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Part A1

CHAPTER 2

SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces, Safety Valves, Furnaces

Here is what you w i l l be able to do when you complete each objective: 1. Calculate the required thickness and design pressure for braced and stayed surfaces in pressure vessels and the minimum required cross-sectional area of a stay. 2. Calculate the ligament efficiency method for two or more openings in the pressure boundary of a pressure vessel. 3. Calculate the required size and capacity of safety valves and safety relief valves. 4. Calculate required wall thicknesses of plain circular furnaces, circular flues, and corrugated furnaces.

Revised 03/06 to conform with the 2004 ASME Extract

Part D. Stress on a vessel with internal pressure. and furnaces or cylinders under external loads. therefore.35 4 × 35 = 43.350 = 2 × 35 = 86. Each of these sections contains rules for braced and stayed surfaces. The objective of this chapter is not to produce a design engineer but a Power Engineer with knowledge of the basic rationale of the Codes. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .79 MPa vessel end area × internal pressure Circumferential Stress = vessel circumference × wall thickness Longitudinal Stress = π = = 4 × 45002 × 1. and the radial pressure exerts a stress on the metal longitudinally.5 m diameter. Longitudinal Stress = vessel diameter × internal pressure vessel wall thickness × 2 vessel end area x internal pressure vessel circumference x wall thickness Circumferential Stress = Example 1: Longitudinal and circumferential stress Determine the stress longitudinally and circumferentially on the shell of a vessel 4. while studying this chapter. vessel diameter × internal pressure vessel wall thickness × 2 4500 × 1. on the diameter and thickness and is independent of the length. Section IV. safety valves.39 MPa Note: The longitudinal pressure exerts a stress on the metal circumferentially. The strength of a vessel shell depends. Section II. Furnaces 51 INTRODUCTION This chapter uses ASME Sections I. and Section VIII. IV. Safety Valves.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. In cylindrical vessel shells the stress set up by internal pressure longitudinally is equal to twice the stress set up circumferentially. and VIII-1.35 π × 4500 × 35 4500 × 1. Division 1. 35 mm thick and an internal pressure of 1350 kPa. The candidate should consult the latest 2004 ASME Academic Codes Extract: Section I.

Paragraph PW-19 and Paragraph PFT-22 to Paragraph PFT-32. The design pressure and thickness for stayed plates are calculated by the following formulae: P = t 2 SC p2 (1.52 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE 3 1 Calculate the required thickness and design pressure for braced and stayed surfaces in pressure vessels and the minimum required cross-sectional area of a stay. Stays are used in pressure vessels to carry part or all of the pressure loading when it is desirable or possible to reduce the span and/or the thickness of a tube sheet or other pressure component. the required thickness of stayed surfaces may be less than that of surfaces which are not stayed. bending strength. the C factor represents the degree of restraint to rotation that the stay attachment provides.2) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . FLAT STAYED SURFACES The equation for flat-stayed surfaces is an adaptation of the flat head equation. Opposite surfaces are tied together by staybolts. RELEVANT ASME CODE SECTIONS Section I: The rules for stayed surfaces and staybolts can be found in Paragraph PG-46 to Paragraph PG-49. and the tensile strength of the stays now resist the pressure loading.1) t = p P SC (1. In this case. Section VIII-1: The rules for stayed surfaces and staybolts can be found in Paragraph UG-47 to Paragraph UG-50 and Paragraph UW-19. Section IV: The rules for stayed surfaces and staybolts can be found in Paragraph HG-340 and Paragraph HW-710 to HW-713. Because bending moments. tubes. or baffles that carry the pressure loading in tension. with the diameter replaced by the distance stays.

C = 2. or radial and circumferential (mm).2 for stays fitted with inside and outside nuts and outside washers where the diameter of the washers is not less than 0. Furnaces 53 t = minimum thickness of plate (mm) p = maximum pitch measured between straight lines passing through the centres of the staybolts in different rows. Safety Valves. is 8 mm except for welded construction covered by PW-19. or with inside and outside nuts. and for stays screwed into plates not less than 1.4p and the thickness is not less than the thickness (t) of the surface being stayed. screwed through plates or made with a taper fit and having the heads formed on the stay before installing them.3 times the diameter of the stays.5 times the diameter of the staybolt (measured on the outside of the staybolt diameter).2 in Section IV. S = maximum allowable stress (MPa)—given in Table 1A of Section II.8 for stays with heads not less than 1. C = a constant—the value depends on details of the staybolt end design as follows: C = 2. The lines may be horizontal and vertical. Part D. P = maximum allowable working pressure or internal design pressure (kPa).2 states that the minimum thickness of plates to which stays may be applied. the heads are made so as to have a true bearing on the plate. C = 3. Paragraph PG-46.2 for welded stays or stays screwed through plates over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over. they shall be at least half as thick as the plate being stayed. C = 2. If washers are used.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. in other than cylindrical or spherical outer shell plates. or in Tables HF-300. and with the threaded ends not riveted over.1 for welded stays or stays screwed through plates not over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over. omitting washers.1 and HF-300.5 for stays screwed through plates and fitted with single nuts outside the plate. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . C = 2.

with staybolts screwed through the plates and pitched 185 mm horizontally and vertically. with staybolts attached by fusion welding and pitched 154 mm horizontally and vertically.1.1 t = p P SC where P = S = p = C= 6.2 for welded stays or stays screwed through plates over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over. t 2 SC P = p2 P = 12.) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .75 P = 23716 P = 1.54 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Example 2: Stayed flat plate . The plate material is SA-516-55. Solution Section I PG-46.2 1542 37193. The plate material is SA-204-A.5 mm thick. PG-46.1 t 2 SC p2 P = maximum allowable working pressure (MPa) t = 12. maximum allowable working pressure 6205 kPa and operating temperature of 3000 C.maximum pressure Calculate the maximum allowable working pressure on stayed flat plates 12.5 mm p = 154 mm S = 108 MPa C = 2. see Section I.52 × 108 × 2.205 MPa 128 MPa 185 mm 2.assume that the plate will be greater than 11 mm thick.thickness Calculate the minimum thickness for stayed flat plates.565 MPa P = = 1565 kPa Example 3: Stayed flat plate .2 (welded stays or stays screwed through plates over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over . The average temperature is 200 0 C Solution: Use equation 1.

only Section I references will be listed.148 t = 27.205 128 × 2.2 t = 185 × 0.2 is the correct factor to use. Part D.022 t = 185 × 0. This type of stay can be found in the waterlegs of locotype boilers. The load carried by that stay is the product of the area supported by the stay times the internal design pressure or MAWP (maximum allowable working pressure). Paragraph PG-47 states specific requirements for staybolts or stays.46 mm The minimum required thickness of 27.3) Paragraph PG-49 points at PFT-26 for computing the load on a staybolt. STAYS AND STAYBOLTS The requirements are the same for Section I. This load is then divided by the maximum allowable stress value from Table 1A of Section II. Furnaces 55 t = p t = 185 P SC 6. Section IV and Section VIII-1. A solid stay of 200 mm or less in length shall be drilled with telltale holes at least 5 mm diameter to a depth of at least 13 mm beyond the inside of the plate. Telltale holes are not required if the staybolt is attached by fusion welding (PW-19.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. The result is multiplied by 10%.10 × (stay load/S ) (1.a) (1. and if a stay corrodes then a 'telltale' leak can be seen.10 × (stay load/maximum allowable stress (S )) = 1. Therefore: Minimum area of stay (a) = 1. Hollow stays may also be used. Paragraph PFT-26 states that the area supported by a stay is based on the full pitch dimensions with the cross-sectional area of the stay subtracted.4) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Therefore : Stay load = pressure (P) × (pitch area ( p2 ) − cross -sectional area of stay (a)) = P × ( p2 .46 mm is greater than 11 mm and C = 2. Safety Valves.8). Corrosion is likely in this area.

6 mm (Ans.22 .7854 0. (a) = 0. The stays are spaced 200 mm horizontally and vertically. maximum pitch and design pressure for tubesheets with firetubes used as stays may be calculated by the following formulae: Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .0.56 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Example 4: Minimum required area of stay Welded stays 30 mm diameter will be used to support a flat plate 16 mm thick.7 mm.1 × Stay load/S = 1.1 × 53.3 to determine the stay load.0276 m or 27.2 m S = 91.7854 ×0. Section IV.a) = 1350 × (0.707 x 10-3 ) = 53.6 × 10-3 m 2 Use the equation below to determine the minimum diameter of the stay.046 Use equation 1.9 MPa = 91900 kPa Use equation 1.) The stated diameter of the stay is 30 mm. Paragraph HG-346 states that the firetubes in a firetube boiler may be used as stays.764 × 10-3 0. Minimum diameter of stay = = = 0.4 to determine the minimum required area of stay. The required thickness. The steel used for the stays and plate is SA-192 at a maximum temperature of 300° C. this is larger than the minimum required diameter of 27. Minimum required area of stay = 1. The pressure is 1350 kPa. Stay Load = P × ( p 2 .0302 = 0. therefore.6 × 10-3 / 0.046 / 91900 = 0. Does the stay diameter meet the Code requirements? Solution Stay diameter of 30 mm. the stay diameter meets the Code requirements.707 ×10 -3 m2 P = 1350 kPa p = 200 mm = 0.

1 and HF-300. kPa D = the outside diameter of the tubes. Safety Valves. p = the maximum pitch measured between the centers of tubes in different rows.2 kPa P = the design pressure.8 for firetubes welded to plates over 11 mm thick S = the maximum allowable stress values given in Section IV. mm. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Tables HF300. Firetubes welded to tubesheets and used as stays must meet the requirements of HW-713. Furnaces 57 t = 2 ⎛ P ⎞ ⎛ 2 πD ⎞ + ⎜p ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ CS ⎠ ⎝ p = P = ⎛ CSt 2 ⎞ ⎛ π D 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ CSt 2 ⎛ π D2 ⎞ p2 .⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ t = the required plate thickness mm.7 for firetubes welded to plates not over 11 mm thick C = 2. mm. C = 2.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. The pitch of firetubes used as stays shall not exceed 15 times the diameter of the tubes.

INTRODUCTION The tubesheet of a firetube boiler is usually a flat plate. The three types of ligaments are: Longitudinal: located between the front and lengthwise holes along the drum. present a different case and are covered by ligament rules to be found in Section I Paragraph PG-52. Circumferential: located between the holes and encircle the drum.58 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE 3 2 Calculate the ligament efficiency method for two or more openings in the pressure boundary of a pressure vessel. These rules also apply to openings not spaced to exceed two diameters centre to centre. Single openings in circular vessels have been covered in Module 1. Multiple openings. Section IV Paragraph HG-350 and Section VIII Paragraph UG-53. The tubesheet of a watertube boiler is part of the boiler drum. such as to be found in a tubesheet. The ligament rules only consider the material between the holes and do not consider the tube material wall thickness. The value of the ligament efficiency found by these rules is used in the determination of the minimum required thickness and/or the maximum allowable working pressure for cylindrical components under internal pressure found in Paragraph PG-27 and Paragraph UG-27 LIGAMENTS A ligament is the area of metal between the holes in a tubesheet. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Diagonal: a special case because they are located between the holes and are offset at an angle to each other. The rules of ligaments are applicable to groups of openings in cylindricalpressure parts that form a definite pattern.

2 and 3).3) where F is obtained from the chart in Fig. paragraph HG-350.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces.2) For tube holes drilled along a diagonal. E = (2. E = Use the formula: (2. 1). Section VIII-1) Note: For holes along a diagonal. UG-53. Furnaces 59 The following symbols are used in the formulae for calculating ligament efficiency: P = longitudinal pitch of adjacent openings (mm) p/ = diagonal pitch of adjacent openings (mm) p1 = pitch between corresponding openings in a series of symmetrical groups of openings (mm) d = diameter of openings (mm) n = number of openings in length p1 E = ligament efficiency Use the formula: p . (Fig.nd p1 when the pitch of the tubes on any one row is unequal (Figs. Section IV.5. HG-321. use the diagram in Fig. as shown in Fig.4 provides the following formula: E = p/ .1) p1 . 4. PG-52-1 to obtain the ligament efficiency.d p/ F (2.d p when the pitch of the tubes on every row is equal (Fig. This method gives a higher efficiency than that obtained in Section I or Section VIII-1. Safety Valves. 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 FIGURE 1 Example of tube spacing with hole pitch equal in every row Longitudinal Line Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .

4 above and in Fig.D. The openings are 63. The maximum allowable working pressure is 4100 kPa at a temperature of 250° C. determine the minimum thickness of a 920 mm I. Drum material is SA-516-55 and the tube material is SA-209-T1. (internal diameter) cylindrical drum that has a series of openings in the pattern shown in Fig. 5 below.5 mm diameter on a staggered pattern of three longitudinal rows on 76 mm circumferential spacing and 116 mm longitudinal spacing.60 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units FIGURE 2 Example of tube spacing with hole pitch unequal in every second row 130 140 130 140 130 140 130 140 270 mm Longitudinal Line FIGURE 3 Example of tube spacing with hole pitch varying in every second and third row 130 130 140 130 140 130 130 140 130 670 mm Longitudinal Line FIGURE 4 Example of tube spacing with tube holes on diagonal lines 140 mm Longitudinal Line 160 mm Example 5: Thickness of drum tubesheet Using the rule in Section I. The openings are not located in or near any butt-welded joint. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .

Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . the diagonal ligament is the weaker.Thickness of a drum tubesheet 76 X 76 58 58 Longitudinal Line Diagonal pitch X = = = = 582 + 762 3364 + 5776 9140 95.1.d E= p 116 .5 mm Longitudinal pitch (p) = 116 mm Use equation 2.6 mm Hole diameter (d) = 63. is 38%.5 = 116 = 0.824 The point corresponding to these values on the diagram in Fig. Safety Valves.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces.6 116 0. Furnaces 61 Solution 116 mm 116 mm FIGURE 5 Solution .4526 p/ p = = 95.63. PG-52. As the point falls below the line of equal efficiency for the diagonal and longitudinal ligaments. read from the y-axis.1 p .

Each half would meet the conditions of rule PG-27.38 as determined above C=0 y = 0.2.58 48. FIGURE 6 DRUM Example: Thickness of drum tubesheet Drum manufactured from two half shells TUBESHEET Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .(1 .836 mm. 6.4 ) × 4.2. (2001) t = PR + C SE . the drum could be manufactured from two half shells.) The minimum thickness of the drum shell would be 48. Note: The minimum thickness of this drum. and the drum half being 17.1 MPa R = 460 mm S = 108 MPa at 250° C for SA-516-55 E = 0.4 for ferritic steel below 480° C t = = = = = PR + C SE . without being drilled for tubes would be 17.885 mm without any allowance for manufacture or corrosion.2.2.885 mm (Ans. Therefore.885 mm thick.836 mm thick as shown in Fig.(1 .y ) P 4.1 1886 41. plain.2.4) P = 4100 kPa or 4.46 1886 38.y ) P (2.(1 .62 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Section I. the tube sheet half being 48.04 .1 × 460 108 × 0.0.38 . paragraph PG-27.

This also applies to boilers that are designed for duel fuel firing.1 states that each boiler shall have at least one safety valve and if it has more than 47 m2 of bare tube heating surface.2. Safety Valves. Paragraph PG-67. Section I. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Safety relief valve is suitable for use as either a safety valve or a relief valve. they must be capable of releasing all of the steam that the boiler is capable of generating at maximum firing rates without exceeding the specified maximum allowable pressure rise. To accomplish this. The rules for safety valves are found in Section I.2 states that for a waste heat boiler the boiler manufacturer determines the minimum required relieving capacity based on the heat produced by the auxiliary firing or the waste heat recovery whichever is greater. Paragraph PG-67.1. Relief valve is used primarily for liquid service. paragraphs A-12 to A-17 show examples illustrating the method of checking safety valve capacity by measuring the maximum amount of fuel that can be burned per hour. paragraph PG-67. By definition: • • • Safety valve is used for gas or vapour service. Paragraph PG-69 contains the rules and capacity tests that must be met by a safety valve manufacturer to obtain the ASME Code Symbol. Its only purpose is to protect the boiler by automatically limiting the internal boiler pressure to a point below its Maximum Allowable Working Pressure. one or more safety valves must be installed. Appendix A. When the valves open. The most important and also the most critical valve on a boiler is the safety valve. Furnaces 63 OBJECTIVE 3 Calculate the required size and capacity of safety valves and safety relief valves.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Section I. it shall have two or more Paragraph PG-70 states that the safety valve manufacturer determines the maximum design capacity of the safety valve and the boiler manufacturer determines the number of safety valves required by Paragraph PG-67.

) Paragraph A-17 lists some specific heating values for various types of fuels.75 2558 (3. natural gas has an H value of 35 700 kJ/m3. Appendix A-46 lists three methods that can be used to check the safety valve capacity if the capacity cannot be determined. By measuring the maximum amount of fuel that can be burned in the boiler and using this to compute the maximum amount of steam that can be generated. By measuring the maximum amount of feedwater that can be supplied to the boiler under maximum firing rates calculating the maximum volume of steam that can be generated. The boiler pressure is 1550 kPa gauge. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 • .64 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Using the formula W = C × H × 0.75 2558 730 × 35 700 × 0. Example 6: Mass of steam generated A boiler at the time of maximum firing uses 730 m3 of natural gas per hour. Appendix A. The heating value of the fuel must be known to solve equations determining the mass of steam that can generated in a boiler. • • An accumulation test with all valves shut. What is the mass of steam generated? Solution From A-17. A-44 states that the minimum safety valve relieving capacity may be estimated on the basis of the kilograms of steam generated per hour per square metre of boiler heating surface and waterwall heating surface.1) W = mass of steam generated (kg/hr) C = total mass or volume of fuel burned/hr (kg or m3) H = heat of combustion of fuel (kJ/kg) from A-17 The sum of the safety valve capacities marked on the valves shall be equal to or greater than W. W = = = C × H × 0. Section I.75 2558 7641 kg of steam per hour (Ans. as given in Table A-44. Section I.

FURNACES The strength of a plain furnace depends on the length. Examples of the form of furnace tubes in use are shown below in Fig. therefore better heat transfer. circular flues. 2. More surface area for the same length. the diameter. 3. These patented designs have advantages over a plain tube furnace.4 mm 38 mm FOX PLAIN with RINGS 203 mm 32 mm R (r < 1/2R) ADAMSON MORISON Manufacturers use different methods to produce corrugations in the furnace tube. Plain furnaces: are often found in heating boilers because of the simplicity of construction and low cost. and corrugated furnaces.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Safety Valves. Furnaces 65 OBJECTIVE 4 Calculate required wall thicknesses of plain circular furnaces. Corrugated furnaces have the following advantages over plain furnaces: 1. The design temperature of the furnace is specified as Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . 7 with common dimensions. and the square of the thickness. FIGURE 7 Circular Furnace Designs 152. The strength of a corrugated furnace depends on the diameter and thickness. Stronger than a plain furnace of the same dimensions. Better expansion allowance using corrugations or ribs.

Section IV states that the thickness may not be less than 6 mm. Part D. Appendix 3 (Basis for Establishing External Pressure Charts) explains how these rules were developed. Section II. riveted seams and joints have been replaced by fusion welding which has improved the use of this type of furnace. The difference in thickness is due to heating boilers being constructed for low pressures. Adamson. paragraph PFT-51 outlines the procedure to determine the maximum allowable working pressure of tubes. Part D. Ring-reinforced furnaces: are found in Section I and Section VIII-1 vessels. Corrugated furnaces: The rules for corrugated furnaces were originally developed in England in the late 1800s. The rules are found in Section I.66 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units 2600 C. where different relationships exist for critical load depending on the length of the column. Figure G. Since that time. and ringreinforced furnaces of firetube boilers. Furnaces are subjected to external pressure. paragraph PFT-19. The external pressure is equal to the compressive stresses and buckling can occur below the elastic limit if the wrong material or wrong wall thickness is chosen for a specific service. paragraphs PFT-16 and 17. The symbols defined below are used in the formulas for plain furnaces: Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The charts are found in Section II. paragraph PFT-15 and 51. flues. The equations developed for this are similar to those developed for column theory. The rules for power boilers are to be found in Section I. representing the geometric properties of the cylinder. Combined plain circular and corrugated furnaces: have been produced but must conform to the rules set out in Section I. Figures CS-1 to CS-6 representing the material properties for carbon steels Section I. Subpart 3. Part D. This is left to the designer/manufacturer. Small plain circular portions have been added to the corrugated furnace tube for ease of construction. plain circular. Subpart 3. PLAIN FURNACES Section I states that the thickness of a plain circular furnace may not be less than 8 mm. paragraph PFT-18. Subpart 3. The rules are found in Section I. but no design temperatures are specified for other components of the heating boiler. and Section II. ASME has used two equations to evaluate critical buckling pressures to produce graphical charts that simplify the calculations needed for a safe design.

05 Step 3: Move horizontally to the line for the value of Do/t determined in Step 1 (interpolation may be made for intermediate values of Do/t). Fig. enter the chart at a value of L/Do = 50 • For values of L/Do less than 0. Step 6: Using the value of B determined in Step 5. Subpart 3 for maximum design metal temperature (kPa).1) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . G—used to enter the applicable material chart in Section II. Pa = maximum allowable design pressure (kPa). calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure Pa using the following formula: Pa = 4B 3 ( Do / t ) (4. Part D for the material under consideration. G (Section II.1. P = external design pressure (kPa). Furnaces 67 A = factor determined from Section II. move horizontally to the right and read the value of Factor B. B = factor determined from the applicable material chart in Section II. Move vertically to an intersection with the material-temperature line for the design temperature (interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures).2 (b). From this point of intersection. L = total length of the plain furnace taken as the distance from centre to centre of weld attachments (mm). Part D. For cylinders having (Do/t) values less than 10. see PFT-51. Subpart 3) at the value of L/Do (y-axis) • For values of L/Do greater than 50. Part D. enter the applicable material chart in Section II. t = minimum required furnace wall thickness (mm). move vertically downward to determine the value of Factor A (x-axis). enter the chart at a value of L/Do = 0. Part D. Procedure Step 1: Assume a value of t and determine the ratios L/Do and Do / t Step 2: Enter Fig. Safety Valves.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Step 5: From the intersection obtained in Step 4. Step 4: Using the value of A determined in Step 3. Part D. Do = outside diameter of cylindrical furnace or tube (mm).05.

The furnace is constructed of SA-285-C carbon steel. L Do = 2000 750 = 2.wall thickness A plain circular furnace 2. paragraph UCS-28 provides examples in the Non-Mandatory Appendix L-3 using the same procedure and charts as above. Calculate the ratios. Chart Fig. If Pa is smaller than P. Chart Fig. Step 5: SA-285-C has an E value of 186 x 103 kPa. the value of Pa shall be calculated using the following formula: Pa = 2 AE 3 ( Do / t ) (4. Part D. G. Paragraph UCS-28 (c) requires the use of Section I. Step 3: The value of A = 0. Step 4: Use the value of A in Section II. Example 7: Plain furnace . Value of B = 9500 Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .0008.667 Do t = = 750 10 75 Step 2: Use Section II. What is the required thickness of the furnace wall? Solution Step 1: Assume wall thickness t = 10 mm.0 m long and 750 mm outside diameter is designed for an external pressure of 103 kPa at 260° C. Part D.3) Section VIII-1. and L = 2000 mm. paragraph HG-312 allows the use of the following modified formula: Pa = B ( Do / t ) (4.2) Step 8: Compare the calculated value of Pa obtained in Step 6 or 7 with P. Section IV. PFT-19 rules for corrugated shells subjected to external pressure.68 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Step 7: For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/ temperature line. Do = 750 mm. select a larger value for t and repeat the design procedure until a value of Pa is obtained that is equal to or just greater than P. CS-2.

89 kPa Step 7: As this value is greater than 103 kPa. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .667 Do t 750 7. assume a new thickness of 7. Step 3: The value of A = 0. Step 1: Calculate the ratios. L 2000 = Do 750 = 2. Part D.5 mm and repeat the procedure. Step 1: Calculate the ratios.667 kPa Step 7: As this value is less than 103 kPa. G. CS-2.0005.5 = 100 = Step 2: Use Section II. Step 4: Use the value of A in Section II. Chart Fig. Part D.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Value of B = 6800 Step 6: Use equation 4. the thickness is unacceptable.1 4B Pa = 3 ( Do / t ) = = 4 × 6800 3 × (100) 90. Safety Valves. Chart Fig. Assume a new thickness of 8 mm and repeat the procedure. Step 5: SA-285-C has an E value of 186 x 103 kPa.1) 4B Pa = 3 ( Do / t ) = = 4 × 9500 3 × (75) 168. Furnaces 69 Step 6: Use equation (4.

a thickness of 8 mm is required. CS-2. paragraph PFT-18 contains the rule for determining the maximum allowable working pressure for the most common types of corrugated furnaces. Fox. Value of B = 7800 Step 6: Use equation 4. G. Step 3: The value of A = 0. Chart Fig.667 Do t = = 750 8 93. and Brown.75 Step 2: Use Section II. (Ans. therefore. such as the Leeds suspension bulb. Part D. Chart Fig.70 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units L Do = 2000 750 = 2. Step 5: SA-285-C has an E value of 186 x 103 kPa. Morison.4) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .00058.9 kPa Step 7: The value of Pa is slightly greater than 103 kPa.) CORRUGATED FURNACES Section I. having plain portions at each end not exceeding 230 mm in length. Purves. Use the following formula: P = Ct D (4.75) 110.1 4B Pa = 3 ( Do / t ) = = 4 × 7800 3 × (93. Step 4: Use the value of A in Section II. Part D.

when rib projections are not more than 230 mm from centre to centre and not less than 35 mm deep. and the radius of the outer corrugation r is not more than one-half of the radius of the suspension curve R (See Fig. PFT-18.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. t = thickness (mm)—not less than 8 mm for Leeds. Safety Valves. What is the required thickness of the furnace wall? Solution Use equation 4.wall thickness A Brown corrugated furnace of 1065 mm mean diameter. Fox. P = Ct D Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The corrugations are 222 mm from centre to centre and 41 mm deep. C = 108 for Morison furnaces.4 P = 860 kPa (0. Example 8: Corrugated furnace . C = 119 for Leeds furnaces. C = 97 for Brown furnaces. when corrugations are not more than 200 mm from centre to centre and not less than 38 mm deep. C = a constant—the value depends on the type of furnace.86 MPa) D = 1065 mm C = 97 (Brown furnace with corrugations not more than 230 mm from centre to centre and not less than 41 mm deep). 7 and Fig. C = 97 for Fox furnaces.1). when corrugations are not more than 200 mm from centre to centre and not less than 32 mm deep. C = 97 for Purves furnaces. Furnaces 71 P = maximum allowable working pressure (kPa). when corrugations are not more than 200 mm from centre to centre and not less than 57 mm deep. 216 mm in length is required to operate at a pressure of 860 kPa. fitted with plain end. Morison. D = mean diameter (mm). Note: The mean diameter of the Morison furnace may be taken as the least inside diameter plus 50 mm. and Brown and not less than 11 mm for a Purves furnace. when corrugations are not more than 230 mm from centre to centre and not less than 41 mm deep.

72 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units So t = = = PD C 0.86 × 1065 97 9.) The thickness calculated above is greater than the minimum allowed thickness of 8 mm and is therefore acceptable.44 mm (Ans. By carefully following the procedures provided in Section I for calculating the wall thickness of various furnace types. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . these calculations can be a simple process.

What is the maximum amount of natural gas that can be burned per hour if the safety valves are re-rated to 3% above their present setting? 4. The corrugations are 152. The longitudinal joint efficiency is 100%. The length of the furnace is 2. 1. 3. The furnace has a mean diameter of 1118 mm and a maximum allowable working pressure of 1375 kPa. The diameter of the tube holes is 82. The furnace material is carbon steel with a minimum yield strength of 205 MPa.5 m in length and 1118 mm outside diameter with the same thickness? Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The drum plate thickness is 50.5 mm.2 mm thick and is made of SA-285-B material. The maximum allowable pressure is 865 kPa.5 tonnes per hour.8 mm with an inside radius of 500 mm. 2. (a) What is the minimum thickness of the furnace tube? (b) What is the maximum allowable working pressure of a plain furnace tube 2. Calculate the pitch of the stays.4 mm centre to centre and have a suspension curve depth of 38 mm. Safety Valves. Furnaces 73 CHAPTER QUESTIONS The following questions provide the candidate with experience using the ASME Codes. A furnace is produced using the Fox corrugation system. and the operating temperature is 250° C. At maximum load the boiler burns coal at a rate of 5.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces.5 m. A flat plate is stayed with welded staybolts equally pitched both horizontally and vertically. The material is SA-516-55 and the operating temperature is not to exceed 300° C. A boiler is to be converted from burning pulverized semi-bituminous coal to natural gas. The pitch of the boiler tube holes in the drum is 140 mm as shown in Fig 1. Determine the maximum allowable working pressure in kPa for a watertube boiler drum. The plate is 12.

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