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7.7-Hydraulic and Energy Grade ..

7.7-Hydraulic and Energy Grade ..

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Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines


7.7 Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines
This section introduces the hydraulic grade line (HGL) and the energy grade line (EGL), which are graphical representations that show head in a system. This visual approach provides insights and helps one locate and correct trouble spots in the system (usually points of low pressure). The EGL, shown in Fig. 7.7, is a line that indicates the total head at each location in a system. The EGL is related to terms in the energy equation by (7.38) Notice that total head, which characterizes the energy that is carried by a flowing fluid, is the sum of velocity head, the pressure head, and the elevation head.

Figure 7.7 EGL and HGL in a straight pipe. The HGL, shown in Fig. 7.7, is a line that indicates the piezometric head at each location in a system: (7.39)

Since the HGL gives piezometric head, the HGL will be coincident with the liquid surface in a piezometer as shown in Fig.7.7. Similarly, the EGL will be coincident with the liquid surface in a stagnation tube.

Tips for Drawing HGLs and EGLs
1. 2. In a lake or reservoir, the HGL and EGL will coincide with the liquid surface. Also, both the HGL and EGL will indicate piezometric head. For example, see Fig. 7.7. A pump causes an abrupt rise in the EGL and HGL by adding energy to the flow. For example, see Fig. 7.8.

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indicating subatmospheric pressure (see Fig. see Fig. 7. A turbine causes an abrupt drop in the EGL and HGL by removing energy from the flow. When a flow passage changes diameter. then p/γ is negative.9. as in Fig. the slope on the EGL will change because the head loss per length will be larger in the conduit with the larger velocity (see Fig.10 and Fig. the HGL in the liquid jet is drawn through the jet itself. For example. 9. 5. the slope (∆hL/∆L) of the EGL and the HGL will be constant. this kinetic energy is lost. 10. 7.wiley. Figure 7. the distance between the EGL and the HGL will change (see Fig. 7. Power generated by a turbine can be increased by using a gradual expansion at the turbine outlet. 7.12) and a potential location of cavitation. For example. As shown in Fig. 4.12. 2 of 6 1/15/2009 12:44 AM . For steady flow in a Pipe of constant diameter and wall roughness. 7. When a pipe discharges into the atmosphere the HGL is coincident with the system because p/γ = 0 at these points. the expansion converts kinetic energy to pressure. 7.9. Height of the EGL decreases in the flow direction unless a pump is present. 8.11). In addition.10 and 7. 7.9 Drop in EGL and HGL due to turbine. 7. If the HGL falls below the pipe. 6.8 Rise in EGL and HGL due to Pump.Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines http://edugen. see Fig.11) because velocity changes.7 Locate the HGL below the EGL by a distance of the velocity head (αV2/2g).11. If the outlet to a reservoir is an abrupt expansion. 7. 3. in Figures 7. Figure 7..com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771.. For example.

com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771. Figure 7.11 Change in EGL and HGL due to change in diameter of pipe. Figure 7. Notice how the tips from pp.. 233–234 are applied.. 3 of 6 1/15/2009 12:44 AM . Figure 7.Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines http://edugen. The recommended procedure for drawing an EGL and HGL is shown in Example 7.6.wiley.10 Change in HGL and EGL due to flow through a nozzle.12 Subatmospheric pressure when pipe is above HGL.

and the head loss in the pipe is given by Determine the head supplied by the pump. Draw the HGL and EGL by using the tips given on p.Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines http://edugen.5: γ = 62. Assume that the pipe is horizontal and is 510 ft in elevation. 4. Problem Definition Situation: Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to a higher reservoir.6 EGL A D HGL FOR A SYSTEM A pump draws water (50°F) from a reservoir. and forces the water through a pipe 5000 ft long and 1 ft in diameter..29 between sections 1 and section 2.com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771.85 cfs. The flow rate is 7. Power (in hp) supplied to the flow. This pipe then discharges the water into a reservoir with water-surface elevation of 620 ft. Properties: Water (50°F). 2. Pump head (in ft). Solution 1. Find the power by applying the power equation 7. 3. and the power supplied to the flow. Table A.4 lbf/ft3. Find: 1. where the water-surface elevation is 520 ft. and draw the HGL and EGL for the system.. Sketch: Plan 1. Draw HGL. Energy equation (general form) 4 of 6 1/15/2009 12:44 AM . 3. EXAMPLE 7. Draw EGL. 270. 2. hp. Calculate terms in the energy equation.wiley.30a. Apply the energy equation 7.

com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771.Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines http://edugen. 3. Show a small head loss.wiley. · Calculate hp. Interpretation: Head supplied by the pump provides the energy to lift the fluid to a higher elevation plus the energy to overcome head loss. check the sketches to ensure that EGL and HGL are decreasing in the direction of flow (except at the pump). · From Tip 2. 233. locate the HGL and EGL along the reservoir surfaces. · ht = 0 because there are no turbines in the system. Sketch: HGL (dashed black line) and EGL (solid blue line) 5 of 6 1/15/2009 12:44 AM . · From Tip 4.6 ft. · Calculate head loss. Also.. Calculations of terms in the energy equation · Calculate V using the flow rate equation. 2. Power 4. sketch the HGL below the EGL by a distance of V2/2g ≈ 1. · Velocity heads are negligible because V1 ≈ 0 and V2 ≈ 0. · From Tip 3. Use the fact that the head loss is 77.6 ft. · From Tip 5. sketch the EGL from the pump outlet to the reservoir surface. · Pressure heads are zero because p1 = p2 = 0 gage.. HGL and EGL · From Tip 1 on p. sketch in a head rise of 178 ft corresponding to the pump. sketch EGL from the reservoir on the left to the pump inlet.

6 of 6 1/15/2009 12:44 AM ...com/edugen/courses/crs2436/crowe9771/crowe9771. Inc. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons.Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines http://edugen. All rights reserved.wiley.

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