNCTIONS OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM OPERATORS Since particles have wavelike character. This function will be called a momentum eigenfunction. so the or that probability the probSumprop d0 have which is a function of the single position variable x.1 5 8 M a t t e r waves and the probability for finding a particle in p r o p o r t i o n a l t o 1$1 + $1 / ‘do. consider a wavefunction describing a beam of :zero. respectively. F o r e x a m p l e . and interfere with itself in doing so. If there are no spatial boundary conditions such as reflecting walls. t h e equation must be consistent with the previously discussed wave properties of particles moving through free space and passing into a refractive medium. number of There give us some clues as t o w h a t f o r m t h e e q u a t i o n m u s t h a v e . (2) The probability amplitude obeys the principle of superposition: e. then the the $ probability which ability of finding a particle in the range dx will he given by 1 IJ 1 ‘dx. it must agree with Newtonian mechanics in some limit. in terms of $1 a n d #?. Let us first try to find o wavefunction # which corresponds to a beam of particles of exactly known momentum. it is possible for a particle to go through both slits of a double slit system. if $1 (x) and $2(x) are the wavefunctions when slit 1 only is open and when and the probability of finding a slit 2 only is open. these Therefore. which could rnake . In this hypothetical situation. and the corresponding value of momentum will be callecl t h e momentum eigenvalue. This is a type of behavior which is impossible to explain on the basis of simple mechanical laws of the type. in effect. the uncertainty Ax in the x positions of the particles is infinite. but in situations where ti can be considered to be negligibly small. the uncertainty in x momentum is so by the uncertainty principle. is proportional to the probability of finding a particle within the range of coordinates dx. Thus. I f w e a m p l i t u d e G(x) wavefunction marizing the can be used of to the calculate will be. the wavef u n c t i o n i s t h e s u m $1 ( x ) + $2(x). the particles are spread out all along the x axis.. This equation should be probability a wave equation of some kind. which will F = dp/dt. properties wavefunction describes wavelike erties of (3 particle.g. times the differential dx. then when both slits are open. we can say: (1) The wavefunction b)(x) is called a probability amplitude because the obso l u t e m a g n i t u d e s q u a r e d o f t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n 1#i(x) / ‘. it shoulcl on predict the same results as ordinary mechanics based criteria that the wave equation must satisfy. are a We shall now discuss this wave equation.
t) must be of the form: @(x.t) 1 2. Therefore. travelilng x direction. the particles must be distributed with so that it is of uniform interlslity. could not be of the form of a sine or t) 1 2 would be a varying function of x. using E = fiw. The expression vII = do/dk in the limit as the frequency spread approaches zero. the = f ( x . $ = Ae”(““‘) We also know that the particle speed must be equal to the group speed of this wave.65) (6. was derived $ corresponds to an exactly known group speed.Ef) (6. t) could be of a complex exponential form.(2*/h)( px .61) where. so far. Y =z: w/27r. Then. and if the particle beam is prepared then there should be a completely uniform disx axis.wf) = k x . A p h a s e f ( x . if the function group speed. p = hk.t) 11+1’= IAl =: constant. / #(x.f = hv. e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y e v e r y w h e r e a l o n g t h e x a x i s . written in terms of momentum p and energy E as follows: $ or $ = A~~(P~E~)F p = ill/X. Hence.$ = Ae’+‘(““) where A is a constant. $(x. How‘This means.k c 2 2 for a particle with energy mc’ and momentum mV.wt) (6.64) Since the connection between momentum and wavelength is that between energy land frequency is .wt = 27r(x/X . a n d t h e s q u a r e o f t h e wavefunction. we need to consider a wave of definite frequency. say: .vf) w o u l d then correspond to an exactly known group speed and hence to an exactly known momentum. If this function speed w traveling in the positive x direction. but with z e r o f r e q u e n c y s p r e a d . we h a v e dw kc2 hkc2 pc2 mVc2 ‘““=.t) cosine function. T h i s w a v e f u n c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a w a v e o f d e f i n i t e w a v e l e n g t h . which means that the x component of momentum is definitely . must t’e a constant. for a packet of known momentum. that #(x. Since kj2 is a constant. Thus. the for for a packet of sinusoidal waves grouped closely becomes exact momentum will be known exactly. independent of x. In Chapter 1 the expression vg = dw/dk. for example. about a central frequency. ever.16 Eigenfunctions some x coordinates Ipreferred tribution of particles along the of energy and momentvn~ operators 159 over others. Let us check that this group speed is correct. a n d the above wavefunction could be = Ae . This satisfies is to describe a wave with phclse phase @(x.6. because then / #(x.66) in the known.=~=~= 2 dk hw E IllC _ V . f is some arbitrary function. T h e w a v e f u n c t i o n t h e n t a k e s the form: .$ = Ael(kxYf) (6.
P. and $2 the wavefunction from source 2 when source 1 is off. VALUES will FOR MOMENTUM consist of IN A PARTICLE of perhaps BEAM many different waves usually superpositions frequencies.wavefunction of this form can have the it to represent a beam of particles of definite x momentum. To see how this may be calculated.LJ~ when both sources 1 and 2 are on superposition. a n d larly. Then the tcstal is. of the momentum.$.67) The probability of finding a particle in dx with both sources turned on would be equal to / $1 + $2 I ‘dx This interpretation must still be valid.17. each . #r = $1 + . has a definite value. Then 1 Al / 2dx would be the probability of Simiin dx finding a particle of momentum p. So let us assume the individual wavefunctions are: . with $.G2 (68. even when the sources do not produce electron beams of the same momentum. 6. 1 Source 1 r as in Figure 6. or expectation value. $2 = A2e’(P2xE2’)/h (6.qe*~:~l~E. Considerotion of the superposition of two beams of particles of different I c 1 of .160 Matter waves satisfies all the requirements for probability interpretation W e s e e t h a t t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n $ = Ae’(pxmE’)” . 1 AZ I ‘dx A2 are constants.17 EXPECTATION In practice. Also. t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n from source 1 when source 2 is off. which equals the group speed vg . which means that the particle velocity V.17. suppose there were two sources of partic:les.P. X Source 2 Figure 6. and hence many different momenta. the frequency is definite.68) w h e r e A. momenta gives rise to differential operators representing observable physical quantities. in dx when source 2 is turned off. We might be interested in the average value. = . Only a complex correct t h a t 1 $ 1 ’ is a constant representing particles whose positions are completely wnknown. by the principle wavefunction I.‘)fi. is the probability of finding a particle of momentum p2 . producing uniform beams traveling in the x direction.
6. a n d 1 A2 / ’ S t h e prtobability of finding a particle of momentum or expectation value. considerations p2)+ + ‘tE1 .70) Similarly. ( 2 is the probability of finding a particle of momentum pr i n t h e I i n t e r v a l .74) This is just the sum of the probabilities for finding particles of the two momenta in the interval.72) if we assume I to be large and oscillate so that on the average with the general here. 12 + p2 / A2 I :’ 1 A? 1 2 considered.17 Expectation values for momentum in o porficle beom 161 when source 1 is turned off. for large L. / 2L + / A2 / 2L In the above expression. E2)f I (6. S i n c e ( A . + $2 I 2dX = &/XI I$1 I 2 + I#2 I 2 + +:+2 + +GIcII) (6. then the average value. . [‘dx 1 $1 1 ’ = 1 A.) We shall assume this happens (6. I 2L Consider these inte all the x and t dependence goes out.I 0 However. ) ‘. in Appendix 2. Then. of the p2 in of the interval. S o . when calculating an. so the expectation value of momentum reduces to PI I AI 12 + (‘) independent of the imerval = 1A. dx / $2 / 2 = I integral like: A2 / ‘L (6. grals one at a time. t h e n t h e e x p o n e n t i a l w i l l (This is in agreement the x integral will be zero.75) / A.kA2exp ‘(PI + h p. as we might have expected.69) In this expression. 0 (6.73) Thus the total probability of finding a particle in the interval 0 5 x equal to o ’ 1 yj.A.71) 1 J‘ 0 dx#.rl’2 = j&. momentum this beam of electrons should be: PI 1 Al 1 ‘I + p2 1 AZ ‘L ( P ) =: (6. ‘The total probability of finding a particle in some i n t e r v a l 0 5 x < L when both sources are on would be proportional to J“l$. we have: is not equal to ~2. provided it is sufficiently large. the factors L all cancel out./ 2dx = L( 1 AI / ’ + 1 A2 / ‘) s I I is (6. In calculating ) 1c/. the asterisks mean complex conjugates. 1 . b e c a u s e 1 ei(plxEr’)‘h 1 ’ = 1.
. w h e r e pl h a s e x a c t l y t h e s a m e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e f o r a l l v a l u e s o f x a n d f. have the effect of multiplying $ by a number equal to the x component of momentum. _= . e x p [i( p. $ #.w. Since for any constant a.I$.t) = Pl$lb. x #a i . The operator (ii/i)(d/dx) is ordinarily called the p. or pXoP. $. the function is called an constant Which of the following functions are eigenfunctions of corresponding eigenvalues? (a) IF/0 = In(x/L). then we could not say that the x mo function. . t h e n w e c a n s a y t h a t t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a s t a t e o f d e f i n i t e m o m e n tum. sin kx. If “. pX.3x iik .x . = p. or momentum eigenfunction of the momentum operator. II/. . (b) $b := exp(6rr solution Only It/b is a momentum eigenfunction: so t h e e i g e n v a l u e i s pb = 67&/L. = A.c o s k x # const.. If the effect of the differential operator (h/i)(r3/ax) mentum had the value p. operator.f) (6.162 Matter waves 6. because when differentiated they do not yield a constant times the same wavefunction: A .79) T h e c o n s t a n t s h / i . times the same operator. Consider the wavefunction $. a n d w h a t a r e t h e ix/L).$.. . we have (6. example The When this operator acts on a function and gives a constant is called an eigenvalue. terentiate the exponential function to x.77) it follows that (6. which has a definite momentum p.. keeping t constant.Elt)/h] with respect 4 ~.76). a n d d/b are riot eigenfunctions. (c) ICC = on the wavefunction were to give something other than p. u s i n g t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n $.18 OPERATOR FORMALISM FOR CALCULATION OF MOMENTUM EXPECTATION VALUES Now we shall demonstrate a simple formal way to calculate expectation values w h i c h a g r e e w i t h t h e e x p r e s s i o n i n E q u a t i o n (6. .78) We may write this last equation as Let us dif$. m u l t i p l i e d b y t h e x d e r i v a t i v e o f #.
the effect is: Hence $1 + $2 is not a momentum eigenfunction.85) . because if oidally with changing x. if the momentum operator acts cm the total wavefunction. In the case of Figure 6. X +< T h e e i g e n v a l u e s p.e8(P~XEl’i/k times tiT. Thus. with superimposed beams of different momenta.b therefore. 1A. ti p2. + Aze’(P2”b’)fi (6.80) rF/T := 11.& = we have: L(P.78 Operator formalism for cch~lotion of momentum expecfation values 163 3 arCc _= 1 i ax x # const. a n d $. 1 2 + ~21 A21 ‘1 Thus.totaI PI 1 A. Thus.17. the righthand side of this equation has two terms which average to zero.. in general. do not exist. the average x component of momentum per particle for pclrticles (6.82) When we integrate over some large length I.6.26). 1’ + ~2 1A. t h e y oscillate sinusThen the remaining two terms give: ‘L J0 W:P.. ‘L J0 dx#:pxop tir ~ t dx$: $r */ 0 expectation values may be written would still hold if the .84) T h i s i s j u s t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n v a l u e o f m o m e n t u m g i v e n iln Equation (6. concisely in terms of operators. from Equation (6. The procedure w a v e f u n c t i o n $ were a superposition of many moi n t h e i n t e r v a l 0 < x I L is: m e n t a r a t h e r t h a n just two. then it does not give just a nulnber instead.76). a n d pb corresponding to #. Now. / ’ + / I I __2 A2 A2 I2 (6. + ic/2 = A. we get: (6. multiplying the above equation on the left by #: an’d integrating from 0 to 1. p.
then the expectation value of E is equal to the corresponding eigenvalue. The expectation value of energy for particles in the region 0 5 x 2 I w h e n L is large. An eigenfunction of the energy operator Ae iEt/k.L and the energy operator is ii%/&.($*$) values of a be (6.. example.. keeping x constant. An expression such as (6.164 Matter waves 6.87) particles of definite t. so can an expectation value of energy be written in terms of E. is analogous to quantity have physical s h o w n t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f q u a n t i t i e s $*f. Also.89) can be interpreted in terms of probabilities. These some is analogous to J+*$dx. if f(x) is represented by some operator f.89) Clearly.86) This equation could be written as:  iEt)/h is a wavefunction representing particles of definite known energy. jhd/at would be Just as an expectation value of momentum could be written in terms of momentum operators.) would . /P(x)dx #*fo. if P(x)dx i s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g a particle in dx. It would be: (6. should be used rather than incorrect. On differentiating partially with respect to time. we ih&$ = E# Since this is true for all x and tion.$ other combination. = ih !at A function is said to be an eigenfunction of an operator if the effect of the operator acting on the function is to give a constantthe eigenvaluemultiplying the function.. if the wavefunction is I. We could define an energy operator on the basis of the above qequa E.90) so P(x) is analogous to g*#. t h e n P(x)f(x) rules for computation (For of expectation f. if # is an eigenrtate of the energy operator.*.. then the average of some property f(x) is just (f) = hx)fWx p&c In this case.19 ENERGY OPERATOR AND EXPECTATION VALUES Energy eigenfunctions con be discussed in a similar way.. is given by: (6.. the wavefunction rlepresents energy E. The wavefunction $ = exp(ipx get: (6..
Graph of a poterltial energy curve which consists of a number of constant potentiol energy regions. given by Equations (6.85) and (6.. the expectati#on ( a v e r a g e v a l u e ) o f th’e x component of momentum may conveniently be calcu(6. we could write: P In summary.89). The wavefunction e+‘(“~“~~~‘)~ represents a beam of particles of definitely known momentum pX. That is.88).18.Similarly.e values. we can a t t e m p t t o f i n d a wave with a constant potential equation that the wave function of a particle should CI number of regions separated by parallel planes in each region. value When the wavefunction is not an eigenfunction of lated in terms of EqLlations are important.. and the function is said to be an eigenfunction of the operator. In any of these regions. in . when an 165 YCP .. . where regions I. we need consider only the dimension parallel to the particle’s motion. Then the operators allow us to compute expectation 20 SCHRijDlNGER EQUATION Now that the energy and momentum operators have been introduced.18. If a particle moves perpendicuenergy satisfy.79) and (6. .6. Calling this the x direction. for y and z components of momentum. we then have the potential energy graph shown in Figure 6.~.20 Schrodinger equation We have defined differential operators for momentum and energy. this constant is said to be the eigenvalue of the operator. for this particular beam of particles. P. and definitely known energy E. becaur. tential energy regions. II. It is also an eigenfunction of the operators pxop a n d E.terms of momentum pA and energy ET. III are the constant po Figure 6. it should be possible to have a wavefunction which is a momentum and an energy eigenfunction. zz tla acting i ay' on P a zT =“_A i a2 has the effect of multiplying operator function that function by a constant. The eigenvalues are just the physical volues of the momentum and energy. respectively.~. Suppose we consider lar to the separating planes. These mathematical expressions more interested in particles there are many times when we not having definite momentum or energy.
.95) It should therefore be p.t) exp (imoc2t/h). Let a function be written in the form I+& = #(x. for lowenergy particles.t) use #(x.c’t/Ii).J = ~~h‘x~Ef)fi ((5. Of p.f.. f$ = (f. is given by . E is the total energy in the nonrelativistic sense.. a n d E. w h e r e E is the part of the energy wavenot including rest energy.. That is.95) is: which leads to this re (6. same relationship holds in quantum mechanics if V is constant. while E must remain constant if energy relationship between pX. The nonrelc3tivistic of mass m is We shall assume that thi!.166 Matter waves In the expression for # we have now written ET for energy to imply total energy including rest energy. because then the rest energy need not be con$r gives: sidered explicitly. t h e o p e r a t o r acting on # can be interpreted as the operator corresponding to the non Now we are in a position to obtain a nonrelativistic wave equation. ..jy “II/ 2 m ax2 sat (6.ossible course.93) After cancellation of the terms in m...98) . (15. Er = moc2 + E. f$ + mOcz$)exp (w) = ( E + m0cz)$exp(T2) (6. The energy operator acting on . a lationship for the wavefunction of differential Equation equation (6. A wave function $ which is an eigenfunction of pXoP a n d Eop.)+=E$ S i n c e i?i Cl/at I& a/at relativistic total energy. kinetic energy plus potential energy.18). varies from region to region. tr2 a’* + v+ = .94) a c t i n g o n #T i s t h e o p e r a t o r f o r t o t a l e n e r g y . This is ordinarily done in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.)I a/nf = E. of the general wave equation. E and V for a particle is conserved.. Thus. Using pX. w iA. w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s pX a n d E.97) or writing out the differerltial operators in full. in each region of constant potential energy (Figure 6.c2 a n d t h e p h a s e f a c t o r the above equation can tie written as: exp(im. It is convenient to here instead of &. to find a solution of this form.
101) E a c h o n d e v e r y terln i n Equation (6. While our discussion rnakes Equation (6.. . potential energy region. In three dimensions. a continuous potential energy can be thought of as a large number of narrow constant potential energy regions.105) appear to be a reasonable . since in a certain sense.98). + pf) t v = E By the same line of argument which led to Equation (6. superposition satisfies the differential equation.102) Therefore. This is reasonable but not Irigorous. V(x). the dif ferential equation still holds. provided constant (6. the relation between energy and momentum is: & + v := & (pZ + p.2 1 SCHRiiDlNGER We shall assume EQUATIOIN FOR VARIABLE POTENTIAL that for a continuously variable potential energy.98).99) Thus. tial energy any wavefunction should describing satisfy the motion of a particle in a constant (6.6.105) This is called the Schrodinger equation.) a 1 2 e%uh = 2 2mo \I Suppose next that # were ax ok _Px _ i 2m0 1 ew/~ combination of energymomentum eigenfunctions.104) or Schrodinger equation 1 (6. such as (6.98). corresponding to different energies E. poten region differential equation. after Erwin Schrodinger who first pro posed it. (‘h1. tion arising from this would tie: the differential equa (6. Equation . for example. in the ttiis.2 7 Schrodinger equation for vorioble pofenfiol 167 Here the operator means that the function upon which this operator acts is differentiated partially twice with respect to x: ‘& 2$ f ti ax 0 2 (6..
This is p2c2 + mgc” = (ET .. . x.1107) we can use the Similarly. + !i?!?! dxdyd ay2 az2 Z If more than one particle is present.x2. ii2 a2 .. As will be seen.106) equation is Replace p: by and let all these terms operate on the wavefunction $. In the SchrGdinger equation. t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n $ is a function of x. it agrees with experiment to a high degree of accuracy. relativistic relationship between energy. .y2. f o r ‘ e x a m p l e .22 I .z.. which is a function of all the variables: $ = 45(x. formalism for calculation tof e x p e c t a t i o n v a l u e s .y. to find a relativistic wave equation for one particle. examples of this will be given in Chapter 8.z. potential energy and momentum. .s+$+fq z ( has the physical significance of the kinetic energy operator. the expectation value of the kinetic energy would be + a’rC. .1 6 8 Matter w a v e s wave equation. the operator. the relationship between the momenta und the total energy is P: 2ml and the SchrGdinger I P’. on the hydrogen atom. the equation’s correctness depends own whether or not it predicts the experimental results. w e w o u l d e x p e c t that if the wavefunction is normalized to unity..f) (6. In three dimensions. .z a n d t.y.. extending the u p a r t i c l e i n t h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t d x d y d z i s 1 ic/ 1 ‘dxdydz. a n d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g Hence. 2m2 .y. .V)’ ... + $ + ‘J = E ” obtained by the following prescription: 2 (6.
+ V@(x) = E@(x) 2m dX2 (6. for o constanfpotenfial 169 The corresponding wave equation is (6.98). it is also true when V is varying. F12 d2@((x) . In the next sections can be satisfied that the Schrbdinger equation. is the equation we obtained from considerations of conservation of energy.112) W h e n t h i s i s p u t back into the Schrtidinger equation. so that j&z.105). Although Equation (6. and the equation will be one for the spatial part of the wavefunction.110) must have a solution of the form: I$ = @(x)e‘E’F (6. called the the SchrGdinger T h e w a v e e q u a t i o n . After elimination of the rest energy. Another relativistic wave equation.98) was shown to be true in a region where V is constant. w e s h a l l s t u d y s o m e s i m p l e p r o p e r t i e s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s o f Schrijdinger’s . as already noted. The equation (6. This is called the KleinGordon equation. all time dependence will cancel out.6.114) .109) if V does not depend on t.. We shall consider particles. then we wave equation is valid.22 Solution of the Schrbidingerequation Here or includes the rest energy. w h i c h in detail only electrons. l+$=E$ af Op Here E is the total kinetic $ptotential energy. applies equation.113) This is a second order differential equation. and it applies to spinless Dirac equation. E q u a t i o n (6. which cnn be written in the form: (6.22 SOLUTION OF THE: SCHRiiDlNGER CONSTANT POTENITIAL EQUATION FOR A Let us consider a state of definite energy E. moc2. waves. d escribing the propagation of matter tc relativistic appearing in it. the equation in one dimension takes the form of Equation (6. I t d o e s n o t have spin (intrinsic angular Imomentum) has spin included. If the consequences (of this equation turn out to agree with experiment.
6 may be complex constants. the solutions may be difficult to find. for a displacement a(t). high potential energy. we expect oscillatory solutiorls i n s p a c e . because the wavefunction a(x) By analogy. is: (6. V is constant. We can then solve the Schlrtidinger equation by analogy. which.1 16) and k will be a constant. a general solution for the wavefunction Cp <l)(x) = Ae”” + Bem’kx (x) is: (6.E)/k’. E . Then we can put k2 = ___2mF . This latter form is allowed in our case.23 BOUNDARY CONDITIO’NS ‘The arbitrary constants which appear in these solutions are determined by means of boundary conditions. or decreasing Be“’ and the general the increasing ‘D(x) = exponentials: (6.1 15) In our case. with 1 k / = / pX 1 /ii. T h u s . since the potential rnay vary with x. it is still possible to find a wavefunction which satisfies the wave equation in a region of suck. in terlns of (6:l 19) tor k constant. So in general.V may not always be a constant.‘120) may be complex. SuppsDse. or @ in = the exponential + Bem’W’ form: (6:l 18) (6. however.170 Matter waves In this form. that in some range of x. T h e n hik := FK. b arbitrary constants. w h e n E > V.1 17) Ae““’ where A. however. it is very similar to the differential equation for simple harmonic motion. W h a t h a p p e n s when E < V? Although this case would appear to violate our intuitive feeling that kinetic energy should be positive. The quantity !solutions k = \/2m(E .V) ti2 (6. for the general solution of Equation (6. This is simply a superposition of momentum eigenfunctions discussed previously.V)/b2 d e f i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s f r a m e b e c o m e s lpure imaginary: are k = of in = i\/%(V form of . then. 6.121) AeXx + where the arbitrary constants are A and 6. which are special conditions placed on the wavefunction .1 15) can be written in either the form: + = a s i n wt + b coswt with a.
124) A. let us consider the behavior of # in a transition region where V is changing very rapidly from some value VI to some other value Vz. C.6. Suppose. by IWO boundary conditions whic:h The wavefunction is give us two relations. T h e n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y .127) . B. as in Figure 6.126) or (6. In x=0 Figure 6.122) in the range of x > x0 m u s t b e z e r o . X 0..23 Boundary conditions 171 due to the particular physical situation in which the particles find themselves. superposition of momentum eigenfunctions. a region I. In region II. the wavefunction will be of the form: q>. that the system is set up so that it is impossible for a particle to be found in the range of positions x > x0.123) The value of the wavefunction at x = 0 in region II is related to the value of the wavefunction at x = 0.19. Suppose. between the constants conditions are: across the boundary: (6. V(x) = const. where V = corresponding wavenumber is k 2. in region I. Potential energy curve for V(x) = VI = const. for simp l i c i t y t h a t t h e bounclary of tlhese regions is at x V := 0. V = VI. = Ae”‘” + Be“‘“. The two bolJndory (1) continuous or @I Lo = @II lxco (2) The derivative of the wavefunction is continuous across the (6.125) boundary: (6. a n d s o w e Next.wavefunc:tion will be of the form cb. for example. ( $ ) ’ = 1 @ / ‘. D. = ce”z^ + DeW Vz a n d t h e (6. t h e . just on the other side of the boundary. x 0.19. of finding a particle would conclude that: @ = 0 for x > x0 (6.
However. Since the one dimensional SchrGdinger equation is of second order in the deare specified at one point. This is analogous to continLlity slopes of the wavefuncti. Also. az#/ax2 so large as to be undefined at the point. a unique solution can be found by integration. &&lax. Schr6dinger’s e q u a t i o n t e l l s u s t h a t d2$/axz does not become large at the point. rivative with respect to x. In fact. Thus. tied together and sustaining wave motion while under tension. there would be an unbalanced component of tension acting on the knot and producing an infinite acceleration. it is easy to see that the slopes of the two strings on each side of the knot would have to be equal (if the knot is massless). for particles which are restricted to a limited region by some binding force. as in Figure 6. if the wave equation is to be satisfied. go to infinity. The sudden increase Figure in the slope. I . the phase k . A number of examples of these ideas will be studied in the next chapter. A useful analogy might be to consider two strings of different mass per unit length. This would be the same as having a slope which is arbitrarily large at the boundary. $i must Id’ would give infinite particle densities. a given physical situation can be represented uniquely by a wavefunction. It is obvious that the displacements of the strings on opposite sides of the knot would be the same. if the potential energy and $ do not become large at the point. if the values of 1c/ and &#/(8x Sothen of and there are no discontinuities. It follows that the propagation . would have to be very woLlld be w o u l d i n t u r n m e a n t h a t a’$/dx’ large. or A n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n o n t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i s t h a t . 1c/ and &J/ax must be continuous.of i s a r e l a t i v i s t i c i n v a r i a n t . suppose $ changed nearly discontinuously across the boundary.172 Maffer To waves understand the reosons for these two conditions.‘*‘). a s x.20. Cbtherwise. Likewise. This is analogous to continuity of the wavefunction representing “displacement” of a matter wave. 6.y.3n. if the slope were discontinuous at the point. else lead to infinite total probability.z not approach infinity. otherwise. PROPERTIES OF PLANE WAVES A p l a n e w a v e m a y b e r e p r e s e n t e d b y a w a v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e f o r m eick.20. the wavefunction approaches zero at infinity.
h is Planck’s constant. Here. Similarly. a n d h e n c e t h a t the equation WV = cZ is invorioint.fy the following transformation equations between inertial systems: k. the Llncertainties satisfy the inequality. DE BROGUE RELATIONS The momentum. in a measurement of energy which lasts for #a time At. identical to the particle velocity. V i t . DAVISSONGERMER EXPERIMENT In the DavissonGermer of diffraction experiment. a n d V =: dw/dk is the group speed of the particle with which the wave is associated. and the position of the peaks showed that the wavelength was consistent with X = h/p. = k. and wavelength of a particle (de Broglie waves) are related by p=+1 x and energy and frequency are related by E = li)iw = hv w h e r e h = h/2x.vkx) k: = k.Summary vector 173 k and frequency w satir. w is the phase speed of the matter wave w = w / k .k2/c2 is o r e l a t i v i s t i c i n v a r i a n t . showed electrons that a were scattered was off nickel. with The the existence peaks wavelength associated electron. propagation vector. These equations imply that wi . where h IIS Plan&s constant. UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE FOR PARTICLES In any experiment in which both the x component of position and momentum are measured simultaneously. and Ax are rms deviations from the mean. AEAt = h . Ax in position and ApX in momentum w h e r e Sp. w ’ := +!i! (0 .
respectively. or Ional to the probability of finding the particle in the range dx.. for particles from source 1 alone. w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s pX and E. and #2 is that for source 2 alone. the function is said to be an eigenfunction of that operator and the constant is called the eigenralue. is obtained from the conservation Iof .ax i The energy operator is: When an operator acts cln a function to give a constant multiplied by that same The function $/ = Ae ‘(p~X~E’)F energy. In one dimension. is the probability amplitude. For any state of indefinite of the momentum may conveniently be calculated in terms of operators as SCHRijDlNGER EQUATION After eliminating the rest e n e r g y . describing a particle having a potential energy energy equation: y. V(x. the average value is an eigenfunction or expectation value function. I#I’dxisp ro p t’ If 1F/. by superposition of the individual contributions. or wavefunction.a Pxop = . and is lcil + $2. z). of both pX indefinite zomentum follows: or and E. The total probability of finding a particle in dx is then proportional ENERGY AND MOMEINTUM The momentum pX OPERATORS of a particle can be represented by the differential operator: h . y. t). the total w a v e f u n c t i o n i s obtainecl to 1 $1 + $2 1 2dx. z. t h e n o n r e l a t i v i s t i c : w a v e e q u a t i o n s a t i s f i e d b y t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n $(x... then when both sources are on.174 Matter wakes PROBABILITY INTERPRETATION OF WAVEFUNCTION Associated with a material particle is a wavefunction #.
the wave equation is: 175 . Usew = 27rv = kc. for example. a n d p h a s e s p e e d . Answer: 30’. If the group speed.. Show that in another frame.f the wavefunction rzf JIEO = 5 Ixzo (3) The wavefunction remains finite or goes to zero as the coordinates go to infinity. % my2 = p2/2m. assume that in orle frame.GJ~ . moving at velocity v along the x axis relative to the first frame. 2. Use Equation (6. rjkrd) = . 1. were incorrectly used for Er W h a t would be the relationship between the momentum p and the group speed? Find the relationship between the group speed and phase speed.1 1 x 10 14 ioules at an angle of incidence of 60 Find its angle of refraction..4. $=e 3.22) to derive the general Doppler effect. the nonrelativistic kinetic: energy.YCOS e/c __. w h e r e c 1s a constant.Eyf/ff . w. . \Y = w / k .” b /. the positive the frequency observed is y8 = 1 . Answer: p=mvg. light of frequency o is propagating at angle H relative tc. vg = dw/dk. Answer: w2 = c”k’ + constant. It hits the plane boundary of a region where its potential energy is . w== %v. find the most general relationship between (L’ and k. 4.91 x 10 n30kg) m o v e s a t a s p e e d o f 2 x 1 O’m/sec i n a region where the potential energy is zero.?++v$ ift 2m ( i dx ) BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (1) The wavefuncticln is continuous across a boundary at. s uppose that in the Iree parlicle wave function.&= LT!?.Problems by replacing all the quantities by their corresponding operators and allowing them to operate on the wavefunction. An electron (mass == . In one dimension.v2/c2 1 x axis. x = 0: $1 lxx0 = $2 is IrEO continuous across the boundary: (2) The derivative o. a r e r e l a t e d b y 2 vgw = c’.
F i n d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n v a l u e o f t h e K c o m  p o n e n t o f momentu. Hence. which is a i s s e t o n i t s p o i n t a n d a n atttzmpt is d i s t a n c e r = 2 5 c m f r o m t h e p o i n t o f t h e icepick. What are the phase speed and wavelength of a proton moving at a particle speed. w h i c h i s t h e apprclximate Answer: 14. consistent with the uncertainty principle. 4 7 7 6.m. = 0). A p a r t i c l e o f m a s s m Imoves a l o n g a v e r t i c a l w i r e i n t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d o f t h t ? e a r t h a b o v e a r i g i d imperletrable height is always greclter floor. Do you think this energy is observable? Answer: 15. Answer: 11.96 x lo‘m. If sin 0 . that the planes are parallel to the s u r f a c e . IxAp.000 volts in an electron microscope. 3. 8. find tions from the mean. What is the minimum possible kinetic energy. ( b ) 4 . estimate the lowest possible energy of the particle. the particle’s than zero and its potential energy is mgx. W h a t i s t h e k i n e t i c ewrgy of 30” relative to a crystal apart? Assume this is the fourth order reflection. An ideal ‘1/L.’ . 10. 1s a p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y . This is impossible.83 MeV. 1 .: x 10m’5m. U s i n g t h e u n c e r  tainty principle. What is the electron wavelength? Answer: 1 .3 x 1om7. What should the A n e l e c t r o n g u n ’ i n a T V t u b e h a s a n o p e n i n g o f d i a m e t e r a. W h a t i s t h e r a t i o b e t w e e n t h e w a v e l e n g t h s o f 1 O9 eV e l e c t r o n s a n d 10’ eV p h o t o n s ? Answer: For If 1 + 1. . ( a ) 1 0 0 m/set ( b ) 2 >. 1 O8 m/set? A n s w e r : ( a ) 9 x 10’4m/sec.m”3(gA)2’3. because to balance it. f i n d 1 4 a. What is t h e s m a l l e s t d i s t a n c e Ibetween o b j e c t s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e o b s e r v e d ? Answer: 5 x 10“cm. i n e l e c t r o n v o l t s o f e l e c t r o n s i n a b e a m i n c i d e n t a t ar a n g l e surface. Answer: 201 eV. of course. 5 :< lO”m/sec. fi I 5 = 0. / 14 and the distance to the screen is 1 = 1 meter. l$12. a n d t h a t n o w a v e l e n g t h c h a n g e i s s u f f e r e d u p o n p a s s a g e i n t o t h e crystsal. of a proton confined size of a nucleus? t o a region of size 5 x loI5 m e t e r s ..5986 > X/2. a r e rms d e v i a  Answer: 12. Answer: 13. An electron is accelerated through 50. 1 x 1C9cm. E l e c t r o n s c o m e o u t w i t h a s p e e d Y o f 1 0 0 m/set. For the wavefunction of Problem 10. reflected coherently from planes 2 angstroms 7. t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n o f a p a r t i c l e i s $ = a ( X.& < x I &. a ” z mv = 0.11 cm. 9. icepick of mass m = 100 g concentrated at its center of mass. the center of mass must be both directly over the point (L\X = 0) and at rest (Ap. which is at height x = 0. w h e r e Lx and Ap. diameter a be in order to minimize the size of the spot on the screen if there is no focussing? Take into account that uncertainties in the position of electrons at the screen arise both from uncertainties in the initial position of the electrons within the g u n a n d f r o m diffradion.176 Matter waves 5.~~)e’~‘‘~‘. made to balance it. A b o u t 0. Electrons hitting a metal target produce x rays with a minimum wavelength of 1 angstrom.
W h a t i s 2  the physical meaning of this stcrte? e ty. s h o w t h a t t h e Vewtoni~an equation of rotational motion is d2H = dt2 yH i.6 sec. The wavefunction of w h e r e e2/4rt0 i s o c o n s t a n t .aceX)’ 2(ml m2)’ . + m2 (4.__ e 4 + y2j2 h2k2 + + lL. t h e t i m e f o r t h e be:st b a l a n c e y o u c a n e x p e c t . rn2 a n d p o s i t i o n v e c t o r s 2 17.e \/e”‘. Answer: % mu 2 crs a func x . cr t w o p a r t i c l e s y s t e m w i t h m a s s e s ml.z w h e r e w is an angular frequency. and find the total energy for this state. +ik.. 16. ~~ z2)  2 m. 1 mlm2 . A p a r t i c l e o f mcrss m has a wavefunction. Use the uncertainty principle to estimate the maximum time. F i n d t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y ancl t h e t o t a l e n e r g y . during which the center of mass of the icepitk moves t h e d i s t a n c e ‘/2 r s i d e w a y s i n f a l l i n g .. on the average.x . the t negative exponential can be neglected. e .Problems 177 2 0. Find the potential energy of this particle tion of x.y+ik. w i t h Jx and Ip t h e i n i t i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d m o m e n t u m .lpjm v r/g)emvg” .% (1~ + Lp/m\ r/g) w i t h t h e s o l u t i o n r6’ = % (1. A n s w e r : t . F o r x t/y/. i .
as was also discussed in Chapter 6.1) and that a typical solution is a wavefunction of the form 1c.3) . 1 F R E E . exp !(P . moving with definite particle velocity. The solution In Equation (7.P [jk%’ . dimension. we can build up interesting solutions of the freeparticle Schrodinger equation. where E = E(p) = p2/2m = Ae’(WE’)” (7.P A R T I C L E GAU!iSIAN W A V E PAC:KET In Chapter 6 we saw that the nonrelativistic timedependent Schrodinger equation for free particles moving in one dimension is: h2 a’$ _ =: .xamples will be done only in one 7 .fi !P! 2 m 8x2 at (7. v = and an energy eigenfuriction. and with definite energy E = E(p).:f/2m)] (7. this solution might correspond to a beam of particles uniformly distributed along the x axis. In the process of studying these examples.'1"'] 178 + A2 ex. By superposition of such eigenfunctions corresponding to different values of momentum (and energy).p/m. For example.2) is the nonrelativistic kinetic energy.7 examples of the use of SchrOdinger’s equation In this chapter several examples will be presented to illustrate the use of the Schrodinger equation and the application all the of boundary conditions. For simplicity. Physically. the physical meaning of the wavefunction should become clearer. the wavefunction .2) is thus both a momentum eigenfunction 1F/ = A. e.
2).5) where A(p) is any function of p.5). The solution in Equation (7.. given by a gaussian. x i n p o s i t i o n .e.1 freeparticle Gaussian wave packet w i t h p. exp [ where the numbers A. we will consider a more general super position of freeparticle momentum eigenfunctions of many different momenta. if t o b e p o s s i b l e t o h a v e IIX s8maII. with sclme small uncertainty L. We which now wish to discuss the quantummechanical to our intuitive notion description o’f a of a free as particle. well corresponds more closely particle being 179 localized in space. so that the total probability is unity.4) term in Equation (7. t) a normalized one.ip2t/2m) = . The constants in front of the exponential in Equation (7. with A(p) chosen to give a distribution of If the momenta (appearing in the integral momenta about some central value.f) i(px . b u t i t i s n o l o n g e r a momentum or energy eigenfunction. Furthermore. Since .6) is particularly interesting for several reasons and is not too difficult to handle mathematically. as follows. Now to obtain a function which is localized in space. % h.hx y?!z!Y each 1 (7. we would expect it We shall choose a distribution of momenta A(p:l = L2*v'Gh2 While this is only one of an infinite number of choices. i s l i k e w i s e a s o l u t i o n t o E q u a t i o n (7.4) to an integration: Il/(x. i. all x c#Dordinotes are equally probable.2) is certainly not well localized. we shall study the wave packet: 1 (7. w e w o u l d expect the particle to m o v e witlh a n a v e r a g e m o m e n t u m pO = mv. we shall consider the superposition in Equation (7.. m u s t h a v e a large uncertainty in momentum according to the uncertainty principle. Thus. To obtain a localized wave packet. are arly constant coefficients.7.6) make the function It/(x.4) satisfies the SchrGdinger the sum satisfies it.“= dpA(p) exp ~~ Tl / [ I (7. pO. which is a linear differential equation. This superposition has the form: +(x.. LIXLIP.: Ap is large. We can also consider the superposition of wavefunctions with a continuous distribution of momenta by passing from the summation in Equation (7. A wavefunction describing ) a localized particle.7) . if there is a large spread in momenta. in Equation (7.5) are distributed symmetrically about the value p. e q u a t i o n .. because there is no information at all in this wavefunction about the x coordinate of the particle. # ~2. the choice in Equation (7. t) = c A.
near the origin at x = 0. To calculate A: at this time.2 Use of Schrodinger’s equation PACKET AT t = 0 description of the particle at time t = 0: Consider first the resultin’ The integral may be performed with the help of Table 7.9). . The probability density is I I) I 2 = J& (?XP (7..11) from Table 7. Thus at t = 0. Thus. at this time the wovefunction is localized in space.) (7. (5 + Some Integrals Involving Complex Exponentials .PO: Clearly. (x) = 0.by)dy = &aexp[($r].x/Fr).1. corresponds to the fact that the particle has an overall momentum po.1 irex. we need = initially localized. dxx2mX t/ffa \ ff2 1 ( 2 )I ‘12 = (r d5 (7. which multiplies the gaussian in Equation (7.p ($) y’dy = i a36 l:yexp ($)dy = Q The oscillating factor exp (ip. cz is a measure of the distance within which the particle is TABLE 7.10) which is a normalized gaussian distribution ‘centered a t x = 0. after changing elP”” to e’pox’he’(p~po)x’h and introducing a new integration variable by the substitution Y = P ..180 7. Realpartofa’ > 0 ~J.1.
= {j. is: The rms deviation from the mean momentum.}“2 Note that at t = 0 the uncertainty product is the minirnum allowed by the uncertainty principle. This may be done in a straightforward way. s i n c e t h e r e a r e n o f o r c e s t o m o d i f y t h e momentum distributiorl.1. or uncertainty in = momentum.3 P A C K E T F O R t > 0 Next.7.. 4~ = & (7. &. a t t = 0. We would expect that the average momentum and uncertainty in moment u m w o u l d n o t c h a n g e w i t h itime.3 P o c k e t f o r t because. although the algebra is a little messy. + $1 dx p.15) (7. we shall calculate the expectation values and uncertainties at any later time t. ApA. calculating the expectation value of momentum. w e h a v e .14) wave packet is actually a minimum uncertainty packet.. we need the wavefunction J/(x. at first the gausslan (7.16) .?Xp (. f) at an arbitrary time and hence must perform . [: e x p ( . (x) = 0. using the integrals in Table 7.5 x + PO) dx = p0 ( P ) = j5 $* +.the p integral in Equation (7. packet is of particular interest. v0 pa/m. $ d x = 2.7) at an arbitrary time.g! i lJ2 xx (7.) 1y + 2. To calculate x and Ax.12) T h u s t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p a r t i c l e w i t h a v e r a g e v e l o c i t y . The integral may be writtell as: . we have: > 0 181 “) ( .x =: Thus. This could be verified by detailed calculation using the I$ in Equation (7.18) below. Ax = L45 (P) := po. this is one of the reasons the gaussian Summarizing our results so far.F + p.
f v e r y high momenta. We could expect that at sufficiently large times. because at large times. the spread of the packet would be on the order of principle is satisfied at all times. If the particle is v e r y s h a r p l y l o c a l i z e d ill space initially./m.20) it is seen that the wave packet will spread very rapidly.20) This Ax is least at t = 0 and increases thereafter. (large a).Pit) 2m 1 (7.182 Use of SchrGdingeri equahon PO) . which must be present in order that Ap be large.12). This is due to the complementary presence 0.pot/m)2 e x p ~[ (a4 + A2t2/m2) a b o u t t h e p o i n t x = .20) . corresponding to an This agrees with the result (p) of Equation t/m.20) is of this order of magnitude for large since ApAx = f h  t./2am... then from Equation (7.18) This wave function leads to a probability density of u +*+ = / $1 2 = ~ VGVF+ ti2t2/m2 This distribution is centered . w i t h i n t h e m o m e n t u m distribution.12) (7. The rms deviation of x from its mean is: = 4~~ + h2t2/m202 VT  117. is.a’(:~ . p0 of x..1 then gives us: u + zm) exp 1 2 ( x .tit/ma. of course. Ax . pa/m.t. the wave packet spreads slowly. also the expectation value 1 (7. that is if u is very small. This is because of the possible presence of momenta greatly different from p. and The uncertainty Equations (7. Ap > %/2Ax.pot/m)s2 + i (Pox ff2 + iht/m h . The distribution c:enter. and thus the possibility of the particle being farther and farther from (x) as time progresses. The uncertainty Ax from in Equation (7. Avt = Apt/m = ht. (7. If the particle is not very well localized initially.17) The first integral in Table 7.p. resulting in the possibility that the particle may be moving with velocities greater or less than the average./m.19) average particle speed of p. i Pot’ mfti 4 (7.
7. In region I the potential energy is zero. such as a stone of 100 gm mass.2. if in an experiment the electron is initially localized distance Ax of 0. For a macroscopic object.t/m 0 Figure 7.. the packet will spread only about 40% in width. and in region II it is the constant V. 16 w h e n 183 Iv = Ap. o r unimcoming nonlocalized.. Also. The spreading and motion of wave packet is illustrated in Figure 7.1. corresponds particle experiencing very large over a very small distance wflen goirg from region I to region II. w’s do not have to worry about the electrons’ beset.1. from Equamultiplied iiif/m = u2. in that time.. a This is called force a step potential. t h i s t i m e i s o f t h e o r d e r o f 10m4 sec. The wave packet Ispreads in space as time progresses. t h e electron will have gone lo2 meters. with a speed of lo6 m/‘sec. Now. Graph of probability density in a Gaussian wave packet. Let us put some numbers in. for most macroscopic experiments. or about 300 feet. then the spread in velocities. high energy E z V.20) the spread in the distribution will be to within a %/(2Axm). it is moving with a speed of around TO6 m/set. During this displacement. tion (7. STEP POTENTIAL. This indiecates why quantum mechanics is ordinarily portant for the descriotion of Imacroscopic a gaussian bodies. such as it might pick up in a low volttage vacuum tube. If it has a few electron volts kinetic energy.4 Sfep potenfial. HIGH ENEIRGY E > Vo The first example involving the matching of boundary conditions will involve the one dimensional and potential to energy the shown in Figure 7..01 cm. Pf / A .‘m = by is on the order of 1 m/set. . vlery small compared to the speed. to see how long we can expect a particle to remain reasonably well localised. Thus. 0 1 c m . While this rnay not seem a long time. Suppose we consider an electron with mass of a b o u t 10m3’ kg.. S i n c e (T i s o f t h e o r d e r o f 0 . the time required for Ax to increase by a factor of ~/‘2 is around 1O25 about 10” years.i Packet at t>O Packet at t=O  x ‘1 L k? X x=p.
the equation is: The equation can be rearranged by multiplying throlugh by 2m/h2: (7. with k = +[2mE/tiZ]“2 (7.28) h2 #a.26) In this form. for a particle of mass m.29) = Ae”” + Be‘k” (7. .Q)..184 Use of Schrb’dinger’s equatron Figure 7. t ) = @(x)em’E’fi (7.. j.25) or.22) then the one dimensional differential equation for the spatial part of the wavefunction @P(x). since V = 0. the differential equation is: (7. 2 m iix’ . + w’x = 0. @. where A and 6 are constants. Step potential such that V = 0. V = V..2. is: In region I. + V. = E@.x < 0. In region II. it resembles the harmonic oscillator eqblation of classical mechanics. x 0 If the nonrelativistic wavefunction is of the form +b(x. and has solutions which are oscillating in space.
. we must h a v e D G 0 in Equation (7. while DeIO* corresponds to particles incident on the barrielr from the right.the momentum operator is pX = ihil/ilx.36) are usmed to find 6 in terms of A. = Celar (7. In Equation the term Ce’“” corresponds to a beam of particles traveling to the right. If the experiment is set up so that a source of particles is far tc’ the left. the solutions are of a form similar to those in Equation (7. a. B.31). Thus.e.30) Since we are assuming E :.31) are determined by the imposition of physical boundary conditions. .28) and (7.37) .5 BEAM OF INCIDENT PARTICLES The constants A. The inc:ident beam corresponds to a nonzero in Equation (7. i. would correspond to a beam of particles in region I traveling to the left. and W i t h t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n .31). Qb. =T Ce’“” +De‘“” we have: (7..5 Beam of incident parficles or (7. we shall consider w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n a b e a r n o f p a r t i c l e s o f e n e r g y E is incident on the step potential from the left.36).V. such as could occur if the step could cause particles to be reflected..35) and (7. (7.35) If the two equations. for this particular problem.7.31).32) N o w l e t u s a p p l y b o u n d a r y . and D in Equations (7./FI’]“~. Equations (7.x = 0. The term Be“” (7. due to particles transmitted through the potential barrier. since. V. then we have to allow for a transmitted beam in region II. putting N = +[2m(E . thle first of these conditions gives us: A+B=C The second condition leads to: ikA . C. As an example. where C and D are constants. Ae”” corresponds to a beam of positive x momentum.18). Hence. pX = volue of A the term hk.: a t x = 0 t o f i n d B and C in terms of A.:onditions We must satisfy the condition!.ik6 = icvC (7. but there is no source for particles incident on the step from the right. the result is: B ~= ’ 1 + @lk)A (a/k) (7.31) 185 7..
in Equation 7. Similarly. i. and the term. s o t h a t A2 i s e x a c t l y t h e n u m b e r o f inccmming particles per unit length. assume that A is real. hk/m is the particle speed. R = PB'/m) ( 1 . Then hk A2 = !%B2 + %C2 m m m This equation has a very simple physical interpretation. Thus. per unit time. the solution for C gives us: (7. 1# / ’ i s p ro p r t’ o ional t o t h e p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y o f = Ae”” + Be““.42) Likewise. = A 2 O* (a/k)e 1 + Thus. We shall. number of particles of Imomentum /3 and C must a l s o b e r e a l . I n g e n e r a l . the transmission coefficient T is defined as the fraction of inc:ident particles which are transmitted. This is equal to the Inumber a r r i v i n g a t x = 0 per unit time. Thus. particles. of incoming particles i’ikA’/m. the total number of particles is conserved.36) are multiplied together and the resulting equation is multiplied by ft/im.38). or the ratio of the number of particles goming back into region I to the number of incident particles at x = 0. or the ratio of the number of particles going into . A’ is proportional to the Iik per unit length along the x axis. the overall meaning of Equation (7. ard thus from Equations (7.41) is that the number of particles reaching x = 0 per unit time equals the total number leaving that point per unit time. from Equation (7. Since%k is the mornentum.. One can define a reflection coefficient R to be the fraction of incident particles reflected. Likewise.35) and (7. for convenience. tlkB’/ m is the number of particles per unit time reflected back into region I by the step at x := 0. Then.38) Then the wavefunctions are: (7.6 TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTION COEFFICIENTS An interesting relationship is obtained if Equations (7.39) Q). 7.40 is the speed times the number of in coming particles per unit length. incoming particles in region I moving in the positive x direction are partially reflected and partially transmitted into region II. Let us a s s u m e t h a t A i s normalized. the number of particles transmitted through the step iiaC2/m is x = 0 into region II.186 Use of Schriidinger’s equation Likewise.e.37) and (7.37). in the function @.a/k)' = ~~ ( 1 + a/k)’ (likA’/m) (7.
. As the energy E becomes very large compared to the potential height V .43) W e s e e t h a t T I R = 1. the solutions must involve real exponentials...%. T that would equal to unity for all energi(zs# wave properties c’f classically.that quantum mechanics gives the same result. so the transunity.46) Then.7 Energy less than region II to the number of incident particles: the sfep height 187 h/k ___. 1 (@/ik) C = ?A 1 . cause reflections occur 7. When ticles Thus.43) shows that this is indeed the case. Since a/k approaches one in this limit. a n d t h e r e woul’d be no particles reflected.ss important. we still have for the !solution a.7. obeyed the Newtonian mechanics rather particles than qu’anium the transmission coefficient is zero and all the particles are reflected. w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h e p#DtentiaI mission coefficient should approach to be less and le. this is another form of the conservation of particles equation..(. Newtonian mechanics would say that all the particles are reflected. Ae”” + Be“’ (7..44) E <: V. A s x mr 5.45) D # 0. = However. since there the kinetic energy would have to be negative. leading to imaginary speeds.7 ENERGY LESS THAN THE STEP HEIGHT S u p p o s e t h a t E < V0 f o r t h e s a m e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y f u n c t i o n . in region II.48) . Then. This is not reasonable. in classical mechanics. a. w i t h a s t e p height V. since E < V. no particles could go into region II where V = V. o( = 0 . I f t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o w a p p l i e d a t x = 0 . etilX m+ + x. in terms of A.B ) = PC (7. the solutions for the coefficients are: 6 = 1 . E = V.3/ik) (7.t . H e n c e . where p = ~%~\l~>).47) (7.. If in region I. . the equations relating A. (p/ik) A.. Hence. E _‘> the VO. T h e n would not be Equation (7. B and C are: A+B=C and ik(A ... We shall see . The remaining solution in region II is the same as the solution for E >s V.( 1 + a/k)’ (7. b u t w i t h tl r e p l a c e d b y ifi. If the parmechanics. so D must be zero. = CemU” + D e ” ” if (7. there would be an infinitely large probability of finding particles infinitely far inside the classically forbidden region..
I.m (7 49) R = @JB*/m) (hkAA*/m) z[l All the particles are therefore [l +. 1’ = 1C 12e~2pX. this would be impossible. Square potertial barrier used to illustrate quantum mechanical tunneling. probability of finding a particle in region II would be zero. and of being transmitted. t h e particles can penetrate into a region which is forbidden classically. + (Blik)] 1 24 (7. 7. I n N e w t o n i a n m e c h a n i c s . t h i s d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t a rneasurement would never show a particle in region II. b e t w e e n x = 0 a n d x = a . a n d s o t h e n u m b e r of particles reflected back into region I per set is hk 16 12 = !E! m The reflection coefficient is then: . with V = V.50) Even though the transnission coefficient T i s z e r o . Classically.3. a c o n s t a n t . Thus.3. To illustrate quantum mechanical tunneling. particles will have a possibility of tunneling through to the other side. c:urrent The net particle to the right is simply zero in that region.. .4 1 ’ _ 1’ . we will use the potential energy shown in Figure 7.188 Use of Schrtidinger’s equation In this case. real.Wk)l . In fact. the number of p a r t i c l e s i n r e g i o n I I p e r Jnit l e n g t h i s 1a.(P/ik)l[l reflected.. W e Figure 7. in quantum mechanics. even if A i:. 6 a n d C a r e b o t h c o m p l e x .8 TUNNEUNG FOR A SQUARE POTENTIAL BARRIER One implication of this penetration effect is that if the higher potential region is not very wide.WkNl .
54) clt x = a (j(Ce“” + D e ” “ ) z= jkFe”” Solution of Equations (7..55) a n d t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e y a r e s o l u t i o n s . %k 1A 1‘/ m is the number of particles per unit time moving to the right in region I and hitting the potential barrier. If the source of particles is to the left in region I. V = 0.D ) Ce@” + hii” = Fe’“” (7. and there is no source far to the right.e“” ) + 2i(P/k)(l + . s i n c e remgion II does not extend to x = + X.emzd”) + (7. gives us /:I t8 = .8 Tunneling for a square potential barrier assume that elsewhere.(/3/kj2](l 4i(/3/k)em(ti+rk)” . As was the case in the previous section.56) c = . the solution is: Be‘k”.~_ (/3/k)2](1 [I  . if E <: I$.A e“O) (7. after some algebra.T + . I n t h i s example. in terms of A. C.e“O) + (7..7.e‘“O) + ee2’ia) A F = .55). the particles in bo?h regions I and III have momentum of magnitude Ak. There are two boundary conditions at x = 0: continuity of the wavefunction and of its derivative. the solution in region I is now: 189 aI = Aelk’ + In region II.54) and (7. then we may allow for the possibility of particles tunneling through the barrier and ceontinuing on to the right by taking the wavefunction in region III to be a._~[l . k = t”2mE h (7.53) A s b e f o r e . D ancl F. it is easy to substitute them into Equations (7.59) While these results are somewhat involved. for 6.55) (7. S i n c e t h e . hk / 6 ( ‘/m is the number reflected.~[l .(P/k:12](T . = Fe”” (7.58) D = .8 ) = /3C i.‘kGl + eeziT A (P/k)‘](l ..e2pn) ‘zi(fi. and there are two similar conditions at x = a.57) e“T A (7.52) H e r e w e c a n n o t c o n c l u d e t h a t D = 0 . and Ftk 1 .F / ‘/ m i s t h e n u m b e r t r a n s m i t t e d i n t o r e g i o n I I I .54) a n d (7. They give at x = 0 A+B=C+D ik(A .(P/kj’](l 211 + GUk)l 2i(P/‘k)(l + 2[1 i(P/k)]e‘@” 2i(p/?.~_ [l .
So the tunneling is reasonably probable. For electronr. ‘1013 Then em”” = e‘32 := 2 x 10m57. a reasonable distance between atom layers. complete y negligible. fewer particles tunnel through.190 Use of SchrGdinger’s equation particle speed is the sarne in I and III..6 x 1. This is of the o r d e r o f 1044. e 2p0. = 1.9 PARTICLE IN A BOX As a fourth illustration of the solutions of the on’e dimensional Schrtidinger equation. the exponentiais in thle denominator of Equation (7. 0 8 .\/2m(Vo Ii . This is essentially how many times the proton hits the barrier per second. an electron often has to go through a potential barrier of a few electron volts to get from one material to the other. E = 1 eV ancl m a of solid state devices which are made this way = 9..60) If @a is large compared to one. Of course. as the enerfly becomes smaller compared to V. this diffusion would begin to be more important. Hydrogen impurities in a solid might diffuse through it by tunneling of the hydrogen nucleus (the proton) from one lattice site to another. V. a .Vl 2pa = 2 . the transmission coefficient is simply T = FF*/AA*.1 x 1o34 Therefore. or the width of the potential barrier becomes greater. 7. in Newtonion mechanics no particles would get through. Find the exponential in this case. = 2\/2(9. Take the other parameters to be the same as in part (1) of this Example. e “O = e m308 example = 0.(/J. and can be dropped.E. The proton in oscila frequency of around lating about its equilibrium point in the solid might h’ave per second. 2. The product of lOI and the exponential is a measure of the order of magnitude of the probability of a proton jump per second. we shall consider the case of a particle confined to a finite region. If the quantity. Thus.046. so/utmn Since the only change from Example 1 is in the mass. x Angstroms.19)(3 x lo“) ~. When two materials are placed in contact.05 10. In this case.05 1Om34 /sec.= 3 . were lowered by a factor of ten or more.60) are very small cornFlared to one.1 x = 3 10m3’ kg anld Ii e m”da. the exponent is increased by a factor of ~?836. t h e ~ /3a = d2m(Vo . The proton mass is about 1836 times that ‘of the electron.E)a/h is large. .‘Ic)~]~(~ 16(P/k)2e e m2do)2 “a __t 4(fl/I~)~l:l + em2o0)2 (7. Take V. Because the exponential. It is T= ~__ [l .E)(J x 10m3’)(1. traction of particles getting through is very small when rapidly becomes small with increasing /3a. Estimate the value of the exponerltial dh. example ‘I. There are a nulnber deliberately.
9 Particle in D box 191 one dimensional box of length 1. t h e n i n o r d e r f o r t h e w a v e n o t t o should fit into the box. We expect this equation to tell us what @( x ) IS inside the box. Thrs gives rise to standing waves on the string. so $ z= @(x)e‘E”r’. in the box of length L. The situation is :solutions of definite fre somewhat analogous to the case oi a stretched string held rigidly at both ends. where V = 0. H e n c e t h e p a r t i c l e c a n n o t h a v e a definite momentum. inside the box. Potential energy function for a particle in cl one dimensional box. x zz L    x Figure 7. By this we mean that the particle is definitely inside the box and is kept there by rigid impenetrable walls at the ends. In that case also. x = 0 a n d x = 1. hc’wever. number n of half wavelengths If A i s t h e w a v e l e n g t h o f a d e B r o g l i e w a v e . A similar situation should hold for the de Broglie interfere destructively with itself. as we shall see. still have a definite energy. and quencies arise only when an integral number of half wavelengths of the wave can fit into the length L of a string. a wave may exist on the string.4..65) . so the uncertainty region of size L.4.7. I. + satisfies the differential equation: i s t h e s p a t i a l p a r t o f t h e w o v e f u n c t i o n . Hence. Since the particle is confined to a To infinity To hfinity i ” . in position ax is about L. an integral wave!. This is illustratecl in Figure 7. the uncertclinty apX in momentum pX should lbe a b o u t h/L. It can. w h e r e cP(x) We still assume that the energy is definite. or: nX = L 2 The magnitude of the momentum would then be h The kinetic energy would be hn p=x=z (7.64) (7.
For the present . In our case. Equation (7. but this would mean the wavefunction would vanirh everywhere. Since the wavefun’ction value of the wavefunction just inside the box must be zero at either end. d@/dx = PCe‘” = Hence.10 BOUNDARY CONDITION WHEN POTENTIAL GOES TO INFINITY Now let us see how this same situation would be treated using the Schrodinger e q u a t i o n . w i t h n o f u r t h e r a v a i l able information on the slopes finite. T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e v a l u e must be continuous. The probability of finding a particle outside is therefore zero. These would be determined by values of the integer n. d2@ = dx2 k2+ bec:omes: (7. /? a p p r o a c h e s i n f i n i t y a n d t h e p r o d u c t p@ can remain finite.28).60).68) This equation is the same as that discussed in connection with the step potential. To see why the slope of the wavefunction can be finite at the endpoints.pher t h a n o u t s i d e t h e b o x . + ~3. Indeed. statements analogous to the requirement that the displacement at the ends of the stretched string must vanish. d+/dx a t t h e e n d p o i n t s . E q u a t i o n (7. T h e n f o r x > L . but h a d a l a r g e c o n s t a n t v a l u e . e x c e p t t h a t t h e y a r e 7.66). let k = P4”2A Then the SchrGdinger eq(Jation. so thlclt particles bounce elastically off the walls. The boundary conditions for the case of the p a r t i c l e i n a b o x a r e t h e r e f o r e g i v e n b y E q u a t i o n (7. the of @ itself must be zero outside. so @(x = 0) = @(x = I) =: 0 (7.: w a v e f u n c t i o n a n d i t s s l o p e a r e z e r o a t t h e e n d p o i n t s .192 Use of SchrGdinger’s equation So only a discrete set of energies or frequencies would be allowed.6:!). so. we know the particle is inside ra. we need to have boundary conditions. with fl proportional to the pa. T h e r e a s o n t h a t Q. To solve a differential equation like this. For ease in writing the equations. with boundary conditions. and it might appear at first glance that both th.67) (7. / a(x) 1 ’ = 0. 7. although @ approaches zero as V. both inside and just outside the box. is zero all outside the box is that the walls are assumed to be perfectly rigid.11 STANDING WAVES AND DISCRETE ENERGIES We now have a differential equation. e q u i v a l e n t l y . or. Equation (7. d@/dx must be finite everywhere.32). an unreasonable solution. @ = Cemdx square root of the potential energy.66) The slope of the wavefunction must also be continuous. t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l energy is infinite outside. and has oscillatory solutions of the form of Equation (7. . for x outside the box. suppose the potential energy outside the box were not infinite. Outside.
.3 .2.2. The constant T h u s .69) 6 are two arbitrary constants whose ratio is to be determined from. ‘The sine function has zeros at vcrlues of L such that: kL = no (7. n = 1. case is excluded. for convenience. This gives us: ‘S(L) = 6 sin (kl) = 0 (7. we can now .72) . the boundary conditions. 6 is taken 1’0 be real.74) we find that If. which is not the desired solution. Only positive integers are taken. it is more convenient to write the and discrete energies in trigonometri 193 solutions cal form.. as a sum of a sine and a cosine: @(..7 7 Standing waves appllication.7.73) Using the formula (7.where n is any integer not equal to zero. b u t t h e n t h e w h o l e w a v e f u n c t i o n w o u l d vanish. because negative integers just duplicate the same wavefunctions with an o. The other possibility is sin (kL) = 0. s o this.. not physically significant.70) or A = 0. a g a i n t h e w h o l e wavef u n c t i o n w o u l d v a n i s h . thle o v e r a l l s i g n .. The constant in front of the sine function is called the normalization consfanf. h o w e v e r . i s 6 can be determined by normalization. The possible wavefunctions are then: n = 1.71) This could be satisfied by settinsg B = 0 . One condition is @(x == 0) = 0.. The second boundary condition is @(x = 1. however.3. (7. t h e p a r t i c l e i n t h e r a n g e d x i s 1@n / ‘dx. the final fortr of the eigenfunctions is: (P”(x) = jqsin f?). i f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f fincling then for one particle in the box.I() = A c o s k x + 6 s i n k x where A and (7. Having solved the differential eqiJation with boundary conditions. If n = 0 . This gives us: a(O) := A cos (0) + 6 sin (0) = 0 (7.veroll sign change.) == 0.
: (e’““. (7. the ground state.& a. In classical mechanics. From the definition of k.194 Use of Schrodinger’s equation find the allowed energies. the = hir. Thus the expectation value of the momentum is zero. . Physically.‘. any energy would be possible for this mechanical situation. Ax is on the order of L. the wavefunction is: .’ _ em. Equation (7. the sine function can be written as a superposition of exponentials.IL. A more’ careful calculation of the uncertainties using rms deviations from the means could easily be made. z h. 7.81) Also. it is the confinement of the electron to lie within a small region which gives rise to the discrete energy spacings. T h u s .12 MOMENTUM AND UNCERTAINTY FOR A PARTICLE IN A BOX To investigate the momentum. For example. for n = 1. to So the corresponds wavefunction aI is a superposition of waves of equal but opposite momenta.77) This is the some CIS t h a t o b t a i n e d b y a n a l o g y w i t h a s t r e t c h e d s t r i n g . so AxAp. with with equal equal amplitudes direction probability.79) elnx” by itself would correspond to a value of momentum (7. in agreement with the uncertainty principle.80) The term e In”’ would correspond to a value of momentum. T h e d ’I f ference in the momenta of the superposed w a v e s s h o u l d g i v e u s a measure of the order of magnitude of the uncertainty in px.(x) = .66). a p p r o x i m a t e l y . the larger will be the spacings between allowed energies. the energy is quanfized. E _ h’k:’ 2m or (7.. but the crude argument given above is sufficient to illustrate the uncertainty principle in this example. The smaller the size of the box L. T h e m a i n point to be seen here is that because of the boundary conditions.78) the energy is: (7. px appearance motion of of the these particle exponentials in either in a. only a discrete set of energies crre possible.‘) ( 1 The term involving given by: (7. This c:ould bme verified directly by calculatI ing o dx J‘ #*()i/i)d#/dx.
7.13 lineor molecules cqpproximoted
by particle in t) box
195
‘.13 LINEAR MOLECULES APPROXIMATED BY PARTKLE IN A BOX
Frequently, physicists represerlt e n e r g y l e v e l s b y a d i a g r a m i n w h i c h h o r i z o n t a l bars This have allows a vertical to spacing see at proportional o glance to the energy spacing of between the levels. In one the energy structure system.
Figure 7.5 an energy level diagram is shown for the particle in o b o x , w h e r e t h e
n
4
0
Figure
7.5.
Energy level diagram and possible transitions for D particle in o one
dimensional box. energies are E, = n2h2/8m1’. Here the distance of the bars from the base line
corresponding to the zero of energy is proportional VO n2. This is essentially a one dimensional plot of allowed energies with energy increasing upwards. The particle have can exist in stationary values. states, If states of definite frequency, should only if the the energies particle, these discrete some external influenc’e disturb
then it might change from one of these states to another. For example, if the particle started in the state labeled nt by the integer II”, and ended up in the state (u for upper, & for lower), then it would have to lose energy:
(7.82)
This energy could be given up in the form of a photon The energy of the photon would be: E Therefore, the differences betweerl =: hu = E,  Et
(7.83)
levels in an energy level diagram are propor
tional to the light frequencies we rnight expect to see emitted from the system. Physical systems for which the particle in the box is a good model are found in certain classes of long straight molecules of varying lengths L, w h i c h a t t r a c t
196
Use of SchrGdinger’s equation electrons in such a way thot the electron moves back and forth between the ends of the molecule in a standing wave. The observed energies are closely approximated by those of the particle in a box, Equation (7.78). When the electron makes transitions between these energy states, absorption and emission of photons are observed. If the upper state is the n = 2 state, and the lower state is the n = 1 state, then for a molecule of length photon should be: 3h “Z8mL2 The wavelength of the photon would be given by: (7.84) L the frequency of the
A = c = 8m~2c u 3h
For the electron, m = 9. I1 x Angstroms, this wavelength is in the visible region: x x loI’)‘(3 lo““)] x 10’)
(7.85) 7
10m3’ kg. Then, for (2 molecule of length 1 =
x _ 8(9.11 x
10m3’)(7 [3(6.63
= 5.39 x
10m7 m = 5 3 9 0 A n g s t r o m s
(7.86)
7.14 HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
The final example to be !,tudied in this chapter is thle one dimensional harmonic oscillator. The study of the quantum mechanical Iharmonic oscillator is very important, because a number of physical systems can be considered to behave like a collection of harm,>nic oscillators. For small ,vibrations, particles in Imost molepotential wells have simple harmonic vibrations. For instance, a diatomic cule has the energy level:, of a one dimensional harlnonic rotational and atomic levels). Also, quantized waves (photons) can be represented as harmonic oscillators. harmonic oscillator must first The total energy operator oscillator potential is
oscillator (along with
sound waves (phonons) and light
T h e Schrodinger equation for a one dimen!jional the is kinetic energy operator is (t,2/2m)d”/ax2. K, the
be obtained. For a particle of mass m with displacement x from equilibrium, it,a/(jt. Also, for o sFlring constant harmonic
V = % Kx’. These operators lead to the Schrtidinger e q u a t i o n :
2
m
ax2
(7.87)
I f , a g a i n , a s t a t i o n a r y s t a t e w i t h definite energy is assumed, so that $ = +(x)em’E”“, the equation for ~1) Ii2 2m is: d2Q t ; Kx’+ = E+ (7.88)
dx’
7.14 Harmonic oscillator Since in microscopic systems, frequency is more easily measurable mechanics, than spring
197
constants, frequency 27ru. Then,
it is desirable to eliminate for a harmonic in terms of w, oscilla?or
K
by expressing
it in terms of the angular w = \//K/m
from Newtonian
=
hz2 d2+     2m dX2
+
i mw2x2@
:= EG)
(7.89)
Let us verify that for the propelr choice of a, an energy a0 where =
eigenfunction
is: (7.90)
aoe1/2crx2
The
a0 is a normalization constant. (7.89), contains:
first term ill the differential equation,
Equation
=
aOeli:!n’:2
tnzx2
_
(?)
(7.91)
The differential equation
then becomes: !!2Cu + 2m 2
= 1 m&)2,x2 aoe1/2<XX2 E
a0e
I,2
,x2
h2nr2 x 2 + 2m
(7.92)
Since
this must
hold for any arbitrary of x2 must be zel’o.
x, in order to have Thus, ti2cu2/:2m +
a solution the sum of ?4rnm2 = 0, and this
the coefficients
leads to a value for a,
Then
for the remainder of the equation
to be
satirfied,
the energy
eigenvalue
must be: E = E. = f wh (7.94)
Note equation tainty Equation
that the probability density is gaussian in form. One product ApAx would
1 @o / 2 f or this solution to the Schrodinger might suspect that for this Equation case the uncerof (7.9), indicates Comparkon of the wavefunction packet,
be a minimum.
(7.90) with the freeparticle gaussian so for this case, (XI,
that ‘1’2 r~ = % cr2,
&=.L cI=!= 0
VTi cy
(7.915)
VCG
(P;,
= ‘1
Hence, that
again,
AxAp = ti/2.
In fact,
it is because
of the
uncertainty
principle zero. Clas
the minimum
possible energy of the oscillator is greater than
198
Use of SchrGdinger’s equation sically, the minimum ene’gy state of an oscillator would occur when the E,,,, ~nass
was at rest (p = 0) at the position of zero displacement (x = 0 ) . T h e n b o t h kinetic and potential energies would vanish, and k n o w n , w i t h Ax = Ip = 0 v i o l a t i n g t h e princ:iple Since = 0. This is not possible in quantum mechanics, b e c a u s e t h e n b o t h p o s i t i o n a n d m o m e n t u m w o u l d b e of uncertainty. Axz = (x2). (x) = ( p ) = 0 f o r t h e o s c i l l a t o r , Apz := ( p ’ ) a n d
The average value for the energy in the grourld state is thus: (E) = & ( p ’ ) + ;K ( x ’ ) =: & Ap2 1 K 2 20 + ; KAx2
1 %*a =.+ 2m 2 Since CY = mw/ii,
(t7.99)
(E)=~“~+~K~=ahw+ahw=~kw
positive, and forces the ground state energy to have a positive value.
(7.100)
Thus, in a sense, the uncertainty principle requires both (p’) a n d ( x ’ ) t o b e
7.15 GENERAL WAVEFUNCTION AND ENERGY FOR THE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
The general solution of the one dimensional harmonic +
l
oscillator 0 as x *
Schrodinger * x, is, for
equation which satisfies the boundary condition, a = mu/h,
*“tx)
= x, o4 x2~e1/2~=2, &=a
for n an even integer
(7.101)
@“(X)
=
x
% &=O
crAx2te
1mJ
for n an odd integer
(7.102)
By substituting into the Schrodinger equation, Equation (7.63), general expression for the energy is found to be:
one may find
the coefficients o4 in terms of a,,, and determine the energy eigenvalues. The
E, ==
The first five of the eigenfonctrons w a v e f u n c t i o n @0
hw,
n ==
0, 1, :2,3, . .
are given in Table 7.2, along with their energy
eigenvolues. The lowest (energy, %hw, belongs to the state described by the already discussed. This is ‘called the zero point energy. T h e / @, 1 ‘. five lowest possible energy eigenfunctions of Table 7.2 are graphed in Figures 7.6 through 7.10, along with their probability densities,
X
FigtIre 7 . 6 .
Wovefunction and probability density for the ground state (n = 0) of the energy.
harmonic oscillator. The horizontal1 bar beneath the origin indicates the range of possHble positions for classical motion with the r,ame
‘\/
Figure 7.7. with n = 1. Wavefunction and
+I
rLa l/2
X
probability d e n s i t y for t h e harmonic
rLal/2
oscillator
X
state
(yl/2
Figure 7.8. Wavefunctian and Iprobability density for the harmonic oscillator sttrt’e
with n = 2.
PI
3
2
I
al/2
Figure 7.9. with n = 3. Wavefunction clnd probability d e n s i t y for the harmonic oscillator st.ate
X
I4
4
2
f‘ I Al!?l
Figure 7.10. with n = 4.
cl/k
Ql/2
X
Wavefunction and probability density for the harmonic oscillator state
204
Use of Schrtidinger’s TABLE 7.2
equation Eigenvolues and Eigenfunctions for Fkst Five Simple Harmonic Oscillator States Energy Eigenvalue E”
Quantum Number ” .__ 0 a H 0
l/4
Wavefunction +‘n
e
1/‘2ax2
; hw
The coefficient aO,
in the case of each eigenfunction a’,, m a y b e f o u n d b y a,,,
requiring that the total probability of finding a particle be unity. Thus, for the probability density is, from Equation (7.90), ao*Qo and the total probability is: = 1 a0 1’ emax2
(7.104)
from Table 7.1. Therefore, assuming it is real and positive, the value of a0 determine a0 for each state.
for
this state is (a/~)““, as shown in Table 7.2. A similar integration must be done to
7.16 COMPARISON OF QUANTUM AND NEWTONIAN MECHANICS FOR THE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
It is of interest to compare the probability distribution from quantum mechanics to that from Newtonian mechanics for a state of high n. If in Newtonian me&anits the position of the particle is measured at arbitrary times, one would expect that the probability of finding it in dx is inversely proportional to the speed,. i.e. proportional to the time
dt
= dx/(dx/dt)
that the particle spends in the range of
positions dx. In Problem 21 of Chapter 2 it was found; that the probability is then:
(7.106)
for an amplitude x0. The classical amplitude equating the maximum pcltential x,, for 11 given energy is founcl b y
energy to the total energy:
The reader may verify by substituting into Equotion (7. In Figure 7.4 (YX~ sin 2wt 11 (7. is the corresponding solid curve for n = 20. :2 of + 1 ( 1 axxo sin ot . There is a tail to .1 1 as the dctted curve for E = “I/. together with the .the quantum curve in those regions. corresponding to n = 20. O u t s i d e t h i s r a n g e of x. T h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h N e w t o n i a n m e c h a n i c s may be seen more easily by considering a gaussian wave packet similar to that discussed for the free particle ot equation is satisfied by: the beginning of this chapter. 4b*@. If several thousand measurements of position of the oscillator were made and plotted on a graph. however. These plots correwith1 n = 10.X .12 are given probmobility density plots for a harmonic oscillator classical density.xg co5 wty 7r ) [ .7.1 1.i a(. l/(z’\/‘~~~~ xi). Figure 7. The quantum density.corresponding spond to a particle which is free to move in the vertical direction but is bound by the oscillator potential in the horizontal direction.107) . t h e N e w t o n i a n probabiliiy density is exactly zero. Between x0 a n d x0 the main dif ferences are the oscillations <and z e r o s i n t h e q u a n t u m c u r v e .87) that the Schrodinger 4(x<+) = (is “4 exp . the resulting plot would have the appearance of the Figure. is plotted in Figure 7.! fiw. Comparison of cIazSsicoI (dotted) and quanltum mechanical (solid) distribu tion functions for the one dimensIonal harmonic oscillator with n = 20.16 Comparison of quantum and newtonion mechrmcs 205 The probability density. indicating a possibility for the particle to be found there. the particle cannot go into a region in which the kinetic energy would be negative.
classical density below. AE is very large compared to the zero point energy. macroscopic mass of 1 kg and a spring frequency of 1 teristic width of the gaussian What about the energy is around The lol7 m. lhand.206 Use of Schrodinger’s equotioIl 0.1 0 10 5 0 Distance in units of5 10 Figure 7. On the other closely as we can measure. for center moving with the Newtonian simple harmonic motion. Therefore.x0 c o s wt)‘] with its T h i s i s a w a v e p a c k e t o f c o n s t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i d t h l / d a = fi/mw. Density of points is proportional to the probability density for the harmonic oscillator with n = 1.12. the position is known with negligible error.1 to be: (E) = .f/Fr). This function is a superposition of many stationary states thus does not correspond to a definite energy. The @n exp(iE. AE is negligible compared to E. density is: and probability licl’= fi exp[a(x . spread? expectation value of the energy cycle/set. as quantum and Newtonian mechanics agree for the . purposes. Since the zero point energy for a frequency of 1 cycle/set mean is: is approximately 1Om34 i. F o r a the characall practical operator. ihil/at. it is about 10l’ i if E is approximately a joule. For a macroscopic body. one can forget about it for macroscopic bodies. mw2x~ + a Aw This is the Newtonian energy plus onehalf the zero point energy.2 0. x = x0 c o s w t .3 P r ‘77T 0. So we conclude that for macroscopic bodies. The rms deviation of the energy from its This is ~‘2 times the square root of the Newtonian energy times the zero ooint energy. is easily found with the help of Table 7. quantum mechanical density at the top of the diagram.
that a welllocalized oscillator having negligible spread could be obtained for an osciilator of macroscopic mass. w = 1 set‘.@.1 15) . leading to large quantum numbers..for microscopic bodies this is not true. in a one dimensionlal box of length 1 cm. as the maximum classical displacement xg approaches zero. . the classic:al ‘oscillator has an energy of order mw’xz. = 1 cm.. to have a kinetic energy of 1 erg (1 O’ number n must be determined through Equation (7. E q u a t i o n (7. According to this principle. x. AE approaches zero as one would expect 17 CORRESPONDENCE PRINCIPLE IN QUANTUM THEORY The above discussions of the classical and quantum descriptions of a simple harmonic oscillator and of a gaussian wave packet far a free particle provide illustrations of the application . that a wave packet describing a particle of macroscopic mass had negligible spreading.7 7 Correspondence principle in quantum harmonic theory 207 oscillator. similarly. in connection with special relativity. and.1 11) (6. the quantum theory shauld results as the classical theorNewtonian classical theory is known to holcl. ” rV (8)~~10~3)(10~2)2(107) and so: (7.107). For example. These situations almost always involve the superposition of an extremely larfge number of stationary states. Of course. in order for a particle of mass 1 g. for the stationary proaches the zero point energy.63 or t l ‘X 102’ x 1034)2 (7. we must have: ‘u mw2x~ (7.to quantum theory of the correspondence principle. It was seen. ground state. Equation (7. Hence.t) = xA. Also. give essentially the same mechanicsin situations where the such as in situations involving bodies of macro scopic mass and size. = 102’ ” ‘v y4: = (103)(1)(102)2 ~ Ii 1 os4 So in these examples n is indeszd large. which have energy of order nhw.44). One can actually show rigorously that if the oscillator wave packet. for this to be described by a packet or superposition of quantum oscillators.7. anotiler w a y o f s t a t i n g t h e correspontdence principle is that the classical theory must lbe involvinlg extremely large quantum ioules). In partic:uapproaches the ground state wavefunction and E ap lar. for example. which was discussed in (Chapter 3. the wavefunction. the quantum an appropriate limit of the quantum theory numbers.1 13) nfiw or form = 1 g. #(x.(x)exp n =o (7. is expressed in terms of L a superposition of oscillator wavefunctions.1 12) As another example.38).
ximately above.. the in connection atom. reflection coefficient is unity. The fraction tunneling through is E)/h w h e r e a is t h e b a r r i e r w i d t h a n d p = \‘2m(v. the c:ases. For macroscopic Newtonian and quantum mechanics agree. PARTICLE IN A BOX A particle confined in o finite region can have only discrete energies. the wavefunctions are simple oscillating exponentials in the two regions separated by the step. Numerous additional examples of this correspondence between quantum and classical theories in the linit of large quantum numbers will be discussed in later chapters. current or reflected current to the incoming current is The ratio of the transmitted the transmission or reflection the coeffkient... << V. For energies below the top of the step. STEP POTENTIAL If E > V. expressing conservation of number of particles. The particle current is proportional to the magnitude of the amplitude squared times the speecl. some of the incident particles may tunnel through to the other side even if E of order Ed”‘. one may find the amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves. The sum of these coefficients is unity. with statistical mechanics. lattice vibrations in solids. respectively.208 Use of Schrtidinger’s equofion then to describe a macroscopic particle. This is illustrated by the discrete energy eigenvalues of the particle in the one dimen . the majority of quantum numbers n which contribute to the above sum are given appro. and hydrogen by Equation (7. SQUARE POTENTIAL EIARRIER For a square potential barrier of height V.. By using the conditions that the wavefunction and its derivative are continuous at the step. Subsequently. and are hence very large. w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p a t i a l w i d t h increasing with time due to the uncertainty in the momentum. E < V. A freeparticle wavefunction with propertiess particle may be formed with an initial gausSsian w a v e f u n c t i o n i s a l s o g a u s s i a n ..1 13) FREE PARTICLE similar to those of a Newtonian distribution..
Here. i. the wavefun’:tion to standing waves with the discrete energies. n a n d R? have o n l y o n e v a l u e f o r a g i v e n If the wave function can p. the exact Ap. 2 2 Answer: ?. 1 . the two e q u a t i o n .rease t h e equivalent.Problems 209 sional box. L e t p b e t h e a n g l e r e l a t i v e t o t h e x a x i s o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f a p a r t i c l e i n t h e x y plum:. In this case. q.e. At the boundaries of .s s p e e d i s a b o u t 1 cm. . h2/2m (a’$/ax” + E$ = 0 . W r i t e t h e o n e d i m e n s i o n a l !jchrGlinger corresponding to that of (a) the gravitational field near the earth’s surface.n 2mR2’ = 0. = negative integer for a box of length 1. = L’ (p’>)” ihe e n e r g y . 3 3. HARMONIC Molly discrete OSCILLATOR physical systems approximate the harmonic oscillator potential for srlall energies. 4. (6 = tan’ ( y / x ) . Newtonian mechanics. E. W h a t i s t h e e n e r g y . w h e r e have 7i/‘2Ax \/k/m consistent k is a constant. (Use i.1%. i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n s t a n t s .e. . Estimate the minimum energy which the particle may with the uncertainty principle. a solutiorl lmay b e f o u n d w h i c h i: of shape and moves like a Newtonian particle. * 1. f i n d t h e p o s s i b l e v a l u e s that n can have. Suppose it is in a state such that i. C o n s i d e r a p a r t i c l e o f m a s s llO” k g i n s i d e a o n e d i m e n s i o n a l b o x o f l e n g t h 3 c m . A simple harmonic oscillator consists of a particle of o f % kx’. E. w i t h V = 0 f o r o p a r t i c l e c o n s t r a i n e d t o rrove 1 d i m e n s i o n a l Schrodinger 2 2 d iClay i n a c i r c u l a r p a t h w h e r e x2 + y2 = R2 i s a c o n s t a n t . What #IS the corresponding quantum number n. with n a nonThe lowest energy is greater than zero. +2.. e q u a t i o n f o r a m a s s m w i t h a p o t e n t i a l ene’rgy A n s w e r : Emln * ifi +F. 9 x 1 Ozcso q u a n t i z a t i o n o f F IS u n i m p o r t a n t . This is another system in which there are only w h e r e o is the angular frequency which the harmoni’: gaussian bound.sec. 0 .. w h a t i s t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e e n e r g y i n eV? eV. These boundary conditions lead ~l. = (n + % )FIw. by assuming form &J. for low energies.& 2 X/2) I f and minimizing  lOI p e r set. and the corresponding uncertainty in the quantum number? Answer: 9 x 10z3.2n2/8m12. ~rnass m with a potential energy 2. to within 0. t h e l e v e l s a r e e v e n l y s p a c e d . the uncertainty in gaussian w i d t h b e c a u s e t h e p a r t i c l e 11s and quantum mechanics are For macroscopic systems. goes to infinity.the box. S h o w t h a t $ = e’“@ satisfier. where the potential energy suddenly must be zero. in terms of x a n d y . oscillator would have in vibrations. Newtonian the momentum does not inc. Again in this case. (b) the i n t e r a c t i o n o f a n e l e c t r o n w i t h a f i x e d p o i n t p o s i t i v e c h a r g e . 15. Thus. .
The rigorous definition of Lx i s the root mean square d e v i a t i o n from the average of x.. What would this transmission coefficient be for Newtonian mechanics? . 9h2W2 ___ 2vGl value of the momentum F o r t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n o f P r o b l e m 9 . . Answer: 12. for the lowestenergy level of o particle o f m a s s m i n a o n e d i m e n s i o n a l b o x o f width&.b. s L AE = d=. = > Vo E > > 0 0.e n e r g y wave4. .2 10 U s e o f SchrGdinger’s equafion 5. + 2$* a n d f i n d f u n c t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c l e i n a o n e d i m e n s i o n a l b o x . dx = In addition to the integrals given in Table 7.x) sin (k.. normolize the expectation value of the energy. I f I$. k .y) sin (k. F o r t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n o f E q u a t i o n (7. 8. f i n d t h e expec. k . use are independent of time. fi. and find the possible energies E. Sx.1. plus a quantum F i n d 1E Newtonian the associated the wave packet . w h e r e I.z) satisfies the three dimen I f t h i s i s t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i n a b o x o f d i m e n s i o n s a. or: s i m i l a r l y f o r Sp.z d i r e c t i o n s . Answer: 11. find the possible values for k. 7. A for one 0 dimensional < x < 1.567h > . Show thot this approaches one for large E.Ip.. a n d icz a r e t h e normalized w a v e f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e t w o l o w e s t .(E))‘). gaussian wave packet for a .9). potential that k is if = V V. ____ possible.e e x  calculate (p. Answer: 10. and is 1’ = = 0 Show energy \/2m(Vo satisfy tan(ltL) 2/3&/(k2 .. due momentum distribution. Ip.y. for the x < 0 and E x must > L. If the potential energy is V = V0 > 0 for 0 < x < a and V = 0 elsewhere. i n t h e x.E)/h.c. x 4e *x2 % t/*/tu These results 9. the to = 1/2 h w h e n t = 0 .lp s h o w term t h a t ( E ) = (pji/2m) with + %h2/mc2. Using the exact timedependent given in Equation (7....tation as a function of time.@) w h e r e ~?%E/tr andp = . energy. (k. and . find the transmission #coefficient f o r E > V. . Show that the function $ = A sin sional Schrtidinger equation. Find Lx.. t h e 1 m i n i m u m 6.Ix. and localized verify that free particle ther.Ip. A l s o f o r t = 0 .18).) and pectation values do not change in time. = 0.
x. so that V = comes: k( x2 + N o w l e t x = x2 t h e center similar .“‘. F o r t h e p a r t i c l e i n t h e spheric’ol the form: box of Problem 13.)% = E+ + .2. How ore k and E Answer: 15. t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i s z e r o a t r = show that there ore solutions of the three R .. Show that 04 = 0 f o r 4 > n/2 if . given by o f t h e t w o p a r t s o f @ and E. This leads to the possible values of E. @ = 1/“2m(vov~ E)/h. nected by o spring. + m2).z2 < R.. # + 0 ~1s r * z. 16.&Coa~x2’. find a relationship between p and k. a n d a o f mctss c o o r d i n a t e . E.x1 )2.Proble nl!i 8(ru/k)2 211 Answer: k= 13. In three tan(kR) = kR. F o r a p a r t i c l e ‘of wave equation of dimensional t h e f o r m : $ = o s i n (kr)/kr 6 ‘E”k..). energy = V.3. V = 0 for + y 2 + . ‘Two Answer: tan(kR) = k/6.n = 1. a n d X = (mtx. t h e r e l a t i v e ‘ c o o r d i n a t e . m2x2)/(m.“0) ii 1/ particles x2 m. = ?Ix/Jxt(djdx) + ?iX/rYx. between at and Substitute into a&+. by setting the coefficient of each power of x to zero.(~/~X) t o o b t a i n CI d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n i n t e r m s o f x a n d X . T h i s $ s a t i s f i e s t h e boundcny condition. solution o s i n (kr)/kr q = e IE” g i v e n f o r r <: IS w h e r e R . c o n s t r a i n e d t o m o v e o n t h e x a x i s . cos 0 = z/r. t h e o n e S h o w t h a t t h e r e i s a s o l u t i o n o f t h e f o r m @ = @. W h a t a r e t h e p o s s i b l e v a l u e s o f k and E? Answer: 14. = (n + %)h a What i s t h e p h y s i c a l significanc:e equatilsn 17. and with the harmonic oscillator energy.. Write the transcendental equation. show that there are solutions of where Ir i s t h e a n g l e r e l a t i v e t o t h e z axis. g i v e n b y H = mlm2/(ml E? m. t h e Schrodinger e q u a t i o n be % p a r t i c l e s o f m a s s e s ml a n d m2. > ct particle 0 for r > sees is The V = 0 $ for = V dimensions. U s e for expression a/a x2 tJ/dx. T h u s .(x)em’kX dimensional harmonic oscillator with the reduced solutions. a r e con. E = h”k2/2m.E = $:fs. s h o w t h a t t l s o l u t i o n i s bge. find o r e l a t i o n s h i p S h o w t h a t (ii2/‘2rn) d2f/dX2 . Assume that the general solution of the onedimensional harmonic oscillator is of the form G = f(x)e“2 and ax2. the potential zero. i n s i d e CI spherical container of radius r. For r z mass __ ‘” and (? = \/l!!T . + k2ii2/2(m. Assume that f = . + m2) m o s s . w i t h a = mu/ii.t i t i w ) the differential equation f = 0.k(x2 . k = R y. the solutions of which would give the possible values of related? What is the probability of finding the particle at z = O? k.. x1. F o r r L R a n d E <: 0 . F r o m t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a t r = R.Verifythat + E = E. ACM df/dx + ( E . w i t h CD. r = 4x’ + y2 + z2 < R and R.
on E ~~ % h o = n h w w i t h n a n e v e n i n t e g e r . Verify values for the energy and its uncertainty 1 0 ) are correct for the harmonic oscillator AE wave given in Equations Equation (7.simple harmonic oscillator 21. cr2 +  ‘/2 gt’]’ hit/m Show that the probability density is: Ic*+ = 0 yEvTV ~7’ + A2t2/m2 ew _02(x s9t2j2 Fb0tlm ~ ~___ (m” + h2f2/m2) What is the meaning of this density? 1 Answer: 2:2. ‘ T h i s s h o w s S t a r t i n g w i t h @” = aem”’ ‘IX w i t h CY = 19. f i n d @.. Similar results occur for: f = is. Show that for the mgx.dinger’s equof. that the expectation and (7. T h u s . . + hw. By comparison with the one dimensional simple harmonic oscillator Schrbdinger equation.107) . wovefunction of Problem 21.mu/f x a n d c o m p a r i n g x) a.107).x . t h a t w h e r e a... 18. p = mV = mmxO packet. s h o w t h a t (d/dx . the packet. ttie e x p e c t a t i o n v a l u e o f t h e for the potential energy Newtonian value . (pX) = p0 + m g t . t h e r e s u l t w i t h Equation !2). .. show that: By operating on Equation (1) on both sides with 8dld.mw/h i s a n e i g e n f u n c t i o n w i t h E = E. mti>/h. Equation (7. t h e r e a r e e n e r g i e s I!.= % t i w .+.212 Lke of Schri. i f $.109) (7. momentum V = v is = the mgx. Show that expectation value of sin the wt momentum for the is the same ~1s the Newtonian wave m o m e n t u m .. f n u m b e r o f t e r m s . 20..I Then n is U&X “+’ .L&O an odd integer. F i n d t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y i n t h e o n e d i m e n s i o n a l Schrodinger satisfied by the wave function: I equation that is ev itit/m 1 [x  (pot/m) 2 + . and @. b y t h i s m e t h o d . == (n + % )fiio. a p o l y n o m i a l w i t h a f i n i t e . = a”+.1 = E.
We shall first briefly discuss the I3ohr theory of hydrogen. when traveling from one just point to another. I n t h i s c h a p t e r i t w i l l b e s h o w n h o w t h e w a v e l i k e c h a r a c t e r o f elc:mcequation.. t h a t t h e w a v e e q u a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e atorn’s quantized. The attractive Coulomb force between the oppositoly charged particles keeps the electroll b o u n d t o t h e h e a v y p r o t o n . The states of oscillaticln. The problem of the hydrogen atom. because it involves only two particles. is one of the very few problems for which the SchrGdinger equation is exactly soluble in terms of simple functions.hydrogen atom and angular momentum We have seen how electrons can behave like wave!. as w e l l . and hence to a using some very simple postulates. Transitions between these stationary states give rise the emission or absorption of photons of discrete frequencies. when the wave equation was solved for the hydrogen atom the energy levels were found to lie at exactly the positions calculated by Bohr. having a definite energyor definite f r e q u e n c y . can be used to explain many of the observed properties of hydrogen atoms. angular momentum is 1 PARTICLE IN A BOX Before discussing the theory of hydrogen in detail.. The solution of this problem and its agreement with observation has been one of the most spectacular successes of quantum theory. We shall then see how the wave equation leads to quantization of energies and will discover. it will be useful to recapitulaie some of the ideas used in Chapter 7 in the quantum mechanical description of a 213 .a r e quite stable and are IO called stationary discrete The spectrum. positions of the stationary state energy levels were first calculated by Bohr sfotes. A hydrogen atom at rest is to be pictured as consisting of a negatively charged electron and a much more massi\/le. positively charged proton. w h i c h r e m a i n s nearly at rest while the electron probability waves may oscillate in many different ways in the nearby neighborhooo of the proton. such as when they pass through crystals and are diffracted trons. as described by the Schrodinger l i k e x r a y s . Although Bohr’s theory was not entirely correct. a number of years before the Schrtidinger wave equation was discovered.
Atoms are systems in which electrons are confined to a small volume. we should be able to get a rough idea of the energy level spacing in atoms.. the wavelength of light given off in the transition For example.1. for example. and is due to the attractive Coulomb force between electrons alnd nucleus. the more widely spaced were the energy levels. There it was seen . and if the system is perturbed or absorbing a photon. emitting wards. by comparing the lower energy level spacings of a in a box whose size is roughly that of an atom. the potential energy is negative. the possible frequencies u are discrete.1. The smaller the box. In this case. = “^’ 63. and moves in one dimension rather than in three as do the electrons in atoms. arising from confinement particle of the electrons.that a discrete set of sta tionary state energy levels arose due to the confinement of the particle within the box of finite size. If. let us ccllculate from the state with n = 2 to that for n = 1 for a length L o f t h e b o x e q u a l t o three Angstroms.2 14 H y d r o g e n atom and ongulor momentum particle in a one dimensional box. the frequency of the emitted photon will be given by: hu = E. The energy levels of the particle in the one dimensional box may be represented in the energy level diagram in Figure 8. the transition goes from an upper state of energy E. E. and the spectrum will also be discrete. with the horizontal lines representing the allowed values of the slilghtly. known t o b e ot dimensions on the order of a few angstroms. .1) Since the energies are discrete. Energy level diagram for the particle in ‘0 one dimensional box ellergy. where energy is plotted ll up " := 2 t I n:=l I Figure 8. Although the particle in a box has zero potential energy. to a lower state E. it may make transitions between states and conserve energy by These are the stationary states of the system. The energies for the particle in the box are given by: (8.2) Then for the 2 + 1 trarlsition.
5) with the experimental result in Equation (8. = 10.. Then the nonrelotivistlc energy levels should be negative. Balmer showed in 1885 that the values of the Iwavelengths can be expressed by the n. n.758.4 ) given by a simple formula.2 BALMER’S EXPERIMENTAL FORMULA FOR THE HYDROGEN SPECTRUM We shall now consider in detail the lightest and simplest element. the values of l/X would be given by Equation (8. as in the case of the particle in a box. fl* = n. using form the mass of the electron. 9. levels must be given by: .1 IT' (8.5) above. following = 1. 1. The spectrum of hydrogen contains rnelny discrete lines.4) ? 10‘m = 1 0 0 0 A n g s t r o m s . This is comparable to the wavelengths emitted by atoms for transitions between the lower states. + 2.3. and that transitions between thl2se difference of terms suggests that the hydrogen atom has stationary states of states give rise to the down to a lower discrete spectral lines.11 x __103’)(3 x 1C‘“)2(3 kg. l/X is proportional to definite energies. The magnitude of the potential energy must be larger than the kinetic energy in order for the system to remain confined parison bound state.7) ‘o The fact that.6). In the case of hydrogen. It has the value: R. when the electron and proton are separated on infinite distance.63 x lCl“) p. we see the values of the hydrogen atom energy t h a t a p a r t f r o m a n a d d i t i v e constlsnt.8. hydrogen.1 1 :< 10m3’ x = 8mL’c 3h 8(9. formula: . . involving a difference between the energies of t. The potential energy in the oc~uctl ill la atom must therefore be negative. which strongly sulggests that the wavelike character of the elecof the emitted light is trons in the atom is responsible for the observed discrete spectra. x 10’) 3(6. It should be noted that the reciprocal of the wavellength stationary states: 1 = x $ (E” .wo 8. For a transition from some energy level E. Upon cornof Equation (8. in this spectlurn T h e R y d b e r g c o n s t a n t RH has been rneasured with great accuracy by spectroscopists.2 Balmer’s experimental formur’a 215 Therefore.2.. level 4. By fitting the experimental data.967.. . the potential energy is defined tcl be zero.
. y. Figure 8. for example. n =: 3 + above to a series of ultracalculated is the line having the longest wavelength in this series.hc ( 1 . 0 9 7 x 1 07)(6. 8. . T r a n s i t i o n s d o w n t o a g i v e n s t a t e fr.2 eV. larger integral E.2 16 Hydrogen otom and angular momentum 8. The names of the various series of lines O:3 2 are g i v e n i n T a b l e 8 . 6 x lo“’ x 1W3‘)(3 i/eV = . The 1216 angstrom line 1. .9) E2 is onefourth of this or 3. 6 lines of the Balmer series lie in the visible. etc. Thus.1 3 . the various transitions n := 2 + r) = n := 1.. p.3. The transitions leading to the Lyman series are depicted schematically in the energy level diagram. A transition from the n = 2 to .2.13. The lowestlying level is labeled FiglJre 8. In electron volts: >: 10’) R. the lines are labeled y. for the electron in atomic hydrogen.. As n takes on larger and Figure 8.6) eV the n = 1 state would then correspond to a photon of (energy 3.hc/n’ can be represented by the energy level diagram in n = 1. down to the lowest (ground) state. CC.4 eV. w i t h a w a v e l e n g t h o f 1 2 1 6 a n g s t r o m s i n tile u l t r a v i o l e t . W i t h i n Lyman series 1 ~ Energy level diagram showing the series of transitions down to the ground Figure 8.3 SPECTRAL SERIES FOR HYDROGEN The energies E. in orcler of decreasing wavelength (increasing energy).Dm all higher states give rise to series of spectral lines which have been given the names of the scientists who first observed them er. 1 . = R. easch series.perimentally. = the := energies  E. approach zero.2. level which give rise to the Lyman series of spectral lines. Energy level ~diagram energy is at the top of the di~~gram.4( or 10. corlrespond violet lines known as the lyman series.3. 6. 6 eV The value of (8. The TV. The zero of values.63 1 .
4 Bohr model Names of the Series of 217 TABLE 8. H o w e v e r ... 5.=\. .1 Spectral lines observed in Hydrogen. Thus.. The energy is: ( 1 . means that the electron mass times the centripetal properties particles and eventually correct Also. * n = 5 Pfund series mpIe What is the energy in eV of a photon in the fi line of the Lyman series? ution T h e /I line of the Lyman series corresponds to a transition from the n = 3 state to then = 1 state. (For hydrogen. 6. . but with an additional condition on the orbit circumference due to the wave the properties wave of the electron. . if the electron’s speed is v.63 1..4. We will the point of view of theory. feeling for the quantization of the acceleration in the circular orbit is equal to the electrostatic force of attraction. 0 9 7 x 10’)(6. n = 2. We first consider those aspects of the Bohr model of hydrogen which can be treated using Newtonian mechanics..2. IO) where e is the electronic charge and Z is the number of protons in the nucleu!j. it agreed with experimental energies so well. Z = 1. x lol9 i/G 8. .. . w i t h Z = 2. T h e Newtonialn equation F = ma. of This theory is not correct. . in which the electron is pictured CIS m o v i n g i n a n o r b i t d e s c r i b e d b y N e w t o n i a n mechanics. to find However. an electron orbits around a proton under the action of electrostatic forces.4 BOHR MODEL FOR HYDROGEIN We have inferred from the experimental data that there exists a series of energy levels in hydrogen.7. unnamed series n = 6. In Bohr’s model. ~+ n = 3 Paschen s e r i e s n = 5. + n = 2 B a l m e r s e r i e s n = 4. and see if we can predict or explain mathematically why the energy levels.3.6 x loo:I‘)(3 x 10R)(%) = . it did cause people to think more about orbits. We will initially assume that the proton mass is so large that the proton can be treated as being at rest. Lei IJS now approach the bound electronproton system frown hydrogen have the values they do have. in fir’si discuss the theory of Bohr.8. ~+ n = 1 L y m a n s e r i e s n = 3. . the because theory. although incorrect.. it gives an intuitive. . (8.. + n = 4 Brackett Etc. o n e w o u l d h a v e t h e B o h r . and is certainly consistent with the previous discussion of de Broglie waves. Also we shall assume the electron moves in a circular orbit of radius force r. This is a complact way of describing the experimental dmata.3.
11) to find that the total energy is: E= 1x 2 47rtor (8.) The energy we desire to find is.n.15) Since mvr is the angular momentum.. after solving for r.X = 27rf.12) which is onehalf the potential energy.5 QllANTlZATlON IN THE BOHR MODEL Next we may use the wave nature of the electron to obtain quantization conditions on the orbits of the electron which will lead to a discrete set of energy levels. the kinetic energy plus the energy: E = i my’ Ze2 __ 4*tor (8. This condition is m. The de Broglie wavelength is Planck’s constant divided by the momentum.1 1) The speed may be eliminated between Equations (8.14) This equation may be rewritten from the expression for the de Broglie wavelength as: m v r = (k).15). This quantization rule was generalized by Bohr and Sommerfeld to apply to elliptical orbits. accordirlg electrostatic potential to Newtonian mechanics. This (13. (8. = 1. and the Newtonian force equation.10) and (8. etc. The speed may be eliminated between the quantization condition. Equation (8. m. or: x=h mv wave than amplitude must fit continuously onto itself after each revolution. In order for it not to interfere destructively with itself after many revolutions. is: r = 47rt0m~ti2 Ze’m (19.13) Imagine the electron de Broglie wave propagating around in the circular orbit. The resuilt. 8. the wave is periodically repeated. so as the electron goes around the orbit.. Equation (8.16) .F)= $ = . Equation (8. the would mean that the circumference of the orbit is an integral number of wavelengths.10)..3. but we shall discuss only the circular case.2. doubly ionized lithium.15) states Bohr’s original rule for the postulated quantization of angular momentum.fi (13.218 Hydrogen atom ond ongulor momentum model for singly ionized helium.
we have a periodicity condition: (8. if cp so that the wave has come around to the same physical point.5 Quantizotion in the Bohr model Finally. a n d t h i s s h o u l d b e t h e s a m e a s #((F) itself. (8.8). Thus the energy level diagram will look just like that of Figure 8. Equation (8.2 from experiment. the particle’s position is described by an angle cp.8. For a particle moving in a circular orbit. instea’d of a boundary condition. A. this can arise frown a boundary condition which. corresponding to a bound state. We can now see if the energies obtained in Equation (8. Hence. Physically. The Compton wavelength is A.1:7) 219 2 (47rQ)’ This result says that the energy levels of the electron in hydrogen are negatiive.!a:. Equation (8. and are inversely proportional to the square of an integer. This is quite different frorn the case of a particle in a box. since Z = 1 for hydrogen. This gives the Bohr formula for the energy levels: E n = 1 Z’e’m 1 ~mZ. then as p increases. ends.19) derived from the Bohr where. this radius may be substituted into the energy equation. because the circle is endless.I 8) This equation is the mathematiccll cumference of the orbit must contain analogue of the requirement that the ciran integral number en’ergy of wavelengths. denotes that we treated the proton as a particle of infinitle mass. The quantization arises in Bohr’s theory from a condition. #(cp) bouncing back from . the wavefunction is +(cp + 27r).the p has the value increases by . The wave.15). t h e C o m p t o n w a v e l e n g t h . constant in fundamental and occurs in many places. which The physics was discussed in connection with Compton scattering of photons by electrons. (8.20) The subscript x on R. the wavefunction would not have a unique ‘value at a given pllysical point. rather t/Ian $((F). Otherwise. stated mathematically. = 2. such as in small corrections to atomic energy IeAs due to relativistic and intrinsic angular momentum effects. o’n the allowed values of orbital angular momentum.6). t h e theory may be written as: R. just keeps on going. cy s e2/47rcOlic.hc EC2 m.17) have the correect m a g n i t u d e .4263 x lo‘* m . since we assumed it was at rest.. I n a n a l o g y w i t h E q u a t i o n (8. (8. takes the form of a perllodicity condition. = and the physically dimensionless fine structure constant fine structure constant is an extremely important h/me. This constant R _ has been written in terlms of two basic physical constants. If the wavefunction at the angle will change in some fashion. t h e f i n e s t r u c t u r e c o n s t a n t h a s t h e v a l u e a =: .
However. the preclicted Thus. one particle does not mo’ve is given by: rc = (reme + r. The position of the center of mass where the subscripts e and p refer to electron and proton. The equation The for rr gives quuntity p is a radial equation the similar to The equation for rc simply states that the center of mass of the system is not Equation Likewise. It is brvr.10) the two particles. the theoretical Rydberg constant = is: 1 . RH _RH 6 . = 1 . one for rc alone and one for accelerated.220 Hydrogen atom and angular momenfum l/l 37./(m. Alsc. = AL2 (47rt. alld m r e p l a c e d b y p = + m. m. T h e agreement error in is close enough.23) and (8.23) the around the other.fi i n a n a l o g y w i t h E q u a t i o n (8. 1 r330 (8. which suggests that we may be able to arrive at even closer agreement if we take into account the motion of the proton. then two equations result. but both move around the common center of mass.24) are solved for r. Thus the energy levels are 1 E. all the theory is as before but with /. Therefore. position of the electron relative to the proton is: r. 0 x lo3 ~ 1 .24) The force between electron and proton depends only on the relative displacement rc land r .m.7) starting in the fourth significant figure. respectively.15). total orbital angular momentum of the atom. The fractional R. alone.h)’ m2.r replacing m in the energy. where v is the speed of the electron relative tc’ the proton. differs from the experimental value of R.22) readelr be made might well think that this even closer. into account.. 0 9 6 8 x lo7 W e m a y a l s o o b s e r v e that the mass of the proton is just 1836 times the muss of the electron. a n d rp i n t e r m s o f r. In a twoparticle system. RI can be evaluated. when the slight motion of the proton is takervalue of the Rydberg corlstant for hydrogen is (8. . it can R.26) .. If Equations (8.6 REDUCED MASS T h e v a l u e o f R. including a small contribution from motion of the nucleus.21) 8. deperlds only on p and r. = re . called reduced moss. and is found to have the value: R. If the total angular momentum is set Iequal to m. b u t w i t h r r e p l a c e d b y t h e r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e r . and substituted into the Newtonian force equations F = m a for the r .rp (i3.) (8. (8. of Equation (8.) (me + m.m.).036. 0 9 7 3 8 x lO’m’ (13.
729.4 10.4 10. r A< ’ ==: 2wa = 0. doubly ionized lithium.9) into Equation (8. this model carlnot be used in finding the probability of a transition from one state to another with emission or absorption of a photon.062.972..970. 5 2 9 A n g s t r o m s (8 :2i7) The speed of the electron in its orbit may be found by substituting the radius r of Equation (8.734.8).183. The Rydberg constants for other similar systems such as singly ionized helium. which also have hydrogenlike spectra.972. These agree equally well with experiment. for the ground state of the hydrogen atom.2 Experimental Values of the Rydberg Atoms 221 Constant for Some Multiplylonized Atom Rydberg Constant m 1 10. gas in Equation (8.973.971.8 10.226. SCHRtiDlNGER EQUATION FOR HYDROGEN which agrees well with We have discussed a simple picture of the hydrogen (atom experiment as far as the energy levels are concerned.28) Then.228. The Bohr model thus {gives a simple and compact of an enormous amount of experimental m.734.2.6 10. (8.973. = 1 and Z = 1.. atom for the ground state may be found from Equation (8..7 Schriidinger equation for hydrog.9 2He3 ?He4 3Li6 3Li7 4Beq 11 5B IH’ 1H2 1H3 12 6C 14 7N 80 16 This agrees with experiment to seven significant figures.741.300.758.973.17).3 10.5 10. much less than unity.973. may be found by putting in the reduced mass for the nucleuselectron system and by multiplying by the sql. explanation The characteristic size or “radius” of the hydrogen. However. In terms of thle this is (neglecting reduced wavelength.1 10.872. A list of some observed Rydberg constants for multiply ionized atoms is given in Table 8.8.16) Iusing fine structure constant and the Cctmpton mass corrections).5 10. v/c is about ‘/. It also cannot be applied successfully to more . data.973. This justifies the nonrelativistic treatment in the theory.353.529 x lo“m = 0 .971.3 10..967.lare of the nuclear charge number Z2. etc.en TABLE 6. ‘The result is ” C N m.4 10.9 10.972.
it is more convenient to work with spherical polar coordinates r . v/e can then to Inotion ..y means of the three dimensional Schrtidinger equation.31) Because r is a moderately complicated function of x. 0 i s t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n r a n d t h e z axis. and z. inger equation in three dimensions is then: a <stationary (8.z) a d i s t a n c e r = ( x ’ + yz + z’)‘/’ f r o m proton.sinflcoscp 0 = tan’ (2”‘: “) a n d y =: r:sinOsincp (8.32) z =. The only difference is that in place and is placed at the origin.“+$+$ 2 m 2m ( C?X’ Y 1 The potential energy for the hydrogen atom. is: “=eZ 4ircOr For a wave function of the form $ = #(r)elElfi. the Schr6d (8. In three dimensions.y. it may Ibe separated into a part describing the center of Imass motion and another part describing relative motion. The correct way to approach these problems is b.4. temporarily assume the proton is infinitely massive After m the deriving the energy levels. whereas the potential energy depends only on r . y. If for the hydrogen atom the twoparticle wave equation is used. These coordinates are defined as follows: r is the distance from the origin to the electron as seen in FiglJre 8.222 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum IUS a neutral helium atom witlh complicated atoms such two electrons. the correct theory to be discussed next shows that the energy is actually not dependent on this angular momentum. the 32 introduce of the nucleus about the center of mass by making the replacelment kinetic energy operator 2 is: (8. 0 a n d q. where Z = 1. Let us then.k. for simplicity. p is an angle in the xy Plane.29) 2 y ‘2 EL!! = _. although with the Bohr theory the quantum number in the energy expression is proportional to the orbital angular momentum. Further more. T h e e l e c t r o n i s a t p o s i t i o n (x. tile reduced mass p appears. Thus the coordinate tralisformations are: r = VFTjT x =: r. measured from the positive x axis to the projection of the vector r onto t h e x y p l a n e . the small corrections due of the electron mass m.r ~cos 19 .30) state. The part giving the relative motion is found to be silnilar to the SchrGdinger mass of the proton is asslJmed e q u a t i o n o b t a i n e d wherl the to be infinite.
will described b y s o m e w a v e f u n c t i o n $(r. T h e r e s u l t o f m a k i n g t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t o s p h e r i c a l polar coordinates is: ~ . In addition.8.34) involving only derivatives with respect to r have a very simple physical interpretation. It is not difficult to guess what the form of the spatial part of the wavefunction must be.4.r).x) momentum pX propagating in the x direction. must be the same . expressed in spherical polar coordinates is derived i n A p p e n d i x 1 . is the radial component of momentum of the particles. Spherical polar coordinates. +(r) exp(ip. In order to have an outg o i n g s p h e r i c a l w a v e .for a beam of particle:. the number of particles to be found inside a spherical shell centered at the origin of radius r. must involve an exponential factor of the form where p.4) .3.33) r2 sin’ 0 ap* (8. This corresponds radially to cl stationary which spherically be rNym Broglie wave propagatllng outwards. the Schrijdinger 1 a 1 a2 (8. of i s a n a l o g o u s t o a f a c t o r o f t h e f o r m exp(ip. This . Suppose we have a steady source of particles at the origin. PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF DERIVATIVES WITH RESPECT TO r The terms in Equation (8.8 Physical interpret&ion 223 Figure The kinetic energy operator 8. if the system is to remain stationary so that particles do not pile up at any one radius. area 4rr2 and thickness dr. t) = @ (r)emiE”. + rz t a n 19 afI equation becomes: 2 POP With this operator. which emits particles of definite energy that travel radially outward symmetrically metric de in all directions.
37) because of the appearance of the factor r in the denominator of a(r). ) ll/(r) ) ‘a4 7rr2dr = c o n s t a n t . if we differentiate ipc) would involve a term of the form using this operator. must in fact be an eigenfunction of prop by analogy with one dimensional wave motion./2m. the kinetic Ienergy be obtained as: ?=I a +1 = ‘T r (dr r1 operator corresponding to radial motion can ..r momentum f o r a l l r . known.. found in classical physics. H owe‘ver. Since / g(r) tional to l/r'. the radial component of momentum. we find that (13.. independ’ent of r.@ r 1 Therefore.‘F a(r) or #(r./i(cY/ar). the above equation can be rewritten ti a i (ar +1 cp=p. This is the quantum analogue of the wellknown inverse square law for the intensity of outgoing spherical waves. a n d E = p. t h e radius itself. From this. Since E is d e f i n i t e l y k n o w n .io p . @ is an eigenfunction of ih(a/(‘Ir + 1 /r).36) W e m a y n o w u s e t h i s r a d i a l w a v e f u n c t i o n a(r) to derive the form of the operator corresponding . so we would expect the wavefunction to be given by: ‘P.35) r (13. that p. . t h e r a d i a l momentum must be definitely with eigenvalues p.224 Hydrogen atom and angu/a. as: Thus @ is However.7 / 2 is propor a m p l i t u d e #(r) itself must be inversely proportional to the (13. The probability density ( $(r) ( 2 must be inversely proportional to the square of the radius.. We can therefore identify the operator on the left of the above equation as: Pr.t) = Ae = *e r i(.Et). T h u s . and so a(r) We might expect. not an eigenfunction of h. h/i(a/cYr)... with eigenvalue p.
t chase. w i t h t h e z component of angular momentum such that The simplest of these solutions.44) will be derlsity seen..34) is unity..34). a positive integer. of Equation r. (e2/4ator)#loo.. equal to 0.8 .uch m. w i l l b e shown later to have a similar interpretation in energy due to rotational motion. 0 Differentiation with respect to r gives 5 us: H n = 1. = ~ me2 T h e l a b e l s o n t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n $Io0 mean #*# o v e r a l l s p a c e ( 0 5 r < 5. and is a function only of H. i n v o l v i n g d e r i v a t i v e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o H a n d p. I n t h i s the SchrGdinger equation. and given by: 47rtJ12 (. is on’s in w h i c h t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n d e p e n d s o n l y o n r a n d n o t o n 0 or CF. otma(fI) is a function only of cp. The function is normalized so that the integral of the probability 5 ir. 1 < .2).42). to radial motion. 0 It has been found that there exist energy eigenfunc:tion ( 8 .34). as (l3. termls of contributions to kirletllc 225 ECIIJCI and thus may be interpreted as the contributions to kinetic energy clue SOLUTIONS OF THE SCHRijDlNGER EQUATION solutions. Two derivatives of . = 0. but not tis an integer associated with the total angular momentum t. corresponding to the ground state. associctted 1 m. d(e““) .4. each folctor in the product being a function of only one of the independent variables and CF. 0 5 p < 2~) s h o w t h a t t h i s i s a solution by direct substitution into Equation l(8. The solutions can be written as follows: w h e r e R. is a positive or hegative integer.42) and the simplest solution is: #loo = \/T/Ka3 em”” (8. We c:an or (8.gen.t (r) is a function only of r . T h e r e m a i n i n g t e r m s . 3 4 ) w h i c h m a y b e w r i t t e n i n t h e formlof a produc:t of functions. F The energy levels depend on II. that 0 5 t < n. dr 1 = e + a (8.45) canc:els #l00 are s o t h a t t h e s e c o n d t e r m i n E q u a t i o n (8. (h2/2m)(2/r)d~. reduces to: (E3. or zero. 9 so/uliorls These are precisely the terms involving derivatives with respect to r in tion (8. a n d ‘P. on C or m. ! = 0. Equation (8./dr.5~29 angstroms for hydroI. the potential energy term.43) where the constant a is the Bohr radius. m.
= $6 e x p . they are said to be degenerate.3 “’ = 1 * 100 = l.47) However. = .f $exp (i b): TABLE 8. which is called the principal q u a n t u m n u m b e r . solutions to tllis three dimensional equatio’n.rexp . Te iua &(I . h a s nothing to do with angular momentum... All these solutions have the same energy E.3 are given all the wave functions for n = 1. 2 and 3. 1 r/c.226 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum equivalent to multiplying by a factor of l/a’. In fact. exist which satisfy the boundary conditions. there are n2 solutions which differ in their dependence on the angular variables 0 a n d cp. For a given value of the integer... provided the energies have only the (8.i 41hG3” If 2 a 1 cosfl *21.i 5 s i n Be”’ *a ( ) n = 3 . + . E. = so the energy must be: me’  2(4moh)* This is identical to the ground state energy given by the Bohr theory. the integer n. Nornralized Wavefunctions for LowLying States of Hydrogen. = 2 * 2oo = + 210 = 1 . values given by the Bohr theory formula: E q u a t i o n (8.42). I n Table 8.
.
.
.
.
.
.
&2.9.Figure 8. =I= 1. . Squares of hydrogen wavefunctions for 3d states with m = 0.
.
&l. +2.Figure 8. . Squares of hydrogen wavefunctions for 4d states with m = 0.10.
b .
. Square of 6f (m = 0) hydrogen wavefunction.12.Figure 8.
3 satisfy Equation (8. a radial force. OtmP are of the form (sin 0) a polynomial in cos 0.230 Hydrogen afom and ongulol momentum Figures 8. the binding energy of the hydrogen atom in the ground state is 13. the term. less the additional binding energy is required on to the separate specific the state nucleus. times a polynomial in r. are of the form of an exponential e”“‘.$l. The reader may verify that the wavefunctions given in Table 8. wtlen state. T h e s e w a v e f u n c t i o n s satisfy the general orthogonality properties discussed in Appendix 2: JdV#. then the specific particle to which the term refers should be made clear from the context. since this is the energy which would have to be added to the atom in order to separate the electron from the nucleus.... from the atom. S u c h particles addition electrons atoms. a n d ame(cp) Im*l times is proportional to elmp’. called molecules a drop of water.10 BINDING ENERGY AND IONIZATION We will frequently might of a be be interested in in systems ENERGY in which in a is the constituent or water particles have in negative energies due tea t h e a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e s w h i c h b i n d t h e m t o g e t h e r . bindinsg energy.. = t’. energy depends which the system is in imtially. a n d theri plot all those positions as dots on polar graph paper w i t h r v e r s u s 0.48) 8. the term is used fsor t h e amount of energy required to remove just one of several bound particles of a system out of the range of the attractive forces.. which binding energy. energy is thus the same as the binding energy when the electron is in its ground 8. In general. and thus angular momentum is conserved. Sometimes. if one were to make a few thousand measurements of position of the electron in t h e g i v e n s t a t e . refers to the positive amount of energy which must be added to a system of particles bound together by attractive forces.. R. In other words. T h e ionization energ. To remove any one of the particles from the system requires the positive amount energy. by direct substitution into the equation. m. the functions. of protons nucleus. = 0 unless n = n’. = rni 118. The iomzation m o v e t h a t e l e c t r o n .11 ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN QUANTUM MECHANICS In Newtonian mechanics.t. !. since Thus. the density of dots would appear as in the pictures. These pictures have been drawn in such a way that.F ic/. For examplle.34) with the proper energies. of an electron in an atom is the energy required to rein its ground state. exerts no torques about the origin. the functions. in order to separate the system into its constituent particles and place them at rest an infinite distance away from each other.t.6 eV.5 through 8. such as the Coulomb force. The density of dots is thus proportional to the probability of finding the electron at the plotted r and 8. The binding energy of an electron in an excited state of hydrogen electron is from less the than this. By investi .12 are probability density pictures of the squares of some of these wavefunctions.
. y LL) (8. L. in Equation (8. i t g i v e s C se? ~0 = C(x2 + y2)/x2. are definite numbers inde Just as momentum itself is represented by a differential operator in quantum mechanics. W h e n L. we will be able to see the quantum analogue of the conservation of angular momentum.49). The coefficients A. . The form. w h i c h i s et.12 ANGULAR MOMENTUM COMPONENTS IN SPHERICAL COORDINATES It is desirable to express this operator in terms of spherical polar coordinates.J(p).. when differentiating some simple functions. B and C can be functions of the coordinates. Thus. o p e r a t i n g o n c o s 8(x2 + y2)“2/r.50) where A. o p e r a t e s o n t a n cp = y / x . 0 and cp: (8. r = V!K’ + yz + z2. so is angular momentum.5 1) opin spherical coordinates I.function momentum. A = 0.49).49). 6 and C can easily be determined by comparing the effect of the two expressions for L. P corresponds to an eigenfunction of the total orbital angular momentum operator. however.ypx = 4~ $ . erating on r gives: (8. must be some linear combination of the derivatives with ih(x$ . If the latter operator acts on the f u n c t i o n . of the operator corresponding to the z the total angular momentum and the 231 angular z component of the angular momentum of the atorn pendent of time. Equation (8.. Thus. it is easier to note that since only first derivatives occur in Equation (8. Equation (8.49). In Newtonian mechanics. and that (a. This could be done by straightforward coordinate transformations. It gives A.yfr = jli(y   7) = 0 T h e r e f o r e . as we have seen.72 Angular momentum componenfs gating the meaning of angular momentum in quantum mechanics.49) . in terms of r a n d the momentum p.8. L i k e w i s e . 6 = 0. it gives zero whemperating i s n o d e r i v a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o z appeqring Ij = z / r g i v e s 6 s i n 6’ = operating on z/r gives zero on a function of r and there The form. (Q@. But the form.. respect to r. Therefore. the z component of the angular momentum operator is: L = xpy .*(p) component of the is an eigen. for example. but with the momentum operator inserted for p. since. the vector angular momentum of CI particle is given by: L=rxp The same definition is used in quantum mechanics. We w i l l f i n d t h a t t h e a n g u l a r p a r t o f t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n .
is an This means that e integer.56) Hence. since there is no derivative with respect to r involved. Thus.232 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum Equation (8. operator. and the operator for the z component of angular momentum (8. such a state can be saidto possess a definite value for the z component of angular momentum.. or zero.55) 1. = . Since the probability density 1# / ’ m u s t b e singlevalued in space. . This argument is really the same as that used in disciJssing the Bohr model.b r. in the factor Gm.53) In a similar way. which could be positive or negative.53).C = m. momentum.. mp is called the azimuthal quantum number. in which it was necessary that the wave amplitude fit onto itself after one revolution in order that the de Broglie wave not interfere destructively with itself. we could show that 1.e.t tan f98(p ) as ( When any of these angular momentum operators act on a fwnction of r only. @m is that it has the same .(~) = @~~. where the ground state had an 8.. which can be satisfied only if mp is an integer.. These values must be quantized. operator of Equation (8.he imp (8.(p) Therefore..13 EIGENFUNCTIONS OF L.(cp + 27r). = .49).it cos cp . we may give a rigorous interpretation to the number m. = it. I n t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n $. sin cp i c o s cp a $ + __t a n 0 dip ) sincp d a I . the result is zero. a reasonable condition on value at cp = 0 a s a t cp = 2a. Mathematically. = 1. then gives (8.52) Therefore.m.. n o t o n ti or cp. in general. e'"'* * = j&e ap a hp. correspond to states of zero angular to the Bohr model. This is in contlpast angular momentum of ti. this is an eigenfunction of the = eim@ 1. wavefunctions for which & = 0 and w h i c h d e p e n d o n l y o n r .. C is $I. because t h e (o dependence is contained (8. or that m.(ZZ. AND AZIMUTHAL QUANTUM NUMBER Using the L. the ground state wavefunction and. is: 1. this is expressed by the periodicity condition am.
3 and Equation (8. just the differential operator L. using Table 8. .34). e x c e p t w h e n X = 0. yield an integer times h. o u t s i d e the range ) m.(L.54).74 Square of the total Thus. It is also possible to find sums of the wavefunctions #“em. or zero. In Appendix 1 it is shown L’l+c = is2 $ + ( t a n 0 a0 kinetic energy operator in Equation (8. for instance. Equaa n d t h e ta’tal sum of a contribution due to radial tion (8.1)h to +(n . t h i s i s t h e L2 = Lz + L: + Lz.1)h for a given n. In this case. These are zero for n =: 1. a n d z e r o . a n d t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i s t h e p r o d u c t o f a p’ort pari depending only on the angles. / 5 (n . be written in terms of I2 as follows: 2 L2 &+2mr’ 1 a +J2$. For instance. sin’ B f3(p2 ) (858) It is interesting to note that this same combination of operators occurs in the the kinetic energy operator c:an The contribution to kinetic energy arising from the L2 term makes sense. . that: applied twice: Lz$ = L.dinger depending only on r and a L2 t e r m . yield a d e f i n i t e q u a n t i z e d v a l u e . the x and y components do not have such definite quanti.14 SQUARE OF THE TOTAL ANGULAR MOMENTIJM Another operator exists which do’es square of the angular momentum. for any single wavefunction Ic/. iCnp.1)ti. or L. in classical mechanics. of the electron is mr2. that: and (8. values.. The meaning of the square of L. the reader may verify. due to rotation.P. Thus. a n d L2 is the sum Iof three such terms.zed . must also be eigenfunctions of L2. the moment of inertia kinetic energy can thus be written as the motion and a contribution due to rotational equation. in given varying from (n ..57) are eigenfunctions of L . The functions T a b l e 8 .t. 3 h a v e z c o m p o n e n t s o f a n g u l a r momentulm. is. Since the only angular dependence in the Schrb.8. No solutions exist for values of m. 233 km.34). the z component of angular momentum has the possible values w h e r e m. the energy eigenfunctions.*. H o w e v e r . is a positive or negative integer. zero and iti for n =: 2. &Ii a n d 126 for n = 3. an object of moment of inertia I a n d a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m L has a kinetic energy L2/2/.#). s u c h t h a t L. is in the motion.
along with eigenvalues T A B L E 8. .cc2 8 . . in which only even or only odd powers of cos B appear for a 4.59) Let us look for wavefunctions P& (cos H). The general equation for the Legendre polynomials are given in Table 8. finite at 19 = 0 and H = x. in the special case in which the z component is zero.ons. from Equation (8. The constant on the right of this equation resulting from the action of is t h e e i g e n v a l u e .2.59). . the functions Pc(cos given the J(& 19) are polynomials in cos 19.(cos 8) = 1. = 0.234 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum 8. . such that L2Pt = ( c o n s t a n t ) x P& The function #“to. Some Eigenfunctions of L’for m. This corresponds to a state of total angular momentum zero.%(COSB) d8’ = COS fj (8.4. J= 0. = 1 P .4 Functioh & = 0: A/= 1 : & = 2: R. = 3. as was the case for the & = 0 states of the hydrogen atom in which the wavefunctions did not depend on 0 or p. The highest power of cos 0 i n t h e 4th polynomial is (cos 0)x. =coss P.(B) in the hydrogen my = 0 fCficti. Then there is no dependence on ~0 and the operator effectively depends only on (8.Y = h2(cos8 +$j= 2h2cos0 (88. L2 act on it: d(cos 8) __d8 Then.61) A second solution is P. 1.1 2 2 Eigenvalue of 1’ 0 = li20(0 + 1) 2V = Vl(1 + 1 ) 6h2 = A22(2 + + 1) I) 1) 2 P.3. = 2 co53 8 . = 3: &=4: P.60) L2 PC here is the same as 04. or m. o r a p o s s i b l e v a l u e o f t h e s q u a r e o f t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momentum.62) Legelldre The is In general.4 for 4 = 0. = sin 8. (8. !. The eigenvalue for his function is found by letting L2cos. 1. corresponding + l)ti2. = 0.2. eigenvalues. 8: L 2.3 cos 0 5 12h2 = h23(3 9 8 2oIi2 p 4 =3s cos4 89 8 F co2 0 + = ti24(4 + . called polynomials.15 LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS We next consider the eigenfunctions of the square of the total angular momentum. a constant.(cos 19) = cos 8. One solution is P.
2. it can be shown that L2 has thle same eigenvalues &($ + l)h2.a z i m u t h a l q u a n t u m n u m b e r .. 3. (hm+J2 5 h’x(& of the magnitude of m. For a given n or given energy. *2h. m4 = 4 = 0.c + were 1. T h e a b o v e s t a t e s a l l c o r r e s p o n d t o mp = 0.AL + give a complete description of the possible states of a point elec:tron m o v i n g i n the Coulomb field of a massive nucleus..n . For states in which m. (8.. which is greater than d( 4 + 1)A’. r goes to infinity. . Since the square of the z c o m p o n e n t o f a v e c t o r c a n n e v e r b e g r e a t e r t h a n the square of the vector.65) de= 0.16 Summary of quantum numbers Note that the total angular momentum squared is nlot the square of an integer times ?i2.If’t I were assumed that the maxi 235 raJ/ + 1) + 4 + llh2. c a n n e v e r b e a s g r e a t a s L2. Li. *&ii number &: There are then 2 4 + 1 possibll: v a l u e s f o r t h e z c o m p o n e n t o f t h e a n g u l a r momentum for a given orbital anglJlar m. 0 . it can be shown to Ibe necessary that & be less than n.... +& &. the energies changed slightly the degeneracy ..1. n (47rtJin)2 ’ = 1. neglecting the intrinsic angular momentum of the electron. act on the various functions in Table 8. momentum qulantum . . 2 . actually the square of the z component.1 The three quantum numbers: n = 1 . mp .. the and L. fh....64) The energy does not depend on & or m... individual values of I..2. By letting L2 a n d L. the maximum value instead of 4. is not zero. so we say the energies are n2fold degenerate. as it does (incorrectly) in the Bohr model.. 4 . then 1: would be =/e.. account.p r i n c i p a l q u a n t u m n u m b e r .1..l .3. . the reader may verify the properties discussed for these functions. The remaining contributions to L2 (arise from x and y components squared. (8...2 . (8.. n . there are n2 distinct angular momentum states.orbital angular momentum quantum number.8. This is not possible. remain unknown. + 1). Thus. 16 SUMMARY OF QUANTUM NUiMBERS Detailed analysis of the complete FOR HYDROGEN ATOM wavefunctions. When relativistic taken into effects and the spin or intrinsic are angular momentum and of the electron is are less. In order to satisfy the condition that the wavefunction goes to zero as. m u s t b e mum value of / mp / m......1 l.A = 0 .63) shows that the total energy depends only on the principal quantum number n: E” = % me4 =. n . Thus.3. Hence. .
13.). charge e. there is an energy of interaction between the field and the dipole: E mog pm. This magnetic moment interacts with the field and causes a slight splitting of the energy levels into additional levels. should be used in the various equations rather than the electron mass. the magnetic moment /. p = m. To see how this comes about. Therefore. If the electron carries the 1 e 1 (II> Figure 8. .e a n d m are the charge and mass of the electron. t h e r e d u c e d m a s s .17 ZEEMAN EFFECT The angular momentum (quantum numbers c:an be made observable in one way by placing the atom in a magnetic field. 8. pm = is: so the current is ev/2rr.1 2m momentum operator. then the current.m.13. In this case. to incorporate the effect of motion of the nucleus.B = B(/. and 1 i s t h e a n g u l a r B = is present. The number of revolutions per second is v/2rr. This equation holds as a vector equation in quantum mechanics: e &l = . a s m e n t i o n e d a t the s t a r t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n . A classical point charge moving in a circular orbit with angular momentum 1 has an orbital magnetic moment which is proportional to 1. going around in a circle of radius r with speed v. consider a classical negatively charged electron.68) w h e r e . passing a given point is the charge times the number of times per second the charge goes around.. It is known t h a t a p l a n e c u r r e n t I enclosing area A has a magnetic moment /A. in this case. or charge per second. . + m.L~).236 Hydrogen atom and angular momenfum A l s o ./(m.L. as depicted in Figure 8.7rr 2*r ev 2 :=  1 2 eyr This can be expressed in terms of angular momentum I = mvr. Now when a magneiic field (8. A charged particle which has some angular momentum also has a magnetic dipole moment. The angular momentum is L = m v r .
14.). . in the hydrogen atom.6 = 5 . = iha/ap. consider an n = 5. there are 2 4 + 1 = 5 degenerate states. + Emog So the magnetic a energy is an adolitive can contribution. 2m is called the Bohr magnefon. i s q u a n t i z e d a n d h a s o n l y t h e v a l u e s fim. that large magnetic field itself radical changes the motion of the electron. . &l. (8. Let us estimate the magnitude in electron volts of and typical field of 8 == 1 . 13ut (p. which are on the order of several electron volts. . &2...s f o r a Emag GC E . cause provided that the in (8. 4 = 2 level. Now let us return to the SchGdinger e q u a t i o n . plus potential energy due to Coulomb interaction. 8 x (8. Hence. in terms of 1. Therefore.78 Splitting of Levels if the z axis is chosen in the direction of the field. i s r e l a t e d t o t h e z component of angular momentum: hence. the energy due to the magnetic field interacting with the magnetic moment can take on only the values: E ma* The c o n s t a n t e%/2m eh = . which V( [it +1)r ti + Enlog 1F/ gives the ordinary energy levels E.. it is seen that the net energy will just be: E = E.70) I. The total energy of the electron will be comprised of kinetic energy. as shown on the left in Figure 8.. a n d i s d e n o t e d b y p.927 1. O ) x lo“’ i/eV 10m3 eV E ma9 (0. For example.. plus potential energy due to magnetic interaction with the applied field. In the absen. so these considerations hoI’d only if 6 is small enough E.73) magnetic orbital field is not so large that the wavefunctions are changed appreciably by the field.ce of a magnetic field. Actually.8.74) So this contribution is very small compared to the atomic level spacings.Bm.to s e e w h a t h a p p e n s t o energy levels. of hydrogen. 9 2 7 x 1 O23 joule/weber/m2.18 SPLITTING OF LEVELS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD Let us consider what happens to an atomic energy level when the atom is plac:ed in a magnetic field. = 1. which all lie together and . This will be: x 1 O‘3)( 1 . 237 ef? Imag = 2rnLz Further. described by ma = 0. O weber/m’ m. p = the 0 . the SchrGdinger equation would be: E# = U s i n g a w a v e f u n c t i o n #nxmP.
14. not all transitions have the same probability. In a similor way. this level will be replaced by a nlJmber proportional to of levels of energies. T h u s . 8.14. it is found that . the five levels are shown at the right of Figure 8. on be split into three levels. as shown.1 Figure 8. for a given $. 2 4 + 1.2 applied magnetic field. So if we had an energy level diagram looking likf: the left side of Figure 8. “=A . B u t w h e n B is different from zero. + Emog.. appear as a single level..15..g i s m.15 there are 5 x 3 or 15 possible transitions. which will not be discussed in this book. From the theory of transition probabilities. However..15. m‘P 1 “=:A . a number of different transitions are possible.19 SELECTION RULES It appears at first that in Figure 8. it would look like the right side of the figure it=0 P=l P=2 /n=5 / / / / Transition for a single line I” the spectrum. Since E.0 .. In this example with & = 2. at zero field. i n p l a c e o f o transition yielding a photon with a single trequency. Splitting of o 5d le ve l into 21 t 1 = 5 components in on externally e L m ‘9 =2 m =l ‘P mvp=O mp=I mp= . Energy Ieve’ diagram showing the splittings of 4p and 5d levels in an applied magnetic field.238 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum n=5 Figure 8. the number of these levels will be equal to the number of & = 1 level would values of m. E. w h e n t h e f i e l d i s t u r n e d o n .
We shall not prove these rules here.8..76) Am = ~‘1 transitions. Therefore.77) . in order for angular momentum to be conserved. This is related to the fact that the solutions of Maxwell’s classical electromagnetic equations for spherical light waves are eigenfunctions of the operator L2 w i t h p o s s i b l e q u a n t u m n u m b e r s j. = + 1. 1 is probable.1 transitions  spectral lines. the energy difference with the field on is: AE+ AE. Altogether. of angular momentum. .. a n d A m . .5 TABLE Allowed Transitions for o 5d + 2. than nine Furthermore. have sufficiently high probability to be readily observed. This means that the photon itself has a minimum angular momentum corresponding to the quantum nulnber appreciable probability for & = 1 . If AEo is the energy difference between the levels before the field is turned on. these nine 8.20 NORMAL ZEEMAN SPLITTING The selection rules are satisfied for the change in j. The transi tions are indicated in Figure 8. for the various lower states with 4 == 1 for the allowed transitions corresponding to the various possible values of rn<. the angular momentum of tlhe atom must change by one unit. . there olre nine transitions give rise to osnly three allowed rather transitions. = &l or 0 (8.20 Normal Zeemon splitting 239 only transitions for which the chclnge A& in J’. because the spacings between the splittings are equal. 4p Transition. in the upper state with & = 2. then for the difference after the field is turned on is still: Am. O n l y t h e 4 = 1 case occurs with Since the photon carries off one unit most .1 .iransitions. Upper state &= value of mp lower state 4 = 1 values of mp for ollowed i1 Jr0 1.15. but a transition from = 0. ~$9 (8. 4 = 2 to & = 1 .l ‘O. = 5 = 2tom. A 8 = + l . . T a b l e 8 . . For the (8. b u t a s o l u t i o n f o r 4 = 0 i s i m possible. the energy AE = AE. is + l .75) T h u s .3.16. a n d t h e c h a n g e s Amp = 11. a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m m.O i n m. but only state the socalled Selection rules: ztl A& = Am.0..O for the atom.. = 0 transition. = 2 t o m. 5 s h o w s t h e v a l u e s o f m.1 has negligible probability. = 1. in Figure 8.2.
21 ELECTRON SPIN In explaining the anomalous Zeeman effect and other effects to be discussed later. This is called the anomalous Zeeman eflecf. however. is the z component of the spin.4 p lines which ore split into components by o magnetic field. and spin quantum it field. Usually. This phenomenon is observed in some lines of calcium and mercury.2 4 0 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum FT. The electron is charged. it is always in a type of internal magnetic field which leads to o splitting of energy levels. j u s t a s f o r t h e angular momentum.16. and is called the normal Zeeman effect. Thus a line will be split into three lines. This then interact with which are present.I i iequal spacings (Ai). and is due to electron spin. and if it has internal angular momentum or intrinsic spin. the magnitude of the splitting is proportional to the magnetic fielcl. Allowed A mp=o I magnetic fields spin. it is necessary to consider the possibility that the electron can have an internal property. I i : hAm. elf s. and that if this magnetic moment placed magnetic contribute If s. various elements show splittings with different magnitudes. can cr’ amp=+1 transitions for 5 d . The eigenvolues S2 s h o u l d b e h’s(s + l).22 SPINORBIT INTERACTION Now so far as the electron in an atom is concerned. is then. energy. then the number of different values terms. either of externally applied fields Ior atomic fields. the We corresponding would to the expect. The observation of such energies would give evidence of the existencse internal angular momentum.= . should be 2s + 1. that the magnetic moment would be proportional to S. 8. Let orbital us call by this intrinsic angular where in a s momentum of is a denote number. This implies that there would also be 2s + 1 magnetic energy 8. called fine . and contribute to the energy of the system. dipole moment could it may also have an intrinsic magnetic dipole moment. or that a level woul~d split into 2s + 1 levels in a magnetic field. and also with more or fewer than the three lines predic:ted here. operator 5.1 Figure 8.
there is such a splitting.. is proportional to the spin S. This is because with no orbital angular momentum there is no component of velocity perpendicular to E in the Bohr picture. which depends on the square of the wavefunction. = 0 states there is no such splitting. B = v x E/c’. If E is pointing radially outward. The fact that there is a pair of lines or a doublet shows that 2s + 1 should be equal to 2. the energy is proportional to Sal. consider the Bohr model of the atom. If the electron has velocity v small compared to c. one would expect to see 2s + 1 spectral lines due to the splitting. i n s o d i u m v a p o r t h e brighi yellow color comes from a pair of yellow lines at spin 5895.23 Halfidegrol s p i n s structure splitting. 241 where the electron moves in an orbit through the electric field produced by the nucleus. I f w e hlad said that the function becomes its negative w h e n y’ changes by ability density. and this betweeln the electron’s magnetic moment *B. and therefore.1)/t’ = VI h’. This would have led to halfintegral quantum numbers.8. In hydrogen. and therefore the quantum 2 (8. To understanld this.. For exa m p l e . In the alkali metals which consist of an electron orbiting a core of other electrons bound tightly to the nuc:leus. so that it is the same for cp =: 0 a n d cp == 2 x . 27r. this is called s p i n ..79) . and moves in an electric field E.23 H A L F .I N T E G R A L S P I N S If the spin quantum number is s == % . halfintegral spins do occur for intrinsic . While this is not the case for orbital wavefunctions.o r b i t interaction. So if the upper level is split into 2s + 1 levels and there are transtions to a lower Se = 0 l e v e l w h i c h i s n o t s p l i t . then the magnitude of the square of the angular momentum of the electron should be s(s +.@ = mc2 !‘cd nn2 (8. Thus there would be no B in the electron’s rest frame with which to interact. there will then ordinarily be 2s + 1 levels due to this splitting. we found that the z component of angular momentum. In discussing orbital angular momentum. In the J. In place of one level. T h e n tllere p. was always integral.. we know from electricity theory that in the instantaneous rest frame of the electron there is a magnetic field of is an interaction energy magnetic field given by p. the splittings are much larger.78) Since p. B zz [r x (. The observations show that the lines consist of very closely spaced pairs of lines... prism spectrometer.. t h e p r o b would still be single valued. it is of the form E = rf (r).92 Angstroms number is 1 ST The splittings are much too small to be observed with a simple diffraction grating or and 5889. This resulted from the condition that the wavefunction be singlevalued. as is approxi mately the case in atoms.. the magnitude of the splitting can be calculated theoretically and has been observed with special instruments.95 Angstroms.
%li. and there will be a z component of force: . aZ (8. giving 2s + 1 possible distinct forces on the particles in the beam. with s = ‘/2.. If the B is ?aken to define the z axis.. with direction of the field % and a magnetic moment. and the spin wavefunctions do change Iinto by 27r. t h u s t h e potential energy varies with z. For a halfintegral spin. the experimenters found the beam to be split into two. when treating (angular momenta in quantum mechanics.pm.81) on the electron and hence on the atom. Because the magnetic moment is proportional to 5. (8.‘/2 t. Inside the atom the electrons tend to pair off :#o that their s = magnetic moments cancel in pairs.. s. 15..24 STERNGERLACH EXPEE!IMENT An experiment was performed by 0. the vector sum of the various angular momenta gives the total angular momentum.B. the possible values of s. Thus. neighboring spin states are separated in t h e z component of angular momentum by possible values of s.. the maximum magnitude of s.B = p. Such a field exerts a force on a magnetic dipole which depends on the orientation of the dipole relative to the field.. Silver contains 47 electrons. an odd number. p..242 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum angular momenta of certalln their negatives upon rotation particles. For the electron. yz/2ti. (spin down) and Mii (spin up). Gerlach in 1921. 2s + 1 = 2. it can take on only 2s + 1 orientations. for a spin 3/. . is still the total angular momentum quantum number. except for one leftover electron. n e u t r o n s a n d m u o n s . F== t. 8.A system. 8.80) The magnetic field is constructed so that B.‘/2 ti. the potential energy of the electron in the magnetic field is: E mw = p. 2. so that s = % . If a system consists of parts which hiave various angular momenta. When the experiment was performed.. This would split the beam into 2s + 1 beams. The more fundamental particles such as electrons. h a v e i n t r i n s i c angular momenta corresponding to % ti. integral and halfintegral. Particles have been observed with various integral and halfintegral spins. Stern and W. Hence again.dE.. Thus. v a r i e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f z . They passed a beam of silver atoms through a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field. This total is ordinarily denoted by J. are 3/h. O t h e r f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t i c l e s s u c h a s photons and some mesons have angular momenta corresponding to 0 or ti. protons.25 SUMS OF ANGULAR MOMENTA In general. which demonstrated directly that s = % for the electron.. there are the two types. such as several particles each of which has intrinsic and orbital angular momenta. the .. Also. are .
26 A n o m a l o u s Zeemon e f f e c t 243 f o r CI s i n g l e p a r t i c l e w i t h s p i n o p e r a t o r S a n d o r b i t a l a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m operator. This anomalous effect arises primarily because the relationship between spin and magnetic moment is different from that for orbital angular momentum.: m. ..8’2) C o m b i n a t i o n s o f s p i n a n d o r b i t a l w a v e f u n c t i o n s m a y b e f o u n d t h a t y i e l d eigen J2. just as in the normal Zeeman case they are given in terms of m. Thus. where an field shows splittings different from those based on orbital angular momentum alone..84) m..we must con J == 1 + S. the splittings would be given in terms of m . J. = j.8t5) However. In the orbital case [Equation (8. one may explain the anomalous Zeeman effect completely. may either be integral or halfintegral. 1. JZ . and of the z component of the total angular momentum.85) The j and m. because of the difference in the magnetic rnoment relations. the states of These equations differ by a factor of two.87) of two is predicted by a in 1933. This factolr relativistic wave equation which was discovered by sider the total angular momentum of an electron Dilrac When treating the splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. z es m (8.. . acting on these functions 5’  j(.Then the electron are described by quantum numbers j and m. are somewhat complicated. .83) (8. 26 ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN EFFECT Let us now return to the discussion of the anomalou!j atomic electron in an external magrletic Zeeman effect. J=L+S functions of the total angular momentum operator squared. T h e r e a r e 2. + 1 possible values of m. the magnetic moments of the resulting states of definite j and m. By carrying out the analysis in detail using these ideas.h Here j i s t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m q u a n t u m n u m b e r a n d is the z corn p o n e n t q u a n t u m n u m b e r . for the electron spin. This gives rise to various kinds of splitting of the spectral llines in a magnetic field.. + 1.. + l)hZ (8.m.68)].. (8. If the relation between magnetic moment and angular momentum were the same for the spin and orbitlol parts.13. However..+1 (8. it has been found that: p. the operators yieldss: (8. dlepending on the individual angular momenta which combine to give the total. One would then always see the normal case.
a n d L2 is the square of the angular m o m e n t u m v e c t o r . then the position of the line of centers connecting the two atoms may be completely specified by the angles 8 and p defining the direction of the line of centers. where L” is the angular momentum operator given in Equation (8. separated by a fixed distance. We have already seen that the possible eigenvalues of instead of 4.cp) (8.58) then gives the operator corresponding to the square of the total angular momentum.17. or HCt.244 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum The idea of angular momentum is important in quantum mechanics for the same reason it was important in Newtonian mechanics.q7) = h21(J + l)\L(O. If we consider only linear diatomic molecules. it is conserved relative to a point if the potential energy does not lead t o a t o r q u e a b o u t t h a t p o i n t . T h e conservation of angular momentum has been observed in an enormous number of different experiments. where I is the moment of inertia abou? t h e r o t a t i o n a x i s . If we imagine a coordinate system placed at the molecule’s center of mass. 8. An example of such a system is a linear diatomic molecule such as ti12. these Transitions between these rotational states are governed by the selection rule AJ = 41. Thus. w h e r e p is the reduced mass of the molecule and tional cule. in the case of the rigid rotor it is customary to introduce the symbol J for the quantum number L2$(0. The energies due to rotation of the diatomic molecule are then: E An energy level diagram for J = h2J(J 21 rotational + 1) energy levels is given in Figure (8.27 RIGID DIATOMIC ROTATOR In classical mechanics a rigid symmetric top rotating freely about an axis of symmetry through the center of mass has the kinetic energy L2/2/. in a . C e r t a i n q u a n t u m s y s t e m s h o v e o kinetic energy operator of the same form. angle and would be needed be to specify r the fixed atomic separation distance. the SchrGdinger stationary states will take the form: equation for the Hence. in which the atoms themselves are treated as point masses.58).90) 8. The moment of inertia is I = pr2. eigenstates of L2 ore also energy eigenstates. an addicompletely to there would additional contributions momentum to the energy. Equation (8. N. analogous to the selection rule on t for atomic transitions. the the orientation angular of the moleand If there were a third particle in the molecule not on the line of centers.89) w h e r e J is a nonnegative integer. T h u s . L2 are of the form A2$(& + 1).
E. are tion distance. with: = . transition from a rotational state characterized state. Actually. El = t:J(J + 1)/2/.92) or a few centimeters. separated in frequency by Au = Ii/27rl. . To estimate the frequency region in which these lines will be seen.together at a fixed separaenergies. In Chapter 7 it was seen that the w is proporwhere n is a positive integer and tional to the square root of the effective spring constant. in the microwave region. In most diatomic molecules. a photon of trequency liu = u will Ibe E. consider a nitrogen molecule N. spacing E 2 Angstroms. E n e r g y l e v e l diagram f o r t h e r i g i d r o t a t o r . Measurements on these spectra yield information on the moment of inertia and hence on the interatomic th!Js spacing. but can vibrate slightly back and forth along their line of centers.+.l)(J + 2)  J(J + l)] = y(J + 1 ) (8. This vibration is a quantum mechanical simple harmonic oscillation. The energy for J = 0 is E = Fi’// ‘2 2 x 10m4 eV.91) The resulting rotational spectrum will therefore consist of lines equally spacesd. = tiw(n + 1/2).8. The wavelengths will be comiparable to and interatomic 2x1 .[(J +. and the vibrational energies are quantized as well. if the atomic electrons do not also change their emitted.27 Rigid diofomic rofol’or 245 Figure 8.= 27rcpr’ 1 h (8. e n e r g i e s a r e E. with reduced moss 7 atomic mass units. T h e allowed transitions are governed by the selection rule LLJ = +l. down to the next lower level J. o r a b o u t diatomic molecules 10e4 times smaller than typical atomic electron not rigidly bound . by the quantum number J + 1.17. the interatomic spacings stay quite close to their equilibrium or aver .
...758. + l. SPECTRUM OF HYDROGEN The wavelengths of the clbserved the Balmer formula: n. the tangential component of momentum is given by: m v r = m.h m. n2 where the Rydberg constant RH R.246 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum age values. BOHR THEORY OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM Bohr postulated that characterized thfe s t a t i o n a r y s t a t e s w i t h i n t h e h y d r o g e n a t o m c o u l d b e v a l u e m.3. Thus.3.2. the centripetal force necessary to bind the electron in the circular orbit is that due to the .. = 1. where r is the radius of the orbit and v is the speed. hence the molecular vibrational spectra lie in the far infrared... = n. the spaIcings between vibrational levels are roughly 100 times the rotational level spacings. while at the same time mony different rotational transitions occur. or around 0..01 eV..hc E. ..n. which means the spring constant is rather large. consisting of lines spaced so closely together that the spectrum appears to be practically continuous. + 2.h of the orbital angular momentum. = I) rl‘ n = 1.which are relatively close togetlier in frequency. lines in the spectrum of hydrogen are given by has the experimental value: = 10. In addition. = 1. These bands result from the molecules’ changing from one vibrational state to another. Thus.2.3.1 ml The spectrum of the hydrogen atom can be interpreted in terms of an energy level diagram where the discrete energies are: R. near one vibrational line could be grouped many lines corresponding to many possible different initial and final rotational levels.. This b y a quaritized can also be understood qualitatively by assuming that an integral number of wavelengths of the de Broglie electron waves must fit into a circular orbit. usually.967. These vibrational and rotational energy levels give rise to band spectra. . .2.
the total kinetic plus potential energy of the electron is then: E=7 R. and not at all on m. r 47rt. t h e Schrgdinger e q u a t i o n f o r t h e hydrocgen momentum atom of an infinitemass nucleus is: This was obtained by calculating la2 in spherical polar coordinates in Appendix 1. m / M SCHRijDlNGER In terms of EQUATION FOR HYDROGEN ATOM operators. the energy levels are given by: R.hc rnv = where 1.hc E=T mP where and where m 1 + is called the reduced mass.A1 const x ( ) me2 . When the motion of the nucleus of mass M is taken into account as well. it is conceptually incorrect. The solution to the SchrGdinger 1c/ = equation for the ground state is: e x p . because the exact theory shows that the energy depends on the radial quantum number.Summary 247 Coulomb attraction between electron 171Y2 r and nucleus.0973’8 X 107m’ While this formula agrees well with the observed levels. e2 4xtOr2 or: For hydrogen.. n.
.. 0 .asine. and am.. = 4 . J r . m...t.(p) where R. the solutions are of the form: Ic n&my = Jwmzm. 4 . &Im. are described by three quantum numbers.&(r) is a function only of r. . eigenvalues (CP) are eigenfunctions of L2 with the possible Fr2&(& + l).. ANGULAR MOMENTUM The orbital angular momentum operator of spherical polar coordincltes 1 = r x p can be calculated in terms when the momentum operator is known in terms of those coordinates. w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s The total angular momentum operator is given by: A2 a$ h2 a'+ L2# = . 8 .i+t is an integer such that: NORMAL ZEEMAN EFFEiCT An electron of orbital angular momentum 1 has a magnetic dipole moment: and interacts with an external magnetic field B along the z axis with the energies: where the Bohr magneton p is 1O23 i/w/m2 p := 2 = 0 ...R p he/n’. 9 2 7 x .. The principal quantum number n determines the energy...(0)@. T h u s t h e s t a t i o n a r y states of the hydrogen atom. and the azimuthal quantum number m._~ sin 0 f30 ( a0 1 sin’ B d(p2 and the wavefunctions @tm. p). @tmm is.$. The orbital angular momenturn number 4 is a positive i n t e g e r In .. = .I. a function only of cp. are eigenfunctions of L.iS. . with m. w h e r e 4 = 0 .1. 1 . 2 .wmJP) (19) isa function only of 0. The z component of orbital angular momentum is: ond the wavefunctions.1 . corresponding to the wovefunctions #.. . n .2 4 8 Hydrogen atom and angular momentum In general. The energies depend only on the principal quantum number n a n d a r e g i v e n b y E.
and spectral lines are split into three ELECTRON SPIN Electrons possess internal angular momentum.. Answer: 4nt. where I is the moment of inertia of the molecule about the center of mass. or spin. and the electron states are described by quantum numbers j a n d m . orbital angular rnomentum is important. of a level corresponding to some vsalue In the normal Zeeman effect.(ft/Lr)2. m.Problems 249 This additional energy causes a Isplitting selection rules A 4 = il.. .. S. a n d trlsnsitions between levels occur restricted by the Am. Estimate the ratio of the gravitational attraction at a given distance between the electron and proton in hydrogen. l zt .. choracterized by a quantum numbers = % such that: s’lc/ = FA(s + l)$ = ih2jl The intrinsic magnetic moment of the electron is given by: The total angular momentum of an electron is then J = 1 + 5. The energy of the electron in the hydrogen atom is sume this is a one dimensional problem with ApAr I> A. 2.e2/4*t0r.GmM/e2 E 4 x 1Oe4’. A s p2 . 1. :!I J=Ol2. = &l. pZ/2m . The eigenvalues of total angular momentunA2j(. w h e r e i i s h a l f a n o d d integer. . *j energy levels giveen by: RIGID ROTATOR molecule has rotationcll A diatomic ExQ+l).. to the Coulomb attraction. s I.lp)2 .# = hm.(.$. by talking . components.O. only of 4 into 2 4 + 1 l e v e l s . = *i. and find the radius r rcor responding to the minimum possible energy. + l)$ are: J2$ = The z component of total angular momentum has the eigenvalues: J.
Calculate the shortest and longest possible wovelengths of lines in the Balmer series to that of hydrogen. Answer: E = Pi me4/(4at. and find the corresponding energy. 10.36 eV. .000 amu = 19. E = .23) are eigenfunctions of L. If k is a constant vector and V depends only an tlhe relative vector r.2 is a solution of the equation for the hydrogen atom. ‘The experimentally observed value is 10. 9. Answer: 3. 8. 6563 Angstroms. X = 135 Angstroms. Answer: 4. with the indicated eigenvalues. Calculate the energy of the lowest state in eV. Verify the correctness of . find an expression for the energy levels of positronium.2 ay2 az2 E h2k2 2(M + m ) with the reduced mass. What is the physical interpretation of 1 f The positron is a particle identical in mass. of hydrogen.973.7 eV. )/(M + m). the center of mass position vector.929 x 1027kg. E. Show that the wavefunction $ so0 of Table 8. 7. + m).228.6 rn~‘. A photon is given off by hydrogen in the trahsition n == 3 to n = 1.122. Compare with the first = 5 . m. 2 8 x lo” m e t e r s . 3647 Angstroms. and the wave2 to n = 1 transition in this ion.250 Hydrogen atom and ongulor momentum r ..: the mass of the neutral carbon atom is 12.73 eV. Using the result in the previous problem. What is the maximum kinetic energy an electron can have if knocked out of silver b.rc that a solution for 1c/ is oi the form $J = f (r)e .rlr. Answer: 5.rl and r< = (mr2 + Mr. Find the wavelength of a photon emitted when the ‘electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition from then = 3 state to the n = 1 state. = e/m S. Calculate the reduced mass of five times ionized carbon.. u = mM/(M this form? 12.*he expression for the x component of the angular momentum operator in Equation (8. The electric field an electron in a hydrogen atom sees is er/4xtor3. whence f(r) satisfies the equation: +a+d 2 . SchrGdinger Bohr radius. The work function for silver is 4. Answer: 1026 Angstroms. Verify that the functions in Equation (8. CalcLllate the effective Rydberg constant for this system. a spectrum very similar Doubly ianized lithium has three protons in its nucleus an’d length of the spectral line arising from an n = Answer: 6. the SchrGdinger equation is: Let r = r2 .22).)2h2n2 Using B = 13. show ik . and minimizincl 4ncoli2/me2 the resulting expression for energy./ this photon? Answer: 7. to the electron with charge equal and opposite to that of an e#ectron. V x E/c2 and the fact that the magnetic moment of an electron is p. The electron and posiiron can form a hydrogenlike combination called positronium. 11. For two particles of mosses m and M and positions r2 and r.
= !sin WI kr and where k is a constant. = 0. Assume that a0 = 1 and a. 15. The first term is of the order of the hydrogen times the atom energy when it is used for the kinetic energy part of the hydrogen atom SchrGdinger equation.2.mcc’. show that the spinorbit splitting is comparable to (Actually. By using the condition that the coefficient of a given power of cos 0 on the left s. for 4. Find what constant each wavefunction $J~ must be multiplied by to make: 2x * s 0 $isinBd8 = 1 I dq7 . X=X2&( &+ 1 ) w i t h t = 1. thiris also ihe order of magnitude of the +.) tan (kr. L”. this is 251 with the rotating rfest the hydrogen atom frame of the electron). r .. r0 = kr. Answer: 18. what is the order of magnitude of the spinorbit or fine!structure splitting? Answer: 1 Om3 eV. What is the <energy in terms of k? 16. Since the hydrogen atom energy is on the order of . Write the SchrGdinger that two solutions are: equation for a free particle in spherical coordinates..3 . Using the orders of magnitulde: S .. E. COS” ” 8.+~ and a. that a.6. is the fine structure constant.Problems show that the spinorbit coupling energy is (e2/47rtomZc2)S~L/r3. cos 8 The volume element in spherical coordinates is: r’dr sin 0 dtId@. Use this ta show that the next term is of order 01~ hydrogen atom energy.Tr 14. = cosH.ii. where N = e2/47rt0)lc spinorbit coupling energy. 1 . Verify that the following are eigenfunctions of the operator. w h e r e (Y = e2/4ac.I S given in Equation (8...‘/4 p2/m2c2). i. The operator. For a particle in a spherical box of radius rO. Far p c < < mc2 this is T E (Yz p2/m)(l . = 0 for some n. $. The relativistic kinetic energy is ‘r = d/p c + mOc . of the previous problem? Which of the two solutions could give the wavefunction for a hemispherical box? Answer: sin (kr.24). +C2 = .) = 0 or k = F for $. 12: $0 = 1. 5 $b3 = j cos3 8 .hc Z l/137 is the fine structure constant.... what are the conditions on the k’s in Go and $. Determine the values of X such that the series is actually a polynomial. From the results in the previous problem. Substitute into the eqLlation L2$ = h$. = 1. or a0 = 0 and o.:$.e.ide of this equotion must equal that on the right. Show z ‘/. #.Bohr energy times a’. cos2 0 .. .10 eV. a factor of 2 too large. 17. Assume that there exist eigenfunctions of the form $ =: c a. find a relationship between o. due to relativistic effects as’rociated radius.
I? 2m 4 Answer: ( V ) a2 2 a .s(s + l)]ii2 Suppose two particles of orbital ongular momentum quantum numbers 4 . An angular momentum eigenfunction for the rigiol rotator is given by sin 0 x (5 cos’ 8 . and J.fi.. Then the toial angular momentum quantum number can hove the . 1 2r2dr = 1 = const. rr/. What are the eignvolues of L2 and L. 27.... J=L+S. $200 == const. x e r/o . (1J) 27. 9 2 7 x ‘lO23 joule/(weber/m’). Calculate the maximum component of the spin magnetic moment of the electron along the direction of an applied magnetic field.1)e”. $sz2 of Table 8. Compare with the Bohr radius. L2. 2 . Verify that the angular.2 are eigenfunctions of L2..2 are: G .m. Find the expectation value of r for the ground state. 20.oo = const.c y = 2 me2/47rtOh . is the same as when specified by i and m. 0 . Answer: 26.. of the hydrogen atom. . = i [j(j + 1) + t (..+ l L27 a2 3a dp.3502 x 10” see‘. $too = :const)e” with y = me2/4xtoii2. 4. x e?’ with 22.2eV. ond the kinetic energy. 21. Show that the total number of possible states when the particles are specified by the combination of Cm. I$. Using . The three 4 = 0 waveiunctions for the hydrogen atom in Table 8. e2/(4Ttor). j = 5. Answer: 25. 4 x 10’2/sec. 24. 28 The experimentally observed frequency spacing between two successive rotational lines observed in the spectrum of the HCI molecule is 61.72 w/m2.252 Hydrogen otom and anguh momentum 19. where Show that for wavefunctions that are eigenfunctions of J’. x er’3a 1 2r i’ . a = meters. functions in 4 s. 3.53 X lo” Answer: 23. ..&+ la+ 1cos!A+ r2 a@ r2 sin 0 i)B dr2 2 1 r2 sin2 0 a2 ap2 1 for the state. = 2 and 4 2 = 3 combine to form a single system. Compare the two results. 0.? A n s w e r : 12ti2. Find the expectation value of the potential energy. t + 1) . = t!(J) = Calculate the frequency shifts in set’ for a line exhibiting the normal Zeemon effect when the applied magnetic field is 1.. .vaIues value. 2. a n d h. Find by what The volume element in spherical coordinates is r2dr sin 8 dfl constant each wavefunction must be multiplied so that: 4n s o c. x e 2 + 3oo = const. $s:. or 1 with a maximum and a minimum just as if we added two vectors vectorially of lengths 2 and 3. S2.
./‘rob/ems 253 this information. calculate the distance between the hydrogen atom and the chlorine atom which make up the diatomic molecule.803 Angstroms. Answer: 1.
rubidium. The spectrum of light then be understood by saying that the electron makes can a transition from one state to another. emitting a photon in order to conserve energy. fluorine and iodine.9 Pauli exclusion principle and the periodic table We have seen how the hydrogen atom. when a sodium atom and a chlorine atom combine to form NaCI.. such as the halogens. positively many state charged electrons. from experimental studies of spectra. such as helium and neon. Although in more complicated atoms the elnergy levels do not have the by the same numerical values ias in hydrogen. In behavior the we would not expect must the but important diiTerences exist Because of the great variety of states of all atoms to be by them. etc. or in other words. the electronic charge clouds will distance is 2. a similar picture is valid for more compliatom charge is around an Angstrom in diameter and the energy differences involved when electron few electron Similarly. or a very similar set. hydrogen atom problem electronic among of the studying mathematical solution means of SchrGdinger’s electron can be labeled emitted by hydrogen equation. and that energy changes are also of the order of a few electron volts. it has been seen how the various states of the by a set of quantum numbers. two begin to overlap.24 eV a n d t h e atoms are lbrought close together.36 Angstroms. are a nuclei In the surrounded hydrogen volts. of quantum numbers as are used for hydrogen. and ii is to be expected that the features of the interaction between atoms will be largely determined by the structure of the electronic cloud. Some atoms tend to give up an electron and form positive ions. by the states of the electrons in the atoms. potassium. atoms containing changes its In fact. Others are chemically nearly inert. chemical similar. formation of crystals. NaCl When the total energy given up per molecule formed is 4. 254 . it can be cc’ncluded that the charge clouds are of the order of a few Angstroms in size. still the state’s may be labeled same set. manyelectron atoms. may be pictured cated the as very small. ceGum. such as the alkali metals sodium. and hydrogenlike atoms. S o m e a t o m s t e n d t o a t t r a c t a n e x t r a e l e c t r o n a n d form negative ions. For example. chemical reactions. by “clouds” the in of negative cloud electricity due to the elesztron.
t h e r e a r e n valLles of 4. Therefore. we will from here on use m for the azimuthal quantum number. If n = 3. remarkably Pauli simple proposed principle the can exclusion also be prin’ciused to Loosely stated. It is observed experimentally that in the spectra of atoms having two or more electrons. as is usual in physics. 1.In addition energy IO the fact that other nuclei have larger charges than does the proton interactions shift the around somewhat. A l l s s t a t e s h a v e z e r o o r b i t a l a n g u l a r momentum. The energies were degenerate and depended only on the principal quantum number.1 ) . used I. d are possible corresponding to the & v a l u e s . So the probability density / #noo / 2 has spherical symmetry. and the wavefunctions depend only on r. e x p l a i n t h e !structure of the periodic table of the elements and the chemical behavior of the atoms of each elemerlt. n. 2. States are sornetimes designated by writ . the states s. TABLE 9. it is possible to determine the various energy levels and their quantum rumbers.ed to avoid confusion with the symbol m for mass. ljtates f o r w h i c h 4 = 0 o r e also referred1 to as s states. The second quantum number ?.1. in hydrogen. DESIGNATION OF ATOMIC STATES In solving the SchrGdinger equation for the isolated hydrogen atom. The designation is given in Table 9. T h e v a r i o u s 8 states are also denoted by letters . in explaining the same these and related This phenomena. certain lines are missing. 0. . p. . no such confusion is should occur in this chapter. t h e s e letters may be either capital or small. this principle says that no two electrons in an atom can exist quantum state. 2. 4 value 0 1 alphabetical clesignation 9 2 3 4 The rest in alahabetical order. 4 = ‘ I a r e p states. I n v a r i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n s . 1. a n d mm. It can have the possible v a l u e s 4 = 0. For example. t h e n t h e s q u a r e o f t h e o r b i t a l a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m i s 1’ = orbital angular momentum quantum numbers 4. the complications due to electroneleectron levels From a study of the spectrum of an atom. In p/e. (n .. While in the previous chapter mg with subscript was us.. . 4. called the orbital angular momentum quantum number. in lithium there are no tiransitions from n = 2 states to n = 1 states. t h a t t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n s w e r e labeled and spin quantum numbers. I f a s t a t e i s d e s c r i b e d b y a v a l u e +=I2 4(t + 1 ) .1 Alphabetic designations of states for different 4 for the orbital angular momentum q u a n t u m n u m b e r .$ = 5 s t a t e w o u l d b e a n h s t a t e . it was found b y t h e q u a n t u m n u m b e r s : n .1 in describing atomic energy Let us begin by reviewing the nomenclature levels. T h u s f o r a g i v e n v a l u e o f n . P f g d An .
. $. 4 and m. including the effect of spin.d. for an electron. 5p.256 Pauli exclusion principle ing an integer and then a letter: 3p.. on (r. e. 4. 59..2 NUMBER OF STATES The azimuthal quantum IN AN n m SHELL can have positive or negative integral values number or zero. i. 5d. there is another coordinate describing spin. then the energy levels will . for example.4p s t a t e h a s n = 4 . we only need to use the four quantum numbers n.e. 5f. Since for a given n. s. and n v a l u e s o f 4 ( 4 = 0. n. s i s a l w a y s e q u a l t o % So if we keep this fact in mind. etc.1) The arithmetic series formula gives us: (9. 4 = 1.. for a 5p state there are three possible m values. The integer refers to the value of n and the letter refers to the value of 4..1)/2] + n = n’. and m is not quite complete. T h i s g i v e s 21: + 1 v a l u e s o f m f o r a given 4. 2p. However. s = % The number s i s t h e t o t a l s p i n a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m q u a n t u m number. m can vary in integral steps from a minimum v a l u e o f . because in addition to these quantum numbers the electron has internal quantum numbers. . of states of the electron in a hydrogen atom is equal to: nl (9. with values a n d m. . = 2[n(n . the degeneracy of the electron in the hydrogen atom is actually not n’. the maximum magnitude of m is equal to 4.h.e n2 states are different because the dependence of #. in addition to the spatial coordinate r describing position of an electron. a) changes as 4 a n d m change. 5) 9. n . If n = 5. 9. and for a 3d state there are five. and the z component of spin angular momentum has eigenvalues of Thus. b u t 2n2. the possible states are 5s. 1. t h e n f o r a g i v e n n t h e t o t a l number N.e..1 ) f o r a g i v e n n . i n t e r m s o f n i s N.(r. T h u s a . If we have a manyelectron atom. i. Thus. Thus. m. Since mR is the L component of orbital angular momentum. all these n = 5 states are approximately degenerate and have the same energy.3 INDISTINGUISHABIUT’I OF PARTICLES The above considerations are valid when we have one electron in a state in a hydrogenlike atom. = m. 4. so in general an electronic wavefunction will be a function of the form where S is a spin coordinate. 0. The specification of electronic states in terms of n. In the hydrogen atom. &1/2. there are two possible values of mr. Is. m. spin angular momentum numbers... Also. to completely specify the state of an electron we need five quantum numbers. If there are 2& t 1 values of m for a given 4. Ther. T h i s m e a n s that in hydrogen the energy degeneracy is n2. 4.2) s o t h e n u m b e r N. m and m. as the angular momentum changes.4 to a m a x i m u m v a l u e o f 4.
this is not possible. such as the x component of momentum. by considering1 the expectation value of a quantity form: $(r. S1 for one electron and r2. S. In classical mechanics it was assumed that all particleseven identical particlescould be given labels to distinguish one from another.SI. IS = e’“$(r1.5) lis that: #(r2. S1 . Consider man atom. Suppose the coordinates of the electrons S2.. since total angular momentum (1 + S) is quantized.. . / il/(rl. S1. 4 ) b e e q u a l . 257 Also.3)and ( 9 . this must be the same as the probability of finding electron 2 in dV1 and electron 1 in dV2.9 .or: /~(~I.. r2. 52) 1‘dV1dVZ = / $(r2. w h e r e t h e labels before the semicolon refer I O the values of the coordinates of electron 1 and the labels after the semicolon refer to values of tile coordinates of electron 2. which has two electrons.S2irlrS1) where e t* . r2. S. It is of importance to consider this hythat electrons electrons.S1)( 2dVzdVl.4) Equa particles requires t i o n s (9. T h u s . While a completely rigorous demonstration of this fact is rather difficult.. indistinguishable from each other. it has been found The resLlltare ing wavefunction will be rC/(r. independent of coordinates. S o t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n c o u l d b e w r i t t e n #(r. If dp. S1. Sz)dV. We shall not need to do this here.3) and electron 2 in In quantum mechanical systems of identical iparticles. pothetical “exchange” of and electron 1 is given coordinates r2. so that they may depend on 4 as well as n. is the probability of finding electron 1 in dV. 51) 1 2dVdVl. such as helium. S2) (9. 3 /ndistinguishabi/ity in general be shifted. SI .r1~S1)1~ (95) When the magnitudes of two numbers are equal. SI. rl. S. which electron we call 1 and which we call 2 should make no difference. factor. = dVz = dxzdy2dz2. this involves an integral of the (9. r2. T h u s . because are interchanged.S2) / ‘d’VldV2 dxldyldzl (9.7) . except possibly for a phase factor. t h e most general1 conclusion which can be drawn from equation (9.2 = 1 $(rl.S2. tlhe numbers themselves must be equal. This is because the outer electron wavefunctions penetrate the cloud of inner electrons to different extents depending on 4. r2. that is. r2. SZ. the SZ. The wavefunction $ will then depend on two sets of variables: r l . = /rl/(r2. that the two probabilities in (9.dV. m. the constancy of + can be seen to be quite reasonable. S2 for t h e o t h e r .6) some unknown phase The phase factor @ is actually a constant. leading to different ‘average potential energies.~~. it may be more useful in some cases to label states by total angular momentum quantum numbers j. e”.). then since the particles are indistinguishable. however.). But the probability of finding electron El in dV1 and electron 1 in dVZ is: dml = / $(r2. rather than 4 and m. lndistinguish’ability of rl. since 1 e” 1 = 1 . electron 2 is given coordinates II.S:~)/~ r l . S2.
1 . S 2. SZ = r.S1) S u b s t i t u t i n g E q u a t i o n ( 9 . e ‘“O.. S2. r2. S. dealing with identical particles of integral spin. w e c o n c l u d e t h a t $(r2. Wavefunctions S1.6). rI. the new wavefunction is equal to the old. After exchanging two particles. S.. r.e’” = O. 51 = r2. multiplied by e”. a p p l i e s ..l for electron 1 and rt282rn2rnr2 for electron 2. S2.258 Pcdi exclusion principle which must remain unchanged if the particles ore interchanged: (Px) = J~*(r2. rl. representing a physical quantity. the some thing will happen. It tallows ity of finding two electrons at the same place with the same spin must be zero. S. S) = #(r. S. 5.S2:r1. :. 1 0 ) i n t o E q u a t i o n (9. w i t h nl 4 lrnlm.9) which can be true for oil differential operators only if @ is a constant. W h e n rC/(rz.!.o in addition to Equation (9. negative. If we carry out a second exchange of the same two particles..52.N. we start with a wavefunction #(r. Experimentally.6). 5. for any differential operator O. changing SI) = it into its SI.r. con we have r. (9. r. Sp. S? Since the wovefunctions describing electrons ore antisymmetric. we find $(r.S2) Exchanging two particle!. T h u s we have two possibilities upon exchanging identical particles: (9. r. r. 9.) ore said to be symmetric under particle so that the minus sign under exchange. 51 )dVdV. r2. upon interchanging two electrons the wovefunction will be mul.rl. S. rl. SZ.r1. called fermions.. 5. (9.) = ezi’$(r2.iplied by .S1)e‘* f/ & + ! $ ( 1 e’“#(r2. ). that is. then after exchanging that the probabil two electrons. e x c h a n g e .10) +(r1. S u p p o s e w e a s s u m e d that t w o e l e c t r o n s c o n e a c h b e d e s c r i b e d b y q u a n t u m numbers ntmm.52) = e”$(r2.) = #(r.8) operator Hence the operator e ‘* ( plXop P1 + PQe+‘* must be equivalent to the +pz IOP xoP . called arises when exchanging particles of halfintegral spin. More generally. If ezi* = 1. and s u p p o s e w e t r i e d t o w r i t e a n o v e r a l l w a v e f u n c t i o n a s a p r o d u c t o f single .4 PAUL1 EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE Suppose we ask whether two electrons con hove equal r and S. They are e” = + l o r .r2.1.S1) = (+l)#(r1. S). or rl. and therefore e”* == 1. we hove: (9. t h e w o v e f u n c t i o n s o r e s a i d t o b e antisymmetric of these possibilities ore found in nature.11) $(r2. Since an electron has spin % a n d i t i s a fermion. S?) which hove the property +#(rl. then there are two possibilities for the phase factor e”.. 5). has the effect of either leoving the wavefunction unchanged #(r2.. Both the + l arises w h e n The minus sign bosons.S1.51.
4. construct a wavefunction describing a state of the same energy by taking a linear combination: $f(rlS). T h u s .d that this simple product function is no. m. ancl e l e c t r o n 1 i s i n s t a t e n2 x2m2m. a n d r2. ( x . and hence does not satis. We can. = rn... 4 1 m.fy the condition of indistinguishability of particles.m. (r1.x2. singleparticle combination signs for the two terms gives us a correctly “antisymmetrized” overall wavefunction. SI )#n2t2m2ms2(r2r SZ) VT U p o n intercholnge easily So seen a to be linear of the coordinater8 of r.t antisymmetric. the individual singleparticle wavefunctions are described by values of a r e *“(x) b y tin. we = 0 in the same singleparticle (9.m. w h i l e t h e electron 2 is in state n. S2. = nr/L. S ) .13).2(r2rS2) +(rl. and electron 2 is in s t a t e n2 x2mzms2. Equation (9... a n d a p a r t f r o m s p i n t h e wavefunction. k. Thus. and n2 &mc. W i t h s p i n .2. however: n.<2S2) = 5 [!&.s2) (X2. (.~.x1 I s..15) state.. Although we have been discussing the situation for electrons in an atom. = rns2.. one c:ould w r i t e t h e a n t i s y m m e t r i c w a v e f u n c t i o n a s : ti(x. 11252) = L [tin.m.S..(r1rS~)1C/“2~2m2m.~.m . for two electrons in a one dimensional box.r2.2.le 259 particle hydrogenlike wavefunctions: = ~.2m.m.2.. Suppose states were identical.. it is immediately seen that $ = 0 an impossibility.+nlm.. because of the indistinguishability of electrons and the related fact that the wavefunction must be antisymmetric. The first term could be interseconcl term could be interpreted by saying that preted by saying that electron 1 is in state nl $.5). M”2m.4 Pooli exclusion princip.. t h e a b o v e f u n c t i o n i s product wavefunctions with oppositce antisymmetric.. it is impossible for the two electrons to be This leads to the statement of the Pauli exclusion principle for states in which the electron wave function is approximately an antisymmetric linear combination of . rn. S2:M”2m$2(X1 Then in this ca’se also..9.m. i f t w o n o n i n t e r a c t i n g p a r t i c l e s w e r e i n t h e b o x w i t h wave. T h e n .s’l. t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n s w o u l d b e denotecl functions !bnlrn. ml = mz a n d m.S..12) W e w o u l d fin. = n2. however. Thus. if the two states are the same: 111 = “2. T h e n .s = VC&/T sin (nr/L)x.l find: $(xl. a similar situation holds no matter what system is being considered. the two electrons that both are lboth partially in the states nl tlmlm.. The factor l/2/‘? is for correct normalization.14) . f r o m a n i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e a n t i s y m m e t r i c w a v e f u n c t i o n i n E q u a t i o n (9. and iC/. S.2(X2’ !i2) I Sl )I (9. .S2) (9. = 42..>.
in an atom at least one of the quantum numbers n. 9. Since there is a tendency for isolated systems in nature to seek the lowest possible energy state. must be in No two electrons quant’um in an atom This can means exist nonthat in the same quantum state. has the possible v a l u e s &% . or state of lowest energy. In these diagrams. labeled two’ possible states of lowest enby n = 1. m. Figure 9. m = 0. the single eleciron arrange themselves so that the overall atomic energy will be a minimum. which has two electrons. consider helium. In other words. m = 0.% . must be of the principle singleparticle two wavefunctions.% b y a n could be represented in an energy level diagram. m. such as in a gas discharge. Presence of on orrow up cmr an arrow down. Figure 9.260 Pouli exc/us..5 EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE AND ATOMIC ELECTRON STATES The above discussion of the exclusion principle applies to any two electrons in a system no matter how many there are. 4 = 0. n. a n d m. = +% or m. For hydrogen. = % . m. m. so in hydrogen there are actuully ergy. 4.on products vanishing. if the wavefunction is to be electrons different states.1. the presence of the arrow indicates which level the electron occupies. for would ordinarily be found in a state of n = 1. the overall wpavefunction d e p e n d s o n m o r e v a r i a b l e s . If we assume that the hydrogen NOW . to a 4 and the magnetic very good approxima tion. represents on electron occupying that state w i t h m. which means that the energy does not depend on the quantum number m. orrow p o i n t i n g d o w n : 1 . The ground state of hydrogen m. m.p a r t i c l e w a v e f u n c t i o n w i l l h a v e a s e t ntmm.1 0 +1 “=2P _ m=I 0 +I “=2 n=l t . Thus. where the four quantum numbers. we would expect that thss electrons in an atom woulld example. = + $4 b y a n a r r o w p o i n t i n g u p : f . sponding to the two spin orientations. which is different from that of every other singleparticle wave function. I n a n a t o m . t h e n e v e r y s i n g l e . in two ways correP=O 9=1 Y=O P=l m = . 4 = 0. = + ‘/2 and n = 1. for the two electrons different.=It  Diagram inclicating the lower levels of the electron in CI hydrogen atom. the energy does not depend on the spin. in a hydrogen atom.1. the orbital angular momentum quantum rnumber quantum number m must both equal zero. since the ground state (also called n o r m a l state) is a state of n = 1. except that wheln there are more than two electrons. 4. This is the case unless the atom is put in contact with matter. are used to describe the electron s t a t e s . where the electron can be excited to higher states. respectively. We shall discuss here only atoms as normally found in naturein their ground state. The quantum number m.. However. = . = . We shall represent states of m.
= . This is similar to helium. a n d t o satisfy the exclusion principle. Because the n = 2 electron is less tightly bound than n = 1 electrons. the state of Atomic electron states 261 lowest energy would b e t h a t s t a t e f o r w h i c h b o t h e l e c t r o n s h a d n = 1. Lithium ground state.3. which has three electrons. with s p i n !7=0 “Z2  n=. Since helium has two electrons in a closed n = 1 shell. W e t h e n s a y t h a t thme n = 1 shell is filled. are shown in Figure 9. After one electron is removed from Li. it is known that Li forms positive ions and tends to give up one electron in chemical reactions. Likewise.5 quantum numbers can be used approximately. ++ Figure 9. So it should be relatively easy to add enough energy to the Li atom to remove the electron in the n = 2 state. and in fact helium is one of the gases which are known as inert glases. w i t h n = 1 . In chemistry. .3. if one electron has m. with the third P=O n=2 + n=. the lowest energy state is one in which the n = 1 shell is filled and the third electron goes into a state of next lowest energy. the other e l e c t r o n m u s t h a v e m. . the ground state of the remaining ion has two electrons in the n = 1 state. ++. Having two electrons in the n = 1 state.2. we would expect the chemical properties of lithium io be quite different from those of helium. Illustration at helium ground state. it takes less energy to remove the n = 2 electron than the n = 1 electron. it has a valence of + 1. The possible energy level diagrams for lithium.9. Since the n = 1 electrons are very tightly bound. ++ Figure 9. which is an n = 2 state. af up and spin down. completely exhausts all the possibilities for different sets q u a n t u m numlbers closed. it is difficult to remove another electron from the Li ion.m = 0 . This state is illustrated in the energly level diagram of Figure 9. and lithium has one more electron outside a closed shell. The remaining atom would then be an ion with a net positive charge.2. which has three electrons.% (spin’ down). it should be much more dific:ult to remove an electron in He. Thlen 8 = 0. or In lithium. := +l/z (spin up).
5’ m e a n s t h a t i n t h e 1s s t a t e there are two electrons. so the mag n e t i c q u a n t u m n u m b e r m c a n h a v e t h e t h r e e v a l u e s 311 or 0. Thus. so the atom with n = 2 shell closed (neon) is chemically inert. with The atom with nine electrons. where the first symbol n is an integer clenoting the value of the principal quantum number.4. If one electron were added to a flourine . there are four electrons. which is a 2p ground state of the entire atom would be represented by 2p is a state of orbital clngular state. there are two different possible m. be represented by the symbols: ls22s22p6. has the configuration ls22s22p5. momentum quantum number 4 = 1. For an atom with 10 electrons. 1. Beryllium ground state. and one left over which has to go into the next higher energy state. so the ground state has two electrons in 1s states. in beryllium. electron in a 2s state. there will be two electrons in the 1s states. In the ground state of this atom. means that there are two electrons in the The next element is boron. {= 0 nt state. the n = 2 shell is completely exceptionally stable Just as the atom with n = 1 shell closed (helium) is an inert gas. two in the 2s states. the and closed shells tend to be This woluld of ten electrons. In such an approximation. v a l u e s . Thus. The symbol 2s’ state. and none in 2p states. with five electrons.4. In the next most complicated atom. The 2p levels lie slightly above the 2s levels. beryllium. 9. ard the third symbol is a superscript equal to the number of electrons in the n = 2. h e l i u m : 1s’.6 ELECTRON CONFIGUIRATIONS The electronic configuration as follows: of atoms in their ground state is sometimes indicated symbolically 1~~2s’. beryllium: Thus a sequence of symbols of the form ntN is written.262 Pavli exclusion principle not matter whether the third electron is drawn 7 or magnetic interactions. For each of these v a l u e s o f m . hydrogen: 1s. S o t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f different 2p states is six. two in 2s states. flourine. *=2rtI/ ‘t I  n=lr+ Figure 9. the The state ls22s22p’. An atom in which the 2p state is completely filled would be an atom having a total configurations in nature. the second symbol 4 is CI letter representing the value of orbital angular momentum q u a n t u m n u m b e r 4. closed. only five electrons in the 2p subshell. It (does 1 since here we are neglecting 2s states with spin up or spin down are degenerate. The energy level diagram for beryllium in the ground state is shown in Figure 9. l i t h i u m : 1~~2s.
one I+ Figure 9. subshell there are eighteen electrons. is chemically very similar to lithium. expect to form positive ions.9 . before any of the ten 3d states is filled. It takes six electrons to fill the 3p level by itself. so the electronic configuration of sodium could be w r i t t e n a s ls22s22p63s’. two in the 2s and six in the 2p level. but their sequence . the result would be an ion with a negative charge.5 the sodium s 4 n=l figurations. Sodium atom in its lowest state. In general. and the extra electron could go intlo the 2p state to form a closed shell.:I. According to the exclusion principle. So in tfiis case. the positions of the energy levels are very difficult to calculate. Sodium has one extra electron outside a closed n = 3 shell. an inert gas is formed when the 3p is filled.5. It is found experimentally that every tirne a p level is completely filled up. and two electrons to fill the 3s level. sodium. So for an atom with the configuration ls22s22p63s23p6. and is an inert gas. an inert gas is formed. The eleventh elfectron goes into the 3s level. Since closed shells tend to form exceptionally stable comnwould sodium ‘. it has a v a l e n c e o f + l a n d g i v e s u p onIs electron in chemical reactions. the first 10 of these 11 electrons go into the lowest energy states with two in the Is. In the energy level diagram of Figure 9. The reason this occurs is that the nd levels lie so much higher in energy in manyelectron atoms.7 I N E R T G A S E S The next level after the 3s level which fills up with electrons as we go higher in the periodic table is the 3p level. The element argon has 18 electrons. So flourine in chemical reactions The atom with 11 electrons. atom in its lowest state is represented. 7 /fled gases 263 atom. should accept one electron and have u valence of . because of the (complicated electronelectron repulsive forces.
6d . in any closed subshell considering. and the experimental fact that the general order in which the electron subshells are filled up is given in Table ‘9.2 1s \ L 2A 2 p i. 3d. Also. 4s. 5d. 2p. 4 occurring. the contribution to the total magnetic moment of the electrons in a closed 1s shell will be zero. 5p. 5s. there are two electrons whose spins point in opposite directions. the total nLlmber of electrons is even and there are just as many subshell should be zero. So the electronic magnetic moments of all the intert TABLE 9. 4f. magnetic moments cancel. 3p. The resulting order is: Is.2. 4p. so the contribution to total intrinsic magnetic moment from electrons in any closed since all positive and negative m states are filled for eac:h gases should be zero. we can predict the numbers of electrons in the inert gases: Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon 2 electrons 10 electrons 18 electrons 36 54 86 electrons electrons electrons (ls2) ( ls22s22p6) ( ls22s22p63s23p6) ( ls22s22p63s23p64s23d’04p6) ( ls22s22p’3s23p64s23d’04p65s24d’05p6) ( ls22s22p63s23p64s23d”4p65s24d”5p6 6s24f’45d’06p6) In a closed 1s shell. the orbital electrons with spin up as with spin down. Silrlilarly. 7s. 6p. Using the fact that higher closed p levels give rise to inert gases.264 Pauli exclusion principle can be determined from experiment. The total angular momentum (1 + S) of th is closed shell is equal to zero. 2s. 3s. 4d. of the type we have been Also. This diagram provides an easy way of remembering the order in which the levels fill. 6s.
which just has one elec19. these have one fewer electron than the inert gases. 11. They are fluorine. the electrons in lo.6 and 9. the elements with one fewer electron are those with 9. they t e n d t o f o r m i o n s o f n e g a t i v e c h a r g e a n d h a v e a v a l e n c e o f . Hydrogen. 36. which has one less electron than helium. 9 Alkali metals 265 P. Apart from hydrogen. so that the spectra of the alkali metals are very similar to that of hydrogen. sodium. Energy levels of lithium Figure 9. The corresponding tron. These elements are called alkali metals.6. Figures 9.1 in chemical reactions. chlorine. Energy levels of sodium.9 ALKALI METALS Consider those elements which have one extra electron. in order to complete their subshells. need one electron. Since the halogens. 54 and 86 electrons.7. which illustrate their similarity .9 . These elements tend to have valence t outside the c:losed subshell has a relatively low 1 since the extra electron energy and is easi#ly biniding removed. outside a closed p subshell. 18.wer subshells tencl to screen out the nuclear charge. These elements are called halogens. 37. iodine and astatine. names of the alkali metals are: lithium. is also usually classed OS on ~alkuli. is also sometimes classed as a halogen. the alkalis have the following numbers of electrons: 3.7 are the energy level diagrams for outermost electrons of lithium and sodium. 35. p   D  Figure 9.to that of hydrogen. . bromine. 17. Since the inert gases have 10.8 H A L O G E N S Let us next consider the group of elements which need one more electron in otder to fill up a p subshell. cesium and francium. . 53 and 85 electrons. potassium. Hydrogen. 87. Also. rubidium. 55. ‘.
The chemical behavior of these elements is largely determined similar. after the 4s states. Since it is total angular momentum rather than orbital or spin angular momentum quantum 1. In the other case. the ten 3d are called transition to some nonzero elerrlents. there are two possibilities: spinorbit and 3f:. states are beginning to fill up. They should usually have a valence of +2.2 a n d 3P1. For alkali metals in the ground state where 4 = 0 . In this group. These which was discussed parallel sodium which is a 3P state. be labeled single electron.. particularly in the rare earth group Z = 57 to Z = 70. elements 24 (Cr) and 29 (Cu) have only olne 4s electron. the inert gases irl the last column. if . The 3fsj2 + 3. strontium. starting with scandium. In the heavier atoms. with elements of similar chemical properties arranged in columns. For example. the rules for adding angular momenta become quite complicated. Since the spin S can be either parallel to 1 or antiparallel to than zero.. When the Four the first excited state of j = “/. trons to form a closed shell. numbers starred by there are not known precisely. but the inner incomplete 3 d subshell magnetic moments of the atoms.3 the periodic table of the elements is shown. it is n e g a t i v e . lies near the middle of the transition group at Z = 26. In the second column are the mietals beryllium. barium and radium. These elements have two electrons outside a closed p subshell. which has an atomic number Z = 21. The alkali metals are put in the first column. and so In all these these elements elements the are outermost chemically elecvery trons are 6s electrons. or j = % . the energy states of the electrons should. These two states are interaction angular orbital momenta are a s i n t h e 3f3. leading to a valance of 2. for a which is conserved in atomic systems.2 state lies slightly above the 3P1. number j.4. magnesium. When more than two electrons are present. Iron. either j = 4 by values of the total angular momentum + % or j = 4 % when .2 state in energy.2 a n d 3fI12 + 3SI12 transitions thus give rise to two closely spaced yellow lines. many of the transition elements have interesting magnetic properties. The actual order in which the states are filled up is given in detail in Table 9.8 is greater the outermost electrons. states are usually denoted by subscripts: separated in the slightly in energy due to the spin previous chapter. Thus.2 state. their chemical properties are largely determined gives rise by their two outer 4s electrons. the order in which electrons go into the various states is somewhat irregular. the spinorbit interaction is positive. t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momentum quantum number is j = 4 + % = % . number of electrons (atomic number) increases to the right. one of the most magnetizable of all substances. The o x y g e n a n d s u l p h u r OCCUI in the third column from the right and need two elecIt is seen from Table 9. The elements calcium. strictly speaking.3 corresponding ten elements that.2 6 6 Pauli exclusion principle 9.2. h e n c e t h e 3fX.s1.10 PERIODIC TABLE OF EILEMENTS In Table 9. The possible values of the total angular momentum quantum number may be obtained by considering all the possible w a y s i n w h i c h s p i n % and orbital angular momentum 4 c a n b e a d d e d o r s u b tracted from each other to give integral or odd halfintegral j.
0 1 0 0 101 1 0 2 1 0 3 1 0 4 1 0 5 1 0 6 Fr Ra AC Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cl Es Fm Md No .TABLE I Ii 3 4 9.2 B 13 Al 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 29 30 31 C 14 N 15 0 16 10 F Ne 18 17 Na 19 Mg 20 Si 32 P 33 S 34 Cl 35 Ar 36 K Ca 37 38 SC Ti 39 40 V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr 55 Cs 87 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 60 69 70 Y 71 zr 72 Nb MO 73 74 Te Ru R h 75 76 77 Pd Ag fd 70 79 80 in 01 Sn Sb ie 82 03 84 i 85 Xe 86 Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy 88 09 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 Ho Er Tm Yb Lu IIf 99 Ta W Re OS Ir Pt Au Hg TI Pb Bi PO At Em u.3 Periodic System of the Elements 2 He 5 6 7 8 9 Li :: Be .
__ 11. 4. H 2. H e . S C 22. Fe 27. K 20. G a 32. Y 40. V 24. B r 36. Zr 41. A r 19.~ a. M n 26. R h 46. G e 33. F 10. S 17. C l 18. Ti 23. N b 42. A s 34. C o 28.268 Pauli exclusion principle TABLE 9.18 electrons 0 1 2 3 5 5 6 7 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 (rypton Configuration16 electrons 1 2 4 5 5 7 8 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 . N e . 7. 6. S i 15.__ 3. C r 25. Li Be B C N T Electron Configurations oi the Elements  IS Subshell 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 rleon config rrationelectrons 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 4rgon Configrration. P 16. M O 43. Pd . 5. A l 14. Ca 21. Tc 44. Sr 39. N a 12.~ 1. N i 29. R b 38.4 Element . Z n 31. M g 13. S e 35. K r ~37. C u 30. R u 45.
70 Periodic fable TABLE 9. 77. 53. 64. 50. 67. 75. 88. 65. 60. 79. 82. 57.__ 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  0 0 1 1’ 1: 1. 74. 1’ 0 0 1 1. 80. 54. 1’ 1’ 1’ 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1 2 2 2* 2* 2* 2* 2 2 2 2* 2* 2* 2* 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  1 Shells 1 S to 5P filled68 electrons At Em Fr Ra AC Th Pa U starred cxre uncertain. 48. 66.9. 68. 73. 56. 59. 91. 58. 72. 51. 63. 84. 69. 83. 52.4 (Continued) 4s 4p 4d 4f ___ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1* 2” 3* 4* 6 7 7 a* 9* 10* 11* 13 14 5s 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5p 5d 6s 6p 269 . 92. Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta w Re OS Ir Pt Au Hg TI Pb Bi PO 6d . 85. 78. 49. 70.) __ 1 2 2* 2* 2* 2  *(Numbers . 71. 55. 86. 87. al. 90. 62. Palladium configuration~46 electrons . 76. 89.Element 47. 61.
270 Pauli exclusion principle for two n = 1 electrons.. This spectrum is produced by the deceleration of high energy electrons. . the continuous xray spectrum was discussed. The 1 1 I l.‘d ll h. 4. E is the electron kinetic energy. I(% + % )fi = h a n d jh = (% . photons corresponding to electrons going from one electron shell to another are not observed in manyelectron atoms because the lower shells are already filled. the total spin S = 5. The obvious levels to consider here are the lower levels of the bound electrons in the atoms.KU K. = 42 = 0. These are shown in the energy level diagram of Figure 9.shells.8. There are two electrons in a closed K :shell corresponding to n := 1. upper levels do not differ by enough energy to give the ‘observed xray energies. shells follow. a j = 0 state. other electrons cannot go i n t o t h e m . and eight in a closed 1 shell with n = 2. $= 0. giving off a photon. H o w e v e r . because of the exclusion principle. In addition to this continuous spectrum. The frequency distribution depends on the probability distribution of electron decelerations and on the probability where distribution of frequencies for a given charged particle deceleration. t h e n e x t w i t h n = 2 is called the L shell. the ground state of the helium atom should be 9. and because of the exclusion principle.. Discreteness of photon energies ordinarily means that a particle makes a transition from one discrete energy level to another. N. then the M. . The innermost shell with n = 1 is called the K s h e l l . t h e s e a r e $7 = values will occur.j Figure ... .% )h = 0. i f hiclhenergy electrons are shot into a metal. It is j = 13. only one of these Thus. = E/h.11 X RAYS When we studied the quantum nature of light in Chapter 5. + 52 can be a d d e d t o g i v e t w o p o s s i b l e v a l u e s . 0. there are often sharp peaks at certain energies. However.8. Series of xray lines result from transitions to unoccupied states in the inner so that outer shell electrons can make transitions to the unoccupied holes. such transiout of the inner shells tions do occur because the electrons knock other elec:trons 9. In this section we will discuss the discrete part of the spectrum. Ordinarily. The maximum xray frequency obtained is given by the DuaneHunt law: u.
<which arises from a similar 1216 angstroms. the remaining t h e K shell ‘screens out one of the protons. line in terms of i! and X.7.17) b’e These estimates of inner shell cause the nuclear potential electl.. Equation (8. (Z .18) (47WJtr)= The Lyman alpha line in the transition. I$. a n d ‘y a r e c o n s t a n t s law. c o n m a k e t r a n s i t i o n s t o t h e h o l e l e f t b e h i n d .112me4/2 x(4?rcOi5)z 2= (9. In 1913 Moseley was the first to recognize lines depended on Z in a simple fashion.19) 2: = 42. M ..7 7 x mys 4 = 0.. l i k e w i s e . electrons i n s h e l l s L./(Z . etc. The following simple model works well for the calculation of K. corresponding t h e I . Lg.47). lines.. This is called Moseley’s a n d y = 1. The wavelength of the K. N . an estimate of would be: electron in its energy EL = 167 . should then be: AK. K. = spectrum. the effective nuclear charge acting on on electron is less than Ze because of screening due to the presence of negative charge in the same and inner shells. . The energy of the K.16) The energy. Also. Hence..9. if Ze is the charge of the nucleus. practically all of the electrons in shells inside a given shell are effective in screening out a portion of the nuclear charge.13 for K. an L electron knocked out g i v e s I .M. after falling to the K shell. . . . depending on what line is observed.1)2 The (9. . some portion of the electrons in a given shell are effective in screening out the nuclear charge for other electrons in the same shell. from experimental data that xray H e founld t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n X = h. xray line is then approximately: E = El .( l2 1 _ 2= ) (9.l)=me”/2 ‘1 . has a wavelength of hyclrogen X. shells down to the K shell. However. . 7 1 angstroms. shells have electrons which could make transitions downward to a hole in the 1. These are called K. If a 271 K electron is knocked out by the electron beam. is very roughly: E K = 1 (jr  l12me4/2 x 12 (4xt. K.EK ( = Z . Similarly. w a v e l e n g t h o f M o l y b d e n u m s h o u l d t h e n b e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0. for Molybdenum. shell.y)‘! a g r e e d w i t h e x p e r i m e n t v e r y w e l l . is largle compared to that of electrons in the inner shells. N. T h e o b s e r v e d w a v e l e n g t h i s 0 . The energies of the x rays can be estimated by (assuming that the electrons in the various shells have energies given by an equation similar to that for hydrogen. w h e r e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h a t Xc = 1276 anegstroms. Moseley found X. . a series of xray lines is observed when a K electron is to transitions from knocked out.cFor example. lines. or 1.on energies are fsairly good for large Z. 0. Thus. = L!.h)= (9. series wavelengths: For an L electron with one electron knocked out of the K shell. . . . .! a n g s t r o m s . N. The precise amount of screening is diffcult to estimatle. M.
because the s e l e c t i o n r u l e A& = &l prevents transitions from the S states in the the K shell. out of the atom. t h e s i x P e l e c t r o n s i n t h e L sllell T h i s i s d u e t o r e l a t i v i s t i c aeffects are split into two levels. which has only S states. due to Coulomb forces. Thus. when absorbed. There are several causes of energy splitting in the I shell. O n e woL#ld behavior is seen in Figur: be seen for the K shell and five for the M shell.9 in lead. and spinorbit splitting. The three L shell levels #can absorption at frequencies where be seen in experiments when x rays are absorbed in the energy is just sufficient to knock an electron materials.9. line actually consists of two closely spaced lines rather than one.272 Pauli exclusion principle It is found experimentally that the K. in a particular shell state. as compared to the wave function for the P electrons. A l s o . Mass absorption coefficient for lead showing K. the S electrons will be more .+ightly b o u n d . has sudden jumps in I shell to E n e r g y i n MeV Figure 9. A continuous Kray spectrum. One is due to the fact that the S e l e c t r o n s i n t h e L shell have larger wave functions near the nucleus. L and M absorption edges. Only two closely spaced lines are seen rather than three. The spin can be up or d o w n . Three such absorption edges are seen for the I s h e l l . T h i s g i v e s a n e n e r g y s p l i t t i n g b e t w e e n S and P s u b s h e l l s . due to energy splitting in the I shell. This 9. g i v i n g i = ‘/2 a n d j = “/2 s t a t e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t e n e r g i e s d u e t o t h e s e effects. .
the nuclear magnetic quantum nulnber v a l u e s & 1. we have the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the nuclei. In the case of the in = 1 s t a t e s . Hence. which must b e a d d e d t o t h e a n g u l a r momentea of the rest of the system to give the totol If we assume the two electrons go into their ground state in the molecule. and i. with opposite spin and zero orbital angular momentum. Hence. and almost pure parahydrogen EXCHANGE When two OF IDENTICAL particles are PARTICLES exchanged. Another exchange of t h e s a m e t w o partmlcles returns to the original state. t h e s p i n s a r e p a r a l l e l . also are found to have spin % . these four states all o c c u r w i t h e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y . e’*.AND PARAHYDROGEN The nuclei of hydrogen are protons which. Since the I o w e s t number for Iorthohydrogen h a s a l o w e r ipossible temperature!s. the magnitude of the wavefunction must be unchanged and the warefunction can at most be multiplied by a phase factor. Likewise for parahydrogen. the spin is antisymmetric and the space part symmetric. Thus the space part of the wavefunction must b e antisymmletric. and are indistinguishable particles. The total number of different spin states is four. and thus a lower energy ground state. kinetic energy of rotation. must be even for parahydrogen and odd for orthohydrogen. while it is 0 for polrahydrogen. There is only one j0 = 0 state. like electrons.O. as predicted.. when a hydrogen molecule is formed.. results. This leads to the fact that the rotational quantum numbers. parallel.Summary . Ordinarily. due to endoverend tumbling of the molecule. == % ‘95 = 0. F o r e”@ = . Consider the angular momenta of the nuclear spins by themselves.1 . no measurement can tell the differ identical ence. so e2’* = 1 or e” = :t 1. It is found that orthohydrogen is three times as plentiful in nature as parahydrogen. Because of the different possible rotational states. The j” = 1 case occurs if the spins are parallel. Ifir. then the total angular momentum of the molecule is due to the protons. parahydrogen of hydrogen molecule. When hydrogen molecules clre f o r m e d o n a p l a t i n u m c a t a l y s t a t v e r y l o w they form at the lowest energy. the hydrogen molecule is formed in a chemical reactlon in which nuclear spins do not play any significant role. = 0 occurs if the spins are antim. q u i t e differelnt specific heats are observed at low ternperature for the two kinds orbital angular momentum quantum is 1. The total angular momentum j” of the two IIUclear spins can be either j” = % + Vz = 1 or j. T h e n t h e s t a t e s in = 1 should occur three times as often as the in = 0 s t a t e s i n n a t u r e T h e in = 1 state is called orthohydrogen.12 ORTHO. a n d t h e s p i n p a r t o f t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i s symmetric under proton exchange.” can have the three 273 = 1. Thus. a n d the j” = 0 state is called parahydrogen. w e s a y t h a t t h e wlavefunction is antisymmetric under exchange .
sign in front of the function. so that in the ground state. Xray spectra are by the shell into which the electron falls.274 ~auli exclusion principle of two particles. The antiPauli exclusion principle: No state. labeled M.!. . F o r a g i v e n &. These gases are very inactive chemically. corresponding to n = 1. For integral spin particles. and the function is multiplied by minus one at each examong the single partiwith a + or . fermions. this is found to be true for halfintegral spin particles. Such a line results when an electron is knocked out of a lowlyitlg shell in the atom and another electron falls into the resulting empty state. By the Pauli exclusion principle. The electronic energies for atoms other than h y d r o g e n d e p e n d a p p r e c i a b l y o n n a n d 4 . . such as in sodium or calcium. the wave function is sym PAW EXCLUSION PRIINCIPLE If the Schrodinger equaiion is satisfied by a prodlJct of singleparticle wavewave functions. T h e r e a r e n v a l u e s o f 8 for a given n. and the atom has a valence of 1 lor 2. these states are closely degenerate in m and m. This results in the two identical fermions can exist in the same singleparticle ATOMIC ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS T h e h y d r o g e n q u a n t u m riumbers n .. the maximum number of electrons in a shell is equal to the number of states in the shell. . . The electrons go to the lowest energy configuration. symmetric function is the sum of these. generally leaving only the last few electrons in unfilled shells. such as in fluorine or oxygen. experimentally. . m a n d m. When the rnumber of electrons completely fills the P states in the lowest energy shells. the atom acquires these electrons readily and has a v a l e n c e o f . an antisymmetric wavefunction under exchange can be generated by starting with such a product.sible cle products are obtainecl permutations of partilcles function two at a time.. If there are one or two electrons outside a closed shell. Thus energy shells are specified by “XN. The xray energy may be esti . metric under exchange with e’* = + 1. If a shell is filled except for 1 or 2 electrons. an inert gas results. there are 24 + 1 values of m . X RAYS In addition to the continuous spectrum of x rays due to accelerated electrons.1 or 2. If particles are exchanged in this product c h a n g e . I. In the absence of magnetic fields. This leads to 2nZ states for a given n. the lower energy inner shells become filled.. bosons. 3. there are ordinarily sharp xray lines. h a s t w o p o s s i b l e v a l u e s . The inner shells are denoted by K. . w h e r e N gives the number of electrons in a shell. erritting a photon in the process. 4. these electrons are easily lost. c a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y b e u s e d t o describe electronic states in atoms.. e v e n t u a l l y a l l po. a n d m. This sum is zero if any two of the single particle functions are the same.
p)‘me4 2 (47rtJi)‘n’ w i t h Z t h e n u m b e r o f p r o t o n i n t h 8: n u c l e u s a n d p the total number of electrons in shells of smaller n. W h a t i s t h e l o w e s t p o s s i b l e consistent Answer: &. of hydrogen.olecule gen molecule H2. Answer: E = E. n2 = 3 .1 . u n d e r exchange.1 (X2)Icd(X. s = 1 a n d III. and thus the rest o f t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i s a n t i s y m m e t r i c . s o t h a t b o t h p a r t i c l e s c a n h a v e t h e s a m e q u a n t u m n u m b e r s . Differences in these energies give approximately the observed xray energies. show that the wave 3. 1 . Suppose that three noninteracting identical electrons sliding OII a circular wire of radius w i t h t h e Pauli e x c l u s i o n p r i n c i p l e ? of spin % and mass (energy m were o. = 0./ma’ a single particle are: 4. + 1 with the spin function symmetric. i 1 12. S h o w t h a t t h e s y m m e t r i c (and o n t i s y m m e t r i c f u n c t i o n s u n d e r e x c h a n g e a r e : . 2.Problems mated by using the fact that E ” = the _ stlell energies are approximately hydrogenlike: 2 7 5 1 (Z . w h e r e t h e orrows i n d i c a t e m. I f nl = 1 . have definite and thus to different energies and specific heats. ORTHO AND PARAHYDROGEN occurs in the hydro An example where the exclusion principle affects a m. c a l c u l a t e t h e expectati(Jn v a l u e o f ithe e n e r g y o f t h e s y s t e m .#~~(xI ) + three more terms] Iproblem.. + E3. +p (Xl )$. a17d symmetries. w h a t w o u l d t h e w o v e f u n c t i o n b e ? Answer: ic =. The four possible combinations of spin wave functions for two electrons are: 112.2 (x~). = 2/vsin (nrx/L). Because rotational states this l’eads to different possible rotational states for the two s = 0. p a r t i c l e . 1. If the spins are parallel. in states nl a n d nz. where the two protons are fermions. )I. 0 . For the opposite symmetries hold. Using the twoparticle wavefunction of the previous f u n c t i o n (does n o t v a n i s h i f t h e p a r t i c l e s a r e i n t h e s a m e s t a t e .2(x2) + 1c. a n d t h e s u b s c r i p t i n d i c a t e s t h e 4. = . w h a t w o u l d t h e overclll s y m m e t r i c w a v e f u n c t i o n b e ? I f a t h i r d partide w e r e p l a c e d i n the b o x i n s t a t e “3. T211. kincls m. I 2. The particleinalbox wavefunctions for If two noninterocting spinless bosons (integral spin) w’ere placed in the box. + +“I (x3)$.
the system having a moCIS i t is the rotational angular momentum tcl s = 0 . 3. T h i s f a c t was u s e d i n di. and S1. spin z components functions? pwtons.4.&. What z = should be the chemical properties valences 9 1 to102? D helium atom s singly ionized and an electron is subsequently captured. Using the fact that the spatial wavefunctions 1.1 . Write down the quantum numbers for each n u m i n i t s g r o u n d s t a t e . a n d t h e ontisymmetric s t a t e c o r r e s p o n d s hydrogen. 6. Spwial tizJ (J + 1)/21..]. 9. = % of the transuranic elements. T 1 = % A 1 1.. 0. how would you explain the a. 15. o slightly different electronelectron interaction for the electrons. Name the element. Using the electronic configuration of aluminum (Z = A/203? 13). +3 in the ground state has its outer electron in the 4p Answer: Gallium. Assuming that when the captured electron goes from one state ta another . S h o w t h a t t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m o f CI c l o s e d p subshell i s z e r o . = %)I = 51. it can be shown that it is so that S. I f b y s o m e p r o c e s s .276 Paul. 4. in the )(Yz l)ii’T previous problem. m. ILnes c o r r e s p o n d s t o a s e t o f a l l o w e d t r a n s i t i o n s w i t h t h e s a m e 4 and differing n. . t o c h o o s e S. Thia is because of the the different exclusion whether symmetries spctial the wavefunctions resulting from principle.a n d para The kinetic energies of this system exchange of the two electrons is equivalent to inversion of the system through the center of moss. hydrogenlike. If a series of spectral final state. 1. po’ssible ivz$l.Sl& t where 1. m. m. s h o w t h a t i f t h e s p i n s a r e p a r a l l e l J must be odd. Excited state. 1. w h e r e S1.scussing o r t h o .5. s’. where J a rigid rod.. Sz = T 1. it When m a y h a v e e i t h e r t h e same There is on or opposite spin ~1s t h e e l e c t r o n t h a t s t a y e d o n t h e a t o m .s t a t e o f a l u m i n u m . but with initial states all of the some series of the Li and Na spectra have the same shortwavelength series limit? 11. a r e c h a n g e d b y D f a c t o r ( . i%hT. ‘/~tiT. S h o w t h a t t h e s y m m e t r i c s t a t e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s p r o b l e m c o r r e s p o n d t o s = 1 o r S2 = (l)( I + l)h’. = = s: (‘/? + t h e s q u a r e o f t h e t o t a l s p i n a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m i s : 5’ = 25.1 ) ’ u p o n i n v e r s i o n . . = . . 4 = = = = t% Yz :F‘/2. 16. + t of angular momentum for these symmetrized and For two electrons or (S. 4 8 X4 n = = = = 0. u s i n g t h e Pauli e x c l u s i o n p r i n c i p l e .t and m. Sly. mass.l y i n g e x c i t e d . 7. . formation of the aluminum oxide molecule.~T.. 3. ot t h e t h r e e o u t e r m o s t e l e c t r o n s o f alumi 14. s. w o u l d y o u e x p e c t f o r t h e l o w e s t . Now + s2y S: 1. A certain atom of valence state. Imagine two electrons attached to the ends of ment of inertia I about the center of spins endoverend are quantum number. 12. e x c l u s i o n p r i n c i p l e What are the total antisymmetrized 5.S2.s. Discuss why the valence of carbon can be either +4 Suppose the electron were spinless. one 1s e l e c t r o n i s k n o c k e d o u t o f t h e s o d i u m a t o m . w h i c h i s a s t a t e o f s =* % ( Z = 1 3 ) W h a t q u a n t u m n u m b e r s n. + is defined = S1zS2r. n e g l e c t  ing magnetic interactions? Answer: (1) (2) (3) n n n = = = 3.. t h e v a r i o u s t r a n s i t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d o c c u r a f t e r w a r d s .. S. What would or . 13... d i s c u s s . w h e r e iz = . Likewise. which spectral 10. Similclr e q u a t i o n s h o l d f o r 52. 0. depending their of the spins are parallel parts of or antiparallel. 1. and j . ground state configuration of the “carbon” be? What would the C spectrum be like? Why? Answer: lS*.
j = 0.1/2 nitrogen in the previous problem.1/2(~)ic1. = +l/2 . the to. 2.. $= 1. and 0 in two ways. and total With three p electrons. (Saying that j .Problems _ Continuum 3s :. show that the only possible states ore s = 1.  IP IS  there is negligible probability thctt its spin flips. 1 in four ways.1/2 (3) ~~~~~1/2~~~~1~~~1/2~‘~~~1~~1~1/2~3)~.s = 0 is not sufficient. 22.2~~~~. the s = 1 states are symmetric under particle exchange.fi. . Use these facts to show that some of the ways of getting j’s for carbon in the previous problem are not possible because of the exclusion principle. $. In particular.3d 2 Ls .1. if they are both in p states. using the exclusion principle. Also.. 21. The actual ground s t a t e o f c a r b o n i s s = 1 . multiply three such functions together to form 12” equation for the three outer electrons of m = l. 1. Show that the electronic configuration of its ground state is ls22s22p2. 19. whoIt differences in the spectra of helium atoms with different captured electron spins would you expect? 17.3p c 277 . it is found experimentally that the ground state corresponds to a total spin quantum number of s = 3/~. In nitrogen... If iC~. 0.~1.~.and m. 18. 0. show that the possible values of the total spin s of the ground state of carbon are 0.. that 4 = 0 is the only possibility here. Write the electronic configuration for rubidium (Z = 37) in terms of an energy level diagram with arrows. For two electrons. 0 stotes are symmetric and the 4 = 1 states are antisymmetric.~~~:~(1) + three other terms].. 1 and the possible values of total orbital quantum number 8 are 2.Oor approximate solution of the Schrijdinger changed to form the antisymmetrk Answer: $[$ 1. 2 in three ways.. (i) represents the singleparticle function for the i t h particle with 4 = 1.~. 4 = 2. Add and subtract similar functions with i’s interfunction. the 4 = 2. 1 or 0.taI angular momentum quantum number could be 4 = 3. Thus. 1.0. and the s = 0 state is antisymmetric. (2) 1cl. = 0 . with three outer electrons in p states. From the result of Problem 18.m. angular momentum quantum number of j = “/. 2 (or s = 0. Show. the total angular momentum quantum number j can be given the value 3 in one way. 1.m. 0. show that if the exclusion principle is ignored tar these angular momenta. j = 2. Carbon has six electrons.) 23. 4 = 1. What are the possible total angular momentum quantum numbers i of the 3p states of sodium? Answer: 20.
1 0 0 eV.5 a n d 6 . ‘/4 26. line as calculated from Moseley’s law. Show that the wavelength of the is approximately 1.278 Pauli e x c l u s i o n p r i n c i p l e 24. and explain qualitatively why it is different from the of the energy K. l i n e .63 angstroms. Find the minimum enertgy l i n e . Kp xray emission line? How many closely spaced lines should be observed in the 2. 27.2 a n d 3S1. Answer: 7 2 . C a l c u l a t e t h e a p p r o x i m a t e e n e r g y i n K absorption edge of silver..j Answer: 30.2.2. 1 8 . b e c a u s e t h e e n e r g y s p l i t t i n g s o f t h e 3P3. 79.2 and 3P1. line is approxithis for iron x lo‘Z’/A. 6 1 Angstt. W h i c h h a s t h e g r e a t e s t s p e c i f i c h e a t a t l o w temperatures? 25.oms. o f o r t h o h y d r o g e n . s h o w t h a t t h e e n e r g y d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e lowest two rotational states of parahydrogen is “/s t h e eplergy difference for the two l o w e s t r o t a t i o n a l states.2 o r e d i f f e r e n t i n CI m a g n e t i c f i e l d .the o u t e r m o s t e l e c t r o n f r o m lines exhibit an anomalous levels and 33.2 state.09 and uranium. The ob Estimate the wavelength of the served value is 0. 3P3p. 3P1. Ko xray line for Molybdenum with Z = 42. T h e b r i g h t y e l l o w color in sodium is due to transitions of 251. Answer: 32. 29.8 x lo3 volts applied to it before eV o f A n x . H o w m a n y l e v e l s d o e s e a c h o f t h e 3S. l i n e front CI h e a v y e l e m e n t o f a t o m i c n u m b e r Z meters.220 X 10‘/Z’ K.2? 3P3p + 3Plp line? How many lines will seen place Answer: 4.600 eV. 31. 0 . There. mately 1. F r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f P r o b l e m s 4. Evaluate S h o w t h a t t h e f r a c t i o n a l c h a n g e i n m a s s o f a n a t o m e m i t t i n g o K..6. . where A is the atomic weight. F i n d t h e e n e r g y i n eV of o Answer: Kg xray photon given off by a lead atom.4. target must have 25. ( b ) t h e 1. and when it is very high? A n s w e r : 1 .2.2 + 3S1.p in levels split in o magnetic field? Using the selection rules. how many lines will be seen in place of the o f t h e 3P.r o y t u b e w i t h a s lver t h e K. 5 0 0 eV. x . 3P3. of electrons in a beam hitting tungsten to give (a) the K. 28. From the information given in Problems 6 and 24 and in this chapter. .2 states down to the Z e e m a n e f f e c t .. what is the fraction of parahydrogen at equilibrium when the temperature is very low.r a y l i n e s o f the sil>/er a r e o b s e r v e d . be 3P.
Statistical mechanics supplies the rules for treating manyparticle systems in terms of a very few variables. For example. they would not be very useful. and the solution of such a system of equa tions would be a practical impossibility. Accordinfg one must solve the equation F = ma. to Newtonian mechanics. In this chapter we will assume that the particle motions are governed by Newtonian mechanics. where F is the total force on a particle due to its interactions with all other particles. sizes of atoms. in addition to exerting pressure and storing energy. since the properties of a system which can be observed macroscopically are usually very few in numbersay on the order of 10 or 20. interaction forces and other phenomena. 1O23 particles. liquids and plasmas Quite a bit is known about the microscopic properties of atoms in a gas such properties are known to a reasonable accuracy. and in general may exhibit a variety of interesting similar The effects. In the following chapter the effects of quantum mechanics will be discussed. but in terms of probabilities. This gas. sound waves. The object of statistical mechanics is to use information about individual particles in constructing a theory which explains all the observed properties of a large system containing a great number of particles. It (accomplishes this by describing the system not in terms of definite positions and velocities of all the particles.023 x 10z3 atoms. may also conduct heat from one point to another.0 classical statistical mechanicls Many of the physical systems which we study are large enough to contain enormous numbers of particles. to describ’e the motion of a particle. One would then need to know how to reduce the information contained in these 1O23 solutions to about 20 numbers which could then be compared with experiment. Other manyparticle systems such as solids. In a system of t he re would1 be 1O23 such equations. even if the solutions were known. may resist shearing motions (like molasses).4 liters of helium at 0°C and at atmospheric pressure is known to contain 6. 279 . a container of 22. Furthermore. atomic masses. may sustain1 may as show helium.
The only independent macroscopic quantity that can . We will assume that the total momentum and angular momentum of each system is zero. This concept is basecl on the observed existence of states of a system called thermal equilibrium states. they will eventually come into thermal equilibrium with each other. could still continue exchanging energy. then these Figure 10. for a system in thermal equilibrium at a definite temperature.. that To find the mathematical form of this function P(E). are isolated.1 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION IN ENERGY FOR SYSTEMS IN THERMAL EQUILIBRIUh~ One of the most importont parameters used to describe large systems is temperoture. At a particular instant. systems will have various energies which can be described by a probability distribution or density P(E). Two systems each in thermal equilibrium The with a third of system. the *systems can not do work on each other. will be in is thermal equilibrium by with each other. It is usually assumed that this is the same as the distribution of energies of one particular system if observed repeatedly at different times. If two systems at different temperatures are placed in contact and left alone. it is possible to find a simple expression for the probclbility P(E) that a particular system will be in o state of energy assumption E. as long as they are in contact. of heat attainment thermal equilibrium accomplished the exchange energy through the systems contacting walls. have chemical reactions with each other or interact in any other way. Their temperatures will then be equal. Although ths energy is not definite. If we place a large number of identical systems all in contact and allow them to come into thermal equilibrium with each other (see Figure lO. these systems. and that the volume and number of particles in each system remain fixed. the energy does not have a definite value.1. we use the the systems are all in thermal equilibrium. however. at equal temperatures. Thus. so they Except for their thermal contact with each other.l). Identical systems in thermal contact.280 Classical statistical mechanics 10. Then the amount given up by a system is balanced on the average by an equal amount received. Even after thermal equilibrium is established. one system might have more energy than at some other instant.
ET). with subsystern 1 in its particular state of energy El. a n d similarly. we is in a particular state of energy by Equation (2.. if we wish.E. We then define P(E. s y s t e m 2 P(E.1) f(E) w h e n E = 0 . It was obtained by assuming that the occurrence of the possible states of a system in thermal equilibrium with many other systems w a s d e s c r i b e d b y a p r o b a b i l i t y f(E) depending on the energy E and the temperature. we can think of systems 1 and 2 as a single. b y t h e s a m e r e a s o n i n g a s t h a t u s e d a b o v e . P’(E. Now. the temperature.1) equatiton m u s t b e s u c h t h a t t h e p r o d u c t P(E. The probability that the combined system is in the given state of energy E ’ = E.1). The probability of finding the combined system in a particular state of energy E. P(E. l). O n e m a y = P (0) e BE is a solution to Equation (10. must be equal to the product of The only function which satisfies an equation of exponential: P(E) where P(0) iis t h e v a l u e o f verify that PI[E) =: P(0)emBE (10.) determine the dependence of P(E2) + E2.).3) .) and olsk: W h a t i s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y that. a n d probabilities for these states. the is individual an + EZ. ‘ T h e r e f o r e . subsystem 2 in its particular state of energy E2. + Ez s h o u l d . P’(E. $.2) tlhe form of Equation (10.2 The Boltrmonn distribution be transferred from system to system is heat energy. b e a f u n c t i o n only of the energy E’ a n d t h e t e m p e r a t u r e T. because the combinted system is not identical with the individual systems 1 and 2. In terms of these probabilities. for a given volume and number of particles.E. + 1F2) := P(())2e8(El”E2) (10. is sufficient to completely P and P’ on the energy variable E. at the same time system ‘I is in a particular state of energy E 2? T h e n e t p r o b a b i l i t y m u s t b e El. $.) = P(E.)which also depends on Tto be the probability that system I is in a particular state with energy El. provided that: fJ’(E.) is the probability of occurrence of a particular state with energy Ez in system 2. P(E. i n t e r m s o f P(. T h u s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y s h o u l d b e a function of the form for any El and any EZ. What this tells us is that the function P(E) is a function of El Equation (10.) P(E2).1) Here P’ is not necessarily the same function of energy as P.) P(E2) (10. a n d p i s a c o n s t a n t . combined system. 281 3.2 THE BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION Let us assume that systems 1 and 2 are identical in all respects so we can be sure that the probability functions are identical for the two systems when they halve the same temperature T. Thus we expect the probability that a system is found in a particular possible state. and hence the energy may fluctuate in time in a particular system. will depend on the energy of the state of the system and also on the quantity which the systems have in common.IO.
but where allow particles walls. Put El E. we get: (10. we do not yet k n o w t h e c o n s t a n t s P ( 0 ) a n d p. In following sections we shall discuss in more detail what is meant by a “particular state” of a particle. if E.282 C/assica/ statisfico/ mechanics @ are constants independent of E but possibly dependent volume and number of particles in the system. and show how P(E) is used.4) P’(E) = P(E)P(O) Substitution of E = E. one finds: P(E + dE) .8) P(E). This equation must be valid for all values of El a n d E2.4) allows us to rewrite Equation (10. on the average.1). 10. I n p a r t i c u l a r . in thermal equilibrium with the walls. Then we get: P(E). then we can consider each particle as a system which is.) P(0) = P(E. The probability that a particle is in a particular state of energy E is then P(E) = P(O)e@. w e o b t a i n f o r a n y E: (10. = 0 a n d E2 = E . systems with satisfy. Since equally we valid the for Newtonian to ‘and interact quantum with the systems.P(E) or (10. by considering the ideal gas.) P(Q.5) is valid for any ferential equation for small. container The quantities P(0) and on the common temperatclre.1) entirely in terms of P.7) P(E) dP(E = 0) dW) __ = dE P(0) dE Then. Thus. a system which should already be familiar to the reader.9) dP(E)/dE P ( E dP(E = O)/dE ) pm  . Equation (10. this result is nothing has been said up to this point about the mechanics the particles in the If we consider an ideal gas in which the individual particles do not interact each other. = and may be used to obtain a dif E and E2 = dE. a n d E2.5) P(E. However. by eliminating P’. These will be found in subsequent sections.3 PROOF THAT P(E) IS OF EXPONENTIAL FORM We shall now give a proof that only an exponential function can satisfy Equation (10. The result is: (10. + Ez back into Equation (10. + E. where dE is infinitesimally P(E + dE) = &) P(E)P(dE) Subtracting P(E) from both sides of this equation. and dividing by dE. dividing both sides of the equation by (10. the mathematical form of the energy distribution function is determined.
so only the xi c o o r d i n a t e .2. along the groove. common in thermodynamic systems.3. The factor p which is in thermal equilibrium.4 Phase space T h e lefthand constant /3 s i d e o f t h i s e q u a t i o n i s e v a l u a t e d olt a n y E . then. Then. which we must determine. In P(0) is the constant of integration. then we call represent the state of eclch marble by a different point on the p. If we halve an extremely large number of marbles. the state of the (entire system of marbles is particles in the system. t h e r i g h t h a n d s i d e E = 0. we f i n d : P(E) = P(0) eBE (10. a n d f l u c t u a t e irl density. the cloud m a y s h i f t a r o u n d . as time progresses. H o w e v e r . To illustrate how this may be done. as in Figure 10.4. as in Figure 10. If the p’osition k n o w n .11) Here. This equation can be im mediately integrated from E = 0 to E t o o b t a i n : I n f ( E ) . 3. the probability would not be normalizable. The x axis is along the groove and the marbles all stay in the groove. one must at the same time give the momentum pi. Of course. each point will move in some trajectory om the p. we can represent the state of the marble by plotting (xi. time progresses. x graph. Calling the 283 is evaluated for the value for convenience.12) T h u s . i f t h e r e a r e a s m a n y a s 10z3 of each point in the as is for cloud is known.10. versus x graph. As time progresses. or zi coordinates. To completely determine the state of one of the marbles using classical mechanics. we have: dP(E)/dE =p WE:) where p i s a p o s i t i v e c o n s t a n t IIndependent of E . such as a bottle of gas. then there will be so many points that . Had we chosen the opposite sign for the constant 13. Solving for P(E).I n P(O) = BE (10. As. and is therefore a constant. If we have a large number of marbles in the groove. in a given state having energy ticularly interested in applying this result to a thermlodynamic depends in some way on the temperature. t h e p r o b a b i l i t y P(E) is an exponential function of energy.4 PHASE SPACE The Boltzmann f a c t o r eeBE gives the relative probability of finding a system. as in Figure 10. imagine a simple model of a gas in which the gas particles are represented by marbles of mass m which can roll in a long groove. the point representing the state of the ith particle will move and trace out some trajectory.5. E . at the same time.. must be given in order to specify the ith marble’s position. then there will be an extremely dense cloud of points in p. The problem is to find some convenient way of specifying the state of such a complicated system. We are parsystem containing a great many particles.x space. of course. which may have sharp kinks and bends in it due to collisions. a n d n o t y.pix) on a graph as in Figure 10. = mxi of the marble as well as its position.
This method of representing the state of a system turns out to be very useful. (x. for a system consisting of a large number of particles. py. Although it is difficult to visualize a space of six dimensions. We shall assume that each particle has a mass m.pz) particle. and three axes representing the momentum are then of one a single “point” in phase space.4. Let us consider a container of volume V. A cloud of representative any number of particles car be plotted in the same phase space. The representative points of Figure 10.pz) coordinates of the particle. representing the state p = (pX.2. Motion of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e point of one particle in phase space as . This six dimensional space has three axes representing the spatial coordinates the r = (x. one would have to specify the position r and momentum p of every pclrticle at some initial instant. Point represmting 9 I I I I state of one particle at initial instant Figure 10. Figure 10.5. time passes. points in phase space. giving a second point in phase space representing . z. but in the x. and can easily be applied to a more realistic gas of particles which move not only in the x.284 Classical stafistica/ mechanic:. holding a gas of N particles. One may then plot the position r’ and momentum p’ of a second particle on the same coordinate axes. A very convenient way to represent such information is to introduce a six dimensional space called phase space. y and z dimensions. many purposes.y. The six numbers.3.py. In order to completely specify the state or condition of this gas. y.pX. only the average density of the cloud would be needed. one may think of all these coordinate axes as being orthogonal (at right angles) to each other.z) of of a particle. Phase space far a particle confined to move in the x direction. Figure 10.
z. For a particle moving in a circle in the xy plane with constant speed.z). 2. By analogy. as is illustrated in Figure 10. the point in phase space representing it moves in a straight line..6 are two of the six axes in phase space.z. given by: In Figure 10. p) = (x. the infinitesimal volume element is dxdydz. y. while p remains constant. If a particle moves with constant velocity v. y.y. These points are plotted as an example.p. pr.5 PHASE SPACE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS If we plot the N representative points of a macroscopic system of gas particles in phase space. p .pX. In a three dimensional space (x.z2= 1 2 . T h e n w e c a n d e f i n e a c o n t i n u o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n f ( r .6. pZ) at the time t. = 0. f (r. in a six dimensional space (x. there will be so many of these points that they will be distributed almost continuously throughout phase spal:e.p. p. plane would be elliptical in shape. 1.pv. with lengths in meters.y2= l. pz=o x2=o. pr. Pxl = = 1. and = 4. with positions 1. Consider the points of x.pZ) w i t h orthog .6. p. t) is the number of points per unit volume of phase space at the position (r. = 3. Then a system of N particles would correspond to a cloud of N points in six dimensional phase space phase which space. because r varies linearly with time. y(m) 6 5 4 @II 1 2 vv.5 Phase space distribution 285 the coordinates (r’. Exomple of representative points plotted oilong 1 t2 3 r (Kgm/s4 two axes in phose space. t) equal to the density of points in phase space.7. That is. y. p’) of the second particle. and momenta.. and momenta in kilogrammeters per second..70. the path of its representative point in the x. Figure 10. p. in the part of phase spacle shown in Figure 10. represent two particles = 2. and so on for all N particles.
This is because of the way the states of the particles are being represented on orthogonal axes in phase space.dp.p.. dp. b o t h x a n d p. p. p. py. t). the axes are assumed to be mutually orthogonal. Although it is true that if x were known as a function of time. t) is a distribution function in phase space. A particle at x at some instant could have any value of p. A macroscopic system of N particles is represented by a cloud of N points in six dimensional phase space. onal Cartesian coordinates. the idea is to integrate over The integral multiple integral t h e v a r i a b l e dN.dp.7. JdN which has been broken down in Equation (10. . the multiple integral is just a product of six single. dp. we regard the six variables x. which are performed in the ordinary way. is iust: dN = f (r.dp.pz all as independent variables.14) the total number of particles. however. t) dxdydzdp. Thus. dp. whose normalization is: JdN +[: dx[: dolt dzl: dpxll 41r~~ hf(r. pX. In writing such expressions.dp. in phase space p.. could ble c a l c u l a t e d a n d s o w o u l d the positions and momenta are represented at one instant.286 Classical statistical mechanics Figure 10. In all cases which we shall consider. (10. t h e v o l u m e e l e m e n t c a n b e a s s u m e d t o b e and the density of points in in the volume dxdydz * dxdydzdp.dp. then the number of points. f (r. depend on x. y. independent integrals.dp. So if the element of volume is dxdydzdp. p. must be given at the same instant in order to specify the particle’s state. cfN.13) phase space is f(r.14) into a sixfold looks complicated. at that same i n s t a n t . z.tJ = N (10.
and that the quantity l/N point representing a dpXdp.16) dQ have their velocities suddenly changed by collisions from collisions or other effects. (10.dp.dp. etc.dp. We shall henceforth assume that a knowledge of the continuous distribution function system. p). pZ = 3 kgm/set. y = 0. Thus.dp. a s a whole.dp. if t h e s y s t e m i s i n e q u i l i b r i u m .15) We shall henceforth consider only the equilibrium situation. T h u s .pE. The quantity . an equilibrium situation is represented by a cloud finding of points the in phase space whose density. region remains constant * in time. For example.2) it was seen that the probolbility of finding a particle in a particular state of energy E was a function of energy and temperature. = 0. then on the average just as many points will come into dQ and other effects in other regions of phase space.dp. p. This does not mean that every point in phase space stays fixed. the number of points dN in any given volume element remain the same. so the density should not be changing significantly in time. t) could be interpreted as a probability distribution function. pr = 2 kgm/set.sed by: af at= 0 (10. Thus. y coordinate is 0. the function f/N could depend on the temperature. Mathematically. is the probability of finding a particle in the element of volume dxdydzdp. p .10.dp. f. p) dxdydzdp. w e c o u l d e x p e c t f t o b e a c o n s t a n t i n time’.. However. z = 0. denoted by: d If some of the particles in fl = dxdydzdp. so that their representative points go somewhere else in phase space. The density of the cloud of points should look the same 1 second or 10 seconds later on.dp. p. We conclude that although individual points may move about. H e n c e f / N a n d P ( E ) must be closely related. then f (r. particle inside is the probability of dQ = dxdydz In addition to r and p. the quantity i = 6 m. f (r. in phase space. since f[x its normalization would be unity. t) does n o t d e p e n d o n t i m e . consider some volume element of phase space. P ( E ) = P(O)e. in Equation (10. for example. a n d w e c a n aenote it more simply by f (r. specifies the state of the macroscopic coordinate 6 MAXWELLBOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION Imagine the cloud of points in phase space for a system in equilibrium.dp. pr is 2 kg m/set. t = 1 set] dxdydzdp. surrounding the point whose x coordinate is 6 m. on the the average. this could be expres.6 MaxwellBoltzmonn distribution 287 T h e q u a n t i t y l / N f (r. or of the probability density f/N. at the time t = 1 sec. the cloud of points in phase space does not move. but only that on the whole.
(10. The combination of factors NP(O) p is just a normalization constant which can be determined for any particular physical system. This is precisely the same quantity as l/N fdfl.18) We have thus obtained the general solution for the distribution function f (r.288 Classico/ stofistico/ mecharics l / N f ( r .O. Therefore. this constant cannot be calculated using Newtonian mechanics. but can be determined using wave mechanics.p) = pP(E) and in terms of p and E.. however. This distribution is called the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution. In deriving this.17) MaxwellBoltzmann constants independent important factor distribution (10. hence the question is answered by introducing the following postulate: The possible states are uniformly distributed in phase space. We shall see how this is done for the ideal gas in Section 10. we have made use of the socalled fundamental postulate of stafistical mechanics. Thus.dp. p)dQ is the probability of finding a particle in a range of states On the other hand. namely that if there are no internal are unknown. and P(E)pdR is the probability of finfding a particle in dL?. p) at equilibrium. the number of states in the phase space region is taken to be pdO. the particle in one particular state. To evaluate p we within the particles of the gas. there iis.) 10. so. which states that the possible states of a particle are uniformly distributed in phase space with a density of states p.O) think there are more or fewer states inside a volume dG than for a dQ centered at any other point. which is a constant.19) . no reason to centered at (O. kaJ (10. and is the basic result of this chapter.k? In Equation (10.8. w h e r e h i s Planck’s constant.O. in term!. we need to know how many states there are in the phase space region dQ.7 EVALUATION OF . the constants p and P(O)p gas. w h e r e p is8 some constant called the density of states. (In Chapter 11 this will be shown to be p =: l/h3.18).O. Then the number of states in the volume element dQ is just equal to pdQ. i f(r..O. There is no way to calculate this “number of states” using classical mechanics. of P(E). shall make use of a result found in discussions of the kinetic theory of the ideal energies the average energy per particle is equal to: ( E ) = .d/. The most important dependence on the energy is in the exponent. f(E) is the probability of finding dQ = dxdydzdp.
so if \I is the volume of the container.T. the expectation value of E is: (lOA21) (6 = NW) Pm(p212m) ev (. since it appears as a factor in both numerator and denominaltor. since p = mv and thus E = % p’/m. the distribution function depends on r and p. the xyz integrals give: j.1m) h+. denominator.21). Thus. Then. To evaluate the expectation value of E. 1. is Boltzmann’s constant. using the distribtltion function we have just derived in Equation (10. or Kelvin temperature (centigrade temperature plus 273. (E) reduces to an expression inpZ: volving only integrals over p.$ Pp’/m) dxWzdp. we saw in jfd. It will then only be necessary to find the values of single integrals.TSdxdydz Substituting this result into the expression for = v (E) i n E q u a t i o n (10.. which is the phase space by: ffdQ = JSSSf (r.23) .dp. f which depends only on one variable x. if we are only interested in calculating expectation values.18). To separate this denominator into single integrals. and there is no potential energy.% Bp2. P(0) and p. hence.three exp (‘t’*) = exp (d!$!!G) (1~0. We shall only consider cases in which such multiple integrals break up into products of six or fewer one dimensional integrals. (E).r. after canceling such common factors. NP(0) p cancels. k. For a distribution function “/.22) Let us first evaluate the denominator. it is easily seen that V cancels out between numerator and1 Furthermsore. k.‘I2 Pp’lm) d=WzdpKdp. over all of indicate the integral of f (r. over the entirety of six dimensional phase space. The procedure is simply to calculate the average value of E. we shall take the case in which the kinetic energy of one particle is E = % mv2. PI dxWzh4+p. we note that e x p (S!!$!) e x p (*) . y or z dependence in either numerator or denominator.10. and multiply them together to get the result. we do not need to know the values of N. For example.+z ___flew (. and the integral will go over the entire range of values of r and p.% &‘/ml ~~w%dpz (10. In our case.dp. that is.dpz There is no x.7 Evaluation of Ij Here. This always happens when expectation values of singleparticle properties are being calculated. we woulid distribution function itself.  NW) P &/8?” ev (. and T is 289 the absolute. pY and cEj = ffi % p2/m exp (. Equating this to we will then determine the constant @.2 K).38 x 10mz3 joules/degree Kelvin. p). Chapter 2 that the expectation value of some quantity g (x) is (g) = [gfdx/ where the integral goes over the entire range of values of the variable.
= [J: ::‘p (&!!!c) d” ‘I= [v@?i#i]3 (10.dp. = 1.xQ dx = 3 1 6 Xe 77 J 2 s0 We next need to evaluate the numerator.dp. + p: in the two places in this equation. Hence. to taking the integral with pt. Jy ‘exp (+q dp.24) We shall refer to this result several times later.1 leads to the result: lx= e x p (zyf) dp. er:p (+?qd. The integral we need is: N u m e r a t o r = 2/m /J[ exp (+) p2 ~p.290 Classical statistical mecharsics Then the use of integral:.11 pf exp (*p:) +.25) Again substitute pz = pz + p. m 6 . they will be equal. = .+y+z Then we have the sum of three integrals to evaluate.xP(IF) dp. integrand proportional Numerator. we have: integrals are identical except for labeling of axes.26) x (P: + P: + ~:)dp. respectively. . given in Table 10.dp. j. with integrands proportional.1 Some Definite Integrals m J0 m s 0 e Ox dx = !w a xe Ox ’ dx = 1 2a x 3 e ax’ dx = 1 2a2 x s e Ox2 dx = 1 a3 0 m s m s 0 0 m J 0 x4 e Ox2 dx = .27) . (10. 2”.dp. p: and pz times the exponential.dp. + Numerator = pzi] (10. TABLE 10. & /sJ‘ exp [~PI:P~ + p.dp.. . (10. Since the three to pz as representative.
gas. that is. we find that i:E) = .29).2’3) obtained in Equations (10. however.30) 3kBT/:2. The integral then reduces to: N u m e r a t o r = ?!?!? The remaining integral over p. P=& B Thus. The constant may be found if the number of particles N in the volume V is lknown. p) = i (2zmk. the This average result is energy per particle should using be a important and remembered. (10.p For the ideal gas.dp.341) NP(O)p = i (2rmk. integrals in the denominator.1. (10.33:) f (r. (10.24) and (10.1.34) . the normalization for a system with N particles in a volume V is: N = E q u a t i o n ( 1 0 . (E) i!s g i v e n b y E q u a t i o n ( 1 0 .T)3’2 exp (10.dp.T))3’2 Therefore.3’1) MaxwellBoltzmann distribution function. gives a factor % &(2m//Q3” so the numerator is: N u m e r a t o r = 4 (27rm)3’2 Taking the ratio of the results for numerator pm5” and denominator (10. This constant varies NP(O)p.8 Evaluation of NP(0) p Upon separation of this threefold integral into the product of three single 291 integrals. 1 9 ) a s ( E ) = and therefore. from Table 10. integrals are the same as the py a n d p. 2 4 ) w i t h @ = l/ksT leads to: dxdydzdp. and probably should not be memorized for any one system. we will find gas system. at equilibrium for an ideal monatomic gas. by 6 is calculating determined. (10. For the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution function. from one the normalization constant for the ideal system to another. and may be performed using Table 10. describing a gas of free particles.8 EVALUATION OF NP(0) p For completeness.JO.. and requiring the result to be the same as for an ideal . the pv a n d p. the integral of fdO over all phase space must equal N.
ly.34). 10. in Equation t h e f u n c t i o n f ( r . region I. Suppose.dp. = SsssJ‘s NP(0) p exp (2s) dxdydzdp. in front of the exponenticll Thus.292 C/ctssico/ sfafistico/ mechanics As mentioned previour. There is a tendency for particles to seek the condition of lowest potential energy. that the box containing In the lower region. y and z go only over Iregion I. in which there may be some potential energy presen.8. Particles in CI container which has two distinct regions of different potential the total number of particles in the volume N.35) 7. volume element dxdydzdp.t. In this factor. element dxdydzdp. of equal volume.dp.gions. the value of /3 i s s t i l l is the number of particles in the 10. there is o constant potential energy V0 > 0. as in Figure 10.8. p = l/ksT. p) dxdydzdp. in region I is: (10. but in the upper region. p ) i s ttat i t i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o &@E. J Figure energy.dp. we have completely determined the distribution function f (r. Here each particle is considered to be a system with e n e r g y E = Yz p2/m. The distribution function in region II depends on the energy E = V.dp. (10.dp. where the integrals over x.dp. S i n c e f ( r . If the particles in th e b ox a r e in thermal equilibrium at temperature /3 = l/kBT. cancel out in calculating <expectation values. . there is no potential the gas consists of two re.t Yz p’/m. energy.9 MAXWELLBOLTZMANlN POTENTIAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION INCLUDING Now consider a slightly more complicated situation.. p) for an ideal monatomic gas of particles in thermal equilibrium with the container walls. so it i:. natural to ask whether all or most of the particles of the system are in the portion of the box of zero potential energy. T h e r e f o r e .dp.dp. T h e c o n s t a n t s NP(O)p are for purposes of normoliz~otion. t h e . t h e f a c t o r e OE i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n i s c a l l e d The most important feature of and almost always the Boltzmann factor.
i f @I$ >> 1 .36) 293 where the integrals of dxdydz go only over region II.l’ E 7 x 1016 K .e5E for two equal volumes dxdydz.N. in some molecular spectra and other J = 4 . The ratio N2/N1 m a y b e e a s i l y e v a l u a t e d . i f V.37) S”. so these cancel in the ratio N2/N1. the ratio of the numbers N2/N1 is just the Boltzmann factor.dp.dp. w h a t is the ratio of the number of particles in the region of higher potential energy to the number in the region of lower potential energy? ion N2. If we are interested only in number of particles in a given volume of ordinary space regardless of momentum. what would be the density of particles in a given volume element factor times the volume element Boltzmann at height h above sea level? The n(Jmber the of phase space.YZ same for both regions. (10.dp. The potential energy of .70 Gas number of particles in this region is: NP(0) p e x p [B (& + VO)] Idxdydzdp. = eO”. When keT becomes large enough that k. we sum over the momentum part of phase space. there would be enough thermal energy available so that collisions could knock an appreciable fraction of particles up into region II. m o s t o f t h e p a r t i c l e s w o u l d b e i n the lower part of the box.T and V. = e 0”o Thus. T h e v o l u m e s /3p2/m) dp.dp./.. If there are on the order of 10z3 plorticles. This is nearly an ideal gas. 0 4 x lo” systems. i = 0. = 1 .dp.. Energy differences of this order of magnitude occur atomic IO GAS IN A GRAVITATIONAL FlfiLD Consider next a column of air at temperature 300 K. = 1 Oe6 j o u l e . R o o m t e m p e r a t u r e .0252 eV. we take the ratio of dxdydzJdp. separated by a height h. e the energy difference Vo between the two regions appearing in the exponent. iv2 iu. i f V. a n e x there is negligible tremely small number. (10. s i n c e V. corresponds to an energy of ks ‘. If the density at sea level is nc. This would occur at a temperature given approximately by: o r . of phase space is proportional to particles per m3. abolJt 293 K.4~10’4 31 10‘“‘4. and the integrals of exp (. . 3 8 r:1023 joules/K). p/e A t T = 3 0 0 K ( w i t h k.T. with are the are taken to be equal. = 10m6 joule. Therefore. = eVo/kBT = e‘o~)/(‘.dp. I n g e n e r a l . T = Vo/k. or abolJt of an electron volt.70. i s a c o n s t a n t . Therefore.38x~~~23x300) = f? 2. probability that even one of them is in the higher potential energy region. are comparable. o r Vo > > k. Hence most of the particles will1 be in the lower potenti’al energy region.
2 9 4 Cfassicofsfafisticofmechon~cs a particle of mass m a’t height h is m g h . w i t h E. A n e x a m p l e o f s u c h a system is a set of proton spins placed in a magnetic field. in effect. then: N. they take on only discrete values. The normalization constant C would be determined by requiring that the system had a (certain given total number of particles and summing over all states i: c f(E.g (5 x loz6)(9. of such systems in the energy state E. ‘/:l mv2 does.) = Cx.693) m.42) . let us a n d E. There are some systems whose particles can. in that state is given = CemBE(10.. and therefore the ratio of number of particles in a unit volume at height h.= e@(Ei‘. lo3 meters 10. = CeZE* (10.8) = 5. = % = e m’m”h . > E. then the distribution function f (E.in the energy state E is: N_ T h u s . is m := 5 x T = 300 K throughout the column? height does the density of the column reduce to half its sea level value for s&tion n(h)/n(O) for h. )..41) where C is some proportionality constant. rather than continuous values such as the classical kinetic energy E = denote these energies by E. is proportional to the Boltzmann factor. a t w h a t example If the mass of CI molecule of air.eeUEn = N (10. is: ~4wGvh = ~ exp IP[(fi p’/m) t m&II ~ n(h) n (0) = e8mgh ( 1 0 .) which gives the number of particlles by the Boltzmann factor: f ( E .11 DISCRETE ENERGIES In quantum mechanics it has been shown that in many cases energies are quantized.40) If there are a large number of possible discrete energies E. = ks! In 2 = (1.38 x 1023)(300) (o.+z exp [B(fi p’/m)l 10mz6 k g .86 x or 5. Taking natural logarithms of both sides and solving . N+/N. If C is the normalizotion constant. to the number at sea level. ) = CeeilEt (10. on the average. The number N. 3 8 ) ~r+y+. have only two possible energies. that is.39) and the number N.86 kilometers..
the volume element (10.47) becomes: 4w+.3. Thus. two spheres of radii p and p + dp will be just the differential: = 47rp2dp Thus.72 Magnitude of momentum 295 when N is the total number of particles. of radius p and hence of area 47rp2. we may then consider a thin spherical shell. we obtain from Equation (10.4): f ( p ) = N(27rrr1ksT)~‘~exp We may now easily rewrite the distribution function in terms of the magnitude o f m o m e n t u m . of a sphere of radius p is 47rp3/3.+z + f (PI 4v2+ = F(p) dp (10.48) This defines a new distribution function as a function only of the variable p. over all positions. p) is independent of r for an ideal gas. we get: F ( p ) = 4aN(2rmksT)3’2p2 exp . Solving to find F(p) as a function of p. space regardless of position. regardless of position or of the direction of momentum. We shall denote by f(p) the resulting momentum function: f ( P ) = . in momentum space. p) ..+z. dp. The number of particles with momenta in the range +. using this radial coordinate in momentum space.dp.+z . The distribution of particles is therefore To obtain the number of particles of momenta in the range of magnitudes dp. only on p and not on the direction of p. then the volume Alternatively. p = e.dp.7 10. b ecause spherically symmetric in momentum here the distribution function f(p) depends space.44) Then. If the thickness of the shell is dp.4v2+ We then want to look for a function F(p) such that F(p) dp is the total number of particles with momenta of magnitude p in the range dp.+. the volume and the differential volume contained between in momentum space enclosed by the shell is 4Kp2dp. Averages of energy. we would set: f(p) +x+. computed by the formula: (E). since the volume V = j dxdydz and f (r. may be obtained by integrating f (r.m‘dxdydzf (r. P) distribution (10. could be 2 DISTRIBUTION OF THE MAGNITUDE OF MOMENTUM In some applications it is necessary to know the number F(p) dp of particles with momenta of magnitude p in the range dp.
. C o m p a r i s o n o f ( p ) with the most probable value of p is interesting.9. Figure 10.51) can never Here the limits range from 0 to s. From this we find the average value is: Since the speed value of p can be computed using F(p) and Table 10. Upon = 0 to determine the maximum.296 Classical stotistka/ mechanics The most probable value of p is the value for which F(p) using the condition dF(p)/dp is a maximum.T/m. this is a case in which the most probable value and the expectation value ore almost the same but slightly different.49). 10. t h i s w i l l be discussed below.l F(p)dp = N. Equation performed in 1955 to check the validity of the distribution F(p).9 is a graph of F(p) as a function of p.4. C. we get: 13 = (2p . T h e uveroge that i.TJm”‘2 cX p3 e x p ($j d p zz __ = 1.41. since the magnitude b e n e g a t i v e . (yf)‘) I. On the other harfd.e. the most probable speed is V?k... both still being positive. either potassium or thallium was obtained .595 v’i& J of momentum (10. noting (p) = i lX pF(p)dp = 4*(2xmk. in Kusch. Miller and P. Distribution function F(p) for the magnitude of the momentum.13 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE MAXWELL DISTRIBUTION Figure 10. w o u l d s h o w t h a t b o t h a r e z e r o . calculation of both the lnost p r o b a b l e v a l u e a n d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n v a l u e o f o n e component of momentum such as p . . derived (10. Figure 10.10 shows the results of two runs of an experiment by R. In this experiment.is v = p/m.1.EC). the most probable value of p is v’= = 1.
Equation (10. the momenta of the particles in this beam would have the distribution given by F(p). suppose the cylinder were rotating at a constant angular speed. so that the maximum is at 20. A straight slot cut in the edge of the cylinder parallel to its axis would then let the beam get through. introduced several factors that setup modified the form of the theoretical distribution which was finally compared with the experimental results. To do this. A v e r y n a r r o w s l i t i n t h e o v e n .&lowed a t o m s t o e s c a p e i n t o a n evacualed chamber outside the oven. the experimenters inserted a cylinder with its axis parallel to the beam. particular experimental the speed of the particles. Thus.. Presumably. If f is the distribution function for velocities. Both curves in gaseous form by heating the metals to high temperatures in a vacuum oven. The experimental points were for a gas of hot thallium atoms. it was necessary to be able to select atoms out of the bleam having speeds within a very narrow range. in this experiment.IO. By cutting such a slot in the cylinder and rotating the cylinder at different angular speeds. it was possible to select particles of the desired speed out of the beam.the slot should not be straight but helical. To measure the distribution. were multiplied by a factor. is vf. for an atom of a given speed to get through.10. 13 Experimental verificati~on 297 F i g u r e 10. ‘The dotted line is the theoretical result obtained from the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution. For a given angular speed and helical slct. the number of particles of . .18). so that the beam hit the cylinder just inside its rim and was blocked. Experimental verifktion of the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution. only particles in a narrow range of speed could get through. The experimenters The then measured the number of particles per second that wI:re slightly transmitted through the slot. However. then the number of particles of speed v hitting an area oriented normal to the direction of v. versu:. in one second. Then.
54) The integral is some constant independent of v.l/ m.).x (10.52) since p = mv.. In figure 10. so that the maximum was equal to 20. let IJS calculate the total number of particles with x comThe required number ponents of momentum in the range dp.56) . This means we must integrate over all dp. letting dv = vod(v/v. then the probability that particles with speeds between v and v + form A(v/v.298 Classical statistical mechanics speed v hitting the end of the slot nearest the oven. 10. The experimenters normalized both their experimental results and the theoretical curve. of particles is denoted by f (pX) dp. within the experimental error of about 1%. if v0 is the speed that is just right for particles to get through the slot for a given angular speed of the cylinder.) (10. an approximate value for the integral: we have vip ($) 1‘= A (.55) The maximum occurs at v. and is given by dpzfh4 = f(px)+. we can replace v with v0 everywhere in the integrand. One corn conclude thot to within the experimental error. should be orooortional to: ( 10..) d (. a n d i s s h a r p l y preaked a b o u t t h e v a l u e v = vO. regardless of their values of pY a n d p. Then. per second. except within A. and d.. T h e n t h e n u m b e r o f particles per second that get through the slot is proportional to: Since A is very sharply peaked about v = vO... The measured peak velocity of the curves agreed with 2 dk.14 DISTRIBUTION OF ON’E COMPONENT OF MOMENTUM The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution can be expressed in several other useful ways.).9 (2)’ exp (2) (10.) is a dv will get through will be of the density depending on the slot probability w i d t h . Similar results were obtained with potassium vapor at quite different temperatures. The experimental results were for thallium vapor.. The theoretical result is then: Intensity at detector = 36. Also.10. For example.p.. the theoretical curve is indicated by the solid curve. where A(~r/vr. the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution agrees with experiment. Run 99 was at 870 K and run 97 was at 944 K./2 a = 1...
and energy increment dE. ET& element in the spherical coordinates of momentum space in terms of (10.dpydp. emE”gT.) and f (pZ). From Equation (10.58) f (p. likewise. which are multiplit?d together. it is often useful to write the differential volume in momentum space. dp.% dE (10.59) If we had performed a similar calculation to o’btoin f (p. the most probable values oi pr a n d (PX) = (PY) = (PZ) = 0. . Also.6’3) Thus. (P) :> 0 would be zero. (Px) = (P”) = (PZ) pZ = 0 (10. change dE.7 0. although p is intrinsically positive.trmks J)“’ e x p In this case. Now we noted before that the volume of a sphere of radius p is 47rp3/3.60).612) sides yields: dp = (10.dp. as will the expectation value. because the Boltzmann factor. it is useful to use the momentum space volume element in spherical coordinates. Performing these integrals over py and p. we noted that when F is a function only of the magnitude of p. t h e m o s t p r o b a b l e v a l u e of pX would will be zero.6’4) . a n d t h u s for the volume of a thin spherical shell: = 47. dp. we can express the volume energy. p2 Then differentiation of both = 2mE or p = &GE (10.1.rp’dp We wish to express p’dp in terms of the corresponding energy E.. because Previously. Thus.dp. 47rp’dp.. using Table 10.4ap’dp = 47r t/i. For the free particles we have been discussing.57) We may separate the integrals irito two single integrals. we get: (10. because f (p. (pa we have found that similarly.) = N(2.) is an even function of pX. d e p e n d s o n l y o n t h e in terms of the corresponding infinitesimal energy energy and temperature.60) Since for a free particle E is then a function only of p.74 One component of momentum 299 and so (10.
whereas z o n t a l a x i s a t small p. Graph of the energy distribution function.1 1. f = (cons t a n t ) x eBE.dp.dp. A graph of the dependence of g(E) on energy E is given in Figure = 0 .T Figure 10. a l t e r n a t e l y . 4 N(2amkBT)“” or for the distribution function in energy.) 1.t55) f ( p ) dp. = 2X(l/.843.15 SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATORS The energy dependence of the distribution function in phase space. The numerical result is 0. The total probability that E + dE i s p(E)dE Itisp(E)dE example the average energy per particle is “/z keT. I t m a y b e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f e r r o r f u n c t i o n s which may be found in tables. % ksT.lrk. F(p) was tangent to the hori tangent to the vertical axis at small E. whereas the most probable value of energy. g(E) proportional to v’ze@. X &emdE =: [N2r(rkgT)3/2] I t h a s a m a x i m u m a t ag/aE g El x GemBE (10~56) 10. The internal .T)3’2. o r a t E = ksT/2. was derived for the case of many systems in thermal equilibrium which were weakly interacting with possible heat flow between them. is considerably o particle is in the energy range between I s 0 E and = g(E)dE/N o r .“‘~dE. expression <giving the probability of a particle’s having energy What is on b e t w e e n 0 a n d l//3 = ksT? kBT soluiion s kBT I 0 p(E)dE = s 0 e e SE v’% dE The integral in the numerator cannot be written in terms of a closed farm involving s i m p l e functiorls. From equation (10. ~@~v$dE/ emPE&dE. N o t e t h a t t h e g r a p h i s E k. different from this.19). 10. gAF) =: const.300 Classical sfofisfical mechanics We may now define an energy distribution function g(E) by equating numbers of particles in the range a’E in the two alternative expressions: 4a d3E eOr dE e g ( E ) dE ( 1 O.
or pt and integrals involving x2. There are. Suppose we had a box containing a large number of particles. Furthermore. K(x’ + yz + z’) or Here x. y and z are in the range dxdydz and whose momenta pX.dp. in a cubic mile of air. then the number of systems in the set with energy E is proportional to eetiE. I5 S i m p l e harmonic osci//ofors 301 structures of the systems were irrevelant. First. pr.dp.:70) JZ!L!Ue . Thus. all factors in numerator and denominator cancel except .dp.integrals involving pt. All three of the integrals of a given type are equal. six separate terms in the numerator of this expression.68) The number of particles whose positions x. there are only two type!.dp. Let us calculate this average term by term.1. The energy of a particle is that of three dimensional harmonic oscillator: E = & (Pi + p. p.69) We shall use this distribution function to calculate the average energy. However.  (10. for + this average is (Q = fsssss( ‘/zmp’ 1/2Kr2)e BE dxdydzdp. in the integrand multiplying the exponential.dp. such a picture might be used to where atoms oscillate in three dimensions in the crystal lattice. by symmetry. and the energy of a system takes on the values E. (E). so the integrations are straightforward with the use of Table 10. Provided the assumption of weak interaction holds. At high temperatures. We shall assume the positions represent the behavior of a soli~d. other systems such as liquids can also be treated in the some way. ‘we might assume the systems to be volumes containing a gallon of air each. + pf) + . y and z are the displacements of the particle in the x.dpZ is then proportional to: exp 10 (2 + $)] dxdydzdp. with all integration limits from .dp.SE dxdydzdp.1 0 . z directions from its equilibrium position. each of which has a mass m and is bound to on equilibrium position by a springlike farce with spring constant about a their K.dp. in the calculation of (ps/2m). (10.x to + 3~. any of the sixfold integrals reduce to a product of six single integrals. altogether. pz. are in the range dp. equilibrium particles to be only very weakly interacting. written completely out. y2 or zz as factors. The number of particles of this energy is then proportional to e x p [/3(& + y)] (10. The formula. If we have any set of a large number of identical systems. These systems might be macroscopic. y.
74) so . 5’2 kd If. one would immediately expect that (E) = . ksJ. We would expect this specific heat per particle in solids where the particles oscillate about their equilibrium positions.71) Similarly. in terms of the gas constant R = N. either of the form % pf/m or % This E = Kz2.J F o r t h e threedimensiorlal (E) = (10.78) oscillator. the average energy per particle is then 3ksJ and the specific heat per particle is 3ks. so (10. for example. would be equal to 3R = 5..302 C/ossica/ stotisticol mechanics those involving p. it is clear that in this case also. k. is observed in solids at high temperatures where it is called the DulongPetif .75) using the fact that all factors involving x.72) so the average kinetic energy is . (Kx2) Now to calculate a typical term such as (Kx’). (10. This behavior law.73) For the average of the potential energy. in numerator and denominator cancel except those (10. result we find a contribution to the average energy per particle of is referred to as the theorem of equipartition of energy.J (10.96 calories/moledegree K. by symmetry. by symmetry. the oscillators were restricted to move in only one dimension so that % pf/m + % Kx2.J = k.k. we find that Thus (‘V’z Kr’) = “/. in the integrands.77) Note that for every quadratic term in the energy. 7. so the total average energy per particle is (10.k. The specific heat per mole. (10. ksJ + .
anid i f t h i s e q u a l i t y o f ra+es Now suppose we consider any two fixed regions. are changing to d0.054 0. I f a t e q u i l i b r i u m t h e a v e r a g e r a t e a t w h i c h p o i n t s i n dL?. of equal magnitudes. Therefore.96 K cal/moledegree Aluminum Calcium Copper Gold Iron lead Potassium Silver Tin Zinc 0. We shall therefore make the reasonable assumption that this is the case. the molar specific heats are close to 3R. if a state of the system were to develop in such OI w a y t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f p o i n t s i n do was consistently greater or less than the timeaveraged or equilibrium number. i s e q u a l t o t h e a v e r a g e rate a t w h i c h p o i n t s i n df& are changing to dO . 16 Detailed balor~ce 303 At low temperatures. then the average number of points in each region would remain constant. the system would no longer be in a thermal equilibrium state.4 5.11 0.8 6..03 1 0. if we consider some fixed infinitesimal region da constolnt in pholse space.092 0.16 0. with volumes dOI = d&. is maintained for all such pairs of regions in phase space.0 6. Note that. the averalae density of the cloud of representative points in phase space remains in time.2 6. the assumption may be stated as follows: any two such equal regions .3 7.056 0. It is necessary to keep in mind that these statements refer only to time averages. More detailed calculation of these transition rates using quantum mechanics shows in fact tha’ the rates of transitions between in phase space are equal. TABLE 10. However. for at any one instant there may very well be mclre or fewer points in d0 t h a n t h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r . although the specific heats are quite different.9 6.093 5.2 Molar Specific Heats of Some Metals Molar in Specific Heat Specific Heat in Metal cnlories/gram degree K calories/mole degree K 3R = 5.03 1 0. In Table 10. This would be a suficientbut not a necessarycondition that thermal equilibrium would be maintained. i n p h a s e s p a c e .0 6. quantum effects come into play which greatly reduce the specific heat.5 6.2 the specific heat and molar specific heat at room temperature is given for several colnmon metals.JO.1 16 DETAILED BALANCE ‘When a system of noninteracting particles is in thermal equilibrium. there will be just as many points entering this region as there are particles leaving it on the average. dOI and dfiz.2 6.21 0.18 0.
but in which the particles may interact with the container walls at temperature T....:79) dR. if dn2 i s t h e a v e r a g e at dfi.12. to dl2. a n d dl2. but only that the rates from dQ. because the volumes df2. Similarly. Possibly unequal rates Equal rates Figure 10. I f t h e r e a r e .e. dii.~+ one particle in d0. This is illustrated in Figure 10. (1 0.. t o dl2. makes a transition to dQZ. o t h e r e l e m e n t dQk. p a r t i c l e s i n dl?. P. The equation expressing the principle of detailed balance equilibrium may therefore be written: dii.p.. = dn2p2 . dTi. time for a single particle to make a transition from per unit time is . is the probability per unit to be the probability that per unit time. of detailed balance. a n d back f r o m to This statement is called the principle that the rate of transition from d62. were (10. t h e a v e r a g e t r a n s i t i o n r a t e t o dR. is simply equal to the ratio for a gas at temperature T. to some dl2. a n d dl2. .+ If the energies of particles in of the Boltzmann factor!.. r e s p e c t i v e l y . by on equal in phase space with volumes of equal magnitude. equals the rate from dl2. number of particles in da 2. o n t h e a v e r a g e . number making transitions bock from the second to the first per unit time.12 The principle of detailed balance asserts that between any pair of regions on the overage.304 C/assico/ sfofisfico/ mechanics The rote of transitions between a n y t w o e q u a l v o l u m e e l e m e n t s i n p h a s e space are equal at thermal equilibrium./dfi. It does not mean dl2. then the ratio dii..*. the number of particles per unit time making transitions from the first to the second is balanced. Now let us consider a classical ideal g a s i n w h i c h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n particles may be neglected. taken to be equal in magnitude.80) . t h e n ithe number of particles which change to dQ2. i s dn2p2+. Likewise. _ . We define P. a n d E2. . dn. a r e E.= e e dE.. are equal. da2 t o dQ2.p.‘E> Therefore.
10.17 Time reversibrlity Therefore, from Equation (10.79), bilities is:
P2  1 PI+2
==
305
the ratio of the singleparticle transition proba
Cl%
exp
Cfii,
i 1
w2
El)
k,T
(10.81)
This important result for the ratio of transition probabilities is generally valid at thermal equilibrium not only for the particles of a classical ideal gas, but also for electrons, photons and other particles having quantum properties. We shall use Equation (10.81) to derive the FermiDirac and BoseEinstein distribution functions in the following chapter.
.17
TIME
REVERSIBILITY
The equations of classical mechanics possess an invariance property known as fime reversibility. For example, in Newton’s equation of motion
F = ma =
m d2r/dt2,
if the sign of the time t is reversed, the equation of motion is
u n c h a n g e d . T h e v e l o c i t y , v = dr/dt, reverses direction when the sign of if is changed. Thus, classically, if t were reversed in sign, all motions would simply reverse exactly, and the particles would retrace their previous paths. Since magnetic forces are proportional to v x
B,
all magnetic fields would have to be
reversed in direction under this time reversal in order to have the particles retrace their paths. This would in fact occur, since the currents and spins which are the sources of magnetic fields would all reverse direction. Another way to state this prop’erty of time reversibility is that, for any solution of the equations of motion, another solution exists in which all particles have exactly the opposite velocities, so that they all execute the reverse motions. Likewise in quantum mechanics, the change of probability density with time would exactly reverse if the sign of the time were reversed, and there exists a motion of the system in which all velocities would correspondingly be reversed. While time cannot be reversed in the laboratory, one can obtain the equivalent result by simply reversing all velocities and hence all magnetic fields. Many experiments have shown that for the usual forces, this principle of time reversibility is valid. On the other hand, macroscopic systems in general show a type of behavior which is irreversible. For example, a rock dropped into a still pool of water will cause a splash, a succession of circular outgoing waves and turbulence in the water as the rock sinks to the bottom; and after some time a slight increlgse in the temperature, or heat content, of the water will occur. Although the timereversed motionin which a rock at the bottom of a still pool is thrown up into somebody’s hand by turbulence and ingoing waves with a resultant cooling of the wateris a possible solution of the equations of motion, it is never observed because of the overwhelmingly small probability of its occurrence. Situations of thermal equilibrium are, however, situations of relatively high probability. We may illustrate this by consiedering a container of an ideal gas containing
306
Clossicol
statistical
mechanic!,
N := 1O23
particles. At thermal equilibrium, the particles are randomly distribsituati(>n half of the box than
uted in position throughout the box. An example of o nonequilibrium might be one in which more particles were in the lefthand
rn the righthand half. We can easily calculate the probability of any distributitsn of particles between the two halves of the box using the analogy that the probability of finding one particle in, say, the left half is the same particles in the left half of the box is therefore given by the
OS
t h e probcrbillty probability
of occurrence of a head in one flip of a fair coin. The probability of finding n binomial distribution, Equation (2.13). and is p,(n) If N = 10Z3, w e c a n cert’ginly = N! n!(N  II)! 1 p approximation for PN(n) g i v e n
use the
gaussian
in Equation (2.53):
P&) =
Now we can ask, for example, what is the relative probability of finding a macroscopically 0.5001 x 1O23 significant excess of, say, 0.01% of the particles, or n = particles, n the left half of the box? The ratio of this probability
1
to that of finding half of the particles on each side is p,,~3(0.5001 4$3(0.5 x x 1023) 1023) = e x p [  ( 0 . 0 0 0 1 x 10z3)‘/(N/2)] exp I
(0) 2/(N/?~l
x 1023) = e x p (  2 x 1 0 ’ : ‘ )
= exp (2
X lOme
Such an excess would therefore never be observed. A corollary of this is that if an initial state were artificially created in which there was an excess of particles on one side, such as by injecting particles through a hole in the container w,~Il, then after a short time, due to collisions with the walls, the particles’ positions would become randomized, and all positions woLlld become equally probable. The system’s apparently irreversible behavior thus consists of an evolution from a nonequilibrium state, of low a priori probability, to a state of thermal equilibrium, which is of much higher a priori probability.
SIX DIMENSIONAL PHASE SPACE
Phase space is a six dimensional space whose coordinates are x, y, z, be represented by a poitlt pX, pv,
a n d pI. The position and momentum of a single particle at a given instant may in phase space. A large number of particles, each
Summary
307
represented by a point in phase space, gives rise to a cloud of such points, whose density may be approximated by a continuous distribution function f volume element to
(r, p, t).
The number of particles whose representative points are to be found within the
d0
= dxdydzdp,dp,dp,
is equal to f
(r, p,
1) dxdydzdp,dp,dp,.
This results from the assumption that the number of states in d0 is proportional
dl2.
MAXWELLBOLTZMANN DISTRIIBUTION
For a system of weakly interactiilg particles, or for a number of systems in thermal contact, the distribution f(Jnction at equilibrium is proportional to eOf, w h e r e E is the energy of a particular system and fl = l/k,7 w i t h k, t h e Bolltzmann constant and T the absolute temperature. For N particles, each of mass m a n d e n e r g y E = % my’, In a b o x o f v o l u m e V , thse normalized expression for
f (r, p) is
f(r,p) = f(p) =
J(&3’zexp
(*)
DISCRETE ENERGIES
If the particles of a system can have only the discrete energies E,, E2,. proportional to e +Ej. The average of any function of energy, computed by the formula: . . E,, . . is then
then at equilibrium the probability of finding a particle with the energy Ei is x(E),
MOMENTUM AND ENERGY A!; INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
If the magnitude of the momentum is considered to be an independent variable,
then for an ideal gas the number of particles whose momenta are in the range dp is F(p) dp, where F(p) is proportional to p* exp (% Pp*/m). If the energy E is considered as independent, then the number of particles whose energies are b e t w e e n E a n d E + dE is g(E) dE, where g(E) is proportional to V% embE.
EQUIPARTITION
For a system terms in in
OF ENERGY
equilibrium any of whose singleparticle energies the are a sum of M per
quadratic
the
phasespace
coordinates,
average
energy
particle is
% Mk,J. k,T
Thus, associated with each quadratic term is an average
energy of %
per particle.
308
C l a s s i c a l statisfical m e c h a n i c ;
DETAILED
BALANCE
At equilibrium, the number of particles per unit time making transitions from a r e g i o n dill region to a region d$, is equal to the number making transitions from to region dQ,, provided
df12
df2, = dQ2.
1. Consider the air inside a closed automobile as it travels at a velocity U. The air is at rest relative to the automobile. What is the velocity distribution relative to an observer on the ground? (Neglect gravity.) Answer: The Boltzmann factor is exp [” mE[x].
2. If the automobile in Problem 1 had an acceleration a, ond the gravitational force mg acted, what would be the form of the distribution function f (r, p, f)? Answer: The Boltzmann factor is
exp [2([kyTmur2]
3.
exp [fn(a  g).&.
Consider a beach of approximately 1 km2 area, covered with grains of sand, whose moss is approximately 1O.4 of 15 grains/mm2. Asjuming gm and whose top layer covers the beach at a demity the temperature is 27”C, how many grains of sand
on the beach could you expect to see at any one time at a height of 1 mm or more above the level of the tseach, Answer: K(x4 assuming the grains are in thermal equilibrium? grains, or effectively none. Approximately exp (2.4 x 10”)
4. A particle in a system of weakly interacting particles has energy E = % mv2 + + y4 + z4), w h e r e K is a positive constant. For what temperature will
OS
the average potential energy be 1 % times Answer: 167°C.
great as at 2O”C? To solve this you
do not need to know explicitly what the integrals equal. 5. N smoke particles, each of mass m, are floating in air inside a closed vertical tube of length 1 and cross sectional area A. Assuming that ot equilibrium the particles at the bottom are far apart compared to their size, find the number of particles per unit volume at height h from the bottom, for gravitational potential energy mgh and temperature T. Find the average height of the particles.
Answer:
Nw ~
AksT
mgh/kBT ks 1 !.  (1 . emgl/ktir) ’ mg
1 __ emghhT _ 1
6. N charged smoke particles, each of mass m, are floating in air of temperature T, inside a conducting coaxial cylinder of inner radius a, outer radius b, and length L. The inner cylir,der is ctlarged so that the particles have potential energy C In (r/a), where C is o constani and r is the distance from the cylindrical axis. Assuming that at equilibrium all the particles are far apart compared to their size, find the number of particles per volume at distance r from the axis.
Problems
309
Answer: 7.
Ify=C&J,
n=N..2~1 by+’ ._ &y+’
2Y
~ ~Y
Show that for a Boltzmann distribution,
(d/d/3jem’1Ef (E) dE) Je liE f(E) dE
e v a l u a t e d a t p = bJ B
8. From the result of Problem 7, find the average kinetic energy of a particle in an ideal gas. A n s w e r : “/, kbJ. 9. A “quantum mechanical” one dimensional oscillator has discrete rather than tontinuous energies, E, = ( n + %?)h w, where w = t/K/m, tr is a constant and n = 0 , 1,2,. From the result of problem 7, show that for a system of weakly interacting oscillators the average energy per oscillator is
Usethefactthatifa < 10.
l,~,“_ca”
=
l/(1  o)ondusea = ehw”BT,
From the result of Problem 9, fincl the heat capacity of a system of N one dimensional harmonic oscillators as a function of J. P l o t t h i s v e r s u s J u p t o J = 47iiwl’kB. Also plot the specific heat of a one dimensional classical oscillator on the same graph. (The three dimensional oscillator was discussed in the text.) Answer: d (0  = (I=r2c02k~J2)
ev OI~lkn J)

dJ
possible energies, *pB,
(exp()iw/ksJ)
1)’ in a magnetic field B has
IWO
11. In addition to its kinetic energy, a free electro’n
depending on whether the intrinsic angular momentum, or
spin, of the electron is in the same or the opposite direction of B. Here p is the magnetic moment of the electron, a constant. For an electron weakly interacting with the rest of the system, fincl what the probability is for an electron spin to be pointing in the direction oi the magnetic field. Find the average magnetic interaction energy. Answer: e#Vkr,(eiWT + e~‘Wrl; p8(ed’/k~ ._ e~Wr,,(erWr + e~Wl.
12. Suppose a particle in a system had only two possible energies, E = 0 and E = t > 0. If the system is in equilibrium at temperature J, what is the average energy per particle? Answer:
( E ) = te@‘/(l
+ tC@‘). for positive px f o r a n i d e a l
13. Make a sketch of the distribution function f (px) gas, where f (px)
dp, is the probability that a particle is between px and px + dp,.
14. Find the root mean square deviation of the energy of a particle of an ideal gas from the average energy at temperature J. Find the ratio of this root mean square deviation to the average energy of the particle. Answer:
fikBJ, v’% = 0 . 8 1 6 .
15. Find the root mean square deviation of v from its average for a particle of an ideal gas at temperature J if the gas particles have mass m.
310
C/ossicol stotisticol mechanics Answer: d/(3  8/:r) ksl/m. At what temperature would the average kinetic energy
16. At what temperature would the average speed of atoms in an ideal gas be 1.X times as great as at 2O”C? Answer: 17. Answer: 386”C, lC16”C. be 1% times as great a!, at 2O”C? Calculate the average value of l/v in an ideal gas at temperature 7. xf%yaJ.. is 16 times that of Hz. In a mixture of H2 and Csz,
18. The molecular weight of O2 Answer: Vi.
what is the ratio of rms speeds of 02 and Hz? 19. Find the root mean square deviation of v, ideal gas at temperoturbe Answer: XAmFl. from its average for a particle of an
J if the gas particles have mass m.
20. In the diagram regions 1, 2 and 3 are three semiconducting solid rods of the same cross sectional area separated by thin insulating films, so that there are changes in electric potential between the two sides of each of the films. Thus, conducting
Battery
electrons
are
in
regions
of
three
different
potential
energies
x
in
the three
semiVs =
conductors. If the poter~tiol changes at the films are 0.02 volts and 0.01 volts, the potential energies are approximately VI = 0, V2 = 3.2 10e2’ joules, 4.8 x 10e2’ joules. Assuming the electrons act as an ideal gas, find the ratio of the numbers of conducting electrons in regions 2 and 3 to those in region 1 for &2 = .t,, 43 = 2 4, 3t 20°C. Answer:
b(pgq
0.46; 0.63. p;), it might be useful to express differential volume in cylindric:al p7 px + or. Here pxY is the perpen
21. If the energy as a function of momentum of a particle depended on ap: + coordinates in momentum space, p. and pxY =
dicular “distance” from the p. axis. Show that this voLme element is 27r pxydp,,dp,. An energy depending on momentum this way occurs in some semiconducting solids. 22. We saw that if energy depends on momentum magnitude only, it is useful to Llse 4ap’dp as the volume element in momentum space, and that nonrelativistically in terms of energy, E = p2/2m, this becomes 2a
c3
2m L , dE. Using the relativistic E
relationship between momentum and energy, show that this element of volume in momentum space becomes 4a \/E2  mEc4E dE/c3. Also show that in terms of lkn e t i c e n e r g y , T = E  mcc?,thisis 4rV?(2TtTj(mcc2t T)dT/c3. becomes 27r d 2Ge3 t’?dTfor T << mgc2. This
Problems
311
23.
A n u c l e u s c o n d e c a y , g i v i n g o f f CI h i g h e n e r g y e l e c t r o n , o f r e s t mc~ss and IJ n e u t r i n o o f z e r o r e s t m a s s . I n m o n y cc~ses,
rno w i t h e n e r g y E
the probability of decay depends
only on the magnitudes of the particle momenta so the results of the previous problem can be used. Show that if the sum of the neutrino and electron energies is a constant, Eo, s o t h a t t h e n e u t r i n o e n e r g y i s EO  E , a n d i f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f e a c h p a r t i c l e having a given energy is proportional to volume in phase space, the probability that an electron has an energy between E(E,,  E)‘dE. The fact that many E and E + dE i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o experimental electron decay Z/FFp follow
distributions
t h i s e q u a t i o n e x t r e m e l y w e l l l e a d s t o p r o o f t h a t t h e n e u t r i n o , w h i c h i s v e r y difficult t o detect, is given off with the electron. 2 4 . C o n s i d e r a b o x c o n t a i n i n g CI g a s , i n w h i c h t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y o f a particle =: Vex/L, where varies
from one end of the box to another according to V
1 is the length 5/4 1 <
of the box. What fraction of the particles are in the half of the box for which
x < ?hL?
25.
For
CI
system of three
dimensioncl
classical harmonic oscillators,
~1s
discussed
in
the
text, find the root the oscillators.
mean
square deviation of the energy from the average for one of
Answer:
26. Particles of
&?kBT. mass 6 . 2 x 10l’ grl are s u s p e n d e d i n l i q u i d a t 2 7 ° C . W h a t s h o u l d b e
t h e i r r m s s p e e d ? ( U s e equiportition)
Answer:
27.
1 . 4 cm/set.
C o l l o i d a l p a r t i c l e s i n s o l u t i o n are b u o y e d u p b y t h e l i q u i d i n w h i c h t h e y a r e s u s p e n d e d by a force equal to the weight of the liquid they displace. Show that the number of particles per unit volume in the liauid varies with height as
”
=
“0
exp
+%P [

P’)Sh
w h e r e No i s A v o g a d r o ’ s n u m b e r , no i s t h e n u m b e r p e r Iunit v o l u m e a t h = 0 , V i s t h e v o l u m e o f a p a r t i c l e , p’ i s t h e l i q u i d d e n s i t y , a n d colloidal particles. p is the mass per unit volume of the
1
11 quantum statistical mechanics
A number of the results obtained in Chapter 10 concerning classical statistical mechanics of a system of particles are still valid when quantum mechanics, ratlrler than classical mechanics, is used to describe the particles. For example, the Boltzmann factor, emBE, was found by considering a number of systems in thermal e q u i l i b r i u m , a n d b y a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y ot a system’s being in a given state is a function only of the energy of the state and the common temperature. These same assumptions can still be made for large quantum systems. In the classical discussion, /3 w a s f o u n d t o b e l/kBT b y e v a l u a t i n g t h e e n e r g y f o r a classical ideal gas and comparing with the kinetic theory result. This can still be done if it is assumed that the quantum system to be investigated is in equilibrium with at least one classical ideal gas system. Once classical ideal gas. Thus, ,even is proportional to e
E/kg1
/3 i s e v a l u a t e d , i t d o e s Inot
matter whether or not the actual system is really in thermal equilibrium with a for a large quantum system in thermal equilibrium E with other systems, the probability that the system is in a state of total energ’y .
How, then, does quantum mechanics change statistical mechanics? There are two main effects of quantum mechanics. First, there are often discrete energy states in quantum mechanics so that, in addition to an integral over phase space for continuous states, there may also be a summation over discrete states in fiending average values of quantities. Second, the indistinguishability of particles in quantum mechanics can affect the statistics greatly, especially when we look at the energy distribution of one of the single particles in a system of identical particles. Here the partic:le itself cannot be treated as an independent system, as was done in the classical case. For a system of identical fermions, this effect can be treated as a consequence of the exclusion principle: no two identical fermions in a system can be described by the same set of quantum numbers. For a system of identical bosons, the effect is quite different; there is, instead, a slight tendency for the particles to collect in states described by the same quantum numbers.
312
1 I .2 D e t a i l e d b a l a n c e
313
I.1 EFFECTS OF EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE ON STATISTICS OF PARTICLES
In the classical case of a system of identical particles, it was assumed that even identical particles were distinguishable, and that the overall state of a system could be specified by giving the example, by specifying the porticl’e’s particles the wavefunction specifying singleparticle state of each particlefor representative point in phase space. Howof the exclusion principle, for identical overall state is such that each particle the
e v e r , a s h a s b e e n s e e n i n t h e disc(Jssion
a p p e a r s e q u a l l y i n a l l t h e occupiesd singleparticle states. Hence, the state of a system of identical particles may blz specified by giving the number of particles in each singleparticle state but not which particles are in each state. This follows because in interchanging particles, the magnitude of the square of the wavefunction does not change; otherwise, the particles would be clistinguishable. titles of Then when two spin, bosons, are or particles the of integral spin, are interpsmrsign. changed, the wavefunction itself remains unchanged. When two fermions, halfoddintegral interchanged, wavefunction changes
Thus for halfoddintegral spin, there are either no particles or at most one p13rtitle in any given singleparticle state, while for integral spin particles, any number of particles from zero to infinity may occupy a given singleparticle state. In the case of a system of fermions, since the number of particles in a singlIeparticle state is limited to 0 or 1, the singleparticle distribution in energy will differ from the classical MaxwellB~~ltzmonn distribution.
I .2 DETAILED BALANCE AND FERMIDIRAC PARTICLES
We may use the principle of detailed balance to find this distribution. Consider t h e t r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n s t a t e s 1 a n d 2 i n a fermion system. In order for thermal equilibrium to be maintained, the average transition rate from 1 to 2 must be the same as the average transition rate from 2 to 1, by the principle of detailed balance. Here the term “transition rate” means the number of particles making transitions per second. The exclusion principle strongly affects these transitlIon rates; for example, if we begin with one particle in state 1 and one particle in state 2, it is impossible for the particle in state 1 to make a transition to state 2: if it were not, there would then bl: t w o p a r t i c l e s i n s t a t e 2 , w h i c h i s a v i o l a t i o n of only the exclusion before principle. the Transitions the between initial two is singleparticle occupied by states one can ocI:ur and when, transition, state particle
the final state is empty. Actually, the number of particles in a given state may fluctuate considerably in time, because of the large variety of possible transitions b e t w e e n t h a t s t a t e a n d a l l o t h e r Istates. Hence, there will exist some probability that a state is occupied. Because the maximum number of fermions in o state is unity, like the maximum possible probability, the probability that a state is occupied will be identical to the timeaveraged number of particles in the state. Thus, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t s t a t e 1 i s occlJpied will be the same as ri,, w h e r e t h e b a r
3 14
Quantum
stotisfical
mechanics
denotes the time average of the number of particles n, in state 1. The probability that state 2 is occupied will be the same as ii,, the time average of the number of particles n, in state 2. ‘The probability that state 2 is unoccupied will therefore be 1  ti?. Let p, ? b e t h e t r a n s i t i o n p r o b a b i l i t y p e r u n i t t i m e t h a t , g i v e n e x a c t l y o n e particle in state 1 and zero particles in state 2, a transition from state 1 to 2 will occur. Similarly, let P2, be the transition probability for a transition frlsm 2 to 1 per unit time, given state 2 is occupied and state 1 is unoccupied. We may now use the rules for combining probabilities given in Equation (2.2) to obtain the transition rate. The probability of occurrence of a transition from state 1 to state 2 must be equal to the product of the probabilities that state 1 is occupied, that state 2 is unoccupied, and that a tronsition occurs; or the transition rate must be ,5,(1  k)Pl *2
Similarly, the number of particles per second making transitions from state 2 to state 1 must be n2(1  n,)Pz 1
O n t h e a v e r a g e , f o r t h e :,ystem t o r e m a i n i n t h e r m a l e q u i l i b r i u m , t h e a b o v e t w o transition rates must be equal, by the principle of detailed balance. The matoematical equality can be expressed as follows: n,(l From Equation (10.81), G)p,2 = &(l ., to  fil)P2 1 (11.1)
the ratio of
p2
p,
.2 in the classical case is (11.2)
w h e r e E, a n d Ez are singleparticle energies. The ratio of the transition probabilities
ple2
and
pz+,
in the quantum case should be the same as in the
classical case, since they are defined for conditions in which only one particle is present in the initial state. Thus the effects of particle exchange are unimportant and Equation (1 ‘I .2) is still valid. Therefore, combining Equations (1 1 .l) and (1 1.2) and rearranging, we obtain
.nl E,IkBr e n2 f2/kgl Te
1  ii,
1  ii, o combination of functions depend
On the left side of the above equation is
ing only on state 1, and on the right is a combination depending only on state 2. Therefore, both sides of Equation (1 1.3) must be equal to a c o n s t a n t , i n d e pendent of the state, and hence independent of the energy of the state:
e 1 r,
n,
El/LB1
= C o n s t . = e 1  ii(E)
ii(E)
E/kg7
which must be a positive n u m b e r . i n g e n e r a l .4) is: in this equation. Figure 11. i s a function of temperature.T Figure 11. even though interaction. then at a given temperature the Fermi energy will be determined by the condition that (11. The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution for single particles was valid in the classical case. . E = +lOOksJ. eEF’kBT appearing in the denominator. The form of the FermiDirac distribution depends critically on the magnitude of the exponential function. E. In terms of I!~. Graph of the FermiDirac distribution function in the nondegenerate case. into Equation (1 1. T h e a d d i t i v e 1 i n the denominator is what distinguishes it from the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution..4) and solving for the timeaveraged occupation number we find: This distribution function is called the F e r m i . valid for particles affect each other statistically and single particles cannot be treated as single systems. This function is independent of the energy of the state and plays the role of a normalization constant.3 Fermi enejgy 3 15 1. there because may be with no noninteracting forces is of particles.D i r a c d i s t r i b u t i o n .2. if the total number of fermions in the system is N. EF. the each particle could be treated as a single system. w h i c h . b y i n t r o d u c i n g a q u a n t i t y c a l l e d t h e F e r m i energy. ” (El labeled by k.1. E = lOkBT. (1’ 5) This equation constitutes a definition of the constant. Hence. Substitutillg the constant n(E). Graph of the FermiDirac distribution function in the degenerate case.7) where the summation is taken over all distinct singleparticle states the index i.I I .3 FERMI ENERGY AND FERMIDIRAC DISTRIBUTION It is convenient to write the constant the constant in Equation (1 1. Thus the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution not fermion systems. For particles where the exclusion principle applies.
In the case of positive Fermi energy with as in Figure 11. so that the particular boundary condition imposed is of no importance. There. MaxwellBoltzmann E. We then impose the artificial periodic boundary condition that 1c(x + L) = #(x) (11. since the exponential in the denominator is much greater than unity. For example. the FermiDirac distributibn closely resembles ihe MaxwellBoltzmann distribution. > > kBT. but arbitrary length. We consider instead the one dimensional free particle wavefunction.4 ONE DIMENSIONAL DENSITY OF STATES FOR PERIODIC BOUNDARY CONDITIO~NS In the case graphed in Figure 11 . To derive the number of states per unit energy interval. function has a completely different character.tates in which the momentum of the particle is completely known and the position is unknown. the possible wavelengths were limited by the condition that an integral number of halfwavelengths must fit into the box. On the other hand. written in the form: 1+5 = e x p [i(kx .2. that is.3 16 Quantum stotisticol Under some mechanics conditions. and all the states of greater energies are almost empty.w t ) ] (1 1.EF. t h e .9) w h e r e L is some extremely large. for q system of many particles the boundary conditions should affect the system only in the neighborhood of the boundary and should have negligible effect in the interior of the system. and on the temperature. information alDout. the number of possible states could not be calculated. the FermiDirac 7.for distribution this case is plotted in Figure 11.. Using quant(Jm mechanics. In classical statistical mechanics.8) from fundamental principles what the distribution w h e r e t h e w a v e n u m b e r ir. these cases actually appl& the number of possible states per unit energy interval. Here all the states are filled up to an energy a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o . if EF = + lOOk. 11. this case resembles the distribution.the distribution of states was obtained by postulating that the states were uniformly distributed in phase space. in Figure 11 . Which of in a given system depends on the number of particles. we say the statistics are degenerate. w i t h t h e F e r m i e n e r g y n e g a t i v e a n d EF << k.2. if we use freeparticle mo .T. The wavefunctions $ correspond to singleparticle . Thus. related to momentum by k = p/h. we consider first a problem closely related to the problem oii a particle in a one dimensional box. T h e f u n c t i o n i s s u b stantially just a MaxwellBoltzmann distribution.l. which is called the density of states. we say that the statistics are nondegenerofe. We will eventually allow L to approach infinity.l i s p l o t t e d t h e a v e r age occupation number Ii(E) for the case E F = IOk8T. we can calculate of possible states must be. a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y is related to energy by w = Efi.
.this momentum axis of length Ap. f o r s o m e e x t r e m e l y l a r g e I . as in Figure 11. for specificaposition at the same time would violate the 3 17 phase space in the ckassical i[k(x + I ) .11) 1 o n l y i f 0 = 27rn. T h e r e f o r e . Positions along the x axis ore undetermined.cot] = e x p i(kx . As the length I approaches infinity.13) undetermined. gives us (1 1. Since p = Ak. t h e limits the possible wavenumbers to the set of values: (11. e” = boundary condition (11. exp Equation (11. uniformly distributed in momentum space along the p axis in this case.12) k+ number of wavelengths must fit into the large length I.10) tion of the particle’s momentum cmd boundary the singleparticle states of the system.13) with its corresponding set of quantum numbers n. +2. and labeling the discrete set of points given by Equation (1 1. In this region as we ‘see from Equation (1 1 . uniformly distributed along the momentum axis.9).wt) This condition then means that exp ikl = 1 In general.J J . .ely packed in momentum space. it no sense. &3. the p axis. we can specify all the possible sirlgleparticle s t a t e s b y d r a w i n g o n l y o n e a x i s .3.13). condition.3. . + l . T h i s i s t h e s a m e a s s a y i n g t h a t a n integral (11. Therefore. but still form a discrete set. the possible states become more and more dens. the possible values of p are given by: 27Th PTTnTh" iand the corresponding particle positions must be completely w h e r e n = 0 .4 One dimensional density mentum eigenfunctions to describl5 longer makes sense to talk of uncertainty The principle. N o w c o n s i d e r . a p h y s i c a l r e g i o n a l o n g .. w h e r e n i s a n y i n t e g e r . instead of a “phase space” consisting of one axis for x and one for p. These states Iare Discrete states for o free particle with periodic boundory conditions tore Figure 1 1.
14) The number of states per unit momentum interval is thus AnlAp = L/h. and Ap..YJ. The number of states in this volume element is . = 0.p. consider a volume element in momentum space of Ap. points in three all dimensional quantum form of cubical the momentum space. parallel to any one of the axes from one state to the next. array +l. is h/L. 11. rt2.. zlC2. z . z&l.. x + k. the length of the periodicity region. T h e clistance in momentum space. components One singleparticle state may be specified by momentum equivalently. *2. = 0 .y.. .. il. is proportional to L. Note that the density of states in momentum space.z.!..cot)] directions. pr = h my ny = 0 . n.318 Quantum sfotisticol mechanics there will be a number of momentum states An given by: h Ap = i An (1 1.pz). Hence.5 DENSITY OF STATES IN THREE DIMENSIONS We may generalize this result for the one dimensional motion of a particle. the boundary becomes irrelevant. and quantized similarly.z of the + L. pC = trtx n. (h/L)3 per state.f) = exp [i(k..f) Then all three that: = #(x + of (11. such &qX. .p s p a c e . this is consistent with the classical idea that states are uniformly distributed in x .. n..z.. condition which will be l/h. pr The giving possible all three states = Fnz a n.. or a volume of sides Ap.15) We assume that periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the x. y + k. In the limit as L approaches infinity.f) = the $(x. y and z Ly. wavevector. nx. To put this another way. AnlAp.. by considering the freeparticle momentum eigenfunction: $(x. we can imagine momentum space to be filled up with cubes of side h/l. of or..y. W e c a n d i v i d e o u t t h e f a c t o r of L a n d s p e a k a b o u t t h e n u m b e r o f s t a t e s p e r u n i t m o m e n t u m i n t e r v a l p e r u n i f length. are components Thus. and there will effectively be one possible momentum state per cube. (pX. to the case of three dimensiclnal motion.y + kt) = hence $(x. three numbers. so that this result is completely general..f) momentum.
on the average. dp.02 eV e pz/2m = h2n~/2mL2 . is pdQ.T ‘v .6 x 10~19) The ratio of the energy spacing to the energy is then approximation placed by to pass to the limit in which over the A/!/E  l/n. the number of states in a momentum space volume element dp.6 Comparison which is the momentum space volume divided by the volume per state.e . An. have at least the enetgy k. then as I approaches infinity and thus V approaches infinity. therefore.02 x 1. Apr.s assumed that the number of states in the phase space volume element dl2 = d x d y d z d p . dpz The density of states in momentum space is V/h3. An.I I .n. the number of states in the volume element np.dp. will increase without limit. This density of states will be l/h3. as long as the volume V of the system is sufficiently large the particular boundary conditions should not appreciably affect the density of states.E. . with dimensions 1 cm on a side. We can then divicle out the factor V and speak of the density of states in momentum space per volume. the volume of the fundament~~l periodicity region. periodic boundary conditions may not apply. 3 1 At room temperature. 319 For a macroscopic system of electrons at room temperature. w h e r e p is th. . + 1)’ . unif l/e /Ipv Ap. dpx dp.x 1o34 6.. Then 1om2 =. it 1. = . should be given by An.2] 2m I 0 0 2m h2n E2 ml2 if n. is ~~ = A pZ = h ‘Lb. The quantity L3 in this result could be replaced by V. to a very good approximation. dp. Although for a real physical system. by are re differentials and summations states replaced integrations.10m6. Thus the energy states are packed so close together that it should be a very good increments are Ap.6 ” 106 42 x 9 x 1O3’ x (0.6 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE C:LASSlCAL AND QUANTUM DENSITIES OF STATES In classical statistical mechanics. the spacing betweltn energy levels corresponding to a change of 1 in one of the quantum numbers nx. the electrons will. Since the numbser of states is proportional to V. nr. n. dp.
dp.19) . dp.7 EFFECT OF SPIN ON THE DENSITY OF STATES One further point must be mentioned in connection with the state density in Equation (1 1. only two spin “orientations” are possible. energy quantization was unknown and Plcrnck’s constant was effectively zero. dp. 11. the particle described by the momentum eigenfunction in Equation (1 1. will then be dp.20). dp. dpz Hence. d p . corresponding either to spin parallel to p or spin antiparallel to p. If. = ‘ V P dp. Thus. in addition. A left circularly polarized light wave has a z component of angular momentum +Fr. To compare this to the quantum mechanical result. Study of the relativistic quantum theory of such particles shows that no matter what the total angular momentum quantum number is. will be ZAn. dpz = d/j. a r i g h t c i r c u l a r l y p o l a r i z e d l i g h t w a v e h a s a z component of angular momentum h. we must integrate over all positions: (11. the density of states in phase space must be I t i s a t o n c e c l e a r w h y ill classical theory the density of states could not be determined. dp. When the energy E depends only on the magnitude of momentum.18). Sdp. for particles of zero rest mass. = i2’ l3 ‘)” dp. as it does for .r 11. dp.dxdydz) dpx dp. An erample of this appears in the case of photons.15) has an intrinsic spin. or light quanta. A n . then there will be 2s + 1 spin states for each momentum state. with a total spin quantum number s. the total number of singleparticle states in the momentum space volume element dp. dp.320 Quonfum stotistico/ mechmics unknown density of states in phase space. = $ d p . dp. which refers to the density of momentum states only.8 NUMBER OF STATES PER UNIT ENERGY INTERVAL It is frequently useful to know the number of states in the energy interval dE. which are known to be bosons with spin quantum number s = 1. The component of angular momentum in the direction of the particle’s momentum can be only +sFr. +x dp. An. and have two possible states of circular polarization. An. One exception to this rule occurs for particles of zero rest mass. The total number of singleparticle states in the momentum space volume (2s + 1) An. A n . Equation (11. Electromagnetic theory shows that light waves are transverse.
/h3. This was done in classical statistical mechanics [see Equation (10. It is the number 1)2aV(2m//~2)3’2~ of singleparticle . is 2V dp.6). As a first example. dp. It is known experimentally that ordinary gases at ordinary temperatures and pressures are described very well by MaxwellBoltzmann statistics.4.1 E.26). with e >> 1. we will follow a procedure similar to that used in the classical case.9 Freeparticle Fermi eners~y free particles. (11. This isotope has spin ‘/2 . the energy for a free particle of energy E a n d m a s s m one may perform . The quantity m u l t i p l y i n g dE. t h e i s o t o p e o f h e l i u m w i t h a nucleus containing two protons anol a neutron.) [ ksT assumption./k.26) In terms of momentum.25) To determine the normalization constant.dp.rp2dp quantum = 2?r(2m)3/2 given by (11.24) This is an important result.T EF/kgT must be negative. The number of states between E and E + dE numbers in a volume V is then: for free particles of spin quantum (2s + l)An.64):1. and thus it obeys the exclusion principle. dp. states . An.23) if the energy 321 &dE as well. ( 2 s + energy. which will be used a number of times. For this nondegenerate case. dp. The same expression holds in . consider a gas consisting of He3.I I . After substituting this into Equation (1 1. so that E. dp. dp. The number of states in the range dp.dp. dp. this number may be obtained by considering the states in a spherical shell of radius p and thickness do.9 FREEPARTICLE FERMI ENERGYNONDEGENERATE CASE The density of states derived above may now be used to find the Fermi energy Er for various cases in which the particles can be treated as free particles. (1 1. may be approximated by: n(E) = e x p We will check to see if this is a consllstent (E . is E = p2/2m. Let us then a s s u m e t h a t He3 gas is nondegenerate under such conditions. the number of particles N must be N = JiJ$ ev[ e(EitFJ] dp. in momentum space.I S called the density of states in per unit energy interval. eEf’k8r. statistical mechanics momentum relation is E = p2/2m. where it was shown that the spherical shell corresponds to an increment of energy dE dp. Equation (1 1. An. and the FermiDirac distribution function. = (2s + 1)2xV (1 1. The numerical value of the quantity 2s + 1 is 2.
and thus would obey essentially MaxwellBoltzmann statistics.322 Quantum statistical mechanics the is integration by using the definite integral s m e*“‘!dx = dr/a. This occurs at such a low temperature that all atomic and molecular gases except helium are solidified. justifying the approximation of nondegeneracy.02 2 x x 1O23 .e. we may evaluate the righthand side of Equation (1 1.38 lo=)’ x 1Om23 x 273  (6.01 x lo” x 1. The effect of degenerate FermiDirac statistics of atoms on properties of solids is negligible. We can estimate the temperature at which effects due to degenerate . 3 8 x 1Om”3 h = 6.63 x =: 3 x 106 This is much less than unity.]+ l>’ (11.27) ly Therefore. eEF’kBr should be at least comparable to unity. In order for the gas to be degenerate. (11. and even helium is liquified. so the only substance in which degenerate statistics of atoms can be studied is liquid He3.28 x 0.d e f i n e d f o r a system of a given density. i.0224m3 and contains 10z3 molecules.67 the x following 1O27 kg) values: e~EF’kgT X> 1 as assumed. so that in the FermiDirac distribution.28) for He3 at 1 = 273K ks = 1 . = 3 x using (1.30) ti ={exp[s. The result is 5.29) los4 iset The particle density may be obtained from the fact that at standard temperature and pressure. Othelr atomic and molecular gases of halfoddintegral spin at standard temperature and pressure would give similar results. even when the volume V approaches infinity.28) To check the selfconsistency of this result.31) the exponential is always much greater than unity. The result (1 1.023 x e EF/kgr =: 6. for N/V is just the density of particles.63 x j/K (11. It should be noted that the result in Equation (1 1. to see whether standard temperature and m pressure. and then both N and V approach infinity in a constant ratio. one mole of a gas has a volume of A v o g a d r o ’ s n u m b e r N0 == 6.28:1 i s w e l l .0224 :< 6. e EF/kBT (1 1.
the temperature should be given by NO 1 g2 x 2 . 10 Free electrons in metals 323 statistics might begin to show up experimentally in He3.38 :< 1O23 x 273 1034 = lo2 This is much greater than unity.. p/e Assuming that nondegenerate statistics apply for electrons in a metal. take N/V Z”I 102s mm3. e CF’XB’ using Equation (11. Check the consistency of the result with the EF/kn r proximation. e << 1.0224m3. we have 3x 10b=2 x No . Also. unity..34) This can be only an order of magnitude estimate. E > E. T h e n . at room temperature T = 273K. IS e~EF’kgr >> 1.33) Therefore. and calculate . which is obtained actually will not be valid at low temperatures. dividing the first of these equations by the second and solving for we get T ~ 273 x / .J I. (11.35) .kgT effects are large is that of electrons in metals.32) 10e6 c a l c u l a t e d a b o v e a t 2 7 3 ” a n d a m o l a r volume of 0. m = 9 x 10e3’ kg. 5 x 10‘m3 Taking for eEF”” the value 3 x 3/2 (11.0224 \ 2. e EF. w h e n EF/kgr e E 1.S x 10m5m3.28 x 9 x 1 O3’ 6. E<E.28). expression (1 1. A much better approximation than that used in the above example would be to assume that: fj =r n == 1 I 0.5 x 3 x x 1o5 T. since a liquid will not act as a degenerate ideal gas because of the important effects of interparticle interactions. Here it is often a good approximation to treat the electrons as free _  lo2* 4 2 4. so the assumption that the statistics are nondegenerate must be wrong. ion For this case. (11.63 x x 1. b y u s i n g t h e f a c t t h a t the volume of one mole of liquid H e 3 i s a b o u t 2.6 x 6. comparable to IO FREE ELECTRONS IN METALSDEGENERATE CASE The most important case where l%miDirac noninteracting particles.28).0224 m3 (1 1. where e assuming EF/kIIT .
63 2 x 9 x 1034)2 x 103’ x 1W3’.  EF 1 in electron volts is X 1./’ (11.6 x lol9 i/eV (11. J = 273 K. m = 9 E F = (6.40) with ri = 1 up to Er.39) = 2 . in the degenerate case.38) Again using the parameters N/V = lo*‘. EF s 0 E’12& = 3 E. Since energy dE is proportional to V% value of the and Equa expectation kinetic (11.37) and the Fermi energy is (1 1. leads to the result: (1 1. In this case.J = 0. Then.l 1 HEAT CAPACITY OF <AN ELECTRON GAS Because. by (I 1.36) EF may be evaluated most easily by using the density of states given in Equation (1 1. 7 eV At room temperature. a n d t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n i n E q u a t i o n (11 1. it is to be expected ksJ. p r o x i m a t i o n s g i v e n i n E q u a t i o n (11. k. so here EF >> ksJ.35) should be a good 11 .24).324 Quantum statistical mechanics as may be seen from FiglJre 11. statistics a r e d e g e n e r a t e . These integrals may be evaluated as follows: EF E3/2dE 2 =  5 Es/* F . the Fermi energy EF is much greater than that the average electron kinetic energy will be much larger than number of states in the energy interval tions (11. dE. one.2.35) is hold approximately. the per and essentially all the states are filled up to the Fermi energy. using the apthe number of particles would be given The integral s 0 x 6 d x = */3x3’*.024 eV.35). the particle ksJ.41) .
At ordinary temperatures. On the other 3R/2. due mainly to lattice vibrations. to Thus. to higher empty states.. the classical heat capacity is Cv = (1 1. where No is Avogadro’s number. the electrons must make transitions from lower occupied states. the compared other capacity in metals.42) volts. is just the derivative of C” = hand.11.38).(E) with respect to temperature and is (E). 12 WORK FUNCTION In studying the photoelectric effect.44) where we have used the expression for the gas constant. . at constant volume./=/3 This is on the order of several ellectron temperature. the heat capacity of an electron gas is reduced by the effect of statistics. However. can be understood qualitatively by noting that for heat to be absorbed by the system. The heat capacity per mole. EF 0[ where + $ (zl[+ Orderof(k.= 2E.01 at room temperature.12 Work function Then 325 2E:/=/5 (E) = . Since the thermal eriergy available for one electron is about only electrons with energies within about region of energy is of order of magnitude electronic heat capacity is negligible k. the actual dependence of To calculate the heat capacity Iof ii(E) on temperature must be taken carefully into account.k. although very small. is larger than the remaining temperature contributions than T.43) EFo is the Fermi Energy calculated in Equation (1 1. so that the average energy per particle can be calculated more accurately.J. one would expect a contributions to the heat reduction of the heat capacity by about this factor. The fraction of the electrons in this ksT/EFo. Thus.1 (1 1.. it was found that the incident photons had to be of energies greater than a certain critical energy in order to cause elec . R = N. the electronic heat capacity. much greater than statistical mechanics at room given classical would have 3kBT/2. which the approach zero OS some at higher low power of is the the electronic heat capacity temperatures main contribution to heat capacity in metals. at very low temperatures. ksJ of the Fermi energy can change their states when heat is added to lihe system. When this is done the average energy per particle is foulId to be: (E) = ..T/E.. This Thus. the electron gas.0. by the theorem of equipartition of energy.. the Fermi energy at zero temperature. an average kinetic energy of 3 Er 5 ksT (11. by a factor of the order of magnitude k.)4 + aa. The total energy in a mole of electrons is then No N.T/E. On the other hand.
. The curved portions outside the surfaces approach v=o I_ 7 t Fermi energy 5 I Surface Figure 1 1. The work function is therefore the energy which must be added to the most energetic of the electrons in the metal in order to remove it from the metal.___~______ ___ .. Work function % .urface._. (1 1 . The minimurn energy needed to get an electron out of the surface was called the work function. u p t o VI + Er. the minimum photon energy required to eject an electron is 15. with an average potential energy VI inside the metal. and hence the work function. electrons will be bound to the metal.4. .4.326 Quantum sfotisficol mechanics trons to be ejected from the metal surface.. volts. V = ..13 PHOTON DISTRIBUTION Calculation of the distribution with energy of the average number n(E) of photons of energy E in a cavity is of considerable historical interest. = Cp In Figure 11. Surface the overage potential energy inside the metal. where x zero as x approaches infinity according to the equation e2/16xtOx. Fermi energy and minimum potential energy VI are related by: a The work function is typically several = v. is the distance from the s.V... since it was Planck’s study of this problem that launched the quantum theory. Potential energy of a single electron near the surface of a metal. the potential energy of a single electron in or near the surface of a metal slab is sketched.E.46) electron I 1. . where V. which is usually of the order of several eV higher in energy than V... In terms of the work function. The electrons then fill the energy levels above V. Cp.. This potential energy results from attraction of the electron by positive charge induced on the surface near the electron. is of the order of from 5 to 15 eV for different metals. described by wavefunctions having the space and .” = hu. AS a result._ __. . Photons can be considered as particles of light..
.. If n.hv. + n2uz. based on the observation that if the radiation in the cavity is in thermal equilibrium with the walls.T] (1 1 SO) . photons can be emitted and absorbed by the walls of the cavity. + . we therefore have to calculate the following sum: cnij= Co4=OC~2=OCne=0... the total energy of these n. generAfter deriving the photon distribution n(E)..jtatesor is given Furthermore. the various n2. and The are and hence state.16).. we clo not speak of one of the particles making a transition from state 1 to state 2.)&I (1 1..49) Different overall states of the system will then differ in the set of occupation numbers n.n. Inside a cubical cavity of side I...“. .7 7.“. + “Z. given by “. alize those special features which are due to the fact that photons obey BoseEinstein statistics for application to a gas of bosons of nonzero For simplicity of notation we shall let the single index j stand for the combination of integers (n. they will differ in the numbers of photons in states. ni h u. E must be given by the Boltzmann factor. is the number of photons in one of these states.73 Photon distribution time dependence given in Equation (1 1. f .. Hence. The Boltzmann factor is exp[PTn.22)... then the probability that the radiation has total energy eepr’. nr.v.. the singleparticle states are therefore described by giving the momentum quantum n u m b e r s nr. in contrast to a system of massive bosons such as a gas of He”. .15). but rather of a loss of particles from state 1 due to interaction with the walls and a gain of a possibly different number of particles in state 2 from the same cause. ns. so the total energy is k = &. plication is that.u. .)h/k. we may examine and rest mass. where vI is the frequency of the state. s = 1.] = exp[(n. nr. Equation 327 polarization statesfor Another momentum density (11. n.) describing a single particle state... that is.T] **n. = 5 (nf + n. + . photons is n. j u s t number mass. thus the number of photons inside the cavity is not fixed. n. but may fluctuate as energy is exchanged with the cavity walls. = c = cp. These properties of light waves require that the distribution function for photons be derived by a special method. .)h/&.u. )“2 X h from Equations (1 1. To calculate the average number of photons in singleparticle the particular state i.hv.16). The total energy in the cavity will be a sum over all states j of the energy in each state. only as two in Equation (11.. two in Photons have they spin have quantum zero rest each comtherefore spin of states bosons. + n2b12 + .“xp[(n.48) (11.hu.
.PgT _ 1 or Z(E) where f is a photon energy. Since the total number of photons is not conserved. .14 PLANCK RADIATION IFORMULA To find the range du. the total number of particles.2. if a < 1. . c”. C. we obtain the following formula for (n. c. any number of photons may exist. If we use spherical . The remaining sum in the argument of the logarithm in Equation (11.22). and there is no constant similar to the Fermi energy.53) Combining these results. = 0.a ) . may be = faound ni e x p (niu.) if x = the form: 1 +. The above sum may immediately be simplified because the summations over all of the n. Equation (1 1...) : (n.1 1 .kBT X=~“.) = N. corresponding to the fact that in any state j..3 I. (n.52) is an infinite geometric series. = 0.) = $ I n ( 1 .h/kaT) C~=oexp(ZAA~ by performing the following differentiation: dldx cc.e. = This (ew result .3.2. “’ The sum over n.‘s. E q u a t i o n (11. .h.emX In general. 1. normalization as the Fermi energy was determined by a condition. no such normalization condition can be w r i t t e n d o w n f o r photon... We thus have ~~=...51) C”.328 Quantum statistical mechanics where the sums run over all the possible values of each of the integers. except that appears denominator place of + 1. n. i f x i s p o s i t i v e .6).l (11.e‘)’ = l&x(+ex:l x= “. n. emndx) =_ C.1. infinitesimal n u m b e r o f p h o t o n s d n i n t h e c a v i t y i n t h e f r e q u e n c y we may use the density of states. T h u s . i. except j = i.55) FermiDirac in strikingly 1 d i s t r i b u t i o n . enix T h e a b o v e r e s u l t i s i d e n t i c a l t o (n.. a” + e2x + . (1 1.kgT (1 1. nie“rx en. I)’ resembles in the the 1. is exactly the some in numerator and denominator. of = (1 .54) = 1 e hu. This latter o m i s s i o n i s e n t i r e l y rea!sonable.52) uih/kBT. The constant factor due to these other summations then cancels out. (11.. 11.‘ .h.
For ordinary intensities of radiation. equilibrium radiation.dp. If we then multiply hu by the number of photons in the interval du. the radiation from a black body has a frequency distribution the same as that given in Equation (1 1. if energy is absorbed in a particular frequency range. the two are seen to agree only at very low frequencies If the walls of the container were perfectly black. per unit volume. including + 4*p2 is dp. 8irVu2du = 2 The number of photons in the interval dv is therefore 87r\l _c3 u2du (ehvlk8’ 1) (11. if they absorbed all of the radiation incident upon them.. The RayleighJeans formula agreed well with experiment at low frequencies but not at high frequencies. Vdu This is Planck’s inside radiation a cavity formula 1 dE = c”(e 8nhu3 hu.17. on the average an equal amount of energy in this frequency range must be emitted by the walls. e h”‘k8r approximately: = 1 + hu/k.kgT 1) (11. polarizations.J + a . since there is equilibrium.58) f or equilibrium radiation.5 are plotted both the Planck radiation formula and the RayleighJeans law. The RayleighJeans formula was derived originally by using classical ideas. In other words._. average is then contributed by photons of frequencies in the range du. then for thermal equilibrium to be maintained. This is therefore . it is to be expected that walls the are radiation in from the with walls the should incident not depend significantly we on whether conclude the that.57) The energy per photon is h u.14 Planck rodiotion formula coordinates states in the in momentum space. d p . Hence. Hence may in general. The Planck formula was one of the early triumphs of the idea of quantization of photon energy.T << 1 . the number of du. and the Planck formula becomes . Using the same h as found from the photoelectric effect.= v tlu 1 dE 8ru2k8 C3 J which is the RayleighJeans radiation formula. that is. The energy per unit Frequency. dp. It is evident that such a derivation is possible because h does not appear in it. For photons. When interval. In Figure 1 1. we obtain the energy dE. to the total energy i? in the cavity. the 329 momentum p a n d f r e q u e n c y v are related by frequency range p = hu/c.58) for the only energy density at per unit frequency T. containing radiation temperature hu/k. the frequency distribution of the radiation emiited by the walls would have to have the same form as that of the incident radiation. Planck was able to completely explain the radiation experiments.
64) .63) x3dx .” The usual procedure for performing experiments with black body radiation is to form a cavity in any substance so there is equilibrium radiation inside. O t h e r b o d i e s w h e n h e a t e d e m i t r a d i a t i o n w h o s e frequency distribution closely resembles the radiation from an ideal black body. ex. called b l a c k b o d y r a d i a t i o n .5.. The radiation is sampled through a very small hole in the cavity wall.330 Quanfum stofistical mechanics I . For instance.dE V dv I I I I . Graphs of the classical RoyleighJeans formula for energy density in a cavity and the Planck radiation formula obtained from quantum theory. 1r Y Figure 11. At high frequencies.hn. the classical energ’f density per unit frequency interval becomes infinite.T “=ksTx &=!??d h We therefore obtain: ’ h ’ The required integral is found in definite z s o integral = tables. To find the total energy due to radiation in a cavity as a function of temperature. which would actually be “white hot. so that the radiation is not significantly disturbed by the meosurements.52) over all frequencies from zero to infinity: To simplify the algebra.= _ _ _ _ V 15h3c3 (11. ir4 15 and is (11. whereas Planck’s formula agrees with experiment. Then hu/k.Ibyl. letus designate by the variable x the quantity appearing in the exponential. in the visible range the light from the sun is very much like that of a black body near 6OOOK.1 The energy density is therefore E 8r5(kB J)4 u z .lgh. we may simply integrate Equation (11.
. T h i s i s a w a y o f s t a t i n g d e t a i l e d b a l a n c i n g . Planck’s constant.. Eiristein was the first to notice that thermal equilibrium could not be maintained if the emission were due only to spontaneous . this such as the surface of a metal. Similarly. 15 Spontaneous emission The significant feature of this expression is its dependence on the fourth power of the temperature. 33 1 The result. Suppose. An isolated object tends to spontaneously emit radiation and make transitions downward in energy. = A.15 SPONTANEOUS EMISSION Let us now consider the processes of emission and absorption of radiation in the cavity from the point of view of detailed balance. a c o n s t a n t i n d e p e n d e n t o f T .65). This process can occur even when there is no radiation initially present. I f a beam of light is incident on an absorbing of the incident energy is absorbed. The radiation from nonblack bodies frequently has approximately the same temperature dependence. Therefore.. for example. w o u l d h a v e t o b e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t e m p e r a t u r e . the Boltzmann factors can be interpreted as the relative probabilities that the object will be found in the upper state E.65) BE.. also implies that the power radiated from a hot black body is proportional to J4. even in classical electro magnetic theory. associated of a photon of frequency v. Next consider emission processes. if n.eBE. is the frequency of a particular one of the single photon states in the cavity.. the rate of absorption by the object should be proportional to n. a n d w e w o u l d w r i t e p2 . We write this as: PIZ = Cn. We can assume that the object itself obeys MaxwellBoltzmann statistics. p.66) is where C is some proportionality constant. that a certain . w i t h a t r a n s i t i o n 2 4 1 of the object is the emission of a photon of the same Now let us analyze the transition probability for absorption of a photon per unit time. with CI transition 1 + 2 of the object is the absorption i.64).p?  +. In other words. separated in energy by the amount h v. photons of the mode i are incident per second on the absorbing object. in the single photon state frequency.+. 1. because it involves classically. (11. not dependent on the temperature of the walls because of the way the transition probability P. E2 > E. 4 . it is wellknown. that there is one object inside the cavity which has two energy levels E.2) (1 1.. If the emission were due entirely to spontaneous emission. Equation (1 1. This fourth power dependence could be calculated from thermodynamics.+ proportional to the number of incident photons n. w h e r e u. Suppose that associated or lower state El at thermal equilibrium.I I. until it ends up in the ground state. an equation such as Equation holds: P I (1 1. however. p..+~ was defined.fraction fraction is independent of the intensity of the incident beam. could not the be proportionality calculated constant. I n E q u a t i o n ( 1 1. Thus. in more detail. obiect. then pZ .
then a kind of resonant interaction occurs between the object and the radiation.67) (11. and the n. spontaneous emission processes.72) Thus. by constant. independent balance. At pz+. contributes to the emission probability. called s t i m u l a t e d e m i s s i o n . Equation .” .” because the incident radiation “stimulates” intensity of the must A incident be + radiatiion. the total emission probability is proportional to A(1 + n. = (A (1 + BEj)emaE. The name of the device is taken from the initial letters of the words “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. for then detailed balance Cfi Y would eoEx = require Ae.. Ce Bhu. or the number of photons present in the final state of the electromagIn the factor 1 + n. It would be consistent only if the photon distribution were a classical Boltzmann 11. inserting the expressic>n. and some number n. initially present. from Equation (1 1.6 = for the photon distribution. which is the number of photons present after emission.69) temperature. further emission of photons of the same type.42). with the photon A . which is inconsistent distribution.71) &Oh”’ . 1.& that (11. It is this proportionality which leads to the terminology directly Thus. mode. In which fact.+‘hv = e C distribution tion (1 1. corresponds to the contribution from stimulated Stimulated emission is the basis of operation of a celebrated inventionthe laser. we must have A=B=C (11. “stimulated to the emission. the 1 corresponds to the contribution from emission processes. if the system ils initially in the excited State E2.1) In order for this equation to be satisfied at all temperatures.16 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPONTANEOUS AND STIMULATED EMISSION E i n s t e i n recognized that another process. increases the the probability of of emitting another is photon in the same to the probability stimulated emission proportional number of photons n. of photons in a mode frequency v. n. (11. the probability of emission being proportional the total emission probability written: hi. . are initially present. and hence to 1 + netic field.70) of (11. = where thermal B is another we proportionality must have..). detailed equilibrium (~e@~.69).I Then. In this process.68) function derived in Equa or n.55).332 Quantum statistica/ mechanics emission. (11.
in the transition rate.. by the effect of stimulated emission. which requires that when singleparticle states are used to describe the system. under an exchange of any two particles.ii. Anyone not interested in this discussion should skip to Section 1 1 . As other atoms then radiate into the same mode. and those of BoseEinstein statistics. which obey FermiDirac statistics.17 ORIGIN OF THE FACTOR 1 . for bosons follows. with an initial number n.particle antisymstates. 1. must not change even in sign. This coherent light is unlike the light emitted by most natural sources. A large number of the atoms can thus be made to radiate into the same mode. the symmetric wavefunction for two particles in different . this also requires that no two singleparticle states in the wavefunction can have the same quantum number. By way of contrast. which a holds at of equilibrium. all going in nearly the same direction and with nearly the same frequency. halfoddintegral which obey spin. which applies for fermions. then the subsequent probability of radiation of another photon in the same mode is increased because of the factor 1 + ni in the emission probability that is. so that a pulse of radiation containing as many as 1019 photons. of bosons in the state i. The wavefunction for a system of two or more fermions must be antisymmetric under exchange of any two particles.e. or proportional to 1 + n. This factor.l). The buildup of energy in a single mode is enhanced by enclosing the active laser material between partially coated mirrors.I 7 Origin of fcictor 333 In a laser. where fii is the average occupation number of particles initially in state i.lB. such as hot bodies. so that the light is reflected back and forth many times through the material before getting out. in the transition rate to state i. atoms spontaneously radiate photon mode n. A discussion of the factor 1 + n. the stimulated emission probability factor for that mode builds up into an enormous factor. there is a factor 1 A. occurs in general for transitions of bosons to a state i. This difference of sign is characteristic of the difference between particles integral of spin. IN BOSON TRANSITIONS In the preceding section it was seen that the total emission probability for photons in the mode i is proportional to the number of photons in the final state.. a large number of atoms are placed in an excited state by some special means. w h e r e rt. For example. 1 + ni. such as by collisic~ns with other atoms or by shining light of proper frequencies upon them.7 7 . i. in Equation (1 l.. is the number of photons initially in mode i. This gives rise to the factor 1 . tne wavefunction of a system of two or more bosons must be symmetric. On the other hand. the wavefunction must be an metrized combination of single. The atoms are then not in thermal equilibrium. Due to its high directionality and the sharpness of the frequency. thus contributing further to the stimulated emission. can result. laser light has many important uses.t n. because the number of atoms in the excited state is larger than the number in the ground statein disagreement If one of with the the Boltzmann should probability factor.
~2(r.~+. the sym $(rl I s l .75) l./G*WV.s2 ) + ~1(r2rS2)~2(r1rs.)(. cause there are rt2 + 1 terrns in #.(r2. which is the square root of the number of terms in the symmetrized wavefunction.. .s2) = $[Gl(r11. s..rs. is zero.* A (r.) s2)1c/2(r2../“+rCrl I 51 hb(r1 I 51 )dV..)(S#. +(.2+1.~+~) (1 I . Ml(r2...2+l) + * (11.) + $2 (rl I 5..74) As shown in Appendix 2.+ 1 in the denominator. there are n.. by considering an initial state of the system with The symmetrized $hial wavefunction = L\/1+G + of the system would be n.[J $l(‘.iol In t h e p r o d u c t ../” 1&.)(. Also. The wavefunction. and 1..s.76) 1C2(rlrS1)~1(r2rS2). so there is a n e t f a c t o r [(l + nz)/.2. s. and therefore the state. bea n d o n e i n $final. integral such as .5? would be: +(r . 81s hnaf = rC/2(r~. #ini+i. )dV..2+.)1 where the tactor (11. a n d 1c/ 2 are each normalized..(rZ. s2) 1 ‘dv.334 Quantum stcrtisficol mechanics states #.(r.(r. of the final Here there are 1 + n.[$2*(r.(r.) 1 ‘dV./J/. To see that this normalization is correct if 1c/. 51) 1 ‘ d v . Also an Thus 2s~ ~dV to uA. If the initial waven2] .) +(S l$. a n d o n e p a r t i c l e rn the initial singleparticle state 1.s.ni. with 1 + n2 particles in state 2. terms in the symmetrized combination.(rl I 5.s. the normalization is metric wavefunction would be (1 1. s2) We may give a brief indication of the origin of the factor 1 + n in the transition rate.1)+2(r2.(r2. is for correct normalization. s2)dV.. [11/~(r~~~~)~2(r2~S2)~~~~2(r. s2)1C/. = 1 it $1 and $2 are normalid * the correct normalization. 111 ‘dV.s2 11 ‘dV2)( 1 1 ic/2(r11 +(he rl r 51 bhl(rl I 51 )dV.dVz = [s 1$l(r. 81 M. If two particles were in the some state.73) ~‘2 in the denominator. sZ)dV2] (11. rzl s2) = #.ldp by the same reasoning. say $.~1)~2(r2~~~)~~~1C/~(r.77) In calculating a transition probability from quantum mechanics.) s. each contributes equally to the transition probability.\/lr 2in the transition probability. 2+1 I s. ) . If 12 t a n d l/v’% there are p terms in the symmetrized wavefunction... an integral such as . + 1 terms in the product.. leads tc’ a factor of \/n.. the square of a n i n t e g r a l i n v o l v i n g t h e product o f t h e a b o v e t w o w a v e f u n c t i o n s a p p e a r s . we consider the integral: 2. 2t I )I normalization constant is ‘I/\/in.ty. particles in the final singleparticle state 2. r2.
1 in state 1. of a system of bosons at thermal equilibrium. Then the principle of detailed balance can be written as: n.)pz.2/pZl.) = of noninteracting bosons with kinetic energy N (11. the 1 in the denominators. just as did the factor e to determine Z would be z. or antisymmetry. The constant Z in the denominator of the BoseEinstein distribution. Then. then similar reasoning shows that there is a factor n.81) which are not conserved in number. fi. We shall denote this constant by the symbol Z: ii(E) e E/kg1 = Z 1 + A(E) the = Then. b e t h e t i m e .q’ (11. s e r v e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a s a n o r m a l i z i n g EF/kgr. we obtain: E.79) Since each side of the above equation depends on a different energy. in state 2. this Z = 1.80) (11. (1 + n2) in the transition probability.~i. The condition used constant. . using Equation (1 1. respectively. The summation could be written as an integration by using the appropriate density of states. for a system . n2 in state 2. 18 BOSEEINSTEIN DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION We may proceed under the assumption that in all boson systems the transition rate for transitions from a singleparticle state 1 to a singleparticle state 2 is proportional to 1 + rtz. we find E(E) BoseEinstein distribution: 1 I Note that for the special case of iohotons butions lies in the under presence particle of the sign _’ (1 1. particles in state 1.IkBr Fl e 1 + ii. solving for ii. p2/2m. p.)p.a v e r a g e d v a l u e s o f t h e n u m b e r o f particles found in the singleparticle states 1 and 2.78) Here. we assume that the ratio of transition probabilities per unit time. 1 + n.(l + ii. of the wavefunction exchange. . and the final function 335 corresponds to n. The main difference between the FermiDirac and BoseEinstein distripreceding sign arises as a direct consequence of the symmetry. .82) for a system of N particles.24). 772 Te 1 + 772 is the same as in the classical case.+ = ilz(l + Ti. (11. such as in Equation (11. EzIk. for a system of particles of nonzero rest mass.2). Letri.78 Bose&stein distribofion function corresponds to n. In the FermiDirac case. each side must be equal to a constant independent of energy.(E.7 7. as in the FermiDirac case.
the BoseEinstein distribution is plotted for Z = 1 . The order of magnitude of the temperature at which the 1 in the denominator would be important. has zero spin. and that below this temperature the liquid behaves as if it were composed of two interpenetrating fluids.the case of degenerate statisticsis a few degrees Kelvin.336 Q uantum statistical mechchcs The most common isotope of helium. It shows that Z is indeed much less than 1. many particles tend to collect in the state of zero energy rather than filling states up to a Fermi energy. In Figure 11. The 1 in the denominator of the distribution.0.01 = 0. and the gas follows essentially MaxwellBoltzmann statistics. w i t h t w o p r o t o n s a n d t w o n e u t r o n s in the nucleus. A calculation at room temperature. The behavior of liquid helium c:an be explained on the basis of BoseEinstein statistics. gives negligible effect in this case. the calculation of this would again be similar to that for He3. This superfluid exhibits a number of interesting properties connected with the lack of viscosity. closely pa~rallels that done for He3 previously. with the zero viscosity component roughly connected with accumulation of helium atoms in the ground stat’e. it is found that at 2. assuming that the statistics are nondegenerate for He4 gas (i. one of zero viscosity. However. 101 .2K the specific heat of liquid He4 abruptly.6. Equation (1 1.81). He4. in the BoseEinstein case at low temperature. it was found that in the .01 = 0.lkgT Figure 1 1. and thus these nuclei obey BoseEinstein statistics.e.99.6.99. NUMBER OF STATES By consideration of free particle wavefunctions and imposition of periodic boundary conditions at the boundaries of a volume V. assuming that Z << l). changes Experimentally. The fraction of the zero viscosity part increases as temperature decreases. E BoseEinstein distribution function for 2 = 1 ~ 0.
of photons per state in the equilibrium radiation is l/(eh”“” . A more careful calculation results in a correction to the average energy proportional to T2. so number of singleparticle states in the 337 momentum interval dp. dp. Also. then if Ef > > kT.l). and is substantially the same as MaxwellBoltzmann degenerate statistics. T h u s . p = hv/c. 2s + 1 should be taken as 2 for a zero rest mass particle. hu. For free electrons with bution is nondegenerate. and is said statistics. the energy in Multiplication of this number of states by the average number of photons per state and the energy per photon. E. the energy a n d i n dE the number of states is 27rV(2s + l)m fidE/h3. Also for this case.. per for which the exclusion state of principle energy holds.Summary limit as V becomes very large. FERMIDIRAC For the identical average DISTRIBUTION of of halfintegral particle!.. is E = p2/2m. T/EF times the classical specific heat. E at particles number single particle temperature T is yy= e 1 (EEF)/~~T + 1 EF is a constant called the Fermi energy. Thus. is proportional to this function. the particle spin. spin. w h e r e hv is the photon state energy. the average energy per particle is approximately “/. d p . Integration gives a total energy radiated proportional to T4. and often approximately by other objects. For free particles. gives du: dE = 8rVhu3du c”(e hv/kgT 1) The energy radiated by a perfectly black wall. i t is often useful to write the volume element in momentum space as 4*pZdp. the number of states in dp is 4?r(2s + 1)Vp2dp/h3. i s ( 2 s + l)Vdp. where N is the number of electrons of mass in volume V. the average number photons. w h e r e s is the W h e n the quant i t i es t o be integrated d epend only on the ma g ni t ude o f p . If (EF) >> kT. the distri Boltzmann statistics.. BLACK For BODY the RADIATION Z in the BoseEinstein distribution is 1. T h i s l e a d s t o a specific heat on the order of k. In the relation giving the number of states. the distribution is much different from the classical Maxwelltm3 be degenerate. d p . . dp./h3. If the smallest value of E is taken to be 0. t h e number of states in du is 8XVu2du/c3.
EF + a2kiT2/4EF. The ground state is much more densely populated for particles obeying BoseEinstein statistics.07 x 1O23 i/K. In any system of bosons. between 5000 and 6000 Angstroms in wavelength.OK. the average number of particles per single particle state of energy E at temperature T is 1 (l/Z)eE”” . the statistics are nondegenerate. Answer: 3 . Would the statistics be degenerate or nondegenerate? Estimate the Fermi energy in eV for these electrons.transition occupied initially by n particles is proportional to 1 + n.66 x 10ez7 i/K. Classical result is 12. the term n arises from stimulated emission. wo!j confined to move on a flat 2. plane of area A. Suppose a gas of particles of energies E =: p2/2m per unit energy interval dE for zero spin. the probability for . is proportional to 1 + n. of sun = 600ClK) Answer: EF = = . rather than in three dimensional space. The density of electrons in some regions of interplanetary space is about 10/cm3.5 meters on a side. assuming they are in thermal equilibrium with the sun. “/. Answer: 2mxA/h2. The density of aluminum is at a temperoture of T = 2.338 Quantum stotisticol mechonrcs STIMULATED AND SPONTANEOUS EMISSION The probability of emission of a photon of a particular mode or singleparticle photon state.1 ii= I f Z << 1 when the minimum of E is 0.2 4 eV. Calculate the specific heat per particle of the conduction electrons in copper (8. Find the density of states 3.5 x 10” electrons/cm3) with the classical result. Compare . the degenerate statistics are quite different from MaxwellBoltzmann statistics. 5. 1. Answer: Cv = 1. closely like MaxwellBoltzmann statistics. In oluminum. Calculate the number ‘of states of electromagnetic radiation using periodic boundary conditions in o cubical region 0. 5 3 x 1o18. there are three free electrons per atom. (Temp. to a final state BOSEEINSTEIN DISTRIBUTION For identical particles of integral spin. kB. where n is the number of photons initially present. For Z N 1. The term 1 in 1 + n corresponds to the contribution to emission probability from spontaneous emission. 4. The overage energy per particle of an electron gas at low temperatures is E = “/..
6.82k. energy. 7 eV. and at CI concentration of 10” electrons/cm3 the statistics are degenerate.02 1. hc/2. Show that for a gas of N electrons in CI volume V.) Answer: 12. show that the dipole equilibrium is 4*V(2m)3’2p. = 6000K.0 eV? Answer: 11.. Answer: 0. argue that the total intensity emitted by a black wall is cu/4. This quantity. is the electronic magnetic moment eh/2m and 8 is the field strength. MaxwellBoltzmann gas is 3/2ks 7’. Also. 10. Show that at concentrations of lOI are nondegenerate at room temperature. at a very low temperature. Find the Fermi energy.) 8. Answer: 13. a n d t h e a t o m i c weiglht temperature. eV. show that . but that the lowest energy of one spin part is 2~~6 lower than the other. in addition to the kinetic where p. Show that at liquid nitrogen temperature..0037. to the spin parallel and antiparallel strength of the electron ga!. A similar relation The density of states in energy rlear E = Er.0 eV? In CI low density nondegenerote electron plasma at 25. the true electron mass. From these results. A n s w e r : 1 1 . XT = 1.Problems 2. 0. what is X.9 and 7. the average kinetic energy per particle of a XT = h/p is deCompute XT for o gas of hydrogen atoms at By the classical equipartition thee>rem. cu/4 = rT4. 6 7 x 10~8watt/m2K4. what fraction of the electrons have energies between 6. The average thermal wavelength 300K.6. Show that if the energy density for black body radiation is u.ction of o metal at lOOOK. In a metal of Fermi energy 7.$B z/Eflh3 = smaller than classical statistics would This is on the order of kbT/E. fined so that :/*ks T = % m(h/X. give. If ~~8 e: Er. as compared to OK. show that the energy hitting per second per unit area is (cdu) cos 0. if the thermal wavelength is small compared EF/kgr (Hint: Assume e >> 1.00OK. for the part of a degenerate electron gas with spin parallel to magnetic field.97. 9. then the contribution to u arising from radiation propagating in the solid angle dQ = 25~ sin II d0 at angle 0 from the wall normal is du =: % u sin /3 d0. 1 eV. 0. that is.46 x lo‘cm. because of the mteraction of elecelectrons/cm3 the statistics of Al is 26. Estimate the decrease in work fur. 3N/. the number of “free” electrons be varied by introduction of impurities.N/V << 1.+.)2.29 7. If the sun’s surface temperature is about Verify that for black body radiation the wavelength for the energy maximum of I / V x dE/du i s a t X. 1. Find the Fermi energy at zero 339 trons with the crystal atoms. A n s w e r : 0 . In the magnetic field. is 2aV(2m)3’2dEF/h3. about 80K. the statistics will be nont o t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n partiazles.T. so there are more electrons with the antiparallel spin orientation. In a crystal of the compound iridium can ontimonide. Evaluate c.. 6..9 and 7. ot holds for the antiparallel spin part.? what fraction of the electrons have energies between in eV. cr =: 5 . If light of energy density du is hitting CI wall at an angle of incidence B. Explain why the Fermi energy of a metal is almost independent of temperature.0 eV. ttle electrons behave as free particles with ‘/. The plus and minus correspond cases.~i6/2f.7g/cm3. the electrons have potential energy +~. degenerate if A:N/V << X. Most metals melt at temperatures below 3000K. (Use the fact that the Fermi energy is the same for the two spin parts.
what is A. o n e long~~tudinal and two transverse.. A s s u m i n g t h a t u is a function only of 7. V is volume. and u i s e n e r g y d e n s i t y . continuum electrons of either spin orientation can go to the bound state. f i n d t h e numbelr to the Fermi energy for spin o f p a r t i c l e s approximaiely C~=O l/(ae”& . a n d t h u s t h a t u = (J)4. 1.1).1 22. w h a t i s t h e n u m b e r o f partic es in the state of exactly zero energy? ) = lo’*.1 ) E i n t h e Jowest e n e r g y l e v e l f o r s p i n 1 p a r t i c l e s .E i n s t e i n l i q u i d a t a v e r y l o w temperature. p is pressure.+? Answer: 15. I f hu = 10eR eV a n d t h e r e o r e 3 x 10’ nl a n d energy corresponding 19.ow t h a t i f ii = l/[e(“mEF’kr) + l] f o r t h e c o n t i n u u m e l e c t r o n s a n d E b i s t h e e n e r g y o f a b o u n d e l e c t r o n . a r i s i n g f r o m spin waves. show that const. f i n d (cYS/&) a t c o n s t a n t V a n d (dS/dV) a t c o n s t a n t u .97ksT. 4 8 3 0 Angsiroms. 16. Answer: 1/(1/Z < Z . in the absence of spinchanging interactions. = 0. Show that 0 5 1 for the ideal BoseEinstein gas. sh. T h i s d e p e n d e n c e o f XM o n Wien displacement law. ( U s e l/(a 1) n l/6 = In(a x  e “26) f o r d << 1 . w i t h for o n e s t a t e p e r n . = hc/4. U s i n g t h e s e i d e a s .2m3. t o 1 : Z = 1 . 14. An impurity atom in a crystal has one valence electron which has the possibility of either being bound to the atom in either state or being in the continuum with the other crystal electrons. The energies of a one dimensional harmonic oscillator of frequency v are n particle oscillators.. A s s u m e t h a t = 0. I f t h e p r e s s u r e f o r b l a c k b o d y r a d i a t i o n i s ‘/z u a s f o u n d i n P r o b l e m 1 5 .lo‘*. 18. the value of Z is very close Ti = 21. 4(dJ/J) =: du/u. S h o w t h a t t h e e n e r g y p’er u n i t w a v e l e n g t h p e r u n i t v o l u m e i n b l a c k b o d y r a d i a t i o n i s hr/AkB T . w h e r e vc. S h o w t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c he’at o f t h e s o l i d . which may be treated as particles similar t o p h o t o n s b u t w i t h t h r e e k i n d s o f polarization. I f t h e l i q u i d h a s 10” p a r t i c l e s i n a v o l u m e 0. 8 x 10’.) Answer: 7 5 108. I n a c e r t a i n B o s e . . 2.. 17.. one should include the fact that if there is no electron bound to the atom. At low energies. The effective particles have an e n e r g y E = vop2.340 Quantum sfafisfical mechanics Answer: 7000 8500 Angstroms (the visible region is around 4000 Angstroms to Angstroms). . There exists in solids a kind of excitation or vibration of atoms called phonons (particles corresponding to sound waves). which may be treated as particles like photons but with no spin. A combination of the first and second laws of thermodynamics for a reversible process is JdS = d(uV) + pdV. Verify that the wavelength for the maximum. However. I f t h e e n e r g y d e n s i t y o f b l a c k b o d y r a d i a t i o n i s u. where S is entropy.75eV. If J is called the J = 6000K for the sun. the energy is proportional to the effective phonon momentum. a = 1 + 1. 1 . There exists a kind of excitation in magnetic solids called spin waves. Setting these second derivatives equal to each other. In writing the detailed balance equation. Show that at low temperatures the specific heat due to phonons is proportional to J3. l/V(dE/dX) = 8ahc/JL5(e o f t h i s f u n c t i o n i s a t X. a bound electron with a particular spin state can go to only thot some s p i n o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e c o n t i n u u m . (n + % )hv.EF 20. s h o w t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e o n t h e w a l l a t e q u i l i b r i u m d u e t o t h e r a d i a t i o n i s ‘/z u. as for light. J = 300K find the approximate “/. w h e r e L is very small. p a r t i c l e s . f i n d a/13V(dS/?Ju) a n d I?/&J(~S/CYV). is proportional to J3”. tllen FbEF)lkT l/[% e + l] f o r t h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f bfound e l e c t r o n s . 3. i s a c o n s t a n t a n d p i s t h e “ m o m e n t u m ” a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o w a v e .
The three smallest inde it is clear that the crystal can be considered to be composed of small volumes called unit (cells. A lattice vector is a vector from one atom site in the lattice to a similar site. Another way of stating this property is to say that. i. an equat’lon of the same form then describes any other atom.2 shows 341 . Because of the periodicity. In this chapter we shall discuss some of the most basic properties of solids. a translation of the crystal by a as vector laftice vector leaves the crystal unchanged. For example. such A in Figure 12. solids in which the atoms or molecules are arrarlged in some simple repetitive pattern. more progress has been made in understanding crystalline solids because they are simpler to treat mathematically. Examples of solid state devices which have recently seen widespread use are transistors. and of electron memory elements and 2. we shall set up an equation of motion for a general atom in a one dimensional crystal. Some of the consequences of having a crystalline structure will be illustrated in the discussions of crystal lattice vibrations (sound waves.1. we shall consider only crystalline solids. Bravais lattices according to Crystals are classified into 14 possible types of other possible symmetries.d state physics Solid state physics. and nothing would be changed except at the boundaplus an integer times ries. b and c. While many solidssuch as glassare not of this type.11 energy bands in solids. is the study of physical properties of solids. propert&. in addition to translational ones. w h i c h a l l h a v e t h e s a m e pendent lattice vectors a.2 so1i. corntouter lasers. times b or c in the Figure. are called the primitive lattice vectors.. This field has been the subject of intense research activity in the past two decades. Thus we could consider translating the crystal by vec tors a. or translational symmetry. as the name Implies.1 CLASSIFICATION OF CRYSTAL!. The primary property of crystals which simplifies their discussion is their periodic or repetitive structure. which can be used to build up the crystal by translations. The general lattice vector by which one could translate would be an integer a b plus an integer times c. which has resulted in many important technological advances. In all our discussions.e. in discussing lattice vibrations. as distinct from those of liquids and gases.. ‘The unit cell of a crystal can be taken as the parallelepiped formed on a. Figure 12. except at the boundaries. b and c.
2a/3. clnd there is one lattice point per unit cell. Some of the basic structures shown are not unit cells as defined above. For ample. In some crystals tllere may be several atoms per unit cell represented by the lattice point. the basic structures of the 14 types. Rotations about 0 by any of the angles a/3. the unit cell of the bodycubic is actually a parallelepiped based on the two cube edges and a they allow easier visualization of other types of from a corner of . That is. Diagram illujtrating how a solid crystal may be built up of identical Iunit cells stacked together.342 Solid state physics Figure 12.the cube to its center. together with their names and some properties. 4x/3. . Each lattice point in these diagrams might represent one atom or a group of atoms. 3?r/3.1. 5~13. in Figure 12. For instance. By “rotation axis” here we mean a line the origin crystal such that a so rotation far as about the line through are some angle would exunchanged physical properties concerned.2 are not the smallest centered vec:tor three independent lattice vectors. w h i c h are multiples of lr/3.2. Let us choose an origin of coordinates at the center of each structure in Figure 12. The lattice point represents the basic periodic structure. All rotation axes and reflection planes we discuss will be ass#umed through leave the to pass through this origin. would bring the set of atoms back to the sites marked A. 12. the edges shown in Figure 12.3 imagine identical atoms at each of the sites marked A. 67r/3. The reason for showing figures o t h e r t h a n u n i t c e l l s i s tlat symmetries. and imagine a rotation axis normal to the paper at the geometrical center 0.2 REFLECTION AND ROTATION SYMMETRIES The classifications into these fourteen crystal types are based on symmetries of rotation and reflection.
Hexagonal Two faces are regular hexagons. Edges which are not parallel are in length. T h e edcles o f a d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h n o t i n t h e p l a n e o f a s q u a r e Simple cubic Bl>dycentered cubic Facecentered cubic All edges meet at right angles and have equal lengths. Rhombohedral All angles at one corner a r e equmol but not equal to 90”.i.2. The fourteen Bravais lattices. B a s e centered monoclinic Simple orthorhombic Basecentered orthorhombic Bodycentered orthorhombic Facecentered orthorhombic All angles between edges are 90”. Edges which are not parallel are unequal in length. Figure 12. .y Edges which are not parallel are unequal in length.p:fcJ pijFJ Triclinic ct f [I. CY c ‘f. uneq!Jal Simple monoclinic U#90°. All sides are equal. Simple tetragonal Bodycentered tetragonal are perpendicular to that plane T w o f a c e s a r e s q u a r e s . The edges not in a hexagonal plane are perpendicular to that plane. p .
hence in these two figures. I n a s i m i l a r w a y . the line MM’ is a reflection plane.2 could have is inversion metry.4(c). a rotation of 180” about an axis perpendicular to the face containing cy m a y l e a v e t h e s t r u c t u r e u n changed. a threefold rotation axis cor responds to symmetry under 120” rotation. (which changes the signs of two coordinates) followed by a reflection of the atom coordinates in a plane perpendicular to the axis (which changes the sign of . Since there are six possible angles of rotation which will leave atoms at the same sites.4(a. As indicated in Figure 12. a face and parallel to an edge. axils to 60” or a/3. Inversion symmetry’ is the only possible symmetry of the triclinic system.4(a) of . The inversion simply interchanges points on opposite sides of the origin. Rotation by any multiple of the angle 7r/3 atlout an axis through zero and normal to the paper takes the set of positions into itself. whereas in Figures 12. In Figures 12. having rotational symmetry. Inversion is a change in sign of all coordinates of each atom. In Figure 12. Because of the translational crystal symmetry. it is possible that a crystal would not have inversion symmetry if the combination of atoms or ions corresponding to a single cell did not have the proper symmetry. c ) t h e p l a n e t h r o u g h M . Also. Also.5. there can be symmetry reflection planes each of whlich is perpendicular tc. M’ is to be imagined normal to . the axis is called a sixfold rotation axis. it is equivalent to a rotation by 180” about an axis. MM’ is not a symmetry reflection plane. sym One symmetry that all the structures in Figure 12. a fourfold axis to of rotation axes are all ttlat can occur in a crystal. This 180” rotation tiolns IS called a twofold rotation. reflection through MM’ would change the positions of some atoms.3.4(b). lln the monoclinic systern.the and 12. because two such rota90”.344 Solid sfafe physics Figure 12. While there may be some structures in each crystal class which have this symmetry. these four kinds In the orthorhombic system. a re0ection p l a n e is a plane such that a mirror reflection of the crystal relative to the plane leaves the crystal physically unchanged.the palper. there may be a .the third coordinate). b . marked A. and a sixfold would give one complete revolution. Likewise. and it may be seen by inspection that it is possible for this operation to leave the crystals unchanged. o reflection in a plane parallel to the face containing the angle cy may leave the structure unchanged. A set of positions.
i’n a hexagonal crystal of a metal such as zinc. 345 . followed by a 180” rotation about an axis normal to the reflection plane. twofold among rotation other axis perpendicular symmetries. Then. dielectric constant and permeability can vary with the directions of the corresponding fields. Inversion is equivalent to a reflection in one plane. can to any a face. The rhombohedral rotation axis system. Diagrams (a) and (c) do not have reflection symmetry in the MM’ plane. In diagram (b).2 Reflection and rotation symmetries . it turns out that these quantities have to be independent of direction in the plane perpendicular to the axis. they must be consistent with the symmetries. while only hexalgonal fold rotation axes. the possible have threefold through diagonal connecting corners. Threefold axes may occur in the hexagonal and cubic sysiems as well. for a rotation symmetry axis of order greater than two.e. Fourfold rotation axes may occur in the tetragonal and cubic systems. Diagrams illustrating symmetry under mirror reflection. i.12. where the angles LY meet. heat conductivity.4. M’ (Cl1 . Figure 12. Such quantities as electrical conductivi+y. MM’ is a mirror reflection symmetry plane. M . x Reflection in XY plane Figure 12. Diagrams illustrating symmetry under inversion. The reason for being interested In rotation and reflection symmetries is that for a crystal of known symmetry one may derive limitations on the possible values of some physical quantities.5. the electrical conductivity can vary at lnost with the arlgle of the applied field relative ta the axis of systems can have six . However.
and hence toward the other atoms. Similarly. The electrons are shared. on the average. A typical crystal of this type is sodium chloridetable salt.3 CRYSTAL BINDING FORCES A different classification ‘of crystals could be made on the basis of the types of forces holding the crystals together. there is a sharing of electrons between neighboring atoms.6 represents a valence crystal in two dimensions. therefore. In covalent bonding. in which Figure 12. There are four general kinds of binding involved: (1) Valence crystals are held together by the same kinds of forces that hold organic molecules togethcer. forces must be exerted to give work to make up this change in energy. The attraction caused by this sharing can give rise to a lower energy than if the electrons were all bound to individual atoms. if the atoms are to be separated.d the sfofe physics hexagon. giving a net binding effect to the crystal. Then. made of carbon atoms. the conductivity in a cubic crystal is independent of direc tion since there are threts various angles with respes:t fourfold axes and four threefold axes. sinc:e one such electron cannot be said to be bound to any particular atom.346 Soll. the positively charged atoms which remain will be attracted toward the negative charge cloluds. While the electrons of the atoms are bound fairly tightly to the atoms. oriented at to each other.6. 12. A typical crystal with this kind of binding is the diamond. Figure 12. For example. the crystal is held together by concentrations of nega tive electronic charge between positively charged cores. each atom contributes an electron which spends most of its time somewhere in between the atom and its nearest neighbors. The outer electron in sodiurr is . The negative and positive charges attract each other. (2) Ionic crystals are held together primarily by Coulomb forces.
. two things are of primary interest: first. propagation and absorption of light in crystals. such as in s#olid crystals of argon or neon. being shared about equally by all the atoms. and are responsible for such diverse phelnomena as sound waves and specific heats at electrical conduction and high temperature. To describe wave propagation through an elastic medium in classical mechanics. the forces are weaker and are called ‘van der Waals forces. in the present section we shall consider the classical theory of sound waves in a continuous medium. the electronic wavefunctions and energy level structure for the outermost atomic electrons. These vibrations are oscillations of atoms in the crystal about their equilibrium positions. under cause electrons to be bound together in pairs. are very loosely bound.12. SoBme fluctuating molecules have permanent electric dipoles and interact through to give the binding. t) to describe the displacement Consider. compressional waves in aI long. (4) In crystals consisting of neutral atoms or molecules where the electrons are bound so tightly that there is little shuring of electrons. & = 2 orbits in order to form a closed 3p s u b s h e l l . from equilibrium at time f of a Floint in the rod whose equilibrium position is x. The resulting positive and negative ions are then bound by electrilcal forces between ions. The interaction of electrons with lattice vibrations can. and can give rise low temperatures. for example. and second. For purposes of comparison. As in the case of valence binding. T h e n . since it is the only electron outside a closed n = 2 shell. and conduction of electricity.4 Sound WOWS fairly loosely bound. there are only dipoles 12. this sharing lowers the energy and causes the atoms to be bound together. the medium is treated as a continuous one with a mass density p. elastic. w h e n a s o d i u m a t o m c o m e s n e a r a chlorine at’om. One of the important lattice properties is that of lattice vibrations. the properties of the lattice of atoms. or +2. thin. and each electron forces.4 SOUND WAVES IN A CONTIINUOUS MEDIUM In discussing physical processes which occur in solicds.7. Elect o t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f s u p e r c o n d u c t i v i t y a t sufTiciently trons in crystals play an extremely important role in phenomena such as magnetism. as in Figure 12. a crystal made of such dissimilar ions of valences * 1. this electron tends to go over to the chlorine atom. In the following two sections we shall discuss the classical and quantum theories of lattice vibrations in crystals and see how they enter into the calculation of the specific heat of a crystal. likewise. and a suit ably defined elastic constant. these. is held together by Coulomb (3) In metals the outer electrclns 347 moves through the whole crystal. heat conduction. These arise primarily from electric dipole interactions. We introduce the variable $(x. whereas the chlorine atom needs one electron in the n = 3. The wove equation can then be derived by straightforward application of Newton’s laws of motion in an infinitesimal element of the medium. solid rod. In other cases. they are also important in limitling some condiltions.
it is the force per unit area tending to change the length of the rod. f). f ) .348 Solid sfafe physics Displaced positions of points in the rod as the wave passes Equilibrium positions of points in the rod Figure 12.#(x. between x a n d x + Ax a t etquilibrium. Under the action of the wave as it propagates through the rod.1) and the fractional change in length will be Al G(x + A&f) ._~_ Mx. os compressional waves propagate through it. called strain. Next. The quantity T/A is called stress. is described by o variable Ic/( x. f) AX A X ax (12. is related to the elastic constant YYoung’s modulusby (1 2. Consider an infinitesimal portion of the rod of length Ax. the equation expresses the elastic property of the rod.t) . this portion of the rod may be stressed so that its length is changed.2) if Ax is sufficiently s m a l l . the displaement at time t of a particle where equilibrium position is x. The motion of o long. applying Newton’s law of motion to the infinitesimal section Ax of the rod. The fractional change in length.f) N $JAx (12. Combining the above two equations.T(x. we find that the net force in the positive x direction is 7(x + Ax. thin rod.e&t) = . T h e p a r t i a l d e r i v a t i v e t a k e n h e r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e change of length is calculated at a particular time.7. Young’s modulus is thus the stress divided by the fractional change in length of a piece of material.5) . t) (12.:3) where 7 is the tension in the rod at the point x and A is the crosssectional area of the rod. The change in length will be 31 == #(x + A x .
6) Thus. 12. structure. because it has a simple repetitive. and neighboring atoms will start to vibrate because of the elastic forces between . w h e r e tiO is a constant. ~0.6). The one dimensional siructure pictured is then crystallike.8.wt or x + w t .wf). the atoms are said to be in their equilibrium positions. consisting of atoms of mass neighboring atoms are approximated by massless springs. obtain the ‘wave equation. connected by springs of spring constont K/a. When all the springs are at their equilibrium length a. w h e r e w = 6. For simplicity. the angular frequency w and wavenumber k of the wave will be related by w = w k = . where w will be essentially independent of k or w.4) and combining with Equation (12.. in which the forces between Figure 12.7) I t i s e a s i l y v e r i f i e d t h a t # satisfies this equation if it is any function of x . rather than a continuously distributed mass.72.\/t/p k. times the acceleration d*$/?t’: (12.5 Wove equation 349 This must equal the mass pAAx. the discussion will be based on the one dimensional crystallike system shown in Figure 12. T h u s . we (12. A one dimensional model of a solid lott~~ce. If one of the atoms is displaced slightly and then released.8. D I S C R E T E MEDIUM Let us now consider sound waves in u crystalline solid to see the effect of having a medium made up of discrete atoms or molecules. or periodic. differentiating Equation (12. t h e p h a s e s p e e d o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e w a v e s will be w = qp For a wave which is of the form 4 == #0 cos (kx . it will vibrate about its equilibrium position.5 WAVE EQUATION FOR SOUND WAVES IN A.
10) becomes: W(x + _~0) l. i. Then. /J is the effective mass per unit length.. the spring constant would be twice as big. In the limit of small a. Then.350 Solr’d state physics atoms. The quuntities K and ~1 for the one dimensional case are analogous to Y and p for the three dimensional case. Thus in our case we have chosen to write the spring constant as K/a. (12. Equation derivative at constant x. corresponding to different values of the index n.7). the force on the nth atom is: This.. These springs can be thought of as simulating actual forces between atoms in a crystal for small vibrations. d2#Jdt2 (12. K . but the vibrations take place in three dimension.10) reduces to Equation (12.#“+.e.#nl) + (#.(t) a s t h e d i s p l a c e ment from equilibrium of ihe nib atom in the line. The basic unit is the mass m E pa. We shall consider only ongitudinal motion of the atoms. In terms of the spring constant K/a.a'+ ax ax2 a’$. . Hence. so that the spring constant times the length of a n i n d i v i d u a l s p r i n g i s a c o n s t a n t . )] = lim 1 a’(x) 0 0 a1 ax Also.. force gives the mass bra an acceleration d2#. l 0lim‘002 [W. in analogy to the displacement variable #(x./&‘. or the partial derivative . second law for the nth particle. which is independent of length.7). a Similarly. we define $.12) is the time derivative at a certain particle. Equation (12. or the linear mass density. . something very similar occurs. E q u a t i o n (12. Clearly. connected to neighboring masses by the massless springs of spring constant K/a. parallel to the length of the system. If a force tends to compress an object giving CI change in length At.: in the limit of infinitesimally small spacing a. so it becomes a Hence. using Newton’s There is one such equation for each atom in the line of atoms. the same force acting on an object half OS long would give a change in length A 442. t) used in des c r i b i n g w a v e m o t i o n i n ct continuous medium. The equilibrium spacing of the masses is a. the distance na must be replaced by the corresponding distance x of the atom from some reference position. The above set of coupled differential equations is closely related to the wave e q u a t i o n . In CI real crystal./dt2. Let us see how this happens.
10). 6 SOLUTIONS OF THE WAVE EQUATION FOR THE DISCRETE MEDIUM Equation (12. This substitution gives us t [ A cos(kna)cos(wt + +)I[2 . one can wave (p2 a r e a r b i t r a r y c o n s t a n t s . #“I = 214 cos(wt + (P)cos(kna)cos ka (12. the quantity. to see if we can obtain a solution.CP ) = 2 cos (12. respectively.SoJutions of the wove equation 351 a’4 CL a’+ :: dx 2 K at2 and the phase speed will be given by w = v%/P. Here we shall consicler only standing ‘wave solutions. In the discrete case.(f) = A cos (kna) cos (wt + ‘P) (12.wt + (~2) and w = w k = of such solutions. This leads us to attempt to find solutions for the discrete equation of motion. We would expect variations from the continuous wave solutions when the wavelength is comparable to a.lti) is substituted into Equation (12.10). a) (km + k a ) + c o s (km . standing By superposition for Here. Equation (12. cos (kx + wt i.10) and find solutions valid for all n and all t. = A cos kx cos (wt + a) where @ is an arbitrary phase constl>nt. cp. of the form: # = A. of Equation (12.18) the w h e n #. let us then try the function 4.110). one in the negative standing solution i n E q u a t i o n (12.A2.. a n d and find positive is 1c. :=  occurs.14) V%/P k. solutions representing waves. A cos(wt + [co:. The trigonometric identity cc~s(B w i t h 0 = km and CP = ko.k a ) ] + p) + cos(B . (12..19) .16) (12. the variable na corresponds to the position variable x. Then on the left side of Equation (12. the terms in Al and A2 correspond to waves pr’opagating directions.17) 6’ cos (0. example.13) has solutions for continuous x and for a definite frequency w. a is smallof the order of a few Angstromsbut finite.13) In the model for lattice vibrations which we are using here.12.10). factor A cos(kna)cos(wt + a) occurs in each term. of a form similar to the above but with x replaced by no.6 . then gives us: $.2 c o s ka] = pa 9 = jm[ .w2A cos(kno) cos (wt + CD)] (12.15) x + A2 cos (kx . I/. for fnnite a. (12. on the other hand.ul) w h e r e AI. #“+l among other terms. We must return to Equation (12.+1 Hence.
k. such as B sin(kno) cos The corresponding dispersion relation for the continuous medium...16)..~.. so with the choice of the positive square root. w = v’%/.9. into the differential equation gives us a solution if w and k are related in a certain way given by Equation (12. ils indicated by dashed lines on the same graph. For large value.352 &lid state physics T h i s e q u a t i o n i s s a t i s f i e d i f w2 = 2Kj/. is given in Figure 12. the phase speed w = w/k = m is approximately a constant.7 NUMBER OF SOLUTIONS To count up the total r. Graph of the dispersion relation.. A graph of the dispersion relation. Equation (12. it is evident that the frequency w .l.l.~.co!. Only the positive solution for w need be ‘considered. . Equation (12. Such a relation between frequency and wave number is c:alled (I (.9. connected by springs.~a~(l 2 sin2(Yz r9). the phase speed deviates appreciably from this colnstant 12. w l.. relation.20) This equation has two solutions for w which are opposite in sign.. this solution for the possible frequencies may be written as: (12.. we note first that from Equation (12. Thus it can be seen that for k << I/a (long wavelengths).. The same dispersion relation would have resulted it we had worked with any of the other standing wave solutions.7).. Equation (12.c o s k o ) .. Equation (12..l.0 = the relationship between w and k may be written in the form: W2 (12.. f o r waves o n o o n e tdimensronol linear chain of atoms.umber of physically different possible standing wave solu tions.21).~ 2/c ll/a IFigure 12.21).I.21).wt dispersion + @)..‘.l. and i s the same for the continuous and discrete media. k in the real solid.21) Thus substitution of the assumed solution. Dotted line is the dispersion relation for a continuous Imedium. S i n c e 1 .21).
possible angular frequency of a wave propagating in such a solid is then: 2 ~5l!E = = 10’3 se. #. we impose periodic boundary conditions at the ends of a periodicity region of length Na = L. in the length 1.. likewise.21) is unchanged if . as in the discussion of the density of states in Chapter 11. or 0 through % (N . Thus in the audible range.. between atoms is around 2 x 10“m. Equation (12. with a maximum value of: (12.1.25) + kNa) = cos(kna) (12. we can restrict the discussion to values of k in the region 0 to r/a. then for #” = A cos(kna) c o s (wt + a). T h e v a l u e s k = r/a and k = 0 give nothing for the solution $A = B sin (kna) .1) for odd N. Once these are Up to this point. since there are no atoms this The close together to vibrate with such wavelengths.24) k=?!!? Na ’ m = 0. on the displacements specified. or crystal cells. The independent values of k lie in the range 0 to $a/a.22) The frequency w of Equation (12.. If. = A cos (kna) cos (wf + a) for a fixed n is the same for these changes in k. For larger values of 1k / . M a n y s o l i d s h a v e w a v e s p e e d s a t l o w f r e q u e n c i e s o f a r o u n d 103m/sec. spacing.: . #. a. the speed of sound in a solid is essentially independent of frequency. even in classical mechanics a discrete set of values of k results.23) results in: cos(kna This means that kNa = or kL = 2 m x (12.001O cps.k. this would b’e meaningless. w o u l d g i v e t h e s e some values for k. t h e w a v e l e n g t h s 353 2r/k would be shorter than the lattice spacing.23) Here N is the number of masses. corresponding to m ranging from 0 through % N for even N.. zero to 20.1 /In estimate of the highest W mox 2 x loI0 The speed of sound differs by only (about 1% from its low frequency value at 4 x 10” cps.2.12. since we get nothing new by taking a k outside that region. Theother s t a n d i n g w a v e s o l u t i o n s . we have specified neither the size of the one dimensional crystal nor the boundary condition:.7 Number of solufions is a periodic function of k.k is changed to k or if k is changed to (27r/a) . J/A = B sin kna cos (ot + a). Therefore. w e w o u l d r e q u i r e t h a t # n+N = #” (12.
. must then propagate back in from the other end. respectively. as they are called in classical mechanics) is equal to the number of movable atoms in the fundamental periodicity region. Then for even N there are % N . The crystal ceil is one com plete unit from which ithe whole crystal can be built by repetition. The chain is diagramed in Figure 12. The springs connecting the masses are assumed to have the same spring constant K/a.. the number of degrees of freedom would equal the number of movable masses or cells. N states occur for odd N. rili . we next consider a slightly more complicated one dimensional crystal with two inequivalent atoms in ench repeated unit. and the distance between sucand Ma cessive masses of similclr type is a. N. however. The distance between neighboring masses Ma pa is a/2. likewise. such as requiring =: #0 = 0 for fixed endpoints. = A cos(kna) c o s (wt + a).27) for any n.1 solutions for the solution $:. the number of different modes of oscillation w o u l d e q u a l t h e numbcsr of degrees of freedom of the system. the slight curvature introduced into the chain has negligible effect on the equations of motion. hence. The number of different oscillation states (or normal modes. #y’. a n d 14 N + 1 s o l u t i o n s f o r t h e s o l u t i o n #. Imposition of the periodic boundary conditions for the one dimensional (chain corresponds to taking the long chain of N atoms and bending it into a circle.+.. In this case. . linear chain with two dissimilar atoms per unit cell. 12. T h u s t h e r e are N different states. in this K/a K/a K/a K/a K/o K/a K/a K/a K/a Figure 12.10. Also. A wave propagating out past one end. so that one end fits onto the other. if other types of boundary conditions were used.10.8 LINEAR CHAIN WITH TWO MASSES PER UNIT CELL To see the effects of introducing internal degrees of freedom in the crystal cell. the alternate masses are denoted by pa and 1011 and Ma. s i n c e : sin (0) = sin ( Tna a ) = 0 (12.354 Solid state physics c:os(wt + a). and the displacements from equilibrium of the masses pa are denoted by $r’. If N is sufficiently large.
) + A2cu2Ma . [$os .#gi.8 Linear chain case.@cos. Note that again w is unchanged in changing k to k.” = The Newtonian equations of A2 cos[k(n + motic’n are: .28) 355 (12.31) For these two equations to be consistent.) .$‘r) .I.  a cos (wt The + a) solution!.i. ka. Ma.&.(w2po . and the c:ell contains two masses: pa. s i n (kna) c o s (wt + +a) $L” would lead to this same = B2 sin k n + 1 dispersion I 211 relationship. w + and w  ti ka << 1.‘) way to: (12. for (12. &Fqk). or to 2ir/a . = ‘. the cell width or lattice constcznt is a.a) (12.36) .32) a4pMw’ The solutions .$.35) 1 E  2 (12. The resulting dispersion + relation is (12. the solutions may be approximated by: 1 ” a .2K02(p + M)02 4K2 sin’. ka) = 0 A . .30) Vi )a]cos(wt + a) I.f) + A. $sin2iki (12. the determinant of the coefficients of Al and A2 must vanish. and two springs. . let us assume that the displacement of the nth mass pa is J/y’ = Al COS(~~~)COS(O~ and the displacement of the nth mass Ma is #!.34) For long wavelengths.~ k2a2 (12.?)/dt’ These equations of motion lead = (K/a)(2#i’) = (K/a)(2#k2) in a straightforward A.f) = 0 (12.29) ~ad2$~)/df2 Mad’$(.33) w are: positive w. k a = 0 #a) = 6.k.12.
Likewise. if there are 4. There are now two branches to the w versus k curve. giving rise to wave propagation to the right with vertical displacement. the zone giving the independent values of k is a volume in three dimensional “kspace. The cell now has three characteristic lengths and has a volume. If the nth column of atoms is pulled downward uniformly. This branch is called the acoustic branch because for small k it describes the sound waves to which we are accustomed. only one of tllese curves will pass through the origin w = 0 at k = 0. and also by low energy neutron scattering experiments. for instance. for a given direction of k there can be displacements either parallel to k or displacements in two . Consider. While our discussion has been for one dimensional springlike forces. there will be 4.11. in addition to the longitudinal modes. branches to the curve.9 ACOUSTIC AND OPTICAL BRANCHES Sketches of crw+ m and aw. The two b r a n c h e s o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n relation f o r o linear chain o f o+c.” The main change is that now. Electromagnetic infrared waves also are in this frequency range. In general. it exerts forces on the n + 1” column. In three dimensions. the two dimensional array shown in Figure 12. as in the discussion following Equaticon (10. Each branch is periodic iin k and if periodic boundary conditions are applied.*K for the special case M = 2~ are given in Fig. the longitudinal modes exist also. with two dissimilar atoms per unit cell. Instead of a single k.356 Solid state physics 12. it can be shown. Of course.ms. there are transverse modes in which the actual motion of the atoms is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. and although lattice vibrations are not electromagnetic waves. The highfrequency branches have been detected experimerltally in absorption experiments with infrared light. a three dimensional discussion with more realistic forces leads to very similar results. There are still acoustic and optical modes with the number of modes per branch equal to the number of cells in the crystal. forces acting upon them. these branches are called optical branches. In the one dimensional case. that each branch has N modes if N is the number of cells (not necessarily the number of masses). 12. masses per cell that differ in mass or geometry.26).11. The other branches lie at frequencies of the order of lOi3 cps. or that have different w */o &lure 12.12. there is then a vector k with three components.
introduce a collective displacement and write the solution $” as: #. the simultaneous vibrations of all the atoms in the crystal. Fi g u re 12. We can. were found to be of The solutions to the equation of rrlotion.16). then . in which the timedependence is given explicitly. The essential feature of a normal mode solution is that all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. but the phase could change slightly from one atom to the next. for each longitudinal branch. In addi tion to the longitudinal (compressional) waves supported by a linear chain. but freaiuency a mixture are. = A c o s k n a cos(wt + a)‘) $L = 8 sill k n a cos(wt + a) (12. the various branches or modes of definite tudinal nor purely transverse. The timedependence for a// atoms is contained entirely in the factor A cos(ot + @). in order to discuss the similarity between lattice vibrations and a collection of simple harmonic oscillators.8. neither purely longithe two.) 0 ENERGY OF LATTICE VIBRATIONS N o w we shall r etu r n to th e co nsideratio n o f the simple line ar c h a in . directions perpendicular to k. a branch may be either acoustic or optical. the factor A cos(wt + a) describes. in fact. successive atoms in the line would vibrate with slightly different amplitudes. the form: #.37) and by superposition of these solutions. Thus. Thus. = ~‘2 c o s k n a qw(t) (12.10). (Actually. If we had assumed a solution of this form instead of Equation (12.) The changes in vibration amplitude from one atom to the next are described by the factors cos kna or sin kna in the above solutions. Two dimensional solid. J 0 Energy of lotfice vibrations 357 h .12. for on onisotropic crystal with different properties in different directions.38) The factor ais for convenience. sense.1 " n+1 Figure 12.12. In a standing wave. consisting of atoms connected by springs. but the vibrations would be in phase. of in general. in a colle. one can describe all possible wave motions of the atoms in the crystal lattice.:tive “variable” q”(t). (In a running wave the amplitudes could all be equal.. Equation (12. there are two transverse branches. this model con support transverse (shear) waves.
The kinetic energy and potential energy of the crystal for this mode are thus the same as for a harmonic oscillator of displacement cl. Hence.38). the variable q. we would expect that in the summation the square of cos’(kna) could be replaced by its average value.‘and (12.1. + @a) or % A2Cw2sin2(ot C is constant in time. to find C. where m is an integer. f r e q u e n c y w.42) . Let IJS think of qU(t) as the disSince the displacement of each particle in the lattice is proportional to q(t). as % (e”“” + noting that by k = 2mT/Na. (12. The Ini fact. 2C. each has a kinetic energy proportional to (dq. w’q. E(w) = 1 + V = :paN Both in the equation of motion. and in the expression for the energy. the whole lattices appears similar to a single harmonic oscillator of mass We will show that this mass is Npa. The total energy is thus: +q2 dt ) + Jqz. Elquation tnass using the formula for the sum of a geometric series. = 0 dt2 where w is given by Equation (12. Hence 2C = Nya. Thus fi placement variable of a single oscillator../dt)2.(t) = A cos (at + a) is the most general real solution of such an equation.39) d2q 2 + w2q. satisfies the harmonic oscillator equation d*q..26)./dt)‘. = 0). This kinetic energy is exactly the same as that of a single harmonic oscillator of displacement qw a n d Npa. from Equation (12. which is the mass of the entire lattice. Nl = C n=O If the phase kna in cos’!(kna) (12. the total mass of the chain of atoms. q. this can easily be proved to be exact by writing cos(kna) e ‘kna). q.41) from 0 to N . % . a n d s p r i n g c o n s t a n t 2Cw’. the total energy is a constant in time and the total potential energy Imust t h e r e f o r e b e % A’Cw’cos’(wt + a) = C w’qi.which in a sense describes the motion of all the masses in the crystal displacement for this particular modeis effectively a simple harmonic oscillator 1 (121. The kinetic energy is. Therefore. Let us examine the t./df’ + (Also. Since total energykinetic plus potential energyis conserved.21).>taI kinetic energy of the lattice. the total kinetic energy T of the lattice is some number C times 1 = (dq. m a s s 2C.358 Solid state physics upon substitution into the equations of motion we would have immediately found that q*(t) must satisfy the differential equation of the harmonic oscillator.40) varies over a large number of values as n goes kinetic energy is therefore simply: (12.
when several modes are excited simultaneously in the crystal.72. Therefore. proportional to cos(kna) product terms never contribute to the the potential energy. if 13 is exactly zero can be shown by again exand using the equation for the sum for equal frequencies the cross product of and sin(kna). . sum to zero. Equation (12. the various normal modes do not interfere with each other in any way.(e) dt dt (12. for lattice vibration energy was derived for a single mode. Likewise.42).7 7 Superposition of modes variable. cos(klna) + ~‘2 qw2 cos(kzna) = $“(w.. Suppose that the displacement were a superposition of the form: (12.2C . and the total energy of the system. Thus the cross kinetic energy. The question arises as to whether. Thus the normal modes in a sense act like independent particles. one would expect the cosines to oscillate as n changes and hence to average out to zero.44) + kz)na] + cos[(k. even though a great many of them may be present. 359 the importance of Equation (12. A similar argument holds for number of modes are excited. energy is just the sum of the energies of the individual modes.on mode. eve11 the solutions.yT!!!$!d i c (cos[(k.42) to obtain the quantum description I ENERGY FOR A SUPERPOSITION OF MODES The above expression. It is this last fact that makes normal modes so useful.42) c a n b e p a r t i a l l y recognized of lattice vibrations. That this surr of a geometric series. .45) = J(u. which is basically a sum of kinetic and potential energies of individual particles.kz)no]j (12. Since the Schrodinger equation is obtained from the energy expression. the total energy will be the sum of individual contributions from each mode.) + #n(w:!) Then the kinetic energy has the form: 1 n The cross product summation = involves: c cos(k. That this is so may be seen from the following argument. This will be discussed in the following section. trom the ease with which one may utilize Equation (12.) + J(w~) + $a. can also be written as a simple sum of energies of the individual normal modes. Since kr # kz.43) riin = fiq.) d$. Although all the atoms in the lattice participate in a normal vibratl. the total pressing the cosines as sums of exponentials.na)cos(kzna) n 0 2 + 2~drl/n(w.
the SchrGdinger equation describing stationary states (states of definite energy) is the energy E in terms of the coordinates and the moand so forth.12 QUANTUM THEORY OF HARMONIC OSCILLATORS AND LATTICE VIBRATIONS All our previous discussion was based on Newtonian mechanics. however. it will be recalled that in Newtonian mechanics the energy of the oscillator is (12.46) This can be shown rigorously from the foctthat /. energy of the crystal is In the case of lattice vibrations. tum mechanics are.to see now what modificatiorls orise in quantum mechanics. These energy levels ore equally spaced. In quantum mechanics. (12.vibrotions. In quantum mechanics. shall not prove this here. In calculating the energy contributed by one normal mode of a lattice . = (n + % )hw (12. ‘turn t h e effectivt? c o o r d i n a t e i s q. .49) w h e r e n is a positive integer or zero. the classical moWe lmentum of the ith particle. the minimum possible energy is E. smallest vibrational ‘2 N modes % hw. given by E. ‘T energies (n will be quantized The according possible to Equation (12.49)./dt. dq. While our discussion was for a one dimensional crystal.~a d$.47) and the natural angular frequency of oscillation is (12. then. it was found that only dkcrete energies of the system were possible.vibration. except for . We wish . = % fto. and the fact that in general. found from the quantum mechanical discussion of the one dimensional harmonic oscillator of mass N/. the lattice vibrations in quan 1+5” is a superposition of terms of different frequencies proportional to qw. and the mass is Npa.Lu a n d a n g u l a r f r e q u e n c y w. Equation the gies. each normal mode then has the possible ener+ % )hw.48) Iln solving the SchrGdinger equation for this system./dt. whenever a system has energies which can be written in a form corresponding t o that of a simple harmonic oscillator. menta. The resulting expression is then a differential operator which acts on the ‘wavefunction.360 Solid state physics 12. and is called the zero point energy. is replaced by iFta/c?$. The effective momen“momentum” is then Nwa Thus. The energies of . From the study of the simple harmonic oscillator of spring constant k a n d m a s s m in Chapter 7.47). then replacing the momentum component pX b y iM/r3x. o b t a i n e d b y expressin. in treating the quantum theory of lattice one would expect that in the energy expression the effective should be replaced by letting (12.
a n d m a n y s t a t e s a r e e x c i t e d . than phanans are thought of in association with traveling sound standing waves. when k*T ir. all these results still hold far a three dimensional crystal. Thus. T h e quantizatian of energy should then be of no significance. (n + % )hw. each of the quadratic terms proportional ta qi a n d made. crystal? n Z e r o P a i n t E n e r g y ?? %iic~N = = 50 joules. n i n c r e a s e s b y An. a n d A z 1034isec. there are 3iVo modes of oscillation (since there are 1 longitudinal and 2 transverse modes per atom). 3oo I PHONONS. large compared with the average of Aw. it is convenient (though not strictly correct) ta think of the quantum number n in the energy expression.ta motions of atoms can be found from a The specific heat of a solid due knowledge of the relationship between w a n d Baltzmann factor of statistical mechanics e E. w of the normal modes in a crystal is about t h e n u m b e r o f c e l l s i n a c r y s t a l o f r e a s o n a b l e s i z e i s 1023.50) This factor gives us the relative prabmclbility acterized by the eigenvalue E. Far a simple crystal containing one male of atoms (No atoms) in No unit cells. AVERAGE ENERGY PER MODE AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE Frequently. then the Baltzmann factor e~(“c”2)h“‘k~r I S slowly varying far small changes in n. what is the order of magnitude of the zero paint energy of the ‘/z (l0~““)(10’“)(10’“) e If the binding energy of the crystal is of the order of 1eV p e r a t o m . and one could as well describe the crystal in terms of the classical oscillators. only ttie lowest frequencies can give a Baltzmann factor much different from zero. of energy. contributes an average energy of % the total energy is (dq.1 2 . This is called the WangPetit law. of finding the solid in the state char At high temperatures. Far very law temperatures. and it agrees well with experiment far mast solids. The far one made is 1/2)hw/kgT (12. and the heat capacity per male is 3R. In calculating a thermal average ta find the . 1 3 Phonons the fact that k becomes a vector and additional palarizatians are possible. w h a t i s t h e order of magnitude of the ratio of the zero paint energy ta the binding energy? *leVe 1 ./dt)’ in the energy of one ksT ta the total crystal energy. Thus. called phanans. By thle equipartitian of energy theorem. 6 x 10~19 % hw % (103")(lo'3) h. rather Usually. w e s a y t h a t &I p h a n a n s were waves created. as meaning the number of “particles” of sound. if due ta an interaction of a lattice v i b r a t i o n m a d e w i t h a n e l e c t r o n ./knr ~= e (n + k far the lattice vibrations. . 361 ‘e I f t h e a v e r a g e n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c y 10’3/sec. 3Nok8T = 3R1.
z)]. The average energy for a given mode is (12.for running waves as an exponential of this same form.51) frequlsncy that (E)mode the = (l/D) (dD/d(l/k.T)]. PI3 for the number of states of each polarization. Since E. average energy one or by phonons of wis f 12. B. in that case.“=.112 Wkg 7. ( g i v e s for the denominator: C = e .( 1 _.y + k. Thus. contributed by SO that after mode carrying differentiations. = (n + % )hw. This i n v o l v e s a n a v e r a g e o v e r a l l t h e q u a n t u m s t a t e s w i t h e n e r g y (n + % )Ftw f o r a given mode.x + k.362 Solid state physics average total energy. Here.54) (W3 where. e *u/kg 7 ). and we found that the number of states in an element ot momentum space and volume V of ordinary space was Vdk. dk. and then a sum over all modes of various frequencies. This can also be seen easily by generalizing Equation (12. dk. we have to average over all states of the system. = Vdpx dp.a” = l/(1 .52) and therefore simply involves a geometric series. = ‘/2 h(k) . we found the density of states for particles by considering periodic boundary conditions on a wavefunction of the type exp[i(k.14 LATTICE SPECIFIC HE:AT OF A SOLID N e x t .a) for 1 a / < 1 . dpz ~h3 (12. and a similar applicaticln of periodic boundary conditions would lead to: Vdk. dk. The reader can easily verify from Equation out the (12. p =: hk.21u.T)n (12. w e w a n t t o s u m o v e r t h e v a r i o u s m o d e s f o r a g i v e n l o n g i t u d i n a l o r tlransverse polarization..51) w i t h E. we could write the spatial dependence of the p h o n o n w a v e f u n c t i o n s . The summation in the denominator D is D=e I. to find the average total energy for that given polarizotion. In discussing statistical mechanics.k87~ n=O (eXw{k. the standard formula for the sum of an infinite geometric series. dk.26) to the three dimensional case.
x T4 $‘. Thus at LDW temperatures. for the element of volume.59) and similarly for the two transverse modes with speed wt. Since w is a function of the magrlitude of k. this becomes: dkx d kY d 2k + %‘du w. Then the factor l/(e’“‘kBr .60) l=l WksT _ .4rk’dk (12. This average is (112.~~)‘f(~)d(~) = const. for simplicity. = E. and write: d k . Thus.!!) has the form of ( A E ) := I.e. is a function of the ratio w/J. dk.. we can assume that w is in the acoustic brclnch. at low frequencies.. taken the upper limit to be infinity for temperatures low enough so that ksJ << hw. . (A. We may then evaluate the constant of proportionality to obtain: (12. which might differ from the speed of propagation of the transverse acoustic modes. (12.Eo = ntrw from the zero point or ground state energy.IE.w3f(w/J)dw 0 where f (w/J) = 2 (12. i.61) (AE) = const..72. x J4 The integral involved is the same IJS was encountered in the discussion of black body radiation in Chapter 11. and has the value a4/15. If we are dealing with the longitudinal mode.62) . While the range of w is actually finite. where wlis the speed of propagation of that mode. . we can choose a spherical shell in k space of radius k and thickness dk.74 Lattice specific heat 363 is the minimum possible energy of each mode and does not change when more phonons are created in that mode. (12. d k .56) Since only the lowest frequencies contribute at low temperatures.. it is of more physical interest to calculate the average of the difference . we have. then we may assume that for small w.. depends linearly on 1k ( .1) makes the integrand negligible for the large frequencies.58) Since k = w/w C.
Figure and 12. for any one atomic energy level there are. In this section we shall discuss some of the properties of wavefunctions and of the energies of electrolns in crystals. electroniic wavefunctions start to overlap.E /d7’at to low temperatures is proportional to T3. except for some olne electron which we single out to investigate. so that the wavefunction due to an electron on one atom is negligible at poslitions (one per atom) on all the atoms t’he of those atoms closest to it. Also. Thus. will ordinarily develop into 2N states that differ slightly frorn each other. ir general. and have energies that are slightly different.io . ’ * Specific heat at constant volume. 12. This one electron could be in any olne of tile energy states of its atom.I. . the effects are magnetism. the bands being derived from the single atomic energy states and each band containing 2N closely spaced energy states. T/O I’igure 12. due to lattice vibrations in o solid. at least 2N distinguishable states for this electron. let us consider a sodium crystal and begin by imagining the atoms very far apart. To get an intuitive idea of the structure of the energy levels of the electrons. hesat light. These results agree well for substances heat the at low limiting where the at phonon In low energy high gives the the primary contemperatures. we will start with the outer electrons in their lowest energy state. the electrons will have an energy band structure. t h e n t h e h e a t c a p a c i t y d . and for each such energy there are two possible orientations of the electron spin. As the atoms are brought nearer to each other to form the actual crystal. if there are N atoms. Therefore. Also.15 ENERGY BANDS OF ELECTRONS IN CRYSTALS In electric conduction. derived from any one single atomic state.364 Solicl sfate physics I f 1E i s p r o p o r t i o n a l .13 specific heat C. there are N possible atoms in which the excited electron can be found. a band of energies results containing 2N states.T’ a t l o w t e m p e r a t u r e s . In the final crystal. with is experiments tribution specific showing plotted. absorption of and many other phenomena. index of refraction. primarily dependent on the behavior of electrons in solids. the photoelectric effect. and one can no longer say that an electron is associated with any one atom. behavior temperatures.13. Then the 2N energy states. conduction.
if two complex numbers G(x) IF/(x + a) have equal absolute values. However. $(x + 2a) = e”‘$(x + a) = e”@)+(x) J/(x + 3 a ) = e’k(3”1 J/(X).72.16 BLOCH’S THEOREM Now. V(x + a) = V(x). and the point x + a. The one dimensional Schrgdinger equtgtion f o r t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n G(x) of the electron is Tlz a’+(x) _2 m ax2 + V(xM(x) = W(x) (12. hence   2m az+tx + ax 2 a) + V(x)#(x + a ) = E$(x + a ) (12. The phase factor cannot depend on the coordinates. This can only be true if # is of the form $(x + a ) = eik”#(x) (12. and we will show more rigorously that energy bands occur with 2N states per band. that the other electrons can be treated as a continuous charge distribution which. Thus. if V(x) is the periodic potential energy and a is the lattice spacing. dx + changed. Also. w h i c h w e h a v e w r i t t e n i n t h e f o r m elk”.65) and where ka is some real constant.$(x + a). all we can say about $(x) the wave equation becomes h2 dx. w e e x p e c t t h a t a wavefunction q(x) m a y b e f o u n d s u c h t h a t # * ( x ) $ ( x ) = $*(x + a)#(x + a).. . to derive information about the possible form of the electron wavefunction.64) could not simultaneously be satisfied. we will find some properties of the electron wavefunctions. That is. they can differ by at most a multiplicative p h a s e f a c t o r . so the potential energy is unis that it becomes . are physically equivalent. Since the point x.63) If x is replaced by x + a in the above equation. let us trea.#(x + n a ) = (e”“‘)+(x) (12. Then. Now we can make an argument very similar to that made in discussing the exclusion principle in Chapter 9. An electron in the crystal sees pri marily the Coulomb potential energy of interaction with the atomic nuclei of the crystal.64) T h e w a v e f u n c t i o n IF/(x + a) therefore satisfies the same equation. We will assume.63) and (12. with the same energy E. as is usually done. Likewise. then. V(x + a) = V(x).66) . and the Coulomb potential energies of interaction with other electrons. for then both Equations (12. T h u s . has the spatial periodicity of the lattice.t a one dimensional lattice. Again for simplicity. the overall potential energy has the periodicity of the lattice. so the kinetic energy operator is unchanged. utilizing the translational symmetry of a crystal. as does $(x).76 Bloch’s theorem 365 !. because of the electrons’ interactions with atomic nuclei of the lattice. we expect that it is possible for the elect r o n d e n s i t i e s a t t h e t w o p o i n t s t o b e t h e s a m e .
17 NUMBERS OF BLOCH FUNCTIONS PER BAND Once again considering the one dimensional case. Since u(x + No) = u(x) from the periodicity of u(x). (12.67) tunction becomes e”” n e’lrX. w h i c h states that #(x) hartdly at one side of the crystal is the same as at the opposite side. This is.72) 27rn.71) theorem.73) . this is q(x) related to actual physical boundary conditions. t h e wavef u n c t i o n is. if in this function x IS = e’ki (12. similar reasoning gives us +(r) = e’k”u(r) where u(r) has the periodicity of the lattice.70) w h e r e u(x + a) = u(x). In three dimensions..65). Thus the wavefunction can be chosen to have the general form. (12. the most general function that has the desired periodicity property expressed in Equation (12. e” = 1.. Equation (12. One such function that has this property is $(x) Thus.366 Solid sfofe physics for n an integer. This is called the Bloch fact that the wavefunction takes this simple form allows many performed in a relatively simple fashion. @ m u s t e q u a l Thus. in fact.kx (12. as in the similar problem of lattice vibrations and in the previous discussion of statistical mechanics. Tlqe boundary condition we will impose is the periodic boundary condition. replaced by x + a.65). i . where n is a tlhat elkNo or = 1. While periodic boundary conditions are our case.+1. Tile to be calculations 12. R = 0.69) = t!‘koeikiu ( x ) = e”‘$ (x). they are simple to use and will give the correct number of values of k. the This function therefore satisfies: #(x + a ) = e”“+(x) (12. this is because. Thus we set l)(x) Theln elk(“’ ‘) u(x + a ) = e’LXu(x) (12. if integer k = or zero.*2. Suppo’se we multiply elkX by u(x). But. l)(x) = e’kxu(X) (12.6~8) [but will not satisfy the Schrldinger equation unless V(x) = constant]. let us apply boundary conditions to find the number of possible different values of k. w h ere u has the property u(x + a ) = u ( x ) . in general.k(x+No) = e . positive negative 2rtr/Na. the number of values of k is not sensitive to the particular boundary conditions.. The result i s t h a t u p o n t r a n s l a t i n g b y a n a m o u n t n o . In = I~(X + No). IF/(x + no) = ~e’k(na) G(x) a n d h e n c e i s c h a n g e d o n l y b y a m u l t i p l i c a tive factor. u ( x ) h a s the periodicity of the lattice. the condition q(x) = $(x + Na) means that e or . e .
in agreement . This can be shown from the fact that. the function e”*“” + e”*“O. Equation = e’“‘“(x) i s a w a v e f u n c t i o n . we get a band of energies. be allowed magnitude of an electron volt.73). means that the total number of independent values of n. the number of unit cells. it has the periodicity of the lattice. and thus of k. or bands 4 and 5 of the figure. We can then restrict could zone: be taken as part of u(x).18 Types of bonds 367 While these values of k are the only possible ones. is N. which are corresponds typically of to the energies order not of electron crystal. w h e n a t r a n s l a t i o n x + x + a is performed.75) on k.12. T h i s i s ordinarily very difficult. the exponential e”’ varies only with wavelengths greater than twice the lattice spacing. i. ithe spin of the electron can have two orienta tions. Then the number of states per band is 2N. we can expect the energy to change slightly. 1+5*(x) = e“‘u*(x) (12. and so is unchanged. is completely determined. and k changes over its range. and graphing w versus k for lattice vibrations. but only a relatively small number correspond to bound states which are important in explaining normal crystal properties. The enercgy E(k) = E is a function of k and can be compli cated. since it has the lattice periodicity. . (rapidly varying) part: the longwavelength part. for example. Note the similarity between graphing E versus k here. Thus. is very Here it similar meons to the restriction allowed on k which arose in discussing twice the lattice lattice vibraspac that wavelengths shorter than ing are included in the function u(x). not all these values are physically distinct. Thus. if rc/(x) is a solution with the same E. T h e n e4k+W4~ = e “’ e ‘2*x’a (12. for a three dimensional crystal with N c e l l s t h e r e a r e 2N stlgtes per band. Likewise. it is only this longwavelength that The restriction (12. k and k + 2?r/a.74) T h e n . Hence.14. such as in bands 1. such as tween for the bands 3 and in 4 the of Figure 12. In other cases the bands may overlap. Hence k + 27r/a i s k to lie within the Brillouin This tions. e’2*X’a equivalent physically to k. For each k. e”“. As n changes by unity. Some possibilities are indicated in Figure 12.15. except for $. along with the possible values of k from Equat i o n (12.63) i n a p e r i o d i c p o t e n t i a l . In some cases there will be an energy gap (or minimum energy difference) between bands. as only by solving the Schrtidinger Eqluation k changes slightly.e. 8 TYPES OF BANDS There will be an infinite number of energy bands in a crystal. 2 and 3. The Bloch theorem thus separates the spatial variation of the electron wavefunction into a longwavelength (slowly varying) part and part a shortwavelength is needed. we consider two possible values.63) is real.with t h e q u a l i tative reasoning in Section 12.14. Such gaps E. In many calculations. The actual values of the energies can be obtained (12. One simplification is that E(k). Suppose.
. Then. w h e r e p is the momentum and m is the mass. Diagram illustrating o number of different possibilities for electron en’ergy bands in crystals. may be similar to that for the free particle: E ( k ) where a ” Ee + cu(k .368 Solid sfofe physics Figure 12. the energy in the band as a function of k . then when k is near this minimum or maximum. In three dimensions..14. maximum occurs at k = ko for the electron energy E(k) k in a crystal band. + FA: (k . where k is a vector.kO)’ ( ) of an “effective” mass.e.with In a sense.kg)’ (12. The concept of no periodic potential energy present. near ttle maximum or minimum.k. The freeparticle wavef#Jnction is proportional to e”” in one dimension.76) w h e r e m * is ED a n d a ore constants. constant. N o w i f Q m i n i m u m o r k = p/Ii. where E = (1% A*/m)k’. E = % p’/m. for situa . 01 in may (and frequently densities of states k space. a n d nfear does) vary with direction in direction. when . E(k) E E.78) a free particle of mass m*. so that the effective mass is a function of mass is useful calculating effective and in discussing phenomena in applied electric and magnetic fields. the effective mass is the more familiar positive quantity.ko is small.19 EFFECTIVE MASS IN A BAND For a free particle. the electron can then be treated m a s s i s n e g a t i v e . T h u s f o r t h e f r e e p a r t i c l e . Let us then rewrite o a s fi h2/m*. 12. i. the effective a minimum.77) Comparison with the energy expression for the free particle leads one to the idea (12. m* = ii2 2a OS (12. Near a maximum of energy.
m*=m ~5 = %I + ma2 cos(ka  r)l m* = m h.c o s k a ) ma2 0 = 1 . the effective mass. I f t h e l a t t i c e s p a c i n g . Then the electrons will fill up the various different states in a band. whereas ksT a t room temperature is about l/40 eV. the energy spread within a band is comparable to electron volts. or about 1O3o kg. a . the <statistics will be degenerate.% 8’ + . (k = 0). Thus. because the number of states tper b a n d ( w h i c h e q u a l s t w i c e t h e n u m b e r o f cells) is comparable to the number of outer atomic electrons.0). then might be of the order of electron Ak z r/a. 2m For 1 s kal << 1. a different numerical result would be found. SEMICONDUCTORS Since the Pauli exclusion principle applies to electrons. is X z or m were significantly different from the true electron mass. The change in k lo“m.~11 h2k2 %. n/e Suppose that for the one dimensional case. first. the classical equipartition theorem does not hold and the effect of the exclusion principle is important.20 Conductors. Find the effective mass at the energy maximum (k = r/a). A similar and at the minimum For small ka. but this . Secondly. is about a reasonable value. and their average energy will be around an electron volt. This is. . the expansion. approximately in electron volts. on Forka < < 1.%‘(k 2h2 ma2 r/a)’ ___ 2171 0 CONDUCTORS. insulators. semiconductors tions in which particles near the minimum or maximum of energy contribute significantly to the effect. If AE w i t h m*. cos e x p a n s i o n n e a r k a = 7r c a n b e usecl by noting that cos 19 = cos(a .. L e t u s f i r s t v e r i f y t h a t t h e b a n d w i d t h AE volts. .72. were a different function of Ak the mass of the electron. can be used. INSULATORS.E = 51 {I . 369 E = “‘(1 . i s 3 x Ak E lO”mAssuming that AE E %ti2~k2/m* 2 eV.. then U. in solids it is important to use FermiDirac statistics for the electrons rather than classical statistics.
it can easily excite electrons with energies near . difference between the conduction band minimum (band 2) and valence bond maximum is called the energy gap. and the energy gap is of the order of several electron volts. but not enough to fill band 2 completely. the valance band is filled.EF)/~BT and for the degenerate case. and that tile energy gap E. is several electron volts. that the energy bands do not overlap.15. one may obtain a simple explanation of the main differences between conductors and insulators. The last filled band (band l). then. S i n c e hk is somewhat like the electron’s momentum. therefore. both electrons per cell have an average k of zero.79) effective mass is very large because of their tight binding to the nucleus.0 h a s a width of the order of magnitude of ksT in energy. if again the bands do not overlap. this trlonsition region will ordinarily be a small fraction of the band width. are enough electrons to fill all the states in band 1 and all of the lower bands. Suppose there A ” Figure 12.15). and N unfilled states in that band (the conduction band). the conduction bond is empty.1 to . E.370 SoAd state physics argument does give the Iright elfectrons. average rl(E) = [ e x p ( E . and the higher unfilled band is called the conduction bond (band 2 in Figure 12.. If there are N cells. using FermiDirac statistics. On the other hand. since wavefunctions of k and k correspond to the same energy. + 11l Then each state is essentially filled with one electron. up to an energy of about E F. no electric applied. The transition region where f(E) drops from . there must be more electrons moving in one direction as comp a r e d w i t h a n o t h e r . In the crystal. as indicated for bands 1 and 2 in Figure 12. In insulators. When an electric field is applied to a substance having an odd number of electrons per cell. this means With the electrons must field have wavefunctions cases of with odd average and even k different numbers from of zero. there will be almost no electrons in band 2. The order of magnitude of the band width for the outer Inner electron. Suppose. but there are an odd number of electrons per cell. of the atoms have a very small band width. and hence 2N available states per band. The energ:. and there are almost no electrons in s t a t e s a b o v e EF. This is because the even number of electrons will just fill an integral number of bands. there will be only N electrons in the last band. In order for an electric current to flow. is called the valence band.15. is (12. then if there are an even number of electrons per cell. On the basirof the foregoing discussion. EF >> k8T. and the number of electrons per state.
A crystal of this type is called a semiconducfor. with an even number of electrons per cell. This crystal would then be a conductor. and lattice. so the crystal would ure eV.16.16. especially transistors. Suppose bands 1 and 2 of Figure 12.2 1 HOLES Suppose perature an there there of is a semiconductor be some in in which in the gap E. Thus this crystal will be a conductor. the unfilled states. Semiconductors Germanium. is a conductor of this type. because there are unfilled available energy states nearby in energy. Such a crystlal large. 1.15 had overlapped.2 7 Holes EF into states producing a net current. Then there would be more than 2N states having energies below the top of energy band 1. Calcium. Elec:trons can interact with these phonons and be scattered away from currentcarrying states. are used in and various compounds in devices. and it would take a very large electric field to produce From what has been said so far. Suppose that a crystal with an even number of electrons per cell had valence and conduction bands which did not overlap. This is because is then an insulator. Then at room temwill electrons the the conduction primarily and absence electrons valence E Conduction band band.3 f  k gap. and thus for an even number of electrons per cell. One deviation from a perfect crystal lattice that is always present is the l a t t i c e v i b r a t i o n . Other lattice imperfections which reduce conductivities are impurities and atoms missing at lattice sites. conductivities. For a substance having an even number of electrons per cell. in the discussion above it was assumed that the bands do not overlap. we have assumed a perfectly periodic crystal are several electron volts away in energy. as in Figure 12.7 2. but the energy gap was only a few tenths of an electron volt. the last 2N electrons could fit in. Since k. energy maximum. Also. Illustration of conduc:tion and valence bands having a very small energy . Figure 12. then electype.rT at room temperature is about l/40 number of electrons in the conduction silicon many band. at the conduction there will and be valence bands is less than an electron volt. the gap is not enormously greater than k&T. leaving nearby energy states unfilled. 371 12. appreciable current. o r p h o n o n . a n d t h e r e w o u l d b e a r e a s o n a b l e conduct of this tricity. between band. This is the main effect that limits conductivities in most conductors at room temperature. but not as well as a normal conductor. all conductors should have obout equal.
. farms a Far example. i+. If an arsenic atom impurity with 5 outer electrons is substituted far a germanium atom. If the charge of an electron is e current is proportional ta: == . in which each germanium atom is surrounded by four other germanium atoms. _ dt The motion is that of positively charged +/e12E Im*l (12.I1 I (12. and an electric field Supof pose there were an electrc’n of charge .I e I v.( e 1vi) = 0. Thus. the j’” state. 12. t h e n t h e C (. To see how loosely. state. T h u s . The effective mass associated with these unfilled states at the energy maximum is negative. m* is negative.80) Here. 4 of the 5 electrons are bound tightly by the valence bands.372 Solid’ sfote physics These unfilled states in the valence band are called hales.I e I vi) I’. This discussion shows that in a semiconductor the electric current will consist. we giet I e 1dv. a hale acts as a particle with a velocity associated with the empty state. (12. such a particles with hale will contribute ta electric current in the same sense as an electron in thle conduction band.. i s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n v a l u e o f t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e ith s t a t e . Then.22 nTYPE AND pTYPE !XMlCONDUCTORS By introducing impurities into a semiconductor.so (12. using the expectation value Newton’s second law. let us treat the . the germanium atom. (. so there is one hale.1e ) a n d e f f e c t i v e m a s s m * i n t h e j’” E were present. m * 1e 1dv. the electric current would be zero. This can be written as: C . but the fifth is loosely bound.1. like carbon.82) Near a maximum in energy. or the number of hales in the valence band. can be greatly increalsed. The rate of change in tilne of the current is proportional ta 1e 1 dv.8’1) If the valence band were completely filled. has a valence of 4 and valencebound crystal. and with a positive charge equal in magnitude ta the electronic charge. _ dt . T h u s .I e I vi) +. T h e net current is then proportional ta ( e ( vi. in general. let us assume that just one state.le12E m* = lm*I.. For simplicity. = C (.I e I v. near the energy maximum is unfilled.e / a n d V. . which has negative charge and positive effective mass. of an electron current due ta conduction band electrons. and a hale current due ta valence band hales./dt. the summation is aver all valence band states except the one that is unfilled. c. the number of electrons in the conduction band.83) positive mass.
and so there are few electrons in the conduction1 band.6 (16)2 x 5 = . In this case. Because the impurities give electrons to the conduction band. one should use the effective mass m* rather than the true electron mass. The binding energy of a true hydrogen atom in free space is 13. is called an intrinsic semiconductor. Because this kind of impurity takes electrons out of a band. they are called donors. the impurity would draw an electron out of the valence band.6 eV and is proportional to me4.x K2 m = 13. A pure semiconductor. Likewise. the Coulomb force inside a between it and the core. of the fifth electron may then be estimated as: Eb g 13. Because the hole is effectively a positive particle. Also. so the effective charge l/16 in germanium. Suppose a piece of semiconductor (or any other material) is hooked across a battery as in Figure 12.23 H A L L E F F E C T The fact that both holes and electrons can exist in semiconductors can be obs e r v e d i n t h e Hall effect. with the extra electrons going into the conduction b a n d .6 x 1 m” . and at room temperature a large fraction of the impurities will be ionized. Since the binding energy below the conduction band is about .17. it is called an extrinsic semiconductor. it is called an acceptor.1e lying below the conduction Ho//effect 373 atom. a n d 1 is bound by the attractive Coulomblike force minimum. Thus the arsenic nuc:leus and all elec trons but the fifth outer electron form an effective nucleus of charge 1e 1 . and will be described by hydrogenlike energy levels band medium with a dielectric constant K is e2/4~t.23 impurity as if it were like a hydrosgen the electron of charge . to give itself 4 electrons. for this hydrogenlike atom is e/&The and all electric fields are hence reduced by a factor effective mass is dependent on dIrection. Indicated on the figure by arrows labeled H a n d E a r e the average directions of motion of holes and elec . and so there will be very few h o l e s i n t h e v a l e n c e b a n d . Many of the holes are unbound at room temperature and move freely in the valence band. the germanium could be doped with impurities of valence 3 instead of 5. where there are equal numbers of electrons and holes. Also. Thus the electrical conduction is mainly due to hole motion. since the current is due to negatively charged particles because there are few holes. this is called an ntype semiconductor. T h e F e r m i l e v e l Ef will lie near the bottom of the conduction band rather than halfway between bands as in a pure material.Ol eV is smaller than k. However.12. dielectric constant in germanium is 16. Almc8st all conduction electrons will come from the impurities. we say this is a ptype semiconductor. The Fermi energy is near the top of the valence band. While the the average effective moss at the miniThe binding energy mum of the conduction band is about m/5. The resull’ing negative ion would then have the resulting hole bound loosely to it. When the electrons or holes are due primarily to impurities.Kr2. .T l/40 eV.0106eV This result agrees in order of magnitude with the actually measured binding energy.
Current flowing from right ‘to left in the sample is forced downward by the Lorentz force acting on o moving charge. the magnetic forces tend to deflect the and (charged an particles. The fact c a n b e e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . proportional to the magnetic field that experimentally the Hall voltage side B would be positive and side A would be negative. trons. The deflections that a hole electron. the Hall voltage.117. This is the Hall effect. CRYSTAL CLASSIFICATION the 14 Bravais lattices of Figure 12. a r e i n d i c a t e d o n t h e d i a g r a m b y c u r v e d a r r o w s labeled h and e. The dots indicate o magnetic field out of the paper. corresponding to rotations of a Bravais 180”.374 Solid state physics Figure 12. respectively. threefold. 120”. electrons ond holes are deflected in the some direction. a negative charge builds up on side B and a positive charge on side A. d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t b o t h h o l e s a n d electrolls can be responsible for electrical conductivity. 9 0 ” a n d 60”. Each lattice point of to several atoms or molecules. respectively. 6. respectively. If there are more electrons than holes. Schematic diogrom of the experimental setup for observing the Hcrll effect.1 according to Crystals ore classified intc’ symmetry axes and reflection planes. due to their would overage velocity. The possible symmetry axes consistent with translational symmetry are twofold. until the resulting electrostatic forc(es a r e e q u a l a n d opptssite to the magnetic forces. Thus. The electrostatic potenti’al difference resulting between sides A and strength. then builds up across the sample. receive. is called the Hall voltage. A resulting potential difference. lattice can correr. If a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the applied electric field (B out of the paper in the figure). If there were more holes. fourfold and sixfold.pond .
in general.Summary 375 BINDING FORCES Valence crystals are bound by electrons being shared by neighboring atoms. HEAT one can treat lattice vibrations as classical harmonic oscil lators with 3N modes. The possible energies are (n + % )Aw. The energy of such a mode can be put in the form of the energy of a harmonic oscillator witn the mass of the crystal and the frequency of the mode. The fourth type of binding is due to permanent or fluctuating electric dipoles. there are other branches which are called optical k = 0. Ionic crystals are bound by direct Coulomb electrostatic forces. . Then the integer. QUANTIZATION OF LATTICE VIBRATIONS The quantization of a normal mode is the same as the quantization of a harmonic oscillator. 1. LATTICE At high SPECIFIC temperatures. the equation of motion leading to sound vibrations is somewhat different from the wave equation for a continuous medium.10’3/sec near equivalent atoms per cell. and there exists a maximum frequency of propagation. There are branches of the w versus and thus k curves. while metals are bound by each electron’s being shared by all the atoms.. At low tem energy of ksJ . . leading tc a specific heat of 3R per mole. If there are several modes and correspond to w . mode. n. w h e r e and w is the angular frequency of ttie n = 0. in one longitudinal and two transverse acoustic branches. Instead of all frequencies being possible. LATTICE VIBRATIONS Because a solid is not a continuous medium but consists of discrete atoms. The equipartition of energy theorem then gives an average per mode. The frequency is a periodic function of k k can be restricted to one of these periods. The branches of modes for which w = 0 when k = 0 are called acoustic branches. For many purposes. There are. ENERGIES OF VIBRATIONS The total vibration energy of the crystal is the sum of the energies associated with the individual modes. 2. is considered to be the number of phonons present. with the number of modes in each branch equal to the number of cells. it is convenient to think of the vibrations as composed of particles called phonons. the number of frequency modes is equal to three times the number of atoms (for three dimensions).
EILECTRON E N E R G Y IlANDS Due to the periodic potential energy that any one electron sees. If there are an even number of electrons per cell. and there are unfilled states in these bands. the electronic w a v e f u n c t i o n c a n b e p u t In the form of a where Bloch function. if there is overlap in the last bands containing electrons. INSULATORS. The substance is then called a semiconductor. at k = ko the energy varies <qua by analogy with the free particle one can find an effective mass for each direction. #(r) = Ae”” u(r). Then. They can conduct electricity just as the electrons in the conduction band. this is a conductor. The band is halffilled. . W’dW. a reasonable electric field gives little current and the crystal is an insulator. SEMfCONDUCTORS B’ecause of FermiDirac statistics and the fact that there are 2N states per band. there are N independent ti’ons k. HOLES The empty states left in the top of the valence band of a semiconductor when electrons go to the conduction band act as if they were particles of positive charge 1e / and positive effective mass. These particles are called holes. For an odd number of electrons per cell. g’ap bsand forminlg a conductor. Since the energy is a periodic function of of cells. k is a constant vector and u(r) is a function which has the lattice periodic ity. if there are large energy gaps between bands. CONDUCTORS. Since the nearest states are far away in energy. the resulting electron energy bands contain 2N states each. and since unfilled states are nearby in energy. Likewise. EFFECTfVE MASS of E v e r s u s If at a maximum or minimum elnergy E = ()ik)‘/2m. and those above completely empty. because the energy is proportional to w a n d t h e d e n s i t y o f statses is proportional to k’dk . so there will be some conduction of electricity.376 Solid dote physics peratures. there are more than 2N states below the energy gap. the Fermi level is in the middle of the last band containing electrons. When boundary conditions are imposed. dratically with the components of k k ko. it is found that if N is the number k’s. there may be a reasonable number of electrons in the conduction at room temperature. because of the two possible orienta of electron spin. but the energy is small. the average energy is proportional to T’ a n d the specific heat to T3. then at normal temperatures a crystal with an even number of electrons per cell has the bands below the Fermi energy elnpty completely filled. k can be restricted to a Brillouin zone.
and If a magnetic to the field is applied forces.73 Angstroms. a r o t a t i o n o f 90”. 5. W h a t is the length of the edge of a cubic cell.31 Angstroms. The diamond structure is a facetentered cubic lattice. where the bases are the square faces. the electron is loosely bound and is easily excited to the conduction band. three similar twofold axes. 4. I t h a s f o u r s i m i  lar threefold axes. Find perpendicular to the axis. 5 4 . and what is the smallest distance between atoms? Answer: 3. Copper has a facecentered cubic structure which has on the average four atoms per c u b i c c e l l . there are three similar axes for which o plane tion.Problems 3 7 7 n AND pTYPE SEMICONDUCTORS If an impurity is in a semiconductor and has one extra electron. the due charges are deflected until the new charge distribution produces electric forces opposite magnetic potential difference to the charge redistribution is the Hall voltage. Conduction is then primarily due to the negative electrons and the material is called ntype.c e n t e r e d tetragolal lattice. The impurity is called a d o n o r . perpendicular The resulting to the electric field. 3. The impurity is called an acceptor. 9 g/cm3. S h o w t h a t o b a s e . Sodium has o b o d y . 2. 1. Because electrons and holes are deflected in the same direction. and it: atomic weight is 23.62 a Angstroms. A deficiency of one electron on the impurity causes the impurity to bind an electron tightly from the valence band leaving a hole. Answer: 2. but with two carbon atoms per lattice point so that the crystal does not hove the full cubic symmetry. and six similar reflection planes.56 Angstroms lattice is equivalent to a different simple 3. one would tions. the Hall voltage has opposite signs for the two kinds of conduction. The positive hole conduction leads to the term PVf= HALL EFFECT When a potential is applied to a substance. Show that bodycentered lattice. 9 5 2 g/cm3. rhombohedral rhombohedral 4. Calculate the length of the edge of a cubic cell and the smallest distance between atoms. a n d i t s a t o m i c w e i g h t i s 6 3 . current tends to flow parallel to the electric equal field. If the inversion were added and combined with obtclin the complete cubic group of symmetry opera all these operations. T h e d e n s i t y o f c o p p e r i s 8 .c e n t e r e d c u b i c s t r u c t u r e w i t h t w o a t o m s p e r c u b i c (cell. T h e d e n s i t y o f s o d i u m i s 0 . f o l l o w e d b y r e f l e c t i o n a b o u t the tetrahedron to its original configura returns all these axes and planer.0. i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a d i f f e r e n t s i m p l e tetragonal l a t t i c e . Also. It has the symmetry of the regular tetrahedron imtead ( e q u i l a t e r a l t r i a n g l e f a c e s ) . .
a n d i f k. a n d k . k.sin(kna)sin c i e n t s o f sin(kna) and cos(kna) i n t h e e q u a t i o n s o f m o t i o n s e p a r a t e l y e q u a l t o z e r o ..w t ) . If a l t e r n a t e s p r i n g s h a v e s p r i n g c o n s t a n t s K / a a n d K’/a. . I f k. = 0 .J s i n ( n k . there is an axis such that o 60” rotation followed by a reflection about a plane perpendicular to the axis leaves the structure the same. i t i s a t r a n s v e r s e w a v e . To solve the problem. three similar twofold axes. The horizontal row!: a r e b y t and the verticle by n. In addition. c o n n e c t e d by springs. Suppose a one dimensional lattice consists of masses.. and the inversion. The rhombohedral lattice has a threefold axis.378 Solid state physics 6. For small displacements in the plane. V e r i f y t h e s e r e s u l t s . anal the springs all have labeled sprinsg c o n s t a n t K and equilibrium tension T. the forces o n t h e +C. In the two dimensional lattice shown on the next page. each mass is m. The phase angle s u c h a s cos(kna + <bo) = cos(kno)cos @o i s d e t e r m i n e d b y u s i n g i d e n t i t i e s ao. branches given by: show that there are two i f a i s t h e equilibriunl d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n a l t e r n a t e masses.a . 8. W r i t e t h e t w o e q u a t i o n s o f m o t i o n . o n e f o r e a c h o f t h e s e t y p e s o f m a s s . Another branch is given by assuming a similar form for t h e r o l e s o f k. label K/a t o t h e r i g h t b y clisplacements constant K’/a amasses w i t h s p r i n g s o f c o n s t a n t w i t h a sprirlg of $“. n* m a s s a r e ( d i s p l a c e m e n t s a r e <and q i n t h e x a n d y d i r e c t i o n s ) : A s s u m e t h a t Ex. a n d k .” w h i c h j u s t i n t e r c h a n g e s . = I:. a n d t h e n e i g h b o r i n g masses to the right by displacements +c. 3 4 ) t h e results f o r w v e r s u s k w e r e g i v e n f o r t h e l a t t i c e v i b r a t i o n s o f a o n e d i m e n s i o n a l c r y s t a l o f a l t e r n a t e m a s s e s ~a a n d M a . and setting coeffi QI o . a + !. three similar reflection planes. Find these axes and planes. a l o n g i t u d i n a l w a v e r e s u l t s . t h e n a s s u m e sollJtions o f t h e f o r m : 4” = an = Acos(kna)cos(wf 8 cos(kna + + a) a) (Po)cos(ti>t + where A and 6 are constants. 7. or twice the distance be tween successive masses. . ox . a n d f i n d w a s a f u n c t i o n o f k. I n liquation ( 1 2 . = 0 . pa. ‘9.
Answer: v = 3 x 10’3cps. Prove this. it was assumed that Nl c cos2(kna) n=O = f N if k=Tt?L!?! No ’ m = 0. 12. Nl c cos(kna)cos(k’na) n=O = 0 if k # k’. P r o v e t h i s b y u s i n g cos(kno) = !Iz (eik”’ + e‘line sumed that ) and the formula for the sum of o it WQS as geometric series.02 x 10’2secC’. when the wavelength of oscillations is 100 times the interatomic distance. T2. find what the high temperature lattice specific heat is in two dimensions. and on what power of Tit depends at low temperatures.. what is the cutoff frequency? Describe the motion of neighboring atoms at this frequency. Also.03 x 10’2sec‘. Answer: 2R/mole.2. 14. 0.3 x 1027k g is 3 x 105cm/sec. where EF is the Fermi energy and R is the gas constant. What is the phase speed and group speed when k is r/a? Answer: 13. To measure the low temperature dependence of the specific heat of a solid lattice due to phonons.14 x 10’ per centimeter. In finding the kinetic energy for CI mode. should you use a conductor or an insulator? Why? .Problems 379 t 4 10. In a one dimensional crystal with atoms of only one mass.95 the wavenumber of the maximum fre 11. The maximum phase speed of an elastic wave of mass 6./meter. 2.55 x 1 O5 cm/set. I f the density of vibrational states between k and k + dk is kdk/2r in two dimensions. If the atom density is 3. In the chapter on quantum statistical mechanics it was found that the heat capacity per mole of electrons was on the order of Rks J/El. in a one dimensional crystal of atoms of 0. 18O’out of phase. what is the maximum angular frequency of waves which can be propagated in the lattice? Of what angular frequency are wwes quency Answer: waves? 4.1. 15.7 x 10m27kg is 3 Angstroms and the effective spring constant is 15 x 10m3nt.4. If the lattice spacing of a one dimensional lattice ot atoms of mass 3. the phase speed is 4 x lo5 cm/set. in showing that modes do not interfere in #energy.
21 eV. t h e g a p w i d t h i s 7 eV.a) k. I n d i a m o n d . atom in electron volts. find this number for T = 273 K..a)].cos(k. = P/O. w he r e Eo and pare c o n s t a n t s . Answer: 22. D e s c r i b e t h e t y p e o f e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y e x h i b i t e d by each crystal if there are on even number of electrons per cell. replaces on atom of silicon in o crystal of silicon. and the distribution function is approxifor m a t e l y 1 .. 3 eV. which effectively sees o charge +e at the position of the arsenic. will create an electronhole in appreciable par? At what temperatures would these pairs be excited thermally numbers? far greater than the melting or boiling Answer: 25. The valence 1 . Answer: 21. ‘/zh2k2/2m* my = mz IS A n s w e r : = my = mz = h2/(20 = I. E = a n d t h e d e n s i t y Iof “/15 k t d k i s k2dk/a2. Answer: 23. balld o f CI c o n d u c t o r . f i n d t h e e f f e c  t i v e m u s s i n t h e x . The gap width of silicon is 0 .  cos(kp)cos(k.3 8 0 solid’ stofe physics 16. will it be ptype or ntype? In the semiconductor germanium. t h e e f f e c t i v e m a s s m* o f t h e h o l e s and e l e c t r o n s a r e t h e s a m e . 20.a)cos(k. !so that the density of states between above the bottom of the conduction band or below the top of the valence band (at k = 0 ) i s (hk)2/2m*. a n d a t k. a s s u m i n g all s t a t e s b e l o w Er are f i l l e d a n d a l l s t a t e s a b o v e . impurity atom. there is one extra electron. 0 4 6 eV b e l o w t h e bott. A r s e n i c d o n o r a t o m s i n s i l i c o n h a v e a n e n e r g y of the conduction band.z) cos (k.>m diagram. 24. Also. e’V.0 0 . = ‘@). 0 0 eV ( o v e r l a p ) .m. = 0. 6 8 9 band and conduction band of several crystals are separated by 3.9 and the average effective mass is 0. T <c 5 3 3 K k and k + d k f o r e a c h i s k2dk/X2.4m.EF 18. . and estimate the temperatures at which the donor levels would be filled. If the bands are wide compared Es = 1 eV and m* e q u a l t o find the number of holes per unit volume in the valence band and the number o f e l e c t r o n s p e r . T > 9160K. = k. the energy gap is 0. point of Ge. 15. a n d 0 . roughly to sca’e.038 eV. would you expect it to be a .I. when absorbed by a pure germanium crystal.u n i t volume i n t h e c o n d u c t i o n b a n d . calculate the binding energy of the electron to the arsenic. m. . l/[e(EFE)‘kBr + l] rV A s s u m e t h a t t h e g a p e n e r g y E. in the fifth column of the periodic table. Make a sketch of the energy level for this situation. When an 2(mkT/2ah2)3’2eEg’2kBT. 7 0 0 a n g s t r o m s . i s l a r g e e n o u g h s o t h a t e(EFE)‘kB’for E in the conduction band. calculate the radius of the lowest Bohr orbit. = k. F o r the true electron mass.7 Angstroms. What is the wavelength of the photon which. such OS arsenic. If silicon is doped with a small amount of ptype or ntype semiconductor? aluminum. and the energy I n a s e m i c o n d u c t o r . of the If in the conduction states between k and Fermi energy clre e m p t y . Answer: 19. If a small amount of indium is combined with germanium to make a semiconductor. y a n d z dlrections a t k. + p[3 .o)  cos(k. 17. E in the valence band. = 0 . 1 5 . T h e F e r m i e n e r g y Ef i s h a l f w a y b e t w e e n t h e t w o banols. k. show that the overage energy EF. Assuming the silicon is a medium of dielectric constant K = 11.79 eV in width. W h a t f r e q u e n c y o f i n c i d e n t e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c radiot i o n w o u l d cause an electron to go from the valence to the conduction band? x lC~‘~cps. I f t h e e n e r g y i n a b a n d i s g i v e n b y E ( k ) = E.e (EFmE)‘ks7 to ksJ. = h2/(2a2~).
Ze. 3. the periodic table. to strike a selected target. it is natural to expect that the nuclei may themselves have an internal structure and exhibit a rich variety of phenomena. This information may then be used in formulating a theory of the forces involved. a n d s i n c e then it has been of major concern in physics. The study of nuclear structure began in 1896 with the discovery of radioa c t i v i t y b y B e c q u e r e l . However. ITlass. By observing the spot patterns. which actually contains over 99. and so on. For example.1 A NUCLEAR MODEL For simplicity. losses of energy. but we should nevertheless be able to obtain reasonable estimates of nuclear dimensions using this model. by largely ignoring any internal structure the nucleus may have. number and type of recoil particles. or. This beam is allowed angles of deflection. and spin direction. In this chapter we shall discuss one of the most important methods used in the study of small particles: scattering. chemical properties of the elements. 381 .94% of the mass of the atom. is simply a point mass carrying a charge Ze. ?he In a scattering experiment. one may determine the internal structure and arrangement of the atoms in the crystal. and the mass are uniformly distributed throughout the sphere. where Z is the atomic number. particularly if sufficient energy is given to the nuclei so that they can approach one another and react or scatter from each other. This may be considered as a process involving scattering of the xray photons in the incident beam. There it was seen how an enormous amount of experimental data can be assembled into a simple conceptual scheme: energy level structure and spectra of the elements. charge.3 probing the nucleus In Chapters 8 and 9 atomic structure was discussed assuming that the nucleus. which may be described by some parameters such as kinetic energy. xray spectra. Experiments show that these assumptions are not quite correct in general. and other quantities. a beam of particles of some type is produced. etc. in our first discussions of the nucleus we will consider a model in which the nucleus is assumed to be spherical in shape. are observed. information may be obtained about the internal structure of the target particles. These phenomena may be understood quantitatively. Laue spot patterns are observed when x rays are diffracted from crystalline solids. and in which the charge. with the aid of a theory or model of the scattering process.
s o t h a t t h e t e s t c h a r g e i s in&de t h e n u c l e u s . Imagine. Therefore. Since the nuclear charge is assumed to be uniformly distributed. 7rR3. If r is greater than R . The force on this test charge will be a function of both r a n d R . The force between test charge and nucleus would then be equal to ZeQ/4?rtorz. H o w e v e r ./4rcoR3. ancl the force on the test charge is equal to ZeQr. and is somewhat of an abstmraction because in real nuclei no such sharp outer boundary exists. uniformly distributed nuclear charge of finite radius R. the fraction of nuclear charge acting on the test charge will equal the fraction of nuclear volume at radii less than r. and hence if this force could be measured. such as an electron. Graph of the force between a test charge Q and a spherically symmetric. i f r i s l e s s t h a n R . the charge acting on the test charge is equal to (r/R)3.1) LIrR 2R 3R 4R Figure 13.1. this radius is the distance from the nuclear center at which the mass and charge densities fall to zero. force is given by: ZeQ F=47rtor2 ’ fz = ZeQr 47mOR3 for r > R for r < R (13. placed at a distance r from the center of the spherical nuclear charge distribution. . charge effectively acting on the test charge at r < R is then equal to Zer3/R3. In order to design a scattering experiment which would reveal some of the internal structure of a nucleus. the fraction of nuclear The total amount of nuclear Summarizing. for example.382 Probing the nucleus Let the radius of the sphere in this model be R. s o t h a t tlhe test charge is outside the spherical distribution. then by Gauss’ law the entire charge Ze of the nucleus may be considered to be concentrated at the center of symmetry. The total nuclear volume is “/. one would first like to have a rough idea of the radius R for a nucleus of a given charge and mass. R coLlld be determined. The volume at radii less than r is % xr3. t h e n b y G a u s s ’ l a w o n l y t h e c h a r g e a t r a d i i l e s s t h a n r effectively acts on the test charge. a point test charge Q.
it is seen that for radii r > R . of a sphere of radius r i s 4xr3/3. T h e e q u a t i o n f o r t h e r a d i u s o f t h e B o h r /. at which the potential ceases to be Coulombic. We can go farther. about 200 times that of an electron. Moseley’s law. If the ledge o f t h e n u c l e a r c h a r g e d i s t r i b u t i o n w e r e sharp. the nuclear radius. a = 4at0ti2/me2 = 0.meson to be attracted to a nucleus. fraction of the time spent by the electron in the neighborhood of the nucleus is and because the theoretical energy is correct to at least six significant figures. with R = 0. the electron spends most of its time in a region of space at radii comparable to the Bohr radius. we may obtain some idea of the value of R . and to replace an electron in an atom to form a relatively stable atom with the p meson in a 1s starte.005 Angstroms.5 Angstroms. Thus. would then indicate that nuclear radii cannot be greater than around 1 O4 Angstroms. the potential will be a Coulomb potential. this radius can get as small as ab#Dut 0. the radius of the first Bohr orbit is a/Z. A /J meson is an elementary particle which has charge e and a mass m. By (considering deviations between theory and experiment for hydrogenlike atoms with heavy nuclei. Thus.1 the force is plotted as a function of r . the calculated electron energies agree with experilnent to at le ast six signific a n t fig u re s . In the 1s state of hydrogen. we could measure R. in the theory of the hydrogen atom which was developed in Chapter 8. In the heavy elements where Z is around 100. ( $(r) 1 ‘. but with the mass of the . T h e re it was assumed that the nucleus is CI point charge. we should have: fi!3 a < 1o6 or R should be less than about 10m2 Angstroms. there would be a sharp change in the slope of the graph of F(r) at a value of r equal to R. To put an upper limit on R.2 Limitations on nuclear size 383 In Figure 13. 2 LIMITATIONS ON NUCLEAR SIZE FROM ATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS From the above considerations. d oes not change significantly for the 1s state for radii from r N 0 t o r 2 a . but we can measure some of the effects to be expected from different potential energies of interaction.13. S i n c e t h e volume of the order of magnitude R3/a3. It is possible for a CC. The fact that the agreement between theory and experiment is so good means that the nuclear radius R must be much smaller than 0. we observe that the order of magnitude of the electron probability the d e n s i t y . for a distributed charge. is in good agreement with experiment. we cannot measure forces directly in nuclear physics.53 Angstroms. Then if we could place a test charge in this region. which gives xray frequencies based on a hydrogenlike model. The argument used above in connection with the hydrogen atom. Actually. at small radii the force does not continue to approach infinity as l/r2 but approaches zero instead.L meson orbit is the same as for the hydrogen atom. In a hydrogenlike atom with nuclear charge Z.
explained results Because of the rather small lengths that occur in nuclear physics. it is convenient to introduce a Iunit tile fermi (named after the of length comparable to nuclear radii.0002. and the first Bohr orbit of a p mesic atom of lead would be Historically. is inversely proportional to the mass and is around 0. on the basis of our above rough estimates. R mu!jt sipread out over the whole atomi. The binding energies of /L mesic atoms may be determined by various means. Enrico Fermi) is frequently used: 1 fermi = lol5 meters = 10s Angstroms Thus nuclear radii. based only on Coulomb forces. and it is found that the energies begin to differ from that expected for a pure Coulomb potential by 10% or so. a 1s p meson spends most of its time inside the nucleus and the atomic energies are changed by large factors. comthan Coulomb forces are present.Z.I meson is spending a significant part of its time at radii r inside the nucleus.384 Probing the nucleus replacing the mass electron. the larger is the maxilmuin be possible force.e. This means that the /. In lead. Quantitative considerations show that if the nuclear charge ‘were ‘u 1 Angstromthen the particles in the incident beam should suffer only very slight deflections due to Coulomb forces. or about estimate of the nuclear :size. pletely than an Angstrom in radius. = . Of course. the wavefunction does not vanish at the nucleus but approaches the constant value tiIO. For lead. must be of the o’rder of several fermis. This is probably an over) $ 1’ i s l a r g e s t n e a r t h e o r i g i n . To produce a large deflection requires a Large force. for Z E 10. w h i c h w a s n o t Angstroms. This radius. s o t h e n u c l e a r r a d i u s i s l e s s t h a n a r o u n d lol4 meters. Hence the smaller R is.. Using the argument above.dm a s r + 0. aP = am/m.. T h e p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t i n t h e 1s state. and herlce the internal structure of the nucleus may have some effect on the atomic energy levels.. From Figure 13. The fact that large deflections are observed means that the nucleus must be much sIrnaIler chapter. for example. and observing that a few of the incident particles *were deflected through large angles.’ radii Angstroms. Hence there is some finite prol>ability of finding the electron (or meson) in the region of the nucleus. A unit called nuclear physicist. since account. known to be of this general order of magnitude nuclear were long before mesic atoms w e r e d i s c o v e r e d . Rutherford’s the scattering scattering formula. Z = 82. .. T h e s e r a d i i w e r e f o u n d b y R u t h e r f o r d and his coworkers by allowing a beam of heavy charged particles of high speeds to strike a thin foil. and hence a large deflection.S/10”3 taken into < ‘/. as will be discussed later in this down to very small radii. it is possible that forces other However. we find very roughly that (R/aJ3 0.1 it can be seen that the maximum possible Coulomb force is. ‘v 4 x 10. and to hove a large force. R very small.00025 Angstroms for a Z of 10. inversely proportional to R ‘.
this will be a piece of matter of macroscopic size because in practice. speed of the protons would be c’p/E = 0.73. = 1. Therefore. in the relativistic range. the position of an incoming particle is unknown. the larger the kinetic energy of the incident particles must be. we would not know how close a particular incident particle could come to a nucleus incident particle. it is desirable to use a beam of incident particles whose de Broglie wavelerlgths are either of the same general order of magnitude as.6 x lo*’ w o u l d b e p2/2m. If the energy is really very sharply defined. or less than. To get electrons of wavelengths X . Similarly. t h e u n c e r t a i n t y i n pr is zero. Laue spot patterns are formed when the wavelengths of the incident photons are comparable to the lattice spacings. the size of the structures being investigoted. We will only know that the nuclei are distributed in some fashion throughout the target. and hence the electrons would have speeds very close to that of light. if this beam falls on some target.3 x 10‘* in their early experiments. Since pr = 0 . Geiger and Marsden t h e p r o t o n w a v e l e n g t h t o X z 1 fermi. the correThis is roughly the ioules. The kinetic energy x the incident particles are protons of wavelengths h E 10 fermis. unless it is attached rigidly to the laboratory apparatus. In investigating the structure of some object by means of a scattering experiment. interesting phenomena should occur when the wavelengths of the incident particles are of the same order of magnitude as the lengths characterizing nuclear structure. and the y positions of the particles are unknown. we cannot put one nucleus in a given position and hold it there. the smaller the features of nuclear structure are thot we wish to detect. The incoming beam would then be described by a wavefunction like that of a plane wave. In a solid piece of material as big as 1 mm3. so is the momentum. e’ren if we knew exactly the position of the . The smaller X is. The the required kinetic energy is roughly 600 MeV. the exact positions at which the incident particles will strike the target will be unknown. a few fermis. we do not know exactly where the nuclei are. The target may consist of a solid chunk of material or o vial of liquid.67 1O27 kg. and so. the larger the incident kinetic energies must be. the protons’ m o m e n t a w o u l d b e a b o u t p = h/X = 6.8c.2. Consider a beam of particles of known energy traveling in the x direction.V 1 fermi requires an energy of this same order of magnitude. If kg m/set. comparable to the speed of light.3 Scotferhg experiments 385 3 SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS A great deal of useful information may be obtained by allowing particles to collide with various targets. or 8. as shown in Figure 13. The scattering process will usually depend on the kinetic energies of the incident particles in an important woy. in scattering off of nuclei.3 MeV. kinetic energy of the incident particles used by Rutherford. according to the uncertainty principle. Hence. To decrease mass m. Since the proton rest sponding kinetic energy is 1. in the scattering of n rays by a crystal. For example. Hence. Hence. the incident beams should be beams of definite known energies as nearly as possible. The same is true for the z positions.
the number of particles . area 1 m2 is represented as it would appear to the incoming beam.386 Probing the nucleus Figure 13. of A beam of particles traveling in the x direction and striking a target. randomly placed throughout the target. In general. The relative probability of an incident particle striking an area A is praportional to the area A..2) on the area A per secorld would be given by: Number incident on A per second = N. and divided up into elements of area Ai. Then the number of particles incident (13.A 13. as indicated in f:igure 13.4 CROSSSECTIONS Suppose the target con.4. the total area covered by the circles in one square meter of target would be just equal to tea. and and u is so small that no two circles all oriented so that the circles are broadside to the incident beam.incident flux densify.3. on the average twice as oriented with its area perpendicular to the beam.2). these in positional terms of uncertainties. we must assume that an incident particle is just as likely to fall at one oosition on the taraet as on anv other. It is A2 has twice the area of A. If element many particles should fall on A2 as on A.2. particles per square meter per second are incident on the target. it If is the necessary beam to describe is the Because scattering process intensity uniform across the target. o. the probability that an incident particle falls on an area A is proportional to A. is called the . a target of A3 A2 I lmFigure 13. If there are q of these scatterers per unit area.sisted of a large number of circular scatterers of e’qual area u. according to Equation (13. Suppose that a total of N. This number N.verlap. In Figure 13. probabilities.3. Then..
A great deal more information about the scattering forces can be gained by studying the number of scattered particles as a function of angle. If that 1 is known and N.73. = N. can be measured.5. In actuality. one may represent the probability of the process in terms of an effective crosssectional area u. A particle in the incident beam falling inside a then is scattered.3) nevertheless serves as a definition of cr. a is not known. when an incident particle is scattered.4. than from an experiment in which only u is found.va (13. Equation (13.3) may Ibe used to measure (r experimentally.3) The area u i n t h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s c a l l e d t h e fatal scattering crosssection.3). provided 5 DIFFERENTIAL CROSSSECTION In practice. a particle falling outside is not scattered. Incident beam . the scattering probability may be a rather complicated function of the distance of the incident particle from the target particle. and N. incident on the circles per square meter per second is N. Equation (13. Target consisting of randomly placed circular scatterers of area u. The scattering angle 19 i s d e f i n e d i n F i g u r e 13. whatever the scattering process actually is.5 Differedid crosssection 387 0 OU 0 ” : I 0 0 0 0 J Figure 13. it may be deflected through any angle 0 from zero up to 180”. We may suppose that. i n such a way that the number of particles scattered is given by Equation (13.
. area cut off on the sphere’s surface between the two cones of central angles 6 and 0 + do. da/d0 particles by is called the differential crosssection. w h e r e dA i s t h e Figure 13. per unit solid angle./dD scattered with per unit solid angle. If dN. It is convenient here to consider the number of particles scattered per unit solid angle. the per unit area of Equation (13.3). du(0) The ratio number material. of then is the crosssection for scattering into dC!.388 Probing the nucleus We can think of the area u as being composed of nonoverlapping infinitesimal a r e a s . divided by the number of scatterers per unit area. T h e s o l i d a n g l e d:Q subtended by a section of a spherical surface of radius R. differential crosssection is the targset is analogy (13. i s d e f i n e d .5) or the fraction of particles scattered into angles near 8. into some small range of scattering angles near 0. s i n 0 * RdB R2 da is dR = _27rR = 27r s i n 19 d0 (13. between the angles 0 a n d 0 + d0. 6 . as i n F i g u r e 1 3 . Solid angle corresponding to an increment in polar scattering angle 0. In terms of do.4) Thus. the differential solid angle..6. w i t h (T = / da da is that part of the total crosssection which corresponds to the scattering of particles into some small range of angles about 0. The total crosssection is then . da(O). b y dO := dA/R’.
for a hard sphere.7. w h a t i s t h e scattered into angles between 89” and 90”? One degree is about l/57. F i n d t h e UfiOll u= s “d”df]= s r o dfi 0 crosssection. rmp~e If the areal density of scatterers fraction of the particles ution i s v = 10z4 per square meter. Different101 scattering orea. 3 0 T . Then the areas 389 da would be the projections of thin. and the differen tial crosssection for scattering at 89.5”)Ao 2~ 7. The effective scattering area per !square meter of target material is then ~Acr = 1 Om3’) = 10s. spheres.5 Differential crosssection Suppose. for example. and that point masses surfaces in of the the incident beam were scattered about lines elastically through upon the striking of the the spheres. dg.3 radians. areas ore inclined at different angles to the beam.mpIe Suppose a differential crosssection is given by total da/dQ = u2 cos’ 0. that the scatterers were hard spheres.73. a2 cos2 c9 (27r sin 6’ d0) = F (cos3@ = 4m2 . as in Figure 13.s. This is the fraction of particles scattered. T h e n AC = du/dD AQ E 10 32m2. Since the various ringshaped Incoming particles 9 Figure 13. The solid angle between 89” and 90” is then about 2sr s i n (1 O*“)( (89. parallel to the incoming beam. ringshaped areas on the concentric center spheres.5” is da/d62 = 10e3’ m’.7. . they scatter the particles through different angles.
022 x 10z3 p e r gramscatterers per unit volume is NOP “FW example For gold.390 Probing the nucleus 13. If the target is a thin slab of thickness per unit area will be = nt (13. The number of moles per cubic meter is then p/W. number. No mole.93 x 197.  ntAa = ( 5 . If the crosssection x for scattering into angles greater than 1” is au = 9.0 scattered into from Equation (13.02 W = 5. taken as a unit of crosssection (area) . and the density i s p = 1 . 1024m2.32 13. The quantity 10e2* m2 is a large crosssection. Also. t h e number of particles per unit volume is x 1023)(1.89 x 102s/m3 Suppose the gold is a foil of thickness t = 6 fraction of the incident particles that are x 1V5 cm. the total number of scattering center:.8). ancl in nuclear problems It i s sometirrles burn. the number of scatterers pet’ unit volume. greater then the than lo is. but the density p. the atomic weight W is given. ?) Thus. volume. many crosssections are found to be typically on the order of called the 1Om32 to 10m2* m2.:7) will be t. n. N 2 N = nta Usually.2 grams per gmole. the fraction of particles scattered when the total crosssection is r~. is not given directly in tables. the number of particles or == 6. 9 3 x 1 0 ’ g/m3. The number of particles in one mole is Avogadro’r.2 107) n = Plop _ (6. Hence. S i n c e A v o g a d r o ’ s n u m b e r i s No = 6 . the atomic weight is W = 197. angles A!N. n. In grams per cubic meter. is known.6 NUMBER OF SCATTERERS PER UNIT AREA Consider a target made of some solid material which has a known number of scattering centers per uniq.7 BARN AS A UNIT OF CROSSSECTION In nuclear scattering problems. 8 9 x 102’)(6 x lo‘)(9. 0 2 x lo’“.05 x 1024) = 0.
rip/e If a nucleus is a sphere of 2. the initial kinetic energy of the CY particle may be determined.042 barns. H e r e r is 2.5 x lol5 meters. or 2. of a typical cloud chamber photograph of In Figure 13. beta in a opposite cloud The first Both type alpha Also.8 a and fi parficles 391 Thus a crosssection of 4.5 fermis in radius. 5 x 10‘5)2 = 1 . It has since been established that beta rays are high speed electrons.13. except near the end of the path. then what is the crosssectional area . we can now study one of the earliest experiments giving direct evidence about the nuclear size. 3. was and they one called beta both could alpha rays left radiation and the by when a second they was called but of through radiation. After the discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel. If all LY particles coming off have the same range. Rutherford and his coworkers studied the radiations given off by uranium and found there were two types: one type which was easily absorbed by thin sheets of material. and another type which was very penetrating. conclude radiations charged particles. 9 6 x 1O29 m2 = 0. By studying the length of a track (called the range). so the initial kinetic energy of the particle is a welldefined function of the range. by counting droplets ol?e may measure the total energy lost by the (Y particle.5 fermis. then one could infer that all the particles have .8 is a reproduction the cu radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei.196 barns This crosssectional area will not necessarily be the same as the scattering cross section because the forces causing scattering may extend over a larger area. The (Y rays leave tracks consisting of tiny droplets of liquid condensing on ions caused by the passage of the particles.tion in barns? The crosssectional area of a sphere of radius r i s zr’. and alpha rays are the rluclei of helium atoms. Then the crosssectional area is A = a ( 2 . This involved the scattering of alpha particles by thin metal foils. It has been found that the number of ions formed per unit of track length is nearly constant. We are interested here particularly in alpha particles. chamber. Since a small droplet condenses around each ion. From a study of the characteristics of the vapor molecules. consist directions. it has been determined that on the average it takes about 32 eV of energy to form an ion pair. were visible deflected tracks both that magnetic passed must field. Hence.2 x lo“’ m2 would be 0.8 a AND fl PARTICLES With the definitions of scattering crosssection given above.
the are particles in both electric and magnetic fields. equal kinetic energies. In general.8 we see that there are have discrete energies. The chargetomass another ratio.67 x 10mz7 kg. where they attracted electrons to form atoms.30 MeV.et us denote the charge of the cr particle by Q and its mass by M.84 cm in air at 15”C. type Q/M. kinetic energy of 5. These kinetic energies have been c~ particles of two to be of the different initial kinetic energies. For example. nucleus.8.392 Probing the nucleus Figure 13. L. of N. Cloud chamber photograph of alpha rays. showing two distinct ranges corresponding to two different energies of the emitted alpha particles. the Rutherford established of these that atoms. the a particles emitted by nuclei all determined order of magnitude of a few million electron volts. In Figure 13. Also. one a particle emitted by polonium has an average range of 3. the charge Q is two times the magnitude of the electronic chal*ge. 6 2 x 1O27 k g The mass of the proton is M. of may be determined in which a by observing number the of deflection particles. this is the found case it by collecting to that cr of particles in a tube. This suggests that an cr p a r t i c l e i s a helium observed heliium. The charge Q may be determined in experiment known captured in a chamber arid the total charge NQ is measured.84 x so M = 6 .2 x 10‘9coulombs lo7 coul/kg and has a Q/M = 4. so the (Y particle mass is very closely four times that of the hydrogen nucleus. The results of these experiments are: Q = +3. Then he emission spectrum and identical . = 1.
W h i l e q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s w a s u n known at that time.e. Rutherford proposed that the nucleus occu pied only a small region compared to atomic dimensions. 3 x lol9 kgm/set. T h e n . diffraction by the slits had negligible effect. In 1911. S i n c e t h e r e s t e n e r g y about 3750 MeV. Hence the 1% particle simply smashes right on through the electrons without any appreciable ILoss of energy. energy. somewhat like an ortillery shell passing through a wad of newspapers.r. between centers. T h e n p = 2//2M.f a b o u t 8 MeV. = h / p = 5 x 1015m the size of a nucleus as we know it today. to were suitable to use in the experiments. t h e r e s t e n e r g y i s m u c h l a r g e r t h a n t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y . In 1913. MC’ is T h e (1 p a r t i c l e s h a d a n e n e r g y 0. These slits gave a collimated beam of particles of a single Figure 13. In these experiments. This can occur only if the particles collide headon. alpha particles were s c a t t e r e d f r o m t h i n f o i l s o f varioL1s m e t a l s . Many physicists felt that the nuclear material occupied most of the region in the interior of the atom.6 x 1027)(8 x 1 . and even then only in the frame of reference in w h i c h t h e center o f m a s s i s a t r e s t . a s o u r c e e m i t t i n g t h e 8 MeV (Y p a r t i c l e s w o s p l a c e d b e h i n d s l i t s .13. The Coulomb potential energy for an alpha particle of c h a r g e 2 e a n d a n u c l e u s o f c h a r g e Z e i s 2Ze2/4rt. I n a n y o t h e r f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e .9 3. t h e r e i s . Geiger and Marsden reported experiments which completely confirmed the predictions of Rutherford’s model of the atom. about corresponding to this momentum is X. assuming that the force of interaction all the way in is a purely electrostatic Coulomb force. the structure of the atoln Rutherford mode/ 393 and the size of the nucleus were completely unknown. Because of the small wave length of the particles.9. all traveling along by a slitsystem. Thus the presence of atomic electrons m a y b e n e g l e c t e d w h e n d i s c u s s i n g s c a t t e r i n g o f cr p a r t i c l e s . W h e n (Y’S o f k i n e t i c e n e r g i e s o f a f e w MeV nuclear charge Ze and Z electrons. In the experiment of Geiger and Marsden. to produce a beam going in a essentiolly parallel paths. 6 x lol3 i/MeV)]“’ = 1 . the mass of collide with an atom having a the electrons is around Z/7000 times the mass of the cr. If all the kinetic energy were w h e r e r is the distance into potential energy. W e m a y t h e n c a l c u l a t e t h e d i s t a n c e o f c l o s e s t a p p r o a c h b e t w e e n a n u c l e u s a n d a n 8 MeV (Y particle. i. p = [2(6. Collimation of a bean1 welldefined direction. The de Broglie wavelength = 5 fermis. n u m e r i c a l l y . a s shown in Figure 13.9. s o a n o n r e l a t i v i s t i c t r e a t m e n t o f t h e m o t i o n m a y b e m a d e . was spread over a region of approximately one Angstrom in diameter. where T i s t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y .9 RUTHERFORD MODEL OF THE ATOM Until 191 1. 8 MeV. we can calcul~ate see with hindsight that these particles the wavelength of the (Y particles used. converted the two particles would be as close together as they can get.
Since these distances are greater than the sizes of the nuclei (as we now know). we will assume that the scattering nucleus is a point charge.ce between particles is 17 fermis. As the particle appro’aches the nucleus and then recedes to infinity.10) where discuss RO = 1. Therefore.. if the nucleus is very heavy. the position may be labeled r a d i a l d i s t a n c e r a n d t h e a n g l e @ shown in Figure 13. W’j3 later. we know today that the radii are a little smaller than this. which were based on the assumption that the nucleus is very small. ip decreases from 7r to 8. fixed at the origin. etc.) is 9 x lo9 numerically. In this discus theory sion.8. and only a few percent error is made using the laboratory rather than the center of mass frame. it is quite reasonable that the GeigerMarsden experiments confirmed Rutherford’s predictions. For gold.iheoretical discussing the Rutherford Coulomb scattering calculation of a crosssection by in more detail. if we set the initial LY parenergy at closest approach. as is the case for goldwhich was often used in the early experimentsthe nuclear mass is around fifty times that of the alpha particle. The results of many experiments on measuring nuclear sizes by electron scattering. Z is 79. If the nucleus had been greater in size than around 20 fermis. EQUATION OF ORBIT W e s h a l l n o w g i v e a n e x a m p l e o f a . At by the any point on the trajectory of the cy particle. . it were around an Angstrom or lo5 fermis in size. may be summarized in the approximate formula: R z: R. whereas the actual path of the particle along the heavy curved line IS. we have: ticle kinetic energy equal to the poten. T h e s h o r t e s t d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e l i n e I I a n d the origin 0 is called the impact partrmeter. which is the angle between the incident and scattered directions.6 x 113‘3i/MeV) = 9 x 109(2)(79)( 1. 1/(47rt. if. the smallest possible distan. The angle of scattering. (13.10 the dashed line II represents the path that an incoming (Y particle would follow if it were not deflected by the nucleus at 0.1 fermis ond W is the atomic weight of the nucleus. because the nucleus rebounds to some extent. but will be exact in the center of mass system if the a particle mass is replaced with the reduced mass of the alpha nucleus system. a scattering.6 x 1019)‘/r or r = 28 fermis. It is labeled b on the diagram. Ze. We shall the physical significance of this equation 13. also. t h e final scattering angle. The results obtained will be only approximate in the laboratory system. Thus the agreement of the experimental results with Rutherford’s predictions indicated thIat the nuclear radii were less than 17 fermis. However. so the forces are Coulombic down to very small distances.tial (8MeV)( 1. In Figure 13. Actually. then the scattering experiments would hove given quite different results. With o target made of silver. in particular. is labeled in the diagram by the symbol 0.394 Probing the nucleus motion of the center of mass and thus some kinetic energy which cannot be converted into potential energy.10 RU’THERFORD THEORY.
13) .xt.. and express dr/dt in the energy equaThe result is: tion. before the collision.12) MY. where is the initial speed of the alpha particle. conservation of energy and conservation of anslular momentum. T. Equation (13. that (13.. a s dr/dt = (dr/d@)(d@/dt). Setting the sum of the kinetic energy equal to the initial kinetic energy. all the energy is kinetic.11) Here dr/dt angular a n d rd@/dt is the are the radial and tangential components of velocity.10.23). Initially. + = 2Ze’ 4irtor 1 Mvj: 2 (13.7 3.7 0 Rutherford theory Y I 395 b Figure 13.1 l).b. The equation of the LY particle path may be obtained from two conservation equations. Then at all times the same: Mr” $ = Mv. momentum We can solve Equation (13. the speeds involved are much less than c.. so nonrelativistic mechanics may be used. we The initial angular momentum about the origin is Mv.r. V = 2Ze2/4. we shall now derive this equation. The resulting expression for the scattering angle in terms of impact parameter and energy is given in Equation (13.12) for d @/dt. Also. find and potential energy. Path of an alpha particle scattering from an infinitely massive nucleus of charge Ze. Since the de Broglie wavelength of the alpha particle is smaller than the distance of closest approach.b (13. so there is no torque about the origin. = ?6 v. we may use classical mechanics rather than quantum mechanics to analyze the motion. The latter conservation law holds because the Coulomb force is a central force.
The outgoing particle.’ ~ v’i+r”‘) @ = 2 sin’ (13.1x VC+ y2 1 (I 3._ _  (13. when t/l 1 + r’ (13.sin’ [ tYTy 1 + 1 (13. s o cPo = 7r + 1 sin‘~ ( I 3.‘19) 13. a= r 3 sin’ sinl 1 Vv/r) we obtain: VT+ Solving for the reciprocal of the radius r. We see that this will occur in Equation (13. d@ =  bdr/r’ (‘13. sin or 1 .:20) or l/r = 0.‘14) Solving for d @.396 Probing the nucleus We may simplify the notation by defirling a constant y as follows: iy =.s i n . The result is: (13. to the potential energy the a l p h a p a r t i c l e w o u l d h a v e a t a d i s t a n c e b from the nucleus.‘18) &L) . 1 =p+ y r sin L i * . I 7) Gyz Hence. @ = a a n d r = cc. Then Equation (13.‘16) The constant of integration +0 m a y b e e v a l u a t e d b y n o t i n g t h a t a t t h e i n i t i a l position.:21) .ollision. v2Mv: (2Ze2/47rco) T h u s . .19).11 RUTHERFORD SCATTERING ANGLE is at a distance r = 0~1.‘15) 1 The integral of this function of r may loe found in most integral tables. long after the c. y is twice the ratio of initial kinetic energy.13) can be written: .
particles striking inside the circle will be deflected through angles greater than that given by Equation (13. This is depicted in Figure 13.b Ze2 Hence. backwards. co+ = J. the smaller b is. 0 approaches zero. Imagine drawing a circle of radius b around the nucleus. the larger is the b approaches zero.. sini8= _ Also. shown in Figure 13.73.1 1. If J o. All a’s w h i c h h i t inside the Figure 13. cot . sin % 0 Ze2 (13. If b approaches infinity. 180”. the alpha particle is scattered straight the angle of scattering B approachles collision and no deflection. which will be denoted by a(> 0). will be just the area of the circle.72 Rutherford differential crosssection This value of @ corresponds to the scattering angle 19. this is the crosssection for scattering through angles greater than or equal (13. as seen by an incoming cy particle.1 1. In terms of b.12. circle of radius b will be scattered through angles greater than the angle given by Equation (13.23) Equation (13.23) to express scattering through angles 20 to be (13.b. Such particles will be scattered into angles . Circle of radius b.26) Consider particles which hit inside the ring bounded by circles of radius b and b $ db. 4rt.> 0) = rb2 Using Equation (13.23).B = 1 _ dT+ _ y2 (13. we find the crosssection for b in terms of (13. a.25) 8. we may proceed to derive the differential crosssection du/dfi.23). Thus. corresponding to no 12 RUTHERFORD DIFFERENTIAL CROSSSECTION Now that a relationship between the scattering angle 0 a n d t h e i m p a c t p a r a m eter b has been obtained.23) implies that for a given angle of scattering.24) to 0.22) 397 1 2 =y=Jo4xc. corresponding to a headon collision..
.) sin3 (% r9) sin 0 = 4 i4~coT. in terms of 19 a n d dll the differential scattering dL’ = so for large impact parameters. not In between nucleus alpha really electrostatic longrange. but if 0 is large. This reflects the fact that the Coulomb force deslowly as distance force increases. Hence.28) over this solid angle would be proportional to the number of U’S counted in the experiment. and the angle subtended by a small area A at a distance I scattering is azimuthally symmetric.23) no which are too there big will our be longer holds.’ 2( 4?rtoT. for impact assumptions no scattering. Since d(cot r9) = dH/sin’ 0.23) to find db in terms of the corresponding range d0. In fact if we tried to integrate da to find the total crosssection (T. we may differentiate Equation (13. corresponding to scattering within the range of angles d$.13 MEASUREMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL CROSSSECTION Figure 13. Also. w e e is infinite. )sin4 (I/i 1 9 ) (1 3. We say and it is a longrange particle is force. which is arranged so that it may be placed at various angles 19 relative to the incident direction. b e t w e e n 19 a n d 19 + de. the detector may detect only a small fraction of the particles going into d0. the nuclear charge is screenecl parameters (13. of scattering angles d0. Differential area between b and b + db. because if the alpha nuclear distance is greater than a few Angstroms. with dR = 2n sin 19 crosssection is da = dQ / 27rbdb ( 1 Ze’ ’ cos(% 0) 1 Ze’ 1 . out by its bound electrons.olid from the target is AA/L’. relatively the approaches infilnity. This . This is simply because the detector area is fixed. (13. T h e a r e a o f t h i s r i n g i s d a = 27rbdb. if 0 is small. T h e integr’ol of Equation (13.13 shows how the differential crosssection might be measured by a movable detector of fixed area. The scattered cr particles are counted by a detec:tor at some fixed distance L from the target. For large b. the detector may detect all of the particles going into d0.:27) Therefore. the differential crosssection do/d0 would find that creases practice.398 Probing the nucleus FiglJre 13. The r. The detector lhas an area AA. Thus.12.~ ~.‘28) sinmce sin 19 = 2 sin (5 0) cos (‘15 0). and Equation 13. cos 19/2 = 1 a n d s i n 19/2 z= O/2. it is symmetric about the directiorl of the incoming beam. that is. break down.
J 3. J 3 Meosurement
Detector of fixed
OEO
399
AA
Figure 13.13.
A detector of fixed oreo AA subtends on ongle of AA/l’.
fractional crosssection times the number of particles incident per unit area per second should give the number of particles hitting the detector per second per target that If nucleus. is called the Rutherford scattering formula. It says crosssection is proportional to l/sin4 relating 8/2. the tile expression, Equation (13.8), the effective is differential combined scattering with The result, Equation (13.28), this result
scattering crosssection and the numbers of particles scattered, then if the incident flux density is N;, the number AN scattered into the detector per second from a target of area 1 square meter, thickness t, a n d n s c a t t e r e r s p e r u n i t v o l u m e , will be: AN, (into detector)
~~
AA d a = nj’.1’ dQ
(13.29)
N,
for AA/L2 small, or
nr\r,N,


1
sin41(1/2
(O/2) dependence. The
(13.30)
T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t h e r e i s t h e sin?
factors
(AA/12)nt
express the choice of detector size, geometrical setup in the lab, choice
of scatterer, and thickness of scatterer. The quantity
du/dQ
depends on the give the same
incident (Y particle energy, and on the nature of the interaction between (Y a n d nucleus. Surprisingly, quantum mechanical calculations of
da/da
result for the crosssection as we have obtained here using classical mechanics. Let us summarize our derivation. We have obtained a specific formula for the number of (Y particles detected if energy T,
the
force between nucleus and (Y is a Coulomb
force. The problem was treated by using classical mechanics. For an (Y of incident and impact parameter tl, the angle of scattering is given by: 1 47rtoT, COS j /I = b Ze2
(13.31)
400
Probing the nucleus
All particles falling within a circle of radius b, drawn between b and b + from db by
centered
on the nucleus, is obtained
will be scattered through an angle greater than 8. Particles falling in the area
db
will be scattered into the angles d/I where drY the above equation:
differentiating
(13.32)
The
differential
crosssection
for
scattering
into
d0
is
then (13.33)
2rb 1db du  =: dQ = dR
Since the detector area AA, L meters from the target, is fixed, the detector always subtends a solid angle AA/I’. So the fractional crosssection for scattering into the detector of area AA is
For an incident flux of N, particles per unit area per set, the number of particles scattered into the detector at 0, from a target of thickness t and m3, will be given by: A N AA Ze2 2 1 2 = . nt L2 89t0 Jo ‘sin4 O/2 N, ()(13.35) n scatterers per
13.14 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFKATION SCATTERING FORMULA
OIF THE RUTHERFORD
T h e a b o v e p r e d i c t i o n car1 be used in several ways. The number of a’s detected per set are proportional lo: (1) (2) (3) the reciprocal of sin4 (O/2); the reciprocal of kinetic energy squared; the square of the nuclear charge Z. but these are the most important. Let’s consider
There are other dependences,
them in order. In Table 13.1 are given some experimental results for scattering from gold foil as a function of scattering angle. According to the theory, the product of AN, and sin4(fY/2) should be constant. The agreement between theory and experiment shown in the last column is reasonably good; that is, AN, is proportional to l/sin4(B/2). In another set of experiments, a particles of varying velocity were scattered into a detector held at a fixed angle. According to the scattering formula, AN, is inversely proportional to form. The results agree well
Jz,
and the
Ji
= (Ij2 Mvg)2.
So AN, is inversely propor
tional to vi. In Table 13.2 are given the experimental results in dimensionless with formula.
13.14 Rutherford scattering formula TABLE
13.1 Scattering of Alpha Particles From Gold Foil
401
Scintillations in Unit Time
 1 sin4 0/‘2
AN, x sin4 0/2
150” 135” 120” 105” 75” 60” 45” 37.5” 30” 22.5” 15”
33.1 43.0 51.9 69.5 211 477 1435 3300 7800 27,300 132,000 .TABLE 1 3.2
1.15 1.38 1.7’9 2.53 7.25 16.0 46.6 93.7 223 690 3445
L
28.8 31.2 29.0 27.5 29.1 29.8 30.8 35.3 35.0 39.6 38.4
Vclriation of Scattering with Velocity
Range of Alpha Particles
Relative Values of 1 /vi
Number of Scintillations in Unit Time AN,
AN, x vi
5.5 4.76 4.05 3.32 2.51 1.84 1.04
L
1.0 1.21 1.50 1.91 2.84 4.32 9.22
24.7 29.0 33.4 44 81 101 255
25 24 22 23 28 23 28
In another set of experiments, performed by Chadlwick
in 1920, copper, silver
and platinum foils were used with a’s of fixed energy and at fixed scattering angles 0, with carefully measured geometrical factors AA/L’, in an attempt to determine the values of Z for these elements. The results are given in Table 13.3. TABLE
I 13.3 Nuclear Charges Determined by
uParticle Scattering I
Element
Nuclear Charge Ze 29.3e 46.3e 77.4e
I
Atomic Number Z 29 47 78
cu
Ag Pt
These results agree, within the experimental error, with the Rutherford scattering formula, and are additional evidence for the extremely small size of the nucleus.
402
h&in9 the nuckus
1 3 . 1 5 P A R T I C L E ACCELERATCIRS
The experiments discussed in this chapter employed occurring radioactive elements. cr particles from naturally
While these were useful for the pioneering
scattering experiments in nuclear physics, for a detailed investigation of nuclear forces it is desirable to have a wide range of different types of particles available, with variable energies which go much higher than the 8 MeV a v a i l a b l e i n n a t u r a l a particles. Therefore, a number of methods have been developed for accelerating obtaining the most a particles high in the of laboratory. potential The earlier two efforts and were aimed at difference of between It points, letting charged methods
particles accelerate between the two points. The Van de Graaff generator was successful these accelerators. utilizes electrostatic induction to obtain the high voltages. However, it is limited to energies only slightly higher than the 8 MeV spaced points, at cr particles, due to difficulties in insulating between even widelyseveral million volts potential difference.
An accelerator called the cyclotron, which overcame these difficulties, was developed by E. 0. Lawrence around 1932. In this machine, lower potential differences are used, but the particles move through the potential differences many times, eventually picking up a large energy. This is accomplished by injecting the charged particles into a magnetic field with lines of force oriented perpendicular ure 13.14, to inside the particle velocities. The resulting force causes the particles to conductors called dees. An alternating move in circular orbits. The particles move as shown by the dashed line in Fighollow semicircular voltage is applied between the dees, circular motion and synchronized with a frequency equal to that of the
with the passage of the particles across the
gap between the dees, in such a way that every time a particle crosses the gap, it is accelerated by the electric field in the gap and gains an energy corresponding to the maximum value of the alternating voltage. One may easily calculate the necessary frequency. If the particle has charge the magnitude of the magnetic force is: F = qd = qrd So ( 13.37) (I 3.38) (‘I 3.36) q, speed v and mass m, and moves in a magnetic field 8 with a radius r and angular frequency w = v/r, then
This equals the mass times the centripetal acceleration, w’r. mw’r or w = qB/m = qrwB
The frequency is then u = w/2~. This result is independent of radius if relativistic changes of mass with speed can be neglected. This is very desirable, since as the particles pick up energy, their radius increases until they eventually get to the edge of the dees, where they are extracted to give the particle beam. The limitation on the energy of particles accelerated by a fixedfrequency cyclotron occurs primarily because of the relativistic increase of mass as energy increases. Since the frequency w is inversely proportional to mass, the particles tend to get
J3.15 Hollow dees made of metal
Particle
accelerators
403
Figure 13.14. of the figure. out of phase
Diagram of a cyclotron. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane
with
the
applied
alternating
potential
at
higher
energy,
and
cease
to be accelerated. One way to overcome the relativistic effect is to make the magnetic field increase with radius, so that B/m is constant. However, this tends to make the particle motion along the magnetic field lines unstable, so that particles are lost by hitting the dees. This may be cured for energies up to a few hundred MeV, the the circular way particles path. of in overcoming bunches, the relativistic the increase of of the mass effect is to accelerate decreasing synchrowith frequency applied potential if the particles are nuclei, by making the magnetic field vary periodically around One
as the bunch of particles gains energy. Such machines are called cyclofrons. new bunch is introduced.
W h e n o n e b u n c h g a i n s Imaximum e n e r g y a n d l e a v e s t h e m a c h i n e , a
In modern highenergy machines in the billion electron volt energy region or higher, the charged particles travel in evacuated circular tubes which may be comparable to a mile in diameter. Carefully designed magnetic fields keep the particles in the proper path. Electrons are more difficult to acc:elerate for high energies than more massive particles, because for a given kinetic energy, they tend to lose more energy in the form of radiation when they undergo centripetal acceleration. Therefore, electrons are ordinarily accelerated to very high energies in a linear accelerator.
404
Probing the nucleus
T h e e l e c t r o n b e a m m o v e s d o w n t h e center of a straight line of cylindrical metal segments. The length of each segment is such that an electron spends the same time inside each segment. Thus, if an alternating potential with period equal to twice that time is applied between segments, the particle can go through the maximum potential change every time it crosses a gap between segments. To obtain electron energies in excess of 10 billion electron volts, the linear accelerator has to be several miles long.
a PARTICLES
Some radioactive heavy elements emit a particles with energies of the order of 4 to 8 MeV. T h e y h a v e ~a charge Q = 2 proton mass. They have Ibeen 1e 1 and a mass nearly four times the identified as helium nuclei.
SCATTERING
CROSSSECTION dc
fo; scattering into a given range of
An infinitesimal scattering crosssection
angles dR is the number of particles scattered into df2 per scattering particle, divided by the number of particles incident per unit area. Hence effective area of the scatterer for scattering into dQ. T h e q u a n t i t y , called the differenfiol
do
is the is
da,/dQ,
crosssection.
If the scatterer is a thin foil of thickness t Ida, by and is the the number
containing n scattering centers total number of particles
per unit volume, then the fraction of incident per scattering particle, divided
particles scattered into dD is nfdc. The totol crosssection is scattered incident per unit area.
It
is the total effective area of the scatterer. The unit of
scattering crosssection is t h e b a r n : 1 b a r n = 10m2*m2.
DENSITY OF SCATTElilERS
The density of scatterers n per m3 is given by n = pN,,/W N, i s A v o g o d r o ’ s molecular weight. numloer, 6.02 where p is the density,
x 10z3 p e r / g m  m o l e , a n d W i s t h e g r a m
RUTHERFORD SCATTERING
The differential crosssection da/d12 for u particle scattering from nuclei of
charge Z is given by: da = da 2 1 sin’ e/2
Problems
405
NUCLEAR SIZES
Experiments with highenergy electron scattering show that nuclei are roughly spherical, and have radii given by is the atomic weight of the element.
R = R,W”3, w h e r e R, = 1 .l fermis and W
1.
The crosssection for interaction of neutrinos with nuclei is approximately lo” barns, What thickness of iron could cause 1 *?N of the neutrinos in o neutrino beam to interact? For iron, p = 7.9 g/cm3. Answer: 1.2 x 1015 meters, or around 10.7 million miles or about 0.1 light years. (13.10), calculate the Using the value of the nuclear radius IX given in Eclucttion average density of nuclear matter. Answer: Answer:
3 x 1 0 ” kg/m3. 2.7 x lo4 joules.
>> h/a, argue why this
Calculate the rest energy of one cubic Angstrom of pure nuclear matter. Scattering of particles with the wavelength h/p by on obstacle is essentially a diffraction effect. If the obstacle is a hard sphere of radius a and p that the total crosssection should be greater than ~a’. approaches 2aa’. might be. As crosssection. 5. A beam of electrons with 102’ electrons per second per square meter is incident on a gcs. The scattering crosssection due to a gas atom is 10~‘9mZ. How many electrons ore scattered per second by CI gets atom? Answer: 100. In going the infinitesimal length dx out of N The crosssection increases as As
p
 z the crosssection Explain
p
decreases.
p
+ 0 the crosssedion
approaches 47~1 2,
four times the geometrical
6.
A solid has n atoms per unit volume. A beam of gamma rays incident on the solid sees a scattering crosssection of r~. after going the distance x? Answer: Nnadx, e00X. photons, how many are scattered? What fraction of the gamma rays are unscattered
7.
An alpha particle with a speed of lO*m/sec moves in CI circle perpendicular to a magnetic field of 2 weber/m2. Find the frequency of rotation and the radius of the circle. Answer: 1.5 x 1 O7 rototions/sec; 1.03 cm.
8.
Calculate the distance of closest approach to a silver nucleus (Z = 47) of 12 MeV deutrons with charge ) e ) and mctss about twice that of ct proton. Answer: 5.6 fermis.
9.
An alpha particle of speed 1.55 x lo7 m/set is scattered through an angle of 25” from a silver nucleus. What was the impact parameter? Answer: 61 fermis.
10.
What is the distance of closest approach of o 6 MeV CY particle to a uranium (Z = 92) nucleus? Answer: 44 fermis.
11.
A beam of 8.3 MeV cy particles is incident on aluminum foil, and significant devi
406
Probing the nucleus otions from the Rutherford scattering formula are observed for scattering angles
greater than 60”. Assume the cy particle has ct radius 1.1 the radius of the oluminum nucleus. Answer: 12. 4.6 fermis.
x fifermis,
and estimate
Suppose cr beam of spherical particles of radius r is incident on a material consisting of fixed spherical particles of radius R. If the scattering is the same OS that of elastic collisions of hard spherical particles following classical mechanics, show that the infinitesimal crosssection for scattering angle 0 is du = n(r + R)’ sin !/z 0 cos % 0 = % x(r t
R)'
sin 0 dR
What is the differential crosssection ? Integrate to show that the total crosssection i s n(r + R)‘. 13. A plane wave e rkr momentum: representing ct beam of particles with momentum p = each x direction, can be expressed OS a sum of wovefunctions,
Ak
in the
with definite angular
where Al is a constant depending on the angular momentum quantum number, t , and 0 is the angle relative to the x axis with r the radial distance (x = r cos 0). The scattering can then be found for the individual $x’s, and the combination gives the total scattering. If a scattering center gives scattering out to radius R and none for greater radii, argue that there will be negligible scattering for a $4 when & >> kR. As the momentum goes to zero, argue that we need to consider only $~c. 14. Compute the differerltial Assume Coulomb forces. Answer: 94 bornsjstereradians. of 6.5 MeV kinetic energy. The incident flux of 15. A silver foil of thickness 10e5 mm and area 4 mm2 is used as a target in on (Y particle scattering experiment with cy’s into the detector of area 1 cm2, Answer: 16. 3 x 10m6 per minute. particles is 25 per mm2 per minute. How many a’s per minute should be scattered placed at 45” relative to the incident beam a distance 5 cm away from the target? For silver, p = 10.5 g/cm3. For a certain type of scattering process, particles are scattered uniformly in all directions. Then how should do depend on angle? 17. Alpha particles from polonium (Velocity = 1.6 x 10’ m/set) are directed normally against a gold foil of thickness 4 x lo’ cm. The density of gold is 19.32 g/cm3. What fraction of the olpha particles are scattered through angles greater than 135”? Answer: 5 . 9 x 106. 18. What fraction of 5.7 MeV (Y particles incident on copper foil, p = 8.929 g/cm3, of thickness lo’ mm, will be scattered through angles greater than 90”? Answer: 1 . 4 x lo‘. and assume that Ac 2 1 19. For the series in Problem 13, take ic/c(r, 0) = (sin kr)/kr, of the plane wcrve, scattering crosssection da/dQ for scattering of protons off gold nuclei into ihe angles near 45 ’ , if the incident proton energy is 4 MeV.
with the other At negligible. If ct hard sphere of radius R were placed in the path the wavefunction would then be ~S~+~(r, 0) with the consin (kr + 6) stant Bc the only one of appreciable size. For the t = 0 case, It/h = ~. kr Show that to satisfy the boundary condition at r = R, 6 = kR. Now sin (kr) =
Problems
y2 ;(e’k’ _ e“’
407
) and sin (kr t 6) = !/2 i(eikr+i6  ei’r‘a). Since the time dependence re
is e jut, the terms in parentheses correspond to oultgoing and incoming waves
spectively. Thus, for the incoming waves to be the same with and without the sphere, lr ,Q; = By ly2 ; e“‘‘*  e . Find 6,. If we say that the number of incident particles p e r u n i t orea per unit time is proportional to 1eikx ) ‘, a r g u e t h a t t h e n u m b e r scattered per unit area per unit time is proportional to 1/(2kr)’ 1 ezi6  1 / 2 for sin2 kR k  0, and thus the differential crosssection is L(2  2 cos 2kR) =  + k=O 4k2 k2 Show that for k + 0, the total crosssection is 47rR2.
R2
’
14 nuclear structure
The experiments on (Y particle scattering give direct evidence that the force between llr2, a nucleus and ton cv particle is a Coulomb force, proportional to meters). Later nuclear volume down to distances of the order of several fermis. Hence the size of the nucleus has to be of this order of magnitude (1 fermi = lo” lished that the matter in the nucleus is distributed throughout the
experiments with other types of incident particles from accelerators have estabwith nearly constant density, and that the radius R of a nucleus of an element of atomic mass W (in amu) m a y b e e x p r e s s e d b y : R = r,W”3, w h e r e r,, E 1.1 fermis. Nuclei are thus seen to be extremely small, compared to the size of the a t o m . I n f a c t , i n a n ordin,Dry piece of lead, 99.978% of the mass is contained in about 0.000 000 000 000 000 04% of the volume. It is the aim of nuclear physics to understand the internal structure of these tiny objectshow they are held together, what they are made of, and how they interact with each other. This study is very active at present, and there are a great many unsolved problems. In contrast to atomic physics, where the basic principles of wave mechanics are well understood and where these principles have almost invariably led to o quantitatively precise explanation of atomic phenomena, in nuclear physics the basic principles are only qualitatively understood and accurate numerical calculations are extremely difficult. We shall begin by looking at some of the simplest experimental data. Then we shall discuss the properties of stable nuclei and some models by which we can understand qualitatively the gross features of nuclear structure.
14.1
NUCLEAR
MASSES
Over a thousand different kinds of nuclei are now known to exist. Two nuclei are different in kind if their charges or masses are different. The charge Ze on a nucleus can be determined in a number of waysby particle scattering, by xray production, or simply by chemical or spectral identification of the element whose atoms are formed by electrons surrounding the given nucleus. Nuclei with about 100 different valu’es of Z are found in nature. All nuclei having equal values of Z are called isotopes. For example, the element calcium (Z = 20) is f o u n d i n n a t u r e w i t h 6 clifferent nuclear masses which are stable, and others which 408 are not stable. Therefore, calcium has six different stable isotopes.
w o u l d b e d e n o t e d b y the nuclear mass zM is given to sufficient accuracy by: .0Zr92. with an atomic mass W = 91. For a nucleus of a given Z and A. For example. one should subtract the masses of the electrons in amu from the atomic mass: me = 9 .1) 80. The art of atomic developed to a high degree. O x y g e n .+ is the atomic mass of a nucleus having charge Z. In Appendix 3 are given the measured values of the atomic masses of the stable nuclei and a few of the more interesting unstable ones. 1 0 8 x 10m3’ k g = 0. thus giving it a known energy.4 liters of helium. or mass of one atcsm. The integer nearest to the atomic mass W is called the mass number and is denoted by A. while others are unstable and emit radiations in the form of cy particles.90435 amu.7 Nuclear m a s s e s 409 Some nuclei are stable. which is then used as the standard of mass. If both momelntum using electric and magnetic fields for determining and kinetic energy are masses has been known. the valule of A is written as a superscript to the right: ZMA. (NOTE: These are not nuclear masses. d i v i d e d b y t h e r a t i o . photons. could be directly measured and the atomic mass.000549amu Strictly speaking. it is seen that the atomic masses are nearly integers. or other particles. the mass of 22. Another way atomic masses are measured is by ionizing an atom (removing one or more electrons) and then accelerating the atom through an electric field. However. but masses of the entire electrically neutral atom.74. Thus the mass number of the isotope of zirconium (Z = 40).9046 amu. and if m.Z m .. By measuring the deflection of the ion in the magnetic field. when the masses are measured in atomic mass units (amu). highspeed electrons or positron!s. In this chapter we shall be primarily concerned with the stable nuclei. These masses are based on the assignment of exactly 12 units of mass to the most common carbon isotope.. T h e Thus the Zirconium nucleus mentioned above would mass of one electron is the mass of a proton. because the electron has more negative potential energy than it has kinetic energy. be denoted by . these binding energies are only a small fraction of the electron’s rest energy and can be neglected when using atomic mass tables. those which do not emit radiations. is A = 92. w i t h Z = 8 .0078 amu. in addition to writing Z as a subscript to the left. is that it is atomic masses which are usually measured directly. rather than nuclear masses. Imp/e From the table in Appendix 3. the ion’s momentum can be determined. Thus. The charged ion is then allowed to pass through a magnetic field. If the atomic mass is known. then to find the mass of the nucleus by itself. is the electron’s rest mass. then From the table of atomic masse!. containing IV0 particles. (14. the ion mass and then the atomic mass may be determined. the mass of an slightly less than the electron’s rest electron bound to a nucleus is effectively mass..NI = zMot . If zM. could be derived from the measurement.) The reason atomic masses are given. the atomic mass of 531’27 is 126. A common notation is to denote the value of Z as a subscript to the left of the symbol of the element. iron (Z = 26) is denoted b y 26Fe. 1.
2 NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS The fact that the nuclear masses are so nearly integral multiples of a basic unit suggests that a nucleus of mass number A is built out of A smaller particles of equal or nearly equal masses.8752 amu. so the energy is E = Thus. the protonelectron model of the nucleus does not give good values for nuclear An electron has an intrinsic magnetic moment. H o w e v e r . the average momentum will be of the order of magnitude of the uncertainty in momentum. The momentum then be roughly x 10e2’ kgm/set = 1 0 0 * C ’ h. = . the nuclear mass 14. amu. from the z/(pc)’ + (moc2)2 E p c if an electron is = 1OOMeV confined to a region around uncertainty principle. If there were an odd number of electrons inside the nucleus. so the mass of the Therefore. There attractive and force no other independent evidsence proton. 6 x 1O34 . If an electron nucleus. thus canceling o u t a p a r t o f t h e protonic charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral particles having a mass n e a r l y e q u a l t o t h e protc’n m a s s .00055)(53) of 531 lz7 i s 1 2 6 .4 10 Nuclear sfrocture of proton to electron mass. or m. the uncertainty woulcl in momentum will be Ap E h/(4aAx).0292 = 126. eIi/2m = 1 Bohr magneton. 1836. it will have a very large kinetic energy.0. f o r a t i m e i t w a s t h o u g h t t h a t a nucleus of mass number A might be composed of A protons plus a number of electrons which resided in the nucleus. In order for the electron to remain in the nucleus. Instead.= 5 = (12.5 MeV. several fermis in diameter.lol5 m. electron should give rise to a nuclear moment of 1 nuclear moments are more nearly of the order of . then the unpairecl Bohr magneton. and from this the average kinetic energy of the electron in the nucleus can be estimated. It is now known that nuclei are basically composed of protons and neutrons.6)(10m15) For an electron with rest energy of about 0. a few Since MeV. a fermi in size.0292 amu. nuclei exists We based inside shall on the consider a two of the most important reasons why this cannot be an accurate picture of the nucleus. this is an extreme relativistic momentum. 9 0 4 4 = 0. .000549 electrons in 5sl’27 is (0. For an uncertainty average Ax. magnetic moments. 6 . it must be bound by an even greater negative potential energy. and shall then discuss the properties of protonneutron then the composition. the momentum uncertainty will be very large. magnitude of the uncertainty in position of the A nucleus has a very small size. in nature for such a strong force between electron Also. electron will be roughly A:( . For such a small uncertainty in position. the negative potential and energy due of to Coulomb entirely attraction new is at best is that would mean that there would have to exist a between proton electron some very strong type.
2) A nucleus of mass number A ccln and protons. The N and Z values of all the stable nuclei are given in Figure 14. Clhadwick tion consisted of uncharged particles called neutrons.2). is the proton mass.74.3 Properties of neufron and proton w h e r e M. but that the stable We also see. w h i c h m e a n s t h e mass number:of the neutron is one. Nuclei One way to exists. by giving them the there is one equation connect ing N. Z and A. for example. 0 0 0 5 4 eh/2m. . it is uncharged. The number of neutrons in a nucleus. When the neutron was discovered by Chadwick in 1932. The different kinds of stable nuclei may be characterized numbers N. of protons and neutrons. In Bohr magnetons.0086652 amu. Since. the radiation has the property that when passing through any material containing a large proportion of hydrogen. N. a very penetrating radiation is given off. protons are k n o c k e d o u t w i t h a b o u t 5 MeV of kinetic energy. Neutrons have been found to take part in a number neutrons of nuclear Z reactions. remember which is which: isotopes: isotones: equal numbers of protons equal numbers of neutrons As an example. having a showed that these mass nearly equal and other similar experiments could be understood by assuming that the radiato the mass of the proton. we need to know first what the fundamental properties of the nucleons . it is necessary to give only two (any two) of these three numbers. Heisenberg immediately suggested that nuclei must be composed of neutrons and protons. e%/2M. that there are ten stable isotopes of having equal numbers of neutrons in the nucleus are called isotones. Also. = 411 eW2M pI 0 . is called the neutron number. soSn. The neutron’s mass has been determined to be 1. We see from Figure 14. In this table the neutron number is plotted vertically a n d t h e p r o t o n n u m b e r horizontaliiy. Since this radiation leaves nlo visible tracks in a cloud chamber. which exists with .1 that the stable nucleus 2OCa’46 nucleus 92U23* does not exist. then be considered to be composed of N with N + Z = A (14. Knowing the two numbers Z and A corresponds to knowing the charge and mass of the nucleus in questioll.Z protons and N neutrons. Since are nuclei also are constituted nucleons. Chadwick had found that when (Y particles are incident on nuclei of 4Be9. N) represents a stable nucleus.these fundamental particles called . A dot at a certain point with coordinates (Z. from Equation (14.1 shows that there are three stable N = 14 isotones.3 PROPERTIES OF THE NEUTRON AND PROTON In attempting to understand the properties of large Inuclei containing up to 240 nucleons. The neutron is denoted by the symbol on’. Z and A.1. Figure 14.
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 9c Proton Number Z Figure 14.1. Neutron number versus proton number for the stable nuclides. .
~7. chosen z direction.) 61 =  (5. at present. in a magnetic field of 0. The g factors of various nuclei can be measured by observing the frequencies of the photons which are absorbed as absorb electromagnetic radiation the of nuclei make transitions between different protons a frequency 2. rather than the neutron or some other particle. factor is hu ” = ( 6 . which must be determined experithe (convention is proton. In Equation (14. (14. I = % .13 x 107) = 5 58 ’ AE = hv = 2~8. the eigenvalue of the square of the spin angular momentum of a nucleus would be given. if the nuclear spin can have 21 + 1 different L components along some e n t v a l u e s o f pL. if a nuclear spin is placed in a magnetic field. in terms of I. Here. which is customarily written: . It is ‘/. the energy E = p * B.. is also 21 + 1. Hence. These spin angular momenta obey the same rules we have discussed several times for electron spin and orbital angular momenta. isolated protons and neutrons have two different energy states. there is no acceptable theory of nuclear moments. the factor !gsimply mentally. 0 5 1 x 10ez7 ioule/(weber/m’) a n d I = % ..5) w h e r e M. transition from the spindown to the spinup state. Thus. I may in general be different from % . So far. = 5 . The quantity eh/2M. For example. W i t h eh/2M. and for both neutron and proton. by I2 = A2 /(/ + 1) Since a nucleus may contain several nucleons. since I = % . Specifically for nucleons.4) Nuclear spin angular momenta are associated with the presence of magnetic moments. has 121 + 1 different vaolues.5) . t h e p r o t o n ’ s g !h [2(eh/2M. is a unit called the nuclear magneton.14. in a magnetic field.5 w/m2. There is a simple relation between magnetic moment p a n d s p i n I . Most nuclear magnetic moments are of the order of a few nuclear magnetons. it has been found that neutrons and protons both have intrinsic spin angular momenta characterized by spin quantum numbers of % . For exarnple.. Nucllear spin quantum numbers 413 are denoted by I.3 Properties of neutron and proton themselves are. In addition. is the proton mass. 6 2 x 1034)(2.13 x lo7 cps in making states in a magnetic field. is used in the unit eh/2M.G&l P (14. of a Bohr magneton.. When writing the magnetic moment a s i n E q u a t i o n (14.05 x l0‘~~)(0. however. called the “g factor”is a pure adolpted that the mass of the number of the order of magnitude 5 to +5. we have discussed charge and mass. then the number of differThe relation between p and I is such that.5). Then g has some value that cannot be predicted accurately.
:)/(I + $) or Md (14.007276 M +5.8256 1. and is called a deuteron./M.4 14 Nuclear structure In the case of the sLi’ nucleus.1 is a brief summary of the numerical values of the constants characterizing nucleons. so: 2 = (1 + .H2 are: RH = RI.581 c m .7) From this we can calculate the ratio of mass of the deuteron to mass of the proton.‘ . The Z of a deuteron is one.25 nuclear magnetons.1688. we obtain: & ..707. Table 14. f o r . Therefore.H’ f o r . These energy shifts can be used to measure the deuteron’s mass AId in terms of the proton mass M.9985 4 Then.008665 H 3. The ratio of these two numbers is just the ratio of the reduced masses.1 Properties of Neutron and Proton on’ 1P’ Charge Mass (amu) Spin g factor Magnetic (nuclear moment magnetons) 0 1. TABLEi 14.5856 +2. the deuteron mass is 2. = 1 (14. in amu. This illustrates how information about nuclei can be obtained by studying the interaction of nuclei with electrons.H’ and .H2 109.013.836.677. With m. The experimental values of the Rydberg constants in cm’ for .6) M.7928 lel 14. = ‘/.)/(I + $) = (I + : . the maximum component in any direction of the nuclear magnetic moment of sLi’ is “/z (2. Since the deuteron has a charge + 1e ) and a mass number A = 2. Since the nuclear mass is different from that of ordinary hydrogen.H’:I The simplest nucleus which contains more than one particle consists of one proton and one neutron.1688) = 3. it is an isotope of hydrogen. More accurate mass values for the deuteron may be obtained by observing the .9128 1.4 THE DEUTERON ( .= 1. = 109. I = “/. and the measured value of g is 2. the hydrogenlike atomic energy levels will be shifted slightly away from the values they have in hydrogen.419cm‘.
+ M.1. 0 0 2 3 8 8 931. This process the is called photodisintegration y energy is and is observed experimentally to occur.Md = 0 . then assuming there is no orbital angular momentum.013553amu 415 The deuteron’s mass is not equal to the sum of the neutron and proton masses. difference between these masses is (due m a s s b e f o r e s e p a r a t i n g t h e n u c l e u s i n t o p a r t s = Md = 2 . therefore. This means that the system is bound. which has infinitely many bound states.14. This is due to an attractive force between neutron and proton. From Table 14.015941 amu. attractive force between neutron and proton. the deuteron can absorb the photon and be dissociated into a proton and a neutron than the with some kinetic 2. = 2.. 0 0 7 2 7 6 amu + MN = 1. = 1 . The nuclear force between nucleons i s (Found to depend very strongly on the relative orientation of the spins. is: . the state of lowest energy is one in which the nuclear spins are lined up. for the deuteron’s binding energy amu i s e q u i v a l e n t t o Eb = 2. + M .008665 ___ = 2 . The value of the deuteron’s mass. t h e to the addition of energy. indicates the presence of a strong.0 . 0 1 3 5 5 3 amu. . s i n c e 1 energies. If the system is bouncl. then it is necessary to add energy to the and place them at rest infinitely distant The binding energy of a bound system to separate it into its component parts.m. 0 1 5 9 4 1 amu Thus. let us next consider the magnetic moment of the deuteron. The binding energy of the deuteron may be computed as follows: The rest mass after separating the nucleus into parts = M. the spin quantum number of the deuteron should be ID = 1. . the deuteron has only this one bound slate with spins parallel. This amount equal to the binding energy. or by observing the behavior of deuterons in nuclear reactions.01410:2 . in this case an amu. The amount of energy needed to separate the system into its constitlJents system is always positive.224 MeV.48 MeV. for a neutron and a proton.224 energy.Mz.4 The deuteron deflections of deuterons in electric and magnetic fields. called the incident energy. the binding energy will be given b y WC’ = M . Z!. the rest from each other is called the binding energy. threshold The spin and magnetic moment of the deuteron are also of interest. . In contrast to the hydrogen atom. The deuteron can be made to disintegrate by irradiating it with a beam of high energy yray photons. It is found experimentally that this is the spin quantum number of the deuteron. The spin quantum numbers of both n and p are % If the spins are parallel.224 MeV. If the energy of a photon is greater than the binding energy. the total rest mass of the deuteron is less than the sum of the rest masses of its constituent particles. which is: M . providecl greater minimum MceV. and a negative potential energy of interaction. Eb. = 2. from Appendix 3. is extremely we find that the large compared to atomic bincling e n e r g y i n MeV i s binding The existence of a large value. 0 0 0 5 4 9 = 2.
then solve the SchrSdinger equation to find what the scattering crosssection should be for that potential.2. So if the spins of n and p are parallel.416 N u c l e a r sfructure the magnetic moment of the neutron is antiparallel to its spin. 7 9 2 8 . parallel to its spin. Thus we do not deal directly with a force. If this is the case.5 NUCLEAR FORCES In order for a neutron and a proton to form a bound state. . The interaction potential is Figure 14. Although from experimental studies of the scattering of nucleons off nucleons. the two magnetic moments should therefore be in opposite directions.~1. on the other hand. MeV which explains the scattering data for incident neutron energies up to 10 or so. A way to interpret the data is to assume the potential energy of interaction between the particles is a certain motlhemotical tions agree with experimlent. 9 1 2 8 = 0 . and that the force will be spindependent. it has been said that a strong attractive force must exist between the two particles. then we might expect that the magnetic moment of the deuteron would be equal to the difference between the magnetic moments of proton and neutron. Neutronproton interaction potential. been but there is a difference nuclear magnetons. The potential varies somewhat. semiquantitative statements can be made about such strong interactions. 8 8 0 0 n u c l e a r m a g n e t o n s The actually measured value of the moment of the deuteron is +0.2 is given a potential energy as a function of distance r between neutron and proton.1 . One way to study the interaction i s by scattering neutrons off proton targets. depending on the relative spins of the two particles. = 2 .8574 nuclear magnetons. function. This difference is 62 . of 0. In Figure 14.0226 This agrees quite well with has the not above yet result. the basic force law is not completely known. or antiparallel. 14. If the predicthis would be evidence that the assumed potential is correct. which explained. but rather with a potential energy in nuclear physics. The magnetic moment of the proton is.
The range of the potential is approximately 2 fermis. as contrasted with neutronproton scattering. The exact shape of the well is not itoo important. it is to be expected that if the distance of closest approach is greater than the proton diameter. then the potential energy of interaction becomes large of and negative. The potential interaction plotted Figure Apart Coulomb 0 Figure 14. the interaction between two protons is essentially the same as that between a neutron and proton.14. Experimerlts on neutronneutron scattering also indicate that the neutronneutron potential is the same as the neutronproton potential. in whether the bottom of the well slants a little. and the well depth is about 22 MeV. such as in the sharpness of the bend upwards at r = 2 fermis. One relight expect that with the twobody potential discussed above. Protonproton interoctiorl potential. of the nucleons. It is found that #If the incident proton’s kinetic energy is large enough for the protons to penetraie the repulsive Coulomb potential and come within a few fermis of each other. each of the nucleons in a nucleus would be attracted by every .3. of the interaction potential between between two two nucleons nucleons is chargedoes not independent. is This conclusion in is reached 14. the “nulclear” part of the potential is the same in both cases.5 Ndeor forces 417 essentially zero until the particles come to within ” :2 fermis of each other. The internuclear potential between any two nucleons is of the’ form of a potential well. the nuclear depend appreciably on the charge:.3. They might differ in details. when many nucleons interact the theory becomes much more difficult. one could draw several other curves which have the same general shape as that in the figure. Thus. S u c h a f u n c t i o n i s c a l l e d a pofential we//. One of the most important features of this potential is that it is of very short range and goes to zero at a range of about 2 fermis. the nuclear that part is. the potential energy of interaction should be just a Coulomb potential. by interpreting from the the scattering data in a fashion similar to that used for neutronproton scattering. That is. in fact. While the description of lowenergy interactions of two nucleons may be explained by a simple potential moclel. about 22 Me’V. and then drops down to a very low value. In protonproton scattering experiments. and which explain the data equally well. and so forth. repulsion of protons.
Also. Similarly. This contradicts the fact that the observed radii of nuclei increase as W”3. Suppose we have two 2f. There will be an uncertainty in position of an emitted particle i\x uncertainty momentum . a g i v e n n u c l e o n c a n interacct with only a few other nucleons at any given instant.4. they must not throw bricks away. .that at even shorter distances. there will tend to be a net Irepulsive force between them.5. the force between a man on a cart and a brick must be attractive. he also acquires a momentum in the backward direction. which tends to prevent identical spin k’s particles from being at the same position with the same spin. We can make some rough orderofmagnitude estimates.6 YUKAWA FORCES In 1935. so the about 2 fermis in apart. an attractive force could be produced. This is partially. this also tends to keep nucleons in a nucleus fr’om 14. rather than a repulsive one. If all nucleons in the nucleus stay an average distance from their n e a r e s t n e i g h b o r s w h i c h i s e 2 fermis. In order for there to be an attractive force. but they must pull bricks awoy from each other.’ a . momentum in the backward direction. the nucleons in a nucleus actually tend to stay a distance apart about equal to the range2 fermisof the interaction. When one throws a brick. Yukawa proposed that tlhe nuclear force was produced by emission and absorption of particles. and the range of the force is 2 fermis. so that the nuclear density is approximately constant. nucleons. the nucleonnucleon potential becomes repulsive rather than attractive.418 other nucleon. in other words. Thus.. A repulsive force between two objects is generated by a mass thrust back and forth. H. staying too close together. but not completely. if nucleons interact by exchanging particles. accounted for by the exclusion principle.4. If they throw and catch many bricks. based on the uncertainty principle. The following mechanical analogy might make this seem reasonable: Imagine two people standing on carts and throwing bricks at each other. and all would be within about 2 fermis of each other.I’ he acquires a net  Figure 14. less than N 1 fermi. nucleonnucleon scattering data at higher incident kinetic energies reveals . as indicated in Figure 14. as in Figure 14. When the other catches the brick. for the mass of the exchanged particle. interacting by emitting and absorbing particles.
It was not until some time later that the particle responsible for the strong nuclear interaction was discovered. Some of their properties are listed in Table 14. ( 3 x 10’)(2 x By making slightly different assumptions IO‘~)(.8) This estimate should only be good tct within a factor of ten or so. w a s l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d . ft. so p . TABLE 14. a n d whose existence was spend a great deal i t w a s t h o u g h t a t f i r s t t h a t t h e p meson was the palrticle because the p was not attracted strongly’to nuclei. as in a pmesic atom. a new particle is preclicted times that of the electron.14. Then. That is. So assume the particle’s momentum is just p . in momentum. However. W e m a y a s s u m e t h a t for the momentum to the order of magnitude of the momentum is roughly the same as t h e u n c e r t a i n t y We can use this estimlate estimate the mass. will be given by the uncertainty principle.6 Yukowo forces 419 Figure 14.M C . Nucleons are attracted by exchange of particles pulled back and forth. A particle of mass about 206m.h/Ax. combining p . The s p e e d c a n a p p r o a c h % c or so without the particle’s mass changing much from its rest mass.fi/Ax and p  M C .2. could of time inside a nucleus. Thus. w h e r e M i s the rest mass. it where Ax is the range of the that has a rest mass a few hundred predicted by Yukawa.2 Ziome Properties of r Mesons . force. ApAx . we obtain for the mass: (14. In fact. without being absorbed.IO~~) the speed z 160 or about Ax. if we make some reasonable assumption about the speed.5.. Let us calculate the rest mass in terms of the rest moss of the electron: M 6 1o34 = ___ me CAxm. the theory predicts a rest mass of the order of magnitude h/cAx. there were difficulties with this interpretation. ‘called a p m e s o n . this about estimate can be made to vary by a factor of 2 or so. three different types of these socalled P mesons have been found: two charged and one neutral.
H . nitrogen or o x y g e n b y t h e n u c l e a r c a p t u r e o f T.6. ( C o u r t e s y P . ( C o u r t e s y P . ) . F o w l e r .p a r t i c l e s . ) Figure 14.Figure 14.7. H . a + fi + e . S u c c e s s i v e d e c a y o f t h e K m e s o n . Photographs of the disintegration of light elements carbon. F o w l e r .
Such an event is shown in Figure 14. so a free 7r+ of low kinetic energy does not come near the nucleus. However. in turn.7 Mode/s of the nucleus The fact that these * mesons have zero spin allows them to be emitted and absorbed readily by nucleons without any difficulties involving conservation of angular momentum. the ~. and is called a Yukawa potential.r. We shall discuss such decays in more detail later. If a rr.7. The p meson on the other hand be emitted alone from a nucleon without causing the lhas s p i n ‘/2 and could not nucleon to change its spin 421 to an integral value. If one considers a nucleus to be a crystalline aggregate of nucleons. suggest that nuclei might be similar in structure to solids or liquids. In this section we shall consider some of the nuclear mlodels which have been at least partially successful.6. a E 2 fermis 7 MODELS OF THE NUCLEUS Because our present knowledge of the internal structure of the nucleus and of the forces between nucleons is incomplete. but decays into a p meson and a neutrino in around 10e8 seconds. C and a are constants and r i s t h e i n t e r n u c l e a r distamce. but no one of them can be used to explain all of the data. decays into an electron and two kinds of neutrinos in around 10e6 seconds.meson does not enter a nucleus. then it turns out that the zeropoint vibrations of the nucleons about their equilibrium positions are much too large for the nucleus to .a n d a neutrino.2. all nucleons have spin 5. Each of the models of the nucleus which has been considered is useful in explaining a certain portion of the existing experimental data on nuclei. a rmeson is attracted to a nucleus and can be absorbed by it.. However. then it decays into a /. Yukawa was also able to write an approximate where expression for the internucleon potential energy of the form Ce“O/r. then one would expect that in the Yukawa potential.14. With this theory. A typical K. and interact with short range forces. many models of the nucleus have been constructed to explain particular nuclear properties. A ?r” meson ordinarily decays into 2 y rays. A x+ meson tends to be repellecl by a nucleus due to its charge. This potential is thus an approximation to the true nuclear potential. 1 Liquid Drop Model The facts that nuclei have constant densities and moderately welldefined surfaces. If the range of the nuclear interaction is about 2 fermis. just aIs well as the potential of Figure 14. The discovery of the new particle predicted by Yukawa was a great triumph of theory. This potential can be used to explain the low energy scattering data./J + e decay is shown in Figure 14. A model is a mathematical construct which supposedly contains all the features essential to explain some physical phenomenon. giving up all its rest energy to the nucleus and causing it to disintegrate.
ML.M. .= C2 NMn + Z M . example For iron 26Fe 56. we can think of the nucleus as similar to a drop of liquid in which the particles are able to move about inside the drop. = 3 0 x ( 1 .13) Thus. =z Z. the rest mass of the nucleus after it is broken into its constituent parts will be NM. 9 3 4 9 3 amu amu = 9 3 1 . Z = 26. A = 56.46340 24:: amu amu = 5 5 .12) . the atomic masses of the given element and of hydrogen can be used in calculating the binding energy. and therefore. . whereas tables such as that in Appendix 3 contain atomic masses... Similarly. T h e r e f o r e . a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s t m a s s between the constituents and the nucleus will be proportional to the binding energy Eb. So a nucleus cannot resemble a crystalline solid. . Thus. in terms of the rest mass of a hydrogen atom. To a sufficient approximation.M:.MA. = 0 . (14. due to the cancellation of all the electron rest masses.3 MeV. .zM$.m. NM. N = 30.. . Since 1 the binding energy of the 26Fe 56 nuc:leus is 492. respectively. (14.Z m . and using m. because the binding energy is expressed in terms of nuclear masses. M. of rest masses M. + ZM. but are prevented from leaving the nucleus by an effective surface tension. . for the electron’s rest mass. and simplifying.422 Nuclear structure remain bound together.zMA (14.= . 5 2 8 4 7 amu. ZM. we get 6.) = 26 x (1. 2 5 9 9 5 amu amu = 2 6 .007825) amu = 3 0 . If the rest mass of the o r i g i n a l n u c l e u s i s zM “. t h e n A =: N + Z . . 1 3 0 8 6 6 5 ) 26(. neglecting electronic binding energies.10) Substituting for ZMA and A M . For a nucleus of N neutrons and Z protons. This model can be used to explain qualitatively the observed binding energies of the stable nuclei. However..= C2 N M . and M.MA. (14. let us first see how the binding energies are calculated. The binding energy of a bound system is the energy required to break the r#ystem into its constituents and place them at rest infinitely distant from each other.zMt. ZMA := zM$ .11) (14. + Z . 4 8 MeV.9) This formula is not very convenient for calculation. 6. . So we use 30M.Z m . + Z . 2 0 3 4 5 sum = 56.
Nucleons near the surface would. The correction . S o f r o m t h e e x a m p l e f o r 26Fe56. F o r e x a m p l e .3/56 = 8. however. This constancy of the binding energy per particle is very similar to that of a l i q u i d . Hence there will be important surface effects. A fairly smooth curve is found. From around A = 20 on up to A = 200. the curve i s n e a r l y a c o n s t a n t a t a v a l u e o f Eb/A e q u a l t o a b o u t 8 MeV per particle. Because nuclear radii are proport i o n a l t o W”3 o r (A”3). However. t h e n u m b e r o f nucleons n e a r t h e s u r f a c e should be proportional to the surface area. but there are a number of peaks at lower values of A. then because of the short range of nuclear forces and because of the constant density of nuclei. 0 20 40 60 80 100 150 200 250 Mass Number (Al Figure 14.8. The average binding energy per nucleon as a function of mass. The binding energy per particle can be computed in a like manner for all the stable nuclei. but more like 250 particles at most.79 MeV. t h e b i n d i n g e n e r g y p e r p a r t i c l e i s 492. The amount by which the binding energy will be less than 8 MeV should be proportional to the number of lnucleons “near” the surface. which has a maximum at about the position of iron.97 MeV.7 Models of the nucleus 423 The binding energy per particle of a nucleus is tlhe average binding energy o f o n e p a r t i c l e a n d i s j u s t d e f i n e d a s Eb/A. one nucleon in the interior would interact w i t h o n l y a f e w o t h e r s a n d w o u l d h a v e a b o u t 8 Me’V b i n d i n g e n e r g y . The results are shown in Figure 14. b e proportional t o A“3. nuclei do not contain 10z3 particles. T h e n t h e c o r r e c t i o n t o t h e b i n d i n g e n e r g y p e r p a r t i c l e shrould to the binding energy will be negative. L i k e w i s e t h e b i n d i n g energy per particle for sOI6 is 7. If a nucleus held a very large number of particles.74.8. a constant value. t o b o i l w a t e r r e q u i r e s 8 0 kilocal/kg. S i n c e n u c l e a r d e n s i t i e s a r e c o n s t a n t . not interact with so many others and would have less binding energy. the correction to the total1 binding energy from the p r e s e n c e o f t h e s u r f a c e s h o u l d b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o A2’3.
...9. This means that heavy nuclei can consistently contain more neutrons than protons without the unbinding Coulomb repulsion which tends to make the nucleus unstable. as Z + co. principally due to Coulomb repulsion of protons in the nucleus.Coulomb repulsion energy per nucleon energy per nucleon 10 1 ’ . which are on the average distributed uniformly throughout the nucleus. 15 t Volume energy per nucleon __~~~_~___~~~~~~~~ Mass Number _____. this correction approaches zero. and C2 are constants. I Ia function B i n d i n g e n e r g y p e r n u c l e o n i n o n a t o m i c n u c l e u s CIS of a t o m i c number. the Coulomb conltribution particle. Thus. this term becomes larger in magnitude than 8 MeV/ to have bound nuclei for Z too large. The three separate contributions. S i n c e R i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o A”3. This explains why the binding energy per particle becomes small at low A.. Hence it is not Ipossible of the Coulomb repulsion between is small. not occur for neutrons.1 5 Figure 14. there will be a negative correction to the binding energy per particle. and their sum. it becomes very large. In fact.. At large A. . are shown in Figure 14. where the surfacetovolume ratio is larger. t h e c o r r e c t i o n t o t h e b i n d i n g This Coulomb repulsion does energy per particle will be proportional to Z2/A4’3. but for large nuclei.... In fact. it is large. as A + m.’ I /‘   Surface .. this effect should be more important. these protons tend to repel each other and make the n u c l e u s f l y a p a r t .9. which is proportional to the electrostatic selfenergy of a spherical charge of magnitude Ze. Since a nucleus has Z protons.14) w h e r e C. The binding energy per particle should then be given by the sum of three terms: (14.8 con be fit reasonably well by these three terms. T h i s i s a n “ u n b i n d i n g ” effect. For example. The curve in Figure 14. 7 7 MeV . This energy is “/s (Ze)‘/R. w h i l e a s A + 0. because the protons in the nucleus. the binding energy per particle again gets small.424 Nocleor structure For smaller values of A._ c2 = 0 . 82Pb20* has a Z of 82 and an N of 126. For small nuclei.
it was seen how a great deal of data could be explained on the basis of a set of electronic shells and subshells. the data cannot be satisfactorily explained in terms of an interaction between two LY particles.oNe2o. 50. in scattering of LY particles off (Y particles.) and total angular momentum i. In nuclei the spinorbit interaction is very large. The electrons had spin % and obeyed the Paulii exclusion principle. For example. . Presumably. Rather. For example. and when the spinorbit interaction is included.3. only two electrons could go with their spins antiparallel. a n u n u s u a l l y l a r g e We only mention part of the evidence here. s 016. the cy particle model has a very limited range of application.1). nearly independently of other individual nuclei. this model has not been very successful. about 87% of the binding energy would be accounted for. by assuming that nucleons. and the fact that some particles. orbital angular momentum (S. which are grouped into shells and subshells matching the experimental magic numbers. 82. a principal In the shell model. and then break up into two new cr’s. i f n u c l e i con!sisted of cc particles. This is very similar to the situation in atoms.7 Models of fhe nucleus 425 7. 20. F . shows sharp relative peaks at the positions of sHe4. . so that into any state such as a 1 S. Thus. as (Y particles. D. There is considerable evidence that a shell structure exists in nuclei. 8. The binding energy per particle of 2He4 is about 7 MeV. However. the numbers 2. because to earlier investigators their significance was so puzzling.8. 82 and 126 appear to have special 14. 126 are called m a g i c numbers. inside a spherically symmetric potential well which is due to all the other Then a nucleon moving in this potential will have states described by quantum number n. Sn (Z = 50) has ten stable isotopes. and . The heaviest stable nuclei The numbers 2. suggests that pairs of neutrons and protons become associated together inside the nuc:leus. more than any other element. 6C’2. then. Calcium (Z = 20) has six stable isotopes (see Figure largest group of stable isotones clccurs are: Pb2’s and Bi’lo9 (N = 126) (Z = 82. 7. The at N = 82. 210. 50. Figure 14.74. the remaining energy should be due to relatively weak bsinding between a particles. significance in nuclear structure. This.2 Alpha Particle Mode/ Inspection of the binding energy curve. 8. heavy nuclei emit c~ . this and similar data may be ulnderstood each nucleon moves. this leads to the sequence of singleparticle states of increasing energy shown in Table 14.Bes. T h u s . P. N = 126) number. . it seems necessary to assume that the two LY particles combine into a larger nucleus.3 She// Model In describing the electronic structure of atoms. .
8. in the shell model. Therefore. W h e n t h e ls.d4(2P1.2)2(5g~.2)6(4d2.~)8(5fs. the spin and magnetic moment are zero. As mentioned previously. protons are distinguishable from neutrons. This corresponds to an LY particle....2! *(4f5.. Figure 14. provided their net orbital angular momentum is zero..2)4(3s. However.~. so that the total spin should be zero.* s... Then the contribution to the total magnetic moment from these paired protons. the shell is filled up.2)4(~1p. However. this is because of the Coulomb repulsion between protons: since protons clre charged whereas neutrons are not.2l6(4p~. If a nucleus had two protons in a Is. two neutrons could go into t h a t s t a t e . Hence the neutron energy levels will generally lie lower than those of the protons. it would at first appear that. of 2He4 and *O16.426 Nuclear structure TABLE 14.. a n d 2p.? state contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons. t h e t o t a l a n g u l a r momen. the number of neutrons in a nucleus should be about equal to the number of protons in a nucleus.l 2 8 20 50 82 126 6 12 ‘O 30 32 4 4 (3ds. 2p.4 are given the numbers of stable nuclides (nuclei) as a function of whether Z and N are even or odd.2) (5g7/2)*(4ds.. In applying these ideas to the explanation of the properties of stable nuclei. I f a n u c l e u s h a d a n y e v e n n u m b e r of protons. In Table 14.3. the potential neultrons and protons. Thus. one should remember that both protons and neutrons have spin %. two in each state.. the resulting nucleus is Notice the peak of the binding energy curve.2)6(3d.2)2(7~.~..~)‘0(~f7.? state..2)‘4 When using the information in Table 14. Likewise. because the neutrons are paired off with opposite spins in each pair. other things being equal. This is found to be the case.. levels are all filled up with both 8016. The shell model can also be used to explain many features of the s p i n a n d magnetic moments of stable nuclei...2)6(3P3. the potential well used to calculate the neutron energy states will be deeper than that used for the protons.2)2(6’h.2) (4f7. two protons could go into the ls. on the average. .2)2 (2P3..2)12 (6h~.)4(2s. When the l~..z) 2 2 .2)4(3P.tum s h o u l d b e z e r o . from Figure 14.3 An (Ordering of Subshell States Which leads to the Observed Magic Numbers Spectroscopic Configuration us1. A nucleus with even Z and even N is called an eveneven nucleus. should be zero. it is not unreasonable to suppose that these would be paired off. at the positions energy of an extra proton added to a nucleus would be greater than that of an added neutron. Hence they are both fermions and obey the exclusion principle.tate.1 it is seen that there are more neutrons than protons in heavy nuclei. Similarly for a nucleus with even N.
13. We have not mentioned all the different models which are used to explain different types of data such as scattering and absorption of incident particles.1 .98 nuclear magnetons. One would expect the neutrons to be paired with opposite spins in an s state. Usually. where the nuclear forces are such that the :spins of the n and p l i n e u p . has an odd number of mcleons. .H3. 2He3 p. Likewise. experimental value is 2.H2. we have just scratched the surface in discussing the types of experimental data which are observed. odd N. 3Li6 + 1 . only the lower values of the net angular momentum quantum numbers actually occur in nature. T h e o n l y examples of stable oddodd nuclides are the lightest possible oddodd ones. and the proton in the s state then g i v e s t h e n u c l e u s s p i n % . r/z ti. Experimentally. % tl. o d d N o r o d d Z . and therefore should have values of net angular momentum of % )I. . 2. Some of this will be discussed in the next chapter. t h e n i f t h e r e i s a n u n p a i r e d n e u t r o n 01’ p r o t o n o r b o t h .N 14. The lightest example of this is the deuteron. We shall not pursue the discussion of nuclear modlels any further. NUCLEAR MASSES AND BINDING ENERGIES The nuclear mass of a given nucleus. n u c l e u s i s . sB lo and . .H2 . The nucleus Ihas one unpaired neutron. TN14 ) 1 . . The actually observed . e v e n N . s/s )I. So far. it ils nucleus would be that of the neutron. = .Summary TABLE Z even even odd odd 14.ralues of spin quantum numbers for oddodd nuclei are: . an estimate of the magnetic moment of the even Z. t h e n e t s p i n being 1. w h i c h a r e . A n u c l e u s w i t h e v e n Z . for an oddocld nucleus the net angular momentum should be integral.4 Effect of Evenness and Oddness of Z and N on Stability of Nuclides N _ Number of Stable 160 56 52 4 Nuclides 427 even odd even odd It appears that nuclei have greater stability when bath protons and neutrons a r e p a i r e d . sB” * 3 .1.79 nuclear magnetons. L MA. In general. even N. An oddodd 2. 3Li6. this is evidence for the pairing of like nucleons within the nucleus. one unpaired proton. T h e l i g h t e s t o d d Z . is obtained by subtracting from the atomic mass the rest mass of Z electrons. and excited states due to overall rotation of the nucleus.91 nuclear magnetons. The nucleus consists of Z protons and . The magnetic moment should be about that of the proton.
Nuclei having equal Z are called isotopes. C. and hence there is a surface correction for the binding energy per particle. is the atomic mass of hydrogen. . MAGNETIC MOMENTS The magnetic moments of nuclei are measured in nuclear mognetons. due t o the nuclear forces. w h e r e M. . the interaction potential between two nucleons mcly be treatecl depth of 22 MeV. A.428 Nuclear structure N = A . are constants. Nuclear moments are written in the form p = g eti/2M. The bincling energy Iof a nucleus is defined as the energy which must be added to the nuc:leus in order to separate it into its constituent neutrons and protons. The magnetic moments vary from about 5 to +5 nuc:lear magnetons. a nucleon in the interior of a nucleus inter’zcts with only o few others and has a constant binding near the surface do not energy formula is: energy per nucleon.. w h e r e M.= C 2 N M . The resulting binding i n t e r a c t w i t h OS many other nucleons. and must be measured experimentally. A nucleon in a nucleus interacts with only a few others at a time and stays about 2 fermis away from the other nucleons. is the spin (total angular Imomentum) of the nucleus. a n d p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e x rest mass should be a few hundred times the electron r’est mass.051 x 1Cl~27 joule (weber/m2)‘.+I:.Z neutrons. = 5. is the integer nearest to the atomic mass. i s t h e I. 1 nuclear magneton = eii/2M. and is the atomic mass of the nucleus in question. and C. where C. as a potential well of range about 2f and Yukawa proposed that nuclear forces were due to the ex change of particles called ?r m e s o n s .M:. . LIQUID DROP MODEL The liquid drop model can be usecl t o e x p l a i n q u a l i t a t i v e l y t h e b e h a v i o r o f binding energy as o function of A.Mt. i s t h e n e u t r o n m a s s . + Z. . The mass number. Nucleons which decreases the binding energy. and place them at rest infinitely distant from each other. For many purposes.MA. NUCLEAR FORCES The forces between nucleons are short range and strongly attractive.. The binding energy Eb is given by . those having equal N are called isotones. Due to nuclear saturation. where I proton mass.
Nuclei with both odd N and odd Z are rare. Answer: Answer: 4. Evenodd and oddeven nuclei have at least one unpaired particle and have spins ‘/* .2 webers/m*. 126.9184 amu. Neutrons and protons are both fermions.5 1 x 1 O6 cycles/set.Problems SHELL MODEL In the shell model the nucleons symmetric potential well. There are more stable eveneven nuclei in nature than any other type. In nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. nuclear magnetic moments in a strong magnetic field. with energy /. In a field of 0.0266 webers/m’. by how much must the strong appliecl static magnetic field be changed to go from absorption of photons by fluorine to the absorption b. According to the data in this chapter./(M.M.y hydrogen? Use Appendix 3. 8.35 webers/m’. Answer: 0. 82. . 1. The following three problems are based on this. 20. and satisfy the exclusion principle.4039. 8. corresponding io the s. % .ponds to s. = % to ‘/2 transition? Use Appendix 3 and note that the maximum magnetic moment listed correr. which is are treated as througlh they move in a spherically cleeper for neutrons than for protons. at what frequency ‘is there photon absorption by 3. and there is no net contribution to spin or magnetic moment from these particles. and the total 429 rise to a set of energy levels described by quantum Inumbers angular momentum j. and thus a rough estimate of the nuclear diameter. % . This gives n. how for is the deuteron energy above the potential energy of interaction? Let this be equal to the ground state energy of the particle in the three dimensional box to get &.78 x 1 O6 cycles/s. the s B” nucleus. % . If hydrogen fluoride has an 18megacycle electromagnetic field applied to it. and have spins 1 or 3. Nuclei with even Z have their protons paired off with opposite spins. . 58.%? Answer: 2. what photon frequency will cause a proton to go from a state with spin component % irl the direction of the field to one of spin component . by absorption of orientation to a state with a different spin orientation (and rodio frequency photons. Treat the deuteron as if it were a particle in a cubic box of side t and mass equal to the reduced mass M.L *B. . 50. 6. Similarly for nuclei with even N.ec. are caused to go from a state with one spin energy. 5. hence only two neutrons and twmo protons can go into each orbital state. . In a field of 0. = ‘/? Answer: 4. Find the nuclear mass of 27C059 from Appendix 3. + MP). 1. Filled levels are more stable configurations and this leads to exceptional preference in nature for nuclei with N or Z equal to 2. C. What is the g factor of the ssBr 79 nucleus? Use Appendix 3.
On the basis of the shell model levels in Table 14. Answer: 12. 4 . (mz . energy rlemove neutron the average Appendix this binding energy per nucleon. 8017. a n d mass. From the 7. Thus.79 of A with the = of the constant C2 in the discussion explain of the liquid model. the stlell m o d e l model.9 MeV. e x p l a i n w h y y o u m i g h t e x p e c t 3Li7 t o h a v e a n u c l e a r spin of ‘/z a n d a n u c l e a r m a g n e t i c m o m e n t n e a r 3 n u c l e a r m a g n e t o n s . Why are these different? Answer: 13. 0 bringirlg sphere in of MeV. 5 5 MeV. 2 from MeV. 80’7. of the following should be the more Answer: 11. 5 MeV. with calculate the the energy to necessary one to remove and one also proton with from 7N14. pt m e s o n i s the neutrina mr a n d t h a t o f a energy for a K+ r’ is m. From Compare 80”. 1 spherical MeV. Which binding be the stable? MeV. .1) e2/4atoR.m. 7 8 Appendix which s t a b l e : 7N’7 . energies more per nucleon f o r F”. show that the work necessary is bring into superposition Z uniformly charged e2/4atoR.54 MeV. Z(Z .63 data in MeV. explain Compare this energy for even in terms of filling proton neighboring and neutron levels. 18. why there are basis levels in Table 14. Answer: 14. O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s h e l l m o d e l . 1 2 . the work is’/. 7 . By build 3/S up a 6. 7 1 3. 1 shells of MeV. Cam the nuclear radius and A to show that this energy is 0. 7 . show spheres of radius R.3. Find the binding energy per nucleon of chlorine 35 from Appendix 3.N15. 8016. 1 0 . and . nuclei of odd A.. Find the energy necessary to remove the least tightly bound nucleon from the followi n g s t o b l e n u c l e i : loNe “O.79 Z(Z pare this 0. 1 0 . A A” meson decays into two gamma rays. stable nuclei of 15.5 MeV. F19 a n d F2’ from Appendix 3. 8 . 16.. 1 infinitesimal charge that to MeV. at find rest. 4 7 MeV. the The kinetic neutrina If the mass of the energy of the has zero rest /.1) drop no A”3 MeV. infinity to considering charge total e and radius R. 80”. 8 . A with that for 9F19.~particle 8. 7 . In A On terms = 5 the or alpha.. If the KO is at rest.L+. 9F’7.mi)c2/2m.12c2/2m. 6 7 . decaying Answer: 9. 7. explain why 6C’2 and ~0’~ should both have spin zero. 3. ( m .3. explain why it is reasonable that 7N l4 should have a nuclear spin of 1. 17. Use the relationship between . decide MeV.430 Nuclear structure 7. what is the energy of each gamma ray? Answer: 8. . Find is the likely to 8. Answer: 10.
the remainder decay sportaneously into lighter fragments. An example of this process is the emission of alpha particles by the uranium nucleus. All of may emit either an alpha particle or an electron. That is. If dN is the the number of decays as dt and N are varied. Nuclei may also emit gamma rays (photons) That is. W e s h a l l s t u d y h e r e o n l y s o m e o f t h e m o r e Iimportant processes and their applications. it is impossible to predict when any one given nucleus will decay. some nuclei may be induced to undergo such decomposition by irradiating them with beams of particles of various types. or a transition rate. two or more nuclei may combine to form a heavier nucleus.d N . 92Uz38. then. starting with N nuclei. When dN is observed experimentally. only about 270 are stable. and has led to a wide variety of applications in other scientific fields. Further. and study nluclei during d t . A given (unstable nucleus may decay in more than one way. The study of such processes is of great importance in attempting to understand the structure of nuclei and of the elementary particles. 431 . then over short time intervals the sample is observed to decay at a constant rate. Let us describe the number of decays in terms of the change in the number of increase in N in the time d t .5 transformation of the nucleus Of the approximately 1200 different nuclides knowrl to exist. 83Bi212 of discrete energies. features of these 5. for example. Suppose we count the number of decays in a small time interval df.1 LAW OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY The spontaneous decay of a nucleus into lighter particles is called natural radio activity. Consider a sample of N nuclei of a given type. where N is sufficiently large that statistical variations in the decay rate will average out. Under certain cmonditions. latter process is called beta d e c a y . The number dN is negative because N is decreasing due to the decays. and the process must be described in terms of a probability of decay per unit time. then the number of decays is . this these pi’ocesses are fundamentally statistical in nature. if in dt a certain number of decays are observed.
1) is a differential equation which expresses the rate of change of N with time. = N. the number of decays in dt should be increased by a factor of five. In N == ~ Xt + C ’ (15. We can solve the differential equation to find N as a function of time as follows: divide by N to obtain dN = N from a constant of integration.52 are produced per minute. in terms of N.3) jXdt = At + C ’ (15.. in 2dt twice as many decays will be observed. on the average. then decays w i t h 5N nuclei. T h e s e f a c t s may be expressed in the elquation. X 10” atoms. 740 a particles t and N. = Ce” or C = N.2.52 x 4 .4) where C’ is some constant of integration. w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e i n i t i a l i n s t a n t t = 0 . dN does not affect the nuclear decay were observed in df. Therefore. and so we may conclude that dN is proportional to ‘dt. T h e q u a n t i y X is independent of particular type of decay. then N. . Another observed fact is that nuclei in atoms decay independently of each other. Lastly. Thus. at t = 0.1) w h e r e X is a proportionality constant.d N i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o b o t h d t a n d t o N .O~ X = AN/NAt = = 740/1.Xdt (15.7) .’ Equation (15.3 and the number of particles remaining undecayed at time t will be given by: N :z No emAt (15. we can integrate each side separately and equate the results.6) w h e r e C = ec’I S a constant. we may express the constant C in terms of the number of nuclei N. 9 lO’s)(60 set) x lo‘s sec. = Also. Hence.2) In this form.432 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e nuclew on the average. I f N Xt. of 92U238 (one milligram). and depends only on the e x a m p l e If. in a sample of 2.d N = XNdt (15. Apart InN (15. the proximity of one atom to crnother rate. . . Thus. called the decay constant or disintegration c o n s t a n t . if starting with N nuclei.5) We take exponentials of both sides of this equation to obtain the number of particles: N = ce“’ (15. what is the decay constant in set‘? SO/~~.
. then measured in yeurs. it takes an additional halflife.8) We can solve Equation (15. or a total of 8. N = N. this would correspond to setting N = ‘/2 N.8) for r.98 x years.693 ~ h In e” := x ‘i2 in := (15. from Equation (15. .9) the previous example. N. The halflife is defined as the time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample to decay. Thus. the uranium is called the parent nucleus and the thorium is called the daughter.15 X lO’sec/yr)] x lo9 y e a r s This is the number of years it would take until only half the original nuclei were left. and so N 0 . or else in terms of a closely related number called the ha/flife and denoted by T.2 HALFLIFE Decay rates are usually given in ierms of the decay constant A.49 x 0. In this case. We then find a relation between halflife and decay constant: % N. a resultant nucleus of thorium is left . In terms of the time.15 x lo7 sec. 5.3 LAW OF DECAY FOR UNSTABLE DAUGHTER NUCLEI When a nucleus such as 92U 238 emits an a particle. to reduce the number of nuclei to Y4 10’ the original number. = 2 (15. Ed ““/’ or e iTI.. . one daughter is formed.:. = N.2 = 0. 433 5. For every U nucleus which decays. of new daughters is Nd = NO(l e“) (15.7).. Hence. in Equation (15. as 0..9 = 4..15.7) tile number N.3 Unstable daughter nuclei This is the fundamental equation describing the average way in which samples of radioactive nuclei decay. Using the identities X by taking logarithms of both In 2 = 3.10) Figure 15.N u r a n i u m nuclei have decayed. Ed*’ uranium nuclei remain.2 is a similar graph of the total number of daughters formed as a function of time. The decay of the remainder of the nuclei is still described by the same statistical law. and Figure 15. and if 1 year = 3. we get 7 rip/e If X = 4.1 shows a graph of number of remaining parents as a function of time.90 x lo‘* sect’.N new daughter nuclei have formed. in terms of sides of the equation..693 x [(4.693. 90Th234. So if at time t.693 10m’*)(3. J I. if we set t = J.
is A f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o A...13) is To give some feeling for the behavior p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 1 5 . dt. a n d X. N. Also. and X... in a time dt the number which decay will be X. = 1 . This will contribute to the rate of decrease of N./N. N. = (N. the actual number of daughter nuclei will be less than that given by Equation (15.10). N.X. a p proaches zero.) A. If the daughter is stable. = N. .2. e?mhp’ is much larger than e d for large t. No emhp’)dt This differential equation can be soked after some manipulation.. X. if the daughter is itself unstable.ause a l l o f t h e p a r e n t w i l l h a v e d e c a y e d . Equation (15.434 Transformation of the nucleui Tgn ZTVZ TICI zrvl Figure 15.. + X.. In this c:ase. differential equation for the rate of change of (15. However. )\. Figure 15. T h e n X. is much smaller than hd. This is bec. X. is that in which the parent decays much more s l o w l y t h a n t h e d a u g h t e r . 3 f o r t h e partilcular of this solution. the ratio N.j c h o i c e s . = 2 . d t . It is easily verified that the solution is: hd’ Apt Nd = A&:%. then the actual number of daughter nuclei is equal to the number formed by the parent’s decay. under these assumpiions. is the number of daughter nuclei at a particular time. N.. But daughters are continually being formed by decay of the parent.13) simplifies to: . the total of daughter atoms WIII be dNd = A. decoy of the parent nucleus. From the plot. dt. increase in number dN. The form of the above result depends on both X.12) daughter dN. Radioactive decoy low. S u p p o s e t h e d a u g h t e r i s u n s t a b l e a n d h a s a d e c a y c o n s t a n t Xd. the number formed in time dt is X. (15. we have to reconsider the rate of change of the number N. . Therefore.. em~AP’. Then f N.iid Nd d t T h e n u m b e r o f p a r e n t a t o m s i s N. O set ‘. o f d a u g h t e r n u c l e i . a n d a l l t h e previously formed daughter nuclei will also decay. One interesting case. 0 set‘.. Thus. Rcldiooctive decoy low. growth of o stable daughter. it may be seen that after a long time has elapsed.x.11) so we obtain the following atoms: (15. which occurs often in nature.1.
the net increase dN.15) Nd (Jw b N. .0 set ‘. If is found in rocks containing uranium. h. Thus.1 days. the equotion states that Physically. (15. if the decay constant of the daughter nuclei is much larger than the decay constant of the parent nuclei. When this situation halfapplies.3. with the number of thorium atoms PoTh2”4 equal to only 1.O set‘. Equation (15. the daughter is said to be in equilibrium with its parent.N.3 Unstable daughter nuclei 435 1 TIME 2 iN SEC~POFDS Figure 15. emitting an alpha particle. the number of daughter nuclei will have increased to the point where they decay as fast as they are formed. for decay constants given by Xp = 2. and A n u c l e u s o f 92U XJ* d e c a y s i n t o 90Th234 b y wTh ‘s4 is also unstable. Hence.15. because initially no daughter nuclei are present. Since the number of parent nuclei is after a long time. e A(+ = N. After a long time has elapsed.14) N. emitting an electron with a halflife of 24. the formation process dominates. at first the number of daughter nuclei will increase. One application of this result is to the determination of extremely long lives. this means that the rate of production of daughter nuclei is equal to their rate of decay. growth and decay of an unstable daughter.14) can also be written _ in terms of halflives: (15.N. = 0. what is the halflife of p2U238 in years? = 4. The result could also have been obtained from Equation (15.47 x 10~9% of the number of uranium atoms. (Jvzh Thus the relative numbers of atoms of the two types will be directly proportional to #p/e their respective halflives..47 x lo9 years. /\d = 1 . will be zero.1 1) by setting dN. Radioactive decay law. = X.
for example. 15. uranium Z and uranium X2 are two different states of the same nucleus. the change in Z of a nucleus on emission of an electron in beta decay by the nucleus. each of these has the same Z and A. There is a fourth series. is + 1.3 one may predict the energy of the gamma ray emitted.0 . then the fact that not all of these elements have decayed yet should give some indication of the age of the earth. by 2 On emission of an alpha. T h e T h nrJcleus d e c a y s .2 x lo6 years. c a l l e d u r a n i u m X ..436 Transformation of the ndeur 15. 3 1 ~. or uranium series. p2U238 d e c a y s b y a emission to the r 4nf3 thorium series. U r a n i u m Z m a y b e f o r m e d w h e n u r a n i u m X2 emits a gamma ray. this means the earth must be rmany times as old as 2.5 gives a list of these known unstable elements. 15. whic:h either alphas (helium nuclei) or betas (electrons). Decay by electron capture from an atomic level by the nucleus is indicated by EC. . . On the other hand.4 RADIOACTIVE SERIES The naturally occurring radioactive elements with Z > 82 have been found to has fall into three series. There are possibly others whose decay rates are so small that they have not yet been detected.2. i n t u r n . The change in A is zero. 90Th234.4. In addition to these series.2. in all decays within a single series.4n+1. Thus. Within a given series. Table 15. In all of these series. respectively. and if the naturally radioactive elements were formed at the same time. with Z < 82. Hence. and is a nucleus of the element 9.4n+2. o These series are namec. the nuclides decay into each other a n d e v e n t u a l l y e n d a s s o m e i s o t o p e (of lead. A either decreases by 4 or else does not change. the other three series are found in nature. The neptunium series. uranium series and actirium series. if n is some integer. Hence.1. neptunium series. 15. been produced in the laboratory. 8 1 MeV (15.2 x lo6 years. all members of a series have mass numbers given by: A=4n. b y b e t a d e c a y i n t o either uranium X2 or uranium Z.3and Consider first the 4n i. It is Il = 2 . the decay particles are Z declreases N decreases by 2 A decreases by 4 By conservation of charge. This indicates roughly that the age of the earth may be a few billion years. The properties of the series are given in Tables 15.16) If the earth was formed in some process which took place a long time ago.Pa234. From the last column of Table 15. there are 01 f e w o t h e r n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g r a d i o a c t i v e nuclides which have been found. 5 = 1 . Since the longest halflife of any member of the neptunium series is 2. called isomers. The longest halflives found in these other series are between about 10’ a n d 10” years roughly. is not found in nature.
0. 3 x 10m3 set E* (MeV) 3.8Ra228 g9AC2*8 9oTh22* Common Thorium Name Tl/Z 1 .75 84 Po216 82 Pb*‘* 85At216 83 Bl.79.1 min *‘$Poz’2 a1 Tl*‘* Thorium D ir B Stable 82 Pb*” *The energies given ore those of the most important alphaparticle groups.99. 3. 5 set 0 .18 i Mesothorium.TABLE 15. or those of the most energetic beta particles.64 hr.93 < 0. 6. ? P a a.45 5. P Nuclide PoTh232 r. ~16. a6. 0 9 8.77 0.42.11. 0 . 6 .78 1. 1. 7 yr.58 5.212 60.3.1 Thorium (4n) Series Particle Emitted CY P P a (Y (Y a.79 p2.2.90 yr. . i Mesothorium.5. 1.34.44 6. 1 6 set 10.13 hr.28. 6 . 1 Radiothorium 1 Thorium i Thoron X ss Ra**’ WJEm 220\ 5. 3 9 x 1O’“yr.25.68.02 1.5 min 3 x lo‘see 3.28 0.05. 7.64 days 5 4 . 5.34 .
8 min. 6 2 x 105yr. 27..2 Neptunium (4n + 1 ) S e r i e s Nuclide 237 Common Name Particle Emitted Tl/Z 2 .85. 5. 7 8 . i 4.26. 8. E* (MeV) 93N~ 4.3 hr.79.JL 5.4 days 1 . Tlzo9 /P 0 2’3 84 I98% P a 7.TABLE 15. 0 .94. 0 7 92u 91 Paz33 233 9oTh229 88 fk? s9ACZZ5 221 8. 6 .3 2.90 1. 4. 1 .A “. 0 x 10m6 3.52 .39.62 i \s2Pbzo9 83 Bi209 *The P Stable energies given ore those of the most important alphaparticle groups or those of the most energetic beta particles. 7 3 4. 4 . 1 4 .8 days 10 days 4. sec. .80 6.02 81.82. 0 . 8 x lo‘set 47 min. 2 x lo6 yr.4 . Fr s5At2” ssBi2’3 2 % + \ *. 7 3 0 0 yr. 2. 4 . 8 7 0.02 ^ .2 min. 4. 4 . 5 7 4. a5.30.34 0.8.
2 min 138 days s2Pb206 Radium G/ Stable *The energies given ore those of the most important alphaparticle groups or those of the most energetic beto particles.68 1.15% 99. 3.8 min.85% p” P P 24.94 1. 4.63 cY5. ss Ra 226 oeEmZ22 84 PO 218 82 Pb214 218 85 At 83 Bi214 B a 26.03% 6.78.Pa 234 Common Uranium I Name Particle Emitted T l/2 4.510. T12” s2Pbz” s3 Bi”’ *. 2.0 x lo4 yr. 3. 1.76 4.3 sec.19.17.02 81 . cu4.59 5. 20 yr.O.30 92 u 234 I J qoTh230 8. 0. 0. 1.18 E* (MeV) Uranium X1 Uranium X2 $ 0. 19.17 7.5 4.lO 2. .51 x 1O’yr.9 0.97% adium 6 ) Astatine e 1 adium C 0.31 9lPa 234 Uranium \ Z Uranium II lonium Radium Radon Radium A 1 99.1 days 1.68.96% 0.51 5. 5.50 x lo5 1620 yr. T1206 84 PO 210 Radium C’ e Radium C” 1 Radium D Radium E v 5 x 1om5% P a * I 4.0 days 84 PO 214 8.18 min.32 min.61 4.825 days 3.00 0.6.5 pl. yr.04% 1 99.48 ~~6.Nuclide 238 92u qoTh234 9.7 min.66 hr.7 6.05 min. 4.6 x 10 4 sec.4. 1.
Em 84 PO 223 215 219 ‘Actinium : Actinon Actinium A 1 / A c t i n i u m B1 Astatine i + Actinium C 4 99.45 7.82. .656. . 1 x 10ayr.6 days 3.3 5. 4 x lo4 y r .8% P a a a a.36 6. 1 x lo’ sec.40.5 a.6 hr.ssRa n. x IO~S~C.05 92u 235 Actinouranium Uranium Y Protoactinium Actinium 1 1 .97. Tlzo7 211 84 PO C” J r Actinium C’ 1 Actinium D 82Pb207 .78 0. a a.TABLE 15.62. 22 yr.Th23’ 91Pa 231 89Q27 3 .15 min. 2 % \ Actinium K ( \ Radioactinium 9.32% B a Stable 4. 6 98.Th227 . 36.Fr223 9c. 13 5 x J 1om4% P a a. 5.4. 2.52 min.1. <:L ^ *The energies given ore those of the most important alphaparticle groups or those of the most energetic beta particles.09. ~6.35.68% ctinium 5.0.046 1.4 Actinium (4n + 3) Series Nuclide Common Name Particle Emitted 7 .0.03 4. P 0.1 min. 0.2 days 11. 6 .30.22 5. 1.0. 7. E* (MeV) 4.56 82Pb2” 8sAt2i5 S3Bl. 2 7 1.4.58 0.0.211 *.. 8 sec. 1 a.645.705.43 22 min. s. sec.0.68 6. 25.97 1 .00 po.
If the parent nucleus is. 5 x lOI 3 x 10” 1.25 27. t h e Q o f t h e d e c a y m a y b e w r i t t e n i n of atomic masses: . and will be given by the rest mass of the parent. In terms of the atomic mass . which is also the total kinetic energy of the a particle and the daughter nucleus. terms + ( Z . However. 2 x 10” 6 x 10’14 1.60 62. Let us call zMt The net decrease in rest energy in the process. when the alpha is emitted the remaining daughter nucleus will have to carry off some kinetic energy in order to conserve momentum. we must consider the motion of both alpha and daughter.15.0119 Type of Activity S.77 0. in addition..5 ALPHAPARTICLE In order for a DECAY to decay spontaneously. These will be discussed 5. zm2Mim4 t h e m a s s o f t h e d a u g h t e r . Since the decay products come off with kinetic energy.2 x 10” 75  Re 7apt 2.= zAAp . the necessary energy must be supplied at the expense of energy of some other form.zzM.. we have (115.78 4 x 1o’O 4 x lOI . So to account for all energy. Q A 4 . the process must be energetically nucleus feasible. since Zm. EC Halflife Years 1.2 x 10” 40 50 23V 49ln 5710 5&e 37Rb a7 115 138 142 0. initially at rest.07 a p”Pa ~ ___.2)m. a n d 2M& t h e r e s t m a s s o f t h e a l p h a .10’5 _____ There are.17) Suppose we wish to compute Z using a table of atomic masses.07 EC PAC a 4 x lOI 6 ..18) and similarly for the masses of the alpha and the daughter.93 0. i s z e r o .85 95. + 2m.A~ .089 11..5 Alphaparticle’ decay TABLE 15.Mt. This can b e d e s c r i b e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n terms of a net loss of rest mass of the resulting particles.87 15. the earth’s surface due to cosmic ray bombardment.0 x 10” 60Nd ‘44 62Sm 7lLU 147 176 187 192 23.2M~e C2 (15.5 Element 19K 441 ~  Naturally Occurring Unstable Nuclides Not Found in Series Abundance % 0. is called the Q of the decay.. a few radioactive elements continually being formed near later.
18 MeV..4) ~4 (15..4)vd.j.. so Newtonian mechanics may be used to calculate the fraction of energy carried off by the alpha. we saw that MeV.27 T.Th234 zm~zM$.. 1 9 MeV. from conservation of momentum.)] (A .>!0) T h i s Q i s g r e a t e r thal t h e o b s e r v e d a l p h a .81 MeV... because the daughter also carries off ‘some kinetic energy.002603 = = = 238.A. be the final speed of the alpha.4) =4 Then Q = T... (15L!3) For the pzU 238 [ ( A . We assume that the parent nucleus is in tially at rest.4)(v..046186 0 . 234.73 MeV. 4v.4./(A . sum zM. . $ & = A A Q = 4 4. +.rf = 2. o r zz vd v0 (A . Sum of final rest masses From the table. 1 8 MeV.4)/A]Q served aparticle . Td = [ fi (4)(v% j% ( A )I (15. Then J. and take the masses of the N particle and residual nucleus to be proportional to their rest masses.050770 238.73)/225 = 4. 0 0 4 5 8 amu Q/c' so = differen’ce = 1 amu =: 9 3 1 . Then.. Q = AJ.2!1) Then the ratio of the kinetic energies of the alpha and the daughter nucleus is T. = = (234)(4.28)/‘238 = 4 . Let v. 4.212) . The final kinetic energy of the decay products are in the nonrelativistic region.442 Jransformafion of the nucleus Using the table in Appendix 3. Thi!s a g r e e s w e l l w i t h t h e o b  example The nucleus of lo (or 90Th230) emits What is Q? dhOll an o( particle of kinetic energy 4. = ( A . and vd be the final speed of the daughter.90Th234 energy] decay.Td = 7.. we shall compute Q for the case where the parent nucleus is 92U238 and the daughter is 9.4 amu respectively.p a r t i c l e e n e r g y o f 4 . approximately 4 and A .046186 238. 4 8 MeV Q = 4 .4) = 230(4.043583 = _ 4. 2 7 MeV (15.
8 that this is large compared to Q. the quantum mechanical wave function is not quite zero outside the barrier.6 Theory of alpha decoy 443 pie p0Th2’2 emits an CY particle of 4. position inside the well.4.2)/ r. is frequently approximated by a constant nuclear interaction potential energy out to the nuclear radius r. w i t h r i n f e r m i s . The actual energy. so there is a small probability of finding the alpha particle outside.2)(A 4))“3 MeV (15. classically the alpha particle could not get out.25) MeV.4. at radii r < rO.4)“3 f e r m i s ( a s c o m p o r e d w i t h 1 .05)/228 = 4 . To find the relative sizes of the wavefunctions Schrodinger on the two sides of the potential barrier. in terms of A and Z.06(2 . = 2. we will deviate from our main discussion to develop an approximate method of solving a one dimensional . In MeV. Because Q is less than the maximum of the potential barrier. the potential coulomb energy may be expressed as 2. 4. is indicated by a dashed horizontal line on the diagram.r (I 5. then it is seen that in classical mechanics the alpha particle could not escape with this model for the potential. Potential energy curve f. is V. T h e e x pression for this coulomb potential energy in terms of r a n d Z . have o finite probability of tunneling alphas initially inside the well. I t h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t a g o o d c h o i c e f o r r0 f o r a e m i s s i o n i s 1.6 THEORY OF ALPHA DECAY The potential energy of interactilon of the alpha particle and the daughter nucleus. 232(4.. Note For A = 230 and Z = 90 (PoTh230) this peak coulomb energy is 29.75. However.2)e and mass number A . Then. However. If the alpha particle is initially at a Energy Potential Energy Figure 15.2 is v = 2(Z  2)e2 47rc. 1 2 MeV. in quantum mechanics it may escape by tunneling.4(A . the coulomb energy in MeV a t r = r.24) This potential energy is shown in Figure 15.. which is usually several MeV. and by a coulomb potential energy for radii greater than rO. out of the well and escaping.Pr on alpha particle emitted by on unstable nucleus. Q.1A”3 mentioned in Chapter 13). What is the Q of the decoly? ti~n Q = i.05 MeV. of charge (Z .88(2 .
0 .29) into (15. V5. a n d k = ib’2p(V .M..V(r + Ar)]/h’ .)ilr. be exact if V were constant. V cannot be treated as a constallt. h o w ever.. We shall suppose that the alpha particles are emitted symmetrically in all directions.t _ _ = _ m. additional change of phase k(r + Ar)Ar = d2p[Q Hence. if the parent nucleus is initially 3t rest. were of the form ( l/r)e”‘. a n d i t w a s s e e n there that the free particle eigenfunctions of pr.4 ) E .the m. then the change in the phase of .V(r)]. by adding a large number of such contributions in passing over a finite distance up to r. w a s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 8 . A further change in r to r + 2Ar should result in an .29) That this is an approximate solution may be checked by substituting Equation (15.444 Transformation of the nucle~~s equation. reduced mass. is the radial component of momentum.26). T h e n t h e SchrSdinger equation for the alphadaughter system is: (15. corresponding to outgoing waves. The reader rray skip directly there if he is not interested in the mathematical details. + Ni (1 5X27) The operator corresponding to p.28) This would.the wavefunction. Herce. The approximcte result is given in Equation (15. w e w o u l d e x p e c t t3___ find solutis>ns of this form with k = 42c((Q . If V changes very slowly as r changes. given approximately /L by m.:26) $ P’ it(r) + VW(r) = QW the reaction energy. we might expect the phase of the wavefunction to change by a finite amount given by Iphase = l i m C b (r. ano p.Ir.JQ as r varies from r to r + Ar.‘fi2 w h e n Q > V . should be just k(r)Ar = .~~ A Here. if the potential varies sufficiently slowly w i t h r . = A.. p is . a n d t h a t t h e r e i s n o a n g u l a r d e p e n d e n c e . we have / d rv’F[Q .V(rjjp A r.(A . of course. Then evaluating the first term. the total energy of the system is Q. .V). /^ drk(r) = J (15.% .13)/A2 w h e n Q < V .31). I n t h i s p r o b l e m . ‘Thus we expect an approximate solution of the form: (15. this corresponds tlz a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e w a v e f u n c t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o n l y of the radial distance r.
Q)dr ?fFl (15.26) is then obviously satisfied. Equation (15.29) is an approximate . Hence in terms of a(r) = r+(r).30) The wavefunction $(r) (.32) Let us call this ratio em’ /E2 ‘0 ‘1 2p(V . to the number of particles in an equal d r a t rO. corresponding to the inverse squared radial de We can now use this wavefunction to estimate the number of alpha particles which penetrate the Coulomb barrier and are emitted. 4 . lo a p p l y t h i s t o t h e p r e s e n t p r o b l e m . a n d r. i n F i g u r e 1 5 .~~ solution if dd/Q . l/r’..15. this becomes approximcltely: Equation (15.15.33) . i n t h e r e g i o n b e t w e e n rO a n d r.34)...4~r2dr. T h e ratio of the number of particles in dr at r. the fraction of particles escaping will be approximately eciual to the ratio of probabilities of finding (Y’S in equal volumes at the points rc.V/r. (15..6 Theory of alpha decoy 445 If V(r) is sufficiently slowlyvarying that radial derivatives of L’ Q ~ V c a n b e neglected. the number of particles in dr is proportional to 4x 1 a(r) i ‘dr. T h e .total number of alpha particles in a range of radii dr is proportional to ( $(r) / 2.67is then of the form: from a small radiating source. so ~ i s' dr fip(QIi 3= ~ ' dr L/2~(vIi . ) 1 2dr ) Q(rO) 1 ‘dr = exp with should be just that fraction of alpha particles hitting the inside of the barrier which get ovt. from which get out should be 47r 4x (15. Hence (15.31) gives rise to a probability density which is proportional to pendence of intensity 1 $ 1 ‘. Hence. V :> Q. Therefore.. because the volume element corresponding to dr is a spherical shell of area 47rr’ and thickness dr.31) The factor of r ’ in Equation (15. The speed of the alphas hitting the inside of the barrier is not too different from the speed of the alphas escaping from the other side of the barrier. the fraction of particles 1@(r.V/dr is negligible in comparison to z/‘Q .
given in Equation SchrGdinger of equation particles w i t h m.4)/A carries alpha which actually penetrate and escape if they hit the barrier. .8 Q far the alpha decay of (15. Also.r.1 Equation (15.4 x 10.82/29. and an the nuclear charge Ze.6.53 arises from the factors 4e2 \/iin.A). Let Q/[2(Z .4 is given by the integral which has ta be done is Equation (15.33).. The from use of the reduced mass.].. the number of times thi? alpha particle hits the barrier per second . the peak of the pa. the peak of the barrier is T h e s e r e s u l t s c a n b e u s e d t a p r e d i c t q u a n t i t a t i v e l y s a m e h a l f . 1 6 1 7 . T h e expais the ratio of the number of particles getting out per unit time ta the number inside hitting the barrier per unit time.:= 7 9 . example It was found in a previous example that 4. Because of the exponential dependence.1617/0. The factor 2./(4rtc.8383) } P. 6 . we fo und that f ar the alpha d ec ay of 90Th232.2)e2/4~t. 15(A 4)‘13 z 8 x lol5 far A radius. an expression has been derived far the fraction . 4 1 4 . This fraction is approximately e’ where I clepends an the available energy Q. The result is then 7 = the ratio of reaction energy ta barrier peak energy. in Figure 15.:2 1 ).ential T h u s .. By salving the approximately.1617)(0. ro. Q = 4. and the radius.1387 nential e’ and I = 91.7 MeV. If we estimate its speed at about c/10 (the exact speed does not matter around 230. . = 0 . I(1 5. at 29. If we think of the LY p a r t i c l e a s bouncing back and forth inside the nucleus.446 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f ihe nucleus Since the potential between r. and from the conversion of factor d(A (15.82 MeV. T h e n y = 13. Let us summarize what has been done.27). and f r o m Equatiarl 0. the number of times it hits the barrier per unit time is comparable ta the much). an the mass number is A.25). Q t a MeV. Also. 4 S i m i l ar l y.8 MeV.12 MeV. the mass of the N particle.d(O.Th23” is barrier was found ta be 29.34) with Q in MeV. and r. y = 4. from the peak potential expression 0..8383) __ := 1 0 0 .0 . as 1 N particle’s speed divided by the nuclear .l i v e s . This is a standard integral that can be found in mast integral tables. e~’ an extremely sensitive function of Q and Z.
simplest such proces!s to the process: + e+F is the beta decay it is unstable is not irlside some and decays with a halflife of 12..693). Z and Q.434’.1 e 1 . The various agreement factors in this exampI’s is somewhat fortuitous. a neutron antineufrino. functions of A. since exists we dropped multiplying em’ whic. called the on energy GeigerNuttall is well verifiecl experimentally in its dependence for a given radioactive i. x lo5 years the predicted halflife and is about 1.7 BETA DECAY nuclei which an electron have and an excess of neutronsthat of N versus called nucleus.434’ m22. This would to 1 O”. an another The particle is.7 Beto decay is comparable to 10” per second. gave prediction of the time the alpha particle given by G. The symbol nuclei lying . take into account the fraction the width and so forth. A log x = . U. The most important is on l/v’% we would in the exponent. since it was the first I appears in the 9oTh230 and 9oTh232 was originally for nuclear a great triumph for quantum mechanics. The halflife in seconds is then comparable nple In the last example is then about 1 we found that I := 79. and E. part of the dependence of this estimated decay constant 1. for 90Th232. because the small changes in A and Q between the elements an enormous halflife ratio.15.221 1 . solution for the wavefunction. Gamow Note that of the energy levels.4 I(0 434.2) z/Q (15. find that as far as the energy is concerned. with The experimental I = 2 x 10” 10” years./O. which which has a charge has zero charge. The predicted halflife out 447 per second is comparable be the decay constant.8 min.n’+.TiiTx 10’ set/year == 1 91.. Then the fraction of particles coming to 10z2e’ = 1022o. for 90Th230. Condon.B(Z .h were comparable a more accurate to unity. if we computed1 log X = log(T. according (a) The esymbol represents F’ represents the electron.000 years respectively. theory.35) where A and B are slowly varying l a w . whose Ztend positions lie to decay by which is of the Unstable emitting extremely neutron: generally above hard When the “stability line ’ on a plot to detect. values are 80. This law.b. Similarly.1’0 “’ . one should in the nucleus. .p 4) .p’ the antineutrino. series. This theory and was considered quantitative exponent. . Thus. Also.4 x Likewise years.
O n t h e N . The antineutrino and neutrino both have charge zero. as some new ones. In beta decay. designated by e+. Arl example of this is the $’ decay of the . As in alpha decay is .Z d i a g r a m ini Figure 15. decay. the number of neutrons plus the number (of protons. nuclei lying below the stability line tend to decay by /f’ emission (6). t h e t o t a l c h a r g e t o s t a r t w i t h is Z = 0. a /I’) and a neutrino.5. The crosses indicate the final positions of the nuclei. due to both the change of nuclear mass and the creation of a fi particle. all the conservation laws we have discussed up to now are well massenergy are conserved. The charge finally is that of a proton plus that of an electron. two unstable nuclei are shown at the points A. d o e s n o t c h a n g e . nuclei lying generally above the stability line tend to decay by /I. because the neutron is uncharged. Any mass decrease.d e c a y . this is expressed by equality of the sum of superscripts on both sides of (a) and (b)..5 the positions of Figure 15.emission (A).N” nucleus: ( b ) TN’2 m+6C’2 + e+ t v The positron. the total charge finolly i s be + le = 7e. in other words. as B. h a s the same rest mass and spin as the electron but a charge of + 1e 1 . together with electron or positron charges on both sides of reactions like (al a n d ( b ) . or N + Z . a g r e e i n g w i t h the initial charge. the mass number of the nucleus does not change. or again zero. Because of the small masses of the diselectron and neutrino compared to nuclear masses. I n r e a c t i o n ( a ) . A undergoes fi. goes into kinetic energy of ttie final pariicles. In reaction (b). Now let us consider massenergy cm3nservation in /Y decay. For example. Conservation of charge is expressed by equolity of the sum of subscripts. NZ diagranl. most of this kinetic energy goes to them and little goes to the daughter nucleus. B undergoes /3’ satisfied. showing that under beta decay. This means physically that during a beta decay. angular momentum and In these processes. T h u s i n b e t a d e c a y t h e r e i s a n e w c o n s e r v a t i o n law: The total number of nucleons conserved.448 Transformation of the nucletrs well below the stability litle may decoy by emitting a positron (or.
so thus. f r o m A p p e n d i x 3 t h e r e s t m a s s o f amu. Thus. if the parent atom has Z electrons. in the center of mass system the two particles would have to have momenta of the same magnitude but opposite in clirection. so the parent nucleus must have greater mass than the daughter nucleus. Q must be positive. and could not equal the initial spin of % .. + 0 C2 (15. Therefore. a n d t h a t o f sOI6 i s l e s s a t 1 5 . It is found that whenever the halflife this is condition so large is that satisfied. p’ a n d e.01 118 10.a016 1 ~8. This gives sufficient information to determine the individual particle energies. because the spin of the end product. T h u s Q i s positive. t m..N16 . e v e n t h o u g h f o r Imany years it was impossible to detect these particles directly. if there were no neutrino. because in the center of mass system the initial momentum is zero. the nuclear mass is close to M. masses are given in the tables.ervation a l o n g w i t h energymass conservation. emitted. w e s h a l l d e s i g n a t e the energy corresponding to loss of rest mass by Q. daughter nucleus has one more proton. Also. are although in somecases processes more important.) := Md (Z + l)m. consider conservation of angular momentum in connection with the reaction: T h e n e u t r o n a n d p r o t o n e a c h h a v e s p i n % The electron also has spin % . 0 0 6 1 0 3 amu. If there is only one particle. the sum of the kinetic energies equals Q. not the nuclear. We assume for the present that the neutrino rest mass is zero. Then mass energy conservation is expressed by: (M. experimentally it is found that . it must have halfintegral spin. T w o o t h e r c o n s e r v a t i o n l a w s t h a t s h o u l d b e s a t i s f i e d i n B.36) The electron masses cancel.(Z + l)m. . s o Q ( l amu =: 9 3 1 MeV) is 7N’6 i s 1 6 .Zm. Zm. if an Recall electron that is atomic. its mass is Md . arlgular momentum could not be conserved. Experiments show that the neutrino indeed has spin Yz Now let us consider the effects of momentum cons. and the final or daughter atomic mass Md.37) In order for 8 decay to be possible with an electron given off. We shall see evidence for the validity of this assumption Likewise. so the equation is (15. the initial or parent atomic mass M. there must be at least one more unobserved particle.. . The change in mass is 0. 9 9 4 9 1 5 amu. lple F o r t h e d e c a y . if angular momentum is to be conserved. later. just as alpha decay results in discrete alphaparticle ene*gies.decay are conservation of momentum and conservntion of angular momentum. If there were just two end product particles.15. For example. However.4 MeV. We shall call the electron rest mass me.7 Beta decoy 449 c u s s e d a b o v e . Then the electron energies observed should be discrete. These two laws lead to the necessity for a neutrino or antineutrino t o be present among the /J’ d e c a y p r o d u c t s . would be integral. + V. other bdecay decay does occur.
dpz 1.:38) just as for a photon. is (1 5. so we would like to values for E. E” = T of the antineutrino is: (1 5.40) between the electron and antineutrino. the volume in momentum space is @. per unit energy interval. and to ignore the angular dependence of the distribution of decay products. Then the volume in momentum space becomes d1’ = (47rp.. Thirdly. if the kinetic energy. Likewise.41) From Equations (15. momentum and rest mass of the electron are these three T.. an antineutrino of zero rest mass. versus electron kinetic energy for the /j decoy of qpln”4 a r e s h o w n i n Figure 15. This indicates protoln and t h e e l e c t r o n s h a v e a continumous t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e a t least neutron. Similar results ore founcl in other beta decays. dE. Since two particles come off. one more particle.42) be measured directly. Then the relationship between the energy E.dpU)(47rpfdpe) (15. to find the probability of emitting an electron with kinetic energy J. p.6. for a given J. m. c2 lJe + mc=c2)dJe (1 5.. r e s p e c t i v e l y . we make the assumption that there is no correlation in direction (1 5.<cannot sum this expression over all allowecl J.. We shall assume f rst that one particle.450 Tronsformotion of the nucleus enersly distribution from 0 to Q. dpz)u (dpx dp. given off in the clecay. and the F’” momentum p. + 2 The antineutrino energy E. . The conservation of energy and momentum equations lead to an approximate relationship between . Let us see if we can make some simple arguments to expltlin the shape of the curve formed by these points. As in statistical mechanics.8 PHASE SPACE AND THE THEORY OF BETA DECAY Experimentally observed values of the number of electrons. in terms of energies E. is determined Drily their probability for is by the availability of final states. This allows us to use spherical coordinates in momentum space.38) and (15..:39) Now we make o probability argument. is given off in addition to the daughter nucleus and the electron.. in addition to the 15. t h e r e l a t i v i s t i c e q u a t i o n relating quantities space. a n d dJ. a n d m .. d I’ = (dpx dp. we assume thot the probability of finding the particles in a given range of momenta in the final state.39). Hence we assume to the corresponding probability volume be in momentum to: momentum space here consists of three the will proportional proportional particle. coordinates each Therefore. J.
6.91n1’4. argument. 2.o Energy (MeV) Figure 15.0 showing fit obtained by phase space .1 .. probability Beta decay spectrum far .
ilm.T. The excellence of the fit indicates strongly that only one additional particle. by dre. w i t h m. E.09 MeV. They used a large antineutrino flux from a reactor and a very large liquid i+. . Then. zero Irest mass.t mass is zero.a(Q . t h e . + Q C2 /j’ decay. The expression in Equation (15.) = [M.43) t h e antimass is large compared to those of the other kinetic energy. i s dropping multiplicative proportional constants. It was first detected directly by Reines and Cowan in 1953.c2(1.l)m. gathering together the results of Esquation have: we see that n.] + m.? = Q indicates that this assumption is correct. Thus we conclude that the additional particle emitted in fi decay (antineutrino or neutrino) has zero charge.43). where a positron is emitted. we to the probability (15. The number of electrons emitted per unit energy interval.1. and antiB u t t h e n . energymass balance is given by the (15. of energy. m a y t h e n b e a b s o r b e d i n t o a p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y c o n s t a n t multrplying the factors in dI’ w h i c h d e p e n d o n 7.T. in the above derivaassumed correlations existed.p’ detec:tor. Then if the that of the electron). (15. = Q .T$z/~j + 2Jem.42) and divided (15.9 ENERGY IN B’ DECAY Let us now consider the condition cn parent and daughter atomic masses imposed by energymass conservation for rest mass of the positron (the same as. Q = 1.. If the charge number Again let the masses of parent and daughter atoms8 of the parent nucleus is Z.. Ii also has no magnetic moment. The factor dE.44) is plotted as the solid cur’te in Figure 15. b e M. n. 15. the nucleus. + m. Because of these properties. a n d T. and a spin of % .452 Transformation of the nuckas E. many B decays give a curve of different slope. While a good fit was obtained to the data of Figure 15. kinetic energy of the dec:ay equation: (Me .. The dependence on (Q . using this value of Q a n d m u l t i p l y i n g by the proper constant to make the peak of the curve match the experimental peak. a n d Md.6. In order to ccnserve momentum. the antineutrino.. Hence by conservation For a given infinitesimal range of electron kinetic energies near T.c2) (15. in general. and the resulting positron was detected. The good fit near T. This has been explained in detail by the presence of tion correlations we in the no mornenta such of electron and antineutrino.)2 arose from the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e ant:neutrino re:. that of the daughter nucleus is Z products is Q. it interacts very little.45) . neutrino energies are closNely groupeo about the value given by Equation (‘15. recoils with a rnomentum it comparable will have in magnitude to that of the Thus electron the and antineutrino. The reaction used was +on’ + et..43). with matter and is very difficult to detect. electron negligible neutrino kinetic energies must add to approximately Q.(Z . is emitted.44) For the p decay of 49 ln’14. b e c a u s e t h e nljclear particles.6.
t h e m a s s d i f f e r e n c e i s . amu = 0 . someenergies. leads to the fact that the spins of the electrons or positrons emitted can be lined up. 0 0 0 1 7 3 amu. ~ (Z ~ l)m. less than zero./(m. together with conservation of angular momentum.Be7.lO.00081) The positron given off in /j’ dtzcay eventually giving off two gamma rays. disintegrate by . Since the electrons in the K shell spend more . and so the reaction does not take place. is % me . = 0 . m.m.001616 2m. s71a’38 lion F r o m A p p e n d i x 3 . the electron and positron may be bound together to form a systeln called positronium.00081 amu. the mass difference is 0. The general reaction can be written: The energymass balance equation here is: me + [M. + 0 C2 453 Which of the following nuclei coLlld each decay: . lp/e = M. 4 8 MeV + v.000516) For.15. For 57La’38 e+ + v. IO ELECTRON CAPTURE A reaction somewhat similar to /Y d e c a y i s t h a t i n w h i c h a n a t o m i c o r b i t a l electron is absorbed by the nucleus.10 Electron copfure Cancellation of Zm. M a s s o f I9 K4’ = 3 9 . except the in binding one energies the are spin onehalf of the the hydrogen The neutrino given off in 0’ respect: decay has the same properties as the antineutrino antineutrino always of its motion.  Zm.Be7 + 3Li7 + e+ = 0 .time near the nucleus than the other electrons. + m. For a short time before the annihilation. with a neutrino being given off. and that of the neutrino is always opposite to the direction of the motion.] + 0 C2 .] = [M.pK. w h i c h i s m+ 56Ba’38 + so the reaction takes place. 9 6 4 0 0 0 amu M a s s o f 18 A4’ = 3 9 . + 2m.0 . which can be detected experimentally. 9 6 2 3 8 4 amu Difference = b. on both sides leads to: M. C ? = (931)(0. 0 0 1 0 9 8 amu ~__ D i f f e r e n c e = b. This.000518 amu > 0 Thus the reaction may take place.).$’ d e c a y ? F i n d t h e Q of . points in the direction what similar to a hydrogen atom. 7 5 MeV alnnihilates with an electron. Q = (931)1:0. it is generally a K electron that is captured. Since the reduced mass.
kinetic energy corresporlding to the energy difference between nuclear levels.titles coming out of the reaction. By low energy here we mean that the kinetic energies are smaller than about 50 MeV. 6 3 x 1034)(3 x 10’)/(1. These excited state: are typically on the order of an MeV t h e g r o u n d s t a t e . Thus. In this process of internal c o n v e r s i o n . The lightest nuclear Therefore. T h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t l e a d s t o Yray emission is electromagnetic in origin. possibly on the order of days. the external orbital electron i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e nuclecls minus the electron’s original and flies out of the atom. Such highenergy photons are called gamma rays. . = M.11 GAMMA DECAY AND INTERNAL CONVERSION If a nucleus is bombarded by particles. If there are selection rules preventing a r e a d y transition.48) In this case. Again the Kshell electrons are most important because they spend the most time near the nucleus.0 C2 ( 15. the kinetic . there are cnly t w o pal. it should seconds.6 x 10~13 ioules) =: 1 2 a hundredth of an Angstrom.12 LOWENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS Since there are well over 1200 different known nuclides. Ther the nucleus can emit a photon to return to MeV photon emitted is X = x lol3 m . energies and conversion electron energies. involving two incoming and two outgoing particles of low kiletic energies. The result is that if there are no selection rules prevenlting occur in about lol4 the transition. the various energy states of the nucleus are called isomers. if (Y or /j decay takes place.1 a 1 ( 6 . it may be excited to higher energy levels. Also. of the recoil energy of the daughter nucleus show that this is the case and that the energy is of the corlect mugnitude. Measurement of yray energy levels. 15.454 Trunsformation or of fhe nucleus M. When there is a long halflife. An alternate reaction that may take place to reduce the nucleus to its ground state is interaction with external electrons. carrying an amount of binding ‘energy. gives information about the spacing and symmetries of nuclear 15. along with the halflives. particle (the proton) has a rest ener(Jy of about 938 MeV. We shall consider here only the simplest type of nuclear reaction. T h e w a v e l e n g t h 0. quantum mechanical transition probability theory may be used to estimate the halflife for the transition. or types of nuclei. say greater tlan 10m6 seconds. there are many different ways in which these particles can combine and react. so their energies should be discrete. Careful measurements. just as electrons in atoms can be rather than in the grouncl ex:ited by collisions with particles. o r the ground state. since the interaction potential energies are known. the daugher nucleus may be left in an excited state above he/E = a b o u t state. the halflife mzy be quite large.
in terms of kinetic energies. v/c particle reaction is as follows: + .. Thme particles’ rest energy minus the firial Q of a nuclear reaction is Q is the initial defined as the negative of the change in rest energy.15. because the electron masses cancel out. that is.. I2 Lowenergy nuclear reactions energy is small compared to the rest energy. However. + J.00307. .T This gives another way to define Q: the particles during the reaction... From a study of such reactions. Q = 7. 0 0 5 6 7 7 amu __ D i f f e r e n c e = 0 . much information can be obtained about the energy levels of the comp o u n d n u c l e u s a n d a b o u t n u c l e a r i n t e r a c t i o n s .M’)c2 (15. with M at rest. Assume there are two particles initially of nuclear masses m. If the final particles have masses m’. we have: T + ( m + M)c2 = (m’ + M’)c’ + T. H’ + sO’7.001281) = 1. lherefore the Q of the reaction is given by Q = (rr + M . 0 0 5 6 7 ’ 7 5 amu M a s s oi: . 0 0 2 6 0 1 3 1 amu Mass of .F18) l (15. 9 9 9 1 3 3 amu ~__ S u m = 1 8 .N14 = 14. particles’ rest energy. . are the final kinetic energies of the outcoming masses. 0 0 7 8 2 5 amu 1 6 .He4 + .19MeV .. (15.N1” + (pF’8) + .. Since total energy is conserved in the reaction. atomic masses from the tables may be used in this formula. using the atomic mass table of Appendix 3. Let us express Q for a twoparticle reaction in terms of atomic masses of the incoming and outgoing particles.. A typical two *He4 In this reaction. the final rest energy is (m’ + M’)c2.m’ .44 amu S u m = 1 8 . a n d T.49) These are nuclear masses. + T. a beam of alpha particles might be allowed to fall on a nitrogen target at rest in the lab. if T. 0 0 1 2 8 1 amu Q = (931)(0. M.50) Therefore. which is highly unstable and which decays into two new particles. An (Y particle may combine temporarily with a nitrogen nucleus to form a compound nucleus. hJlron M a s s o f . a n d s o w e c a n u s e non 455 relativistic mechanics in describinca the motion of such a particle. . in this case a nucleus of fluorine.. 0 0 6 9 5 8 amu 1 8 . T h e initial rest energy is (m + M)c2.1\114 m* (.M’.H’ + sO’7 ~3: 1 . ll’ = Mass of *CI17 = 1 ..51) Q equals the increase in kinetic energy of Jmple Calculate in MeV. t h e Q of the reaction..He4 = 4 . Let m be incident witti velocity v or kinetic energy T = % mv2..
called exothermic. F!eac:tions i n w h i c h produced.. H ’ = ~___1 . the reaction cannot take place. not only must the initial kinetic energy be greater than 1 Q / . 0 1 8 6 2 3 amu This is an exothermic reaction with = 1 7 . Such reactions are called endothermic. Q > 0. are and that some kinetic energy disappears. or in which excess kinetic C a l c u l a t e t h e Q o f t h e r e a c t i o n . it is shown that the total kinetic energy of a system of particles may be written BE F O R E AF T E R *. For the remust be supplied to conserve moaction to take place. there can be no motion ..018623) 15. 0 0 7 8 2 5 amu S u m = 8 . conserved. I f ‘r = 1 Q 1+ T.hold conditions for an endothermic nuclear reaction. 3Li7 + .He4 + .52) centerofmass 7 T t c. plus kinetic energy of the motion relative to the center of mass.: muss motion is % (m’ + M’)V’. excess kiretic energy must be supplied in order f’or the process to be allowed by energy conservation. Q =: (931)(0. as u sum of two positive    V   8 the is M’ m’ Thre!. the kinetic energy where V is the speed of the center of mass. Therefore.Bes) + . 0 2 3 8 2 9 amu M a s s *of t w o 2He4 = 8 .m. contributions: kinetic energy of centerofmass motion.53) The reaction will not take place unless the incident kinetic energy 7 supplies Q 1 + Tc..He4 Mass of 3 Li7 = 7 .m s a t t h e v e r y m i n i m u m .456 Tronsformotion of the nucleus The fact that Q is negative in the above example means that excess rest mass is created energy example in is the reaction. 0 m M Figure 15. 0 1 6 0 0 4 amu SOlUfiOll M a s s o f . H ’ . This speed V i’s not zero. because for momentum to be mv = (.13 THRESHOLD ENERGY In an endothermic reaction.n’ + due to = the M ’ ) V motion (15. 0 0 5 2 0 6 amu D i f f e r e n c e = 0 .7. In classical mechanics. if the kinetic energy T of the incident particle falls below / Q 1 . The contribution from the center 0. but enough additional kinetic @energy mentum because the final particles are not created at rest. 3 MeV.(. (15...
A typical sequence of fusion reactions which occur in the sun. The Q of the a b o u t 2 0 0 MeV. can be solved for T. nucleus is initially at rest. f a r o u t o n t h e b i n d i n g e n e r g y c u r v e .19) == 1. w i t h B’ a n d neutrino particles also appearing. energy per particle would increase and therefore kinetic energy would be liberated. The solution is: T = Tth = ~~ = Q+m7 m’ + M’ m’+M’ m’ + M’ .56) This is called fission. it is called the threshold energy. th. Such ..15.8. is placed on T.57) + He3 m+ He4 Thus. 1 9 MeV.m Q (15. necessary for an exothermic reaction. A typical example of this is: on’ + 92U 235 + (92UZ36) + 56!3a’4’ t 36Kr92 + 30n’ (15.54) T= lQ/+T. Again with looking heavier at the U235 fission reaction is energy the curve. About 25 MeV of energy is released. a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e t a r g e t 7N’4 1 . m’ + M’ m 2 1 4 amu. is the protonproton cycle: Starting with pure hydrogen. m’ + M ’ 2 1 8 amu. tonium with isotopes light undergo fission. it may be seen that if a reaction could be made to occur starting very particles and ending particles Fe56. (15. d i v i d e s i n t o Tao lighter nuclei which themselves have larger binding energies per particle. 2He4 + rN’4 + (9F’8) l ‘ution T h e m a s s e s a n d Q a r e g i v e n i n t h e n e x t t o l a s t e x a m p l e . binding Atomic bombs utilize this energy release when uranium or plubinding near Figure 14. Such reactions are called fLlsion reactions. and are used in devices such as the hydrogen bomb. Q = .14 Nuclear fission and fusion 457 of the final particles relative to the center of mass. 15. the net result is that 4 protons are “burned” to produce He4. Imp/e Calculate the threshold energy for the reaction . The equation for an endothermic reaction. no threshold Ibeen energy discussing are for endothermic reactions.14 NUCLEAR FISSION AND FUSION Another very important type of nuclear reaction occurs when a heavy nucleus. of course.55) Since this is the minimum possible incident kinetic energy which allows the reaction to take place. Since the overall binding energy per particle increases. and the final particles travel along together with speed V. Such reactions are also responsible for the energy output of the sun.1 . Hence the subscript. kinetic energy is liberated in this process.. Then Tth = il8/14)( The threshold energies we have There is. H’ + 80’7. H’ H’ He3 + H’ * Hz + 8’ + v + HZ  He3 + y + 2H’ (15.53 MeV.
nuclei at iime t = 0 w h i c h u n d e r g o e s s p o n t a n e o u s f there will remain N = N.693/X . LAW OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY In general..p’ (15... also give rise to a large flux of neutrinos. This method of dating organic remains works well if the age of the object is no more than five or six halflives. according to the reaction: ir + i 14 .2 = 0. and hence the age of the obiect.15 RADIOACTIVE CARBON DATING Some radioactive materials are continually being produced by collisions of highenergy. this flux is about 10” neu 15.TN’4 + 6 (In a relatively short time. the decay rate for nuclei with decay constant X is given by dN/dt = XN. F.phere and near the earth’s crust. cosmic ray particles. this radioactive (15.000 years. in the reaction: + . the exchange of carbon with the environment ceases and the radioactive carbon atoms decaythe fraction of 6C’4 atoms decreasing by half in one halflife of 5568 years. the fraction of 6C’4 atoms has decayed to an undetectable level. The halfli. b y collisions of cosmic ray nelltrons 0n’ with nitrogen. or roughly 30.58) $ emission with a halflife + 7N’4 + sC’4 The carbon nuclei formed in this reaction decay by of 5568 years. is the time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample to decay. t h e a m o u n t corresponds to an activity of about 15 disintegrations per minute per gram of fresh carbon. Libby in 1952. An important example of this is the production of radioactive aC’4. at time T. and is i n g e s t e d b y l i v i n g organislns. the fraction of the remaining aC’4. After the death of the organism. can be determined. Reactions moss e v e r y lo9 years.emX’ nuclei. By measurement of the carbon activity of an ancient archeological object such as wood or bone. and is given by 1 . They such as these burn up about 1% of the sun’s rest trinos/cm2 set measured at the earth’s surface.. Thus a certain fraction of the carbon in the structure of a living organism o f r a d i o a c t i v e aC’4. and was invented by W.59) thoroughly mixed with carbon becomes the ordinary sC’2 atoms in the #consists atmo:.458 Transformation of the nucleus cycles of nuclear fusion reactions can be used to explain the genesis of heavier elements from hydrogen land the large energy output from the sun. Of a sample of N.Fe radioactive decay. Beyond that. This method of dating is called radiocarbon dating.. From the sun. with nuclei of the earth’s atmospheric constituents.
.. The nuclei in these series decay by a or /I emission. then the rate at which parent atoms decay is equal to the rate at which daughter atoms decay.4(A . RADIOACTIVE SERIES R a d i o a c t i v e e l e m e n t s w i t h Z :> 82 fall into four series. in which the atomic number of the parent nucleus decreases by 2 ancl the nucleon number decreases by 4.2)e2/4xtor.434’22 where . Q and Z can be obtained approximately on the basis of an alphaparticle model of the nucleus.. = AQ A relation between the halflife. and is given in terms of atomic masses by Q/c2 = . i n r a d i o a c t i v e equilibrium with N.A A4 Zm2Md . An alpha particle is given off with discrete energy. The Q of the decay is the net decrease in rest energy of the particles. = X.M. b u t r e g a t i v e f o r r < rO.N. is V = life: 2(Z . Tllese series are normed the Thorium (A = 4n). N e p t u n i u m ( A = 4 n + l). 2 10°.Summary If there are N..N. The alphaparticle wavefunction outside the potential barrier is given approximately by ’ dr \/2m(V(r) . and 459 h. ) This leads to a 1 half J. and ultimately end as stable isotopes of lead or bismuth. p a r e n t n u c l e i h a v i n g a d e c a y c o n s t a n t X. daughter nuclei of decay constant &. assuming the alpha particle is bound by a potential energy V(r) which is the positive repulsive Coulomb p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y f o r r > rO. w h e r e rO = 1.Q Ii The potential energy for r > r. ALPHAPARTICLE Alphaparticle decay DECAY is a twoparticle decay. within each series the nucleon numbers A differ by 4.?M:e The discrete kinetic energy of the outcoming alpha particle in terms of the nucleon number A of the parent is approximately: A 4 J..4)“3 fermis... U r a n i u m ( A = 4 n + 2 ) a n d A c t i n i u m ( A = 4 n + 3 ) series.
2) l o g A = ___~ V’Q where A and B are slowly varying functions of A. I n p’ decay. zero c h a r g e . an atomic orbital electron is captured and a neutrino is emitted with a discrete energy. it is called an ontineutrino. a positron and a neutrino are given off. momentum and angular momentum. The number of electrons per unit energy interval which come off in a beta decay process is approximately proportional to: where being: 7. is the electron’s kinetic energy. Typical halflives for such processes are lol4 sec.B(Z . BETA DECAY In beta decay. T h e Q o f a beta decay is given in terms of atomic masses by Q  c2 := M. In electron capture. Nuclear states with halflives longer than set are called isomers. . This third particle has zero rest mass.~ Md ~ pm.  M. electrons are given of: with a continuous range of energies. GAMMA DECAY states of a nucleus may occur with the emission or 1 Om6 Transitions between excitl:d absorption of an energetic photon. Z and Q. the stability line on an N Z This occurs for nuclei lying generally below diagram. indi cating that in order to conserve energy.460 Tronsformotion of fhe nuc/eUs with y the ratio of Q to the barrier peak energy. o third particle must also tie given off. a n d s p i n q u a n t u m n u m b e r ‘/2 . . This result may also be expressed in the form (the GeigerNuttall law): A . called a gamma ray. the Q of the reaction C2 Q =z M.
= N2X2 Find the numbers granddaughter nuclei if N. 2. N3 = 0 i n i t i a l l y . ‘u233 has a halflife of 1.62 x lo5 years. In an endothermic reaction.98 curies. = . S h o w t h a t i f elapsed.. Q > 0. l i g h t p a r t i c l e s a r e “burrled” to produce heavier particles nearer the 1. M’: Q = (m + M . and N3 of parent. In terms of the initial masses m.N2 =: A. Q < Cl. 5 .e  hj A. decays into a stable granddaughter with decay constant X2. Calculate the average lifetime of a radioactive substance in terms of its halflife T.1 x 10’yeors.8 x 10’ years.m’ . Note A.’ (A2 A.m’ m’ + M’ + M’ m 0 In a fission reaction. Q is also the increase in kinetic energy of the particles.. = No A 2e )42’ XI .M’)c’.44T. How long will it take for 98% of the U233 atoms to decay? 9. N. which has a halflife of J..96 x lO’/sec. M and final masses m’. A parent nucleus decays into a daughter with decay constant X1. energy curve. . N. 3. much longer than the halflives irl any of the succeeding generations.. One curie is defined as an activity of 3. for an exothermic reaction. heavy nuclei increase their binding energy by dividing into lighter nuclei which lie closer to the peak of the bindilng peak of the binding energy curve.! . 1 4. If Q < 0 the reaction will not take place unless the incident particle has a minimum kinetic energy: J.Problems 461 TWOPARTICLE NUCLEAR REACTIONS T h e Q of a nuclear reaction is defined as the negative of the change in rest energy. In a fusion r e a c t i o n .2. what (a’s and p’s) of the sample? the daughter = would be the total number of decay particles per second Answer: 8.. Calculate the activity in curies of 1 gram of radium.. daughter pnd A2 >> X1. N2 after a long time has Answer: N1 = Noe +‘. N. Answer: original Answer: 0.7 x 10” disintegrations per second. = No.) ) ’ N. = I 1622 years.. In the actinium series. If 1 gram of is in radioactive equilibrium with its decay products (14 generations). the parent nucleus U235 U 235 h a s o halflife of 8.A. Answer: 1.h.
U s e a l i n e a r for positive and negative K to find the approxirrations e n e r g y l e v e l s . Substitute \/?m(V  t h e WKB E)/ri.. i t s p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y i s V = V.. . I n s i d e t h e b o x . 1 1 . 7. 22Ti48. F r o m T a b l e 1 5 . 1 .)(QT.. 4 Be’. Sketch this spectrum for n e a r Q . E s t i m a t e i t s h a l f . A p a r t i c l e i s i n a o n e d i m e n s i o n a l boK betwt”2n x = 0 a n d x = f. 9 0 5 9 amu. B y t r i a l a n d error 13. 92 U235.... t h e h a l f . 7 6 MeV. 6 . and compare with the 3 set v a l u e g i v e n i n t h e table.K2 ( x ) 4 = 0 .(T. C o m p a r e w i t h 4 . t o s e c o n d o r d e r i n A n s w e r : n27r2ii2 ___ 2mt’ with V. Show that this error is small if (dK/dx)/K’and good (d2K/dx2)/K3 a r e s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o o n e .I cpproximatiorl. W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u l d d e c a y lby (Y d e c a y ? U s e t h e a t o m i c m a s s t a b l e .78 137 12.E)/h i s p u r e l y i m a g i n a r y ./o K d x ) w i t h K = h2 d2$ h2 SchrGdinger e q u a t i o n . o f a t o m i c mass lQ7. E. . A n s w e r : 4 x 1O7 sec. of energy x 1 8.3 an a . Answer: Suppose the 4 . Assuming no directional correla tion between electron and antineutrino momenta. Answer: 0.2U234 u s i n g E q u a t i o n (15.l i f e 1622 years.13). Answer: 0.+2m.c2)(Q  b. w h e n muc2 16. F r o m T a b l e 1 5 . ~.Ag’08.x/[ of the particle. i s s m a l l c o m p a r e d t o t h e l o w e s t e n e r g y __ifin(V .l i f e u s i n g E q u a t i o n (I 5. + m. antineutrino had a small rest mass m. A s s u m e tllat a t o m s a r e a f e w A n g s t r o m s a p a r t i n t h e e a r t h . IS 2 . 6 4 MeV. Answer: 14..9059 amu.4 6 2 Transformation of fhe nucleus 6.2. Thus K c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e WKB == . are absorbed by the earth? Answer: 17. 7 2 MeV. w h e r e V. + m. 8 1 MeV. C a l c u l a t e t h e p o w e r g e n e r a t e d s o l e l y b y (Y d e c a y o f 1 k g o f r a d i u m o f h a l f . The crosssection for ttle i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n n u c l e i a n d n e u t r i n o s i s approximately lo‘* b a r n s .? Q is the maxinum i s small. . F r o m T a b l e 1 5 .d e c a y o f 4.l i f e o f (.s p e c t r u m s h o u l d T. Po212 d e c a y s MeV. 3 . 8. ( S e e P r o b l e m 1 0 ) vi.%. 2m dx 2m 1 0. hitting perpendicular to the surface of the earth.76 MeV.90 MeV.13). 1 .. kinetic energy. c a l c u l a t e t h e Q f o r N d e c a y o f ssAt’!‘8.1 + . t h e G ( x ) 2 (const/V%)exp (. particle.. 3 .028 watls. s o t h a t t h e r e a r e a b o u t 10” aioms p e r c u b i c m e t e r .c2) T. 3 x 10~” F i n d t h e Q f o r G’ d e c a y o f 47Ag lo*. Answer: 9. 1 . N e a r K = 0 t h i s i s nc#t a approximation.. 3f a t o m i c m a s s 1 0 7 . electror l/T. 5 x lo5 y e a r s . the emission n == of 1. F i n d t h e Q f o r 8. 15.T.c’)(T. OS given in the table. Calculate the kinetic energy of the atomic mass tables. ‘Y p a r t i c l e a r i s i n g f r o m (I d e c a y o f p2U234 using Answer: 4.. Into to see what the error is in this approximation. estimate the aparticle energy that gives this halflife. W h a t f r a c t i o n o f t h e n e u t r i n o s f r o m t h e sun. show that the be proportional to: t/iQ where .
06 Me’J.n’ . Calculate the energy of the y ray produced by using thermal neutrons. 83 Bi ‘I2 decays by nparticle emission. Some y rays observed following the decay have energies of 0.60.3Li7 + hv. 26. 0. 5 MeV a particles are absorbed in several centimeters of air.7 MeV. In what distance would 90% of these y rays be absorbed? 27.35 x 1 Om4/cm.492. 2 1 .. particles . 2.0 keV. nucleus.144. Calculate the y energy of the electron capture reaction: . and calculate the difference in mass between the 83Bi2’2 nucleus and the 8. decaying b y @.sP29 has an atomic moss of 28. followed by x rays of energies 16.432. All are possible. 28.95 keV and 46.23 MeV. Find the Q for K capture in .sC I2 in the earth’s atmosphere is nearly a constant in time.452. carbon. 24.30 of the normal fraction of radioactive Answer: 9. the radioactive isotope of carbon. respectively.328. has Q halflife of 5568 years.164.Problems 18. + Q/c2.9071 amu. = Md + 2m. 6C14.76.+ (3Li7) Answer: 0. 0.. as gC I4 is produced at a constant rate by cosmic rays.9818. . Answer: 1 Sl MeV.29Cu”6 + hu. In an internal conversion process. 19.M. Answer: 25.07.2 reactions: on’ + . Construct an energy level diagram showing the various LY and y transitions. a /II’ decay? . The ratio of gC14 to .emission. in the n . what is the age of the sample? 2 3 . of negligible kinetic energy. electrons of energies 30.62.1 1 MeV. 0. ShowthatforthereactionB+ 463 zPA+Z. Can it underg’o Answer: Both are possible. a K capture.H2 + hu.decay. 0.9K4’.10 keV are ejected. o p+decay. with LY particles of kinetic energies 5. and 6. 0.3 keV and 1.472.2 keV.Be’ + e. The nucleus also ccln emit a y ray as an alternate way of going from its excited to its ground state. Calculate the Q of the U234 138 56 fission reaction in which a neutron is absorbed. and and 36Kr84 plus some nelJtrons are produced.29Cu65 + . Calculate the energy given off during o protonproton cycle in which four protons are burned to form helium.700 years. 6. If the fraction of *C l4 in a sample of wood from an archeological excavation only has 0. 0. Can it wIdergo a fi. 5 MeV /?I are absorbed in several meters of air. a K capture? Answer: 20.288. 5.870 MeV. 0. The absorption coefficient of 5 MeV y rays in air is 0. What is the energy of the y? Answer: 47.040 MeV. 5. 0.lDA + et.H’ + . 7. Is it possible to have this reaction if Q is negative? 2 2 . Answer: 25.0081 amu. TIzo8 Answer: 4. 43 Tc ” has on atomic mass of 97. Answer: 658 meters. 29. Ba Answer: 1050 MeV.
n e u t r i n o s . cr refer to the mu neutrino and the mu antineutrino. Kf and Km are the same. one type is associated with the appeclrance or disappearance of electrons in weak decays. numbers are assigned to . broadest clas. such CIS the neutrino. The latter type is c:alled a mu neutrino and is denoted by u.ification groupings particles into different classes. 1 LEPTONS Let us first consider the class of particles called leptons. The bar changes the sign of the charge. in the case of the neutral leptons. for example. as is the case for the K’ meson to De discussed in Section 16. these of elementary properties. This class includes th#e eleciron. antineutrinos and the p mesons. and spin within this group there also exists a particle of equal rest mass. a variety of particles having new and in... All of the leptons have spin % . for each particle of a given rest mass. by putting a bar over the symbol for the particle. the antiparticles are different from the pariicles. Quantuln baryons in such a way that the total number of laws hold for leptons.16 ellementary particles When the kinetic energies of two colliding particles are made sufficiently high. baryons involved in any reaction among elementary particles remains constant 1 6 . However. We successful quantum the and in shall faciliinto this the available kinetic energy.. 464 v. opposite charge and the same spin.the in tirne. in the past few highenergy socalled their production classify the schemes.. T h e a n t i particle is frequently indicated AlsoN. p o s i t r o n . . ties for attempts chapter will be been the to poured into and them of newly The construction study and of of properties can be created out of particle accelerator particles. It has been found that there are two distinct types of neutrinos. while the other type is associated with the appearance or disappearance of muons. An enormous amount of effort has. The positron is the antiparticle of the electron. called an antiparticle. The and are laws understand these present results some investigations: schemes particlle numbelrs of classification discovered conservation discussed. Similar conservaticn s u c h a s t h e b a r y o n s a n d l e p f o n s . This terminologly arises comses because of the annihilation process which can occur when a particle and its antiparticle combine and disappear in a burst of energyusually this energy out in the form of gamma ray photons. In general.2. or muons. Some neu’bral particle:. may be their own antiparticles. respectively. charge.teresting decades.
both the e l e c t r o n i c l e p t o n n u m b e r and the muonic lepton number are conserved. A similar decay involving the antiparticles occurs with the same mean life: p+ + e + +v.t mass leptons cannot interact by means of electromagnetic potentials.51 IO MeV positron. the muonic lepton number on the lefthand side of the reaction is zero. zero rer. the total muonic lepton number is . eitlrer the same time.20 x 10m6 sec.1 for the CL+ side. The masses of /I+ a n d rest energy of 105.+ e+u. and + 1 On the righthand side. the total is . in the decay reaction (16. Their interaction with thle charged leptons is through forces which are very small and are called.3) The mu neutrino and the neutrino are distinctly (different particles. one may must have been destroyed or an electronic antileptan must have been created at conservation deduce the reaction for the beta decay of the /.1 + (+ 1) = 0. appropriately.1) Here uli is the mu neutrino associated with the appearance of the muon. Likewise. In difficult experiments with mu neutrinos from a meson decay. A typical decay reaction is: .meson: p.2) pL.+u (16. whereas the creation of electrons from similar nuclear interactions with neutrinos does occur.’ and mu neutrino each count as one muonic l e p t o n . neutrinos go through matter almost as freely as through a vacuum. as compared to 0. By electronic lepton number here we mean that the electron and neutrino are each counted as plus one electronic lepton. It has been found experimentally that when leptons are involved in interactions.e. Charged leptons interact with nuclei primarily through electromagnetic forces.+v (16. if in o reaction an electron is created. The /I+ is the antiparticle of the pm. and the corresponding antiparticlesthe positron and the antineutrinoare counted as minus one electronic lepton each. For example. because no leptons are present. a n d t h e p+ and the mu antineutrino each count as minus one muonic lepton. The mean life for thils decay is 2.. Thus.1). The ratio of muon mass to electron mass is 206.66 MeV.76.correspond to a for the electron and for the mu neutrino. They do not interact through shortrange strong nuclear forces. Coulomb interactions. weak interactions. i.7 Lepfons 465 Examples of the decay of T mesons into muons have been discussed in Chapter 14.F+ * P+ + up (16.8. the /. The uncharged. The total lepton numbers are then found by adding algebraically the lepton numbers of the individual particles appearing on one side of a reaction equation. it has been shown that mu neutrinos do not interact with nuclei to form electrons. Using this conservation law and another electronic lepton of charge. Because of the smallness of such interactions. the same value as on the left The muonic lepton number on each side is + 1 and the total electronic lepton number on each side is zero. .
with rest energies which has a rest energy are around 270 times the electron rest mass. of 139.58 MeV. Thus. th JS. T h e s e m e s o n s a l l h a v e i n t e g r a l s p i n a n d a r e t h u s bosons.466 16.4) a n d ( 1 6 .he decays is ir+ +e+ Thesse + v ( 16. For . I f t w o nucleons c o l l i d e w i t h sufficient i n i t i a l k i n e t i c e n e r g y . since no charged particles are needed to con’serve c h a r g e . The meson exchange theory of nuclear forces is thought to be essentially correct. in all these decays at least two particles must result in order to conserve momentum. t h e y c a n c r e a t e a x meson. the most likely declay mode of the A’ meson is 7r” + y + y lol6 (116. many other mesons have been found which could affect nuc’lear f o r c e s . if two prot. .p’ + 0”’ + 0”’ + on’ + 7r+ .p’ + on’ + 7r” . The H” is its own antiparticle. They and mesons to be discussed are therefore often called bosons..1P’ + .Dns collide. this is the minimum initial of momentum system needed to create a X’ meson. some possible reactions are: IF” 1p’ + IP’ .5) (16. m e a n l i f e f o r s u c h a d e c a y i s 2 . ‘denoted by x+ and r. The x mesons have spin zero and. t h e 7r m a s s w a s p r e d i c t e d t o b e s e v e r a l h u n d r e d e l e c t r o n masses. However. Some reactions that might occur for a oroton. the cmxistence Yukowa to explain nuclear forces in tevms of the x meson was predicted by of particle exchange. 1 ) . By an uncertainty p r i n c i p l e a r g u m e n t .4) + o n ’ + 7r+ Since the rest energy of the kinetic energy in the center ?r + is 139. Two charged x mesons exist. The mean life here is about 2 x are necessary in the decay of the ?y”. The antiparticle for the H+ is the r. t h e K” c a n n o t d e c a y i n t o o n l y o n e p h o t o n b e c a u s e t h e n mornentum could not be conserved.:sponding masses s m e s o n . Another decay mode which occurs only in a very small fraction of i.7) sec. Note that both of these decays have lepton numbers of zero on each side of the equation. A l s o . In fact.58 MeV.98 MeV. A l s o .p’ + IP’ . t h e r e i s a neutral of 134. ?y”.2 Elementary particles MESONS As was discussed in Chapter 14. C)ne d e c a y m o d e o f a c h a r g e d ?r m e s o n i s t h e r e a c t i o n g i v e n i n ( 1 6 . T h e corr.p’ + K (16.6) involve neutral leptons and thus weak interactions. No leptons two gomma rays. 5 ) s h o w s t h a t t h e r e i s n o conservation law for meson number. neutron collision are: 11" t 0”’ . the (other obey BoseEinstein statistics. Since electromagnetic interactions are much stronger than weak interactions.p’ The occurrence of processes + on’ such as .p’ + . 5 5 x lOma Tile sec.IP’ + a0 (16.
8 958. along with their rest energies and spins. called baryons. 1 Rest Masses and Spin Quantum Numbers of Some of the Mesons ___  Rer. These particles a l l h a v e h a l f . a n d a l l e x c e p t t h e plpotonthe b a r y o n w i t h t h e least massare unstable.1 summarizes the kinds of mesons that fit into the patterns which will be discussed later. a K’ meson c a n d e c a y i n t o p+ + u.58 134. or into two or three s m e s o n s .97 493. TABLE 16.3 BARYONS There is another class of particles whose number is conserved.8 497. along with their rest energies and spins. o** K f f’ . Soo~n completed. 467 discussing the class of particles called mesons. the K+ a n d K” m e s o n s h a v e s p i n z e r o a n d d e c a y i n a r o u n d 1Om8 Their antiparticles are designated K. K”* K**’ .o d d . with the antiproton The and antishortlived baryons beams with energy sufficient to produce them. 765 783 891 .16. All of these particles are uristable and decay. shortof mesons and baryons The only thing that baryons was the lack of particle after the bevatron. 897 1019 1315 . decay into 4 P mesons. K” t n’ P+r PO w K’* _ K”*. [When sec.t Energy ( MeV) __   Spin 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 x* 7r” K* K”. Table 16.2 lists some of the baryons that fit into the classification patterns to be discussed later. h o w e v e r . the muon (g meson) is not included. several was of hadrons.1405 1264 1515 __ 1. are more difficult to detect. w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e p r o t o n a n d n e u t r o n . I t c a n n o t . The bars aver symbols indicate antiparticles.3 Baryons instance. and their antiparticles. For instance.et t h a t c a n i n t e r a c t w i t h n u c l e a r fcrces is called p r e v e n t e d e a r l y d i s c o v e r y o f t h e LDngerlived enough neutron energy were to produce by antiprotons.i n t e g r a l s p i n . or p..8 548. as do mesons. detected teams experimenters.3 . because It does not have enough rest energy to form f o u r r’s. The combined :.K’** 139. a n d K”. The antiparticle always has the opposite sign of . The muon is a l e p t o n a n d h a s s p i n % . The baryons interact by electromagnetic and range nuclear forces. e t c .] Table 16.
Then the algebraic sum of the numbers of the baryons or ontitbaryons appearing on one side of a reaction equation must be the same as the number appearing on the other side.4 1192. For particles with nucleon masses.1 .* 0. the antiparticles are assigned . The two 1 :2e / . Thus in the react i o n 2’ + A + y. N++ * indicate a charge of I n a n y r e a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g b a r y o n s .468 Elementary particles TABLE Baryon Pf P n.r1* r. which might not be conserved for other forces.5 1197.4 CONSERVATION LAWS that are conserved in a particle interaction. electromagnetic.5 of go b y w e a k i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d t h e In discussing various qLlantities For example. N++* N+* N+*. the total baryon number.L s• x*. No*. t h e t o t a l b a r y o n n u m b e r i s a l w a y s c. n. the initial and final baryon numbers are 6 = 0. n 16. /3 decay processes electronic leptons is useful to note what kinds of forccms and muonic leptons are conserved.8) Electromagnetic: Weak: . number.u.55 1115.3 1315 1321 Spin l/2 l/2 l/2 l/2 l/2 l/2 l/2 l/2 3/2 312 3/2 3/2 3/2 312 312 312 312 3/2 N fC l . t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l b a r y o n n u m b e r s a r e E? = + l .y1* 0 . In the reaction n + n + 27. the relative Strong: sizes of these forces are approximately: Gravitational: = 1: 10m2: 10m7: 1Om39 (16. the initial and final baryon numbers are 6 = . 16. _I 1236 1382 1385 1388 1529 1534 1672 plusses on the NV N‘.v +* + Yl . on the order of one fermi apart.*.:! Rest Energies and Spins of Some of the Baryons Rest Einergy ( MeV) 938.1 and the particles are assigned t 1. in which mesons are produced. The four kinds of forces that are known ore nuclear or strong. z T .3= charge from the particle.ist q u a n t i t i e s t h a t a r e c o n s e r v e d i? nuclear interactions. I n c a l c u l a t i n g 6. 0 Yl .v. It has been found that there ex. I n t h e reloction n + 6 + e + i. weak.26 939.6 1189.onselrved. it are predominant in causing the reaction. and gravitational.
A conservation law that holds for CIII these interactions is conservation of baryon number 6. For example. J=.. which can be described as isotopic spin mulfiplefs. these analogous to the z components of spin of a particle of spin quantum number T = ‘/2. and J i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e t o t a l s p i n q u a n t u m The general utility of the concept of isotopic spin Irests o n t h e f a c t t h a t w h e n several particles are present. are important o n l y w h e n a r e a c t i o n b y n u c l e a r c’r electromagnetic interactions is very unlikely. similar to to the most positive particle in a group of the same J. as for the analogous j a n d m . The highest T3 is assigned 2J + 1. The only essential difference is that the proton has a charge. For the “cascade” J3 = 1. is 2J + 1. 3. 7 /sotopic S p i n Another quantity. (16. or the z component of spin. This new quantum number is closely arlalogous to ordinolry spin. the similarity to ordinary spin % is clear. In general. J3 for each of the three particles is 1 (16.2 there are 3 B particles. weak forces. a n i n t e r n a l q u a n t u m n u m b e r h a v i n g t w o p o s s i b l e v a l u e s i s n e e d e d . The number of 2. one can think of the proton and neutron as different states of the same particle. distinguished only by an internal property (charge). If this number. I . 4 Conservafion Clearly. which is described by assigning appropriate internal q u a n t u m numbers to the neutron and proton. In the case of the proton and neutron. X0. number j. I f t h e v a l u e TX = a n d T3 = . from Table 16. in reactions where only a few particles are involved. Also.% i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e n e u t r o n . . the isotopic spin of the system may be obtained by adding isotopic spins just like #ordinary spins. is isotopic spin. There are found among the elementary particles numerous exomples of such groups of particles. Z. the neutron and the proton exhibit the same nuclear forces. As a first approximation. + 1 for ordinary spin. T3 = 0. % is assigned to the proton numbers are very closely Since there are two particles in this case.10) particles E.r3 = 1 (16. J3 is analogous to the azimuthal quantum number m.7 6 .1 1) . J. leading to the same possible values for the total T and states is T3. then. where leptons are involved.9) B+.then J= Also. different states described by 2 J + 1 different values of J3 for the isotc’pic s p i n q u a n t u m n u m b e r isotopic spin. Nuclear forces are charge independent. which is conserved in strong or nuclear interactions but which is not conserved in electromagnetic or weak interactions. They also hclve nearly the same mass. gravitational lows effects 469 can be ignored. It arises from considering that the neutron and the proton are practically identical particles. w h i c h w o u l d h a v e 2T + 1 = 2 possible states. thus the name.
Let us consider which of the following reactions do not violote any conservotion lows discussed so fat. Ts = 0 l(16. in place of S. S. the boryon equations. is strangeness. low is satisfied. interactions. on the left and interaction. w i t h Ts. Thus. l(16.:or 3 = ~ 1.14) It was found that o reaction but % SC In (c).K++Z+ t h e K+ such OS a n d Z+ occur together. T I n 011 = 0. Likewise in (d). In reaction (b). p+r'. reaction. does not occur in nature. 76. Also in 011 reactions.2 Hyperchorge Another quantity to that is conserved in strong and For electromagnetic example. n+r++Z+ i n w h i c h t h e Z+ w o u l d o c c u r n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a K+. l/z respectively. on electromagnetic interaction where T need not conservation of isotopic spin is violated. = + % . s o t h e r e i s n o difftculty momentum conservation. Later it seemed more useful to introduce a number Y. Ts = 0 on both sides... + xp + c (d) A (e) A + I n oli reactions. y indifcotes in the reactions.13) cases. and which does not v i o l a t e p r e v i o u s l y know11 c o n s e r v a t i o n l a w s .4. := 0 wseok be conserved. Ts Equotion (e) is possible since T.: ( 0 ) ( c ) z”+ A K” + p + y (b) Km + p . the total Ts i s 0 on the left but % on the right. with angular is number is + 1 on each side of the s o c o n s e r v a t i o n o f lepton!. This number wos originally introduced explain associated production. Also. the antiparticles woulc K” having Ts hove the some T and opposite signs for m e s o n s h o v e T = %.+ rr” by strong interaction by weak interaction. so this appears possible. the charge conservation totol s p i n % m a y o c c u r o n e a c h s i d e . so this reclction appears possible. w h i c h h a s z e r o charge. or cre associated. No leptons Ioccur i r r e l e v a n t . (116. Ts are not conserved in on