P. 1
Sequence stratigraphy – concepts

Sequence stratigraphy – concepts

|Views: 570|Likes:
Published by hdbermudez

More info:

Published by: hdbermudez on Sep 19, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/12/2014

pdf

text

original

Contents

Introduction Sedimentology concepts Fluvial environments Deltaic environments Coastal environments Offshore marine environments Sea-level change Sequence stratigraphy concepts Marine sequence stratigraphy Nonmarine sequence stratigraphy Basin and reservoir modeling Reflection

EaES 455-8

1

Sequence stratigraphy

concepts

Sequence stratigraphy highlights the role of allogenic controls on patterns of deposition, as opposed to autogenic controls that operate within depositional environments
Eustasy (sea level) Subsidence (basin tectonics) Sediment supply (climate and hinterland tectonics)

EaES 455-8

2

EaES 455-8

3

EaES 455-8

4

at any given point in time. hence. whether erosion or deposition is likely to occur at any given location.Sequence stratigraphy concepts Accommodation is the space available. for sediments to accumulate. attempts to extend the concept landward are controversial EaES 455-8 5 . therefore it corresponds to sea level Base level is a principal control of accommodation. accommodation is created or destroyed by RSL changes Water depth is controlled by changes in accommodation as well as sedimentation Base level is the horizontal surface to which subaerial erosion proceeds. and.

EaES 455-8 6 .

from updip (continental) to downdip (deep marine) The subtle balance between RSL and sediment supply controls whether aggradation. and typically embodies a continuum of depositional environments. forced regression.Sequence stratigraphy concepts Allostratigraphy is a relatively new approach to stratigraphic subdivision.g. and is based on the separation of strata based on unconformities or other discontinuities (e. or transgression (retrogradation) will occur EaES 455-8 7 . regression (progradation).. paleosols) Sequence stratigraphy is the analysis of genetically related depositional units bounded by unconformities and their correlative conformities A depositional sequence is a stratigraphic unit bounded at its top and base by unconformities or their correlative conformities (=allostratigraphic unit).

EaES 455-8 8 .

and is based on the separation of strata based on unconformities or other discontinuities (e. or transgression (retrogradation) will occur EaES 455-8 9 .g. regression (progradation). forced regression. paleosols) Sequence stratigraphy is the analysis of genetically related depositional units bounded by unconformities and their correlative conformities A depositional sequence is a stratigraphic unit bounded at its top and base by unconformities or their correlative conformities (=allostratigraphic unit).Sequence stratigraphy concepts Allostratigraphy is a relatively new approach to stratigraphic subdivision. from updip (continental) to downdip (deep marine) The subtle balance between RSL and sediment supply controls whether aggradation.. and typically embodies a continuum of depositional environments.

EaES 455-8 10 .

EaES 455-8 11 .

EaES 455-8 12 .

EaES 455-8 13 .

EaES 455-8 14 .

and typically embodies a continuum of depositional environments. forced regression.Sequence stratigraphy concepts Allostratigraphy is a relatively new approach to stratigraphic subdivision. or transgression (retrogradation) will occur EaES 455-8 15 .g.. from updip (continental) to downdip (deep marine) The subtle balance between RSL and sediment supply controls whether aggradation. regression (progradation). paleosols) Sequence stratigraphy is the analysis of genetically related depositional units bounded by unconformities and their correlative conformities A depositional sequence is a stratigraphic unit bounded at its top and base by unconformities or their correlative conformities (=allostratigraphic unit). and is based on the separation of strata based on unconformities or other discontinuities (e.

EaES 455-8 16 .

and the formation of a widespread unconformity known as a sequence boundary Sequence boundaries are the key stratigraphic surfaces (highorder bounding surfaces) that separate successive sequences and are characterized by subaerial exposure/erosion. a downward shift in coastal onlap. and onlap of overlying strata Parasequences are lower order stratal units separated by (marine) flooding surfaces. a basinward shift in facies. commonly (but not always) this will be accompanied by subaerial exposure.Sequence stratigraphy concepts A RSL fall on the order of tens of meters or more will lead to a basinward shift of the shoreline and an associated basinward shift of depositional environments. they are commonly autogenic and not necessarily the result of smaller-scale RSL fluctuations EaES 455-8 17 . erosion.

EaES 455-8 18 .

EaES 455-8 19 .

linked depositional environments (or depositional systems). by shallowing or deepening upward facies successions. or by parasequence stacking patterns EaES 455-8 20 . they are the building blocks of sequences and different types of systems tracts represent different limbs of a RSL curve Falling-stage (forced regressive) systems tract (FSST) Lowstand systems tract (LST) Transgressive systems tract (TST) Highstand systems tract (HST) The various systems tracts are characterized by their position within a sequence.Sequence stratigraphy concepts Systems tracts are contemporaneous.

EaES 455-8 21 .

EaES 455-8 22 .

EaES 455-8 23 .

Sequence stratigraphy concepts Systems tracts are contemporaneous. they are the building blocks of sequences and different types of systems tracts represent different limbs of a RSL curve Falling-stage (forced regressive) systems tract (FSST) Lowstand systems tract (LST) Transgressive systems tract (TST) Highstand systems tract (HST) The various systems tracts are characterized by their position within a sequence. or by parasequence stacking patterns EaES 455-8 24 . by shallowing or deepening upward facies successions. linked depositional environments (or depositional systems).

EaES 455-8 25 .

EaES 455-8 26 .

and maximum landward translation of the shoreline. condensed sections may develop LSTs are separated from overlying TSTs by transgressive surfaces. where sedimentation rates can be very low during maximum flooding.Sequence stratigraphy concepts Maximum flooding surfaces form during the culmination of RSL rise. transgression is further characterized by coastal onlap An alternative approach to sequence analysis uses genetic stratigraphic sequences that are bounded by maximum flooding surfaces EaES 455-8 27 . and constitute the stratigraphic surface that separates the TST and HST In the downdip realm (deep sea).

EaES 455-8 28 .

transgression is further characterized by coastal onlap An alternative approach to sequence analysis uses genetic stratigraphic sequences that are bounded by maximum flooding surfaces EaES 455-8 29 . condensed sections may develop LSTs are separated from overlying TSTs by transgressive surfaces. and constitute the stratigraphic surface that separates the TST and HST In the downdip realm (deep sea). and maximum landward translation of the shoreline.Sequence stratigraphy concepts Maximum flooding surfaces form during the culmination of RSL rise. where sedimentation rates can be very low during maximum flooding.

EaES 455-8 30 .

. condensed sections) EaES 455-8 31 .. coastal plains with a littoral energy fence) and reduced transfer of sediment to the deep sea (hemipelagic deposition.Sequence stratigraphy concepts In a very general sense.g. and increased deposition in downdip settings (e. RSL fall leads to reduced deposition and formation of sequence boundaries in updip areas. submarine fans) RSL rise leads to trapping of sediment in the updip areas (e.g.

systems tracts. and their internal stacking patterns Technological developments have been prolific: Vertical resolution improved to a few tens of meters Widespread use of 3D seismic Seismic data should preferably always be interpreted in conjunction with well log or core data EaES 455-8 32 .Sequence stratigraphy concepts Seismic stratigraphy is based on the principle that seismic reflectors follow stratal patterns and approximate isochrons (time lines) Reflection terminations provide the data used to identify sequence-stratigraphic surfaces.

EaES 455-8 33 .

EaES 455-8 34 .

EaES 455-8 35 .

EaES 455-8 36 .

Sequence stratigraphy concepts Seismic stratigraphy is based on the principle that seismic reflectors follow stratal patterns and approximate isochrons (time lines) Reflection terminations provide the data used to identify sequence-stratigraphic surfaces. systems tracts. and their internal stacking patterns Technological developments have been prolific: Vertical resolution improved to a few tens of meters Widespread use of 3D seismic Seismic data should preferably always be interpreted in conjunction with well log or core data EaES 455-8 37 .

EaES 455-8 38 .

EaES 455-8 39 .

systems tracts. and their internal stacking patterns Technological developments have been prolific: Vertical resolution improved to a few tens of meters Widespread use of 3D seismic Seismic data should preferably always be interpreted in conjunction with well log or core data EaES 455-8 40 .Sequence stratigraphy concepts Seismic stratigraphy is based on the principle that seismic reflectors follow stratal patterns and approximate isochrons (time lines) Reflection terminations provide the data used to identify sequence-stratigraphic surfaces.

Sequence stratigraphy concepts A better understanding of stratigraphic sequences can be obtained by the construction of chronostratigraphic charts ( Wheeler diagrams ). variations in sediment supply can cause stratigraphic surfaces at different locations to be out of phase In principle. sequence-stratigraphic concepts could be applied with some modifications to sedimentary successions that are entirely controlled by climate change and/or tectonics (outside the realm of RSL control) EaES 455-8 41 . these can subsequently be used to infer coastal-onlap curves Variations in sediment supply can produce stratal patterns that are very similar to those formed by RSL change (except for forced regression). in addition.

EaES 455-8 42 .

EaES 455-8 43 .

EaES 455-8 44 .

these can subsequently be used to infer coastal-onlap curves Variations in sediment supply can produce stratal patterns that are very similar to those formed by RSL change (except for forced regression). sequence-stratigraphic concepts could be applied with some modifications to sedimentary successions that are entirely controlled by climate change and/or tectonics (outside the realm of RSL control) EaES 455-8 45 .Sequence stratigraphy concepts A better understanding of stratigraphic sequences can be obtained by the construction of chronostratigraphic charts ( Wheeler diagrams ). in addition. variations in sediment supply can cause stratigraphic surfaces at different locations to be out of phase In principle.

EaES 455-8 46 .

and third-order eustatic cycles that are supposed to be globally synchronous.Sequence stratigraphy concepts The global sea-level curve for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (inferred from coastal-onlap curves) contains first. second. but it is a highly questionable generalization Conceptual problems: spatially variable RSL change due to differential isostatic and tectonic movements undermines the notion of a globally uniform control Dating problems: correlation is primarily based on biostratigraphy that typically has a resolving power comparable to the period of third-order cycles EaES 455-8 47 .

EaES 455-8 48 .

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->