Survey and leveling

By Prof Sachin Jain

It is the process of determining positions of points in a vertical plane . It is essentially a process of determine positions of points in a horizontal plane. Surveying is the art of making such measurements as will determine the relative positions of points on the surface of the earth in order that the shape and extent of any portion of earth¶s surface may be marked on map.  Leveling is the art of determining and representing the relative heights or elevations of different points on the surface of the earth.

 For all engineering project the preparation of accurate plans and sections is the first necessity. railways.Uses of surveys  It may be regarded as an art and science of map making.  The earliest surveys were chiefly confined to measurement of land and establishment of boundaries. . irrigation projects which are spread over large areas.  Now day¶s surveys are most important for construction projects such as highways.

Principles of surveying  Mainly two principles are used  To work from the whole to the part  To fix positions of new stations by at least two independent processes .

Classification of survey  Nature of the field of survey  Object of survey  Methods employed in survey  Instruments employed .

Modern surveys  Total station(transit & EDM)  GPS  GPRS  GIS .

by Duggal. S K   .References  Introduction to Geographic Information systems by Kang-tsing Chang Surveying vol I 2nd ed. S K Surveying vol II 2nd ed. by Duggal.

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