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Industrial Revolution Final

Industrial Revolution Final

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Tourism Report - Industrial Report
Tourism Report - Industrial Report

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Published by: Edward Araneta Queipo on Sep 19, 2010
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DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The word ´REVOLUTIONµ means something ´sudden and quite swiftµ. y The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION began in England close to 1750 AD.
y

y

major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions
In 1700, England was a land of farmers.

y

VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The Agricultural Revolution y Revolution in Textile Industry y Improved Steam Engines y Iron and Coal Industries y Means of Transport and Communication
y

THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

The revolution in agriculture had started in the 1600·s, a little before Industrial Revolution made its appearance. y The Agricultural Revolution is the name given to the drastic changes in the farming process.
y

Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741)
y

Seed Drill
Used for planting seed

y

Horse Hoe
Used to pull a plow

Lord Townshend
y

Cultivation Four-crop Rotation

y

Robert Bakewell (1725 - 1795)
Prominent stock breeder of farm animals y Breeding methods for
y

cattle and sheeps

Key Innovations and Inventors of the Industrial Revolution
The art of spinning had been known for ages, but it had not developed much. y In 1767 a Lancashire weaver named James Hargreaves invented a machine called the Spinning-Jenny. y Arkwright invented a machine operated by water power, which made stronger threads.
y

Hargreaves¶ Spinning Jenny

Sir Richard Arkwright¶s improved Spinning Machine of 1775

IMPROVED STEAM ENGINES
In 1769 James Watt made an engine in which steam pressure was controlled by valves. y Thus the standing steam engine was converted by James Watt into an effective means to turn the wheels. y This steam engine became the throbbing heart of every industry.
y
James Watt(1736-1819) An improver of the Steam Engine

Robert Fulton's "steamboat"
y

An invention that would change the way and the speed in which materials could be moved between the colonies of Britain

Stephenson's "steam powered train"
Stephenson used the steam engine to create a steam powered train y Fundamental in the development of transportation
y

Chemicals
The great increase of the production of sulphuric acid y The production of sodium carbonate y The development of bleaching powder y chemical process for making portland cement
y

The Thames Tunnel Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel

The Crystal Palace is the supreme example of the use of sheet glass in a new and innovative structure.

1ST CREDIT CARD

Credit cards were invented in post-industrial revolution . America just before World War I

Credit cards were invented in postindustrial revolution .America just before World War I, and coincided with a general rise in the issuance of consumer credit for many types of goods and services. The first credit cards were issued by retail stores and oil companies to increase sales and make customer identification easier. Until the early 1980s, most people thought of credit cards as a luxury payment method afforded only by good credit standing and responsible borrowing. However, something important changed to allow the modern credit card industry to emerge. ´That change was the Marquette Decision. ´ Since the Marquette Decision, credit cards have exploded in use, supply, and demand.

The Factory System
y

The Domestic System Virtually all work was done by hand, in much the same way that it y had always been done since the time of the Romans. Workers would receive the raw materials, take them home and build whatever was required, and then return the finished product.
y

The Factory System The factory system developed in the late eighteenth century, chiefly due to the advances being made in the textile industry. With inventions such as the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, and many others, the making of cloth became much faster, and could be done on a much wider scale. As a result, hand weavers were driven out of business by big new factories, which they were later forced to work in. These factories were first run by water, then by steam, and their output greatly improved the nation's economy. Instead of one worker completing an item, such as a length of material, a variety of machines made the fabric. Also, instead of one worker following the same piece of material from raw wool to dyed cloth, each worker concentrated on only one task. This "assembly-line" approach was very efficient, however the tasks became extremely monotonous and repetitive. Working conditions were also very poor. Factory labourers³mainly young children³ had to put in extremely long hours, were very poorly paid, and worked in dangerous and violent surroundings. During the first part of the Industrial Revolution there were no laws to protect workers, and even when a few were passed they were rarely followed.

y

y

Usually work was done in the labourer's own home, although in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries some labourers y worked all together in large "factories" or workrooms (Porter).
y

y

IRON AND COAL INDUSTRIES
Steam Engines and other machines required iron in huge quantities until it was replaced by the fire of charcoal. y Reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable
y y

The first warship built of iron plates was the WARRIOR.
HMS Warrior (1860), first iron hulled warship

MEANS OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
y y

y

The need to carry raw material and finished goods required improved communications. Roads - James Telford (a clever bridge-builder) constructed roads across rivers by means of iron bridges. Canals ² used to deliver bulk deliveeries

Iron Bridge
y

The Iron Bridge crosses the River Severn at the Ironbridge Gorge, by the village of Ironbridge, in Shropshire, England. It was the first arch bridge in the world to be made out of cast iron, a material which was previously far too expensive to use for large structures.

THE SPREAD OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
y

America - Postal facilities started from 1750.
Cotton textile was its leading industry. It started manufacturing huge amount of steel in 1875. Transportation improved and brought people together.

WILLIAM DRACUP (the founder and developer of textile industry in America)

Contd«.. Contd«..
y

France - After Napoleon·s defeat in 1815, industrial revolution showed concrete effects. Steam power was used in mines and by metal workers. County·s iron and textile industries were in a state to compete with those of British. The government helped home industries by putting heavy tax on imported items.

Steel workers of France

Contd««. Contd««.
y

Germany - Germany finally united in 1870-71.
New methods were first used in textiles and iron industries. First railway line in 1839between Dresdon and Leipzig. Germany, America and Britain became the largest producers of iron, coal and cotton goods.

Textile industry

Contd«.
y

Russia - Earlier it was an agricultural country. After the abolition of serfdom, industrial revolution began in Russia 1961. Industrial revolution to Russian rulers meant more armaments for war. After 1917 railways, workshops and factories were declared ¶national property· and were operated by the government.

Textile industry

Contd«
y

Japan - It was the Asian country where westernization began in late 1880s.
By 1910 Japan developed a lot of industries. x Iron x Steel x Chemicals x Machinery x Ship Building
A Cotton factory

An Iron factory

Fundamental Shifts in Social Structure
y

The Luddites
the most outspoken and violent movement to protest the Industrial Revolution, which happened in 1811

y

Peterloo
a "reform meeting´ in 1819 at Manchester known as the Peterloo massacre

y

Housing

The worker's houses were usually near to the factories so that people could walk to work. They were built really quickly and cheaply. The houses were cheap, most had between 2-4 rooms - one or two rooms downstairs, and one or two rooms upstairs. Victorian families were big with 4 or 5 children. There was no running water or toilet. A whole street would have to share an outdoor pump and a couple of outside toilets. Most houses in the North of England were "back to backs" (built in double rows) with no windows at the front, no backyards and a sewer down the middle of the street.

Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c. 1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities

y

Pollution

Chimneys, bridges and factory smoke blocked out most of the light in the towns. A layer of dirty smoke often covered the streets like a blanket. This came from the factories that used steam to power their machines. The steam was made by burning coal

RISE OF IMPERIALISM
y y y

y y

Industrialisation led to rise and growth of Imperialism. There was a mad scramble among the western powers for colonies and new territories. From 1870-1914 almost all nations of Asia and Africa had come under control of one or the other imperial power. Each imperial power feared and hated the other. This was a major cause of World Wars.

Contd« Contd«
y

Imperialism, a mad rush for new territories, arose. The imperial powers maintained large armies for either rivalry with other imperial powers or to supress a native revolt.

Rise of Capitalism
y

With the coming of Industrialization a lot of ´Industrial capital was needed in for it. This brought up the rich factory owners known as Capitalists. Adam Smith The Capitalists exploited the workers for their own profit. The workers were paid very low wages at the end of fifteen hours. Even women and children worked in such factories with very short interval for food.

y y

Modes of Travel odes
Industrial Revolution improved Britain·s transport infrastructure such as road, canal, waterway and railway networks. y Raw materials and finished products were moved more quickly. y Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.
y

Navigable Rivers
River Severn was used for moving goods to the Midlands and for the export of goods from the centers of production in Shropshire. Transport was by way of trows³ small sailing vessels which could pass the various shallows and bridges in the river.

y

y

The Turnpike Trust: Development of Roads

y

y

y

They were toll roads, where the user had to pay a fee to make use of the road. A defensive frame of pikes that can be turned to allow passage of horses, but in this context it refers to a gate set across the road to stop carts until a toll was paid. Road transport became the best means of carrying goods rapidly and safely between the booming towns of late 18th and early 19th century England

Canals
Canals were built in the late 18th century to link the major manufacturing centers in the Midlands and in London. y Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country.
y

Railways
Wagon ways linking coal mines to nearby navigable rivers y Construction of major railways connecting the larger cities and towns began in the 1830s but only gained momentum at the very end of the first Industrial Revolution. y Railways helped Britain's trade enormously, providing a quick and easy way of transport and an easy way to transport mail and news.
y

Robert Fulton
y y

y

A famous inventor and engineer. During 1780·s, he became the first American to build a steam-powered engine.This was used to power steamboats. He built a paddle steamboat called ´The Clermontµ. Steamboats were important because they became the fastest way of transportation for Americans.

Working Conditions
Child Labour y Many factory workers were children. y They worked long hours and were often treated badly by the supervisors or overseers. y Children started work as young as four or five years old. y A young child could not earn much

y

"I have seen my master, Luke Taylor, with a horse whip standing outside the mill when the children have come too late.........he lashed them all the way to the mill." John Fairbrother, an overlooker, interviewed in 1819. "When I was seven years old I went to work at Mr Marshall·s factory at Shrewsbury. If a child became sleepy, the overlooker touches the child on the shoulder and says "come here". In the corner of the room there is an iron cistern filled with water. He takes the boy by the legs and dips him in the cistern, and then sends him back to work." Jonathan Downe interviewed in June 1832. "The smallest child in the factories were scavengers««they go under the machine, while it is going«««.it is very dangerous when they first come, but they become used to it." Charles Aberdeen worked in a Manchester cotton factory, written in 1832.

y

y

y

"Sarah Golding was poorly and so she stopped her machine. James Birch, the overlooker, knocked her to the floor. She got up as well as she could. He knocked her down again. Then she was carried to her house.......she was found dead in her bed. There was another girl called Mary......she knocked her food can to the floor. The master, Mr. Newton, kicked her and caused her to wear away till she died. There was another, Caroline Thompson, who was beaten till she went out of her mind. The overlookers used to cut off the hair of any girl caught talking to a lad. This head shaving was a dreadful punishment.We were more afraid of it than any other punishment for girls are proud of their hair." An interview in 1849 with an unknown woman who worked in a cotton factory as a child. "Woodward and other overlookers used to beat me with pieces of thick leather straps made supple by oil, and having an iron buckle at the end, drew blood almost every time it was applied." John Brown quoted in the "Lion" newspaper in 1828.

y

RISE OF SOCIALISM
Socialism - The land and other instruments of production shall be the common property of the people and shall be used and governed by the people, for the people. y Socialism was the reaction to capitalism. y Early Socialists- Robert Owen was the first to use the word ´Socialismµ. He helped out his factory workers. He paid them good wages, reduced their working hours and came to be known as ´Father of British Socialismµ.
y

ROBET OWEN

MARXIAN SOCIALISM
The best socialist so far was Karl Marx. y In 1847 with the help of Engels he set up a communist league. y They published the ´Communist Manifestoµ in 1848 which marked the advent of Scientific Socialism.
y

Karl Marx

Friedrich Engels

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