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MODULE 5 5.0 WELL LOG ANALYSIS 5.1 Wireline Geophysical Well Log – continuous recording of a geophysical parameter along a borehole.
Table 51. Common wireline geophysical well measurements (Rider, 1996) Measurement Log Type Parameter Measured Mechanical Caliper Hole diameter Spontaneous Temperature Borehole temperature SelfPotential (SP) Spontaneous electrical currents Gamma Ray (GR) Natural radioactivity Induced Resistivity Resistance to electric current Induction Conductivity of electric current Sonic Velocity of sound propagation Density Reaction to gamma ray bombardment Photoelectric Reaction to gamma ray bombardment Neutron Reaction to neutron bombardment Table 52. Principal uses of wireline logs (modified after Rider, 1996)
Photoelectric Temperature Gamma Ray Spectral GR Sonic SP
Log Uses
General Geology Lithology  general Unusual lithology: Volcanics Evaporites Mineral identification Correlation: stratigraphy Facies, dep. environment Reservoir Geology Fracture identification Overpressure identification Maturity Petrophysics Porosity Permeability Shale volume Formation water salinity Hydrocarbon saturation Gas identification Seismic Interval velocity
+ + C 
Geochemistry Source rock identification
dip Acoustic impedance Legend: () essentially qualitative; (+) qualitative and semiquantitative; (C) strictly quantitative
  + + + +     + +     +  +        + + + + + + + + + + + C C C + + C  C dip C C

Image logs
Resistivity
Dipmeter
Neutron
Density
Caliper

+
+
+
1 Log Presentation The values of the parameter measured are plotted continuously against depth in the well. Hard copies of well logs are in standard API (American Petroleum Institute) log format. a 4cycle logarithmic scale. °F/100 ft. A column 0.25 in. The overall log width is 8.5 in.. Graphical solution of formation temperature is provided by Schlumberger Gen6 chart.5. the common vertical scales used are l:200 and 1:500 but for image logs (microresistivity) it is usually 1:20 and 1:40. Every log is preceded by a header.1. It shows pertinent information for proper interpretation of the log and in addition. 5. °F Ts = surface temperature (80°F) D = depth of formation. ft. while tracks 2 and 3 may have a linear scale similar to track1.1. For most well logs. or a combination of logarithmic scale in track 2 and linear scale in track 3. with three tracks of 2.052 x height of fluid column (ft. with ten division of 0.) x density (ppg) Overpressure – any pressure above the hydrostatic (or normal) pressure Temperature Geothermal gradient G = 100 (Tf − Ts ) / D Formation temperature Tf = Ts + G(D/100) G = geothermal gradient. Tf = formation temperature. wide each.25 in. wide separates tracks 1 and 2 where the depths are indicated.2 The Logging Environment Pressure Formation pressure – the pressure under which the subsurface formation fluids and gases are confined. . Hydrostatic pressure – the pressure exerted by a column of fluid.75 in. some details of the well and the log run. it is due to the column of drilling mud and is: Ph (psi) = 0. Track 1 is always linear. In the borehole.
both caliper larger than bit size.mud cake formation indicates permeability and involves loss of mud filtrate into a permeable formation – invasion. in shaly zones and dipping beds. . Also shown are the nomenclature of the corresponding resistivities and saturations in each zone. esp. Schlumberger Charts) shows invasion by mud filtrate of a permeable bed in a borehole. Invasion Profile Figure 51 (Gen3. formed by wear against the drill string at points where the borehole inclination changes (doglegs) Breakout – similar to keyseat but not due to doglegs.generally due to formation of mud cake Mud cake thickness = (bit size diameter – caliper diameter reading)/2 . small brittle fractures (spalling) due to existing stress regime of the country rock Decreased borehole diameter .Borehole Geometry From caliper Gauged hole – diameter of hole is about equal to the bit size Increased borehole diameter Washout – general drilling wear. considerable vertical extent Keyseat – asymmetric oval holes.
3 Process of Interpretation • • • • • • • Identify potential reservoir intervals. Some resistivity logs (actually induction logs) measures conductivity instead which is the reciprocal of resistivity. Asquith. bedding Gross lithologies characteristics Compaction. resistivity (ohms m2/m) = 1 × 1000 (millimhos/m) conductivity Induction logs are used in wells drilled with a relatively freshwater mud (low salinity) to obtain more accurate value of true resistivity. more commonly shortened to just ohmmeter. p. Rxo). Sxo) using resistivity (Rt. nonreservoir intervals from porous potential intervals. Calculate water saturations (Sw. Estimate thickness of the potential reservoirs. Figure here (Flow chart for log interpretation. Table 53. Determine resistivity of formation water (Rw). distinguish nonpermeable. Estimate inplace and movable hydrocarbons. Resistivity is the resistance measured between opposite faces of a unit cube of the substance at specified temperature. Resistivity is measured in ohmmeter2/meter.1. Calculate porosity (Φ). Principal uses of the resistivity and induction logs Used for Knowing Formation water resistivity (Rw) Quantitative Fluid saturation: Mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf) Formation Porosity (φ) [and F] Invaded zone Temperature (detect hydrocarbons) SemiTexture Calibration with cores quantitative Lithology Mineral resistivities and Correlation qualitative Facies.1045) 5.2 Resistivity Logs Resistance is the opposition offered by a substance to the passage of electric current.5. overpressure Normal pressure trends and shale porosity Source rock identification Sonic and density log values Source rock maturation Formation temperature . Resistivity logs do not always measure resistivity directly. Determine lithology (rock type) of the potential reservoirs.
a difference in salinity (or pressure) between the borehole fluid and the formation fluid. 2. and 3. a conductive fluid in the borehole.3 Spontaneous Potential and Gamma Ray The SP and GR logs measures naturally occurring physical phenomena in insitu rocks. Idealized resistivity log.3. No artificial currents are applied.Figure 52. 5. no ground). . 5. Three factors are necessary to produce an SP current: 1. a porous and permeable bed surrounded by an impermeable formation.1 Spontaneous Potential The SP log is a measurement of the natural potential difference or self potential between an electrode in the borehole and a reference electrode at the surface (problem with offshore wells.
place the bed boundary at the point of maximum curve slope. (GR defines bed boundaries better. currents will spread widely and the SP will deflect slowly: definition is poor. Table 53. .Figure 53. which is the amount the curve moves to the left or to the right of a defined zero. If it has to be used. Idealized SP log. The definition of the SP zero. Principal uses of the SP log Used for Quantitative Formationwater resistivity Qualitative Shale volume Permeability indicator Facies (shaliness) Correlation Knowing Mud filtrate resistivity and formation temperature SSP (static SP) and shale line Shale line Clay/Grain size relationships Bed Boundary Definition and Bed Resolution Sharpness of a bed boundary depends on the shape and extent of the SPO current patterns.) Shale Baseline and SSP SP has no absolute values and thus treated quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of deflection. called shale baseline. When the resistivities are similar. is made on thick shale intervals where the SP curve does not move. When there is considerable difference between mud and formation water resistivity. All values are related to the shale baseline. SP should not be used to determine bed boundaries. In general. boundaries are sharper.
The theoretical maximum deflection of the SP opposite permeable beds is called the static SP or SSP. It is the maximum possible SP opposite a permeable. It represents the SP value that would be measured in an ideal case with the permeable bed isolated electrically. Shale content from SP is subject to complications due to SP noise. This is qualitatively true but quantitatively there is no theoretical basis. SSP (Static SP)– the maximum SP value in a clean sand zone. and high salinity drilling fluids. The formula simply assumes that the SP deflection between the shale base line (100% shale) and the static SP in a clean sand (0% shale) is proportional to the shale volume. The SSP is used to calculate formationwater resistivity (Rw). Rw/Rmf contrast. . HC content. waterbearing formation with no shale.24 x T°C) Shale Volume Vsh (%) = (1. Formationwater Resistivity (Rw) (S)SP = − K log ( Rmf )e ( Rw)e S(SP) = SP value: this should be the SSP (Rmf)e = equivalent mud filtrate resistivity: closely related to Rmf (Rw)e = equivalent formation water resistivity: closely related to Rw K = temperaturedependent coefficient K = 61+ (0.133 x T°F) K = 65 + (0.0 − PSP ) × 100 SSP PSP (Pseudostatic SP) – the SP value in the water–bearing shaly sand zone read from the SP log.
3.1. Volume of Shale from GR Vsh = 0.083 [2(3.0] I GR = GRlog − GRmin GRmax − GRmin .33 [2(2 x IGR) . Idealized GR and SGR log.1.5.2 Gamma Ray Figure 54.0] Vsh = 0.7 x IGR) .
and neutron logs 5. density.4.1 Sonic Figure 55.Φ) ∆tma Φ = porosity ∆t = log reading in microseconds/foot (µs/ft.) ∆tf = transit time for the liquid filling the pore (usually 189 µs/ft.) ∆tma = transit time for the rock type (matrix) comprising the formation Φ= ∆t − ∆t ma ∆t f − ∆t ma .5.4 Porosity Calculations – sonic. Wyllie’s Time Average Equation ∆t = Φ ∆tf + (1. Idealized Sonic log.
Idealized Density log. ρb = Φ ρf + (1.4.Φ) ρma Φ = porosity ρ = log reading in microseconds/foot (µs/ft.) ρ f = transit time for the liquid filling the pore (usually 189 µs/ft.2 Density Figure 56.5.) ρ ma = transit time for the rock type (matrix) comprising the formation Φ= ρ ma − ρ b ρ ma − ρ f .
Idealized Neutron log. Read directly from logs May need matrix correction Φ= φD + φN 2 if no light hydrocarbons Φ= φD + φN 2 if light hydrocarbons as present .3 Neutron Figure 57.4.5.
Formation factor equations have been approximated through the years by various workers and the following are the commonly used. F= 0.15 F= F= best average for sands (Humble) 0.81 φ2 simplified Humble compacted formations 1 φ2 .5.5 Water Saturation (Sw) Calculations Archie’s Equation F = Ro/Rw F = formation resistivity factor or simply formation factor Ro = resistivity of rock when water saturation is 1 (100% saturated) Rw = resistivity of saturating water F= a φm Φ =porosity a = cementation factor m = cementation exponent Figure 58. Schematic illustration of three formations with same porosity but different values of F (formation factor).62 φ 2.
Swn = aRw Rw =F m φ Rt Rt Practical average Archie’s Equation – general equation for finding water saturation. the most fundamental equation in well logging.15 × Rt Derived from Porosity logs (sonic.15 Rw Ro Rt Sw Sw Calculations Conventional Quick look Rwa “F” overlay SP Quick Look Clean Formation Shaly . neutron. crossplots.g. Calculated using empirical formulae (e. cannot be measured with logs) Induction Logs and Laterologs (deep resistivity) Sw hydrocarbons Ro = Sw 100% water Rt 0.Swn = Ro/Rt Sw = water saturation Rt = resistivity of rock when Sw < 1 Combining the above equations gives Archie’s equation. density). etc.62 φ 2. Sw = Symbol Φ Character Porosity F (formation factor) Formation water resistivity Rock resistivity saturated 100% with water True formation resistivity Water saturation of pores 0.62 × Rw φ 2. Humble formula) and porosity as above SP or laboratory measurements of resistivities of formation water samples Ro = F x Rw (can only be calculated.