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An interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information. A system with one control unit and many slaves is not a network.
Computer Network (Cont.)
The existence of multiple autonomous computers is transparent to the user. Allocation of jobs to processor and files to disks and all other system functions must be automatic. Distributed system is a software system built on top of a network. Overlap between distributed systems and Computer Network Example: More files around System can involve the User movement.
User must explicitly do everything.
) Uses of Computer Network Companies Resource Sharing Geography People Access to information remote Social Issues News-groups Bulletin Boards High reliability: replication Saving money on the flow Person To Person communication & email Interactive Entertainment Client-server model Scalability: Ability to increase system performance gradually as the workload grows.Computer Network (Cont. .
A Communications Model Source Generates data to be transmitted Transmitter Converts data into transmittable signals Transmission system Carries data Receiver Converts received signal into data Destination Takes incoming data .
Simplified Communications Model .Diagram .
Key Communications Tasks Transmission system utilization Interfacing Signal generation Synchronization Exchange management Error detection and correction Addressing and routing Recovery Message formatting Security Network management .
sent by any machine. .Network Hardware Transmission Technology Broadcast Network Single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network. Point ± To ± Point Network Many connections between individual pairs of machines A packet may have to visit one or more intermediate machine. An address field within the packet specifies for whom it is intended. All the others receive ³Packets´ in certain contexts. Routing algorithms play an important role in PTP networks. Multicasting: transmission to a subnet of the machines.
Simplified Data Communications Model .
Networking Point to point communication not usually practical Devices are too far apart Large set of devices would need impractical number of connections Solution is a communications network .
Simplified Network Model .
Local Area Networks Smaller scope Building or small campus Usually owned by same organization as attached devices Data rates much higher Usually broadcast systems Now some switched systems and ATM are being introduced .
) NETWORKS LAN MAN WAN INTERNET LAN CHARACTERISTICS Size Transmission Technology Topology Restricted in Size Single Cable 10 to 100 Mbps Low delay (ms) Very few Errors Megabits/Sec. (Unit) BUS (Ethernet) Ring (Token ring) .Local Area Networks (Cont.
traffics to the left uses the lower one.MAN Metropolitan Area Network Support data and voice No switching elements Standard: DQDB (Distributed Queue Dual Bus) Two unidirectional buses to which all the computers are connected. Each bus has a head-end. . a device that initiates transmission activity. Traffic that is destined for a computer to the right of the sender uses the upper bus.
Wide Area Networks Large geographical area Crossing public rights of way Rely in part on common carrier circuits Alternative technologies Circuit switching Packet switching Frame relay Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) .
Circuits.Wide Area Networks (Cont. WAN CONSISTS OF Transmission Lines:. Subnet (communication subnet).) Host (end system). WANs typically have irregular topologies. . Channels or Tanks Switching Elements:Specialized computers used to connect two or more transmission lines.
Internet Collection of interconnected networks. SUBNET : (only routers). WAN : (router + hosts). . Example: A collection of LAN s connected by a WAN.
G. Telephone network .Circuit Switching Dedicated communications path established for the duration of the conversation E.
Packet Switching Data sent out of sequence Small chunks (packets) of data at a time Packets passed from node to node between source and destination Used for terminal to computer and computer to computer communications .
Frame Relay Packet switching systems have large overheads to compensate for errors Modern systems are more reliable Errors can be caught in end system Most overhead for error control is stripped out .
Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM (cell relay) Evolution of frame relay Little overhead for error control Fixed packet (called cell) length Anything from 10mbps to Gbps Constant data rate using packet switching technique Offers a constant data rate channel .
Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN Designed to replace public telecom system Wide variety of services Entirely digital domain First generation ( narrowband ISDN ) 64 kbps channel is the basic unit Circuit-switching orientation Contributed to frame relay Second generation ( broadband ISDN ) 100s of mbps Packet-switching orientation Contributed to ATM ( cell relay ) .
Protocols Used for communications between entities in a system Must speak the same language Entities User applications E-mail facilities Terminals Systems Computer Terminal Remote sensor .
Protocol: is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed. Peers communicate using the protocol. The purpose of each layer is to offer certain services to the higher layers. . no data directly transferred from layer n on one machine to layer n on another machine. Layer n on one-machine carries on a conversation with layer n on another machine. In reality.Protocol Hierarchies Organized as a series of layers or levels.
.Protocol Hierarchies (Cont. The design of layers helps in: Minimizing the amount of information that must be passed between layers Make it simpler to reduce the implementation of one layer with a completely different one Protocol stack: A list of protocol used by a certain system. one protocol per layer.) Each layer passes data and control information to the layer immediately below it. Between each pair of adjacent layers there is an interface .
Key Elements of a Protocol
Data formats Signal levels
Control information Error handling
Speed matching Sequencing
Design Issues for the Layers
Addressing. Data transfer.
Simplex communication. Half-duplex communication. Full-duplex communication.
Number and priorities of the logical connection channels. Many networks provide at least two logical channels per connection, one for normal data and one for urgent data. Error control.
Error detecting code. Error correcting code.
Design Issues (Cont.)
How to receive data in order (sequence no.). How to keep a fast sender from swamping a slow receiver with data (flow control). Size of the message: disassembling >transmitting >reassembling messages. Routing: multiple paths between source and destination.
Protocol Architecture Task of communication broken up into modules For example file transfer could use three modules File transfer application Communication service module Network access module .
Simplified File Transfer Architecture .
A Three Layer Model Network access layer Transport layer Application layer .
Network Access Layer Exchange of data between the computer and the network Sending computer provides address of destination May invoke levels of service Dependent on type of network used (LAN.) . packet switched etc.
Transport Layer Reliable data exchange Independent of network being used Independent of application .
g. e-mail. file transfer .Application Layer Support for different user applications e.
Services are available at sap s (service access points). Software [example: process.]. . Hardware [example: intelligent I/O chip. Entity. The entities in layer n implement a service used by layer n+1.]. Layer n + 1 called service user.Interfaces and Services Active elements in each layer are called ENTITIES. Layer n called service provider. Each SAP has an address that uniquely identifies it.
the layer n + 1 entity passes an IDU to the layer n entity through the SAP. In order to transfer the SDU. ICI: interface control info.) IDU: interface data unit.Interfaces and Services (Cont. At a typical interface. . each of which is given a header and send to as a separate PDU (protocol data unit) such as a packet. the layer n entity may have to fragment it into several pieces. SDU: service data unit.
Addressing Requirements Two levels of addressing required Each computer needs unique network address Each application on a (multi-tasking) computer needs a unique address within the computer The service access point or SAP .
Protocol Architectures and Networks .
Protocols in Simplified Architecture .
Protocol Data Units (PDU) At each layer. protocols are used to communicate Control information is added to user data at each layer Transport layer may fragment user data Each fragment has a transport header added Destination SAP Sequence number Error detection code This gives a transport protocol data unit .
Network PDU Adds network header Network address for destination computer Facilities requests .
SERVICES Connection Oriented Modeled after the telephone system Establish a connection Use the Connection Release the connection Acts like a tube: receive data by the same order was sent Messages could be received in different order than it was sent with Connectionless Modeled after posted system Reliable connection oriented service Unreliable connectionless service (not acknowledged) .
.Request reply service Sender transmits a single datagram containing a request. Used to implement communication in the client-server model. the reply contains the answer.
Operation of a Protocol Architecture .
Service Primitives A service is formally specified by a set of primitives (operations) available to a user or other entity to access the service. Example: Connection oriented service with 8 service primitives. .request Request a connection to be established. CONNECT.indication Signal the called party. CONNECT. Primitive tells the service to Perform some action OR Report an action by a peer entity.
Example (Cont. DATA. Service Could be. DISCONNECT. DATA. CONNECT.indication Signal the arrival of data.confirm Tell the caller whether the call was accepted. DISCONNECT.indication Signal the peer about the request.request Request that a connection be released.response Used by the caller to accept/reject calls. Confirmed (Example: CONNECT).) CONNECT.request Request the data be sent. Unconfirmed (Example: DISCONNECT). .
Entities use protocols in order to implement their service definitions. packets. provided they do not change the service visible to their users. or messages that are exchanged by the peer entities within a layer. Entities are free to change their protocols.Relationship of Services to Protocols Service: is a set of primitives (operations) that a layer provides to the layer above it. REFERENCE MODELS OSI References Model TCP/IP Reference Model . A set of rules governing the format and meaning of the frames. Protocol.
. No official model but a working one. Host to host or transport layer.TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Developed by the US defense advanced research project agency (DARPA) for its packet switched network (ARPANET). Internet layer. Used by the global internet. Application layer. Physical layer. Network access layer.
Physical Layer Physical interface between data transmission device (e. .G. Computer) and transmission medium or network Characteristics of transmission medium Signal levels Data rates Etc.
Network Access Layer Exchange of data between end system and network Destination address provision Invoking services like priority .
Internet Layer (IP) Systems may be attached to different networks Routing functions across multiple networks Implemented in end systems and routers .
http.Transport Layer (TCP) Reliable delivery of data Ordering of delivery Application Layer Support for user applications e.g. SMPT .
TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Model .
OSI Model Open systems interconnection Developed by the international organization for standardization (ISO) Seven layers A theoretical system delivered too late! TCP/IP is the de facto standard .
Open for communication with other systems. .OSI References Model International Standards Organization. OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). Reference model: deals with connecting open systems that are.
. The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining internationally standardized protocols. Each layer should perform a well-defined function.Principles A layer should be created where a different level of abstraction is needed. The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be thrown together on the same layer out of necessity. The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interfaces.
OSI Layers Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical .
How many microseconds a bit lasts. How many volts for 1 or 0. .The Physical Layer Deals with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. Mechanics. electrical and procedural interfaces.
Flow control. Insert the frame delimiter. Full duplex transmission (piggybacking) Medium access sub layer deals with how to control access to the shared channel in broadcast networks. . Process the acknowledgement frames sent back by the receiver. Solve the problems caused by damaged. lost and duplicate frames.Data link Layer Break the input data up into data frames.
Network Layer Routing packets from source to destination. Routes can be static or dynamic Bottleneck. so the network layer is thin. congestion Connect heterogeneous networks (different addressing method. In broadcast networks. larger packet service). . routing problem is simple.
Transport Layer Accept data from the session layer. the transport layer creates a distinct network connection for each transport connection required by the session layer If the transport connection requires a high throughput. split it up into smaller units if needed. the transport layer might create multiple network connections. dividing the data among the network connections to improve throughput . pass these to the network layer and ensure that the all pieces arrive correctly at the other end Under normal conditions.
There is a need to tell which message belongs to which connection (transport header) Establishing and deleting connections across the network Flow control between hosts (as oppose between routers) so fast host cannot overrun a slow one . from source to destination Multiple connections will be entering and leaving each host.Transport Layer (Cont. the users of the entire network The transport layer is a true end-to-end layer.) Transport layer determines what type of service to provide the session layer with and ultimately.
Session Layer Allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them A session might be used to allow a user to log into a remote timesharing system or to transfer a file between two machines Example: token management. Only the side holding the token may perform the critical operation. After a crash the portion after the checkpoint will be resend again. Example: sending file for 20 hours. . Synchronization: insert a checkpoint.
[Character strings. floating-point numbers ]. integers. .Presentation Layer Concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. A typical example of a presentation service is encoding data in a standard agreed upon way.
. a piece of s/w must be written to map the functions of the network virtual terminal onto the real terminal. Other application is file transfer(ftp). One way to solve this problem is to define an abstract network virtual terminal that editor can be written to deal with.Application Layer The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed. To handle each terminal type. Example: incompatible terminal type.
TCP/IP and OSI Protocol Architectures .
. Transport protocol. Transport service & other services. IPX/SPX.Example Of Networks Novell NETWARE. Client-server model. SPX (sequenced packet exchange): Just transport service. IPX uses 10 byte address (IP uses 4 bytes) flat addressing. Network layer runs IPX (internet packet exchange). NCP (network core protocol).
Example Of Networks (Cont. and matches up the request with the best server. When a client is booted.) The application can choose between NCP & SPX Transport control field counts how many networks the packet has traversed. each server broadcasts a packet giving its address and telling what services it offers. it sends a request for a server. . About once a minute. SAP (Service Advertising Protocol) is used for broadcasting Routers run some kind of special agent processes to construct databases of which servers are running. The agent on the local router machine sees this request.
consisting of subnet and host computers.) The APRANET. Each IMP would be connected to at least two other imps. the ARPANET had been overtaken by newer networks. . Host sends messages of up to 8063 bits to its IMP. By 1990. Each node consists of IMP and a host.Example Of Networks (Cont. 56-kbps lines leased from telephone companies interconnect the IMPS. IMP breaks the message into packets of at most 1008 bits and forwards them independently toward the destination. Packet switched network. IMPS (interface message processors) connected by transmission lines.
By 1995 the NSFNET backbone was no longer needed to interconnect the NSF regional networks because numerous companies were running commercial IP Networks.Example Of Networks (Cont. national science Foundation) began designing a high-speed successor to the ARPANET that would be open to all university research groups.26(the U.S. .) NSFNET By 1984 NSF Fig 1.
to promote the use of the internet.) The Internet. File transfer: FTP. Email. rlogin. Four main applications. News. Remote login: telnet.Example Of Networks (Cont. . the internet society was set up. In 1992.
A 1-Gbps network can reduce this to 20. Gigabit networks provide better bandwidth but not always much better delay. The backbones operate at megabit speeds.001 msec. 1 msec to pump the bits out and 20 msec for the delay.) Gigabit TESTBEDS. bandwidth is what counts. for a total of 21 msec. and these are the applications for which gigabit networks will make a big difference. Example: sending a 1-kbit packet from NYC to san Francisco at (1 mbps) take.Example Of Networks (Cont.telemedicine & virtual meeting. . For some applications. Examples:.
Example Data Communication Services SMDS X.25 FRAME RELAY BROADBAND ISDN AND ATM .