DRUGS

SUPPLEMENTALS ON PHARMACOLOGY

Basic pharmacological classification
Action and indication  Bad effects ± adverse reaction /side effect  Considerations  Drug examples 

DRUGS AND DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS COMMONLY ASKED 


DOPAMINE AND DOBUTAMINE ADRENALIN 
 

LIBRIUM VALIUM ATARAX 

  

AMPHOGEL MAALOX 

LIDOCAINE

AMINOGLYCOSIDES CEPHALOSPORINS 

 

ERYTHROMYCIN PENICILLINS SILVADENE 


NITROFURANTOIN PYRIDIUM HEPARIN COUMADIN 

PROBANTHINE 
 

   

DILANTIN VALIUM PHENOBARBITAL MAGNESIUM SULFATE TEGRETOL AND CLONAZEPAM 

 

MAO TRICYCLICSTRICYCLICS-E.G.TOFRANIL/ELAVIL SSRISSRI-FLOUXETINE 
 

INSULIN OHA GLUCAGON COMPAZINE / DRAMAMINE COLCHICINE PROBENECID ALLOPURINOL 

LOMOTIL / IMMODIUM  

AMPHOTERICIN 
  

BENADRYL 

QUESTRAN 

ANTIHYPERTENSIVES
LITHIUM  ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS  

ANTIPARKINSONIAN

AGENTS 

ASA 

ANTIPSYCHOTICS 

     

TYLENOL AND PARACETAMOL ANTIANTI-THYROIDS THYROID REPLACEMENTS ANTI TUBERCULAR MUCOLYTIC,EXPECTORANTS BRONCHODILATORS ANTIVIRAL 

RITALIN 
 

, CYCLERT

DIAMOX PILOCARPINE DIGOXIN

TENSILON  MESTINON AND PROSTIGMIN  

DIURETICS

ELECTROLYTE REPLACEMENT  EYE MEDICATIONS  STEROIDS  H2-RECEPTOR BLOCKERS H2 IMMUNOSUPRESSANTS  LAXATIVES AND STOOL SOFTENERS  MIOTICS AND MYDRIATICS  

MORPHINE  DEMEROL

SULFATE 

NITROGLYCERIN  ISORDIL  NSAIDS  STREPTOKINASE 

ENDURANCE

± DEVELOPS EVERYTIME YOU DEFEAT THE TEMPTATION TO GIVE UP««QUITTERS NEVER LOSE BUT THEY NEVER WIN. REST IF YOU MUST. BUT DON¶T QUIT

SELECTED DRUGS
C LASSIFICATION  HOW TO ASSESS FOR EFFECTIVENESS  EXACT TIME  CLIENT TEACHING TIPS  KEYS IN SAFETY 

AMPHOGEL(Aluminum Hydroxide) 
   

Antacid Decrease in abdominal pain; neutralize gastric acids Best given 2 hours after and 1 hour before meals Increase OFI and bulk in diet, ambulate- causes ambulateconstipation, absorption of antibiotics ( tetracycline and phenothiazines and effectiveness of ASA¶S and pills are decreased. Use cautiously in patients with cardiac and renal disease; monitor bowel function; monitor for signs of phosphate deficiencydeficiencymalaise,weakness tremors and bone pain

ALLUPURINOL(ZYLOPRIM) 
 

 

ANTIGOUT AGENT REDUCED URIC ACID (BOTH SERUM AND URINARY)BY INHIBITING XANTHINE OXIDASE. GIVEN AFTER MEALS;MAY BE CRUSHED OR WITH FLUID OR MIXED WITH FOOD CAUSES AGRANULOCYTOSIS,APLASTIC ANEMIA,URTICARIA AND IS HEPATOXIC AND RENAL INSUFFICIENCY AIM IS TO LOWER SERUM URIC ACID LEVEL TO 6 MG/DL(MONITOR BY 1-3 WKS; 1MONITOR LFT¶S AND KIDNEY FUNCTION; REPORT ONSET OF RASH; INCREASE OFI; AVOID EXPOSURE TO UV RAYS - CATARACTS

ANTABUSE 
   

CAUSES AN UNPLEASANT REACTION WHEN COMBINED WITH ALCOHOL PATIENT AVOIDS ALCOHOL BEST TAKEN AFTER ABSTAINING ALCOHOL FOR 12 HOURS INSTRUCT PATIENT TO AVOID ALCOHOL BASED SUBSTANCES INSPECT PATIENTS BELONGINGS AND CONFISCATE ALCOHOLIC SUBSTANCES, MONITOR LFT¶S

APRESOLINE -HYDRALAZINE
ANTI HYPERTENSIVE  DECREASED BP  BEST TAKEN WITH FOOD  RISE SLOWLY  MONITOR FOR ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION AND HR FOR TACHYCARDIA 

ATROPINE SULFATE
ANTICHOLINERGIC, VAGOLYTIC DRYING AGENT  INCREASES HEART RATE IN A CLIENT WITH HEART BLOCK, USED PRE-OPERATIVELY TO PREDECREASE SECRETIONS  BEST TAKEN 30 MINUTES BEFORE MEAL  MAY CAUSE FACIAL FLUSHING, AVOID TASKS THAT REQUIRE ACUTE VISION AVOID HOT ENVT. CHECK BP, CAUSES HYPOTENSION, CONSTIPATION AND DRYMOUTH 

Bromcriptine Mesylate ( Parlodel) 
 

 

Ergot Alkaloid, Antiparkinsonian agent, ANS agent Restoring of ovulation thus correction of female infertility and activated dopaminergic receptors in the CNS ± relief of symptoms of parkinsons ± improvement seen in60-90 min in60Give with meals, milk / food afterV.S. stabilized May cause shock MI, Raynaud¶s ,orthostatic hypotension and nausea; supressed lactation Have patient lie in supine position ±may caues dizziness and fainting;store intightly closed containers;

CELESTONE(BETHAMETHASONE)
STEROID,STIMULATES LUNG MATURITY IN INFANTS  - RESP DISTRESS  GIVEN WITH FOOD  REPORT SIGNS OF INFECTION  MONITOR WEIGHT , GIVE ONCE A DAY DOSE IN THE MORNING TO AVOID INSOMNIA GIVEN 48 HOURS BEFORE DELIVERY 

Buspirone Hcl ( Buspar) 
   

Anxiolytic ( SRI and Dopamine agonist) Decreased anxiety Give with food or 8h before and after drinking grapefruit juice Causes dizziness, drowsiness and headache, nausea,palpitations; desired response seen in 7710 days(optimal 3-4 wks) 3Monitor cardiovascular parameters if taken with digoxin;ensure compliance; report ASAP the following manifestations: nervousness, nightmares, involuntary movements of the neck or face, blurred vision and depression; monitor dystonia , GUT function and LFT¶s

CLOZARILCLOZARIL-CLOZAPINE 
   

ANTIPSYCHOTIC DECREASED DELUSION,HALLUCINATIONS AND LOOSENESS OF ASSOCIATION BEST TAKEN AFTER MEALS REPORT SORETHROAT AND AVOID EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT CHECK BP ± CAUSES HYPOTENSION, ASSESS FOR AKATHISIA, TARDIVE DYSKENISIADYSKENISIA-TONGUE TWITCHING AND LIP SMACKING

LIBRIUMLIBRIUMCHLORDIAZEPOXIDE
ANTIANXIETYANTIANXIETY-BENZODIAZEPINES  DECREASED ANXIETY AND INC. RELAXATION  WITH FOOD OR MILK  NO ACTIVITY REQUIRING ALERTNESS , SUGARLESS GUM  HOLD DRUG IF BP DROPS MORE THAN 20 MMHG , WATCH OUT FOR ECG CHANGES AND TACHYCARDIA-REFER TACHYCARDIA

Dilantin ( Phenytoin Na) 
   

Anti convulsants Decrease in seizure activity- by decreasing flow activityof calcium and Na across neuronal membranes Give with at least ½ glass of water or with meals to decrease GI irritation Red brown or pink discoloration of urine may occur, never mix with any drug or dextrose IV; perform oral care ± gingival hyperplasia; causes catdiovascular depression, agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia Avoid alcohol and activities that require alertness; increase vitamin D and exposure to sunlight in prolonged use;

DOPAMINE( Intropin) 
   

ADRENERGIC AGENT BROCHODILATION AND INCREASED bp AND HEART RATE GIVEN FOR CARDIAC ARREST AND COPD ± STAT MONITOR BP , CARDIAC MONITORING , PERIPERAL PULSES ,OUTPUT AND CBG ± CAN CAUSE HYPERGLYCEMIA DON¶T MIX WITH OTHER SOLUTIONS, CAN CAUSE ARRYTHMIAS, ANTICHOLINERGIC EFFECTS AND TREMORS

GARAMYCIN(GENTAMYCIN)
AMINOGLYCOSIDE,BACTERICIDAL  - INFECTION  NO SPECIFIC TIME  INCREASE FLUID INTAKE, TINNITUS INDICATES OTOTOXICITY  MONITOR FOR SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF OTOTOXICITY, NEPHROTOXICITY AND NEUROTOXICITY 

INDERAL -PROPANOLOL  

  

ANTI ANGINAL, ANTIARRYTHMIC, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE,REDUCES PORTAL PRESSURE AND DECREASES THE RISK OF BLEEDING FROM ESOPHAGEAL VARICES DECREASED BP BEST TAKEN WITH MEALS AVOID DRIVING , DO NOT DISCONTINUE ABRUPTLY CHECK BP ± CAUSES HYPOTENSION

ISORDIL
ANTIANGINAL/RELAXES SMOOTH MUSCLES  DECREASED BP  BEST TAKEN ON EMPTY STOMACH  CHANGE POSITION SLOWLY, CAUSES FACIAL FLUSHING  CHECK BP, DO NOT CHEW SUSTAINED RELEASE FORM 

LEVODOPA
ANTIPARKINSONISM  MUSCLES BECOME LESS STIFF  BEST TAKEN WITH MEALS  AVOID FOODS CONTAINING B6 OR CHON RICH FOODS-DECREASES FOODSABSORPTION  ENSURE PATIENT VOIDS-MAY CAUSE VOIDSURINARY RETENTION 

LITHIUM CARBONATE 
     

ANTIMANIC DECREASED HYPERACTIVITY BEST TAKEN AFTER MEALS INCREASE OFI¶S 3 L/D AND Na 3 GM./DAY AVOID ACTIVITIES THAT INCREASE PERSPIRATION TAKES 10-14 DAYS BEFORE THERAPEUTIC 10EFFECT BECOMES EVIDENT.ANTIPSYCHOTIC GIVEN DURING THE FIRST TWO WEEKS TO MANAGE ACUTE SYMPTOMS MONITOR SERUM LEVEL , NAVDA-INDICATES NAVDATOXICITY, MANNITOL - ANTIDOTE

TOFRANIL( Imipramine)
TCA µs  Decrease in brain amine levels ± alleviation of depression and relief of obstructive sleep apnea  Same time in AM ;give sugarless candy  Causes sedation urinary retention and confusion( elderly) and photosensitivity  Do not stop abruptly(HA , vertigo, nightmares,malaise and weight change) ; avoid OTC¶s, alcohol and sleep inducers  

TODAY WILL NEVER HAPPEN AGAIN ; DO NOT START IT WITH A BAD BAD IMPRESSION THAT THINGS ARE DIFFICULT ««.AND THAT YOU CANNOT MASTER ANYTHING««.REMEMBER YOU ARE NOT BORN TO FAIL AND TAKING A SECOND CHANCE IS NOT AN OPTION«« YOU ARE BORN TO MAKE IT GOOD. IT¶S ALL IN THE MIND!!!!

BULLETS  

SALICYLATE POISONINGPOISONINGTINNITUS,NAVDA,LETHARGY/EXCITABILITY, HYPERVENTILATION AND HYPERTHERMIA,METABOLIC ACIDOSIS LIDOCAINE TOXICITY 
  

SLURRED SPEECH ALTERED CNS MUSCLE TWITCHING SEIZURES 

TOXIC LEVEL
LITHIUM 2.0 MeQ/l  DIGOXIN 2.0 NG/ML  THEOPHYLLINE 20 MCG/ML  

THIS DRUGS CAN INTERACT 

THEOPHYLLINE,DILANTIN,COUMADIN,ILO SONE

TETRACYCLINE AND QUINOLONES-NO QUINOLONESTO PREGNANCY  AMINO GLYCOSIDE TOXICITY  

OTOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY

PEAK ± 1 ½ HOURS AFTER ADMINISTRATION  TROUGH ± 30 MINUTES PRIOR TO THE NEXT DOSE  ORAL BIRTH CONTROL PILLS-COMP. PILLS

ABDOMINAL PAIN  CHEST PAIN-SOB PAIN HEADACHES AND HYPERTENSION  EYE PROBLEMS  SEVERE LEG PAIN 

LEADS ± EMERGENCY DRUGS  BETA BLOCKER ACTIONS 

BETA 1 ± HEART  BETA 2 ± LUNGS  

SIDE EFFECTS OF ADRENERGIC ANTAGONIST BETA BLOCKERS
HYPOTENSION  DROWSINESS/DEPRESSION  SYMPTOMS OF CHF  BRADYCARDIA  

EXAMPLES

PROPANOLOL,TENORMIN,LOPRESSOR PROPANOLOL,TENORMIN,LOPRESSOR 

SIDE EFFECTS OF ADRENERGIC ANTAGONIST ALPHA BLOCKERS
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION  TACHYCARDIA  ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION  VERTIGO  

DOXAZOSIN

( CARDURA)  PRAZOSIN (MINIPRESS)  METHYLDOPA ( ALDOMET) 

  

CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS ± VERY NICE DRUGS BLOCKS CALCIUM ACCESS TO CELLS CAUSING DECREASED COTRACTILITY,CONDUCTIVITY OF THE HEART AND DEC. FOR OXYGEN DEMAND SIDE EFFECTS:HYPOTENSION,BRADYCARDIA(AV BLOCKBLOCKPRECIPITATES)HA,ABDL.DISC,PERIPHERAL EDEMA EXAMPLES: 


VERAPAMIL NIFEDIPINE DIALTIZEM VERY NICE DRUGS 

DRUGS FOR BRADYCARDIA

ISOPROTERINOL  DOPAMINE  EPINEPHRINE  ATROPHINE 

ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS  ACE INHIBITORSINHIBITORSCAPOTEN/CAPTOPRIL,VASOTEC/ENAL APRIL,LOTENSIN/BENZAPRIL)  BETA ± BLOCKERSBLOCKERSINDERAL/PROPANOLOL, TENORMIN/ATENOLOL  CALCIUM ANTAGONIST- CALAN ANTAGONISTISOPTIN/VERAPAMIL, CARDIZEM/DIALTIZEM, PROCARDIA/ NIFEDIPINE 

ACE INHIBITORSINHIBITORS    

SIDE EFFECTS-DIZZINESS EFFECTSORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION GI DISTRESS COUGH HEADACHE 

ACTIONSACTIONS- DECREASED PERIPHERAL VASCULARRESISTANCE WITHOUT INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT,CARDIAC RATE AND CARDIAC CONTRACTILITY 

B-BLOCKERS ACTION ± BLOCKS BETA RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CAUSING DECREASED HEART RATE, FORCE OF CONDUCTION AND RATE OF AV CONDUCTION SIDE EFFECTSEFFECTSBRADYCARDIA,LETHARGY,GI DIST. CHF ,HYPOTENSION,DEPRESSION   

ANTIANTI-CANCER DRUGS-ADVERSE DRUGSREACTIONS AND PRECAUTIONS
NAVDA  BONE MARROW SUPPRESSION  ALOPECIA  (AVOID PREGNANCY)  

CHOLINERGIC CRISIS- (WEAKNESS) CRISISSALIVATION  LACRIMATION  URINATION  DEFECATION 

SYMPATHETIC/ANTI CHOLINERGIC/ADRENERGICCHOLINERGIC/ADRENERGICFIGHT/FLIGHT  PARASYMPATHETIC-REST AND DIGEST PARASYMPATHETIC

STEROIDSSTEROIDS- (ENDS IN ONE) ANTIANTIINFLAMMATORY  INH ±INCREASE B6  LEVODOPA ± DECREASE B6  MAO-NO MAOPICKLES,WINE,CHEES,BARBITURATES ,TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS,ANTIHISTAMINES, ANTIHYPERTENSIVES,OTC COLD MEDS  

SWEATING,TREMORS,HYPERTHERMIA,HPN,

BOUNDING HEART

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