The Ubuntu Manual Team

Geing Started with Ubuntu .
Second Edition
Copyright :o1o by Te Ubuntu Manual Team. Some rights reserved. cba
Tis work is licensed under the Creative Commons Auribution–Share
Alike +.o license. To view a copy of this license, see Appendix A, visit
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Commons, 1;1 Second Street, Suite +oo, San lrancisco, California, c¡1o·, USA.
Geu:nv SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv :o.o¡ can be purdased from http·//ubuntu-manual.
org/buy/gswu1oo¡e:/en. A printed copy of this book can be ordered for the
price of printing and delivery. An electronic copy of this book can be down-
loaded for free. We permit and even encourage you to distribute a copy of this
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http·//ubuntu-manual.org
Second ldition
Revision number· 1co Revision date· :o1o-o8-1e 18··8·o¡ -o·oo
Contents
Prologue ;
Welcome ;
Ubuntu philosophy ;
A brief history of Ubuntu 8
ls Ubuntu right for you` c
Contact details 1o
Conventions used in this book 1o
1 lnstallation 11
Geuing Ubuntu 11
Minimum system requirements 1+
lnstalling Ubuntu 1¡
: Te Ubuntu Desktop :+
Understanding the desktop :+
Managing windows :e
Switding between open windows :e
Using the Applications menu :;
Using the System menu :8
Browsing files on your computer :c
Nautilus file browser :c
Searding for files on your computer +:
Customizing your desktop +:
Accessibility +e
Managing your computer +;
Geuing help +8
+ Working with Ubuntu ¡1
Geuing online ¡1
Browsing the web ·o
Reading and composing email eo
Staying organized ;:
Using instant messaging ;e
Microblogging 81
Viewing and editing photos 8+
Watding videos and movies 8c
listening to audio and music c1
Working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations ce
¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Taking notes c;
Ubuntu One cc
Seuing up Ubuntu One cc
Ubuntu One Preferences cc
More information 1oo
¡ Hardware 1o1
Using your devices 1o1
Hardware identification 1o1
Displays 1o1
Connecting and using your printer 1o:
Sound 1o¡
Burning CDs and DVDs 1o·
Using a webcam 1o8
Scanning text and images 1o8
Other devices 1oc
· Sonware Management 111
Sonware management in Ubuntu 111
Using the Ubuntu Sonware Center 111
Managing additional sonware 11¡
Synaptic Padage Manager 11;
Updates and Upgrades 11;
e Te Command line 11c
lntroduction to the terminal 11c
Ubuntu file system structure 1:o
Geuing started with the command line 1:+
lntroducing sudo 1:¡
Managing sonware through the terminal 1:·
; Security 1:c
Why Ubuntu is safe 1:c
Basic Security concepts and procedures 1:c
System updates 1+o
Users and groups 1+1
Seuing up a secure system 1++
8 Troubleshooting 1+·
Resolving problems 1+·
Troubleshooting guide 1+·
Geuing more help 1¡:
cox1ix1s ·
c learning more 1¡+
What else can l do with Ubuntu` 1¡+
Open Source Sonware 1¡+
Distribution families 1¡¡
+:-bit or e¡-bit` 1¡e
linding additional help and support 1¡e
A license 1¡c
Creative Commons Notice 1·e
Glossary 1·;
Credits 1e1
Team leads 1e1
Authors 1e1
lditors 1e1
Designers 1e1
Developers 1e1
Translators 1e:
Special Tanks 1e:
lndex 1e+
ProIogue
WeIcome
Welcome to Geu:nv SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv, an introductory guide wriuen to
help new users get started with Ubuntu.
Our goal is to cover the basics of Ubuntu (sud as installation and working
with the desktop) as well as guide you through some of the most popular
applications. We designed this guide to be simple to follow, with step-by-step
instructions and plenty of screenshots, allowing you to discover the potential
of your new Ubuntu system even if you are a novice computer user or are
migrating from another operating system for the first time.
Please bear in mind that this guide is still very mud a work in progress
and always will be. lt is wriuen specifically for Ubuntu 1o.o¡ i1s, and al-
though we have aimed to not limit our instructions to this version, it is un-
avoidable that some things will dange over the life of Ubuntu. Whenever a
new version of Ubuntu is released, we will incorporate any danges into our
guide, and make a new version available at http·//www.ubuntu-manual.org.
Geu:nv SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv :o.o¡ is not intended to be a comprehensive
Ubuntu instruction manual. lt is more like a quid-start guide that will get
you doing the things you need to do with your computer quidly and easily,
without geuing bogged down with tednical details.
lf you are aner more detail, there are excellent resources available at http·//
help.ubuntu.com. Ubuntu’s built-in system documentation is also very useful
for accessing help on specific topics, and can be found by cliding System‣
Help and Support in Ubuntu. lf something isn’t covered here, dances are More information about Ubuntu’s online
and svstem documentation can be found in
Chapter ,· Learning more.
you will find the information you are looking for in one of those locations.
We will try our best to include links to more detailed help wherever we can.
Ubuntu phiIosophy
Te term “Ubuntu” is a traditional African concept that originated from the
Bantu languages of southern Africa. lt can be described as a way of connect-
ing with others—living in a global community where your actions affect all of
humanity. Ubuntu is more than just an operating system· it is a community
of people that come together voluntarily to collaborate on an international
sonware project that aims to deliver the best possible user experience.
The Ubuntu promise
‣ Ubuntu will always be free of darge, along with its regular enterprise
releases and security updates.
8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ Ubuntu comes with full commercial support from Canonical and hundreds
of companies from across the world.
‣ Ubuntu provides the best translations and accessibility features that the
free sonware community has to offer.
‣ Ubuntu’s core applications are all free and open source. We want you to
use free and open source sonware, improve it, and pass it on.
A brief history of Ubuntu
Ubuntu was conceived in :oo¡ by Mark Shuuleworth, a successful South
African entrepreneur, and his company Canonical. Shuuleworth recognized Canonical is the companv that provides
financial and technical support for Ubuntu.
It has emplovees based around the world
who work on developing and improving
the operating svstem. as well as reviewing
work submiued bv volunteer contributors.
1o learn more about Canonical. go to
http·//www.canonical.com.
the power of linux and open source, but was also aware of weaknesses that
prevented mainstream use.
Shuuleworth set out with clear intentions to address these weaknesses
and create a system that was easy to use, completely free (see Chapter c·
learning more for the complete definition of “free”), and could compete with
other mainstream operating systems. With the Debian system as a base,
Shuuleworth began to build Ubuntu. Using his own funds at first, installation
cis were pressed and shipped worldwide at no cost to the end user. Ubuntu
spread quidly, the size of the community rapidly increased, and it soon
became the most popular linux distribution available.
With more people working on the project than ever before, Ubuntu con-
tinues to see improvement to its core features and hardware support, and has
gained the auention of large organizations worldwide. lor example, in :oo;,
Dell began a collaboration with Canonical to sell computers with Ubuntu
preinstalled. Additionally, in :oo·, the lrend Police began to transition their
entire computer infrastructure to a variant of Ubuntu—a process whid has
reportedly saved them “millions of euros” in licensing fees for Microson
Windows. By the year :o1:, the lrend Police anticipates that all of their com-
puters will be running Ubuntu. Canonical profits from this arrangement by
providing tednical support and custom-built sonware.
While large organizations onen find it useful to pay for support services, For information on Ubuntu Server Ldition.
and how vou can use it in vour companv.
visit http·//www.ubuntu.com/server/
features.
Shuuleworth has promised that the Ubuntu desktop system will always be
free. As of :o1o, Ubuntu is installed on nearly :¯ of the world’s computers.
Tis equates to millions of users worldwide, and is growing ead year.
What is Linux'
Ubuntu is built on the foundation of linux, whid is a member of the Unix
family. Unix is one of the oldest types of operating systems and has provided
reliability and security in professional applications for almost half a century.
Many servers around the world that store data for popular websites (sud as
YouTube and Google) run some variant of a Unix system. Te linux kernel is
best described as the core, or almost the brain, of the operating system.
iioiocui c
Te linux kernel is the shin manager of the operating system: it is respon-
sible for allocating memory and processor time. lt can also be thought of as
the program whid mangages any and all programs on the computer itself.
linux was designed from the ground up with security and hardware com- While modern graphical desktop envi
ronments have generallv replaced earlv
commandline interfaces. the command
line can still be a quick and efficient wav
of performing manv tasks. See Chapter o·
1he Command Line for more information.
and Chapter :· 1he Ubuntu Desktop to
learn more about c·o·r and other desktop
environments.
patibility in mind, and is currently one of the most popular -based operat-
ing systems. One of the benefits of linux is that it is incredibly flexible and
can be configured to run on almost any device—from the smallest micro-
computers and cellphones to larger super-computers. Unix was entirely com-
mand line–based until graphical user interfaces (cuis) began to emerge in the
early 1ccos.
Tese early cuis were difficult to configure and clunky at best, and gen- A desktop environment is a sophisticated
and integrated user interface that provides
the basis for humans to interact with a
computer using a monitor. kevboard and a
mouse.
erally only used by seasoned computer programmers. ln the past decade,
however, graphical user interfaces have come a long way in terms of usability,
reliability, and appearance. Ubuntu is just one of many different linux J::
ìr:|vì:on:, and uses one of the more popular graphical desktop environments 1o learn more about Linux distributions. see
Chapter ,· Learning more.
called cxo·i.
!s Ubuntu right for you'
New users to Ubuntu may find that it takes some time to feel comfortable
when trying a new operating system. You will no doubt notice many similar-
ities to both Microson Windows and Mac os x, as well as some differences.
Users coming from Mac os x are more likely to notice similarities due to the
fact that both Mac os x and Ubuntu originated from Unix.
Before you decide whether or not Ubuntu is right for you, we suggest A popular forum for Ubuntu discussion
and support is the Ubuntu Forums. http·//
ubuntuforums.org.
giving yourself some time to grow accustomed to the way things are done in
Ubuntu. You should expect to find that some things are different from what
you are used to. We also suggest taking the following into account·
‣ Ubuntu is community based. Tat is, Ubuntu is made, developed, and
maintained by the community. Because of this, support is probably not
available at your local computer store. lortunately, the Ubuntu community
is here to help. Tere are many articles, guides, and manuals available,
as well as users on various lnternet forums and lnternet Relay Chat (iic)
rooms that are willing to help out beginners. Additionally, near the end of
this guide, we include a troubleshooting dapter· Chapter 8· Troubleshoot-
ing.
‣ Many applications designed for Microsoß Windows or Mac os x will
not run on Ubuntu. lor the vast majority of everyday computing tasks,
there are suitable alternative applications available in Ubuntu. However,
many professional applications (sud as the Adobe Creative Suite) are not
developed to work with Ubuntu. lf you rely on commercial sonware that is 1o learn more about dualbooting (running
Ubuntu sidebvside with another operating
svstem). see Chapter 1· Installation. For
more information on Wine. go to http·//
www.winehq.org/.
not compatible with Ubuntu, yet still want to give Ubuntu a try, you may
want to consider dual-booting. Alternatively, some applications developed
for Windows will work in Ubuntu with a program called Wine.
1o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ Many commercial games will not run on Ubuntu. lf you are a heavy
gamer, then Ubuntu may not be for you. Game developers usually design
games for the largest market, whid leads to larger profits. Since Ubuntu’s
market share is not as substantial as Microson’s Windows or Apple’s Mac
os x, most game developers will not allocate resources towards making
their games compatible with Ubuntu. lf you just like to play a game every
now and then, there is active game development within the community,
and many high quality games can be easily installed through Ubuntu
Sonware Center. Additionally, some games developed for Windows will See Chapter ¡· Soúware Management to
learn more about Ubuntu Soúware Center.
also work in Ubuntu with Wine.
Contact detaiIs
Many people have contributed their time to this project. lf you notice any
errors or think we have len something out, feel free to contact us. We do
everything we can to make sure that this manual is up to date, informative,
and professional. Our contact details are as follows·
Te Ubuntu Manual Team
Website· http·//www.ubuntu-manual.org/
lmail· ubuntu-manual(lists.launchpad.net
iic· =ubuntu-manual on irc.freenode.net
Bug Reports· http·//bugs.ubuntu-manual.org
Conventions used in this book
Te following typographic conventions are used in this book·
‣ Buuon names, menu items, and other cui elements are set in boldfaced
type.
‣ Menu sequences are sometimes typeset as System‣ Preferences ‣ Appearance,
whid means, “Choose the System menu, then doose the Preferences sub-
menu, and then select the Appearance menu item.”
‣ Monospaced type is used for text that you type into the computer, text that
the computer outputs (as in a terminal), and keyboard shortcuts.
1 !nstaIIation
Geuing Ubuntu
Before you can get started with Ubuntu, you will need to obtain a copy of the Manv companies (such as Dell and Svs
tem;o) sell computers with Ubuntu prein
stalled. If vou alreadv have Ubuntu installed
on vour computer. feel free to skip to
Chapter :· 1he Ubuntu Desktop.
Ubuntu installation ci. Some options for doing this are outlined below.
DounIoading Ubuntu
Te easiest and most common method for geuing Ubuntu is to download the
Ubuntu ci image directly from http·//www.ubuntu.com. Head to the website
and clid the “Download Ubuntu” link at the top. Select the nearest download
location to you in the drop-down box (to ensure maximum download speed),
then clid “Begin Download.”
×:-bit vs o¡-bit
You may notice the words “Ubuntu Desktop 1o.o¡ (+:-bit)” underneath the +:bit and o¡bit are tvpes of processor
architectures. o¡bit is newer. and most
recent computers will come with a o¡bit
capable processor. See Chapter ,· Learning
more for more information.
default download buuon on the website. lf you are unsure what +:-bit means,
don’t worry. +:-bit will work on most computers, so if in doubt, simply pro-
ceed with the download. However, if you know that your computer is capable
of using e¡-bit sonware, you may wish to try the e¡-bit version instead. To do
this, clid on “Alternative download options” and make your selection.
DounIoading Ubuntu as a torrent
When a new version of Ubuntu is released, sometimes the servers can get
clogged up with large numbers of people downloading or upgrading at the
same time. lf you are familiar with using torrents, you may wish to download
the torrent file by cliding “Alternative download options,” and obtain your
copy of the ci image this way instead. You may see significant improvements
to your download speed, and will also be helping to spread Ubuntu to other
users worldwide. Again, if you are unsure how to use torrents, you can use
the default download options on the website. Torrents are a wav of sharing files and
information around the Internet via peer
topeer file sharing. When a new version of
Ubuntu is released. the Ubuntu servers can
become verv busv. If vou know how to use
torrents. we recommend that vou download
the cr image this wav to take the load off
the servers during periods of high demand.
Burning the cr image
Once your download is complete, you will be len with a file called v|vnìv
While the o¡bit version of Ubuntu is
referred to as the “AMDo¡” version. it will
work on Intel. AMD. and other compatible
o¡bit processors.
:o.o¡Je:|ìo¡:·8o.::o or similar (:·8o here in the filename refers to the +:-bit
version. lf you had downloaded the e¡-bit version, the filename would contain
omJo¡ instead). Tis file is a ci image—a bit like a snapshot of the contents
of a ci—whid you will need to burn to a ci. To find out how to burn a ci
image on your computer, refer to your operating system’s or manufacturer’s
1: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
support documentation. You can also find detailed instructions at https·//help.
ubuntu.com/community/BurninglsoHowto.
Ordering a free cr
Alternatively, a free ci can be ordered from Canonical. Tis option may be You will be required to create a free online
account with Launchpad before vou can
place vour cr order. Once vou have Ubuntu
installed and running. vou will need this
account again for use with all Ubuntu
One services. See Chapter +· Working with
Ubuntu for more information on Ubuntu
One.
preferred if you don’t have access to a ci burner, have limited bandwidth,
or have a slow lnternet connection. Tere are no shipping costs or other
darges when you order an Ubuntu ci. Simply visit http·//shipit.ubuntu.com
to request your free Ubuntu Desktop ldition ci.
Te ci usually takes two to six weeks to arrive, depending on your loca-
tion and the current demand. lf you would rather start using Ubuntu sooner,
you may prefer to follow the instructions above for downloading the ci im-
age, and then burn it to a disc instead.
It is possible to purchase Ubuntu on cr from
some computer stores or online shops. Have
a look around vour local area or on the
Internet to see if someone is selling it near
vou. Lven though Ubuntu is free soúware.
it’s not illegal for people to sell it.
The Live cr
Te Ubuntu ci functions not only as an installation ci for puuing Ubuntu
onto your computer, but also as a live ci. A live ci allows you to test
Ubuntu without making any permanent danges to your computer by run-
ning the entire operating system straight from the ci.
Your computer reads information from a ci at a mud slower speed than
it can read information off of a hard drive. Running Ubuntu from the live
ci also occupies a large portion of your computer’s memory, whid would
usually be available for programs to access when Ubuntu is running from
your hard drive. Te live ci experience will therefore feel slightly slower
than it does when Ubuntu is actually installed on your computer. However,
running Ubuntu from the ci is a great way to test things out and allows you
to try the default applications, browse the lnternet, and get a general feel
for the operating system. lt’s also useful for deding that your computer
hardware works properly in Ubuntu and that there are no major compatibility
issues.
To try out Ubuntu using the live ci, insert the Ubuntu ci into your ci In some cases. vour computer will not
recognize that the Ubuntu cr is present
as it starts up. and will start vour existing
operating svstem instead. Generallv. it
means that the prioritv given to devices
when vour computer is starting needs to
be changed. For example. vour computer
might be set to look for information from
vour hard drive first. and then to look for
information on a cr second. In order to
run Ubuntu from the Live cr. we want
it to look for information from a cr first.
Changing vour boot prioritv is bevond the
scope of this guide. If vou need assistance to
change the boot prioritv. see vour computer
manufacturer’s documentation for more
information.
drive and restart your computer. Most computers are able to detect when a
bootable ci is present in your drive at startup—that is, a ci that will tem-
porarily take precedence over your usual operating system. As your computer
starts, it will run whatever information is stored on this bootable ci, rather
than the information stored on your hard drive whid your computer usually
looks for.
Once your computer finds the live ci, and aner a quid loading screen,
you will be presented with the “Welcome” screen. Using your mouse, select
your language from the list on the len, then clid the buuon labeled Try
Ubuntu 1o.o¡. Ubuntu will then start up, running straight from the live ci.
Once Ubuntu is up and running, you will see the default desktop. We
ixs1~ii~1iox 1+
Figure 1.1· 1he “Welcome” screen allows
vou to choose vour language.
will talk more about how to actually use Ubuntu in Chapter :· Te Ubuntu
Desktop, but for now, feel free to test things out. Open some programs, dange
seuings and generally explore—any danges you make will not be saved once
you exit, so you don’t need to worry about accidentally breaking anything.
When you are finished exploring, restart your computer by cliding the
“Power” buuon in the top right corner of your screen (circle with a line
through the top) and then select Restart. lollow the prompts that appear on
screen, including removing the live ci and pressing Enter when instructed,
and then your computer will restart. As long as the live ci is no longer in the
drive, your computer will return to its original state as though nothing ever
happened!
Minimum system requirements
Ubuntu runs well on most computer systems. lf you are unsure whether it 1he majoritv of computers in use todav will
meet the requirements listed here: however.
refer to vour computer’s documentation or
speak to the manufacturer if vou would like
more information.
will work on your computer, the live ci is a great way to test things out first.
1¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
lor the more tednically minded, below is a list of hardware specifications
that your computer should meet as a minimum requirement.
‣ ;oo MHz x8e processor
‣ :·e ·n of system memory (i~·)
‣ + cn of disk space
‣ Graphics card capable of 1o:¡×;e8 resolution
‣ Sound card
‣ A network or lnternet connection
!nstaIIing Ubuntu
Te process of installing Ubuntu is designed to be quid and easy. However,
we do realize that some people may find the idea a liule daunting. To help
you get started, we have included step-by-step instructions below, along with
screenshots so you can see how things will look along the way.
lf you have already tested out the Ubuntu live ci, you should now be Alternativelv. vou can also use vour mouse
to doubleclick the “Install Ubuntu 1o.o¡”
icon that is visible on the desktop when
using the Live cr. 1his will start the Ubuntu
installer.
familiar with the initial “Welcome” screen that appears (refer to Te live
ci section above for more information). Again, select your language on the
len-hand side, then clid the buuon labeled Install Ubuntu 1o.o¡.
At least + cn of free space on your hard drive is required in order to install
Ubuntu: however, 1o cn or more of free space is recommended. Tis will
ensure that you will have plenty of room to install extra programs later on, as
well as store your own documents, music, and photos. 1here are two other options presented on
the “Welcome” screen· reIease notes and
update this instaIIer. Clicking on the blue
underlined reIease notes will open a web
page containing anv important information
regarding the current version of Ubuntu.
Clicking update this instaIIer will search
the Internet for anv updates to the Ubuntu
Live cr that mav have been released since
vour cr was created.
Geuing started
To get started, place the Ubuntu ci in your ci drive and restart your com-
puter booting into Ubuntu. When the welcome screen is displayed select your
language and clid the Install Ubuntu 1o.o¡.
Te next screen will display a world map. Using your mouse, clid your
location on the map to tell Ubuntu where you are. Alternatively, you can use
the drop-down lists underneath. Tis allows Ubuntu to set up your system
clod and other location-based features. Clid Forward when you are ready to
move on.
Next, you need to tell Ubuntu what keyboard you are using. Usually, you
will find the suggested option is satisfactory. lf you are unsure, you can clid
the Guess buuon to have Ubuntu work out the correct doice by asking you
to press a series of keys. You can also doose your own keyboard layout from
the list. lf you like, type something into the box at the bouom to make sure
you are happy with your selection, then clid Forward to continue.
ixs1~ii~1iox 1·
Figure 1.:· 1ell Ubuntu vour location.
Prepare disk space
Tis next step is onen referred to as partitioning. Partitioning is the process of
allocating portions of your hard drive for a specific purpose. When you create
a partition, you are essentially dividing up your hard drive into sections that
will be used for different types of information. Partitioning can sometimes
seem complex to a new user: however, it does not have to be. ln fact, Ubuntu
provides you with some options that greatly simplify this process.
Erase and use the entire disk
Use this option if you want to erase your entire disk. Tis will delete any Manv people installing Ubuntu for the first
time currentlv use another operating svstem
on their computer. such as Windows xr.
Windows Vista. Windows ;. or Mac os x.
Ubuntu provides vou with the option of
either replacing vour existing operating
svstem altogether. or installing Ubuntu
alongside vour existing svstem. 1he lauer is
called dualbooting. Whenever vou turn on
or restart vour computer. vou will be given
the option to select which operating svstem
vou want to use for that session.
existing operating systems that are installed on that disk, sud as Windows xi,
and install Ubuntu in its place. Tis option is also useful if you have an empty
hard drive, as Ubuntu will automatically create the necessary partitions for
you.
1e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure 1.+· Check vour kevboard lavout is
correct.
Guided partitioning
lf you already have another operating system installed on your hard drive,
and want to install Ubuntu alongside it, doose the Install them side by side,
coosing between them eac startup option.
Ubuntu will automatically detect the other operating system and install
Ubuntu alongside it. lor more complicated dual-booting setups, you will need
to configure the partitions manually.
Specifying partitions manuaIIy
Tis option is for more advanced users and is used to create special partitions, Ubuntu installs a home foIder where vour
personal files and configuration data are
located bv default. If vou choose to have
vour home folder on a separate partition.
then in the event that vou decide to reinstall
Ubuntu or perform a fresh upgrade to
the latest release. vour personal files and
configuration data won’t be lost.
or format the hard drive with a filesystem different to the default one. lt can
also be used to create a separate /home partition. Tis can be very useful in
case you decide to reinstall Ubuntu, as it allows you to format and reinstall
the operating system, whilst keeping all your personal files and program
seuings intact in a separate partition.
Because this is quite an advanced task, we have omiued the details from
ixs1~ii~1iox 1;
Figure 1.¡· Choose where vou would like to
install Ubuntu.
this edition of Geu:nv SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv. You can see more information
and detailed instructions on partitioning here· https·//help.ubuntu.com/
community/HowtoPartition.
Once you are happy with the way the partitions are going to be set up,
clid the Forward buuon at the bouom to move on.
Enter your detaiIs
Ubuntu needs to know some information about you so it can set up the pri-
mary login account on your computer. Your name will appear on the login
screen as well as the MeMenu, whid will be discussed further in Chapter :·
Te Ubuntu Desktop.
On this screen you will need to tell Ubuntu·
‣ your real name,
‣ your desired username,
‣ your desired password,
‣ what you want to call your computer,
18 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ how you want Ubuntu to log you in.
Figure 1.¡· Setup vour user account.
Type in your full name under “What is your name`”. Te next text field
is where you select a username for yourself, and is the name that will be
displayed at the Ubuntu login screen when you turn on your computer. You
will see this is automatically filled in for you with your first name. Most
people find it easiest to stid with this. However, it can be danged if you
prefer.
Next, doose a password and enter it into the first password field on the Although vou can choose vour preferred
username and computer name. vou are
required to stick with Latin leuers. numbers.
hvphens. and dots. You will receive a
warning if nonacceptable svmbols or other
characters are entered. and until this is
altered vou will be unable to progress to the
next screen.
len, then type the same again into the right field to verify. When both pass-
words matd, a strength rating will appear on the right that will tell you
whether your password is “too short,” “weak,” “fair,” or “strong.” You will be
able to continue the installation process regardless of your password strength,
but for security reasons it is best to doose a strong one. Tis is best adieved
by having a password that is at least six daracters long, and is a mixture of
leuers, numbers, symbols, and uppercase/lowercase. lor extra security, avoid
obvious passwords like your birth date, spouse’s name, or the name of your
pet.
ixs1~ii~1iox 1c
Now you need to decide on your computer’s name. Again, this will be
filled in for you automatically using the login name you entered above (it
will say something like “john-desktop” or “john-laptop.”). However, it can be
danged if you prefer. Your computer name will mainly be used for identi-
fying your computer if you are on a home or office network with multiple
computers. To learn more about seuing up a network, refer to Chapter +·
Working with Ubuntu.
linally, at the bouom of this screen you have three options to doose from
regarding how you want to log in to Ubuntu.
Log in automaticaIIy
Ubuntu will log in to your primary account automatically when you start up
the computer so you won’t have to enter your username and password. Tis
makes your login experience quider and more convenient, but if privacy or
security are important to you, this option is not recommended. Anyone who
can physically access your computer will be able to turn it on and also access
your files.
Require my passuord to Iogin
Tis option is selected by default, as it will prevent unauthorized people from
accessing your computer without knowing the password you created earlier.
Tis is a good option for those who, for example, share their computer with
other family members. Once the installation process has been completed, an
additional login account can be created for ead family member. lad person
will then have their own login name and password, account preferences,
lnternet bookmarks, and personal storage space.
Require my passuord to Iogin and decrypt my home foIder
Tis option provides you with an extra layer of security. Your home folder
is where your personal files are stored. By selecting this option, Ubuntu will
automatically enable encryption on your home folder, meaning that files and
folders must be decrypted using your password before they can be accessed.
Terefore if someone had physical access to your hard drive (for example, if
your computer was stolen and the hard drive removed), they would still not
be able to see your files without knowing your password.
I[ \ov doo:e ì|:: o¡ì:on, |e core[v| noì ìo eno||e ovìomoì:c |ov:n oì o |oìer Joìe.
Iì +:|| cov:e com¡|:coì:on: +:ì| \ovr encr\¡ìeJ |ome [o|Jer, onJ +:|| ¡oìenì:o||\
|od \ov ovì o[ :m¡orìonì fi|e:.
Confirm your seuings and begin instaIIation
Te last screen summarizes your install seuings, including any danges that
will be made to the partitions on your hard drive. Note the warning about
:o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
data being destroyed on any removed or formaued partitions—if you have
important information on your hard drive that is not baded up, now would
be a good time to ded that you have set up your partitions correctly. Once You should not need to click the Advanced
buuon unless vou wish to change vour
bootloader seuings or network proxv. 1hese
are more advanced tasks and bevond the
scope of this guide.
you have made sure that all the seuings are correct, clid on Install to begin
the installation process.
Figure 1.o· Check that evervthing is set up
right before Ubuntu is installed.
Ubuntu will now install. As the installation progresses, a slideshow will
give you an introduction to some of the default applications included with
Ubuntu. Tese applications are covered in more detail in Chapter +· Working
with Ubuntu.
Aner approximately twenty minutes, the installation will complete and
you will be able to clid Restart Now to restart your computer and start
Ubuntu. Te ci will be ejected, so remove it from your ci drive and press
Enter to continue.
Wait while your computer restarts, and you will then see the login window
(unless you selected automatic login).
Clid your username and enter your password, then press Enter or clid
ixs1~ii~1iox :1
Figure 1.;· 1he first slide in the installation
slideshow.
Figure 1.8· You are now readv to restart
vour computer.
Iog in. You will then be logged in to Ubuntu and will be presented with your
new desktop!
:: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure 1.,· 1he Ubuntu login window.
: The Ubuntu Desktop
Understanding the desktop
At first glance, you will notice many similarities between Ubuntu and other Ubuntu 1o.o¡ has an emphasis on “social
from the start” and features social network
integration in the desktop for sites like
1wiuer and Facebook.
operating systems sud as Windows or Mac os x. Tis is because they are
all based on the concept of a graphical user interface (cui)—that is, you use
your mouse to navigate the desktop, open programs, move files, and perform
most other tasks. ln short, things are visually oriented, whid means that it’s
important for you to become familiar with where and what to clid in Ubuntu.
GNOME
All cui-based operating systems use a Je:|ìo¡ en+:ronmenì. Desktop environ-
ments encompass many things, sud as·
‣ the look and feel of your system
‣ how the desktop is organized
‣ the way the desktop is laid out
‣ how the desktop is navigated by the user
ln linux distributions (sud as Ubuntu), there are a number of desktop envi-
ronments available for use. One of the most popular desktop environments
is called cxo·i, whid the default in Ubuntu. xii, xici, and ixii are other 1o read more about other variants of
Ubuntu. refer to Chapter ,· Learning more.
popular desktop environments (used in Kubuntu, Xubuntu, and lubuntu, re-
spectively), although there are many more. Since Ubuntu uses cxo·i, we will
limit this guide to exploring your cxo·i desktop.
When you first log in to Ubuntu aner installing it, you will see the cxo·i
desktop. Ubuntu is highly customizable, as is the cxo·i desktop, but for now
let’s just explore the default layout that is in front of you.
lirst, you will notice there are two ¡one|:—one at the top of your desktop
and one at the bouom. A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen
and contains various o¡¡|eì:. Tese applets provide useful functions sud as Lvervthing on a panel is an applet. even the
main menu.
running programs, viewing the time, or accessing the main menu.
The top paneI
Starting from the len, you will see three menu headings—Applications,
Places, and System—followed by two program icons. Te first of these icons
will open the lirefox web browser (see Chapter +· Working with Ubuntu for
more information), and the next will open the Ubuntu Help Center. 1he Ubuntu Help Center is a highlv useful
resource. It provides a wealth of infor
mation about vour Ubuntu svstem. and is
alwavs at vour fingertips bv simplv clicking
this panel icon (or navigating to System‣
HeIp and Support).
On the right side of this panel you will find the noì:ficoì:on oreo, whid
is similar in function to the “system tray” in Windows, or the “menu extras”
:¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure :.1· 1he Ubuntu 1o.o¡ default desk
top.
area on the Mac os x menubar. Next to this is the MeMenu, whid will dis-
play your username (the name you entered during installation) and is used
to update social network sites like Twiuer and lacebook as well as set your
lnstant Messaging status in lmpathy. linally, on the far right of the panel is New notifications of emails and instant
messages appear in the messaging menu
applet. When vou have a new message. the
envelope icon will turn green.
the session menu, whid provides menu options for loding your computer,
logging out, restarting, or shuuing down completely.
The notification area
lnside the notification area you will find the network indicator, volume ad-
justment, Bluetooth indicator (if your computer has Bluetooth capability),
messaging, and the date and time applets. Some programs will also place an
icon in the notification area when you open them.
len-cliding icons in the notification area will bring up a list of options 1o remove an applet. rightclick on it and
select Remove From PaneI. 1o add a new
applet to a panel. rightclick in a clear area
on the panel and select Add to PaneI.
associated with the application. ln some cases right-cliding an icon will also
perform another action related to that application. lor example, to adjust the
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volume, simply len-clid once on the volume icon and a volume slider will
appear. Clid the date and time applet to open a small calendar, and then clid
a specific date to add a reminder to your calendar through lvolution (see
Chapter +· Working with Ubuntu for more information on lvolution).
When the calendar is expanded there is a buuon labeled Iocations, whid
will open a small world map when clided. Here you can further set up your
location preferences by cliding Edit. ln the window that appears, clid Add,
then enter your location in the text field. lf you live in a major city it may be
on the list already: if not, you can enter your latitude and longitude manually
lf you don’t know this information try searding online for it. Make sure your
time zone is selected, then clid OK to return to the preferences screen.
leel free to explore the other options available under the General and
Weather tabs if you like, then clid Close at the bouom when you are done.
lf weather information is available for your home city, you will now see the
current temperature displayed alongside the date and time in the notification
area.
The bouom paneI
Ubuntu uses most of the bouom panel to display a list of all programs or win-
dows that are currently open. Tese appear as horizontal buuons whid can
be clided to m:n:m::e or re:ìore the corresponding windows (see Managing
windows below for more information).
1o show the desktop vou can press
Ctrl+Alt+D
On the far len of the bouom panel is a small icon that resembles a desktop.
Tis S|o+ De:|ìo¡ buuon will minimize all open windows at once, giving
you clear access to your desktop. Tis is onen useful when you have many
windows open at once and your desktop becomes cluuered. Cliding the
buuon again will restore the windows to their original position.
On the right side of the panel you will see some small boxes in a row: 1he c·o·r desktop environment used in
Ubuntu can provide two or more “virtual
desktops.” or uorkspaces. Using these
workspaces can reduce cluuer bv opening
windows on separate desktops. without
needing a separate monitor. For example. in
order to organize vour activities vou mav
have vour email open in one workspace
and a text document vou are working on in
another. 1o switch workspaces. simplv click
on the boxes in the uorkspace suitcher or
use the kevboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+Left
arrow or Ctrl+Alt+Right arrow to switch
workspaces quicklv.
this is the Vor|:¡oce S+:ìder. By default, Ubuntu 1o.o¡ is set up with four
workspaces.
linally, the icon farthest to the right is the ìro:|, whid performs a similar
function to the Recycle Bin in Windows or the Trash in Mac os x. Any files
you delete are first sent to the trash. To see the contents of the trash, clid
on this icon. You can empty it by cliding on the Empty Trash buuon in
the window that appears, or alternatively by right-cliding the trash icon
in the bouom panel and selecting Empty Trash from the menu. Tis will
permanently delete any files or folders that it contains.
The desktop background
ln between the top and bouom panels is an image that covers the entire desk-
top. Tis is the desktop badground or wallpaper and the one you see in front
of you belongs to the default Ubuntu 1o.o¡ theme known as Am|:once. To
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learn more about customizing your desktop including danging your bad-
ground, see the section on Customizing your desktop below.
Managing uindous
When you open a program in Ubuntu (sud as a web browser or a text ed-
itor—see Chapter +· Working with Ubuntu for more information on using
programs)—a +:nJo+ will appear on your desktop. lf you have used another
operating system before, sud as Microson Windows or Mac os x, you are
probably familiar with the concept of a “window”—the box that appears on
your screen when you start a program. ln Ubuntu, the top part of a window
(the ì:ì|e|or) will have the title of the window in the center, and three buuons
in the top len corner. lrom len to right, these buuons c|o:e, m:n:m::e, and
mo::m::e the window. Additionally, you can right-clid anywhere on the
titlebar for a list of other window management options.
CIosing, maximizing, restoring, and minimizing uindous
Figure :.:· 1he close. minimize. and max
imize buuons are on the topleú corner of
windows.
To c|o:e a window, clid on the “×” in the upper len corner of the window
—this will be the first buuon on the len-hand side. lmmediately to the right
of this is a downward-pointing arrow that is used to m:n:m::e the window to
the bouom panel of your desktop. Once minimized the window will no longer
be visible, but its corresponding buuon in the bouom panel will remain,
indicating the program is still running in the badground. Cliding this buuon
will re:ìore the window to its original position. linally, the right-most buuon
of this group will mo::m::e the window, making it fill the entire screen.
Cliding this buuon again will return the window to its original size.
Moving and resizing uindous
To move a window around the workspace, place the mouse pointer over the
window’s titlebar, then clid and drag the window while continuing to hold
down the len mouse buuon. To resize a window, place the pointer on an edge You can also move a window bv holding the
Alt kev and dragging the window
or corner of the window so that it turns into a larger arrow, the resize icon.
You can then clid and drag to resize the window.
Suitching betueen open uindous
Tere are at least three ways in Ubuntu to switd between open windows in
a workspace. You can find the window on the bouom panel taskbar and clid
1ni unux1u iisx1oi :;
to bring it up on the screen, or you can use Alt+Tab to select the window you
wish to work on. Hold down the Alt key, and keep pressing the Tab buuon
until the window you’re looking for appears in the popup. lf the window is
visible on your screen, you can clid any portion of it to raises it above all
other windows.
Using the AppIications menu
Tere are three menu headers in the top panel. let’s take a look at these in You mav find that there are programs in
the AppIications menu that vou don’t
use frequentlv. or just don’t want to be
displaved on the menu. 1o hide those
applications (without deleting the actual
programs). click on System‣ Preferences ‣
Main Menu. Find the programs in the right
panel that vou want to hide from the menu.
and deselect them in the “Show” column.
more detail, starting with the Applications menu.
Accessories
Te Accessories sub-menu has many programs that are suited for productiv-
ity, including Calculator and Tomboy Notes.
Other programs in Accessories include the ci/ivi Creator, gedit Text See Chapter +· Working with Ubuntu
for more information about the included
applications.
lditor (similar to Windows’ Notepad and Mac os x’s Textldit), Seard for
liles (we’ll discuss that later), and Take Screenshot, whid allows you to take a
picture of your desktop screen. Another wav to take a screenshot is to press
PrtSc.
Games
Ubuntu has several games built in for your entertainment. lf you enjoy card
games, ded out AisleRiot Solitaire. Perhaps you’re looking for more of a
dallenge· in that case, there’s gBrainy and Sudoku. Te Games menu also
includes Mahjongg, Mines (similar to Windows’ Minesweeper game) and
Qadrapassel (similar to Tetris).
Graphics
Under the Graphics sub-menu, you’ll find the l-Spot photo manager where
you can view, edit and share pictures you’ve downloaded from your camera.
OpenOffice.org Drawing allows you to create images using the OpenOffice.org
suite, and Simple Scan is a program for scanning images and documents from
your scanner.
!nternet
Te Internet sub-menu is where you will find the lirefox web browser and Instant messaging (t·) is a means of text
based communication where vou can hold
a conversation with someone over the
Internet. instantlv.
the lmpathy lnstant Messenger client to allow you to talk to your friends and
family.
Office
Te Office sub-menu is where you will find most of the OpenOffice.org suite 1o learn more about OpenOffice.org and to
get help with using the OpenOffice.org suite
of applications. visit http·//openoffice.org.
to help you create formal documents, presentation, or spreadsheets. Also
:8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
under Office is the lvolution email client and an online dictionary. Te full
OpenOffice.org suite installed in Ubuntu by default consists of·
‣ OpenOffice.org Word Processor
‣ OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet
‣ OpenOffice.org Presentation
‣ OpenOffice.org Drawing (located under the Graphics sub-menu)
Sound and video
Te Sound and Video sub-menu has programs for working with multimedia,
sud as·
‣ Brasero disc burner
‣ Totem movie player
‣ Pitivi video editor
‣ Rhythmbox music player
‣ Sound Recorder
More information on all of these programs can be found in Chapter +·
Working with Ubuntu.
Ubuntu Sonuare Center
At the very bouom of the Applications menu is the Ubuntu Sonware Center. Learn more about the Ubuntu Soúware
Center in Chapter ¡· Soúware Management.
Tis application gives you access to a library of sonware that you can down-
load. When you open the Ubuntu Sonware Center, the main screen is similar
to your Applications menu, for easy searding. lf you know the name of the
program you’re looking for, just type the name into the searc box in the top
right. Te Ubuntu Sonware Center keeps trad of programs that are installed
on your computer. lf you’re simply curious as to what is available, you can
explore the sonware available using the categories listed on the len side of the
window.
Using the System menu
Te System menu, located on the top panel, contains two important sub- See Chapter ¡· Hardware for more informa
tion on seuing up Ubuntu.
menus. Tese sub-menus, Preferences and Administration, allow you to
make modifications to Ubuntu’s appearance, as well as the way it functions.
Trough the System menu, you can also open the Ubuntu Help Center (Help
and Support), find out more about your cxo·i desktop environment (About
GNOMl), and find out more about Ubuntu in general (About Ubuntu).
Preferences
You can use the Preferences sub-menu to modify the appearance of the
desktop and windows, assign a default printer, designate keyboard shortcuts,
1ni unux1u iisx1oi :c
dange the entries listed in the Applications menu, edit network connections,
and dange mouse seuings, among other options.
Administration
Te Administration sub-menu contains programs you can use to monitor Most of the applications in the System‣
Administration menu will prompt vou to
enter vour user password when vou launch
them. Some applications will require vou
to click a buuon to unlock it. Press this
buuon. and enter vour password. Aúer
entering vour password vou gain increased
privileges. 1his is a securitv feature to make
sure that onlv authorized people are allowed
to change svstem seuings. 1o learn more
about securitv in Ubuntu. see Chapter ;·
Securitv.
computer performance, dange disk partitions, activate third-party drivers,
manage all installed printers, and manage how your computer receives up-
dates from Ubuntu. Tis sub-menu also has the Synaptic Padage Manager
for locating and downloading sonware padages. Tis is a more tednical
alternative to Ubuntu Sonware Center and should be used by power users.
Brousing fiIes on your computer
Tere are two ways to locate files on your computer. You can use the Seard
for liles tool in the Applications ‣ Accessories. You can also use the Places
menu on the top panel. See the section below about the Nautilus file browser
for more details.
PIaces
Te Places menu holds a list of commonly used folders (sud as Documents,
Music, Downloads, and the Home Folder). You can also browse the disks
on your computer by cliding Computer in this menu. lf you set up a home
network, you will find a menu item to access shared files/folders. You can also
access the Seard for liles tool from the Places menu, as well as browse a list
of recently opened documents.
Your home foIder
Te home folder is where ead user’s personal files are located. When you
installed Ubuntu, you entered a name to set up your user account. Tat same
name is assigned to your home folder. When you open your personal folder,
you will see that there are several folders inside· Desktop (whid contains any
files that are visible on the desktop), Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures,
Public, Templates, and Videos.
You will also see a link named lxamples. Double-clid on that link to open You should open the example content to see
how different tvpes of files are displaved in
Ubuntu.
a folder containing example documents, spreadsheets, and multimedia files.
You will note be able to edit them. lf you want to edit them move them to you
home folder.
NautiIus fiIe brouser
Just as Windows has Windows lxplorer and Mac os x has linder to browse
files and folders, Ubuntu uses the Nautilus file browser by default. We will
now look at the features offered in Nautilus.
+o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
The NautiIus fiIe brouser uindou
When you open a folder on the desktop or from the Places menu, the Nautilus
file browser window opens up. Te standard browser window contains the
following features·
‣ Menv|or: Te menubar is located at the top of the window. Tese menus
allow you to modify the layout of the browser, navigate, bookmark
commonly used folders and files, and view hidden folders and files. If vou bookmark a folder. it will appear in
the PIaces menu.
‣ Too||or: Te toolbar has tools for navigation and a tool to make the con-
tents of the window larger or smaller. A drop-down list gives you the
option of switding the view from Icon View to Iist View or Compact
View. Te seard icon (whid looks like a magnifying glass) opens a field
so you can seard for a file by name.
‣ AJJ:ì:ono| No+:voì:on Too|:: Just below the toolbar, you will see a repre- If vou start tvping a location starting with
a / character. Nautilus will automaticallv
change the navigation buuons into a text
field labeled Location. It is also possible to
convert the navigation buuons into a text
field bv pressing Ctrl+L.
sentation of where you are currently browsing. Tis is similar to the his-
tory function of most browsers: it keeps trad of where you are and allows
you to badtrad if necessary. You can clid on the locations to navigate
bad through the file browser.
‣ Le[ Pone: Te len pane of the file browser has shortcuts to commonly-
used folders. When you bookmark a folder, it appears in the len pane.
No mauer what folder you open, the len pane will always contain the
same folders. Tis len pane can be danged to display different features by
cliding the down arrow beside “Places” near the top.
‣ Cenìro| Pone: Te largest pane shows the files and folders in the directory
that you are currently browsing.
Navigating betueen directories
To navigate between directories, use the bookmarks in the len pane of the
Nautilus file browser. You can also retrace your steps by cliding on the name
of a folder where it is listed just below the navigational icons. Double-cliding
on a visible directory will cause you to navigate to it in Nautilus.
Opening fiIes
To open a file, you can either double-clid on its icon or right-clid and select
Open With (program).
Creating neu foIders
To create a new folder from within Nautilus clid File ‣ Create Folder, then Note that vou can easilv view hidden files
bv clicking Vieu‣ Shou Hidden FiIes. or
alternativelv bv pressing Ctrl+H. Hiding
files with a dot (.) is not a securitv measure
—instead it provides a wav of keeping vour
folders organized and tidv.
name the folder that appears by replacing the default “untitled folder” with
your desired label (e.v., “Personal linances”). You can also create a new folder
by pressing Ctrl+Shift+N, or by right-cliding in the file browser window
and selecting Create Folder from the popup menu (this action will also work
1ni unux1u iisx1oi +1
Figure :.+· Nautilus file manager displaving
vour home folder.
on the desktop). lf you wish to hide certain folders or files, place a dot (.) in
front of the name (:.e., “.Personal linances”). ln some cases it impossible to
hide files and folders, without prefixing them with a dot. ln Nautilus these
folders can be hidden by creating a .hidden file. Open the file and type in the
name of the file(s) or folder(s) you wish to hide. Make sure that ead file or
folder is on a separate line. When you open Nautilus the folder will no longer
be visible.
Copying and moving fiIes and foIders
You can copy files or folders in Nautilus by cliding Edit ‣ Copy, or by right- You can also use the kevboard shortcuts
Ctrl+X. Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V to cut. copv and
paste (respectivelv) files and folders.
cliding on the item and selecting Copy from the popup menu. When using
the Edit menu in Nautilus, make sure you’ve selected the file or folder you
want to copy first (by len-cliding on it once).
Multiple files can be selected by len-cliding in an empty space (:.e., not
on a file or folder), holding the mouse buuon down, and dragging the cursor
across the files or folders you want. Tis “clid-drag” move is useful when you
are selecting items that are grouped closely together. To select multiple files
+: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
or folders that are not positioned next to ead other, hold down the Ctrl key
while cliding on ead item individually. Once multiple files and/or folders
are selected you can use the Edit menu to perform actions just like you would
for a single item.When one or more items have been “copied,” navigate to the When vou “cut” or “copv” a file or folder.
nothing will happen until vou “paste” it
somewhere. Paste will onlv affect the most
recent item that was cut or copied.
desired location then clid Edit ‣ Paste (or right-clid in an empty area of the
window and doose Paste) to copy them to the new location.
While the co¡\ command can be used to make a duplicate of a file or folder
in a new location, the cvì command can be used to move files and folders
around. Tat is, a copy will be placed in a new location, and the original will
be removed from its current location.
To move a file or folder, select the item you want to move then clid Edit ‣
Cut. Navigate to your desired location, then clid Edit ‣ Paste. As with the In the Nautilus Edit menu. vou will also
find the Copy To and Move To buuons.
1hese can be used to copv or move items to
common locations. and can be useful if vou
are using panes (see below). Note that it is
unnecessarv to use Paste when using these
options.
copy command above, you can also perform this action using the right-clid
menu, and it will work for multiple files or folders at once. An alternative
way to move a file or folder is to clid on the item, and then drag it to the new
location.
Using muItipIe tabs and muItipIe NautiIus uindous
Opening multiple Nautilus windows can be useful for dragging files and
folders between locations. Te option of ìo|: is also available in Nautilus,
as well as the use of ¡one:. When browsing a folder in Nautilus, to open a When dragging items between Nautilus
windows. tabs or panes. a small svmbol will
appear over the mouse cursor to let vou
know which action will be performed when
vou release the mouse buuon. A plus sign
(-) indicates vou are about to copv the item.
whereas a small arrow means the item will
be moved. 1he default action will depend
on the locations vou are using.
second window select File ‣ New Window or press Ctrl+N. Tis will open a
new window, allowing you to drag files and folders between two locations.
To open a new tab, clid File ‣ New Tab or press Ctrl+T. A new row will
appear above the space used for browsing your files containing two tabs—both
will display the directory you were originally browsing. You can clid these
tabs to switd between them, and clid and drag files or folders between tabs
the same as you would between windows. You can also open a second pane
in Nautilus so you can see two locations at once without having to switd
between tabs or windows. To open a second pane, clid View‣ Extra Pane, or
press F3 on your keyboard. Again, dragging files and folders between panes is
a quid way to move or copy items.
Searching for fiIes on your computer
larlier, we mentioned that you can seard for files on the computer by using Search for files quicklv bv pressing Ctrl+F
in Nautilus and then tvping what vou want
to find.
the Searc for Files feature on the Places menu in the top panel. You can also
use the Nautilus browser to seard for files, as explained above.
Customizing your desktop
Now that you’ve been introduced to the cxo·i desktop environment, let’s
take a look at customizing some of its features, sud as modifying the behav-
ior of your panels, or danging the look and feel of your desktop.
1ni unux1u iisx1oi ++
PaneIs
Te panels (currently siuing at the top and bouom of your screen) can be
moved from their default positions to the sides of the screen, set to hide
from view when not in use, and can dange color. To access these features,
right-clid the panel you want to modify and select Properties from the pop-
up menu. Te General tab has options to autohide, position the panel, and
dange the panel size (width).
Use the Orientation drop-down box to select where you want the panel to
be located, and underneath this you can set the desired width (in pixels).
By default, a panel covers the entire length of the desktop. To dange that,
you can deselect the Expand option. Te panel will then shrink so that it is
just long enough to accommodate any applets or program launders that are
currently siuing in it. Tiding the Autohide buuon will cause your panel to
“fold” up into the edge of the screen when you are not using it, and remain
hidden until you move your mouse cursor bad to that screen edge.
An alternative way of hiding the panel is to do so manually. Cliding on
Show hide buttons will add a buuon to ead side of the panel that can be
used to hide it from view. By default these buuons will display directional ar-
rows: however, you can select the Arrows on hide buttons option to remove
the arrows and just have plain buuons. Cliding one of these |:Je |vuon: on
the panel will slide it across the screen and out of view, leaving just the oppo-
site hide buuon in sight whid you can clid to bring it bad. Te BaHground Bv default. Ubuntu requires that vou
maintain at least one panel on the desktop.
If vou prefer a Microsoú Windows feel.
a panel at the bouom of the desktop can
be set to start programs as well as select
between open windows. Alternativelv. if
vou prefer a Mac os x look vou can keep
a panel at the top and add an applications
dock such as Dockv. Avant Window
Navigator (tv·). or CairoDock. 1hese are
all available in the Ubuntu Soúware Center.
which is discussed further in Chapter ¡·
Soúware Management.
tab in the “Panel Properties” window allows you to dange the appearance of
the panel. By default, this is set to None (use system theme), meaning that
your desktop theme will dictate the appearance of the panel (we will look
at how to dange your desktop theme below). lf you prefer, you can doose
your own panel color by selecting the Solid color buuon, then opening the
color select window. You can also set the panel transparency using the slider.
Alternatively, you can clid the BaHground image buuon if you have an
image or pauern stored on your computer that you would like to use as your
panel badground. Use the file selector to locate the badground image in your
computer, then clid Open to apply the dange.
Adding appIets
Ubuntu provides a selection of applets that can be added to any panel. Applets
range from the informative to the fun, and can also provide quid access to
some tasks. To add an applet, right-clid on a panel then select Add to Panel…
from the popup menu. A window will appear with a list of available applets,
whid can then be dragged to an empty space on a panel. You may want
to spend some time exploring the different ones available—they can easily
be removed from your panel by right-cliding on the applet and selecting
Remoye From Panel.
Some applets will be locked and can’t be
moved. Rightclick on them and deselect the
“Lock to Panel” check box.
+¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
To reposition an existing applet, right-clid on it and select Moye. Move
your mouse cursor to the desired location (this can even be a different panel)
and the applet will follow, then len-clid to drop it into place.
Te “Add to Panel…” window can also be used to add additional application You can also add program launchers to a
panel bv dragging them directlv from the
AppIications menu. in the leú of the top
panel.
launders to your panel, similar to the lirefox launder that sits to the right of
the System menu. To add a new one, double-clid on Application Iauncer…
near the top of the window. Here you can navigate through your applications
and drag them to your panel to create a new launder, just as you did to add
an applet previously. Program launders can also be removed and repositioned
through their right-clid menu.
Workspaces
To modify your workspaces, right-clid on the +or|:¡oce :+:ìder applet (by
default this is on the right side of the bouom panel, just to the len of the Trash
applet) and select Preferences. ln the window that appears you can doose
how many workspaces you want in total, and whether these will be displayed
on the panel in one or more rows. You can also rename ead workspace, and
have the names displayed in the panel applet. lf you prefer, you can also
doose to just have the workspace you are currently using displayed in the
panel. ln this case, you can still dange between workspaces by moving the
mouse over the workspace switder and scrolling the mouse wheel.
Appearance
You can dange the badground, fonts, and window theme to further modify
the look and feel of your desktop. To begin, open the Appearance Preferences
by navigating to System‣ Preferences ‣ Appearances in the top panel.
Theme
Te “Appearance Preferences” window will initially display the Teme tab
when it opens. Here you can select a theme that will control the appearance
of your windows, buuons, scroll bars, panels, icons, and other parts of the
desktop. Te “Ambiance” theme is used by default, but there are seven other
themes you can doose from. Just clid once on the theme you want to try,
and the danges will take effect immediately.
You can download additional themes by cliding the “Get More Temes
Online” link at the bouom of this window. Your web browser will open and
take you to http·//art.gnome.org/themes/, where you can download new
themes from a large selection. Once you have downloaded a theme, locate
the file on your computer (using Nautilus) and drag it across to the Temes
window. Tis will add it to your list of available themes, and a window will
appear asking whether you want to apply the danges immediately.
You can also customize any theme to your liking by selecting it then clid-
1ni unux1u iisx1oi +·
ing the Customize… buuon underneath. Here you can mix elements of dif-
ferent themes sud as icons, mouse pointers, buuons, and window borders to
create your own unique look.
Figure :.¡· You can change the theme in the
Theme tab of “Appearance Preferences”.
Desktop background
Clid the BaHground tab in the Appearance Preferences window to dange You can also change the background bv
rightclicking on the desktop and selecting
Change Desktop Background from the
popup menu.
the desktop badground. Here you will see Ubuntu’s default selection of
badgrounds. To dange the badground simply clid the picture you would
like to use. You’re not limited to this selection though. To use one of your own
pictures, clid the Add… buuon, and navigate to the image you want. Double-
clid it, and the dange will take effect immediately. Tis image will also then
be added to your list of available badgrounds.
lf you are aner a larger selection of desktop badgrounds, clid the “Get
More Badgrounds Online” link at the bouom of the Appearance Preferences
window. Tis link will open your web browser, and direct you to the http·//
art.gnome.org/backgrounds website.
+e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Fonts
You can also dange the fonts used throughout your desktop through the
Appearance Preferences window by cliding on the Fonts tab. You can indi-
vidually set the font style and size for applications, documents, desktop items,
window titles, and for anything using fixed width fonts. Te Rendering sec-
tion at the bouom of the lonts tab gives you four options for danging the
way that fonts are drawn on your screen. Changing these may improve the
appearance of text on different types of monitors.
Screensaver
Ubuntu offers a selection of screensavers. By default, a blank screen will be
displayed aner a short period of inactivity. To select a different screensaver,
clid on the System menu in the top panel, then Preferences ‣ Screensayer.
Tis will open the “Screensaver Preferences” window, with the available
screensavers listed on the len. When you select a screensaver, you will see
a mini-preview in the window, or you can see how it will look on your full
screen by cliding the Preyiew buuon. Te len and right arrow buuons at the
top allow you to scroll through the different screensavers without leaving the
full screen preview. To return to the Screensaver Preferences window, clid
the Ieaye Fullscreen buuon at the top of the screen.
Make sure that the Actiyate screensayer when computer is idle option
is selected if you want to enable the screensaver. Te slider can be adjusted
to set the duration of inactivity before the screensaver appears. Once it does,
you can resume working on your computer by pressing any key or by moving
your mouse. lor added security, you can also select the IoH screen when
screensayer is actiye option. ln this case, Ubuntu will ask you for your login
password when you return to the computer.
AccessibiIity
Ubuntu has built-in tools that make using the computer easier for people
with certain physical limitations. You can find these tools by opening the
System menu, then selecting Preferences ‣ Assistiye Tecnologies. You can
adjust keyboard and mouse seuings to suit your needs through the “Assistive
Tednologies Preferences” window by cliding on the Keyboard Accessibility
or Mouse Accessibility buuons.
Other assistive technoIogies
Orca is another useful tool for persons with visual impairments, and comes
preinstalled on Ubuntu. To run Orca, press Alt+F2 and type orca into the
command text field. Ten press lnter or clid Run. Orca’s voice synthesizer
will activate and assist you through the various options sud as voice type,
1ni unux1u iisx1oi +;
Figure :.¡· Assistive 1echnologies allows
vou to enable extra features to make it easier
to use vour computer.
voice language, Braille, and screen magnification. Once you have finished
selecting your seuings, you will need to log out of the computer (Orca will
offer to do this for you). When you log bad in, the Orca seuings you dose
will automatically run every time you use your computer.
ln addition to these options, selecting high-contrast themes and larger
on-screen fonts can further assist those with vision difficulties.
Managing your computer
When you have finished working on your computer, you can doose to log
out, suspend, restart, or shut down through the session menu on the far right
side of the top panel. You can also quidly access these options by pressing the
Ctrl+Alt+Del keys.
Logging out
logging out will leave the computer running but return you to the login
screen. Tis is useful for switding users, sud as when a different person
wishes to log in to their account, or if you are ever instructed to “log out and
bad in again.” You should save your work before logging out.
Suspend
To save energy, you can put your computer into suspend mode, whid will
save its current condition and allow you to start more quidly while remain-
ing on but using very liule energy. Suspending the computer spins down the
hard disk and saves your session to memory, so it is very quid to suspend and
resume from suspension.
+8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Hibernate
Hibernate is similar to suspend, except that instead of saving your session to
memory, hibernate will save your session to the hard disk. Tis takes a liule
longer, but with the added benefit that hibernation uses no power while it is
in a hibernated state.
Rebooting
To reboot your computer, select Restart from the session menu.
Shut doun
To totally power down your computer, select Shut Down from the session
menu.
Other options
lrom the session menu, you can also select IoH Screen to require a password You can lock vour screen quicklv bv using
the kevboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+L. Locking
vour screen is recommended if vou move
awav from vour computer for a short
amount of time.
before using the computer again—this is useful if you need to leave your
computer for some duration. You can also use the session menu to set up a
guest session for a friend to try Ubuntu, or to :+:ìd v:er: to log into another
user account without closing your applications.
Geuing heIp
Ubuntu, just like other operating systems, has a built-in help reference, called Manv programs have their own help which
can be accessed bv clicking the HeIp menu
within the application window.
the Ubuntu Help Center. To access it, clid on the help icon in the top panel.
You can also access it by cliding Help and Support in the System menu.
Figure :.o· Clicking the blue help icon
in the top panel (just to the right of the
System menu and the Firefox icon) will
open Ubuntu’s builtin svstem help.
lf you can’t find an answer to your question in this manual or in the
Ubuntu Help Center, you can contact the Ubuntu community through the
Ubuntu lorums (http·//ubuntuforums.org). Many Ubuntu users open an ac- We encourage vou to check anv infor
mation vou find on other websites with
multiple sources when possible. but onlv
follow directions if vou understand them
completelv.
count on the forums to receive help, and in turn provide support to others
as they gain more knowledge. Another useful resource is the Ubuntu Wiki
(https·//wiki.ubuntu.com), a website maintained by the Ubuntu community.
1ni unux1u iisx1oi +c
Figure :.;· 1he builtin svstem help provides
topicbased help for Ubuntu.
× Working uith Ubuntu
Geuing onIine
lf you are in a location with lnternet access, you will want to make sure
you are connected in order to get the most out of your Ubuntu operating
system. Tis section of the manual will help you ded your connection and
configure it where necessary. Ubuntu can connect to the lnternet using a
wired, wireless, or dialup connection. lt also supports some more advanced
connection methods, whid we will briefly discuss at the end of this section.
A wired connection refers to when your computer is physically connected
to a router or an lthernet port with a cable. Tis is the most common connec-
tion for desktop computers.
A wireless connection is when your computer is connected to the lnternet
via a wireless radio network, also known as Wi-li. laptop computers com-
monly use Wi-li due to portability, making it easy to access the lnternet from
different rooms in the house or when traveling.
ln order to connect wirelessly, you must be in a location with a working
wireless network. To have your own, you will need to purdase and install a
+:re|e:: rovìer or occe:: ¡o:nì. Some locations may already have a publicly
accessible wireless network available.
A dialup connection is when your computer uses a moJem to connect to an
lnternet service provider through your telephone line.
NetuorkManager
ln order to connect to the lnternet in Ubuntu, you need to use the Network- If vou are unsure whether vour computer
has a wireless card. check with vour
manufacturer.
Manager utility. NetworkManager allows you to turn all networking on or off,
and helps you manage your wired, wireless, and other connections.
Figure +.1· NetworkManager will displav
this icon in the top panel when vou are
connected to a wired network.
You can access all the functions of NetworkManager using its icon in the
top panel. Tis icon may look different depending on whether you currently
have a working connection, and whether the connection is wired or wireless.
lf you are unsure, try hovering your mouse over the icon until a short de-
scription appears near the cursor. Tis will read “Wired network connection
‘Auto eth0’ active” (for example) if you have a working wired connection, or
otherwise something else related to networking or connections sud as “No
connection” or “Networking disabled.”
Cliding this icon will bring up a list of network connections that are
¡: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure +.:· Here vou can see the currentlv
active “auto eth0” connection listed in the
NetworkManager menu.
available to you. lf you are currently connected to the lnternet, the name of
this connection will be highlighted in bold.
Figure +.+· 1his is the menu when vou
rightclick the networking icon.
You can also right-clid on the NetworkManager icon. Tis will open a
menu allowing you to enable or disable networking, view tednical details
about your current connection, or edit all connection seuings. ln the image
above, the ded box next to “lnable Networking” is currently selected: you
can deselect it to disable all network connections. Tis may be useful if you
need to shut off all wireless communication, sud as when in an airplane.
EstabIishing a uired connection
lf you have an Fì|erneì cable running from a wall sodet, a router, or some
other device, then you will want to set up a wired network connection in
Ubuntu.
ln order to connect with a wired connection, you need to know whether Are vou alreadv online` If the Network
Manager icon in the top panel shows a
connection. then vou mav have successfullv
connected during the installation process. If
so. vou do not need to follow the rest of this
section.
your network connection supports inci. Tis stands for “Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol,” and is a way for computers on your network to
automatically receive configuration information from your lnternet service
provider (isi). Tis is usually the quidest and easiest way of establishing
a connection between your computer and your isi in order to access the
lnternet, although some isis may provide what is called a :ìoì:c oJJre::
instead. lf you are unsure whether your isi supports inci, you may wish to
contact their customer service line to ded. Tey will also be able to provide
you with information on your static address if one has been allocated to you
(in many cases isis only allocate static addresses to customers upon request).
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡+
Automatic connections uith DHCP
lf your network supports inci, you may already be set up for online access.
To ded this, clid on the NetworkManager icon. Tere should be a “Wired
Network” heading in the menu that is displayed. lf “Auto eth0” appears di-
rectly underneath, then your computer is currently connected and probably
already set up correctly for inci. lf “disconnected” appears in gray under-
neath the wired network section, look below to see if an option labeled “Auto
eth0” appears in the list. lf so, clid on it to auempt to establish a wired con-
nection.
To ded if you are online, right-clid on the NetworkManager icon in the
top panel and select the Connection Information option.
Figure +.¡· 1his window displavs vour tr
address and other connection information.
You should see a window showing details about your connection. lf your ii An Internet Protocol (tr) address is a
numerical label assigned to devices on a
computer network. It is the equivalent of
phone numbers for vour house and allows
vour computer to be uniquelv identified so
vou can access the Internet and share files
with others.
address is displayed as o.o.o.o or starts with 1ec.:·¡, then your computer was
not successfully provided with an address through inci. lf it shows another
address, it is most likely that your connection was automatically configured
correctly. To test out your lnternet connection, you may want to open the
lirefox web browser to try loading a web page. More information on using
lirefox can be found later in this dapter.
lf you are still not online aner following these steps, you may need to try 1o access the “Connection Information”
window. vou will need to make sure that
networking is enabled. Otherwise this
option will be grav and vou will not be
able to select it through the rightclick
menu of the NetworkManager applet.
1o enable networking. rightclick on the
NetworkManager applet and select EnabIe
Netuorking from the popup menu.
seuing up your lnternet configuration manually, using a static ii address.
ManuaI configuration uith static addresses
lf your network does not support inci, then you need to know a few items of
information before you can get online.
‣ An iv address is a unique address used for identifying your computer on
the lnternet. When connecting through inci this is likely to dange at
¡¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
times. However, if your isi has provided you with a static address then
it will not. An ii address is always given in the form of four numbers
separated by decimal points, for example, 1c:.1e8.o.:.
‣ Te network mask tells your computer how large the network is that it be-
longs to. lt takes the same form as an ii address, but is usually something
like :··.:··.:··.o
‣ Te gateway is the ii address at your isi’s end. lt helps your computer
connect or “talk” with their network, whid acts as a “gateway” between
your computer and the lnternet.
‣ brs seryers are one or more ii addresses of “Domain Name System”
servers. Tese servers convert standard web addresses (like http·//www.
ubuntu.com) into ii addresses sud as c1.18c.c¡.1·e. Tis step allows your
computer to “find” the correct web site when you type in the web address
you wish to visit. A minimum of one ixs server is required, up to a maxi-
mum of three. Te additional ones are used in case the first one fails.
To manually configure a wired connection, right-clid on the Network- If vou do not alreadv have these seuings.
vou will need to consult vour network
administrator or tsr customer support to
receive them.
Manager icon and select Edit Connections. Make sure you are looking at the
Wired tab inside the “Network Connections” window that is displayed.
Te list may already have an entry sud as “Auto eth0,” or a similar name.
lf a connection is listed, select it and then clid the Edit buuon. lf no connec-
tion is listed, clid the Add buuon instead.
lf you are adding a connection, you first need to provide a name for the
connection so you can distinguish it from any others that are added later. ln
the “Connection name” field, doose a name sud as “Wired connection 1.”
Figure +.¡· In this window vou can manuallv
edit a connection.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡·
To set up the connection·
1. Under the connection name, make sure that the Connect automatically
option is selected.
:. Switd to the ivy¡ Settings tab.
+. Change the Method to “Manual.”
¡. Clid on the Add buuon next to the empty list of addresses.
·. Type in your ii address in the field below the Address header.
e. Clid to the right of the ii address, directly below the Netmask header,
and type in your network mask. lf you are unsure of your network mask,
“:··.:··.:··.o” is the most common.
;. Clid to the right of the network mask, directly below the Gateway header,
and type in the address of your gateway.
8. ln the brs seryers field below, type in the addresses of your ixs server. lf
your network has more than one ixs server, enter them all, separated by
spaces or commas.
c. Clid Apply to save your danges.
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enìer:nv :ì :: :omeì:me: :m¡orìonì +|en v::nv o co||e moJem connecì:on or
::m:|or. I[ \ov |no+ ì|e m~c oJJre:: o[ \ovr neì+or| corJ, ì|:: con |e enìereJ :n
ì|e o¡¡ro¡r:oìe ìe:ì fie|J :n ì|e Wired ìo| o[ ì|e eJ:ì:nv +:nJo+.
When you have returned to the Network Connections screen, your newly-
added connection should now be listed. Clid Close to return to the desktop.
lf your connection is configured correctly, the NetworkManager icon should
have danged to show an active connection. To test if your connection is
properly set up, refer to the instructions above for deding a inci connec-
tion.
WireIess
lf your computer is equipped with a wireless (Wi-li) card and you have a
wireless network nearby, you should be able to set up a wireless connection in
Ubuntu.
Connecting to a uireIess netuork for the first time
lf your computer has a wireless network card, you should be able to connect
to a wireless network. Most laptop and netbook computers have a wireless
network card.
Ubuntu is usually able to detect any wireless networks that are available 1o improve speed and reliabilitv of vour
connection. trv to move closer to vour
router or access point.
within range of your wireless card. To see a list of wireless networks, clid
on the NetworkManager icon. Under the “Wireless Networks” heading, you
should see a list of available wireless networks. lad network will be shown
with a name on the len, and a signal meter on the right. A signal meter looks
¡e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
like a series of bars—the more bars that are filled in, the stronger the connec-
tion will be.
A wireless network may be open to anyone to connect, or may be pro-
tected with network security. A small padlod will be displayed next to the
signal meter of any wireless networks that are protected. You will need to
know the correct password in order to connect to these.
To connect to a wireless network, select the desired network’s name from
the list. Tis will be the name that was used when the wireless router or
access point was installed. lf you are in a workplace or a location with a
publicly accessible wireless network, the network name will usually make it
easy to identify.
lf the network is unprotected (:.e., the network signal meter does not
display a padlod), a connection should be established within a few seconds.
Te NetworkManager icon in the top panel will animate as Ubuntu auempts
to establish a connection. lf it connects successfully the icon will dange
to display a signal meter. A notification message in the upper right of your
screen will also appear, informing you that a connection was established.
lf the network is secured, Ubuntu will display a window called “Wireless
Network Authentication Required” once it tries to connect. Tis means that a
password is required in order to connect.
Figure +.o· 1vpe in vour wireless network
passphrase.
lf you know the password, enter it in the Password field, and then clid
Connect. As you type your password, it will be obscured to prevent others
from seeing it. lf you prefer, you can select the Show password option to see
the password as you type.
Aner you clid the Connect buuon, the NetworkManager icon in the top
panel will animate as it tries to connect to the network. lf you have entered
the correct password, a connection will be established and the NetworkMan-
ager icon will dange to show signal meter bars. Again, Ubuntu will display
a pop up message in the upper right of your screen informing you that a con-
nection was established.
lf you entered the wireless network’s password incorrectly, Network- Select the Shou Passuord option to make
sure vou haven’t made a mistake when
entering the password.
Manager will auempt to establish a connection then return to the “Wireless
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡;
Network Authentication Required” window. You can auempt to enter the
correct password again, or clid Cancel to abort your connection. lf you do
not know the password to the network you have selected, you will need to get
the password from the network administrator.
Once you have successfully established a wireless network connection,
Ubuntu will store these seuings (including the network password) in order
to make it easier to connect to the same wireless network in future. You
may also be prompted to select a |e\r:nv password here. Te keyring stores
network and other important passwords in the one place, so you can access
them all in future by just remembering your keyring password.
Connecting to a saved uireIess netuork
lf you have previously successfully established a wireless connection, that
connection’s password will be saved on your computer. Tis will allow you to
connect to the same network without having to re-enter the password.
ln addition, Ubuntu will automatically try to connect to a wireless network
within range if it has its seuings saved. Tis will work for both open and
secured wireless networks.
lf you have many saved wireless networks that are in range, Ubuntu may
doose to connect to one of them, while you may prefer to connect to another.
ln this case, clid on the NetworkManager icon. You should see a list of wire-
less networks in range, along with their signal meters. Clid on your desired
network.
lf the password and other seuings have not danged, Ubuntu will connect
to the wireless network you dose. lf the password has dange, Ubuntu will
open the “Wireless Network Authentication Required” window. ln this case,
follow instructions in the previous section.
Connecting to a hidden uireIess netuork
ln some circumstances, you may need to connect to a hidden wireless net-
work. Tese hidden networks do not broadcast their names, whid means that
they will not show up in the list of wireless networks in the NetworkManager
menu. ln order to be able to connect to a hidden network, you will need to get
its name and security seuings from your network administrator.
To connect to a hidden network·
1. Clid on the NetworkManager icon in the top panel.
:. Choose the Connect to Hidden Wireless Network option. Ubuntu should
open the “Connect to Hidden Wireless Network” window.
+. By default, the Connection field should show “New…”—you can leave this
undanged.
¡. ln the Network name field, enter the name of the wireless network. Tis
name is also known as a ··ìn. Please enter the network name exactly as it
was given to you.
¡8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
·. ln the Wireless security field, select one of the options. lf the network is
open, leave this field as “None.” lf you do not know the correct seuing for
the network you will not be able to connect to the hidden network.
e. Clid on the Connect buuon.
Te rest of the process should work exactly as in the section on the initial
connection to wireless networks. Once set up according to the instructions
above, the hidden network should show up in the list of saved networks.
DisabIing and enabIing your uireIess netuork card
Wireless access in Ubuntu is enabled by default if you have a wireless net- Some computers mav have a phvsical switch
or buuon to turn off WiFi.
work card in your computer. ln certain cases, for example on airplanes, you
may need or be required to turn your wireless radio off.
To do this, right-clid on the NetworkManager icon, and deselect the En-
able Wireless option. Your wireless network will be turned off, and your
computer will no longer seard for available wireless networks.
To turn wireless networking bad on, right-clid on the NetworkManager
icon, and clid on the Enable Wireless option to re-select it. Your wireless
network will be turned bad on. Ubuntu will then seard for nearby wireless
networks and will connect to any saved networks within range.
Changing an existing uireIess netuork
At times, you may want to dange the seuings for a wireless connection that
you have previously saved. lts password may have danged, or your system
administrator asked you to dange some networking or security seuings.
To edit a saved wireless network connection·
1. Right-clid on the NetworkManager icon and select Edit Connections…
:. A “Network Connections” window should open. Clid on the Wireless tab
to see a list of saved wireless connections
+. By default, this list shows connections in the order of most recently used to
least recently used. lind the connection you want to edit, clid on it, and
then clid Edit.
¡. Ubuntu should open a window called “lditing ⟨connecì:on nome⟩”, where
⟨connecì:on nome⟩ is the name of the connection you are editing. Te
window should display a number of tabs.
·. Above the tabs, you may dange the Connection name field if you want to
give the connection a more recognizable name
e. lf the Connect automatically option is not selected, Ubuntu will detect
the wireless network but will not automatically connect to it without you
doosing it from the NetworkManager menu. Select or deselect this seuing
as needed.
;. On the Wireless tab of the “lditing ⟨connecì:on nome⟩” window, you may
need to edit the ssib field. A ssii is the wireless connection’s network
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡c
name—if set incorrectly, the network may not be detected and a connection
may not be made. Please make sure that the ssii is set according to your
network administrator’s instructions.
8. Below the ssii, you should see the Mode field. Te “lnfrastructure” mode
means that you would be connecting to a wireless router or access point.
Tis is the most common mode for wireless networks. Te “Ad-hoc” mode
is a computer-to-computer mode and is onen only used in advanced cases.
c. On the Wireless Security tab of the “lditing ⟨connecì:on nome⟩” window,
you may need to dange the Security field to the correct seuing. A selec-
tion of None means that you are using an open network with no security.
Other selections may require slightly different additional information·
‣ vrv ¡o/1z8-bit Key is an older security seuing still in use by some
wireless networks. lf your network uses this security mode, you will
need to enter a key in the Key field that should appear aner you select
this mode.
‣ vrv 1z8-bit Passphrase is the same older security seuing as the entry
above. However, instead of a key, your network administrator should
have provided you with a text passphrase—a password—to connect to
the network. Once you select this security mode, you will need to enter
your passphrase in the Key field.
‣ vvA & vvAz Personal is the most common security mode for wireless
network connections at home and at businesses. Once you select this
mode, you will need to enter a password in the Password field.
‣ lf your network administrator requires ii~i, Dynamic wii, or wi~ &
wi~: lnterprise security, you will need to have the administrator help
you set up those security modes.
1o. On the ivy¡ Settings tab, you may need to dange the Method field from
“Automatic (inci)” to “Manual,” or one of the other methods. lor seuing
up manual seuings (also known as static addresses), please see the section
above on manual set up for wired network connections.
11. When you finish making danges to the connection, clid Apply to save
your danges and close the window. You can clid Cancel to close the
window without making danges.
1:. linally, clid Close on the “Network Connections” window to return to the
desktop.
Aner making danges, your new seuings should go into effect immediately.
Other connection methods
Tere are other ways to get connected with Ubuntu.
With NetworkManager, you can also configure Mobile Broadband connec-
tions to keep online through your cellular or other mobile data carrier.
You can also connect to isis (Digital Subscriber lines), whid are a method
of lnternet connection that uses your telephone lines and a “isi modem.”
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Figure +.;· 1he default Ubuntu home page
for the Firefox web browser.
lt’s also possible to use NetworkManager to establish a vix (Virtual Private A vr· is a “Virtual Private Network.” and is
sometimes used to help secure connections.
rsts are “Digital Subscriber Lines.” a tvpe of
broadband connection.
Network) connection. Tese are commonly used to create secure connectivity
to a workplace.
Te instructions for making connections using mobile broadband, vixs, or
isis, are beyond the scope of this guide.
Brousing the ueb
Once you have connected to the lnternet, you should be able to browse the
web with Ubuntu. Mozilla lirefox is the default application for browsing the
web in Ubuntu.
Starting Firefox
To start lirefox, clid Applications ‣ Internet ‣ Firefox Web Browser. lf your 1o set other kevboard shortcuts or to
change the shortcut for launching Firefox.
go to System‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard
Shortcuts.
keyboard has a “www” buuon, you can also press that buuon to start lirefox.
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Navigating ueb pages
Vieuing your homepage
When you start lirefox, you will see your home page. By default, you will see
the Ubuntu Start Page.
To go to your home page quidly, press Alt+Home.
Navigating to another page
To navigate to a new web page, you need to type its lnternet address (also tat stands for uniform resource locator and
vvv stands for world wide web.
known as a uii) into the location Bar. uiis normally begin with “hup·//”
followed by one or more names that identify the address. One example is
“http·//www.ubuntu.com/”.
Figure +.8· You can enter a web address or
search the Internet bv tvping in the location
bar.
To navigate·
1. Clid on the location Bar to select the uii that is already there.
:. Type the uii of the page you want to visit. Te uii you type replaces any
text already in the location Bar.
+. Press Enter.
To quidly select the uii of the location Bar, press Ctrl+L. You can also press F6 on vour kevboard to
highlight the location bar in Firefox.
lf you don’t know a uii, try typing something specific to the page you
want to visit (for example a name or other seard request) into the location
Bar and press Enter. Tis will seard your preferred seard engine—Google by
default—for that term, and take you to the web page that is the top result from
the seard.
CIicking a Iink
Most web pages contain links you can clid to move to other pages.
To clid a link·
1. Move the mouse pointer until it danges to a pointing finger. Tis happens
whenever the pointer is over a link. Most links are underlined text, but
buuons and pictures on a web page can also be links.
:. Clid on the link once. While lirefox locates the link’s page, status mes-
sages will appear at the bouom of the window.
Retracing your steps
lf you want to visit a page you have seen before, there are several ways to do 1o go backwards and forwards vou can also
use Alt+Leftto go backwards or Alt+Right
to go forwards.
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so.
‣ To go bad or forward one page, clid on the BaH or Forward buuon.
‣ To go bad or forward more than one page, clid on the small triangle
next to the Forward buuon. You should see a list of pages you’ve recently
visited. To return to a page, select it from the list.
‣ To see a list of any uiis you’ve typed into the location Bar, clid on the
down arrow at the right end of the location Bar. To view a page, select it
from the list.
‣ To doose from pages you’ve visited during the current session, open the
History menu and doose from the list in the bouom section of the menu.
‣ To doose from pages you’ve visited during the past several sessions, open
the History menu and doose Show All History. lirefox should open a
“library” window, whid shows a list of folders. Clid on the folders to
displays sub-folders, or titles of web pages you’ve visited in the past. Clid
on a page’s title to view that page.
Stopping and reIoading
lf a page is loading too slowly or you no longer wish to view a page, clid on
the Stop buuon.
To reload the current page or to get the most up-to-date version, clid on
the Reload buuon or press Ctrl+R.
Opening neu uindous
At times, you may want to have more than one browsing window. Tis may
help you organize your browsing session beuer, or separate web pages that
you are viewing for different reasons.
Tere are two ways to create a new window·
‣ On the menubar, open the File menu, then doose New Window.
‣ Press Ctrl+N.
Once a new window has opened, you can use it just like the first window
—including navigation and opening tabs.
Opening a Iink in a neu uindou
Sometimes, you may want to clid on a link to navigate to another web page,
but do not want the original page to close. To do this, you can open the link
you’d like to clid in its own window.
Tere are two ways to open a link in its own window·
‣ Right-clid on a link to open its popup menu. Choose the Open Iink in
New Window option. A new window will open, containing the web page
for the link you clided.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ·+
‣ Press-and-hold the Shift key while cliding a link. Tis will also open the
web page in a new window.
Tabbed brousing
lf you would like to visit more than one web page at a time, you can use You can alternate quicklv between differ
ent tabs bv using the kevboard shortcut
Ctrl+Tab.
To||eJ Bro+::nv to navigate the web.
Tabbed browsing lets you open several web pages within a single lirefox
window, ead displaying in its own tab. Tis frees up space on your desk-
top since you don’t have to have a window open for every web page you’re
currently visiting. You can open, close, and reload web pages in one place
without having to switd to another window.
Opening a neu bIank tab
Tere are three ways to create a new blank tab·
‣ Clid on the New Tab buuon on the right side of the last tab.
‣ On the menubar, open the File menu, and then doose New Tab.
‣ Press Ctrl+T.
When you create a new tab, it will contain a blank page with the location
Bar focused. Start typing a web address (uii) or other seard term to open a
website in the new tab.
Opening a Iink in its oun tab
Sometimes, you may want to clid on a link to navigate to another web page,
but do not want the original page to close. To do this, you can open the link
you’d like to clid in its own tab.
Tere are many ways to open a link in its own tab·
‣ lf your mouse has a middle buuon, or a wheel, clid on the link with the
middle mouse buuon or wheel. A new tab should open, containing the web
page for the link you clided.
‣ Clid on the link with the len mouse buuon, and keep holding down the
mouse buuon. Drag the link up to a blank space on the tab bar, and release
the mouse buuon. A new tab should open, containing the web page for the
link you dragged.
‣ Press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliding the len mouse buuon on the
link. A new tab should open, containing the web page for the link you
clided.
‣ Right-clid on a link to open its popup menu. Choose the Open Iink in
New Tab option. A new tab will open, containing the web page for the link
you clided.
‣ Clid on a link, holding both len and right mouse buuons.
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CIosing a tab
Once you are done viewing a web page in a tab, you can close that tab.
Tere are four ways to close a tab·
‣ Clid on the Close buuon on the right side of the tab you want to close.
‣ On the menubar, open the File menu, and then doose Close Tab.
‣ Clid on the tab you want to close with the middle mouse buuon, or the
mouse wheel, if you have one.
‣ Press Ctrl+W.
‣ Clid on the tab with both mouse buuons.
Restoring a cIosed tab
Sometimes, you may close the wrong tab by accident, or want to bring bad a
tab that you’ve recently closed.
To bring bad a tab you’ve closed, do one of the following·
‣ On the menubar, open the History menu, doose Recently Closed Tabs,
and then doose the name of the tab you want to restore.
‣ Press Ctrl+Shift+T to re-open the most recently closed tab.
Changing the tab order
To move a tab to a different location on the tab bar, drag it there using your
mouse. Clid-and-hold on the tab and drag the tab to a new place on the tab
bar. While you are dragging the tab, lirefox will display a small indicator to
show where the tab will be moved.
When moving a tab to a new window it
mav reload the page. remember to save vour
work before doing this.
Moving a tab betueen uindous
lf you have more than one lirefox window open, you can move an open tab to
a different window. You can also split a tab off to become its own window.
To move a tab from one lirefox window to another already open window,
clid-and-hold on the tab and drag it to the tab bar on the other lirefox win-
dow. When you release the mouse buuon, the tab will be auaded to the new
window.
To move a tab from one window into its own window, clid-and-hold
on the tab and drag the tab below the tab bar. When you release the mouse
buuon, the tab will become a new window.
Searching
You can seard the web, or other collections, from within lirefox without first
visiting the home page of the seard engine.
By default, lirefox will seard the web using the Google seard engine.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ··
Searching the ueb
To seard the web in lirefox, type a few words into the lirefox seard Bar.
lor example, if you want to find information about the U|vnìv·
1. Clid on the Searc Bar.
:. Type the phrase “Ubuntu.” Your typing replaces any text currently in the
Seard Bar.
+. Press Enter to seard.
Seard results from Google for “Ubuntu” should appear in the lirefox
window.
SeIecting search engines
Figure +.,· 1hese are the other search
engines vou can use—bv default—from the
Firefox search bar.
lf you do not want to use Google as your seard engine in the Seard Bar,
you can dange the seard engine that lirefox uses.
1he Ubuntu home page’s search bar uses
Google bv default. but will automaticallv
use Yahoo if Yahoo is selected in the Search
Bar.
To dange the seard engine, clid on the icon on the len side of the Seard
Bar. Choose one of the other seard engines in the list. Some seard engines,
like Google, seard the whole web: others, like Amazon.com, only seard
specific sites.
Searching the ueb for uords seIected in a ueb page
Sometimes, you may want to seard for a phrase that appears on a different
web page. lnstead of copying and pasting the phrase into the Seard Bar,
lirefox allows you to seard the web for words you select within a web page.
1. Highlight any words in a web page using your len mouse buuon.
:. Right-clid on the text you’ve highlighted to open a popup menu. Choose
the option Searc |Searc Engine] for “|your selected words]”.
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lirefox should open a new tab containing seard results for your high-
lighted words, found using the currently selected seard engine.
Searching uithin a page
Figure +.1o· You can search within web
pages using the Find TooIbar.
You may want to look for specific text within the web page you are view-
ing. To find text within the current page in lirefox·
1. Press Ctrl+F or doose Edit ‣ Find to open the Find Toolbar at the bouom
of lirefox.
:. lnter the text you want to find into the Find field in the lind Toolbar. Te
seard automatically begins as soon as you type something into the field.
+. Once some text has been matded on the web page, you can·
‣ Clid Next to find text in the page that is below the current cursor
position.
‣ Clid Preyious to find text that is above the current cursor position.
‣ Clid on the Highlight all buuon to highlight occurrences of your
seard words in the current page.
‣ Select the Matc case option to limit the seard to text that has the
same capitalization as your seard words.
To find the same word or phrase again, press F3 or doose Edit ‣ Find
Again from the menubar.
Vieuing ueb pages fuII screen
To display more web content on the screen, you can use Fv|| Screen moJe.
lull Screen mode condenses the lirefox’s toolbars into one small toolbar. To
enable lull Screen mode, simply doose View‣ Full Screen or press F11.
Copying and saving pages
With lirefox, you can copy part of a page so that you can paste it elsewhere,
or save the page or part of a page as a file on your computer.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ·;
Copying part of a page
To copy text from a page·
1. Highlight the text and/or images with your mouse.
:. Choose Edit ‣ Copy from the menubar or press Ctrl+C.
You can paste the text into other programs.
To copy a text or image link (uii) from a page·
1. Position the pointer over the link or image.
:. Right-clid on the link or image to open a popup menu.
+. Choose Copy Iink Iocation.
You can paste the link into other programs or into lirefox’s location Bar.
Saving aII or part of a page
To save an entire page in lirefox·
1. Choose File ‣ Saye Page As from the menubar. lirefox should open the
“Save As” window.
:. Choose a location for the saved page.
+. Type a file name for the page, and clid Saye.
To save an image from a page·
1. Position the mouse pointer over the image.
:. Right-clid on the image to display a popup menu.
+. Choose Saye Image As. lirefox should open the “Save lmage” window.
¡. Choose a location for the saved image.
·. lnter a file name for the image and clid Saye.
Changing your homepage
By default, lirefox will show the Ubuntu Start Page when you start lirefox.
lf you prefer to view another page when you start lirefox, you will need to
dange your homepage preference.
1he homepage can also be set bv entering
the addresses that should be open in the
Home Page. with a pipe—¦—separating
pages to be opened in a new tab
To dange your homepage·
1. Navigate to the page that you would like to become your new homepage.
:. Choose Edit ‣ Preferences from the menubar.
+. ln the “Startup” section on the General tab, whid is shown by default,
clid on the Use Current Page buuon. lf you had more than one tab open
then all the tabs will be opened when lirefox starts. lf you prefer to have
one page open, close the other tabs and repeat Steps :-¡.
¡. Clid Close.
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Figure +.11· You can change Firefox seuings
in this window.
DounIoad seuings
1he Downloads window shows the progress
of currentlv downloading files. and lists files
downloaded in the past. It can be used to
open or redownload files.
ln Edit ‣ Preferences you can dange how lirefox behaves with down-
loads. You can tell lirefox where to place downloaded files, or to ask where
ead time. You can also set the behavior of lirefox’s Downloads window. Te
Downloads window can be hidden entirely, or set to hide when downloads
finish.
Bookmarks
When browsing the web you may want to come bad to certain web pages
again without having to remember the uii.
ln lirefox, you can create |oo|mor|:, whid are saved in the web browser
and whid you can use to navigate bad to your pided web pages.
Bookmarking a page
Aner navigating to a web page you can save its location by bookmarking it.
Tere are two ways to bookmark a page·
‣ lrom the menubar, doose Bookmarks and then Bookmark Tis Page. A
window will open. Provide a descriptive name for the bookmark, and clid
on the Done buuon.
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‣ Press Ctrl+D. A pop-up will appear. Provide a descriptive name for the
bookmark, and clid on the Done buuon.
Navigating to a bookmarked page
To navigate to a bookmarked page, open the Bookmarks menu from the
menubar, and then doose your bookmark’s name. lirefox should open the
bookmark in the current tab.
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DeIeting a bookmark
lf you would like to delete a bookmark that you have previously made, open
the Bookmarks menu from the menubar, and then right-clid on your book-
mark’s name. lirefox should open a popup menu for your bookmark. Choose
the Delete option from the menu. Your bookmark should then be deleted.
History
Whenever you are browsing the web, lirefox is saving your browsing history.
Tis allows you to come bad to a web page that you have recently visited,
without needing to remember the page’s uii, or even bookmarking it.
To see your most recent history, open the History menu from the menubar.
Te menu should then display several of the most recent web pages that you
were viewing. Choose one of the pages to return to it.
To see the web pages you have visited recently, press Ctrl+H. lirefox will
open a “sidebar” on the len side of the browser window, that contains your
browsing history, categorized as “Today,” “Yesterday,” “last ; days,” “Tis
month,” the past e months (listed month by month), and finally “Older than e
months.”
Clid on one of the date categories in the sidebar to expand it. Ten it will
reveal the pages you visited during that period. Ten, once you find the page
you need, clid on its title to return to it.
You can also seard for a page by its title. lnter a few leuers, or a word,
in the Searc field at the top of the history sidebar. Te sidebar should then
display a list of web pages whose titles matd your seard words. Clid on the
title of the page you need to return to it.
lf you would like to hide the history sidebar again, press Ctrl+H again.
CIearing private data
At times, you may want to delete all private data that lirefox stores about
your browsing history. While this data is stored only on your computer, you
may want to remove it if you share access to your computer.
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To delete your private data, open the Tools menu from the menubar, and
doose Clear Recent History. ln the drop down list for the Time range to
clear, doose how far bad you would like lirefox to delete.
lf you would like more control over what you clear, clid on the Details
text to display a list of options.
When done, clid on the Clear Now buuon.
Using a different ueb brouser
Figure +.1:· You can change the default
browser with the ”Preferred Applica
tions” utilitv. 1o use it. open the System‣
Preferences ‣ Preferred AppIications.
lf you install a different web browser on your computer, you may want
to use it as the default browser when you clid on links from emails, instant
messages, and other places.
To dange your preferred web browser, open the System menu from
Ubuntu’s main menubar. Ten, doose System‣ Preferences ‣ Preferred Appli-
cations. Ubuntu should then open the “Preferred Applications” window.
ln the “Web Browser” section, doose your new preferred web browser, and
clid Close.
Reading and composing emaiI
To send and receive email in Ubuntu, you can use the lvolution mail applica-
tion. To start lvolution, open the Applications menu, then doose Office and
then Eyolution Mail and Calendar.
ln addition to email, lvolution also can help manage your contact list, your
calendar, and a list of tasks.
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Running EvoIution for the first time
When you start lvolution for the first time, you will need to configure it to
connect to your email account.
When lvolution starts, you should see the “lvolution Setup Assistant”
window, welcoming you to lvolution. Clid Forward to continue with the
setup.
Next, on the “Restore from badup” screen, lvolution may ask you to
restore from a previous badup. Since this is the first time you are running
lvolution, you can clid Forward to skip this step.
On the next screen, “ldentity”, you need to enter your name and the email
address you wish to use with lvolution. lnter your full name in the Full
Name field, and the full email address in the Email Address field. You can
fill in the optional information, or leave it undanged if you desire. Clid
Forward when you are done.
Next, you should see the “Receiving lmail” screen. On this screen, you
need to provide lvolution with the details of your email servers. lf you do not
know these details, you will need to ask your network administrator or ded
with your email provider.
Tere are two common types of lnternet email connections· i·~i, and
ioi. Tese are described below. ln work environments there are sometimes
other types, sud as Microson lxdange or Novell GroupWise—for more
information on those types of connections, please see the documentation for
lvolution located in the Help ‣ Contents menu.
Seuing up an !MAP connection
i·~i connections allow you to manage your email remotely—the actual email
and folders reside on your email server, while lvolution allows you to view,
edit, and delete the messages and folders as needed.
lf your email provider recommends an i·~i connection, doose IMAP
from the Seryer Type drop-down list. ln the Seryer field, enter the lnternet
address or uii of your mail server. for example imap.example.com. ln the
Username field: enter the username that you use to log into your email sys-
tem, for example joe.x.user or joe.x.userwexample.com, as specified by
your email provider.
Your email provider may specify the security seuings you will need to use
in order to receive email. lf your connection does not use security, leave the
Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise,
doose either 1is encryption or ssi encryption, as specified by your email
provider.
Aner doosing these options, clid Forward to proceed to the “Receiv-
ing Options” screen. While it is normal to leave all options unselected, you
may want to select the CheH for new messages option to have lvolution
automatically ded email on a regular basis.
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When you are finished seuing the options, clid Forward to continue to
the next screen.
Seuing up a POP connection
ioi connections let you manage your email locally—lvolution will connect to
your email provider and download any new messages you may have received,
and store them in folders on your computer. Te messages will be deleted
from the server.
lf your email provider recommends a ioi connection, doose POP from
the Seryer Type drop-down list. ln the Seryer field, enter the lnternet address
or uii of your mail server: for example pop.example.com. ln the Username
field, enter the username that you use to log into your email system, for
example joe.x.user, or joe.x.userwexample.com.
Your email provider may specify the security seuings you will need to use
in order to receive email. lf your connection does not use security, leave the
Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise,
doose either 1is encryption or ssi encryption, as specified by your email
provider.
Aner doosing these options, clid Forward to proceed to “Receiving Op-
tions” screen. While it is normal to leave all options unselected, you may
want to select the CheH for new messages option to have lvolution auto-
matically ded email on a regular basis.
You may also wish to adjust the Message Storage options, whid determine
what lvolution does aner downloading email to your computer. Select the
Ieaye messages on seryer option to have lvolution keep the messages on
your email system aner downloading them. Tis will allow you to use another
computer to re-download all of your new messages. Select the Delete aßer ;
days option to have lvolution keep the messages for a few days, and delete
them aner a while. You can adjust the number of days that lvolution keeps
the messages.
When you are finished seuing the options, clid Forward to continue to
the next screen.
Seuing up your sending options
Te next screen should be the “Sending lmail” screen. Here, you will need to
configure your connection for sending email through your email provider.
Te most common type of sending connection is s·1i, whid is the default
server type selected.
ln the Seryer field, type in the name of the outbound mail server (also
known as the s·1i server), as described by your email provider. lor example,
mail.example.com.
lf your email provider requires authentication, select the Seryer requires
authentication option. Tis is common for commercial email providers.
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ln the “Authentication” section of the screen, doose the type of authen-
tication from the Type drop-down list—the most common authentication
type is “ii~ix.” Below that, enter your username, for example, joe.x.user, or
joe.x.userwexample.com, in the Username field.
Your email provider may specify the security seuings you will need to use
in order to send email. lf your connection does not use security, leave the Use
Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise, doose
either 1is encryption or ssi encryption, as specified by your email provider.
Aner doosing these options, clid Forward to proceed to the next screen.
FinaIizing your account options
On the next screen, “Account Management”, enter a descriptive name for this
account. lf you set up more email accounts with lvolution the name provided
here will help distinguish those accounts.
When finished, clid Forward. Tis should open the “Done” screen. lf you
believe that you’ve entered the correct options, clid Apply to finish setup.
Otherwise, clid BaH to go bad one or more screens to correct your seuings,
or clid Cancel to abort setup and discard your account seuings.
Aner you finish setup, lvolution may ask you if you would like to make it
your default email client. Clid Yes if you plan on reading and sending email
only with lvolution. Clid No if you plan on installing or using a different
email program.
Around the EvoIution uorkspace
Te lvolution window is divided into four parts. At the top are the menubar
and toolbar. Te menubar lets you access most of the functionality of lvo-
lution, while the toolbar provides convenient shortcuts to some of the most
frequently used features.
On the len side of the window is the folder list. lvery message that you
send or receive will reside in one of the folders in this list.
Below the folder list on the len side of the window are the Mail, Contacts,
Calendars, Tasks, and Memos buuons. When working with email, the Mail
buuon is selected. Te other buuons take you to those other parts of lvolu-
tion.
On the right side of the window are the message list, and the message
preview beneath it. Te message list shows all of the messages in the currently
selected folder, or matding your seard request. lf a message is selected in
this list, its contents are shown in the message preview pane below.
Understanding the foIder Iist
Te folder list is the way that lvolution separates and categorizes your email.
Te first group of folders in the list is titled “On Tis Computer.” Tese are
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Figure +.1+· Lvolution allows vou to manage
vour mail. contacts and tasks.
your |oco| folders—they reside on your computer only. lf you use ioi servers
to retrieve your email, any new message will be placed in the Inbox local
folder.
You can clid on any folder to see its contents appear in the message list on
the right side of the window.
lad of the initial folders in the list is special·
‣ Inbox stores your incoming messages.
‣ Draßs stores messages that you’ve worked on, but have not yet sent.
‣ Junk stores messages that have been identified as unsolicited email that
you did not want. Junk mail is also known as “spam.”
‣ Outbox contains messages that you’ve finished composing, but whid
have not been sent yet. lor example, if you are in an airplane or another
location without an lnternet connection, you can still clid the Send buuon
once you’ve finished writing an email. Te message will be moved to the
Outbox, and will remain there until the next time you are able to send
and receive messages. Once you can send and receive messages, all email
messages in the Outbox will be sent out.
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‣ Sent contains copies of messages that have been sent successfully. Once a
message from an Outbox is sent, it is copied to the Sent folder.
‣ Templates stores any email message templates you have saved. A template
is a partial message, for example, a blank invoice, that can be used as the
starting point for other messages.
‣ Trash contains messages that you have deleted. By default, the trash will
be emptied every time you exit lvolution.
lf a folder contains any unread messages, the folder’s name will be dis-
played in bold, and the number of unread messages will be displayed in
parentheses following the folder name.
lf you use an i·~i server to retrieve your email, then your remote i·~i
folders will also be shown in the folder list, below the “On Tis Computer”
section. Te heading for ead folder list uses the name you gave to that ac-
count. lad i·~i-enabled account has its own Inbox for new messages.
Towards the bouom of the folder list, lvolution will show a list of “Seard
lolders.” Tese are special folders that represent certain messages that matd
seard rules. Please see the section on linding Messages for more on seard
folders.
Managing foIders
ln addition to the initial folders, you can create your own folders to manage
your email.
To create a new folder, open the Folder menu, and then doose New. lnter
a name for the folder that you would like to create. Ten, from the list of
folders below, select the ¡orenì folder. lor example, if you would like your
new folder to be placed under the lnbox then select the lnbox folder. lf you
select “On Tis Computer,” then your new folder will be placed under “On
Tis Computer” in the folder list.
Once you’ve made your selection, clid on the Create buuon to create the
folder. Your new folder should now be in the folder list.
You can move folders that you have created. To do so, clid on the folder
that you would like to move, hold down the mouse buuon, and drag the folder
to a new parent folder. Once the mouse cursor highlights a new parent folder,
release the mouse buuon to finish the move.
You can also right-clid on a folder, and doose the Moye… option. Ten,
select the new parent folder, and clid on the Moye buuon.
To delete a folder, right-clid on the folder and doose the Delete option.
To confirm that you want to delete the folder, clid on the Delete buuon.
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Checking and reading messages
Checking maiI
When you finish setup, or when you start lvolution in the future, lvolution
will first try to connect to your email provider to ded your email. ln order to
connect, lvolution will need to know your email account password, and will
ask you for it.
Figure +.1¡· You need to enter vour pass
word to authenticate vour account.
ln the “lnter Password” window, enter your password and clid OK. lf you
wish for lvolution to remember this password and not ask you in the future,
you can select the Remember this password option.
lvolution will then show a “Send & Receive Mail” window, showing the
progress of the operation sud as how many messages are being retrieved.
Listing messages
Te top right portion of the lvolution window is the message list. Here, you
can see email messages for your currently selected folder, or matding your
seard terms.
By default, the message list shows six columns of information for ead
message. Te first column is a read/unread indicator. lf a message has been
read, the column shows an icon of an open envelope. lf a message has not
been read, the icon will show a closed envelope.
Te second column is an auadment indicator. lf a message contains an
auaded file, lvolution will show an icon of a paperclip in this column. Oth-
erwise, the column will be blank.
Te third column is an importance indicator. lf someone sends you a
message marked with high importance, lvolution will show an exclamation
mark in this column. Otherwise, this column will be blank.
Te fourth column contains the sender of the message. Both the name and
email, or just the email address, may be displayed in this column.
Te finh column contains the subject of the email message.
linally, the sixth column is the date that the email was sent.
When you clid on a message, its contents will be displayed in the preview
pane below the message list. Once you select a message by cliding it, you can
woixixc wi1n unux1u e;
clid on the Reply buuon in the toolbar to begin composing a reply message
to be sent to the sender, or clid on the Reply to All buuon to begin com-
posing a reply message to be sent to the sender and other recipients of your
selected message.
You can also clid on the Trash buuon in the toolbar to put the message
in the Trash folder, or on the Junk buuon to move the message into the Junk
folder. Note that lvolution, or your mail server, may automatically classify
some mail as Junk.
ln addition to the buuons on the toolbar, you can right-clid on a message
in the list. lvolution will open a menu with actions that you can perform for
the message.
Sometimes, you may wish to take an action on multiple email messages
(for example, delete multiple messages, or forward them to a new recipient).
To do this in lvolution, press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliding on multi-
ple messages—the messages you clid on will be selected. You can also clid
on one message to select it, then press-and-hold the Shift key and clid on
another message in the list. All messages in the list between the original selec-
tion and the one you just clided on will be selected. Once you have multiple
messages selected, right-clid on one of them to perform your desired action.
Directly above the message list are the Show drop-down list, and the
seard options. You can use the Show drop-down list to filter your view to
show only unread messages, or only messages with auadments, etc.
Te seard options will be covered in a later section.
Previeuing messages
When you select an email message, its contents will be shown in the preview
pane below the message list.
Te top of the preview pane will show the message header, whid contains
the sender, recipients, and subject of the message, as well as the date the
message was sent. Below the header, lvolution shows the contents of the
message itself.
lf a message was sent with n1·i formauing, some of the images may not Note that loading images mav provide a
wav for the sender to track vour receipt of
the message. We do not recommend loading
images in messages that vou suspect are
Junk.
be displayed when a message is previewed. To display the missing images,
open the View menu from the menubar, then Ioad Images, or press Ctrl+I.
lf your lnternet connection is active, the missing images should then load.
Opening messages
At times, you may want to display multiple messages at the same time. To do
so, you can open ead message in a separate window instead of just viewing it
in the preview pane.
To open a message in its own window, double clid a message in the mes-
sage list. Te message should then open in a separate window. You can go
bad to the message list and open another message, if needed.
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ln the open message window, you can use the options in the menubar or on
the toolbar to reply to the message, categorize it, delete it, as well as perform
other message actions.
Finding messages
Tere are three ways to seard for messages in lvolution· you can use the
seard option at the top of the message list, use the Advanced Seard function,
or create a seard folder.
To use message list seard, enter the text you want to find in the Searc
field at the top right of the message list, and press Enter. Te list of messages
will dange to show only those messages containing the text you entered.
To the right of the seard field you should be able to see a drop-down list
of options sud as “Current lolder,” “Current Account,” and “All Accounts.”
By default, lvolution will use the “Current lolder” option and will only
show you results within the folder you’ve got selected in the folder list on
your len. lf you doose the “Current Account” option, lvolution will seard
for messages in all folders within the current email account—sud as all the
folders “On Tis Computer” or in your i·~i folders, depending on your email
setup. lf you have multiple email accounts added to lvolution, doosing the
“All Accounts” option lets you seard for messages in all of your accounts.
lf no messages matd the text you’ve entered, you can edit the text and
try searding again. To return to the folder display, open the Searc menu
from the menubar and then doose Clear, or instead erase all the text you’ve
entered in the Searc field and press Enter.
ln some cases, you may want to seard for messages using multiple criteria.
lor example, you may want to find a message from a particular user with
some specific words in the subject of the message. ln lvolution, you can
perform this seard using the Advanced Seard function.
Figure +.1¡· 1o use more search terms vou
can use the advanced search window.
To use Advanced Seard, doose Searc‣ Adyanced Searc. lvolution
should open the “Advanced Seard” window. ln the middle section of the
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window, specify your seard criteria. lor our example, to find messages from
myfriend(example.com that contained “boat” in the subject, you would enter
myfriend@example.com in the text field to the right of the drop-down list with
“Sender” selected, and would enter boat in the text field to the right of the
drop-down list with “Subject” selected. Ten, clid on Remoye to the right of
all lines that are unused, and clid OK to perform the seard. Te message list
should then only display messages that matd your advanced seard criteria.
When specifying the criteria for advanced seard, you can clid on the Add
Condition buuon to add additional lines. You can also dange the selection
in the drop-down list at the beginning of ead line to specify a different field
to be deded, or dange the drop-down with “contains” selected by default
in order to have a different type of a matd. Please refer to the lvolution help
documents for more information.
ln some cases, you may want to perform the same seard request on a reg-
ular basis. lor example, you may want to always be able to see all messages
from myfriend(example.com regardless of whid folder you’ve used to store
the message. To help with this type of a seard, lvolution allows you to create
Seard lolders.
To create a seard folder, doose Searc‣ Create Searc Folder From
Searc from the menubar. Give the folder a name by entering it in the Rule
name field at the top. Ten, specify seard criteria in the same way as in
Advanced Seard. Below the criteria, pid whid folders should be searded by
this seard folder—for example, you can doose “All local and active remote
folders” to seard in all of your account’s folders. When you are finished, clid
OK.
Te new seard folder should now be added to the list of seard folders
towards the bouom of the message list. lf you clid on the seard folder to
select it, you should be able to see a list of messages that matd your seard
criteria.
Subscribing to !MAP foIders
lf you use i·~i to retrieve your email, you should see a set of folders in the
folder list on the len side of the window that is titled with the name of your
i·~i account. lolders like lnbox, Drans, Junk and others should be displayed
in the folder list.
lf you have other folders in your i·~i account, you will need to subscribe
to them. lf you subscribe to a folder, lvolution will download messages for
that folder whenever you ded your email.
To subscribe to a folder select Folder ‣ Subscriptions from the menubar.
lvolution should open the “lolder Subscriptions” window. lrom the Seryer
drop-down list doose your account name. lvolution should then show a list
of folders in the list below.
Choose the folders you would like to subscribe to by selecting the ded
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box to the len of the folder name. When you are finished, clid Close. Te
folders will be updated the next time you ded your email.
Composing and repIying to messages
ln addition to reading email, you will likely want to reply to the email you
read, or compose new messages.
Composing neu messages
To compose a new message, clid on the New buuon on the toolbar. lvolution
should open a “Compose message” window.
ln the To· field, enter the email address of the destination—the contact to
whom you are sending this email. lf there is more than one contact to whom
you are writing, separate multiple recipients with commas.
lf a contact that you are addressing is in your address book, you can ad-
dress them by name. Start typing the name of the contact: lvolution will
display the list of matding contacts below your text. Once you see the con-
tact you intend to address, clid on their email address or use the down arrow
key and then Enter to select the address.
lf you would like to carbon-copy some contacts, enter their email addresses
in the Cc· field in the same manner as the To· recipients. Contacts on the To·
and Cc· lines will receive the email, and will see the rest of the contacts to
whom an email was sent.
lf you would like to send an email to some contacts without disclosing
to whom your email was sent, you can send a blind carbon-copy, or Bcc. To
enable Bcc, select View‣ Bcc Field from the menubar. A Bcc· field should
appear below the Cc· field. Any contacts entered in the Bcc· field will re-
ceive the message, but none of the recipients will see the names or emails of
contacts on the Bcc· line.
lnstead of typing the email addresses, or names, of the contacts you are
addressing in the message, you can also select the contacts from your address
book. To do so, clid on the To·, Cc· or Bcc· buuons to the len of the text
fields. lvolution should open the “Select Contacts from Address Book” win-
dow. Use the list on the len side of the window to select your contact, or type
a few leuers from your contact’s first or last name in the Searc field to filter
the list to only show matding contacts.
Once you identify the contact you would like to address, clid on their
name in the list. Ten, clid on the Add buuon to the len of either the To·,
Cc·, or Bcc· fields located on the right of the screen. Your selected contact will
be added to that list. lf you’ve added the contact in error, clid their name in
the list on the right, and clid on the Remoye buuon. When you are finished
piding contacts, clid Close to return to the composing screen.
lnter a subject for your email. Messages should have a subject to help the
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recipient to identify the email while glancing at their message list: if you do
not include a subject, lvolution will warn you about this.
lnter the contents of your message in the big text field below the subject.
Tere is no practical limit on the amount of text you can include in your
message.
By default, new messages will be sent in “Plain Text” mode. Tis means
that no formauing or graphics will be shown to the recipient, but the message
is least likely to be rejected or displayed illegibly to the recipients. lf you
know that your recipient uses a contemporary computer and a modern email
program, you can send them messages that include formauing. To switd to
this mode, clid the drop-down list buuon on the len side directly above the
text field for the message contents. Change the selection from “Plain Text”
to “n1·i” to enable advanced formauing. When using n1·i mode, a new
toolbar should appear right under the mode selection that will allow you to
perform advanced font styling and message formauing.
When you have finished composing your email, clid on the Send buuon
on the window’s toolbar. Your message will be placed in the Outbox, and will
be sent when you next ded your email.
Auaching fiIes
At times, you may want to send files to your contacts. To send files, you will
need to auad them to your email message.
To auad a file to an email you are composing, clid on the Add Attac-
ment buuon at the bouom right of the email message window. lvolution
should show the “Add auadment” window.
Select the file you would like to include in your message and clid on the
Attac buuon. lvolution will return you to the email message window, and
your selected file should be listed in a section below the Add Attacment
buuon.
RepIying to messages
ln addition to composing new messages, you may want to reply to messages
that you receive.
Tere are three types of email replies·
‣ Reply (or “Reply to Sender”)—sends your reply only to the sender of the
message to whid you are replying.
‣ Reply to All—sends your reply to the sender of the message, as well as
anyone else on the To or Cc lines.
‣ Forward—allows you to send the message, with any additional comments
you may add, to some other contacts.
To use any of these methods, clid on the message to whid you want
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to reply and then clid the Reply, Reply to All, or Forward buuon on the
toolbar.
lvolution should open the reply window. Tis window should look mud
like the window for composing new messages, but the To, Cc, Subject, and
main message content fields should be filled in from the message to whid you
are replying. lad line in the message should be prefixed with a “~” daracter.
ldit the To, Cc, Bcc, Subject or main body as you see fit. When your reply
is finished, clid on the Send buuon on the toolbar. Your message will be
placed in the Outbox, and will be sent when you next ded your email.
Using signatures
ln order to give your messages a footer, lvolution allows you to use a “signa-
ture.” Signatures in email are a bit of standard text that is added to the bouom
of any new messages or replies.
When composing of replying to a message, clid on the Signature drop-
down list below the toolbar just above the To· field. Tis list should contain
any signatures that you have created, as well as an “Autogenerated” signature.
lf you select Autogenerated, lvolution will add two dashes, and then your
name and email address to the bouom of the email message.
You can also specify some custom signatures. To create a signature, open
the “lvolution Preferences” window by selecting Edit ‣ Preferences from
the menubar. On the len side of the lvolution Preferences window, select
Composer Preferences and then select the Signatures tab.
Clid on the Add to add a new signature. lvolution should then open
the “ldit Signature” window. Give your signature a name, and enter the
contents of your signature in the big text field below. When finished, clid Note that the two dashes are added auto
maticallv bv Ubuntu. so there is no need to
include them in vour custom signature.
on the Saye buuon on the toolbar (the buuon’s icon looks like a floppy disk).
Your new signature’s name should appear in the list in preferences. Close the
preferences window.
Your signature should now show up in the drop-down list in the com-
pose/reply window.
Staying organized
Te lvolution application in Ubuntu can let you keep and manage a list of
your contacts, maintain a calendar, and a task list.
lf you have already set up lvolution with an email account, you do not
need to do any further setup to use these features. lf you do not wish to
use lvolution for email, you can still use it for managing your contacts or
maintaining a sdedule, as well as keep trad of tasks and memos that you can
create for yourself.
To start lvolution, open the Applications menu, then doose Office and
then Eyolution Mail and Calendar.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ;+
Managing your contacts
Figure +.1o· You can view. edit. and add
contacts.
lf you would like to keep a list of your contacts—personal or professional
contact information for people and organizations—you can manage these
contacts in lvolution.
To view contacts, clid on the Contacts buuon below the folder list on
the len side of the lvolution window. Te folder list on the len will be re-
placed by a list of address book types. Clid on an address book, for example
“Personal.”
Te right side of the window will display a list of contacts. Clid a contact An address book is a collection of contacts
and contact lists. It can either be stored on
vour computer. or on a remote server.
to show the contact’s details in the lower portion of the right side of the
window.
lf you use Ubuntu One, you may have two address books—a “Personal” Ubuntu One is a free service vou can use
to svnc and store contacts. as well as other
information. For more information on
Ubuntu One see the dedicated section later
in this chapter.
address book stored on your computer, and an “Ubuntu One” address book.
You can add contacts to either address book, though only the “Ubuntu One”
address book is syndronized to your Ubuntu One account.
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Searching for contacts
To find a contact, type in a few a few leuers from the contact’s first or last
name in the seard text box on the upper right of the window, and press
Enter. Te list below should dange to only show contacts whose name
matdes your seard term.
Adding or editing a contact
To make danges to an existing contact, find the contact in the list and double-
clid on the entry. lvolution should open a “Contact lditor” window for the
contact.
Switd between the different tabs in the contact editor to make danges to
the contact. Clid OK when you have finished making your danges.
To add a new contact, clid on the New on the toolbar. lvolution should
open the “Contact lditor” window. lnter the contact’s details in the contact
editor window, and clid OK when finished.
Managing your scheduIe
lf you like to manage your sdedule with a computer, you can maintain this
sdedule in Ubuntu using lvolution.
To view your calendar, clid on the Calendars buuon below the folder
list on the len side of the lvolution window. Te folder list on the len will
be replaced by a list of calendars, and a mini-calendar showing the current
month.
lvolution allows you to manage more than one calendar. lor example, you
could have a personal calendar and a sdool or work calendar. You can also
subscribe to the calendar of a friend or family member who may doose to
share their calendar with you.
Clid on one of the calendars in the list. By default, you should have a
“Personal” calendar in the list. Te middle of the window should now show a
view of the current day, showing all the hours of the current day.
lf the calendar already has some events, lvolution will show the event in
the day view between the hours when the event starts and finishes. You can
double-clid on the event to open its details, or drag the event to a different
time or date to resdedule it.
ln the day view, you can clid on a different day on the mini-calendar on
the len side of the screen. lvolution will then display that day in the day
view.
You may also wish to see more than one day at a time. Tis will allow you
to compare sdedules on different days, or find a free day for an event you
wish to sdedule. ln lvolution, you can clid on the Work Week or Week
buuons on the toolbar to see an entire week at the same time. Clid on the
Month buuon on the toolbar to see a view of the entire month—if an event
woixixc wi1n unux1u ;·
is difficult to read due to the small space alloued to ead day, you can hover
your mouse over the event to have lvolution show the full title of the event.
linally, the Iist buuon on the toolbar shows upcoming appointments in a list,
allowing you to see all of your upcoming appointments at a glance.
On the right side of the window, lvolution displays a list of tasks and
memos. You can add a new task or memo to lvolution
Adding a neu event
Te simplest way to add a new task is to clid a time in the day view, and
begin typing. An event “bubble” will appear, containing the text that you are
typing. lf you want to add a longer event, drag your mouse from the first time
slot to the last before starting to type.
Figure +.1;· You can stav organized bv
adding events to vour calendar.
To add a new event without using the day view, clid on the New buuon
on the toolbar. lvolution should open the “Appointment” window. ln the
Summary field, enter a short title for the event as you want it to appear on
the calendar. Optionally specify the location and enter a longer description if
you would like. Make sure that the time and date, as well as the duration, are
as you want them. linally, clid on the Saye buuon on the toolbar to save this
new event (the buuon looks like a hard drive, and is the first buuon on the
toolbar).
ScheduIing a meeting
lf you would like to sdedule a meeting with one of your contacts, lvolution
can assist you in sending out an invitation and processing replies.
To create a meeting invitation, doose File ‣ New‣ Meeting from the
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menubar. Specify the subject, location, time and duration, and description as
when you create a regular event.
You will then need to add auendees to this meeting. To add an auendee,
clid on the Add buuon. ln the list of auendees, lvolution will add a new row
—type the auendee’s email address or contact name.
When you are finished adding auendees, clid on the Saye buuon on the
toolbar. lvolution should then ask you if you would like to send meeting invi-
tations to your selected participants. Clid Send to send out these invitations.
Te invitations will be sent the next time you ded email in lvolution.
lf your contact dooses to reply to the meeting invitation, lvolution will
show you a new email message. ln the body of the email message, lvolution
will display an Update Attendee Status buuon. Clid on that buuon to mark
your contact as auending the meeting.
Using instant messaging
lnstant messaging allows you to communicate with people you know in real
time. Ubuntu includes the lmpathy application that lets you use instant
messaging features to keep in toud with your contacts. To start lmpathy,
open the Applications menu from the menubar, then doose Internet and
then Empathy IM Client.
lmpathy lets you connect to many instant messaging networks. You can
connect to ~i·, Gadu-Gadu, Google Talk, Groupwise, ico, Jabber, ·sx, MyS-
pace, OO, x·ii, Sametime, Silc, sii, Yahoo, or Zephyr.
Running Empathy for the first time
When you open lmpathy for the first time you will need to configure it with
the details of your instant messaging accounts.
When lmpathy starts you will see the “Welcome to lmpathy” window.
Choose the option corresponding to your situation.
You have an account
lf you have an account that you have used previously with another instant
messaging program then select the Yes, I’ll enter my account details now
option. Ten, clid Forward to continue.
On the next screen, doose your account type from the drop-down list
below What kind of cat account do you haye'. Ten, enter your account
details in the field below.
Depending on the account type that you doose, lmpathy may request that
you enter a username, or an ii for your account, followed by a password.
lf you do not remember your account information, you will need to visit
the website of the instant messaging network to retrieve that information.
lf you have another account to add then select the Yes option, and clid
woixixc wi1n unux1u ;;
Figure +.18· Creating a new instant messen
ger account in Lmpathv.
Forward to repeat the above process. When you have entered all the accounts
leave the No, that’s all for now option selected, and clid Apply to finish the
setup process.
Next, lmpathy should display the “Please enter personal details” screen. lf
you doose to fill out this information, you will be able to communicate with
people who are on your local network either at home or in an office.
lnter your first name in the First name field, and your last name in the
Iast name field. Type in a way that you would like to be identified on your
local network in the NiHname field. When you have filled all of the informa-
tion, clid Apply.
lf you don’t want to communicate with people on your local network,
select the I don’t want to enable this feature for now option and clid
Apply.
You uouId Iike an account
lf you don’t have an account that you can use, then you can create one by
selecting the No, I want a new account option. Clid Forward to display the
next set of options.
Choose the account type that you would like to create from the drop-down
list below What kind of cat account do you want to create' You can
create either a Jabber or a Google Talk account. Note· If vou wish to create another account
tvpe then vou will need to visit the relevant
website and create the account. 1hen follow
the “You have an account” section.
Next, enter the account name that you would like in the text field, and in
the proceeding text field enter a password of your doice. lf you would like
to set up another account then select the Yes option, and repeat the above
process.
When you have entered all the accounts leave the No, that’s all for now
option selected, and clid Forward.
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lmpathy should display the “Please enter personal details” window. Pro-
viding this information allows you to communicate with people who are on
your local network either at home or in the workplace.
lnter your First name in the text field, and enter your Iast name in the
next field. ln the NiHname field enter a nidname by whid you would like
to be identified. When you have filled all of the text fields clid Apply to save
your seuings.
lf you don’t want to talk to people on your local network then select the I
don’t want to enable this feature for now option and clid Apply.
You uant to taIk to peopIe nearby
lf you would only like to communicate with people on your local network
either at home or in the workplace, then you should select the No, I just want
to see people online nearby for now option.
Clid Forward to display the next set of options. Ten enter your First
name in the text field, and enter your Iast name in the next field. ln the
NiHname field enter a nidname by whid you would like to be identified.
When you have filled all of the text fields, clid Forward.
Figure +.1,· You can talk to people nearbv
bv entering vour information.
Changing account seuings
lf you need to add more accounts aner the first laund, then open the Edit
menu, then doose Accounts. lmpathy will then display the “Accounts”
window.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ;c
Adding an account
To add an account clid on the Add buuon. lmpathy should display some
options on the right hand side of the window. Choose your account type from
the Protocol drop-down list. Next, enter your account name in the first text
field. Ten enter your password in the Password text field. linally clid on
the Iog in buuon to save and verify your seuings.
Editing an account
You might need to edit an account if you dange the password or get the
password wrong. Select the account you want to dange on the len side of
the “Accounts” window. lmpathy should show the current seuings for the
account. Once you have made your danges, clid Saye.
Removing an account
To remove an account select the account on the len hand side of the window
and clid on the Remoye buuon. lmpathy should open the “Do you want to
remove” window. Clid on the Remoye buuon to confirm that you want to
remove the account, or clid Cancel to keep the account.
Editing contacts
Adding a contact
To add a contact open the Chat menu, then doose Add contact. lmpathy
should open the “New Contact” window.
ln the Account drop-down list doose the account that you want to add
the contact to. When creating a contact you must select a service that matdes
the service you contact is using.
lor example if your contact’s address ends in “(googlemail.com” then you
will need to add it to an account that ends in “(googlemail.com.” likewise if
the contact’s email ends in “(hotmail.com” then you would need to add it to
an account ending in “(hotmail.com.”
Aner doosing the account you wish to add the contact to, you will need to
enter their login ii, their username, their screen name or their email address
in the Identifier text field.
Ten, in the Alias text field, enter the name that you would like to see it in
your contact list. Clid Add to add the contact to your list of contacts.
Removing a contact
Clid on the contact that you want to remove and then open the Edit menu,
then doose Contact, then Remoye. Tis will open the “Remove contact”
window.
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Clid on the Remoye buuon to confirm that you want to remove a contact,
or clid Cancel to keep the contact.
Communicating uith contacts
Text
To communicate with a contact, select the contact in lmpathy’s main window
and double-clid their name. lmpathy should open a new window where you
can type messages to your contact, and see a record of previously exdanged
messages.
To send a message to the contact, type your message in the text field below
the conversation history.
When you have typed your message press the Enter key to send the mes-
sage to your contact. lf you are communicating with more than one person
then all of the conversations will be shown in tabs within the same window.
Audio
lf your contact has audio capabilities then there will be an icon of a micro-
phone next to their name. Clid on the microphone icon to open a popup
menu. Choose the Audio call option from the menu. lmpathy should then
open the “Call” window.
Tis window shows your picture on the right and your contact’s picture
on the len. lnsure that your microphone and speakers are connected, and
proceed with the audio conversation. You can finish the conversation by
cliding on the Hang up buuon.
Video
lf your contact has video dat capabilities then there will be an icon of a
webcam next to their name. Clid on the icon to open a popup menu. Choose
the Video call option from the menu. lmpathy should then open the “Call”
window.
Tis window shows your webcam view in the top right and your contact’s
webcam will be in the middle.
lf you don’t have a webcam then your picture will be shown instead. You
can finish the call by cliding on the Hang up buuon.
Sending and receiving fiIes
Sending a fiIe
When you are in a conversation with a contact and you would like to send
them a file, open the Contact menu and then doose Send file.
lmpathy should open the “Select file” window. lind the file that you wish
woixixc wi1n unux1u 81
to send and clid on the Send buuon. A “lile Transfers” window will open
showing the dosen file and its transfer progress.
When the file transfer is complete, you can close the “lile Transfers” win-
dow.
Receiving a fiIe
When a contact wants to send you a file, the status icon to the len of the
contact’s name will flash with an icon of a paper plane.
To receive the file double-clid the contact’s name. lmpathy will open
the “Select a destination” window. Choose a location where you would like
lmpathy to save the file, and clid Saye. lmpathy should open the “lile
Transfers” window.
Te “lile Transfers” window shows you the progress of current file trans-
fers. You can stop file transfers by cliding on the Stop buuon, open trans-
ferred files by cliding on the Open buuon, and clear the list of completed
transfers by cliding on the Clear buuon.
Changing your status
You can use your status to show your contacts how busy you are or what you
are doing. You can use the standard statuses, whid are “Available,” “Busy,”
“Away,” “lnvisible,” and “Off-line.” Tese can be danged in the main lmpathy
window from the drop-down list at the top of the window.
Te same drop-down list lets you set a custom status by doosing “Custom
Message…” next to the icon that matdes your status. Type what you would
like your status to say, and clid on the green ded mark.
Changing your picture
Your picture is what your contacts will see next to your name in their contact
list. Te default picture is the outline of a person. You can dange your picture
by opening the Edit menu, then doosing Personal Information.
lmpathy should open the “Personal lnformation” window. lrom the Ac-
count drop-down list doose the account that you want to dange, then clid
on the picture on the right hand side of the window.
lmpathy should open the “Select Your Avatar lmage” window. lind the file
containing your picture, and clid Open. lf you would like to return it to the
default avatar, clid on the No Image buuon instead.
MicrobIogging
You can connect several microblogging services by opening the Applications
menu, then doosing Internet and then Gwibber Social Client. Until you add
accounts, the “Social Accounts” window will open.
8: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Aner you have added accounts you will see the “Social broadcast mes-
sages” window.
ln this window in the Add new drop-down list you can doose the from
llidr, Twiuer, StatusNet, Oaiku, lacebook, lriendleed, Digg, and ldenti.ca.
Figure +.:o· Gwibber lets vou add manv
different account tvpes.
MeMenu
lf you clid your name in the top panel, you will see the “MeMenu,” in the box
below your name you can type a message to post on the sites that you have
set up with Gwibber.
You can also dange your account seuings by cliding Broadcast Ac-
counts…, this opens the “Broadcast Accounts” window.
Changing accounts
To add more accounts aner you have already added some. Clid Edit then
Accounts, the “Social Accounts” window will open.
Adding accounts
ln the “Social Accounts” clid Add…, ead account will need you to enter your
account details. Te details that you require for ead account is detailed as
follows.
FliHr· To set up a llidr account all you need is the account login ii.
Twitter· Requires a user name and password.
StatusNet· A login ii, domain and password is needed.
Oaiku· You will need an ~ii key, instructions for this are provided in the
Gwibber window. You will also need your login ii.
Facebook· Clid Authorize, then enter your email address and password
and clid Connect. lf you want to be able to post on lacebook from Gwibber,
clid Allow publishing, otherwise clid Don’t allow.
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8+
lf you want Gwibber to show your news feed, you will need to clid Al-
low access, otherwise clid Don’t allow. You will also need to allow status
updates—clid Allow status updates: if you don’t want Gwibber to be able to
update your status, clid Don’t allow.
ln order for Gwibber to interact with lacebook ead time it is used, it will
need to have constant authorization. lf not, you will have to authorize it ead
time you use it. To allow constant authorization clid Allow.
FriendFeed· A remote key is required for friend feed, Gwibber provides
information on where to get one from. You will also need a login ii.
Digg· A login ii is all that is required for Digg.
Identi.ca· A login ii and password is required for ldenti.ca.
Removing accounts
ln the “Broadcast Accounts” window clid the account that you want to re-
move and clid Remoye.
Hou Guibber dispIays accounts
Gwibber allows you to post to either all, one or a selection of accounts. Tis
can be set at the bouom of the “Social broadcast message” window—ead of
the accounts that you can post with will have an icon. Cliding on an icon so
that it is disabled (appears gray) means that you will not post to that account.
Once you have decided on whid accounts you want to post to you can
type your message in the text field above the icons, then clid Send.
lad one of your accounts will have a set of icons to go with it. Tese icons
are displayed on the len hand size of the “Social broadcast message” window.
Te set of icons that goes with an account has a badground color. Selecting
ead one of these icons allows you to do tasks for that specific account.
Vieuing and editing photos
To view and edit photos in Ubuntu, you can use the l-Spot Photo Manager
application. To start l-Spot, open the Applications menu, then doose Graph-
ics, then F-Spot Photo Manager. When you start l-Spot for the first time,
you will see the “lmport” window—how to use this is covered in ‘Importing’.
By default, l-Spot displays your photos by date. You can view photos from
a specific month by cliding on that month in the timeline near the top of the
window.
You can also play slide shows of your pictures by cliding on the Play
buuon on the toolbar (this buuon looks like a green triangle).
Tis guide onen refers to the side bar on the len. lf you can’t see it, open
the View menu, then doose Components, and doose Sidebar—making sure
the option is selected.
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Figure +.:1· FSpot lets vou store. tag. and
edit vour photos.
Version system
When you edit a photo, l-Spot creates a new version so that the original is not
lost. You can create a new version by opening the Photo menu, then doosing
Create New Version…. Tis opens the “Create New Version” window. ln the
Name text field you can type what you would like to call the version and then
clid OK. A new version will then be created.
You can view previous versions of photos by cliding on the photo that
you wish to view, then cliding on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges the
side bar on the len to the “ldit” side bar. ln the bouom len, the Version drop-
down list allows you to doose previous versions of the photo.
You might want to rename a version so that you remember whid version
is whid. To rename a version, clid on the photo that you want to dange,
then clid on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges the side bar on the len to
the “ldit” side bar. ln the bouom len the Version drop-down list lets you
doose the version of the photo that you want to rename.
Open the Photo menu, then doose Rename Version. Tis will open the
“Rename Version” window. lnter the new name in the New name text field,
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8·
then if you want to rename the version clid OK. lf you don’t want to rename
the version, clid Cancel.
When editing photos, you may make a mistake and may decide to remove
that version as you no longer need it. To delete a version, clid on the photo
that you want to dange, then clid on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges
the side bar on the len to the “ldit” side bar. ln the bouom len the Version
drop-down list doose the version of the photo that you want to delete. Ten
open the Photo menu, then doose Delete Version. Tis will open the “Really
Delete`” window. lf you want to delete the version clid Delete. lf you don’t
want to delete the version, clid Cancel.
!mporting
When you laund l-Spot for the first time you will see the “lmport” window.
Aner the first laund you can import more photos by cliding on the Import
buuon.
When you import some photos, only the photos that you have just im-
ported are shown. To show all of your photos, clid on the gray X to the right
of the blue Find.
Choosing uhere F-Spot saves photos
When importing pictures in the “lmport” window, the Copy files to the
Photos folder option determines where the photos are saved.
lf the Copy files to the Photos folder option is selected then l-Spot will
copy the photos into the Photos folder, whid is within your Pictures folder.
Te pictures are then sorted by year, month and then date.
lf the Copy files to the Photos folder option is unselected then l-Spot will
not copy the pictures into the Photos folder.
!mporting from fiIe
To import photos that are saved on your computer, doose Select Folder from
the Import Source drop-down list. Tis opens the “lmport” window. Navigate
to the folder containing your photos and clid Open.
When the loading bar says “Done loading” all the photos in that folder
and any sub-folders are then displayed in the “lmport” window. You can
exclude importing photos from sub-folders by deselecting the Include sub-
folders option.
All of the photos are imported by default, but you can doose to import
only some photos. To do so, press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliding the
photos you do not want to import. Duplicates are automatically detected
when the Detect duplicates option is selected.
You can auad tags by typing the names of the your current tags in the
Attac Tags text field. lf you want to use multiple tags then separate them
with a comma.
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Figure +.::· You can import all of vour
photos.
Once you have dosen the photos that you want to import, clid on the
Import buuon.
From digitaI camera
To import photos from a digital camera, plug your camera into the usn port of
your computer, and turn your camera on. lf your camera is detected, Ubuntu
should open a new window prompting you to import photos. lnsure that
Open F-Spot is dosen in the drop-down list and clid OK. Tis will show the
“lmport” window. ln the Import Source drop-down list doose the option that
looks like …Camera.
A “Select Photos to Copy from Camera…” window will open. You can
then clid the photos that you want to copy. All of the photos are selected by
default but you can add or remove individual photos by pressing-and-holding
the Ctrl key while cliding on photos to deselect them.
You can auad tags to all of them by cliding on the Attac tag option and
doosing the tag in the Attac tag· drop-down list. lor more information
about tags see Organizing photos.
You can dange where the files are saved in the Target location drop-down
list. Te default is the Photos folder—this is where l-Spot saves the photos.
Once you have dosen the photos that you want to import, clid on the
Copy buuon. Te “Transferring Pictures” window should open, and will show
the copying progress. When copying is complete, the progress bar will display
Download Complete. linally, clid OK to show your photos in l-Spot.
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8;
Organizing photos
l-Spot makes finding photos of the same type easier by using tags. You can
apply as many tags to a photo as you like.
To apply tags to photos, first select the photos. Ten right-clid on the
photos and doose Attac Tag. Clid the tag you want add to your photos.
You can auad tags when importing photos, as covered in the “lmporting”
section.
You can make new tags by opening the Tags and doosing Create New
Tag…. Tis will open up the “Create New Tag” window. lnter the name of
the tag in the Name of New Tag· text field. Te Parent Tag· drop-down list
allows you to doose the “parent” tag for your new tag.
Editing !mages
You may want to edit some of the photos you import into l-Spot. lor exam-
ple, you may want to remove something at the edge, some discoloring, fix red
eyes, or straighten a photo. To edit a photo, clid on the photo that you want
to edit and then clid on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges the side bar on
the len of the “l-Spot” window. Te panel will show eight options· Crop,
Red-eye Reduction, De-saturate, Sepia Tone, Straighten, Soß Focus, Auto
Color, and Adjust Colors. Some of these options are explained in more detail
in the next section.
Cropping photos
You might want to crop a photo to dange the framing or remove part of the
edge of the photo. Clid on the Crop on the len panel, then in the Select an
area to crop drop-down list doose the ratio that you would like to crop with.
You might want doose the ratio that matdes the ratio that you would like to
print, so that the photo is not stretded.
You can create custom constraints if one of the defaults does not meet your
requirements. Tis is done by doosing Custom Ratios from the Select an
area to crop drop-down list. Tis opens the “Selection Constraints” window.
Clid Add to place a new entry on the len of the window.
Once you have dosen your constraint, move the cursor to one corner of
the section of the photo that you want to keep. Clid-and-hold the len mouse
buuon and drag it to the opposite corner of the section that you want to keep.
Release the the mouse buuon to finish your cropping selection.
To resize the cropping selection box, move the mouse until an arrow points
to the side of the cropping selection box that you want to move. Clid-and-
hold the len mouse buuon, and move the mouse until the edge is in the right
place.
All ratios work in portrait and landscape mode. To dange between the
two, you need to clid on the edge of the cropping selection box as if you
88 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
were to resize the box. Moving the cursor between top right and bouom len
switdes between portrait and landscape modes.
Red-eye Reduction
lf you have taken a photo and the flash caused the subject to have red eyes,
you can fix this problem in l-Spot. lirst, clid on the Red-eye Reduction
buuon. Move the cursor to the one corner of the subject’s eye and clid-and-
hold the len mouse buuon as you drag the cursor to the opposite corner of the
eye. Ten, release the mouse buuon.
Tis box can be moved by placing the cursor into the middle of the red
eye selection box until a hand cursor is shown. Ten, clid-and-hold the len
mouse buuon and move the selection box into the correct place. When it is in
the correct place you can release the len mouse buuon.
To resize the box, move the mouse until an arrow points to the side of the
red eye selection box that you want to move. Clid-and-hold the len mouse
buuon, move the mouse until the edge is in the right place.
When the box covers all of the red in one eye, clid the Fix buuon. You
will need to repeat the process for ead of the subject’s eyes that is affected.
Straighten
lf you have a photo where the subject is at an angle, you can straighten the
photo with l-Spot. lirst, clid on the Straighten buuon. Ten move the slider
until the picture is straight again. l-Spot will auto crop the picture to remove
any white parts that occur due to the rotation. When you are happy that the
picture is straight, clid on the Straighten buuon.
Auto CoIor
To automatically correct the coloring of a photo, clid on the Auto Color
buuon.
Exporting to ueb services
l-Spot allows you to export you photos to a Web Gallery, lolder or ci and the
following services· SmugMug, Picasa Web, llidr, :+hq and Zooomr.
You can export to these services by selecting a picture and then opening
the Photo menu, then doosing Export to and cliding the service that you
require. Tis will open a window in whid you can enter your account name
and password for the service. Tis will allow you to upload pictures to this
service.
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8c
Watching videos and movies
To watd videos or ivis in Ubuntu, you can use the Movie Player application.
To start the Movie Player, open the Applications menu, then doose Sound &
Video, then doose Moyie Player. Tis will open the “Movie Player” window.
Figure +.:+· 1otem plavs music and videos.
Codecs
Watding ivis may require Ubuntu to install a “codec,” whid is a piece of
sonware that allows your computer to understand the contents of the ivi,
and display the video.
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So that you can play all videos and ivis, you will need to install some
codecs. Tese are located within the Multiyerse repository. Tis is now
enabled by default.
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To install the codecs, open the Applications menu, then doose Ubuntu
Soßware Center. When the “Ubuntu Sonware Center” window opens, use
the seard box in the top right and seard for the following·
‣ gstreamero.1o-ffmpeg
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-bad
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-bad-multiverse
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-ugly
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-ugly-multiverse
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-base
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-good
‣ libdvdread¡
‣ libdvdnav¡
When you find ead one, select it with a double-clid and then clid the
Install buuon. Tis may open an “Authenticate” window. lf so, enter your
password then clid Authenticate to start the installation process.
To finish codec installation, you also need to run a command in the termi- For more information on the terminal see
Chapter o· 1he Command Line
nal. Open the Applications menu, then doose Accessories and then doose
Terminal. Tis will open the “Terminal” window.
Type the command as shown below. Sudo is a wav to gain temporarv adminis
trative rights to perform certain tasks. such
as installing new soúware. Usuallv. sudo is
presented in a window for vou to enter vour
password. When vou enter vour password
in a terminal. it will not be shown.
$ sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/install-css.sh
Once you have typed the command, press Enter. You will be asked for
your password—to authorize this action, type in you password and press
Enter. Wait for the process to finish. Once it has finished you can close the
“Terminal” window.
PIaying videos from fiIe
Open the Moyie menu, then doose Open…. Tis will open the “Select Movies
or Playlists” window. lind the file or files that you want to play and clid on
the Add buuon. Te video or videos will start playing.
PIaying a DVD
When you insert a ivi in the computer, Ubuntu should open the “You have
just inserted a Video ivi. Choose what application to laund” window. Make
sure that Open Moyie Player is dosen in the drop-down list and then clid
OK. Te “Movie Player” window will open and the movie will start.
lf the “Movie Player” window is already open, open Moyie menu, then
doose Play Disc… and the movie will start.
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Listening to audio and music
Ubuntu comes with the Rhythmbox Music Player for listening to your music,
streaming lnternet radio, managing playlists and podcasts, and purdasing
songs.
Starting Rhythmbox
To start Rhythmbox, open the Applications menu, then doose Sound &
Video, then Rhythmbox Music Player.
To quit Rhythmbox, doose Music ‣ Qit or press Ctrl+Q. Rhythmbox
will continue to run if you doose Music ‣ Close or close the window. A few
Rhythmbox tools (sud as Play, Next, and Preyious) are available from the
Rhythmbox Music Player icon in the notification area (typically the top right
of your screen). You can also doose Qit from this menu to quit Rhythmbox.
PIaying music
Figure +.:¡· Rhvthmbox with a cr in.
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ln order to play music, you must first import music into your library.
Choose Music ‣ Import Folder or press Ctrl+O on your keyboard to import a
folder of songs or Import File for single songs.
Te Rhythmbox toolbar contains most of the controls that you will use for
browsing and playing your music.
lf you want to play a song, select a trad and clid on the Play buuon on
the toolbar (you can also doose Control ‣ Play from the menubar or press
Ctrl+Space). Cliding on the Play buuon again will pause the song.
Next and Preyious buuons are next to the Play buuon. You can clid on
these buuons to play the next and previous songs in your library.
Te Rhythmbox toolbar also has options to enable or disable Repeat
(Control ‣ Repeat or Ctrl+R), Shuffle (Control ‣ Shuffle or Ctrl+U), the
Artist/Album browser (View‣ Browse or Ctrl+B), and Visualization.
When you insert a ci into your computer, it will appear in the list of
Devices in the Side Pane. Select the ci in the Devices list. lnable and disable
the Side Pane by doosing View‣ Side Pane or F9. Rhythmbox will auempt
to find the correct artist, album, and trad names. To play the songs on the ci,
doose the trad and press Play.
To import the songs into your library, select the ci in the Devices list. You
can review information about the ci, make any danges if needed, or deselect
songs that you do not want to import. Te toolbar will display additional
options to reload album information, eject the cb, and copy the traHs to
your library. Press the Copy buuon to import the songs.
Listening to streaming radio
Rhythmbox is preconfigured to enable you to stream radio from various Streaming radio are radio stations that are
broadcast over the Internet.
sources. Tese include lnternet broadcast stations (Radio from the Side Pane)
as well as Iast.fm. To listen to an lnternet radio station, doose a station
from the list and clid Play. To listen to music from last.fm, configure your
Account Settings.
Connect digitaI audio pIayers
Rhythmbox can connect with many popular digital audio players. Connected
players will appear in the Devices list. leatures will vary depending on the
player but common tasks like transferring songs and playlists should be sup-
ported.
Listen to shared music
lf you are on the same network as other Rhythmbox users (or any music rttr stands for “Digital Audio Access
Protocol.” and is a method designed bv
Apple Inc. to let soúware share media
across a network.
player sonware with i~~i support), you can share your music and listen to
their shared music. Choose Shared from the Side Pane for a list of shared li-
braries on your network. Usually shares will be listed automatically but some-
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times you will be required to add the lP manually. To do this clid Music ‣
Connect to DAAP share…. Ten enter the lP address and the port number.
Ten clid Add. Cliding a shared library will enable you to browse and play
songs from other computers.
Manage podcasts
Rhythmbox can manage all of your favorite podcasts. Select Podcasts from
the Side Pane to view all added podcasts. Te toolbar will display additional
options to Subscribe to a new Podcast Feed and Update all feeds. Choose
Music ‣ New Podcast Feed, Ctrl+P, or press the Subscribe buuon in the
toolbar to import a podcast uii. Podcasts will be automatically downloaded
at regular intervals or you can manually update feeds. Select an episode and
clid Play. You can also delete episodes.
Figure +.:¡· You can add and plav vour
podcasts in Rhvthmbox.
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Rhythmbox preferences
Te default configuration of Rhythmbox may not be exactly what you want.
Choose Edit ‣ Preferences to alter the application seuings. Te Preferences
tool is broken into four main areas· General, PlaybaH, Music, and Podcasts.
‣ General options include music filtering and sorting options and a configu-
ration seuing for toolbar buuon labels.
‣ PlaybaH options allow you to customize the crossfading feature and
define the buffer seuing for streamed music from sources sud as lnternet
radio and shared libraries.
‣ Music options define the Iibrary Iocation on your computer where
imported music is added, the Iibrary Structure of how folders are created
based on your imported music, and the Preferred format for imported
music.
‣ Podcasts options define the Download location podcast episodes and the
frequency to CheH for new episodes.
Managing your music
Rhythmbox supports creating playlists. Playlists are either static lists of songs
that are played in order or can be automatic playlists based on your specific
filter criteria. Playlists contain references to songs in your library. Tey do
not contain the actual song file. lf you remove a song from a playlist (Remoye
from Playlist), it will remain in your library.
To create a playlist, doose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Playlist or Ctrl+N and
give the new playlist a name. You can then either drag songs from you library
to the new playlist in the side pane or right-clid on songs and doose Add to
Playlist and pid the playlist.
Automatic Playlists are created almost the same way as static playlists
—doose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Automatic Playlist. Next, define the fil-
ter criteria. You can add multiple filter rules. linally, clid Close and give
the new automatic playlist a name. Automatic Playlists will appear in your
side pane with a different icon than any static playlists. You can update any
playlist by right-cliding on the name and doosing Edit….
Rhythmbox supports seuing song ratings. Select a song in your library and
doose Music ‣ Properties, Alt+Enter, or right-clid on the file and doose
Properties. Select the Details tab and set the rating by piding the number
of stars. Other song information sud as Title, Artist, and Album can be
danged from the Basic tab. Clid Close to save any danges.
To delete a song, select it in your library and doose Edit ‣ Moye to Trash
or right-clid on the song and doose Moye to Trash. Tis will move the song
file to your trash.
lf you ever want to move a song (for example to another computer), doose
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the song (or group of songs) from your library and drag it to a folder or to
your desktop. Tis will make a copy in the new location.
Rhythmbox pIugins
Rhythmbox comes with a variety of plugins. Tese are tools that you can
enable and disable that add more features to Rhythmbox. lxamples include
Coyer art, Song Iyrics, and various music stores. A few plugins are enabled
by default.
To view the list of available plugins, doose Edit ‣ Plugins. Te Configure
Plugins window allows you to enable or disable individual plugins, view
descriptions, and configure additional options if they are available for the
plugin.
Music stores
Rhythmbox has three music stores whid give you access to an extremely
large catalog of music with a variety of licensing options.
Te Jamendo store sells free, legal and unlimited music published under
the six Creative Commons licenses. You can browse the catalog and play
songs by doosing Jamendo in the Stores list in the side pane. More informa-
tion about their catalog can be found at http·//www.jamendo.com/.
Te Magnatune store sells music from independent musicians. Tey work
directly with artists and hand-pid the songs available. Teir catalog is com-
posed of high quality, non-ii· (no copy protection) music and covers a
variety of genres from Classical and Jazz to Hip Hop and Hard Rod. You
can browse the catalog and play songs by doosing Magnatune in the Stores
list in the side pane. More information about their catalog and subscription
service can be found at http·//www.magnatune.com/.
Te Ubuntu One Music Store sells music from major and minor music
labels around the world. Te store offers non-ii· (no copy protection) songs
encoded in either high quality ·i+ or ~~c format. Ubuntu does not come
with support for ·i+ playbad, but the store will install the proper codecs
automatically for free. You can browse the catalog, play previews, and buy
songs by doosing Ubuntu One in the Stores list in the side pane.
Te Ubuntu One Music Store integrates with the Ubuntu One service. All
purdases are transferred to your personal cloud storage and then automati-
cally copied to all of your computers so an Ubuntu One account is required.
Te catalog of music available for purdase will vary depending on where you
live in the world. More information about the Ubuntu One Music Store can be
found at http·//one.ubuntu.com/music/.
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Audio codecs
Different audio files (e.v., ·i+, w~v, ~~c) require unique tools to decode them
and play the contents. Tese tools are called codecs. Rhythmbox will auempt
to detect any missing codecs on your system so you can play all of your audio
files. lf a codec is missing, it will try to find the codec in online resources and
guide you through installation.
Rhythmbox support
Rhythmbox is used by many users throughout the world. Tere are a variety
of support resources available in many languages.
‣ Choose the Help buuon for a variety of support options and information
about reporting Rhythmbox bugs.
‣ Te Rhythmbox website· http·//projects.gnome.org/rhythmbox/
‣ Te Multimedia & Video category of Ubuntu lorums· http·//ubuntuforums.
org/forumdisplay.php`f÷++¡
Working uith documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
Qite onen, you may need to use your computer for work. You may have a
need to use a word processor to write a document. You may need to work on
a spreadsheet, do calculations on a table of data or create a data dart. You
may want to work on slides for a presentation.
ln Ubuntu, you can use the OpenOffice.org suite of applications for these
tasks.
Working uith documents
lf you need to work with documents, you can use the OpenOffice.org Word 1he OpenOffice.org Word Processor is
also known as the OpenOffice.org Writer.
Spreadsheet is also known as Calc. and
Presentation is known as Impress.
Processor. To start the word processor, open the Applications menu, doose
Office, and then doose OpenOffice.org Word Processor. Ubuntu should
then open the main window for the word processor.
Working uith spreadsheets
lf you need to work with spreadsheets, you can use the OpenOffice.org
Spreadsheet. To start the spreadsheet application, open the Applications
menu, doose Office, and then doose OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet.
Working uith presentations
lf you need to work with slides for a presentation, you can use the OpenOf-
fice.org Presentation. To start the presentation application, open the Applica-
tions menu, doose Office, and then doose OpenOffice.org Presentation.
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Geuing more heIp
lad of these applications comes with a comprehensive set of help screens. lf
you are looking for more assistance with these applications, press the F1 key
aner starting the application.
Taking notes
You can take notes in a program called Tomboy Notes. You can use it to make
a shopping or a to do list. Clid Applications, then clid Accessories and clid
Tomboy Notes.
Figure +.:o· You can record information that
vou need to remember.
You can seard all of your notes by typing a word in the Searc· text field
in the main tomboy window.
Making notes
To create a new note clid File, then clid New. Te “New Note” window will
open.
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Te “New Note” window will contain a blue title “New Note”—this can
be deleted and danged to a title that makes the note more memorable. Te
main content of the note can be typed where it says “Describe your new note
here.” Once you have entered your text just close your note as all danges are
automatically saved.
To delete the note clid the red delete note buuon. Tis will open a “Really
delete this note`” window. lf you do want to delete the note clid the Delete
buuon, otherwise clid the Cancel buuon.
You can add a note to a notebook by cliding the Notebook buuon and
cliding the option next to the notebook that you want to move the note to.
Organizing notes
You can organize your notes in Tomboy using “Notebooks.” Tis makes find-
ing you notes quider and in a more logical location. To create a new note
book clid File, then Notebooks, and clid New Notebook….
Te “Create a new notebook” window will open, type the name of the
notebook in the Notebook name· text field. Once you have typed the note-
book name clid the Create buuon.
Te notebook will now show up in the sidebar of Tomboy Notes. You can
clid and hold on the note of your doice and drag it on top of the notebook
that you want to move it to.
Synchronizing
You can syndronize your notes with your Ubuntu One account, whid means
that you can access them across all of your Ubuntu computers. You can also
access them from https·//one.ubuntu.com/.
To syndronize your notes clid the Edit. Ten clid Preferences. Tis will
open the “Tomboy Preferences” window. Clid the Syncronization tab and
then in the Seryice drop down clid Tomboy Web.
Next clid the Connect to Seryer buuon. Tis will open a web page in
Firefox you will need to enter the email address that you use for Ubuntu One
and your password. Ten clid the Continue buuon, then in the Computer
Name text field enter a name that reminds you of that computer and clid
the Add Tis Computer buuon. lirefox will then display a page that says
something similar to “Tomboy Web Authorization Successful.”
Bad at the “Tomboy Preferences” window clid the Saye buuon. A new
window will pop up asking if you want to “syndronize your notes now.”
Clid the Yes buuon and the “Syndronizing Notes…” window will show.
Once the syndronization is complete clid the Close buuon.
lf you want to syndronize the notes again clid Tools and clid Syncro-
nize Notes. Your notes will start syndronizing. When they are done, clid the
close buuon.
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Ubuntu One
lt is common for many people to use multiple computers in the course of their
work, sdool, and personal life. You might have a desktop at your office as
well as a laptop for traveling or just going to a coffee shop. lnsuring that all
of your files are accessible no mauer what computer you’re using is quite
a difficult task. Te same could be said for the complexity of keeping your
lvolution address book, Tomboy notes, or lirefox bookmarks in sync.
Ubuntu One can help you keep your digital life in sync. All of your docu-
ments, music, bookmarks, address book contacts, and notes stay in sync across
all of your computers. ln addition, they’re all stored in your personal cloud so
you can use a web browser from any computer to access all of your stuff from
the Ubuntu One website (http·//one.ubuntu.com/).
Ubuntu One provides all Ubuntu users with : cn of storage for free. More
storage capacity and contacts syndronization with mobile phones is available
for a monthly fee. Aner you set up Ubuntu One you can continue to use your
computer as you normally would, with Ubuntu One taking care of making
your data appear on all your other computers with Ubuntu One installed.
Seuing up Ubuntu One
To set up Ubuntu One, first open the System menu, then doose Preferences,
then Ubuntu One. lf this is your first time running the U|vnìv One Pre[er
ence: application, it will add your computer to your Ubuntu One account.
Ubuntu One uses the Ubuntu Single Sign On (sso) service for user ac-
counts. lf you don’t already have an Ubuntu sso account, the setup process
will let you create one. When you’re finished, you will have an Ubuntu sso
account, a free Ubuntu One subscription, and your computer will be setup for
syndronization.
Ubuntu One Preferences
Te Ubuntu One Preferences application shows how mud of your storage
capacity you are currently using as well as provides account management
tools.
Te Accovnì tab displays your account information like name and email
address and links to more account management and tednical support re-
sources.
Te De+:ce: tab lists all of the devices that are currently added to syndro-
nize with your account. Devices are either computers or mobile phones. lor
the computer that you are currently using, you can adjust how mud of your
bandwidth is used by syndronization and connect or reconnect to Ubuntu
One. You can also remove computers and mobile phones from your Ubuntu
One account.
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Te Ser+:ce: tab is where you manage what Ubuntu One features syndro-
nize with your cloud storage and other computers. You can enable or disable
the syndronization of files, purdased music, contacts, and bookmarks.
More information
lor more information about Ubuntu One, its services, and tednical support
resources, visit the Ubuntu One website at http·//one.ubuntu.com/. lollow
the Ubuntu One blog at http·//one.ubuntu.com/blog for news on the latest
features.
¡ Harduare
Using your devices
Ubuntu supports a wide range of hardware, and support for new hardware
improves with every release.
Harduare identification
To identify your hardware you can install the following application· Clid
Applications, scroll down to Ubuntu Soßware Center. When the “Ubuntu
Sonware Center” window opens, use the seard box in the top right and
seard for the following· “sysinfo.” Now select the Application clid Install
and enter your password to install the application.
To run the application, doose Applications ‣ System Tools ‣ Sysinfo.
Te Sysinfo program will then open a window with information about the
hardware that is part of your system.
DispIays
Harduare drivers
A driver is some code padaged in a file, whid tells your computer how to
utilize a piece of hardware. lvery component in a computer requires a driver
to function, whether it’s the printer, ivi player, hard disk, or graphics card.
A majority of graphics cards are manufactured by three well known com- Your graphics card is the component in vour
computer that powers vour displav. When
vou’re watching videos on You1ube or rvrs
or simplv enjoving the smooth transition
effects when vou maximize/minimize vour
windows. vour graphics device is doing the
hard work behind the scenes.
panies· lntel, ~·i/~1i, and xviii~ Corp. You can find your card manufacturer
by referring to your computer manual or looking for the specifications of
your particular model on the lnternet. Te Ubuntu Sonware Center houses a
number of programs that allow detailed system information to be obtained.
SysInfo is one sud program that you can use to find relevant information
about your System devices. Ubuntu comes with support for graphics devices
manufactured by the above companies, and many others, out of the box. Tat
means that you don’t have to find and install any drivers by yourself, Ubuntu
takes care of it on its own.
ln keeping with Ubuntu’s philosophy, the drivers that are used by default
for powering graphics devices are open source. Tis means that the drivers
can be modified by the Ubuntu developers and problems with them can be
fixed. However, in some cases the proprietary driver (restricted driver) pro-
vided by the company may provide beuer performance or features that are
not present in the open source driver wriuen by the developer community. ln
other cases, your particular device may not be supported by the open source
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drivers yet. ln those scenarios, you may want to install the restricted driver
provided by the manufacturer.
lor both philosophical and practical reasons, Ubuntu does not install
restricted drivers by default but allows the user to make an informed doice.
Remember that restricted drivers, unlike the open source drivers for your
device, are not maintained by Ubuntu. Problems caused by those drivers will
be resolved only when the manufacturer wishes to address them. To see if
restricted drivers are available for your system, clid System in the top panel,
go to Administration and find Hardware Driyers. lf a driver is provided by
the company for your particular device, it will be listed there. You can simply
clid Actiyate and use the driver if you want. Tis process will require an
active lnternet connection and will ask for your password.
Te Ubuntu developers prefer open source drivers because they allow
the problem to be identified and fixed by anyone with knowledge in the
community. Ubuntu development is extremely fast and it is likely that your
device will be supported by open source drivers. You can use the Ubuntu
live ci to ded for your device compatibility before installing Ubuntu or go
online in the Ubuntu forums to ask about your particular device.
Another useful resource is the official online
documentation (http·//help.ubuntu.com).
which contains detailed information
about various graphics drivers and known
problems.
Seuing up your screen resoIution
One of the most common display related tasks is seuing up your screen reso-
lution.
Ubuntu correctly identifies your native screen resolution by itself and sets Displavs are made up of thousands of
tinv pixels. Lach pixel displavs a different
color. and when combined thev all displav
the image that vou see. 1he native screen
resolution is a measure of the amount of
actual pixels on vour displav.
it for you. However, due to a huge variety of devices available, sometimes it
can make a mistake and set up an undesirable resolution.
To set up or just ded your screen resolution, go to System‣ Preferences ‣
Monitors. Te Mon:ìor: application shows you your monitor name and size,
the screen resolution and refresh rate. Cliding on the displayed resolution
(e.v., “1o:¡×;e8 (¡:+)”) would open a drop-down menu where you can select
the resolution of your doice.
Connecting and using your printer
You can add, remove, and dange printer properties by navigating to System‣
Administration‣ Printing. Tis will display the “Printing-localhost” window.
When you want to add a printer, you will need to make sure that it
switded on, and plugged into your computer with a usn cable or connected to
your network.
Adding a IocaI printer
lf you have a printer that is connected to your computer with a usn cable then
this is termed a |oco| ¡r:nìer. You can add a printer by cliding on the Add
Printer buuon.
n~iiw~ii 1o+
ln the len hand pane of the “New Printer” window any printers that you
can install will be listed. Select the printer that you would like to install and
clid Forward.
You can now specify the printer name, description and location. lad of If vour printer can automaticallv do double
sided printing it will probablv have a
duplexer. Please refer to the instructions
that came with the printer if vou are unsure.
If vou do have a duplexer vou will need to
make sure the DupIexer !nstaIIed option is
checked and then click the Foruard buuon.
these should remind you of that particular printer so that you can doose the
right one to use when printing. linally, clid Apply.
Adding a netuork printer
Make sure that your printer is connected to your network with an lthernet
cable and is turned on. You can add a printer by cliding Add Printer. Te
“New Printer” window will open. Clid the “-” sign next to Neì+or| Pr:nìer.
lf your printer is found automatically it will appear under Neì+or| Pr:nìer.
Clid the printer name and then clid Forward. ln the text fields you can
now specify the printer name, description and location. lad of these should
remind you of that particular printer so that you can doose the right one to
use when printing. linally clid Apply.
You can also add your network printer by entering the ii address of the
printer. Select Find Network Printer, type in the ii address of the printer
in the box that reads Host· and press the Find buuon. Ubuntu will find the
printer and add it. Most printers are detected by Ubuntu automatically. lf
Ubuntu cannot detect the printer automatically, it will ask you to enter the
make and model number of the printer.
1he default printer is the one that is auto
maticallv selected when vou print a file.
1o set a printer as default. rightclick the
printer that vou want to set as default and
then click Set As DefauIt.
Changing printer options
Printer options allow you to dange the printing quality, paper size and media
type. Tey can be danged by right-cliding a printer and doosing Prop-
erties. Te “Printer Properties” window will show, in the len pane doose
Pr:nìer O¡ì:on:.
You can now specify seuings by danging the drop-down entries. Some of
the options that you might see are explained.
Media Size
Tis is the size of the paper that you put into your printer tray.
Media source
Tis is the tray that the paper comes from.
CoIor ModeI
Tis is very useful if you want to print in Grayscale to save on ink, or to print
in Color, or Inyerted Grayscale.
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Media type
Depending on the printer you can dange between·
‣ Plain Paper
‣ Automatic
‣ Photo Paper
‣ Transparency lilm
‣ ci or ivi Media
Print OaIity
Tis specifies how mud ink is used when printing, Fast Draß using the least
ink and High-Resolution Photo using the most ink.
Sound
Ubuntu usually detects the audio hardware of the system automatically dur-
ing installation. Te audio in Ubuntu is provided by a sound server named
PulseAudio. Te audio preferences are easily configurable with the help of a
very easy to use cui whid comes preinstalled with Ubuntu.
A volume icon, siuing on the top right corner of the screen, provides
quid access to different audio related functions. len cliding on the vol-
ume icon shows up a slider buuon whid you can move horizontally to in-
crease/decrease volume. len cliding on the volume icon also allows you to
doose between muting the sound and Sound Preferences. Selecting SovnJ
Pre[erence: opens up another window whid provides access to sound themes,
hardware, input and output preferences. Sound Preferences can also be found
if you go to System‣ Preferences ‣ Sound.
Te first tab whid shows up by default is :ovnJ ì|eme:. You can disable
the existing sound theme or configure it with the options available.
Te |orJ+ore ìo| will have a list of all the sound cards available in your You can add new sound themes bv installing
them from Soúware Center (e.g.. Ubuntu
Studio Sound theme.) You will get the
installed sound themes from the drop down
menu. You can also enable window and
buuon sounds.
system. Usually there is only one listed, however, if you have a graphics card
whid supports ni·i audio it will also show up in the list. Tis section should
be configured only if you are an advanced user.
Te third tab is for configuring :n¡vì ovJ:o. You will be able to use this
A microphone is used for making au
dio/video calls which are supported bv
applications like Skvpe or Lmpathv. It can
also be used for sound recording.
section when you have an inbuilt microphone in your system or if you add an
external microphone.
You can increase/decrease and mute/unmute input volume from this tab. lf
You should note that bv default in anv
Ubuntu installation. the input sound is
muted. You will have to manuallv unmute
to enable vour microphone to record sound
or use it during audio/video calls.
there is more than one input device, you will see them listed in the white box
whid reads C|oo:e o Je+:ce [or :ovnJ :n¡vì.
Te ovì¡vì ìo| is used for configuring the output audio. You can in-
Bv default. the volume in Ubuntu is set to
maximum during installation.
crease/decrease and mute/unmute output volume and select your preferred
output device.
lf you have more than one output device, it will be listed in the section If vou change vour sound output device. it
will remain as default.
n~iiw~ii 1o·
whid reads “Choose a device for sound output.” Te default output hardware,
whid is automatically detected by Ubuntu during installation will be selected.
Te A¡¡|:coì:on: ìo| is for danging the volume for running applica-
tions. Tis comes in very handy if you have multiple audio programs run-
ning, for example, if you have Rhythmbox, Totem Movie Player and a web-
based video playing at the same time. ln this situation, you will be able to
increase/decrease, mute/unmute volume for ead application from this tab.
Burning CDs and DVDs
To create a ci or ivi go to Applications ‣ Sound and Video ‣ Brasero Disc
Burner. Tis opens Brasero, whid gives you five options to doose from.
lad one of these is explained below.
Figure ¡.1· Brasero burns music. video. and
data rvrs and crs.
UniversaI options
Tese options apply for all projects except Disc copy and Burn Image.
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Adding fiIes to a project
To add files to the list, clid the Green + buuon, whid opens the “Select liles”
window. Ten navigate your way to the file you want to add, clid it, and then
clid the Add buuon. Repeat this process for ead file that you want to add.
Saving a project
To save a project so that you can finish it later, doose Project ‣ Saye. Te
“Save Current Project” window will be opened. Choose where you would like
to save the project. Ten, in the Name· text field, enter a name for the project
so that you will remember it. Now clid the Saye buuon.
Removing fiIes
lf you want to remove a file from the project, clid the file in the list and clid Icons of a broom are oúen used in Ubuntu
to represent clearing a text field or returning
something to its default state.
on the Red - buuon. To remove all the files in the list clid on the Broom
shaped buuon.
Burning the disc
When you clid the burn buuon you will see the “Properties of …” window.
You can specify the burning speed in the Burning speed drop down. lt is
best to doose the highest speed.
To burn your project directly to the disc, select the Burn the image di-
rectly without saying it to disc option. With this option selected, no image
file is created and no files are saved to the hard disk.
Te Simulate before burning option is useful if you encounter problems 1emporarv files are saved in the /tmp folder
bv default. Should vou wish to save these
files in another location. vou will need to
change the seuing in the Temporary fiIes
drop down menu. Under normal conditions.
vou should not need to change this seuing.
burning discs. Selecting this option allows you to simulate the disc burning
process without actually writing data to a disc—a wasteful process if your
computer isn’t writing data correctly. lf the simulation is successful, Brasero
will burn the disc aner a ten second pause. During that ten second pause, you
have the option to cancel the burning process.
BIanking a disk
lf you are using a disc that has iw wriuen on it and you have used it before, av stands for ReWritable which means that
disc can be used more than once.
then you can blank it so that you can use it again. Doing this will cause you
to lose all of the data currently on the disc. To blank a disc, open the Tools
menu, then doose Blank. Te “Disc Blanking” window will be open. ln the
Select a disc drop down doose the disc that you would like to blank.
You can enable the Fast blank option if you would like to shorten the
amount of time to perform the blanking process. However, selecting this
option will not fully remove the files: if you have any sensitive data on your
disc, it would be best not to enable the Fast blank option.
Once the disc is blank the you will see 1e J::c +o: :vcce::[v||\ ||on|eJ.
Clid the Close buuon to finish.
n~iiw~ii 1o;
Audio project
lf you record your own music, then you may want to transfer this music onto
an audio ci so your friends and family can listen. You can start an audio
project by cliding Project, then New Project and then New Audio Project.
So that ead file does not play straight aner ead other you can add a
two second pause aner a file. Tis can be done by cliding the file and then
cliding the ¦¦ buuon.
You can slice files into parts by cliding the Knife buuon. Tis opens a
“Split Trad” window. Te Method drop down gives you four options ead
one of these lets you split the trad in a different way. Once you have split the
trad clid OK.
ln the drop down at the bouom of the main “Brasero” window make sure
that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. Ten clid
the Burn buuon.
Data project
lf you want to make a bad up of your documents or photos it would be best
to make a data project. You can start a data project by cliding Project then
cliding New Project and then New Data Project.
lf you want to add a folder you can clid the Folder picture, then type the
name of the folder.
ln the drop down at the bouom of the main “Brasero” window make sure
that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. Ten clid
the Burn buuon.
Video project
lf you want to make a ivi of your family videos it would be best to make
a video project. You can start a video project by cliding Project, then New
Project and then New Video Project.
ln the drop down at the bouom of the main “Brasero” window make sure
that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. Ten clid
the Burn buuon.
Disc copy
You can copy a disc cliding Project, then New Project and then Disc copy.
Tis opens the “Copy ci/ivi” window.
lf you have two ci/ivi drives you can copy a disc from one to the other,
the disc that you want to copy to must be in the ciiw/iviiw drive. lf you
have only one drive you will need to make an image and then burn it to a
disc. ln the Select disc to copy drop-down doose the disc to copy. ln the
Select a disc to write to drop-down either doose image file or the disc that
you want to copy to.
1o8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
!mage fiIe
You can dange where the image file is saved by cliding Properties, this
shows the “location for lmage lile”. You can edit the name of the file in the
Name· text field.
Te default save location is your home folder, you can dange this by
cliding the - next to Browse for other folders . Once you have dosen
where you want to save it clid Close.
Bad in the “Copy ci/ivi” window clid Create Image. Brasero will open
the “Creating lmage” and will display the job progress. When the process is
complete clid Close.
Burn image
To burn an image, open the Project ‣ New Project, and then Burn Image.
Brasero will open the “lmage Burning Setup” window. Clid on the CliH here
to select a disc image drop-down and the “Select Disc lmage” window will
appear. Navigate your way to the image you wish to burn, clid on it, and
then clid Open.
ln the Select a disc to write to drop-down menu, clid on the disc to
whid you’d like to write, then clid Create Image.
Using a uebcam
Webcams onen come built into laptops and netbooks. Some computers, sud
as Apple desktops, also have webcams built into the monitors. Te rest of the
webcams typically use usn connections. To use a usn webcam, plug it into an
open usn port in your computer.
Almost all new webcams are detected by Ubuntu automatically. You can 1here are quite a few applications which
are useful for webcams. Cheese can capture
pictures with vour webcam and VLC media
plaver can capture video streaming from
vour webcam. You can install these from the
Ubuntu Soúware Center.
configure webcams for individual applications sud as Skype and lmpathy
from the application’s setup menu. lor webcams whid do not work right
away with Ubuntu, visit https·//wiki.ubuntu.com/Webcam for help.
Scanning text and images
Most of the time, Ubuntu will simply detect your scanner and you should just
be able to use it. To scan a document, follow these steps·
1. Place what you want to scan on the scanner.
:. Go to Applications ‣ Graphics ‣ Simple Scan.
+. Clid Scan.
¡. Clid the Paper Icon to add a another page.
·. Clid Saye to save.
n~iiw~ii 1oc
Does my scanner uork uith Ubuntu'
Tere are three ways to see if you scanner works in Ubuntu·
1. Simply plug it in. lf it is a newer usn scanner, it is likely that it will just
work.
:. Ched https·//wiki.ubuntu.com/HardwareSupportComponentsScanners to
find out whid scanners work with Ubuntu.
+. s~xi project listing of supported scanners. Te s~xi (Scanner Access Now
lasy) project provides most of the bad-ends to the scanning sonware on
Ubuntu.
Ubuntu can’t find my scanner
Tere are a few reason why Ubuntu may give you a “No devices available
message”·
‣ Your scanner is not supported in Ubuntu. Te most common type of scan-
ner not supported is old parallel port or lexmark All-in-One printer/scanner/faxes.
‣ Te driver for your scanner is not being automatically loaded.
Other devices
Fireuire
lirewire is a special type of port that makes use of lirewire tednology to
transfer data. Tis port is generally used by camcorders and digital cameras.
lf you want to import video from your camcorder you can do so by con-
necting your camcorder to the lirewire port. You will need to install a pro-
gram called Kino whid is available in the Ubuntu Sonware Center.
1o find out more about kino. visit http·//
www.kinodv.org/.
BIuetooth
Bluetooth is widely used on cis devices, mouses, mobile phones, headsets,
music players, desktops and laptops for data transfer, listening to music,
playing games and for various other activities. All modern operating systems
support Bluetooth and Ubuntu is no exception.
You can access the Bluetooth preferences by len-cliding on the Bluetooth
icon on the right hand side of the top panel. lt is usually located next to the
volume icon. len-cliding on the Bluetooth icon opens a popup menu with
several doices, sud as an option to Turn off Bluetooth.
Te Bluetooth preferences can also be accessed from System‣ Preferences ‣
Bluetooth. lf you want to setup a new device sud as a mobile phone to
syndronize with your computer, doose the option that reads Setup new
deyice...
Ubuntu will then open a window for new device setup. When you clid
Forward, Ubuntu will open the second screen whid will show you how
11o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure ¡.:· 1he Bluetooth applet menu.
many Bluetooth devices are present within the range of your system. Te list
of available devices might take a minute or so to appear on the screen as your
system will be scanning for the devices. Te scan and display is in real time,
whid means that every device will be displayed as soon as it is found. Clid
on the required Bluetooth device from the list of devices. Ten, select the iix
number by selecting PIN options.
Tree predefined iix numbers are available but you can create a custom
iix if you like. You will need to enter this iix on the device you will be pair-
ing with Ubuntu.
Once the device has been paired, Ubuntu will open the “Setup completed”
screen.
ln Ubuntu, your computer is hidden by default for security reasons. Tis
means that your Ubuntu system can seard other Bluetooth enabled systems
but they cannot seard for your Ubuntu system. You will have to enable
the option, if you want your Bluetooth device to find your Ubuntu system.
You can do this by selecting the option “Make computer discoverable” in
Bluetooth preferences. You can also add a fancy name for your Bluetooth-
enabled Ubuntu system by danging the text under Friendly Name.
= Sonuare Management
Sonuare management in Ubuntu
As discussed in Chapter +· Working with Ubuntu, a range of default applica-
tions are available in Ubuntu that are suitable for many everyday tasks. At
some point you may decide to test out an alternative web browser, set up a
different email client, edit an audio file, or try some new games (for exam-
ple), and to do any of these you will need to install new sonware. Ubuntu
keeps trad of many different sonware padages, and finding and installing
what you are aner is designed to be as quid and easy as possible. Alterna-
tively, you may prefer to browse through the extensive library of available
applications, and try any that catd your interest.
Differences from other operating systems
Most other operating systems generally require a user to purdase commer-
cial sonware (online or through a physical store), or otherwise seard the
lnternet for a free alternative (if one is available). Te correct installation file
must then be downloaded and located on the computer, followed by the user
proceeding through a number of installation prompts and options.
While at times a similar process may be used for installing sonware in
Ubuntu, the quidest and easiest way to find and install new applications is
through the Ubuntu Sonware Center. Tis is a central location for accessing
new sonware, and is based on the concept of re¡o::ìor:e:. A repository can be
thought of as a catalog of padages that are available for downloading from a
single location. You automatically have access to the official Ubuntu reposito-
ries when the operating system is installed: however, additional repositories
can be added later in order to access more sonware.
Using the Ubuntu Sonuare Center
Te Sonware Center can be used to install most applications that are available Some soúware packages have more ad
vanced purposes. such as programming or
running a server. and cannot be installed
using the Soúware Center. You will need
to use the Svnaptic Package Manager (dis
cussed towards the end of this chapter) to
install these packages.
in the official Ubuntu repositories.
To start the Sonware Center, open the Applications menu and doose
Ubuntu Soßware Center.
Te Sonware Center window has two parts—a list of sections on the len,
and a set of icons on the right. lad icon represents a Je¡orìmenì, whid
is a category of sonware. lor example, the “Games” department contains
“Sudoku.”
Te sections on the len side of the window represent your current view of
the Sonware Center’s catalog. Clid the Get Soßware buuon on the len to
11: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure ¡.1· You can install and remove
applications from vour computer using the
Soúware Center.
see sonware that is available to install, and Installed Soßware to see a list of
sonware that is already installed on your computer.
Finding sonuare
lf you are looking for an application, you may already know a specific name
(for example, “Tunderbird” is a popular email client), or otherwise you may
just have a general category in mind (for example, the “sound and video”
category includes a number of different sonware applications sud as video
converters, audio editors, and music players).
To help you find the right application, you can browse the Sonware Center
catalog by cliding on the department that reflects the category of sonware
you are aner, or alternatively use the built-in seard at the top-right of the
window to look for specific names or keywords.
When you select a department, you will be shown a list of applications Check out the Featured Applications depart
ment to see a list of highlv recommended
applications.
that fit within that category. Some departments have sub-categories—for
example, the “Games” department has subcategories for “Simulation” and
“Card Games.”
soi1w~ii ·~x~ci·ix1 11+
To move through categories you can use the bad and forward buuons at
the top of the window, as well as the navigational buuons (onen referred to as
“breadcrumbs”) next to these.
!nstaIIing sonuare
lnstalling applications is practically only one clid away. Once you have found Note that vou will need to be connected
to the Internet for the Soúware Center
to work. 1o learn how to set up vour
connection. see Chapter +· Working with
Ubuntu.
an application that you would like to try·
1. C|:d ì|e Install |vuon ìo ì|e r:v|ì o[ ì|e :e|ecìeJ ¡odove. lf you would
like to read more about the sonware padage before installing it, first clid
on More Info. Tis will take you to a short description of the application,
as well as a screenshot and a web link when available. lf you wish to
proceed, you can also clid Install from this page.
:. T\¡e \ovr ¡o::+orJ :nìo ì|e ovì|enì:coì:on +:nJo+ ì|oì o¡¡eor:. Tis is
the same password you use to log in to your account. You are required to
enter it whenever installing new sonware, in order to prevent someone
without administrator access from making unauthorized danges to your
computer.
If vou receive an “Authentication Failure”
message aúer tvping in vour password.
check that vou tvped it correctlv bv trving
again. If the error continues. this mav mean
that vour account is not authorized to install
soúware on the computer.
+. Vo:ì vnì:| ì|e ¡odove :: fin::|eJ :n:ìo||:nv. During the installation (or
removal) of sonware padages, you will see an animated icon of rotating
arrows to the len of the In Progress buuon in the sidebar. lf you like, you
can now go bad to the main browsing window and queue additional son-
ware padages to be installed by following the steps above. At any time,
cliding the In Progress buuon on the len will take you to a summary of
all operations that are currently processing. Here you can also clid the X
icon to cancel any operation.
Once the Sonware Center has finished installing an application, it is now
ready to be used. Ubuntu will usually place an entry in your Applications
menu under the relevant sub-menu—its exact location will depend on the
purpose of the application. ln some cases an application will appear in one of
the System‣ Preferences or System‣ Administration menus instead.
Removing sonuare
Removing applications is very similar to installing them. lirst, clid on the
Installed Soßware buuon in the Sonware Center’s sidebar. Scroll down to the
application you wish to remove (or use the seard field to quidly find it), and
then·
1. C|:d ì|e Remove |vuon to the right of the selected application. 1o completelv remove a package and all
its configuration. vou will need to purge it.
You can do this with the more advanced
Svnaptic Package Manager. which is
discussed further in the Svnaptic Package
Manager section below.
:. T\¡e \ovr ¡o::+orJ :nìo ì|e ovì|enì:coì:on +:nJo+ ì|oì o¡¡eor:. Remov-
ing sonware also requires that you enter your password to help protect
your computer against unauthorized danges. Te padage will then be
queued for removal, and will appear under the In Progress section in the
sidebar.
11¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Removing a padage will also update your menus accordingly.
Managing additionaI sonuare
Although the Sonware Center provides a large library of applications to
doose from, initially only those padages available within the official Ubuntu
repositories are listed. At times, a particular application you are aner may not
be available in these repositories. lf this happens, it is important to understand
some alternative methods for accessing and installing sonware in Ubuntu,
sud as downloading an installation file manually from the lnternet, or adding
extra repositories. lirst, we will look at how to manage your repositories
through Sonware Sources.
Sonuare Sources
Te Sonware Center lists only those applications that are available in your
enabled repositories. Repositories can be added or removed through the Son-
ware Sources application. To open this, clid System‣ Administration‣ You can also open Soúware Sources from
the Soúware Center. Simplv go to Edit ‣
Sonuare Sources.
Soßware Sources in the top panel. You will be asked to enter your password,
then the “Sonware Sources” window will open. Tere are five tabs at the top
of this window· Ubuntu Soßware, Other Soßware, Updates, Authentica-
tion, and Statistics.
Managing the officiaI repositories
Te Ubuntu Soßware tab lists the five official Ubuntu repositories, ead
containing different types of padages. When Ubuntu is first installed, four of
these are enabled—mo:n, vn:+er:e, re:ìr:cìeJ, and mv|ì:+er:e.
‣ Canonical-supported open source soßware (main)· Tis repository
contains all the open-source padages that are maintained by Canonical.
‣ Community-maintained open source soßware (uniyerse)· Tis repos-
itory contains all the open-source padages that are developed and main-
tained by the Ubuntu community.
‣ Proprietary driyers for deyices (restricted)· Tis repository contains Closedsource packages are sometimes
referred to as nonfree. 1his is a reference
to freedom of speech. rather than monetarv
cost. Pavment is not required to use these
packages.
proprietary drivers, whid may be required to utilize the full capabilities of
some of your devices or hardware.
‣ Soßware restricted by copyright or legal issues (multiyerse)· Tis
repository contains sonware that may be protected from use in some states
or countries by copyright or licensing laws. By using this repository you
assume responsibility for the usage of any padages that you install.
‣ Source code· Tis repository contains the source code that is used to build
the sonware padages from some of the other repositories.
Te Source code option should not be selected unless you have experience BuiIding appIications from source is an
advanced process for creating packages.
and usuallv onlv concerns developers. You
mav also require source files when using
a custom kernel. or if trving to use the
latest version of an application before it
is released for Ubuntu. As this is a more
advanced area. it will not be covered in this
manual.
with building applications from source.
soi1w~ii ·~x~ci·ix1 11·
SeIecting the best sonuare server
Ubuntu grants permission to many servers all across the world to act as m:r
ror:. Tat is, they host an exact copy of all the files contained in the official
Ubuntu repositories. ln the Ubuntu Soßware tab, you can select the server
that will give you the best possible download speeds.
When selecting a server, you may want to consider the following·
‣ Connection speed. Depending on the physical distance between you and a
server, the connection speed may vary. Ubuntu provides a tool for selecting
the server that provides the fastest connection with your computer.
lirst, clid the dropdown box next to “Download from·” in the “Son-
ware Sources” window, and select Other from the menu. ln the “Server
Selection” window that appears, clid the Select Best Seryer buuon in
the upper right. Your computer will now auempt a connection with all
the available servers, then select the one with the fastest speed. lf you are
happy with the automatic selection, clid Choose Seryer to return to the
“Sonware Sources” window.
‣ Iocation. Choosing a server that is close to your location will onen pro-
vide the best connection speed.
To select a server by country, doose your location in the “Server Selec-
tion” window. lf there are multiple servers available in your location, select
one then clid Choose Seryer when you are finished.
linally, if you do not have a working lnternet connection, Ubuntu can
install some sonware padages straight from your installation ci. To do this,
insert the disc into your computer’s ci drive, then select the ded box next to
Installable from the cb-rox/bvb. Once this ded box is tided, the disc will
be treated just like an online repository, and applications will be installable
straight from the ci through the Sonware Center.
Adding more sonuare repositories
Ubuntu makes it easy to add additional, third-party repositories to your list of A rrt is a Personal Package Archive. 1hese
are online repositories used to host the
latest versions of soúware packages. digital
projects. and other applications.
sonware sources. Te most common repositories added to Ubuntu are called
ii~s. Tese allow you to install sonware padages that are not available in the
official repositories, and automatically be notified whenever updates for these
padages are available.
Providing you know the web address of a ii~’s laundpad site, adding it to
your list of sonware sources is relatively simple. To do so, you will need to use
the Other Soßware tab in the “Sonware Sources” window.
On the laundpad site for a ii~, you will see a heading to the len called
“Adding this PPA to your system.” Underneath will be a short paragraph
containing a unique uii in the form of ppa·test-ppa/example. Highlight this
uii by selecting it with your mouse, then right-clid and doose copy.
11e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure ¡.:· 1his is an example of the Launch
pad page for the Lifesaver PPA. Lifesaver
is an application that is not available in
the official Ubuntu repositories. However.
bv adding this PPA to vour list of soúware
sources. it would then be easv to install and
update this application through the Soúware
Center.
Return to the “Sonware Sources” window, and in the Other Soßware tab
clid Add… at the bouom. A new window will appear, and you will see the
words “Apt line·” followed by a text field. Right-clid on the empty space in
this text field and select Paste, and you should see the uii appear that you
copied from the ii~s laundpad site earlier. Clid Add Source to return to the
“Sonware Sources” window. You will see a new entry has been added to the
list of sources in this window, with a tided ded box in front meaning it is
enabled.
lf you clid Close in the bouom right corner of this window, a message will
appear informing you that “Te information about available sonware is out-
of-date.” Tis is because you have just added a new repository to Ubuntu, and
it now needs to connect to that repository and download a list of the padages
that it provides. Clid Reload, and wait while Ubuntu refreshes all of your
enabled repositories (including this new one you just added). When it has
finished, the window will close automatically.
Congratulations, you have just added a ii~ to your list of sonware sources.
You can now open the Sonware Center and install applications from this ii~,
soi1w~ii ·~x~ci·ix1 11;
in the same way you previously installed programs from the default Ubuntu
repositories.
Synaptic Package Manager
Te Synaptic Padage Manager is a more advanced tool for managing son-
ware in Ubuntu. lt can be used to perform the same tasks as the Ubuntu
Sonware Center, sud as installing and removing applications, but also allows
for more control over your padages. lor example, it provides the following
options·
‣ Install any padage in your repositories. ln many cases you can even select
whid version of a padage to install, although this option is only available
if there are multiple versions in the repository.
‣ Reinstall a padage. Tis may be useful if you wish to revert a padage to
its default state, or repair any conflicts or damaged files.
‣ Update a padage when a newer version is released.
‣ Remoye any padage you no longer need.
‣ Purge a padage to completely remove it, including any stored prefer-
ences or configuration files (whid are onen len behind when a padage is
removed).
‣ Fix broken padages.
‣ CheH properties of any padage, sud as the version number, contained
files, padage size, dependencies, and more.
To open the Synaptic Padage Manager, navigate to System‣ Administration‣
Synaptic PaHage Manager. As explained above, Synaptic is a more complex
tool than the Sonware Center, and generally not essential for a new user just
geuing started with Ubuntu. lf you want to read more information on how
to use this program, or require more support managing the sonware on your
system, head to https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/SynapticHowto.
Updates and Upgrades
Ubuntu also allows you to decide how to manage padage updates through the
Updates tab in the Sonware Sources window.
Ubuntu updates
ln this section, you are able to specify the kinds of updates you wish to install
on your system, and usually depends on your preferences around stability,
versus having access to the latest developments.
‣ Important security updates· Tese updates are highly recommended to
ensure your system remains as secure as possible. Tese are enabled by
default.
118 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ Recommended updates· Tese updates are not as important for keeping
your system secure, but will mean your padages always have the most
recent bug fixes or minor updates that have been tested and approved. Tis
option is also enabled by default.
‣ Pre-released updates· Tis option is for those who would rather remain
up-to-date with the very latest releases of applications, at the risk of in-
stalling an update that has unresolved bugs or conflicts. Note that it is
possible that you will encounter problems with these updated applications,
therefore this option is not enabled by default. However, if this happens it
is possible to “roll-bad” to a previous version of a padage through Synap-
tic Padage Manager.
‣ Unsupported updates· Tese are updates that have not yet been fully
tested and reviewed by Canonical. Some bugs may occur when using these
updates, and so this option is also not enabled by default.
Automatic updates
Te middle section of this window allows you to customize how your sys-
tem manages updates, sud as the frequency with whid it deds for new
padages, as well as whether it should install important updates right away
(without asking for your permission), download them only, or just notify you
about them.
ReIease upgrade
Here you can decide whid system upgrades you would like to be notified Lverv o months. Canonical will release
a new version of the Ubuntu operating
svstem. 1hese are called normal releases.
Lverv four normal releases—or :¡ months
—Canonical releases a Long 1erm Support
(L1S) release. Long 1erm Support releases
are intended to be the most stable releases
available. and are supported for a longer
period of time.
about.
‣ Neyer· Choose this if you would rather not be notified about any new
Ubuntu releases.
‣ Normal releases· Choose this if you always want to have the latest
Ubuntu release, regardless of whether it is a long Term Support release
or not. Tis option is recommended for normal home users.
‣ Iong Term Support releases only· Choose this option if you need a
release that will be more stable and have support for a longer time. lf you
use Ubuntu for business purposes, you may want to consider selecting this
option.
o The Command Line
!ntroduction to the terminaI
Troughout this manual, we have focused primarily on the graphical desktop
user interface. However, in order to fully realize the power of Ubuntu, you
may want to learn how to use the terminal.
What is the terminaI'
Most operating systems, including Ubuntu, have two types of user interfaces.
Te first is a graphical user interface (cui). Tis is the desktop, windows,
menus, and toolbars that you clid to get things done. Te second, and mud
older, type of interface is the command-line interface (cii).
Te ìerm:no| is Ubuntu’s command-line interface. lt is a method of con-
trolling some aspects of Ubuntu using only commands that you type on the
keyboard.
Why uouId ! uant to use the terminaI'
lor the average Ubuntu user, most day-to-day activities can be completed
without ever needing to open the terminal. However, the terminal is a pow-
erful and invaluable tool that can be used to perform many useful tasks. lor
example·
‣ Troubleshooting any difficulties that may arise when using Ubuntu some-
times requires you to use the terminal.
‣ A command-line interface is sometimes a faster way to accomplish a task.
lor example, it is onen easier to perform operations on many files at once
using the terminal.
‣ learning the command-line interface is the first step towards more ad-
vanced troubleshooting, system administration, and sonware develop-
ment skills. lf you are interested in becoming a developer or an advanced
Ubuntu user, knowledge of the command-line will be essential.
Opening the TerminaI
You can open the terminal by cliding Applications ‣ Accessories ‣ Terminal. 1he terminal gives vou access to what is
called a shell. When vou tvpe a command
in the terminal the shell interprets this
command. resulting in the desired action.
1here are different tvpes of shells that
accept slightlv different commands. 1he
most popular is called “bash.” and is the
default shell in Ubuntu.
When the terminal window opens, it will be largely blank apart from some
text at the top len of the screen, followed by a blinking blod. Tis text is your
prompt—it displays your login name and your computer’s name, followed by
the current directory. Te tilde (-) means that the current directory is your
In ctt environments the term “folder” is
commonlv used to describe a place where
files are stored. In ctt environments the
term “directorv” is used to describe the same
thing and this metaphor is exposed in manv
commands (i.e.. cd or pwd) throughout this
chapter.
1:o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
home directory. linally, the blinking blod is the cursor—this marks where
text will be entered as you type.
To test things out, type pwd and press Enter. Te terminal should display
/home/yourusername. Tis text is called the “output.” You have just used the
pwd (print working directory) command, and the output that was displayed
shows the current directory.
Figure o.1· 1he default terminal window
allows vou to run hundreds of useful
commands.
All commands in the terminal follow the same approad. Type in the
name of a command, possibly followed by some parameters, and press Enter
to perform the specified action. Onen some output will be displayed that Parameters are extra segments of text.
usuallv added at the end of a command.
that change how the command itself is
interpreted. 1hese usuallv take the form of
-h or --help. for example. In fact. --help
can be added to most commands to displav
a short description of the command. as well
as a list of anv other parameters that can be
used with that command.
confirms the action was completed successfully, although this depends on
the command. lor example, using the cd command to dange your current
directory (see below) will dange the prompt, but will not display any output.
Te rest of this dapter covers some very common uses of the terminal.
However, there are almost infinite possibilities available to you when using
the command-line interface in Ubuntu. Troughout the second part of this
manual we will continue to refer to the command line, particularly when
discussing steps involved in troubleshooting and the more advanced manage-
ment of your computer.
Ubuntu fiIe system structure
Ubuntu uses the linux file system, whid is based on a series of folders in
the root directory. lad of these folders contain important system files that
cannot be modified unless you are running as the root user or use :vJo. Tis
restriction exists for both security and safety reasons· computer viruses will
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:1
not be able to dange the core system files, and users should not be able to
accidentally damage anything vital.
Below are some of the most important directories.
Figure o.:· Some of the most important
directories in the root file svstem.
Te root directory—denoted by /—contains all other directories and files.
Here are the contents of some system essential directories·
‣ /bin & /sbin· Many essential system programs
‣ /etc· System-wide configuration files
‣ /home· lad user will have a subdirectory to store personal files (for exam-
ple /home/your-username)
‣ /lib· library files, similar to .dll files on Windows
‣ /media· Removable media (ciio·s and usn drives) will be mounted in
this directory
‣ /root· Tis contains the root user’s files (not to be confused with the root
directory)
‣ /usr· Pronounced ‘user’, it contains most program files (not to be confused
with ead user’s home directory)
‣ /var/log· Contains log files wriuen by many programs
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lvery directory has a ¡oì|. Te path is a directory’s full name—it describes
a way to navigate the directory from anywhere in the system.
lor example, the directory /home/your-username/Desktop contains all the
files that are on your Ubuntu desktop. Te path, /home/your-username/Desktop,
can be broken down into a few pieces·
1. /—indicates that the path starts at the root directory
:. home/—from the root directory, the path goes into the home directory
+. your-username/—from the home directory, the path goes into the your-
username directory
¡. Desktop—from the your-username directory, the path ends up in the Desk-
top directory
lvery directory in Ubuntu has a complete path that starts with the / (the
root directory) and ends in the directory’s own name.
Directories and files that begin with a period are hidden directories. Tese
are usually only visible with a special command or by selecting a specific op-
tion. ln the Nautilus you can show hidden files and directories by selecting
View‣ Show Hidden Files, or by pressing Ctrl+H. Tere are many hidden di-
rectories in your home folder used to store program preferences. lor example,
/home/your-username/.evolution stores preferences used by the lvolution
mail application.
Mounting and unmounting removabIe devices.
Any time you add storage media to your computer—an internal or external
hard drive, a usn flash drive, a ciio·—it needs to be movnìeJ before it is
accessible. Mounting a device means to associate a directory name with the
device, allowing you to navigate to the directory to access the device’s files.
When a device sud as a usn flash drive or a media player is mounted in
Ubuntu, a folder is automatically created for it in the meJ:o directory and
you are given the appropriate permissions to be able to read and write to the
device.
Most lile Managers will automatically add a shortcut to the mounted
device in its side bar so it’s easy for you to get to. You shouldn’t have to
physically navigate to the meJ:o directory in Ubuntu, unless you doose to do
so from the command line.
When you are done using a device, you can vnmovnì it. Unmounting a
device means to disassociate the device from its directory, allowing you to
eject it.
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:+
Geuing started uith the command Iine
Navigating directories
Te pwd command is short for ¡r:nì +or|:nv J:recìor\. lt can be used to dis-
play the directory you are currently in. Note that the prompt (the text just
before the blinking cursor) also displays your current directory.
$ pwd
/home/your-username/
Te cd command is short for donve J:recìor\. lt allows you to navigate
from your current working directory to another of your doosing.
$ cd /directory/you/want/to/go/to/
lf there are spaces in one of the directories, you will need to put quotation
marks around the path·
$ cd ~/"Music/The Beatles/Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band/"
lf you leave out the quotation marks, the terminal will think that you are
trying to dange to a directory named ~/Music/The.
Tere are some special directory names. ~ is a special name that always
refers to your home directory. You can type cd ~ to navigate to your home
directory from anywhere in the system. Te name .. (two periods) is a spe-
cial name that refers to the directory’s “parent”—the directory one level above
it in the directory tree. lor example, if your current working directory is
/home/your-username then typing cd .. will navigate to the /home direc-
tory.
Geuing a Iist of fiIes
Te ls command is used to get a |::ì of all the files and directories that exist
inside the current directory.
$ ls
alligator-pie.mp3
squirm.mp3
baby-blue.mp3
Moving things around
Te mv command is used to move a file from one directory to another. Note that the terminal is casesensitive.
For example. if vou have a directorv called
Directory1. vou must remember to include
the capital leuer whenever referring to it in
the terminal. otherwise the command will
not work.
$ mv /dmb/big-whiskey/grux.mp3 /home/john
You can also use the mv command to rename a file. lor example·
$ mv grux.mp3 frub.mp3
Te cp command is used to copy a file from one directory into another.
1:¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
$ cp /dmb/big-whiskey/grux.mp3 /media/ipod
Creating directories
Te mkdir command is short for mo|e J:recìor\, and is used to create a new
directory in the current directory or another specified location. lor example,
this command will make a directory called newdirectory inside the current
directory·
$ mkdir newdirectory
Te following command will ignore your current directory, and in-
stead make one called newdirectory inside a hypothetical directory called
/tmp/example/·
$ mkdir /tmp/example/newdirectory
You could then navigate to this new directory by using the cd command.
$ cd /tmp/example/newdirectory
DeIeting fiIes and directories
Te rm command is used to delete files. lor example, to delete a file named
deleteme.txt located in the current directory·
$ rm deleteme.txt
To delete a file located in another directory (:.e., not inside your current
working directory), you would need to include the ¡oì| to the file. ln other
words, you are specifying the file’s location. lor example, to delete the file
deleteme.txt located in the /tmp/example/ directory, use the following
command·
$ rm /tmp/example/deleteme.txt
Te rmdir command is similar to the rm command, except it is used to
delete folders. lor example, this command would delete the directory called
newdirectory that we created earlier.
$ rmdir /tmp/example/newdirectory/
!ntroducing sudo
When you installed Ubuntu, the system automatically created two user ac-
counts· your primary user account, and a “root” account that operates behind
the scenes. Tis root account has the necessary privileges required for modi-
fying system files and seuings, whereas your primary user account does not.
Rather than logging out of your primary user account and then logging bad
in as root (whid can be very dangerous), you can use the sudo command (for
command line applications) and gksudo to borrow root account privileges
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:·
for performing administrative tasks sud as installing or removing sonware,
creating or removing new users, and modifying system files.
lor example, the following command would open Ubuntu’s default text When using sudo in the terminal. vou
will be prompted to enter vour password.
You will not see anv dots. stars. or other
characters appearing in the terminal as vou
tvpe vour password—this is an extra securitv
feature to help protect vour password from
anv prving eves.
editor gedit with root privileges. You will then be able to edit important
system files that would otherwise be protected. Te password you use with
sudo is the same password that you use to log in to your primary account, and
is set up during the Ubuntu installation process.
$ gksudo gedit
[sudo] password for username:
Opening gedit...
1e sudo commonJ v:+e: \ov +:rìvo||\ vn|:m:ìeJ occe:: ìo :m¡orìonì :\:ìem fi|e:
onJ :eu:nv:. Iì :: :m¡orìonì \ov on|\ v:e sudo :[ \ov vnJer:ìonJ +|oì \ov ore
Jo:nv. Yov con finJ ovì more o|ovì v::nv sudo :n C|o¡ìer ;: Secvr:ì\.
Managing sonuare through the terminaI
ln Ubuntu there are many ways to manage your sonware. Graphical tools
sud as the Ubuntu Sonware Center and Synaptic Padage Manager were
discussed in Chapter ·· Sonware Management, however, many people prefer
to use the apt command (Advanced Padaging Tool) to manage their son-
ware from within the terminal. Te apt command is extremely versatile and
encompasses several tools, the most commonly used of whid is apt-get.
Te various apt commands should be prefixed with the sudo command,
since they typically require root privileges.
Using apt-get
Te apt-get command is used for installing and removing padages from
your system. lt can also be used to refresh the list of padages available in
the repositories, as well as download and install any new updates for your
sonware.
Updating and upgrading
Te apt-get update command can be used to quidly refresh the list of pad-
ages that are available in the default Ubuntu repositories, as well as any addi-
tional repositories added by the user (see Chapter ·· Sonware Management for
more information on repositories).
$ sudo apt-get update
You can then use apt-get upgrade to download and install any available
updates for your currently installed padages. lt is best to run apt-get update
prior to running apt-get upgrade, as this will ensure you are geuing the most
recent updates available for your sonware.
1:e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be upgraded:
tzdata
1 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 683kB of archives.
After this operation, 24.6kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
Te terminal will give you a summary of what padages are to be up-
graded, the download size, and how mud extra disk space will be used (or
freed), and then ask you to confirm before continuing. To proceed with the
installation, press y and then Enter, and the upgrades will be downloaded and
installed for you. lf you do not want to proceed with the installation, press n
and then Enter.
!nstaIIing and removing
Te following command would be used to install vic media player using
apt-get· Notice the sudo command before the aptget
command. In most cases it will be necessarv
to use sudo when installing soúware. as vou
will be modifving protected parts of vour
svstem. Manv of the commands we will be
using from here on require root access. so
expect to see sudo appearing frequentlv.
$ sudo apt-get install vlc
[sudo] password for username:
To remove vic, you would type·
$ sudo apt-get remove vlc
[sudo] password for username:
CIeaning up your system
Onen sonware in Ubuntu depends on other padages being installed on your
system in order to run correctly. lf you auempt to install a new padage
and these Je¡enJenc:e: are not already installed, Ubuntu will automatically
download and install them for you at the same time (provided the correct
padages can be found in your repositories). When you remove a padage in
Ubuntu, any dependencies that were installed alongside the original padage
are not also automatically removed. Tese padages sit in your system and
can build up over time, taking up disk space. A simple way to clean up your
system is to use the apt-get autoremove command. Tis will select and Another useful cleaning command is apt-
get autoclean which removes cache files
leú over from downloading packages.
remove any padages that were automatically installed but no longer required.
$ sudo apt-get autoremove
Adding extra sonuare repositories
Sometimes you might want to install some sonware that isn’t in the official
repositories but may be available in a what’s called a ii~. ii~s, or personal
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:;
padage ardives, contain sonware that you can install by adding that ii~ to
your system. To add a PPA repository·
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:example/ppa
Once you have installed the ii~ you may install sonware from it in the
usual way using the apt-get install command.
; Security
Tis dapter discusses ways to keep your Ubuntu computer secure.
Why Ubuntu is safe
Ubuntu is secure by default for a number of reasons·
‣ Ubuntu clearly distinguishes between normal users and administrative
users.
‣ Sonware for Ubuntu is kept in a secure online repository, whid contains
no false or malicious sonware.
‣ Open-source sonware like Ubuntu allows security flaws to be easily de-
tected.
‣ Security patdes for open-source sonware like Ubuntu are onen released
quidly.
‣ Many viruses designed to primarily target Windows-based systems do not
affect Ubuntu systems.
Basic Security concepts and procedures
When Ubuntu is installed, it is automatically configured for a single person
to use. lf more than one person will use the computer with Ubuntu, ead
person should have her or his own user account. Tis way, ead user can
have separate seuings, documents, and other files. lf necessary, you can also
protect files from being viewed or modified by users without administrative
privileges. See Users and groups to learn more about creating additional users
accounts.
Permissions
ln Ubuntu, files and folders can be set up so that only specific users can view,
modify, or run them. lor instance, you might wish to share an important
file with other users, but do not want those users to be able to edit the file.
Ubuntu controls access to files on your computer through a system of “per-
missions.” Permissions are seuings that you can configure to control exactly
how files on your computer are accessed and used.
To learn more about modifying permissions, visit https·//help.ubuntu.com/
community/lilePermissions.
1+o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Passuords
You can use a strong password to increase the security of your computer. Your
password should not contain names, common words or common phrases. By
default, the minimum length of a password in Ubuntu is four daracters. We
recommend a password with more than the minimum number of daracters.
Locking the screen
When you leave your computer unauended, you may want to lod the screen.
loding your screen prevents anyone from using your computer until your
password is entered. To lod the screen·
‣ Clid the session menu icon in the right corner of the top panel, then select
IoH Screen, or
‣ press Ctrl+Alt+L to lod the screen. Tis keyboard shortcut can be
danged in System‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard Shortcuts.
System updates
Good security depends on an up-to-date system. Ubuntu provides free son-
ware and security updates. You should apply these updates regularly. See
Chapter ·· Sonware Management to learn how to update your Ubuntu com-
puter with the latest security updates and patdes.
Trusting third party sources
Normally, you will add applications to your computer via the Sonware Center,
whid downloads sonware from the Ubuntu repositories as described in
Chapter ·· Sonware Management. However, it is occasionally necessary to
add sonware from other sources. lor example, you may need to do this when
an application is not available in the Ubuntu repositories, or when you need a
newer version of the one available in the Ubuntu repositories.
Additional repositories are available from sites sud as getdeb.net and
laundpad ii~s, whid can be added as described in Chapter ·· Sonware
Management. You can download the iin padages for some applications
from their respective project sites on the lnternet. Alternately, you can build
applications from their source code (an advanced method of installing and
using applications).
Using only recognized sources sud as a project’s site, ii~, or various
community repositories (sud as getdeb.net) is more secure than downloading
applications from an arbitrary (and perhaps less reputable) source. When
using a third party source, consider its trustworthiness, and be sure you know
exactly what you’re installing on your computer.
sicuii1v 1+1
Users and groups
like most operating systems, Ubuntu allows you to create separate user ac-
counts for ead person that use the computer. Ubuntu also supports user
groups, whid allow you to administer permissions for multiple users at the
same time.
lvery user in Ubuntu is a member of at least one group—the group’s name
is the same as the name of the user. A user can also be a member of additional
groups. You can configure some files and folders to be accessible only by a
user and a group. By default, a user’s files are only accessible by that user:
system files are only accessible by the root user.
Figure ;.1· Add. remove and change the user
accounts.
Managing users
You can manage users and groups using the Users and Groups administra-
tion application. To find this application, clid System‣ Administration‣
Users and Groups.
To adjust the user and group seuings clid the keys icon next the phrase
“Clid to make danges.” You will need to input your password in order to
make danges to user and group seuings.
AJJ:nv o v:er Clid the Add buuon whid appears underneath a list of
the current user accounts that have already been created. A window will
appear that has two fields. Te “Name“ field field is for a friendly display
name. Te “Short Name“ field is for the actual username. lill in the requested
information, then clid OK. A new dialog box will appear asking you to enter
a password for the user you have just created. lill out the fields, then clid
OK. Privileges you grant to the new user can be altered in “Users Seuings”.
1+: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
MoJ:[\:nv o v:er Clid on the name of a user in the list of users, then clid
on the Change… buuon, whid appears next to ead of following options·
‣ Account type·
‣ Password·
lor more advanced user options clid on the Adyanced Settings buuon.
Change the details as required in the dialog that appears. Clid OK to save the
danges.
De|eì:nv o v:er Select a user from the list and clid Delete. Ubuntu will
deactivate the user’s account, and you can doose whether remove the user’s
home folder or leave it.
Managing groups
Clid on the Manage Groups buuon to open the group management dialog.
AJJ:nv o vrov¡ To add a group, clid Add. ln the dialog that appears, enter
the group name and select the names of users you would like to add to the
group.
MoJ:[\:nv o vrov¡ To alter the users in an existing group, select a group and
clid on the Properties buuon. Select and deselect the users as required, then
clid OK to apply the danges.
De|eì:nv o vrov¡ To delete a group, select a group and clid Delete.
AppIying groups to fiIes and foIders
To dange the group associated with a file or folder, open the Nautilus file
browser and navigate to the appropriate file or folder. Ten, either select the
folder and doose File ‣ Properties from the menubar, or right-clid on the file
or folder and doose Properties. ln the Properties dialog that appears, clid on
the Permissions tab and select the desired group from the Groups drop-down
list. Ten close the window.
Using the command Iine
You can also modify user and group seuings via the command line. We
recommend that you use the graphical method above unless you have a
good reason to use the command line. lor more information on using the
command line to modify users and groups, see the Ubuntu Server Guide at
hups·//help.ubuntu.com/1o.o¡/serverguide/C/user-management.html
sicuii1v 1++
Seuing up a secure system
You may also want to use a firewall, or use encryption, to further increase the
security of your system.
FireuaII
A firewall is an application that protects your computer against unauthorized
access by people on the lnternet or your local network. lirewalls blod con-
nections to your computer from unknown sources. Tis helps prevent security
breades.
Uncomplicated lirewall (uiw) is the standard firewall configuration pro-
gram in Ubuntu. lt is a program that runs from the command line, but a
program called Gufw allows you to use it with a graphical interface. See
Chapter ·· Sonware Management to learn more about installing the Gufw
padage.
Once it’s installed, start Gufw by cliding System‣ Administration‣
Firewall configuration. To enable the firewall, select the Enable option. By
default, all incoming connections are denied. Tis seuing should be suitable
for most users.
lf you are running server sonware on your Ubuntu system (sud as a web
server, or an i1i server), then you will need to open the ports these services
use. lf you are not familiar with servers, you will likely not need to open any
additional ports.
To open a port clid on the Add buuon. lor most purposes, the Precon-
figured tab is sufficient. Select Allow from the first box and then select the
program or service required.
Te simple tab can be used to allow access on a single port, and the Ad-
yanced tab can be used to allow access on a range of ports.
Encryption
You may wish to protect your sensitive personal data—for instance, financial
records—by encrypting it. lncrypting a file or folder essentially “lods” that
file or folder by encoding it with an algorithm that keeps it scrambled until it
is properly decoded with a password. lncrypting your personal data ensures
that no one can open your personal folders or read your private data without
your private key.
Ubuntu includes a number of tools to encrypt files and folders. Tis dap-
ter will discuss two of these. lor further information on using encryption
with either single files or email, see Ubuntu Community Help documents at
hups·//help.ubuntu.com/community.
1+¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Home foIder
When installing Ubuntu, it is possible to encrypt a user’s home folder. See
Chapter 1· lnstallation for more on encrypting the home folder.
Private foIder
lf you have not dosen to encrypt a user’s entire home folder, it is possible to
encrypt a single folder—called Priyate—in a user’s home folder. To do this,
follow these steps·
1. lnstall the ecryptfs-utils sonware padage.
:. Use the terminal to run ecryptfs-setup-private to set up the private
folder.
+. lnter your account’s password when prompted.
¡. lither doose a mount passphrase or generate one.
·. Record both passphrases in a safe location. Tese are required if you eyer
haye to recoyer your data manually.
e. log out and log bad in to mount the encrypted folder.
Aner the Priyate folder has been set up, any files or folders in it will auto-
matically be encrypted.
lf you need to recover your encrypted files manually see https·//help.
ubuntu.com/community/lncryptedPrivateDirectory.
8 TroubIeshooting
ResoIving probIems
Sometimes, things simply do not work as they should. ludily, problems
encountered while working with Ubuntu are easily fixed. Below, we offer
a guide to resolving basic problems that users may encounter while using
Ubuntu. lf you exhaust the troubleshooting advice below, see Geuing more
help to learn about seeking support from the Ubuntu community.
TroubIeshooting guide
Te key to effective troubleshooting is working slowly and methodically,
documenting danges you make to your Ubuntu system at every step. Tis
way, you will always be able to roll bad your work—and give fellow users
information about your previous auempts, in the unlikely event that you
should need to turn to the community for support.
Ubuntu faiIs to start aner !’ve instaIIed Windous
Occasionally you may install Ubuntu and then decide to install Microson
Windows as a second operating system running side-by-side with Ubuntu.
While this is supported by Ubuntu, you may find that aner installing Win-
dows you may no longer be able to start Ubuntu.
When you first turn on your computer, a program called a “bootloader”
must start Ubuntu or another operating system. When you installed Ubuntu, A bootIoader is the initial soúware that
loads the operating svstem when vou turn
on the computer.
you installed an advanced bootloader called crun that allowed you to doose
between the various operating systems on your computer, sud as Ubuntu,
Windows and others. However, when you installed Windows, it replaced
ciun with its own bootloader, thus removing the ability to doose whid
operating system you’d like to use. You can easily restore ciun—and regain
the ability to doose your operating system—by using the same ci you used to
install Ubuntu.
lirst, insert your Ubuntu ci into your computer and restart it, making sure
to have your computer start the operating system that is on the ci itself (see
Chapter 1· lnstallation). Next, doose your language and select Try Ubuntu.
Wait while the sonware loads. You will need to type some code to restore
your bootloader. On the Applications menu, clid Accessories, and then clid
the Terminal item. lnter the following·
$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/hda: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
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255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 1 1224 64228+ 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 * 1225 2440 9767520 a5 Windows
/dev/sda3 2441 14593 97618972+ 5 Extended
/dev/sda4 14532 14593 498015 82 Linux swap
Partition table entries are not in disk order
Tis output means that your system (linux, on whid Ubuntu is based) 1he device (/dev/sda1. /dev/sda:. etc) we
are looking for is identified bv the word
“Linux” in the Svstem column. Modifv the
instructions below if necessarv. replacing
/dev/sda1 with the name of vour Linux
device.
is installed on device /dev/sda1, but your computer is booting to /dev/sda:
(where Windows is located). We need to rectify this by telling the computer to
boot to the linux device instead.
To do this, first create a place to manipulate your Ubuntu installation·
$ sudo mkdir /media/root
Next, link your Ubuntu installation and this new folder·
$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/root
lf you’ve done this correctly, then you should see the following·
$ ls /media/root
bin dev home lib mnt root srv usr
boot etc initrd lib64 opt sbin sys var
cdrom initrd.img media proc selinux tmp vmlinuz
Now, you can reinstall ciun·
$ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/root /dev/sda
Installation finished. No error reported.
This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/device.map.
Check if this is correct or not. If any of the lines is incorrect,
fix it and re-run the script grub-install.
(hd0) /dev/sda
linally, remove the Ubuntu disc from your ciio· drive, reboot your
computer, and enjoy your Ubuntu system once again.
Tis guide may not work for all Ubuntu users due to differences in sys-
tem configuration. Still, this is the recommended method, and the most suc-
cessful method, for restoring the ciun bootloader. lf following this guide
does not restore ciun on your computer, please consider trying some of
the other troubleshooting methods at https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/
RecoveringUbuntuAfterlnstallingWindows. When following the instructions,
please note that your Ubuntu installation uses Grub:. Tis guide replicates
the method described in the first section of the referenced web page. Please
consider starting with the third section, https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/
RecoveringUbuntuAfterlnstallingWindows.
1iouniisnoo1ixc 1+;
Ubuntu doesn’t present the Iogin screen uhen my computer boots
Te simplest and easiest way to correct this issue is to order Ubuntu to reset
the graphics configuration. Press and hold Control, Alt and F1. You should
now see a blad and white screen with a prompt for your username and
password.
lnter your username, press Enter, and then enter your password. (Char-
acters +:|| noì appear on the screen as you enter your password. Don’t worry
—this behavior is normal and was implemented for security purposes). Next,
enter the following commands. Your password will be needed again.
$ sudo cd /etc/X11
$ sudo mv ./xorg.conf ./xorg.conf_old
$ sudo service gdm stop
$ sudo X -configure
$ sudo mv ./xorg.conf.new ./xorg.conf
$ sudo reboot now
Ubuntu will reboot, and your login screen should be restored.
! forgot my passuord
lf you forget your password in Ubuntu, you will need to reset it using “Recov-
ery mode.”
To start Recovery mode, shut down your computer, then power it up.
As the computer starts up, press Shiß (Grub:) lsc (Grub1) when you see
the white-on-blad screen with a countdown (the ciun prompt). Select the
Recoyery mode option using the arrow keys on your keyboard. Recovery
mode should be the second item in the list.
Wait while Ubuntu starts up. You +:|| noì see a normal login screen. ln-
stead, you will be presented with a terminal prompt that looks something
like·
root@something#
To reset your password, enter·
$ passwd username
Replace “username” above with your username. Ubuntu will prompt you
for a new password. lnter your desired password, press enter and then type
your password again, pressing enter aner you are done. (Ubuntu asks for your
password twice to make sure you did not make a mistake while typing). Once
you have restored your password, return to the normal system environment
by entering·
$ init 2
login as usual and continue enjoying Ubuntu.
1+8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure 8.1· 1his is the grub screen in which
vou can choose recoverv mode.
! accidentaIIy deIeted some fiIes that ! need
lf you’ve deleted a file by accident, you may be able to recover it from
Ubuntu’s trash folder. Tis is a special folder where Ubuntu stores deleted
files before they are permanently removed from your computer.
1he Wastebasket is called different things
in various parts of the desktop. 1his could
cause confusion. 1his is a known issue
and will be resolved in the next version
of c·o·r. 1he Wastebasket could also be
know as the “Deleted Items Folder“.
To access the trash folder, select Places ‣ Computer from the top panel,
then doose Trash from the list of places in the len-hand sidebar of the win-
dow that appears (alternatively, clid on the trash applet at the far right of
the bouom panel). To remove items from this folder and restore them to your
computer, right-clid on the items you want and select Restore, or otherwise
drag them wherever you would like (we recommend a memorable location,
sud as your home folder or desktop).
1iouniisnoo1ixc 1+c
Hou do ! cIean Ubuntu'
Over time, Ubuntu’s sonware padaging system can accumulate unused pad-
ages or temporary files. Tese temporary files, also called cades, contain
padage files from all of the padages that you have ever installed. lventu-
ally, this cade can grow quite large. Removing them allows you to reclaim
space on your computer’s hard drive for storing your documents, music,
photographs, or other files.
To clear the cade, you can use either the clean, or the autoclean option
for a command-line program called apt-get. Te clean command will re-
move every single caded item, while the autoclean command only removes
caded items that can no longer be downloaded (these items are onen unnec-
essary). To run clean, open Terminal and type·
$ sudo apt-get clean
Padages can also become unused over time. lf a padage was installed to
assist with running another program—and that program was subsequently
removed—you no longer need the supporting padage. You can remove it with
autoremove.
load Terminal and type·
$ sudo apt-get autoremove
to remove the unnecessary padages.
! can’t pIay certain audio or video fiIes
Many of the formats used to deliver rid media content are proprietary,
meaning they are not free to use, modify and distribute with an open-source
operating system like Ubuntu. Terefore, Ubuntu does not include the ca-
pability to use these formats by default: however, users can easily configure
Ubuntu to use these proprietary formats. lor more information about the
differences between open source and proprietary sonware, see Chapter c·
learning more.
lf you find yourself in need of a proprietary format, you may install the
files necessary for using this format with one command. Before initiating this
command, ensure that you have Universe and Multiverse repositories enabled.
See the Synaptic Padage Manager section to learn how to do this.
Open the Ubuntu Sonware Center by selecting it from Applications.
Seard for ubuntu-restricted-extras by typing “ubuntu restricted extras”
in the seard box on the right-hand side of the Ubuntu Sonware Center’s
main window. When the Sonware Center finds the appropriate sonware, clid
the arrow next to its title. Clid Install, then wait while Ubuntu installs the
appropriate sonware.
Once Ubuntu has successfully installed sonware, your rid media content
should work properly.
1¡o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Hou can ! change my screen resoIution'
Te image on every monitor is composed of millions of liule colored dots
called pixels. Changing the number of pixels displayed on your monitor is
called “danging the resolution.” lncreasing the resolution will make the dis-
played images sharper, but will also tend to make them smaller. Te opposite
is true when screen resolution is decreased. Most monitors have a “native res-
olution,” whid is a resolution that most closely matdes the number of pixels
in the monitor. Your display will usually be sharpest when your operating
system uses a resolution that matdes your display’s native resolution.
Te Ubuntu configuration utility Monitors allows users to dange the
resolution. Open it by doosing System from the Main Menu, then doosing
Preferences and then Monitors. Te resolution can be danged using the
drop down list within the program. Piding options higher up on the list (for
example, those with larger numbers) will increase the resolution.
Figure 8.:· You can change vour displav
seuings.
You can experiment with various resolutions by cliding Apply at the bot-
tom of the window until you find one that’s comfortable for you. Typically
the highest resolution will be the native resolution. Selecting a resolution
and cliding Apply will temporarily dange the screen resolution to the se-
lected value. A dialog box will also be displayed. lt allows you to revert to
the previous resolution seuing or keep the new resolution. Te dialog box
will disappear in +o seconds, restoring the old resolution.Tis feature was
implemented to prevent someone from being loded out of the computer by
a resolution that distorts the monitor and makes it unusable. When you have
finished seuing the screen resolution, clid Close.
1iouniisnoo1ixc 1¡1
Figure 8.+· You can revert back to vour old
seuings if vou need to.
Ubuntu is not uorking properIy on my AppIe MacBook or MacBook
Pro
When installed on notebook computers from Apple—sud as the MacBook or
MacBook Pro—Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in
components, including the iSight camera and the Airport wireless lnternet
adapter. ludily, the Ubuntu community offers documentation on fixing these
and other problems. lf you are having trouble installing or using Ubuntu on
your Apple notebook computer, please follow the instructions at https·//help.
ubuntu.com/community/MacBook. You can select the appropriate guide aner
identifying your computer’s model number. lor instructions on doing this,
visit the web page above.
Ubuntu is not uorking properIy on my Asus EeePC
When installed on netbook computers from Asus—sud as the leePC—
Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in components,
including the keyboard shortcut keys and the wireless lnternet adapter.
Te Ubuntu community offers documentation on enabling these com-
ponents and fixing other problems. lf you are having trouble installing
or using Ubuntu on your Asus leePC, please follow the instructions at
https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/leePC. Tis documentation page con-
tains information pertaining specifically to leePC netbooks.
My harduare is not uorking properIy
Ubuntu occasionally has difficulty running on certain computers, gener-
ally when hardware manufacturers use non-standard or proprietary com-
ponents. Te Ubuntu community offers documentation to help you trou-
bleshoot many issues that may arise from this situation, including problems
with wireless cards, scanners, mice and printers. You can find the complete
hardware troubleshooting guide on Ubuntu’s support wiki, accessible at
https·//wiki.ubuntu.com/HardwareSupport. lf your hardware problems per-
sist, please see Geuing more help for more troubleshooting options or infor-
mation on obtaining support or assistance from an Ubuntu user.
1¡: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Geuing more heIp
Tis guide does not cover every possible workflow, task or issue in Ubuntu.
lf you require assistance beyond the information in the manual, you can find
a variety of support opportunities online. You can access extensive and free
documentation, buy professional support services, query the community for
free support or explore tednical solutions. More information is available here·
http·//www.ubuntu.com/support
» Learning more
What eIse can ! do uith Ubuntu'
By now, you should be able to use your Ubuntu desktop for all your daily
activities—sud as browsing the web and editing documents. But you may be
interested in learning about other versions of Ubuntu you can integrate into
your digital lifestyle. ln this dapter, we’ll provide you with more detail about
versions of Ubuntu that are specialized for certain tasks. But first, we’ll first
discuss the tednologies that make Ubuntu a powerful collection of sonware.
Open Source Sonuare
Ubuntu is open source sonware. Open source sonware differs from propri-
etary sonware—sonware whose source code is patented and is therefore not
freely available for modification or distribution by anyone but the rightsh-
older.Microson Windows and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary 1he source code of a program is the
collection files that have been wriuen in a
computer language to make the program.
sonware.
Proprietary sonuare is soúware that
cannot be copied. modified. or distributed
freelv.
Unlike proprietary sonware programs, Ubuntu is specifically licensed
to promote sharing and collaboration. Te legal rules governing Ubuntu’s
production and distribution ensure that anyone can obtain, run, or share it
for any purpose they wish. Computer users can modify open source sonware
to suit their individual needs, share it, improve it, or translate it into other
languages—provided they release these modifications so others can do the
same. ln fact, the terms of many open source licensing agreements make it
illegal not to do so.
Because open source sonware is developed by large communities of pro-
grammers distributed throughout the globe, it benefits from rapid develop-
ment cycles and speedy security releases (in the event that someone discovers
bugs in the sonware). ln other words, open source sonware is updated, en-
hanced, and made more secure every day as programmers all over the world
continue to improve it.
Aside from these tednical advantages, open source sonware also has
economic benefits. While users must adhere to the terms of an open source
licensing agreement when installing and using Ubuntu, for instance, they
needn’t pay to obtain this license. While not all open source sonware is free of
monetary costs, mud is.
To learn more about open source sonware, see the Open Source lnitia-
tive’s open source definition, available at http·//www.opensource.org/docs/
definition.php.
1¡¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Distribution famiIies
Ubuntu is one of several popular operating systems based on linux (an open
source operating system). While other versions of linux, or “distributions,”
may look different from Ubuntu at first glance, they share similar daracteris-
tics because of their common roots. A distribution. or “distro.” is a operating
svstem made from open source programs.
bundled together to make them easier to
install and use.
linux distributions can be divided into two broad families· the Debian
family and the Red Hat family. lad family is named for a distribution on
whid subsequent distributions are based. lor example, “Debian” refers to
both the name of a distribution as well as the family of distributions derived
from Debian. Ubuntu is part of the Debian family of distributions, as are
linux Mint, Xandros, and CrundBang linux. Distributions in the Red Hat
family include ledora, openSUSl, and Mandriva.
Te most significant difference between Debian-based and Red Hat-based
distributions is the system ead uses for installing and updating sonware.
Tese systems are called “padage management systems.”Debian sonware Package management systems are
the means bv which users can install.
remove. and organize soúware installed
on computers with open source operating
svstems like Ubuntu.
padages are iin files, while Red Hat sonware padages are ii· files. lor
more information about padage management, see Chapter ·· Sonware Man-
agement.
You will also find distributions that have been specialized for certain tasks.
Next, we’ll describe these versions of Ubuntu and explain the uses for whid
ead has been developed.
Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its derivatives
Just as Ubuntu is based on Debian, several distributions are subsequently
based on Ubuntu. Some of these are made for general use, and ead differs
with respect to the sonware included as part of the distribution. Others are
designed for specialized uses.
lour derivative distributions are officially recognized and supported by
both Canonical and the Ubuntu community. Tese are·
‣ Ubuntu Netbook Edition, whid is optimized for netbook computers.
‣ Kubuntu, whid uses the xii graphical environment instead of the cxo·i
environment found in Ubuntu:
‣ Edubuntu, whid is designed for use in sdools: and
‣ Ubuntu Seryer Edition, whid is designed for use on servers, and typi-
cally is not used as a desktop operating system because it doesn’t have a
graphical interface.
lour other derivatives of Ubuntu are available. Tese include·
‣ Xubuntu, whid uses the xici graphical environment instead of the
cxo·i environment found in Ubuntu:
‣ Ubuntu Studio, whid is designed for creating and editing multimedia: and
‣ Mythbuntu, whid is designed for creating a home theater ic with
MythTV (an open source digital video recorder).
ii~ixixc ·oii 1¡·
lor more information about these derivative distributions, see http·//www.
ubuntu.com/project/derivatives.
Ubuntu Netbook Edition
Ubuntu Netbook ldition is a version of Ubuntu designed specifically for
netbook computers.lt is optimized for computing devices with small screens Netbooks are lowcost. lowpower note
book computers designed chieflv for
accessing the Internet.
and limited resources (like the energy-saving processors and smaller hard
disks common among netbooks). Ubuntu Netbook ldition sports a unique
interface and features a collection of sonware applications particularly useful
to on-the-go users.
Because many netbooks do not contain ciio· drives, Ubuntu Netbook
ldition allows users to install it on their computers using usn flash drives.
To learn more about using a flash drive to install Ubuntu Netbook ldition on
a netbook computer, visit https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/lnstallation/
lromlmgliles.
Ubuntu Server Edition
Te Ubuntu Server ldition is an operating system optimized to perform
multiuser tasks when installed on servers.Sud tasks include file sharing and A server is a computer that’s been con
figured to manage. or “serve.” files manv
people wish to access.
website or email hosting. lf you are planning to use a computer to perform
tasks like these, you may wish to use this specialized server distribution in
conjunction with server hardware.
Tis manual does not explain the process of running a secure web server
or performing other tasks possible with Ubuntu Server ldition. lor details on
using Ubuntu Server ldition, refer to the manual at http·//www.ubuntu.com/
server.
Ubuntu Studio
Tis derivative of Ubuntu is designed specifically for people who use com-
puters to create and edit multimedia projects. lor instance, it features ap-
plications to help users manipulate images, compose music, and edit video.
While users can install these applications on computers running the desktop
version of Ubuntu, Ubuntu Studio makes them all available immediately upon
installation.
lf you would like to learn more about Ubuntu Studio (or obtain a copy for
yourself), visit http·//ubuntustudio.org/home.
Mythbuntu
Mythbuntu allows users to turn their computers into entertainment systems.
lt helps users organize and view various types of multimedia content sud as
movies, television shows, and video podcasts. Users with 1v tuners in their
computers can also use Mythbuntu to record live video and television shows.
1¡e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
To learn more about Mythbuntu, visit http·//www.mythbuntu.org/.
×:-bit or o¡-bit'
As mentioned earlier in this manual, Ubuntu and its derivatives are available
in two versions· +:-bit and e¡-bit. Tis difference refers to the way computers
process information. Computers capable of running e¡-bit sonware are able to
process more information than computers running +:-bit sonware: however,
e¡-bit systems require more memory in order to do this. Nevertheless, these
computers gain performance enhancements by running e¡-bit sonware.
Why doose one over another` Pay auention to the version you select in
the following cases·
‣ lf your computer is fairly old (made before :oo;), then you may want to
install the +:-bit version of Ubuntu. Tis is also the case for most netbooks.
‣ lf your computer has more than ¡ cn of memory (i~·), then you may need
to install the e¡-bit version in order to use all the installed memory.
Finding additionaI heIp and support
Tis guide is not intended to be an all-encompassing resource filled with ev-
erything you’ll ever need to know about Ubuntu. Because Geu:nv SìorìeJ
+:ì| U|vnìv :o.o¡ could never answer all your questions, we encourage you
to take advantage of Ubuntu’s vast community when seeking further infor-
mation, troubleshooting tednical issues, or asking questions about your com-
puter. Below, we’ll discuss a few of these resources—located both inside the
operating system and on the lnternet—so you can learn more about Ubuntu or
other linux distributions.
System heIp
lf you need additional help when using Ubuntu or its applications, clid
the Help icon on the top panel, or navigate to System‣ Help and Support.
Ubuntu’s built-in help guide covers a broad range of topics in great detail.
OnIine Ubuntu heIp
Te Ubuntu Documentation team has created and maintains a series of wiki
pages designed to help both new and experienced users learn more about
Ubuntu. You can access these at http·//help.ubuntu.com.
The Ubuntu Forums
Te Ubuntu lorums are the official forums of the Ubuntu community. Mil-
lions of Ubuntu users use them daily to seek help and support from one
another. You can create an Ubuntu lorums account in minutes. To create
ii~ixixc ·oii 1¡;
an account and learn more about Ubuntu from community members, visit
http·//ubuntuforums.org.
Launchpad Ansuers
laundpad, an open source code repository and user community, provides a
question and answer service that allows anyone to ask questions about any
Ubuntu-related topic. Signing up for a laundpad account requires only a few
minutes. Ask a question by visiting laundpad at https·//answers.launchpad.
net/ubuntu/-addquestion.
Live chat
lf you are familiar with lnternet relay dat (iic), you can use dat clients sud
as XChat or Pidgin to join the dannel =ubuntu on irc.freenode.net. Here,
hundreds of user volunteers can answer your questions or offer you support in
real time.
In addition to official Ubuntu and commu
nitv help. vou will oúen find thirdpartv
help available on the Internet. While these
documents can oúen be great resources.
some could be misleading or outdated. It’s
alwavs best to verifv information from
thirdpartv sources before taking their
advice.
LoCo teams
Within the Ubuntu community are dozens of local user groups called “loCo
teams.” Spread throughout the world, these teams offer support and ad-
vice, answer questions and promote Ubuntu in their communities by host-
ing regular events. To locate and contact the loCo team nearest you, visit
http·//loco.ubuntu.com/.
Community support
lf you’ve exhausted all these resources and still can’t find answers to your
questions, visit Community Support at http·//www.ubuntu.com/support/
community.
A License
1ni woix (~s iiiixii niiow) is iioviiii uxiii 1ni 1ii·s oi 1nis cii
~1ivi co··oxs iuniic iicixsi (“ccii” oi “iicixsi”). 1ni woix is iio
1ic1ii nv coiviicn1 ~xi/oi o1nii ~iiiic~nii i~w. ~xv usi oi 1ni woix
o1nii 1n~x ~s ~u1noiizii uxiii 1nis iicixsi oi coiviicn1 i~w is iio
nini1ii.
nv ixiicisixc ~xv iicn1s 1o 1ni woix iioviiii niii, vou ~ccii1
~xi ~ciii 1o ni nouxi nv 1ni 1ii·s oi 1nis iicixsi. 1o 1ni ix1ix1 1nis
iicixsi ·~v ni coxsiiiiii 1o ni ~ cox1i~c1, 1ni iicixsoi ci~x1s vou
1ni iicn1s cox1~ixii niii ix coxsiiii~1iox oi voui ~ccii1~xci oi
sucn 1ii·s ~xi coxii1ioxs.
1. Definitions
(a) “Adaptation” means a work based upon the Work, or upon the Work
and other pre-existing works, sud as a translation, adaptation, deriva-
tive work, arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or
artistic work, or phonogram or performance and includes cinemato-
graphic adaptations or any other form in whid the Work may be recast,
transformed, or adapted including in any form recognizably derived
from the original, except that a work that constitutes a Collection will
not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this license. lor the
avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical work, performance
or phonogram, the syndronization of the Work in timed-relation with
a moving image (“synding”) will be considered an Adaptation for the
purpose of this license.
(b) “Collection” means a collection of literary or artistic works, sud as
encyclopedias and anthologies, or performances, phonograms or broad-
casts, or other works or subject mauer other than works listed in Sec-
tion 1(f) below, whid, by reason of the selection and arrangement of
their contents, constitute intellectual creations, in whid the Work is
included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more
other contributions, ead constituting separate and independent works
in themselves, whid together are assembled into a collective whole. A
work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation
(as defined below) for the purposes of this license.
(c) “Creative Commons Compatible license” means a license that is listed
at http·//creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses that has been ap-
proved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this
license, including, at a minimum, because that license· (i) contains
terms that have the same purpose, meaning and effect as the license
1·o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
llements of this license: and, (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of
adaptations of works made available under that license under this li-
cense or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same license
llements as this license.
(d) “Distribute” means to make available to the public the original and
copies of the Work or Adaptation, as appropriate, through sale or other
transfer of ownership.
(e) “license llements” means the following high-level license auributes as
selected by licensor and indicated in the title of this license· Auribu-
tion, ShareAlike.
(f) “licensor” means the individual, individuals, entity or entities that
offer(s) the Work under the terms of this license.
(g) “Original Author” means, in the case of a literary or artistic work, the
individual, individuals, entity or entities who created the Work or if
no individual or entity can be identified, the publisher: and in addition
(i) in the case of a performance the actors, singers, musicians, dancers,
and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret or
otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore:
(ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal
entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds:
and, (iii) in the case of broadcasts, the organization that transmits the
broadcast.
(h) “Work” means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms
of this license including without limitation any production in the liter-
ary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form
of its expression including digital form, sud as a book, pamphlet and
other writing: a lecture, address, sermon or other work of the same na-
ture: a dramatic or dramatico-musical work: a doreographic work or
entertainment in dumb show: a musical composition with or without
words: a cinematographic work to whid are assimilated works ex-
pressed by a process analogous to cinematography: a work of drawing,
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analogous to photography: a work of applied art: an illustration, map,
plan, sketd or three-dimensional work relative to geography, topogra-
phy, arditecture or science: a performance: a broadcast: a phonogram: a
compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work:
or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is
not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work.
(i) “You” means an individual or entity exercising rights under this license
who has not previously violated the terms of this license with respect to
the Work, or who has received express permission from the licensor to
exercise rights under this license despite a previous violation.
(j) “Publicly Perform” means to perform public recitations of the Work and
iicixsi 1·1
to communicate to the public those public recitations, by any means
or process, including by wire or wireless means or public digital per-
formances: to make available to the public Works in sud a way that
members of the public may access these Works from a place and at a
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by any means or process and the communication to the public of the
performances of the Work, including by public digital performance:
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sounds or images.
(k) “Reproduce” means to make copies of the Work by any means includ-
ing without limitation by sound or visual recordings and the right of
fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work, including storage of a
protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic
medium.
:. lair Dealing Rights. Nothing in this license is intended to reduce, limit, or
restrict any uses free from copyright or rights arising from limitations or
exceptions that are provided for in connection with the copyright protec-
tion under copyright law or other applicable laws.
+. license Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this license, licensor
hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for
the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the
Work as stated below·
(a) to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Col-
lections, and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections:
(b) to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any sud Adapta-
tion, including any translation in any medium, takes reasonable steps to
clearly label, demarcate or otherwise identify that danges were made
to the original Work. lor example, a translation could be marked “Te
original work was translated from lnglish to Spanish,” or a modification
could indicate “Te original work has been modified.”:
(c) to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated
in Collections: and,
(d) to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations.
(e) lor the avoidance of doubt·
i. Non-waivable Compulsory license Sdemes. ln those jurisdictions
in whid the right to collect royalties through any statutory or com-
pulsory licensing sdeme cannot be waived, the licensor reserves the
exclusive right to collect sud royalties for any exercise by You of the
rights granted under this license:
ii. Waivable Compulsory license Sdemes. ln those jurisdictions in
whid the right to collect royalties through any statutory or com-
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GIossary
o¡¡|eì An applet is a small program that runs in a panel. Applets provide
useful functions sud as starting a program, viewing the time, or accessing
the main menu.
Conon:co| Canonical, the financial bader of Ubuntu, provides support for
the core Ubuntu system. lt has over +1o paid staff members worldwide
who ensure that the foundation of the operating system is stable, as well as
deding all the work submiued by volunteer contributors. To learn more
about Canonical, go to http·//www.canonical.com.
cvr:or Te blinking cursor that appears aner the prompt in the terminal is
used to show you where text will appear when you start typing. You can
move it around with arrow keys on your keyboard.
Jecr\¡ìeJ When you decrypt an encrypted file it becomes decrypted, and
viewable. lncrypted files on Ubuntu are not recognizable in any language,
they are just a string of random numbers and leuers until they are de-
crypted using a password.
Je:|ìo¡ en+:ronmenì A generic term to describe a cui interface for humans
to interact with computers. Tere are many desktop environments sud as
cxo·i, xii, xici and ixii just to name a few.
nncì inci stands for D\nom:c Ho:ì Confivvroì:on Proìoco|, it is used by a
inci server to assign computers on a network an ii address automatically.
J:o|v¡ connecì:on A dialup connection is when your computer uses a modem
to connect to an isi through your telephone line.
J::ìr:|vì:on A distribution is a collection of sonware that is already compiled
and configured ready to be installed. Ubuntu is an example of a distribu-
tion.
Jvo||ooì:nv dual-booting is the process of being able to doose one of two
different operating systems currently installed on a computer from the
boot menu, once selected your computer will then boot into whidever
operating system you dose at the boot menu. Dual booting is a generic
term, and can refer to more than two operating systems.
Fì|erneì ¡orì An lthernet port is what an lthernet cable is plugged into
when you are using a wired connection.
c×omì cxo·i (whid once stood for cxu Network Object Model lnviron-
ment) is the default desktop environment used in Ubuntu.
cuì Te cui (whid stands for Graphical User lnterface) is a type of user
1·8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
interface that allows humans to interact with the computer using graphics
and images rather than just text.
ì·ì isi stands for Inìerneì Ser+:ce Pro+:Jer, an isi is a company that provides
you with your lnternet connection.
|erne| A kernel is the central portion of a Unix-based operating system,
responsible for running applications, processes, and providing security for
the core components.
maximize When you maximize an application in Ubuntu it will fill the whole
desktop, excluding the panels.
MeMenv Te MeMenu in Ubuntu 1o.o¡ allows you to manage your presence
on social networking services. lt also allows you to publish status messages
to all of your accounts by entering updates into a text field.
m:n:m::e When you minimize an open application, the window will no
longer be shown. lf you clid on a minimized application’s panel buuon, it
will then be restored to its normal state and allow you to interact with it.
noì:ficoì:on oreo Te notification area is an applet on the panel that provides
you with all sorts of information sud as volume control, the current song
playing in Rhythmbox, your lnternet connection status and email status.
ovì¡vì Te output of a command is any text it displays on the next line aner
typing a command and pressing enter, e.v., if you type pwd into a terminal
and press Enter, the directory name it displays on the next line is the
output.
¡odove Padages contain sonware in a ready-to-install format. Most of
the time you can use the Sonware Center instead of manually installing
padages. Padages have a .deb extension in Ubuntu.
¡one| A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen. lt contains applets
whid provide useful functions sud as running programs, viewing the
time, or accessing the main menu.
¡oromeìer Parameters are special options that you can use with other com-
mands in the terminal to make that command behave differently, this can
make a lot of commands far more useful.
¡orì:ì:on A partition is an area of allocated space on a hard drive where you
can put data.
¡orì:ì:on:nv partitioning is the process of creating a partition.
¡rom¡ì Te prompt displays some useful information about your computer,
it can be customized to display in different colors as well as being able to
display the time, date and current directory as well as almost anything else
you like.
cioss~iv 1·c
¡ro¡r:eìor\ Sonware made by companies that don’t release their source code
under an open source license.
rovìer A router is a specially designed computer that using its sonware and
hardware, routes information from the lnternet to a network. lt is also
sometimes called a gateway.
:er+er A server is a computer that runs a specialized operating system and
provides services to computers that connect to it and make a request.
:|e|| Te terminal gives access to the shell, when you type a command into
the terminal and press enter the shell takes that command and performs
the relevant action.
So[+ore Cenìer Te Sonware Center is where you can easily manage son-
ware installation and removal as well as the ability to manage sonware
installed via Personal Padage Ardives.
ìerm:no| Te terminal is Ubuntu’s text only interface, it is a method of con-
trolling some aspects of the operating system using only commands en-
tered via the keyboard.
+:reJ connecì:on A wired connection is when your computer is physically
connected to a router or lthernet port with a cable, this is the most com-
mon connection for desktop computers.
+:re|e:: connecì:on A wireless connection involves no cables of any sort and
instead uses a wireless signal to communicate with either a router, access
point or computer.
Credits
Tis manual wouldn’t have been possible without the efforts and contribu-
tions from the following people·
Team Leads
Benjamin Humphrey—Team lead
Kevin Godby—lead T
l
Xnician
Jamin Day—Head of lditing
llya Haykinson—Authors coordinator
Josh Holland—Translation maintenance
Torsten Wilms—Design
Adnane Belmadiaf—Web development
luke Jennings—Qidshot developer
Neil Tallim—Qidshot developer
Simon Vermeersh—Qidshot developer
Authors
Joe Burgess
Tomas Cantara
Sayantan Das
Kelvin Gardiner
Mau Griffin
llya Haykinson
Wolter Hellmund
Josh Holland
Benjamin Humphrey
luke Jennings
llan Kugelmass
Ryan Macnish
Editors
Bryan Behrenshausen
Jamin Day
Kevin Godby
Benjamin Humphrey
Jason Cook
Chris Woollard
Alexander lancey
Designers
K. Vishnoo Charan Reddy
Wolter Hellmund
Benjamin Humphrey
David Nel
Torsten Wilms
DeveIopers
Adnane Belmadiaf
Kevin Godby
luke Jennings
Neil Tallim
Simon Vermeersh
1e: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
TransIators
Vytautas Bačiulis
Dmitry Belonogov
lrancisco Dieguez
André Gondim
Jiri Grönroos
Mohamad lmran lshak
Martin Kaba
Te KandilUG Tamil
translating team
Kentaro Kazuhama
James Kelly
George Kontis
Shushi Kurose
Martin lukeš
Kostas Milonas
Anwar Mohammed
Abhijit Navale
lmmanuel Ninos
Robert Readman
Roth Robert
Daniel Sdury
Paulius Sladkevicius
Pierre Slamid
lredrik Sudmann
Muhd Syazwan
Ralph Ulrid
Chris Woollard
John Xygonakis
Konstantinos Zigourakis
…and many others
SpeciaI Thanks
Chrisllias
Bo
underpass
jehurd
cl·8
kjhass
djstsys
mozillahelpviewproject
Joey-llijah Alexithymia
Jono Bacon
Manualbot
Chris Johnson
llan Kugelmass
llizabeth Krumbad
Josh levereue
Walter Méndez
Martin Owens
Tim Penhey
Andy Piper
Alan Pope
Mauhew Paul Tomas
Te Ubuntu Documentation Team
Te Ubuntu Community learning Project
!ndex
About GNOMl, :8
About Ubuntu, :8
AisleRiot Solitaire, :;
Appearance Preferences, +¡
apt, 1:·
apt-get, 1:·–1:;, 1+c
Avant Window Navigator, ++
Brasero, :8, 1o·
Cairo-Dod, ++
Calculator, :;
Canonical, 8
cd, 1:o, 1:+, 1:¡
ci/ivi Creator, :;
Cheese, 1o8
cp, 1:+
Debian, 8
Dell, 8, 11
Dody, ++
ecryptfs-setup-private, 1+¡
lmpathy, :¡, :;, ;e, 1o8
lvolution, :·, :8, eo–e+, e·–;:, 1::
l-Spot, :;, 8+
linder, :c
lirefox, :+, :;, +¡, +8, ¡+, ·o, eo
gBrainy, :;
gedit, :;, 1:·
gksudo, 1:¡
grub-install, 1+e
Gufw, 1++
Help and Support, :8
kernel, 8, c
Kino, 1oc
lifesaver, 11e
linux, 8–c
ls, 1:+
Mahjongg, :;
Mines, :;
mkdir, 1:¡
Movie Player, 8c
mv, 1:+
Nautilus, :c–+:, +¡, 1::, 1+:
Network Connections, ¡·
NetworkManager, ¡1, ¡:
OpenOffice.org Drawing, :;
Orca, +e
password, 1+o
Pidgin, 1¡;
Pitivi, :8
pwd, 1:o, 1:+
Qadrapassel, :;
Rhythmbox, :8, c1
rm, 1:¡
rmdir, 1:¡
root, 1+1
Seard for liles, :;, :c
Shuuleworth, Mark, 8
Simple Scan, :;
Skype, 1o8
Sonware Center, 111–11;
Sonware Sources, 11¡, 11;
Sound Recorder, :8
sudo, 1:¡, 1:·
Sudoku, :;
Synaptic Padage Manager, :c, 111, 11+,
11;, 118, 1:·
system requirements, 1+–1¡
System;e, 11
Take Screenshot, :;
Tomboy Notes, :;
Totem, :8
Ubuntu
definition of, ;
downloading, 11–1:
history of, 8
philosophy of, ;
Ubuntu lorums, c
Ubuntu Help Center, :+, :8, +8
Ubuntu One, ;+, cc
Ubuntu promise, ;
Ubuntu Sonware Center, 1o, :8, :c, ++,
1oc, 111, 11;, 1:·, 1+c
Unix, 8, c
VlC, 1o8
Windows lxplorer, :c
Wine, c, 1o
XChat, 1¡;
coioinox
Tis book was typeset with X
Ǝ
l
A
T
l
X.
Te book design is based on the Tune-l
A
T
l
X document classes available at http·//code.google.com/p/tufte-latex/.
Te text face is linux libertine, designed by Philipp H. Poll. lt is an open font available at http·//linuxlibertine.sf.net/.
Te captions and margin notes are set in linux Biolinum, also designed by Philipp H. Poll and available at the same uii above.
Te terminal text and keystrokes are set in Bera Mono, originally developed by Bitstream, lnc. as Bitstream Vera.
Te screenshots were captured using Qidshot, available at http·//ubuntu-manual.org/quickshot.
Te cover and title page pictograms contain shapes taken from the Humanity icon set, available at https·//launchpad.net/humanity.
Te title page and cover were designed using lnkscape, available at http·//inkscape.org/.

Copyright ©  by e Ubuntu Manual Team. Some rights reserved. cb a is work is licensed under the Creative Commons Aribution–Share Alike . License. To view a copy of this license, see Appendix A, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/./, or send a leer to Creative Commons,  Second Street, Suite , San Francisco, California, , USA. Geing Started with Ubuntu . can be purased from http://ubuntu-manual. org/buy/gswue/en. A printed copy of this book can be ordered for the price of printing and delivery. An electronic copy of this book can be downloaded for free. We permit and even encourage you to distribute a copy of this book to colleagues, friends, family, and anyone else who might be interested. http://ubuntu-manual.org Second Edition Revision number:  Revision date: -- :: -

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Contents Prologue  Welcome  Ubuntu philosophy  A brief history of Ubuntu  Is Ubuntu right for you?  Contact details  Conventions used in this book   Installation  Geing Ubuntu  Minimum system requirements  Installing Ubuntu  e Ubuntu Desktop  Understanding the desktop  Managing windows  Switing between open windows  Using the Applications menu  Using the System menu  Browsing files on your computer  Nautilus file browser  Searing for files on your computer  Customizing your desktop  Accessibility  Managing your computer  Geing help  Working with Ubuntu  Geing online  Browsing the web  Reading and composing email  Staying organized  Using instant messaging  Microblogging  Viewing and editing photos  Wating videos and movies  Listening to audio and music  Working with documents. and presentations    . spreadsheets.

     . Taking notes  Ubuntu One  Seing up Ubuntu One  Ubuntu One Preferences  More information   Hardware  Using your devices  Hardware identification  Displays  Connecting and using your printer  Sound  Burning CDs and DVDs  Using a webcam  Scanning text and images  Other devices  Soware Management  Soware management in Ubuntu  Using the Ubuntu Soware Center  Managing additional soware  Synaptic Paage Manager  Updates and Upgrades  e Command Line  Introduction to the terminal  Ubuntu file system structure  Geing started with the command line  Introducing sudo  Managing soware through the terminal  Security  Why Ubuntu is safe  Basic Security concepts and procedures  System updates  Users and groups  Seing up a secure system  Troubleshooting  Resolving problems  Troubleshooting guide  Geing more help      .

   Learning more  What else can I do with Ubuntu?  Open Source Soware  Distribution families  -bit or -bit?  Finding additional help and support  License  Creative Commons Notice  Glossary  Credits  Team Leads  Authors  Editors  Designers  Developers  Translators  Special anks  Index  A .

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Prologue
Welcome
Welcome to Geing Started with Ubuntu, an introductory guide wrien to help new users get started with Ubuntu. Our goal is to cover the basics of Ubuntu (su as installation and working with the desktop) as well as guide you through some of the most popular applications. We designed this guide to be simple to follow, with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots, allowing you to discover the potential of your new Ubuntu system even if you are a novice computer user or are migrating from another operating system for the first time. Please bear in mind that this guide is still very mu a work in progress and always will be. It is wrien specifically for Ubuntu . , and although we have aimed to not limit our instructions to this version, it is unavoidable that some things will ange over the life of Ubuntu. Whenever a new version of Ubuntu is released, we will incorporate any anges into our guide, and make a new version available at http://www.ubuntu-manual.org. Geing Started with Ubuntu . is not intended to be a comprehensive Ubuntu instruction manual. It is more like a qui-start guide that will get you doing the things you need to do with your computer quily and easily, without geing bogged down with tenical details. If you are aer more detail, there are excellent resources available at http:// help.ubuntu.com. Ubuntu’s built-in system documentation is also very useful for accessing help on specific topics, and can be found by cliing System ‣ Help and Support in Ubuntu. If something isn’t covered here, ances are you will find the information you are looking for in one of those locations. We will try our best to include links to more detailed help wherever we can.

More information about Ubuntu’s online and system documentation can be found in Chapter : Learning more.

Ubuntu philosophy
e term “Ubuntu” is a traditional African concept that originated from the Bantu languages of southern Africa. It can be described as a way of connecting with others—living in a global community where your actions affect all of humanity. Ubuntu is more than just an operating system: it is a community of people that come together voluntarily to collaborate on an international soware project that aims to deliver the best possible user experience.

The Ubuntu promise
‣ Ubuntu will always be free of arge, along with its regular enterprise releases and security updates.

    .

‣ Ubuntu comes with full commercial support from Canonical and hundreds of companies from across the world. ‣ Ubuntu provides the best translations and accessibility features that the free soware community has to offer. ‣ Ubuntu’s core applications are all free and open source. We want you to use free and open source soware, improve it, and pass it on.

A brief history of Ubuntu
Ubuntu was conceived in  by Mark Shuleworth, a successful South African entrepreneur, and his company Canonical. Shuleworth recognized the power of Linux and open source, but was also aware of weaknesses that prevented mainstream use. Shuleworth set out with clear intentions to address these weaknesses and create a system that was easy to use, completely free (see Chapter : Learning more for the complete definition of “free”), and could compete with other mainstream operating systems. With the Debian system as a base, Shuleworth began to build Ubuntu. Using his own funds at first, installation s were pressed and shipped worldwide at no cost to the end user. Ubuntu spread quily, the size of the community rapidly increased, and it soon became the most popular Linux distribution available. With more people working on the project than ever before, Ubuntu continues to see improvement to its core features and hardware support, and has gained the aention of large organizations worldwide. For example, in , Dell began a collaboration with Canonical to sell computers with Ubuntu preinstalled. Additionally, in , the Fren Police began to transition their entire computer infrastructure to a variant of Ubuntu—a process whi has reportedly saved them “millions of euros” in licensing fees for Microso Windows. By the year , the Fren Police anticipates that all of their computers will be running Ubuntu. Canonical profits from this arrangement by providing tenical support and custom-built soware. While large organizations oen find it useful to pay for support services, Shuleworth has promised that the Ubuntu desktop system will always be free. As of , Ubuntu is installed on nearly % of the world’s computers. is equates to millions of users worldwide, and is growing ea year.
Canonical is the company that provides financial and technical support for Ubuntu. It has employees based around the world who work on developing and improving the operating system, as well as reviewing work submied by volunteer contributors. To learn more about Canonical, go to http://www.canonical.com.

For information on Ubuntu Server Edition, and how you can use it in your company, visit http://www.ubuntu.com/server/ features.

What is Linux?
Ubuntu is built on the foundation of Linux, whi is a member of the Unix family. Unix is one of the oldest types of operating systems and has provided reliability and security in professional applications for almost half a century. Many servers around the world that store data for popular websites (su as YouTube and Google) run some variant of a Unix system. e Linux kernel is best described as the core, or almost the brain, of the operating system.

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e Linux kernel is the shi manager of the operating system; it is responsible for allocating memory and processor time. It can also be thought of as the program whi mangages any and all programs on the computer itself. Linux was designed from the ground up with security and hardware compatibility in mind, and is currently one of the most popular -based operating systems. One of the benefits of Linux is that it is incredibly flexible and can be configured to run on almost any device—from the smallest microcomputers and cellphones to larger super-computers. Unix was entirely command line–based until graphical user interfaces (s) began to emerge in the early s. ese early s were difficult to configure and clunky at best, and generally only used by seasoned computer programmers. In the past decade, however, graphical user interfaces have come a long way in terms of usability, reliability, and appearance. Ubuntu is just one of many different Linux distributions, and uses one of the more popular graphical desktop environments called .

While modern graphical desktop environments have generally replaced early command-line interfaces, the command line can still be a quick and efficient way of performing many tasks. See Chapter : The Command Line for more information, and Chapter : The Ubuntu Desktop to learn more about  and other desktop environments. A desktop environment is a sophisticated and integrated user interface that provides the basis for humans to interact with a computer using a monitor, keyboard and a mouse. To learn more about Linux distributions, see Chapter : Learning more.

Is Ubuntu right for you?
New users to Ubuntu may find that it takes some time to feel comfortable when trying a new operating system. You will no doubt notice many similarities to both Microso Windows and Mac  , as well as some differences. Users coming from Mac   are more likely to notice similarities due to the fact that both Mac   and Ubuntu originated from Unix. Before you decide whether or not Ubuntu is right for you, we suggest giving yourself some time to grow accustomed to the way things are done in Ubuntu. You should expect to find that some things are different from what you are used to. We also suggest taking the following into account: ‣ Ubuntu is community based. at is, Ubuntu is made, developed, and maintained by the community. Because of this, support is probably not available at your local computer store. Fortunately, the Ubuntu community is here to help. ere are many articles, guides, and manuals available, as well as users on various Internet forums and Internet Relay Chat () rooms that are willing to help out beginners. Additionally, near the end of this guide, we include a troubleshooting apter: Chapter : Troubleshooting. ‣ Many applications designed for Microso Windows or Mac   will not run on Ubuntu. For the vast majority of everyday computing tasks, there are suitable alternative applications available in Ubuntu. However, many professional applications (su as the Adobe Creative Suite) are not developed to work with Ubuntu. If you rely on commercial soware that is not compatible with Ubuntu, yet still want to give Ubuntu a try, you may want to consider dual-booting. Alternatively, some applications developed for Windows will work in Ubuntu with a program called Wine.

A popular forum for Ubuntu discussion and support is the Ubuntu Forums, http:// ubuntuforums.org.

To learn more about dual-booting (running Ubuntu side-by-side with another operating system), see Chapter : Installation. For more information on Wine, go to http:// www.winehq.org/.

org/ Email: ubuntu-manual@lists. Contact details Many people have contributed their time to this project. feel free to contact us. and other  elements are set in boldfaced type. menu items. there is active game development within the community. whi leads to larger profits.” ‣ Monospaced type is used for text that you type into the computer. and keyboard shortcuts. text that the computer outputs (as in a terminal). Since Ubuntu’s market share is not as substantial as Microso’s Windows or Apple’s Mac  . If you just like to play a game every now and then. then Ubuntu may not be for you.ubuntu-manual. ‣ Menu sequences are sometimes typeset as System ‣ Preferences ‣ Appearance. We do everything we can to make sure that this manual is up to date. and then select the Appearance menu item. whi means. and professional. ‣ Many commercial games will not run on Ubuntu. then oose the Preferences submenu. If you notice any errors or think we have le something out.net Bug Reports: http://bugs. Game developers usually design games for the largest market.freenode. .org Conventions used in this book e following typographic conventions are used in this book: ‣ Buon names. Additionally. “Choose the System menu. most game developers will not allocate resources towards making their games compatible with Ubuntu.     . See Chapter : Soware Management to learn more about Ubuntu Soware Center. some games developed for Windows will also work in Ubuntu with Wine.net : #ubuntu-manual on irc.launchpad.ubuntu-manual. If you are a heavy gamer. and many high quality games can be easily installed through Ubuntu Soware Center. Our contact details are as follows: e Ubuntu Manual Team Website: http://www. informative.

Again. AMD. the Ubuntu servers can become very busy.iso or similar (i here in the filename refers to the -bit version. If you are unsure what -bit means. simply proceed with the download. Installation Many companies (such as Dell and System) sell computers with Ubuntu preinstalled. then cli “Begin Download. sometimes the servers can get clogged up with large numbers of people downloading or upgrading at the same time. Downloading Ubuntu as a torrent When a new version of Ubuntu is released. If you had downloaded the -bit version. we recommend that you download the  image this way to take the load off the servers during periods of high demand. and other compatible -bit processors. feel free to skip to Chapter : The Ubuntu Desktop. If you are familiar with using torrents. If you know how to use torrents. refer to your operating system’s or manufacturer’s Torrents are a way of sharing files and information around the Internet via peerto-peer file sharing. if you are unsure how to use torrents. Head to the website and cli the “Download Ubuntu” link at the top. -bit is newer. -bit and -bit are types of processor architectures. so if in doubt. you may wish to download the torrent file by cliing “Alternative download options. and will also be helping to spread Ubuntu to other users worldwide. you can use the default download options on the website. When a new version of Ubuntu is released. Geing Ubuntu Before you can get started with Ubuntu.” -bit vs -bit You may notice the words “Ubuntu Desktop . -bit will work on most computers. While the -bit version of Ubuntu is referred to as the “AMD” version. See Chapter : Learning more for more information. it will work on Intel. you will be le with a file called ubuntu.” and obtain your copy of the  image this way instead. you may wish to try the -bit version instead. However. To do this. cli on “Alternative download options” and make your selection. Some options for doing this are outlined below. Downloading Ubuntu e easiest and most common method for geing Ubuntu is to download the Ubuntu  image directly from http://www. To find out how to burn a  image on your computer. . You may see significant improvements to your download speed. If you already have Ubuntu installed on your computer. Burning the  image Once your download is complete. (-bit)” underneath the default download buon on the website. you will need to obtain a copy of the Ubuntu installation . the filename would contain amd instead). Select the nearest download location to you in the drop-down box (to ensure maximum download speed). if you know that your computer is capable of using -bit soware. is file is a  image—a bit like a snapshot of the contents of a —whi you will need to burn to a . and most recent computers will come with a -bit capable processor.-desktop-i.ubuntu. don’t worry.com.

e Live  experience will therefore feel slightly slower than it does when Ubuntu is actually installed on your computer.. For example. it means that the priority given to devices when your computer is starting needs to be changed. However. a  that will temporarily take precedence over your usual operating system. As your computer starts. your computer might be set to look for information from your hard drive first.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto. We It is possible to purchase Ubuntu on  from some computer stores or online shops. Using your mouse. running straight from the Live . In order to run Ubuntu from the Live . we want it to look for information from a  first. rather than the information stored on your hard drive whi your computer usually looks for. it will run whatever information is stored on this bootable . and then to look for information on a  second. and will start your existing operating system instead. Once you have Ubuntu installed and running. . Simply visit http://shipit. Generally. whi would usually be available for programs to access when Ubuntu is running from your hard drive. and get a general feel for the operating system. Once your computer finds the Live . Have a look around your local area or on the Internet to see if someone is selling it near you. It’s also useful for eing that your computer hardware works properly in Ubuntu and that there are no major compatibility issues. You will be required to create a free online account with Launchpad before you can place your  order. If you would rather start using Ubuntu sooner. depending on your location and the current demand. see your computer manufacturer’s documentation for more information. If you need assistance to change the boot priority. You can also find detailed instructions at https://help. Changing your boot priority is beyond the scope of this guide. insert the Ubuntu  into your  drive and restart your computer. have limited bandwidth. support documentation. and then burn it to a disc instead. In some cases. is option may be preferred if you don’t have access to a  burner. you will see the default desktop.com to request your free Ubuntu Desktop Edition . e  usually takes two to six weeks to arrive. you will be presented with the “Welcome” screen.     . you will need this account again for use with all Ubuntu One services. ere are no shipping costs or other arges when you order an Ubuntu . See Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information on Ubuntu One. a free  can be ordered from Canonical. running Ubuntu from the  is a great way to test things out and allows you to try the default applications. then cli the buon labeled Try Ubuntu . Running Ubuntu from the Live  also occupies a large portion of your computer’s memory. you may prefer to follow the instructions above for downloading the  image. Ordering a free  Alternatively. Your computer reads information from a  at a mu slower speed than it can read information off of a hard drive. A Live  allows you to test Ubuntu without making any permanent anges to your computer by running the entire operating system straight from the . but also as a Live . Ubuntu will then start up. ubuntu. Most computers are able to detect when a bootable  is present in your drive at startup—that is. select your language from the list on the le. browse the Internet. To try out Ubuntu using the Live . it’s not illegal for people to sell it. Even though Ubuntu is free soware. or have a slow Internet connection. your computer will not recognize that the Ubuntu  is present as it starts up. Once Ubuntu is up and running. and aer a qui loading screen. The Live  e Ubuntu  functions not only as an installation  for puing Ubuntu onto your computer.

will talk more about how to actually use Ubuntu in Chapter : e Ubuntu Desktop. If you are unsure whether it will work on your computer. and then your computer will restart. ange seings and generally explore—any anges you make will not be saved once you exit. The majority of computers in use today will meet the requirements listed here. Follow the prompts that appear on screen. refer to your computer’s documentation or speak to the manufacturer if you would like more information. feel free to test things out. however. .  Figure . your computer will return to its original state as though nothing ever happened! Minimum system requirements Ubuntu runs well on most computer systems. As long as the Live  is no longer in the drive. When you are finished exploring.: The “Welcome” screen allows you to choose your language. the Live  is a great way to test things out first. including removing the Live  and pressing Enter when instructed. restart your computer by cliing the “Power” buon in the top right corner of your screen (circle with a line through the top) and then select Restart. Open some programs. so you don’t need to worry about accidentally breaking anything. but for now.

Geing started To get started. However. You can also oose your own keyboard layout from the list. we have included step-by-step instructions below. is allows Ubuntu to set up your system clo and other location-based features. you can also use your mouse to double-click the “Install Ubuntu . ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣  MHz x processor   of system memory ()   of disk space Graphics card capable of × resolution Sound card A network or Internet connection Installing Ubuntu e process of installing Ubuntu is designed to be qui and easy. you will find the suggested option is satisfactory. below is a list of hardware specifications that your computer should meet as a minimum requirement. Alternatively. Clicking on the blue underlined release notes will open a web page containing any important information regarding the current version of Ubuntu. Alternatively. type something into the box at the boom to make sure you are happy with your selection. There are two other options presented on the “Welcome” screen: release notes and update this installer. you need to tell Ubuntu what keyboard you are using. however.     . This will start the Ubuntu installer. then cli Forward to continue. When the welcome screen is displayed select your language and cli the Install Ubuntu .. If you like. Next. as well as store your own documents. select your language on the le-hand side. To help you get started.   or more of free space is recommended. . cli your location on the map to tell Ubuntu where you are. e next screen will display a world map. Cli Forward when you are ready to move on. you should now be familiar with the initial “Welcome” screen that appears (refer to e Live  section above for more information). you can use the drop-down lists underneath. Usually. we do realize that some people may find the idea a lile daunting. Clicking update this installer will search the Internet for any updates to the Ubuntu Live  that may have been released since your  was created. is will ensure that you will have plenty of room to install extra programs later on.” icon that is visible on the desktop when using the Live . you can cli the Guess buon to have Ubuntu work out the correct oice by asking you to press a series of keys. Again. and photos. If you have already tested out the Ubuntu Live . place the Ubuntu  in your  drive and restart your computer booting into Ubuntu.. For the more tenically minded. At least   of free space on your hard drive is required in order to install Ubuntu. then cli the buon labeled Install Ubuntu . along with screenshots so you can see how things will look along the way. music. Using your mouse. If you are unsure.

it does not have to be. The laer is called dual-booting. Whenever you turn on or restart your computer. or installing Ubuntu alongside your existing system. or Mac  . su as Windows . In fact. you will be given the option to select which operating system you want to use for that session. and install Ubuntu in its place. you are essentially dividing up your hard drive into sections that will be used for different types of information. Ubuntu provides you with the option of either replacing your existing operating system altogether.: Tell Ubuntu your location. . When you create a partition. such as Windows . Windows Vista. is option is also useful if you have an empty hard drive. Erase and use the entire disk Use this option if you want to erase your entire disk. however. Partitioning can sometimes seem complex to a new user. Windows . Ubuntu provides you with some options that greatly simplify this process.  Figure . Partitioning is the process of allocating portions of your hard drive for a specific purpose. Many people installing Ubuntu for the first time currently use another operating system on their computer. Prepare disk space is next step is oen referred to as partitioning. as Ubuntu will automatically create the necessary partitions for you. is will delete any existing operating systems that are installed on that disk.

your personal files and configuration data won’t be lost. is can be very useful in case you decide to reinstall Ubuntu. oose the Install them side by side. It can also be used to create a separate /home partition. Figure . Guided partitioning If you already have another operating system installed on your hard drive. Because this is quite an advanced task. whilst keeping all your personal files and program seings intact in a separate partition.: Check your keyboard layout is correct.     . or format the hard drive with a filesystem different to the default one. Ubuntu will automatically detect the other operating system and install Ubuntu alongside it. we have omied the details from Ubuntu installs a home folder where your personal files and configuration data are located by default. oosing between them ea startup option. If you choose to have your home folder on a separate partition. and want to install Ubuntu alongside it. . For more complicated dual-booting setups. as it allows you to format and reinstall the operating system. you will need to configure the partitions manually. then in the event that you decide to reinstall Ubuntu or perform a fresh upgrade to the latest release. Specifying partitions manually is option is for more advanced users and is used to create special partitions.

your desired password.  Figure . your desired username. On this screen you will need to tell Ubuntu: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ your real name.com/ community/HowtoPartition. this edition of Geing Started with Ubuntu. whi will be discussed further in Chapter : e Ubuntu Desktop. You can see more information and detailed instructions on partitioning here: https://help.ubuntu. Once you are happy with the way the partitions are going to be set up. . what you want to call your computer. Enter your details Ubuntu needs to know some information about you so it can set up the primary login account on your computer. Your name will appear on the login screen as well as the MeMenu.: Choose where you would like to install Ubuntu. cli the Forward buon at the boom to move on.

You will receive a warning if non-acceptable symbols or other characters are entered. avoid obvious passwords like your birth date. but for security reasons it is best to oose a strong one.” or “strong. Although you can choose your preferred username and computer name. then type the same again into the right field to verify. and is a mixture of leers. Type in your full name under “What is your name?”.     . numbers. and dots.: Setup your user account.” “fair. ‣ how you want Ubuntu to log you in. However. Most people find it easiest to sti with this. hyphens. You will see this is automatically filled in for you with your first name. it can be anged if you prefer. and until this is altered you will be unable to progress to the next screen. When both passwords mat. spouse’s name.” “weak. For extra security. you are required to stick with Latin leers. symbols. or the name of your pet. numbers. Figure . and uppercase/lowercase. oose a password and enter it into the first password field on the le. and is the name that will be displayed at the Ubuntu login screen when you turn on your computer. Next.” You will be able to continue the installation process regardless of your password strength. a strength rating will appear on the right that will tell you whether your password is “too short. is is best aieved by having a password that is at least six aracters long. e next text field is where you select a username for yourself. .

”). this will be filled in for you automatically using the login name you entered above (it will say something like “john-desktop” or “john-laptop. Once the installation process has been completed. refer to Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. but if privacy or security are important to you. be careful not to enable automatic login at a later date. share their computer with other family members. Again. and personal storage space. an additional login account can be created for ea family member. Your home folder is where your personal files are stored. including any anges that will be made to the partitions on your hard drive. it can be anged if you prefer. Require my password to login and decrypt my home folder is option provides you with an extra layer of security. Log in automatically Ubuntu will log in to your primary account automatically when you start up the computer so you won’t have to enter your username and password. If you oose this option. Your computer name will mainly be used for identifying your computer if you are on a home or office network with multiple computers. It will cause complications with your encrypted home folder. Internet bookmarks. as it will prevent unauthorized people from accessing your computer without knowing the password you created earlier. at the boom of this screen you have three options to oose from regarding how you want to log in to Ubuntu. they would still not be able to see your files without knowing your password. Require my password to login is option is selected by default. Ea person will then have their own login name and password. Anyone who can physically access your computer will be able to turn it on and also access your files. account preferences.  Now you need to decide on your computer’s name. and will potentially lo you out of important files. if your computer was stolen and the hard drive removed). this option is not recommended. is makes your login experience quier and more convenient. Confirm your seings and begin installation e last screen summarizes your install seings. However. By selecting this option. meaning that files and folders must be decrypted using your password before they can be accessed. erefore if someone had physical access to your hard drive (for example. Finally. To learn more about seing up a network. Note the warning about . for example. Ubuntu will automatically enable encryption on your home folder. is is a good option for those who.

Ubuntu will now install. cli on Install to begin the installation process. the installation will complete and you will be able to cli Restart Now to restart your computer and start Ubuntu. e  will be ejected. ese applications are covered in more detail in Chapter : Working with Ubuntu.     . a slideshow will give you an introduction to some of the default applications included with Ubuntu. You should not need to click the Advanced buon unless you wish to change your bootloader seings or network proxy. . and you will then see the login window (unless you selected automatic login). then press Enter or cli Figure . now would be a good time to e that you have set up your partitions correctly. These are more advanced tasks and beyond the scope of this guide. As the installation progresses. Once you have made sure that all the seings are correct. Cli your username and enter your password. so remove it from your  drive and press Enter to continue. Wait while your computer restarts.: Check that everything is set up right before Ubuntu is installed. data being destroyed on any removed or formaed partitions—if you have important information on your hard drive that is not baed up. Aer approximately twenty minutes.

: You are now ready to restart your computer. Log in.: The first slide in the installation slideshow. You will then be logged in to Ubuntu and will be presented with your new desktop! . Figure .  Figure .

 Figure . .: The Ubuntu login window.     .

but for now let’s just explore the default layout that is in front of you. A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen and contains various applets. Ubuntu is highly customizable. you will see three menu headings—Applications. First. It provides a wealth of information about your Ubuntu system. The Ubuntu Desktop Ubuntu . you will notice many similarities between Ubuntu and other operating systems su as Windows or Mac  . The top panel Starting from the le. although there are many more. as is the  desktop. Desktop environments encompass many things. viewing the time. and System—followed by two program icons. Since Ubuntu uses . and  are other popular desktop environments (used in Kubuntu. and Lubuntu. Understanding the desktop At first glance. and perform most other tasks. move files. things are visually oriented. . you will notice there are two panels—one at the top of your desktop and one at the boom. su as: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ the look and feel of your system how the desktop is organized the way the desktop is laid out how the desktop is navigated by the user In Linux distributions (su as Ubuntu). or accessing the main menu. e first of these icons will open the Firefox web browser (see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information). Everything on a panel is an applet. ese applets provide useful functions su as running programs. One of the most popular desktop environments is called . even the main menu. Places. is is because they are all based on the concept of a graphical user interface ()—that is. whi is similar in function to the “system tray” in Windows. we will limit this guide to exploring your  desktop. . you use your mouse to navigate the desktop. respectively). has an emphasis on “social from the start” and features social network integration in the desktop for sites like Twier and Facebook. When you first log in to Ubuntu aer installing it. refer to Chapter : Learning more. whi the default in Ubuntu. or the “menu extras” The Ubuntu Help Center is a highly useful resource. you will see the  desktop. open programs. . In short. and is always at your fingertips by simply clicking this panel icon (or navigating to System ‣ Help and Support). and the next will open the Ubuntu Help Center. there are a number of desktop environments available for use. On the right side of this panel you will find the notification area. GNOME All -based operating systems use a desktop environment. Xubuntu. whi means that it’s important for you to become familiar with where and what to cli in Ubuntu. To read more about other variants of Ubuntu.

logging out. Some programs will also place an icon in the notification area when you open them.     . To add a new applet to a panel. to adjust the New notifications of emails and instant messages appear in the messaging menu applet. To remove an applet. volume adjustment. . In some cases right-cliing an icon will also perform another action related to that application. area on the Mac   menubar. right-click on it and select Remove From Panel. The notification area Inside the notification area you will find the network indicator. the envelope icon will turn green. right-click in a clear area on the panel and select Add to Panel. whi provides menu options for loing your computer. restarting. on the far right of the panel is the session menu.: The Ubuntu . messaging. and the date and time applets. or shuing down completely. For example. Le-cliing icons in the notification area will bring up a list of options associated with the application. default desktop. Figure . whi will display your username (the name you entered during installation) and is used to update social network sites like Twier and Facebook as well as set your Instant Messaging status in Empathy. Bluetooth indicator (if your computer has Bluetooth capability). Next to this is the MeMenu. Finally. When you have a new message.

” or workspaces. On the right side of the panel you will see some small boxes in a row. theme known as Ambiance. and then cli a specific date to add a reminder to your calendar through Evolution (see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information on Evolution). simply le-cli once on the volume icon and a volume slider will appear. in order to organize your activities you may have your email open in one workspace and a text document you are working on in another. You can empty it by cliing on the Empty Trash buon in the window that appears. Ubuntu . Ctrl+Alt+D The  desktop environment used in Ubuntu can provide two or more “virtual desktops. is set up with four workspaces. ese appear as horizontal buons whi can be clied to minimize or restore the corresponding windows (see Managing windows below for more information). Make sure your time zone is selected. When the calendar is expanded there is a buon labeled Locations. The boom panel Ubuntu uses most of the boom panel to display a list of all programs or windows that are currently open. you can enter your latitude and longitude manually If you don’t know this information try searing online for it. To see the contents of the trash. Cli the date and time applet to open a small calendar. If you live in a major city it may be on the list already. By default. Here you can further set up your location preferences by cliing Edit. cli on this icon. Feel free to explore the other options available under the General and Weather tabs if you like. is will permanently delete any files or folders that it contains.    volume. cli Add. then enter your location in the text field. To . In the window that appears. is is oen useful when you have many windows open at once and your desktop becomes cluered. Using these workspaces can reduce cluer by opening windows on separate desktops. To switch workspaces. if not. Any files you delete are first sent to the trash. whi performs a similar function to the Recycle Bin in Windows or the Trash in Mac  . is Show Desktop buon will minimize all open windows at once. Cliing the buon again will restore the windows to their original position. Finally. then cli Close at the boom when you are done. the icon farthest to the right is the trash. For example. giving you clear access to your desktop. is is the desktop baground or wallpaper and the one you see in front of you belongs to the default Ubuntu . The desktop background In between the top and boom panels is an image that covers the entire desktop. whi will open a small world map when clied. If weather information is available for your home city. this is the Workspace Switer. or alternatively by right-cliing the trash icon in the boom panel and selecting Empty Trash from the menu. without needing a separate monitor. To show the desktop you can press On the far le of the boom panel is a small icon that resembles a desktop. then cli OK to return to the preferences screen. you will now see the current temperature displayed alongside the date and time in the notification area. simply click on the boxes in the workspace switcher or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+Left arrow or Ctrl+Alt+Right arrow to switch workspaces quickly.

Additionally. the resize icon. To resize a window. Cliing this buon will restore the window to its original position.: The close. and minimizing windows To close a window. Cliing this buon again will return the window to its original size. and maximize buons are on the top-le corner of windows. learn more about customizing your desktop including anging your baground.     . making it fill the entire screen. You can also move a window by holding the Alt key and dragging the window Switching between open windows ere are at least three ways in Ubuntu to swit between open windows in a workspace. You can then cli and drag to resize the window. In Ubuntu. you can right-cli anywhere on the titlebar for a list of other window management options. From le to right. restoring. you are probably familiar with the concept of a “window”—the box that appears on your screen when you start a program. then cli and drag the window while continuing to hold down the le mouse buon. minimize. Finally. If you have used another operating system before. Once minimized the window will no longer be visible. place the pointer on an edge or corner of the window so that it turns into a larger arrow. but its corresponding buon in the boom panel will remain. su as Microso Windows or Mac  . indicating the program is still running in the baground. Immediately to the right of this is a downward-pointing arrow that is used to minimize the window to the boom panel of your desktop. and maximize the window. Closing. the right-most buon of this group will maximize the window. the top part of a window (the titlebar) will have the title of the window in the center. minimize. see the section on Customizing your desktop below. cli on the “×” in the upper le corner of the window —this will be the first buon on the le-hand side. Figure . these buons close. Moving and resizing windows To move a window around the workspace. maximizing. Managing windows When you open a program in Ubuntu (su as a web browser or a text editor—see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information on using programs)—a window will appear on your desktop. place the mouse pointer over the window’s titlebar. and three buons in the top le corner. You can find the window on the boom panel taskbar and cli .

    to bring it up on the screen. If the window is visible on your screen. gedit Text Editor (similar to Windows’ Notepad and Mac  ’s TextEdit).org suite to help you create formal documents. Using the Applications menu ere are three menu headers in the top panel. or just don’t want to be displayed on the menu. or you can use Alt+Tab to select the window you wish to work on. Instant messaging () is a means of textbased communication where you can hold a conversation with someone over the Internet. you’ll find the F-Spot photo manager where you can view.org and to get help with using the OpenOffice. and Take Screenshot. Office e Office sub-menu is where you will find most of the OpenOffice.org suite. there’s gBrainy and Sudoku. If you enjoy card games. Find the programs in the right panel that you want to hide from the menu. You may find that there are programs in the Applications menu that you don’t use frequently. presentation. . Another way to take a screenshot is to press PrtSc. starting with the Applications menu. Other programs in Accessories include the / Creator. and deselect them in the “Show” column. To hide those applications (without deleting the actual programs). Hold down the Alt key. Perhaps you’re looking for more of a allenge: in that case. Games Ubuntu has several games built in for your entertainment. Mines (similar to Windows’ Minesweeper game) and adrapassel (similar to Tetris). visit http://openoffice. Sear for Files (we’ll discuss that later). Let’s take a look at these in more detail. click on System ‣ Preferences ‣ Main Menu.org Drawing allows you to create images using the OpenOffice. Also To learn more about OpenOffice. Graphics Under the Graphics sub-menu. and keep pressing the Tab buon until the window you’re looking for appears in the popup. See Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information about the included applications. including Calculator and Tomboy Notes.org. and Simple Scan is a program for scanning images and documents from your scanner.org suite of applications. edit and share pictures you’ve downloaded from your camera. instantly. OpenOffice. or spreadsheets. e Games menu also includes Mahjongg. you can cli any portion of it to raises it above all other windows. Internet e Internet sub-menu is where you will find the Firefox web browser and the Empathy Instant Messenger client to allow you to talk to your friends and family. whi allows you to take a picture of your desktop screen. Accessories e Accessories sub-menu has many programs that are suited for productivity. e out AisleRiot Solitaire.

org Presentation OpenOffice. find out more about your  desktop environment (About GNOME). e full OpenOffice. su as: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Brasero disc burner Totem movie player Pitivi video editor Rhythmbox music player Sound Recorder More information on all of these programs can be found in Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. e Ubuntu Soware Center keeps tra of programs that are installed on your computer. See Chapter : Hardware for more information on seing up Ubuntu. designate keyboard shortcuts. If you know the name of the program you’re looking for. and find out more about Ubuntu in general (About Ubuntu). Preferences You can use the Preferences sub-menu to modify the appearance of the desktop and windows. as well as the way it functions. is application gives you access to a library of soware that you can download. assign a default printer. for easy searing. If you’re simply curious as to what is available. Preferences and Administration. When you open the Ubuntu Soware Center. under Office is the Evolution email client and an online dictionary. you can explore the soware available using the categories listed on the le side of the window. Ubuntu Soware Center At the very boom of the Applications menu is the Ubuntu Soware Center.org Word Processor OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet OpenOffice. Learn more about the Ubuntu Soware Center in Chapter : Soware Management. contains two important submenus. allow you to make modifications to Ubuntu’s appearance. located on the top panel. you can also open the Ubuntu Help Center (Help and Support).org Drawing (located under the Graphics sub-menu) Sound and video e Sound and Video sub-menu has programs for working with multimedia.     . ese sub-menus.org suite installed in Ubuntu by default consists of: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ OpenOffice. rough the System menu. Using the System menu e System menu. just type the name into the sear box in the top right. the main screen is similar to your Applications menu. .

Templates. You can also browse the disks on your computer by cliing Computer in this menu. and ange mouse seings. among other options. When you installed Ubuntu. you will see that there are several folders inside: Desktop (whi contains any files that are visible on the desktop). If you want to edit them move them to you home folder. You will also see a link named Examples. Public. and enter your password. You will note be able to edit them. edit network connections. is is a more tenical alternative to Ubuntu Soware Center and should be used by power users. spreadsheets. manage all installed printers. at same name is assigned to your home folder. If you set up a home network. When you open your personal folder. Music. and multimedia files. Downloads. This is a security feature to make sure that only authorized people are allowed to change system seings. You can use the Sear for Files tool in the Applications ‣ Accessories. Ubuntu uses the Nautilus file browser by default. Downloads. See the section below about the Nautilus file browser for more details. You can also use the Places menu on the top panel. you will find a menu item to access shared files/folders. Documents. Most of the applications in the System ‣ Administration menu will prompt you to enter your user password when you launch them. To learn more about security in Ubuntu. is sub-menu also has the Synaptic Paage Manager for locating and downloading soware paages. ange disk partitions. Browsing files on your computer ere are two ways to locate files on your computer.    ange the entries listed in the Applications menu. Nautilus file browser Just as Windows has Windows Explorer and Mac   has Finder to browse files and folders. You should open the example content to see how different types of files are displayed in Ubuntu. Places e Places menu holds a list of commonly used folders (su as Documents. as well as browse a list of recently opened documents. and manage how your computer receives updates from Ubuntu. activate third-party drivers. Press this buon. Administration e Administration sub-menu contains programs you can use to monitor computer performance. . You can also access the Sear for Files tool from the Places menu. We will now look at the features offered in Nautilus. Aer entering your password you gain increased privileges. Pictures. Music. you entered a name to set up your user account. and Videos. Your home folder e home folder is where ea user’s personal files are located. and the Home Folder). see Chapter : Security. Double-cli on that link to open a folder containing example documents. Some applications will require you to click a buon to unlock it.

It is also possible to convert the navigation buons into a text field by pressing Ctrl+L. ‣ Additional Navigation Tools: Just below the toolbar. No maer what folder you open. e standard browser window contains the following features: ‣ Menubar: e menubar is located at the top of the window. e sear icon (whi looks like a magnifying glass) opens a field so you can sear for a file by name. it appears in the le pane. or alternatively by pressing Ctrl+H. it keeps tra of where you are and allows you to batra if necessary. Nautilus will automatically change the navigation buons into a text field labeled Location. Creating new folders To create a new folder from within Nautilus cli File ‣ Create Folder. A drop-down list gives you the option of switing the view from Icon View to List View or Compact View. is is similar to the history function of most browsers. Hiding files with a dot (. it will appear in the Places menu. use the bookmarks in the le pane of the Nautilus file browser. you can either double-cli on its icon or right-cli and select Open With (program). Navigating between directories To navigate between directories. ese menus allow you to modify the layout of the browser. ‣ Toolbar: e toolbar has tools for navigation and a tool to make the contents of the window larger or smaller. then name the folder that appears by replacing the default “untitled folder” with your desired label (e. ‣ Le Pane: e le pane of the file browser has shortcuts to commonlyused folders.     . the le pane will always contain the same folders. navigate. and view hidden folders and files. You can cli on the locations to navigate ba through the file browser. is le pane can be anged to display different features by cliing the down arrow beside “Places” near the top. You can also create a new folder by pressing Ctrl+Shift+N. When you bookmark a folder.) is not a security measure —instead it provides a way of keeping your folders organized and tidy. ‣ Central Pane: e largest pane shows the files and folders in the directory that you are currently browsing.g. You can also retrace your steps by cliing on the name of a folder where it is listed just below the navigational icons. . you will see a representation of where you are currently browsing. If you bookmark a folder. If you start typing a location starting with a / character. or by right-cliing in the file browser window and selecting Create Folder from the popup menu (this action will also work Note that you can easily view hidden files by clicking View ‣ Show Hidden Files. the Nautilus file browser window opens up. “Personal Finances”). Opening files To open a file. The Nautilus file browser window When you open a folder on the desktop or from the Places menu. Double-cliing on a visible directory will cause you to navigate to it in Nautilus. bookmark commonly used folders and files..

is “cli-drag” move is useful when you are selecting items that are grouped closely together. make sure you’ve selected the file or folder you want to copy first (by le-cliing on it once). or by rightcliing on the item and selecting Copy from the popup menu..e. on the desktop). Multiple files can be selected by le-cliing in an empty space (i. To select multiple files You can also use the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+X.e. When using the Edit menu in Nautilus. In some cases it impossible to hide files and folders. and dragging the cursor across the files or folders you want. Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V to cut. holding the mouse buon down. If you wish to hide certain folders or files.: Nautilus file manager displaying your home folder. Make sure that ea file or folder is on a separate line. In Nautilus these folders can be hidden by creating a . not on a file or folder). When you open Nautilus the folder will no longer be visible. Copying and moving files and folders You can copy files or folders in Nautilus by cliing Edit ‣ Copy. copy and paste (respectively) files and folders.hidden file. Open the file and type in the name of the file(s) or folder(s) you wish to hide.. without prefixing them with a dot. . “.    Figure .Personal Finances”).) in front of the name (i. place a dot (.

The default action will depend on the locations you are using. as well as the use of panes. cli View ‣ Extra Pane. When dragging items between Nautilus windows. and it will work for multiple files or folders at once. Search for files quickly by pressing Ctrl+F in Nautilus and then typing what you want to find. a copy will be placed in a new location. whereas a small arrow means the item will be moved. hold down the Ctrl key while cliing on ea item individually. Paste will only affect the most recent item that was cut or copied. cli File ‣ New Tab or press Ctrl+T. allowing you to drag files and folders between two locations. you can also perform this action using the right-cli menu. you will also find the Copy To and Move To buons. we mentioned that you can sear for files on the computer by using the Sear for Files feature on the Places menu in the top panel. To open a new tab. Customizing your desktop Now that you’ve been introduced to the  desktop environment. and the original will be removed from its current location. or press F3 on your keyboard. is will open a new window. You can cli these tabs to swit between them. and cli and drag files or folders between tabs the same as you would between windows. let’s take a look at customizing some of its features. A new row will appear above the space used for browsing your files containing two tabs—both will display the directory you were originally browsing. Searching for files on your computer Earlier.When one or more items have been “copied. or folders that are not positioned next to ea other. nothing will happen until you “paste” it somewhere. and then drag it to the new location. You can also open a second pane in Nautilus so you can see two locations at once without having to swit between tabs or windows. As with the copy command above. Note that it is unnecessary to use Paste when using these options. A plus sign (+) indicates you are about to copy the item. tabs or panes. While the copy command can be used to make a duplicate of a file or folder in a new location. Once multiple files and/or folders are selected you can use the Edit menu to perform actions just like you would for a single item. . e option of tabs is also available in Nautilus. Again.     . a small symbol will appear over the mouse cursor to let you know which action will be performed when you release the mouse buon. When browsing a folder in Nautilus. When you “cut” or “copy” a file or folder. Using multiple tabs and multiple Nautilus windows Opening multiple Nautilus windows can be useful for dragging files and folders between locations. To move a file or folder. su as modifying the behavior of your panels. These can be used to copy or move items to common locations.” navigate to the desired location then cli Edit ‣ Paste (or right-cli in an empty area of the window and oose Paste) to copy them to the new location. then cli Edit ‣ Paste. Navigate to your desired location. select the item you want to move then cli Edit ‣ Cut. at is. An alternative way to move a file or folder is to cli on the item. To open a second pane. to open a second window select File ‣ New Window or press Ctrl+N. You can also use the Nautilus browser to sear for files. or anging the look and feel of your desktop. the cut command can be used to move files and folders around. as explained above. and can be useful if you are using panes (see below). dragging files and folders between panes is a qui way to move or copy items. In the Nautilus Edit menu.

and can ange color. Adding applets Ubuntu provides a selection of applets that can be added to any panel. By default. If you prefer. and remain hidden until you move your mouse cursor ba to that screen edge. however. right-cli on a panel then select Add to Panel… from the popup menu. you can cli the Baground image buon if you have an image or paern stored on your computer that you would like to use as your panel baground. whi can then be dragged to an empty space on a panel. Tiing the Autohide buon will cause your panel to “fold” up into the edge of the screen when you are not using it. Avant Window Navigator (). . leaving just the opposite hide buon in sight whi you can cli to bring it ba. and underneath this you can set the desired width (in pixels). a panel covers the entire length of the desktop. e Baground tab in the “Panel Properties” window allows you to ange the appearance of the panel. meaning that your desktop theme will dictate the appearance of the panel (we will look at how to ange your desktop theme below). then cli Open to apply the ange. Applets range from the informative to the fun. set to hide from view when not in use. To access these features. Cliing on Show hide buttons will add a buon to ea side of the panel that can be used to hide it from view. you can deselect the Expand option. and ange the panel size (width). Use the file selector to locate the baground image in your computer. Cliing one of these hide buons on the panel will slide it across the screen and out of view. Use the Orientation drop-down box to select where you want the panel to be located. right-cli the panel you want to modify and select Properties from the popup menu. To add an applet. These are all available in the Ubuntu Soware Center. By default. You may want to spend some time exploring the different ones available—they can easily be removed from your panel by right-cliing on the applet and selecting Remove From Panel. you can select the Arrows on hide buttons option to remove the arrows and just have plain buons. Right-click on them and deselect the “Lock to Panel” check box. By default these buons will display directional arrows. which is discussed further in Chapter : Soware Management. or Cairo-Dock. If you prefer a Microso Windows feel. you can oose your own panel color by selecting the Solid color buon. this is set to None (use system theme). a panel at the boom of the desktop can be set to start programs as well as select between open windows. Ubuntu requires that you maintain at least one panel on the desktop. and can also provide qui access to some tasks. You can also set the panel transparency using the slider. A window will appear with a list of available applets.    Panels e panels (currently siing at the top and boom of your screen) can be moved from their default positions to the sides of the screen. Some applets will be locked and can’t be moved. Alternatively. An alternative way of hiding the panel is to do so manually. To ange that. if you prefer a Mac   look you can keep a panel at the top and add an applications dock such as Docky. then opening the color select window. Alternatively. e General tab has options to autohide. e panel will then shrink so that it is just long enough to accommodate any applets or program launers that are currently siing in it. By default. position the panel.

Move your mouse cursor to the desired location (this can even be a different panel) and the applet will follow.     . icons. To add a new one. open the Appearance Preferences by navigating to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Appearances in the top panel. locate the file on your computer (using Nautilus) and drag it across to the emes window. You can also rename ea workspace. in the le of the top panel. you can still ange between workspaces by moving the mouse over the workspace switer and scrolling the mouse wheel. is will add it to your list of available themes. and other parts of the desktop. but there are seven other themes you can oose from. Here you can navigate through your applications and drag them to your panel to create a new launer. where you can download new themes from a large selection. then le-cli to drop it into place. In the window that appears you can oose how many workspaces you want in total. To reposition an existing applet. you can also oose to just have the workspace you are currently using displayed in the panel. In this case. You can download additional themes by cliing the “Get More emes Online” link at the boom of this window. Once you have downloaded a theme. fonts. Appearance You can ange the baground. e “Add to Panel…” window can also be used to add additional application launers to your panel. Just cli once on the theme you want to try. Theme e “Appearance Preferences” window will initially display the eme tab when it opens.gnome. similar to the Firefox launer that sits to the right of the System menu. Your web browser will open and take you to http://art. Program launers can also be removed and repositioned through their right-cli menu. You can also add program launchers to a panel by dragging them directly from the Applications menu. To begin. buons. and the anges will take effect immediately. just to the le of the Trash applet) and select Preferences. and have the names displayed in the panel applet. Here you can select a theme that will control the appearance of your windows. and whether these will be displayed on the panel in one or more rows. and a window will appear asking whether you want to apply the anges immediately. e “Ambiance” theme is used by default. Workspaces To modify your workspaces. right-cli on the workspace switer applet (by default this is on the right side of the boom panel. If you prefer.org/themes/. double-cli on Application Launer… near the top of the window. just as you did to add an applet previously. scroll bars. You can also customize any theme to your liking by selecting it then cli- . panels. and window theme to further modify the look and feel of your desktop. right-cli on it and select Move.

You’re not limited to this selection though. You can also change the background by right-clicking on the desktop and selecting Change Desktop Background from the pop-up menu. To ange the baground simply cli the picture you would like to use. and the ange will take effect immediately. Here you can mix elements of different themes su as icons. Desktop background Cli the Baground tab in the Appearance Preferences window to ange the desktop baground. and navigate to the image you want. cli the Add… buon. Doublecli it.    ing the Customize… buon underneath. Figure .gnome. cli the “Get More Bagrounds Online” link at the boom of the Appearance Preferences window.org/backgrounds website. mouse pointers. and window borders to create your own unique look. is image will also then be added to your list of available bagrounds. . and direct you to the http:// art. If you are aer a larger selection of desktop bagrounds.: You can change the theme in the Theme tab of “Appearance Preferences”. Here you will see Ubuntu’s default selection of bagrounds. is link will open your web browser. buons. To use one of your own pictures.

You can adjust keyboard and mouse seings to suit your needs through the “Assistive Tenologies Preferences” window by cliing on the Keyboard Accessibility or Mouse Accessibility buons. press Alt+F2 and type orca into the command text field. e slider can be adjusted to set the duration of inactivity before the screensaver appears. Screensaver Ubuntu offers a selection of screensavers. documents. Fonts You can also ange the fonts used throughout your desktop through the Appearance Preferences window by cliing on the Fonts tab. e le and right arrow buons at the top allow you to scroll through the different screensavers without leaving the full screen preview. and comes preinstalled on Ubuntu. Make sure that the Activate screensaver when computer is idle option is selected if you want to enable the screensaver. You can individually set the font style and size for applications. In this case. By default. you will see a mini-preview in the window. Other assistive technologies Orca is another useful tool for persons with visual impairments. You can find these tools by opening the System menu.     . then selecting Preferences ‣ Assistive Tenologies. Once it does. then Preferences ‣ Screensaver. Orca’s voice synthesizer will activate and assist you through the various options su as voice type. Ubuntu will ask you for your login password when you return to the computer. and for anything using fixed width fonts. you can also select the Lo screen when screensaver is active option. is will open the “Screensaver Preferences” window. Accessibility Ubuntu has built-in tools that make using the computer easier for people with certain physical limitations. Changing these may improve the appearance of text on different types of monitors. cli on the System menu in the top panel. To return to the Screensaver Preferences window. To run Orca. For added security. desktop items. window titles. e Rendering section at the boom of the Fonts tab gives you four options for anging the way that fonts are drawn on your screen. en press Enter or cli Run. with the available screensavers listed on the le. . When you select a screensaver. a blank screen will be displayed aer a short period of inactivity. To select a different screensaver. cli the Leave Fullscreen buon at the top of the screen. you can resume working on your computer by pressing any key or by moving your mouse. or you can see how it will look on your full screen by cliing the Preview buon.

Once you have finished selecting your seings. When you log ba in. selecting high-contrast themes and larger on-screen fonts can further assist those with vision difficulties. restart. you will need to log out of the computer (Orca will offer to do this for you). Suspend To save energy. In addition to these options. you can put your computer into suspend mode. Logging out Logging out will leave the computer running but return you to the login screen. su as when a different person wishes to log in to their account. so it is very qui to suspend and resume from suspension. You can also quily access these options by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+Del keys. . suspend.    Figure . Managing your computer When you have finished working on your computer.” You should save your work before logging out. you can oose to log out.: Assistive Technologies allows you to enable extra features to make it easier to use your computer. and screen magnification. is is useful for switing users. or shut down through the session menu on the far right side of the top panel. the Orca seings you ose will automatically run every time you use your computer. whi will save its current condition and allow you to start more quily while remaining on but using very lile energy. voice language. Suspending the computer spins down the hard disk and saves your session to memory. Braille. or if you are ever instructed to “log out and ba in again.

 Hibernate Hibernate is similar to suspend. Other options From the session menu. If you can’t find an answer to your question in this manual or in the Ubuntu Help Center. Locking your screen is recommended if you move away from your computer for a short amount of time.     . You can also use the session menu to set up a guest session for a friend to try Ubuntu. We encourage you to check any information you find on other websites with multiple sources when possible. . You can lock your screen quickly by using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+L. you can also select Lo Screen to require a password before using the computer again—this is useful if you need to leave your computer for some duration. Shut down To totally power down your computer. called the Ubuntu Help Center. cli on the help icon in the top panel. To access it. and in turn provide support to others as they gain more knowledge. just like other operating systems. but with the added benefit that hibernation uses no power while it is in a hibernated state. you can contact the Ubuntu community through the Ubuntu Forums (http://ubuntuforums. is takes a lile longer. You can also access it by cliing Help and Support in the System menu.org). hibernate will save your session to the hard disk. Another useful resource is the Ubuntu Wiki (https://wiki. Figure . except that instead of saving your session to memory. select Shut Down from the session menu. Geing help Ubuntu. select Restart from the session menu. Many programs have their own help which can be accessed by clicking the Help menu within the application window. a website maintained by the Ubuntu community.: Clicking the blue help icon in the top panel (just to the right of the System menu and the Firefox icon) will open Ubuntu’s built-in system help. or to swit users to log into another user account without closing your applications. Many Ubuntu users open an account on the forums to receive help.ubuntu. Rebooting To reboot your computer.com). but only follow directions if you understand them completely. has a built-in help reference.

.    Figure .: The built-in system help provides topic-based help for Ubuntu.

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You can access all the functions of NetworkManager using its icon in the top panel. NetworkManager In order to connect to the Internet in Ubuntu. or otherwise something else related to networking or connections su as “No connection” or “Networking disabled. try hovering your mouse over the icon until a short description appears near the cursor. It also supports some more advanced connection methods. you need to use the NetworkManager utility. is is the most common connection for desktop computers.” Cliing this icon will bring up a list of network connections that are . check with your manufacturer. A dialup connection is when your computer uses a modem to connect to an Internet service provider through your telephone line. is section of the manual will help you e your connection and configure it where necessary. In order to connect wirelessly. also known as Wi-Fi. you must be in a location with a working wireless network. To have your own. wireless. wireless. and helps you manage your wired. If you are unsure. If you are unsure whether your computer has a wireless card.: NetworkManager will display this icon in the top panel when you are connected to a wired network. and whether the connection is wired or wireless. whi we will briefly discuss at the end of this section. Some locations may already have a publicly accessible wireless network available. is icon may look different depending on whether you currently have a working connection. and other connections. you will need to purase and install a wireless router or access point. making it easy to access the Internet from different rooms in the house or when traveling. Laptop computers commonly use Wi-Fi due to portability. Working with Ubuntu Geing online If you are in a location with Internet access. A wired connection refers to when your computer is physically connected to a router or an Ethernet port with a cable. or dialup connection. you will want to make sure you are connected in order to get the most out of your Ubuntu operating system. Figure . NetworkManager allows you to turn all networking on or off. A wireless connection is when your computer is connected to the Internet via a wireless radio network. is will read “Wired network connection ‘Auto eth0’ active” (for example) if you have a working wired connection. Ubuntu can connect to the Internet using a wired.

If so. is will open a menu allowing you to enable or disable networking. You can also right-cli on the NetworkManager icon. In order to connect with a wired connection.: This is the menu when you right-click the networking icon. then you will want to set up a wired network connection in Ubuntu. is may be useful if you need to shut off all wireless communication. If you are currently connected to the Internet.: Here you can see the currently active “auto eth0” connection listed in the NetworkManager menu. is stands for “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Establishing a wired connection If you have an Ethernet cable running from a wall soet. you do not need to follow the rest of this section.” and is a way for computers on your network to automatically receive configuration information from your Internet service provider (). although some s may provide what is called a static address instead. su as when in an airplane. If you are unsure whether your  supports . the name of this connection will be highlighted in bold. is is usually the quiest and easiest way of establishing a connection between your computer and your  in order to access the Internet. you can deselect it to disable all network connections. available to you. you may wish to contact their customer service line to e. the e box next to “Enable Networking” is currently selected. then you may have successfully connected during the installation process. In the image above. Are you already online? If the NetworkManager icon in the top panel shows a connection. or some other device. a router. Figure . you need to know whether your network connection supports . view tenical details about your current connection.     . or edit all connection seings. Figure . ey will also be able to provide you with information on your static address if one has been allocated to you (in many cases s only allocate static addresses to customers upon request). .

More information on using Firefox can be found later in this apter. you may want to open the Firefox web browser to try loading a web page. If “disconnected” appears in gray underneath the wired network section. look below to see if an option labeled “Auto eth0” appears in the list. To e if you are online.    Automatic connections with DHCP If your network supports .. Otherwise this option will be gray and you will not be able to select it through the right-click menu of the NetworkManager applet. If so. To enable networking. you will need to make sure that networking is enabled. you may already be set up for online access. You should see a window showing details about your connection. then your computer was not successfully provided with an address through . If it shows another address. Figure . Manual configuration with static addresses If your network does not support . right-click on the NetworkManager applet and select Enable Networking from the popup menu. . To test out your Internet connection. If your  address is displayed as . ‣ An  address is a unique address used for identifying your computer on the Internet. To access the “Connection Information” window.. then your computer is currently connected and probably already set up correctly for . then you need to know a few items of information before you can get online. To e this. When connecting through  this is likely to ange at An Internet Protocol () address is a numerical label assigned to devices on a computer network. cli on the NetworkManager icon. using a static  address. If you are still not online aer following these steps. it is most likely that your connection was automatically configured correctly. It is the equivalent of phone numbers for your house and allows your computer to be uniquely identified so you can access the Internet and share files with others.: This window displays your  address and other connection information. If “Auto eth0” appears directly underneath. you may need to try seing up your Internet configuration manually. cli on it to aempt to establish a wired connection. ere should be a “Wired Network” heading in the menu that is displayed. right-cli on the NetworkManager icon in the top panel and select the Connection Information option.. or starts with .

. up to a maximum of three.     ... If a connection is listed. However.” or a similar name.com) into  addresses su as . . you will need to consult your network administrator or  customer support to receive them. e additional ones are used in case the first one fails. but is usually something like . To manually configure a wired connection.. for example.” If you do not already have these seings. you first need to provide a name for the connection so you can distinguish it from any others that are added later.. An  address is always given in the form of four numbers separated by decimal points. ‣ e network mask tells your computer how large the network is that it belongs to. .. Figure . right-cli on the NetworkManager icon and select Edit Connections. If no connection is listed. if your  has provided you with a static address then it will not. It helps your computer connect or “talk” with their network. ‣ e gateway is the  address at your ’s end.. oose a name su as “Wired connection . select it and then cli the Edit buon.: In this window you can manually edit a connection. Make sure you are looking at the Wired tab inside the “Network Connections” window that is displayed. times. e list may already have an entry su as “Auto eth0. If you are adding a connection. is step allows your computer to “find” the correct web site when you type in the web address you wish to visit. A minimum of one  server is required. cli the Add buon instead. In the “Connection name” field.. ese servers convert standard web addresses (like http://www. It takes the same form as an  address. ubuntu. whi acts as a “gateway” between your computer and the Internet. ‣  servers are one or more  addresses of “Domain Name System” servers.

Cli on the Add buon next to the empty list of addresses. type in the addresses of your  server. “. Under the connection name. your newlyadded connection should now be listed. you should be able to connect to a wireless network. and entering it is sometimes important when using a cable modem connection or similar.    To set up the connection: . this can be entered in the appropriate text field in the Wired tab of the editing window. If your network has more than one  server. . you should be able to set up a wireless connection in Ubuntu. When you have returned to the Network Connections screen. cli on the NetworkManager icon. the NetworkManager icon should have anged to show an active connection. A signal meter looks To improve speed and reliability of your connection. Ea network will be shown with a name on the le. . directly below the Gateway header. Most laptop and netbook computers have a wireless network card. Wireless If your computer is equipped with a wireless (Wi-Fi) card and you have a wireless network nearby. Cli Apply to save your anges.. . separated by spaces or commas. Cli to the right of the  address. try to move closer to your router or access point. and a signal meter on the right. enter them all. . make sure that the Connect automatically option is selected.” is the most common. and type in your network mask. Connecting to a wireless network for the first time If your computer has a wireless network card. .. If you know the  address of your network card. Cli to the right of the network mask. . Change the Method to “Manual. A  address is a hardware address for your computer’s network card. To test if your connection is properly set up. . In the  servers field below. Under the “Wireless Networks” heading.” . . refer to the instructions above for eing a  connection. If your connection is configured correctly. Ubuntu is usually able to detect any wireless networks that are available within range of your wireless card. To see a list of wireless networks. and type in the address of your gateway. directly below the Netmask header. you should see a list of available wireless networks. Cli Close to return to the desktop. Type in your  address in the field below the Address header. Swit to the v Settings tab. If you are unsure of your network mask.

the stronger the connection will be. the network signal meter does not display a padlo). the network name will usually make it easy to identify. To connect to a wireless network. Ubuntu will display a window called “Wireless Network Authentication Required” once it tries to connect. If the network is secured. If you are in a workplace or a location with a publicly accessible wireless network. you can select the Show password option to see the password as you type. informing you that a connection was established. enter it in the Password field. If it connects successfully the icon will ange to display a signal meter. Aer you cli the Connect buon.: Type in your wireless network passphrase. A small padlo will be displayed next to the signal meter of any wireless networks that are protected. Figure . NetworkManager will aempt to establish a connection then return to the “Wireless Select the Show Password option to make sure you haven’t made a mistake when entering the password. and then cli Connect. select the desired network’s name from the list. the NetworkManager icon in the top panel will animate as it tries to connect to the network. A wireless network may be open to anyone to connect.. or may be protected with network security. Again. If you prefer. If the network is unprotected (i. is means that a password is required in order to connect. If you have entered the correct password. . like a series of bars—the more bars that are filled in. If you know the password. A notification message in the upper right of your screen will also appear. it will be obscured to prevent others from seeing it. a connection will be established and the NetworkManager icon will ange to show signal meter bars. e NetworkManager icon in the top panel will animate as Ubuntu aempts to establish a connection. You will need to know the correct password in order to connect to these. If you entered the wireless network’s password incorrectly. is will be the name that was used when the wireless router or access point was installed.     .e. a connection should be established within a few seconds. Ubuntu will display a pop up message in the upper right of your screen informing you that a connection was established. As you type your password.

You can aempt to enter the correct password again. whi means that they will not show up in the list of wireless networks in the NetworkManager menu. is will allow you to connect to the same network without having to re-enter the password. Ubuntu will open the “Wireless Network Authentication Required” window. If the password has ange. that connection’s password will be saved on your computer. You should see a list of wireless networks in range.    Network Authentication Required” window. while you may prefer to connect to another. Choose the Connect to Hidden Wireless Network option. Connecting to a hidden wireless network In some circumstances. Ubuntu will automatically try to connect to a wireless network within range if it has its seings saved. . or cli Cancel to abort your connection. By default. If the password and other seings have not anged. Please enter the network name exactly as it was given to you. If you do not know the password to the network you have selected. the Connection field should show “New…”—you can leave this unanged. Ubuntu should open the “Connect to Hidden Wireless Network” window. you will need to get the password from the network administrator. you will need to get its name and security seings from your network administrator. . is will work for both open and secured wireless networks. cli on the NetworkManager icon. If you have many saved wireless networks that are in range. you may need to connect to a hidden wireless network. To connect to a hidden network: . Cli on your desired network. Cli on the NetworkManager icon in the top panel. Once you have successfully established a wireless network connection. along with their signal meters. In this case. Ubuntu may oose to connect to one of them. . so you can access them all in future by just remembering your keyring password. Ubuntu will store these seings (including the network password) in order to make it easier to connect to the same wireless network in future. You may also be prompted to select a keyring password here. In order to be able to connect to a hidden network. In this case. enter the name of the wireless network. ese hidden networks do not broadcast their names. follow instructions in the previous section. Ubuntu will connect to the wireless network you ose. Connecting to a saved wireless network If you have previously successfully established a wireless connection. In addition. . In the Network name field. e keyring stores network and other important passwords in the one place. is name is also known as a .

Cli on the Wireless tab to see a list of saved wireless connections . A “Network Connections” window should open. Disabling and enabling your wireless network card Wireless access in Ubuntu is enabled by default if you have a wireless network card in your computer. . . Once set up according to the instructions above. leave this field as “None. you may want to ange the seings for a wireless connection that you have previously saved. right-cli on the NetworkManager icon. A  is the wireless connection’s network Some computers may have a physical switch or buon to turn off Wi-Fi. Find the connection you want to edit. Your wireless network will be turned off.     . If the network is open. Ubuntu should open a window called “Editing ⟨connection name⟩”. Ubuntu will then sear for nearby wireless networks and will connect to any saved networks within range. In the Wireless security field. and your computer will no longer sear for available wireless networks. . e rest of the process should work exactly as in the section on the initial connection to wireless networks. To edit a saved wireless network connection: . By default. On the Wireless tab of the “Editing ⟨connection name⟩” window. . this list shows connections in the order of most recently used to least recently used. . Your wireless network will be turned ba on. To do this. where ⟨connection name⟩ is the name of the connection you are editing. you may ange the Connection name field if you want to give the connection a more recognizable name . Its password may have anged. Above the tabs. If the Connect automatically option is not selected.” If you do not know the correct seing for the network you will not be able to connect to the hidden network. Changing an existing wireless network At times. and cli on the Enable Wireless option to re-select it. To turn wireless networking ba on. Cli on the Connect buon. the hidden network should show up in the list of saved networks. for example on airplanes. . or your system administrator asked you to ange some networking or security seings. cli on it. right-cli on the NetworkManager icon. select one of the options. and then cli Edit. In certain cases. Right-cli on the NetworkManager icon and select Edit Connections… . e window should display a number of tabs. you may need to edit the  field. you may need or be required to turn your wireless radio off. and deselect the Enable Wireless option. Select or deselect this seing as needed. Ubuntu will detect the wireless network but will not automatically connect to it without you oosing it from the NetworkManager menu.

Once you select this security mode.” . You can also connect to s (Digital Subscriber Lines). or  &  Enterprise security. On the v Settings tab. you will need to enter your passphrase in the Key field. Other connection methods ere are other ways to get connected with Ubuntu. your new seings should go into effect immediately. please see the section above on manual set up for wired network connections. you may need to ange the Method field from “Automatic ()” to “Manual. Dynamic . If your network uses this security mode. e “Infrastructure” mode means that you would be connecting to a wireless router or access point. you will need to enter a key in the Key field that should appear aer you select this mode. ‣  -bit Passphrase is the same older security seing as the entry above. e “Ad-hoc” mode is a computer-to-computer mode and is oen only used in advanced cases. . cli Close on the “Network Connections” window to return to the desktop. With NetworkManager. you can also configure Mobile Broadband connections to keep online through your cellular or other mobile data carrier. ‣  &  Personal is the most common security mode for wireless network connections at home and at businesses. Once you select this mode. Please make sure that the  is set according to your network administrator’s instructions. When you finish making anges to the connection. . Aer making anges. instead of a key. Below the . On the Wireless Security tab of the “Editing ⟨connection name⟩” window. whi are a method of Internet connection that uses your telephone lines and a “ modem. Other selections may require slightly different additional information: ‣  /-bit Key is an older security seing still in use by some wireless networks. However. Finally. the network may not be detected and a connection may not be made.” or one of the other methods. you should see the Mode field. . A selection of None means that you are using an open network with no security.    name—if set incorrectly. cli Apply to save your anges and close the window. . is is the most common mode for wireless networks. you may need to ange the Security field to the correct seing. you will need to enter a password in the Password field. You can cli Cancel to close the window without making anges. ‣ If your network administrator requires . you will need to have the administrator help you set up those security modes. For seing up manual seings (also known as static addresses). your network administrator should have provided you with a text passphrase—a password—to connect to the network. .

ese are commonly used to create secure connectivity to a workplace. or s. you should be able to browse the web with Ubuntu. e instructions for making connections using mobile broadband. A  is a “Virtual Private Network. s are “Digital Subscriber Lines. It’s also possible to use NetworkManager to establish a  (Virtual Private Network) connection. go to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard Shortcuts. Mozilla Firefox is the default application for browsing the web in Ubuntu.” and is sometimes used to help secure connections. cli Applications ‣ Internet ‣ Firefox Web Browser. If your keyboard has a “” buon. Figure . s.” a type of broadband connection. .: The default Ubuntu home page for the Firefox web browser. Browsing the web Once you have connected to the Internet. you can also press that buon to start Firefox.     . are beyond the scope of this guide. Starting Firefox To start Firefox. To set other keyboard shortcuts or to change the shortcut for launching Firefox.

s normally begin with “hp://” followed by one or more names that identify the address. press Ctrl+L. Retracing your steps If you want to visit a page you have seen before. Move the mouse pointer until it anges to a pointing finger. You can also press F6 on your keyboard to highlight the location bar in Firefox.ubuntu. . To go to your home page quily. If you don’t know a . One example is “http://www. status messages will appear at the boom of the window. To quily select the  of the Location Bar. but buons and pictures on a web page can also be links. To navigate: .com/”. press Alt+Home. . is happens whenever the pointer is over a link. you will see your home page. Press Enter. Cli on the link once. e  you type replaces any text already in the Location Bar.: You can enter a web address or search the Internet by typing in the location bar. By default. there are several ways to do Figure . and take you to the web page that is the top result from the sear. To cli a link: . . Cli on the Location Bar to select the  that is already there. try typing something specific to the page you want to visit (for example a name or other sear request) into the Location Bar and press Enter.  stands for uniform resource locator and  stands for world wide web. While Firefox locates the link’s page. Navigating to another page To navigate to a new web page. . Most links are underlined text. Clicking a link Most web pages contain links you can cli to move to other pages. Type the  of the page you want to visit. is will sear your preferred sear engine—Google by default—for that term. you will see the Ubuntu Start Page. To go backwards and forwards you can also use Alt+Leftto go backwards or Alt+Right to go forwards. you need to type its Internet address (also known as a ) into the Location Bar.    Navigating web pages Viewing your homepage When you start Firefox.

Cli on a page’s title to view that page. Choose the Open Link in New Window option. cli on the small triangle next to the Forward buon. ‣ To go ba or forward more than one page. ‣ To go ba or forward one page. cli on the down arrow at the right end of the Location Bar. ‣ To see a list of any s you’ve typed into the Location Bar. To reload the current page or to get the most up-to-date version. You should see a list of pages you’ve recently visited. but do not want the original page to close. you may want to have more than one browsing window. open the History menu and oose from the list in the boom section of the menu. so. cli on the Reload buon or press Ctrl+R. Cli on the folders to displays sub-folders. or separate web pages that you are viewing for different reasons. open the File menu. select it from the list. or titles of web pages you’ve visited in the past. then oose New Window. Once a new window has opened. Stopping and reloading If a page is loading too slowly or you no longer wish to view a page. cli on the Stop buon. is may help you organize your browsing session beer. ‣ Press Ctrl+N. whi shows a list of folders. ‣ To oose from pages you’ve visited during the past several sessions. A new window will open. Opening a link in a new window Sometimes. ere are two ways to open a link in its own window: ‣ Right-cli on a link to open its popup menu. cli on the Ba or Forward buon. you may want to cli on a link to navigate to another web page. Opening new windows At times. select it from the list. you can use it just like the first window —including navigation and opening tabs. Firefox should open a “Library” window.     . open the History menu and oose Show All History. . To do this. ‣ To oose from pages you’ve visited during the current session. you can open the link you’d like to cli in its own window. To return to a page. To view a page. containing the web page for the link you clied. ere are two ways to create a new window: ‣ On the menubar.

ea displaying in its own tab. and release the mouse buon. and then oose New Tab. ‣ Cli on the link with the le mouse buon. containing the web page for the link you clied. it will contain a blank page with the Location Bar focused. Start typing a web address () or other sear term to open a website in the new tab. you can use Tabbed Browsing to navigate the web. ‣ Cli on a link. ‣ On the menubar. Tabbed browsing lets you open several web pages within a single Firefox window. and reload web pages in one place without having to swit to another window. Opening a new blank tab ere are three ways to create a new blank tab: ‣ Cli on the New Tab buon on the right side of the last tab. containing the web page for the link you dragged. . close. or a wheel. A new tab should open. You can alternate quickly between different tabs by using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Tab. Tabbed browsing If you would like to visit more than one web page at a time. A new tab will open. To do this. Choose the Open Link in New Tab option. containing the web page for the link you clied. ere are many ways to open a link in its own tab: ‣ If your mouse has a middle buon. holding both le and right mouse buons. A new tab should open. ‣ Press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliing the le mouse buon on the link. Opening a link in its own tab Sometimes. containing the web page for the link you clied. ‣ Press Ctrl+T. Drag the link up to a blank space on the tab bar. is will also open the web page in a new window. and keep holding down the mouse buon. A new tab should open. When you create a new tab. You can open. you can open the link you’d like to cli in its own tab. is frees up space on your desktop since you don’t have to have a window open for every web page you’re currently visiting.    ‣ Press-and-hold the Shift key while cliing a link. cli on the link with the middle mouse buon or wheel. open the File menu. but do not want the original page to close. ‣ Right-cli on a link to open its popup menu. you may want to cli on a link to navigate to another web page.

 Closing a tab Once you are done viewing a web page in a tab. ‣ Press Ctrl+Shift+T to re-open the most recently closed tab. You can also split a tab off to become its own window. When moving a tab to a new window it may reload the page.     . . Searching You can sear the web. cli-and-hold on the tab and drag it to the tab bar on the other Firefox window. Cli-and-hold on the tab and drag the tab to a new place on the tab bar. remember to save your work before doing this. Changing the tab order To move a tab to a different location on the tab bar. Firefox will sear the web using the Google sear engine. you may close the wrong tab by accident. from within Firefox without first visiting the home page of the sear engine. you can move an open tab to a different window. ‣ On the menubar. While you are dragging the tab. When you release the mouse buon. By default. open the File menu. To bring ba a tab you’ve closed. drag it there using your mouse. To move a tab from one Firefox window to another already open window. ‣ Cli on the tab you want to close with the middle mouse buon. and then oose Close Tab. the tab will become a new window. or other collections. Restoring a closed tab Sometimes. ‣ Cli on the tab with both mouse buons. or want to bring ba a tab that you’ve recently closed. or the mouse wheel. ‣ Press Ctrl+W. you can close that tab. ere are four ways to close a tab: ‣ Cli on the Close buon on the right side of the tab you want to close. oose Recently Closed Tabs. cli-and-hold on the tab and drag the tab below the tab bar. When you release the mouse buon. do one of the following: ‣ On the menubar. open the History menu. To move a tab from one window into its own window. if you have one. Moving a tab between windows If you have more than one Firefox window open. the tab will be aaed to the new window. and then oose the name of the tab you want to restore. Firefox will display a small indicator to show where the tab will be moved.

cli on the icon on the le side of the Sear Bar. like Amazon. but will automatically use Yahoo if Yahoo is selected in the Search Bar. Sear results from Google for “Ubuntu” should appear in the Firefox window. For example. To ange the sear engine. Selecting search engines Figure . Instead of copying and pasting the phrase into the Sear Bar. . . Cli on the Sear Bar. Highlight any words in a web page using your le mouse buon.com.” Your typing replaces any text currently in the Sear Bar. Searching the web for words selected in a web page Sometimes. Choose the option Sear [Sear Engine] for “[your selected words]”. Press Enter to sear. Some sear engines.: These are the other search engines you can use—by default—from the Firefox search bar. only sear specific sites. . . if you want to find information about the Ubuntu: . The Ubuntu home page’s search bar uses Google by default. Choose one of the other sear engines in the list. others. like Google. type a few words into the Firefox sear Bar. Right-cli on the text you’ve highlighted to open a popup menu.    Searching the web To sear the web in Firefox. you can ange the sear engine that Firefox uses. If you do not want to use Google as your sear engine in the Sear Bar. Firefox allows you to sear the web for words you select within a web page. . sear the whole web. Type the phrase “Ubuntu. you may want to sear for a phrase that appears on a different web page.

Figure . Viewing web pages full screen To display more web content on the screen. you can copy part of a page so that you can paste it elsewhere. Once some text has been mated on the web page. Press Ctrl+F or oose Edit ‣ Find to open the Find Toolbar at the boom of Firefox. To enable Full Screen mode. press F3 or oose Edit ‣ Find Again from the menubar. or save the page or part of a page as a file on your computer. Copying and saving pages With Firefox. Firefox should open a new tab containing sear results for your highlighted words.     . found using the currently selected sear engine. . Full Screen mode condenses the Firefox’s toolbars into one small toolbar. To find the same word or phrase again. Searching within a page You may want to look for specific text within the web page you are viewing. ‣ Cli Previous to find text that is above the current cursor position. ‣ Cli on the Highlight all buon to highlight occurrences of your sear words in the current page. you can use Full Screen mode. ‣ Select the Mat case option to limit the sear to text that has the same capitalization as your sear words.: You can search within web pages using the Find Toolbar. . Enter the text you want to find into the Find field in the Find Toolbar. To find text within the current page in Firefox: . simply oose View ‣ Full Screen or press F11. e sear automatically begins as soon as you type something into the field. you can: ‣ Cli Next to find text in the page that is below the current cursor position. .

You can paste the link into other programs or into Firefox’s Location Bar. Choose Copy Link Location. . with a pipe—|—separating pages to be opened in a new tab . . Position the pointer over the link or image. . Navigate to the page that you would like to become your new homepage. If you had more than one tab open then all the tabs will be opened when Firefox starts. close the other tabs and repeat Steps -. You can paste the text into other programs. Choose Save Image As. Choose Edit ‣ Copy from the menubar or press Ctrl+C. If you prefer to view another page when you start Firefox. Right-cli on the image to display a popup menu. Position the mouse pointer over the image. Highlight the text and/or images with your mouse. To ange your homepage: . To copy a text or image link () from a page: . Right-cli on the link or image to open a popup menu.    Copying part of a page To copy text from a page: . you will need to ange your homepage preference. and cli Save. Type a file name for the page. To save an image from a page: . If you prefer to have one page open. . Saving all or part of a page To save an entire page in Firefox: . Firefox should open the “Save As” window. Choose Edit ‣ Preferences from the menubar. cli on the Use Current Page buon. Choose File ‣ Save Page As from the menubar. . . Firefox will show the Ubuntu Start Page when you start Firefox. Firefox should open the “Save Image” window. Changing your homepage By default. . The homepage can also be set by entering the addresses that should be open in the Home Page. . . Choose a location for the saved page. . Enter a file name for the image and cli Save. Cli Close. Choose a location for the saved image. . whi is shown by default. . In the “Startup” section on the General tab.

     . You can also set the behavior of Firefox’s Downloads window. The Downloads window shows the progress of currently downloading files. Provide a descriptive name for the bookmark. Download seings In Edit ‣ Preferences you can ange how Firefox behaves with downloads. and lists files downloaded in the past. and cli on the Done buon. oose Bookmarks and then Bookmark is Page. or set to hide when downloads finish. you can create bookmarks. Figure . It can be used to open or re-download files. Bookmarks When browsing the web you may want to come ba to certain web pages again without having to remember the . . In Firefox.: You can change Firefox seings in this window. Bookmarking a page Aer navigating to a web page you can save its location by bookmarking it. A window will open. e Downloads window can be hidden entirely. You can tell Firefox where to place downloaded files. ere are two ways to bookmark a page: ‣ From the menubar. or to ask where ea time. whi are saved in the web browser and whi you can use to navigate ba to your pied web pages.

  



‣ Press Ctrl+D. A pop-up will appear. Provide a descriptive name for the bookmark, and cli on the Done buon. Navigating to a bookmarked page To navigate to a bookmarked page, open the Bookmarks menu from the menubar, and then oose your bookmark’s name. Firefox should open the bookmark in the current tab.
You can also press Ctrl+B to display bookmarks in a sidebar on the le side of the browser window. Press Ctrl+B again to hide the sidebar.

Deleting a bookmark If you would like to delete a bookmark that you have previously made, open the Bookmarks menu from the menubar, and then right-cli on your bookmark’s name. Firefox should open a popup menu for your bookmark. Choose the Delete option from the menu. Your bookmark should then be deleted.

History
Whenever you are browsing the web, Firefox is saving your browsing history. is allows you to come ba to a web page that you have recently visited, without needing to remember the page’s , or even bookmarking it. To see your most recent history, open the History menu from the menubar. e menu should then display several of the most recent web pages that you were viewing. Choose one of the pages to return to it. To see the web pages you have visited recently, press Ctrl+H. Firefox will open a “sidebar” on the le side of the browser window, that contains your browsing history, categorized as “Today,” “Yesterday,” “Last  days,” “is month,” the past  months (listed month by month), and finally “Older than  months.” Cli on one of the date categories in the sidebar to expand it. en it will reveal the pages you visited during that period. en, once you find the page you need, cli on its title to return to it. You can also sear for a page by its title. Enter a few leers, or a word, in the Sear field at the top of the history sidebar. e sidebar should then display a list of web pages whose titles mat your sear words. Cli on the title of the page you need to return to it. If you would like to hide the history sidebar again, press Ctrl+H again.

Clearing private data
At times, you may want to delete all private data that Firefox stores about your browsing history. While this data is stored only on your computer, you may want to remove it if you share access to your computer.

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    .

To delete your private data, open the Tools menu from the menubar, and oose Clear Recent History. In the drop down list for the Time range to clear, oose how far ba you would like Firefox to delete. If you would like more control over what you clear, cli on the Details text to display a list of options. When done, cli on the Clear Now buon.

Using a different web browser
Figure .: You can change the default browser with the ”Preferred Applications” utility. To use it, open the System ‣ Preferences ‣ Preferred Applications.

If you install a different web browser on your computer, you may want to use it as the default browser when you cli on links from emails, instant messages, and other places. To ange your preferred web browser, open the System menu from Ubuntu’s main menubar. en, oose System ‣ Preferences ‣ Preferred Applications. Ubuntu should then open the “Preferred Applications” window. In the “Web Browser” section, oose your new preferred web browser, and cli Close.

Reading and composing email
To send and receive email in Ubuntu, you can use the Evolution mail application. To start Evolution, open the Applications menu, then oose Office and then Evolution Mail and Calendar. In addition to email, Evolution also can help manage your contact list, your calendar, and a list of tasks.
Although Evolution can be used with many webmail systems, su as Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail, and Gmail, you may prefer to use the Firefox web browser to access them.

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Running Evolution for the first time
When you start Evolution for the first time, you will need to configure it to connect to your email account. When Evolution starts, you should see the “Evolution Setup Assistant” window, welcoming you to Evolution. Cli Forward to continue with the setup. Next, on the “Restore from baup” screen, Evolution may ask you to restore from a previous baup. Since this is the first time you are running Evolution, you can cli Forward to skip this step. On the next screen, “Identity”, you need to enter your name and the email address you wish to use with Evolution. Enter your full name in the Full Name field, and the full email address in the Email Address field. You can fill in the optional information, or leave it unanged if you desire. Cli Forward when you are done. Next, you should see the “Receiving Email” screen. On this screen, you need to provide Evolution with the details of your email servers. If you do not know these details, you will need to ask your network administrator or e with your email provider. ere are two common types of Internet email connections: , and . ese are described below. In work environments there are sometimes other types, su as Microso Exange or Novell GroupWise—for more information on those types of connections, please see the documentation for Evolution located in the Help ‣ Contents menu. Seing up an IMAP connection  connections allow you to manage your email remotely—the actual email and folders reside on your email server, while Evolution allows you to view, edit, and delete the messages and folders as needed. If your email provider recommends an  connection, oose IMAP from the Server Type drop-down list. In the Server field, enter the Internet address or  of your mail server. for example imap.example.com. In the Username field; enter the username that you use to log into your email system, for example joe.x.user or joe.x.user@example.com, as specified by your email provider. Your email provider may specify the security seings you will need to use in order to receive email. If your connection does not use security, leave the Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise, oose either  encryption or  encryption, as specified by your email provider. Aer oosing these options, cli Forward to proceed to the “Receiving Options” screen. While it is normal to leave all options unselected, you may want to select the Che for new messages option to have Evolution automatically e email on a regular basis.

oose POP from the Server Type drop-down list. type in the name of the outbound mail server (also known as the  server). you will need to configure your connection for sending email through your email provider. whi determine what Evolution does aer downloading email to your computer. e most common type of sending connection is . mail.example. If your email provider requires authentication. Select the Leave messages on server option to have Evolution keep the messages on your email system aer downloading them. . If your email provider recommends a  connection. Seing up a POP connection  connections let you manage your email locally—Evolution will connect to your email provider and download any new messages you may have received. Aer oosing these options. and delete them aer a while.x. Here.com. is is common for commercial email providers. enter the username that you use to log into your email system. If your connection does not use security. You can adjust the number of days that Evolution keeps the messages. Your email provider may specify the security seings you will need to use in order to receive email. as specified by your email provider. for example joe.user. whi is the default server type selected. enter the Internet address or  of your mail server. Otherwise. cli Forward to continue to the next screen. For example.x. While it is normal to leave all options unselected. e messages will be deleted from the server.com. Select the Delete aer  days option to have Evolution keep the messages for a few days. When you are finished seing the options. as described by your email provider. In the Server field.com. cli Forward to proceed to “Receiving Options” screen. leave the Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. In the Username field. When you are finished seing the options. select the Server requires authentication option. for example pop. or joe. In the Server field. cli Forward to continue to the next screen. Seing up your sending options e next screen should be the “Sending Email” screen. oose either  encryption or  encryption. You may also wish to adjust the Message Storage options.user@example. you may want to select the Che for new messages option to have Evolution automatically e email on a regular basis.     . and store them in folders on your computer. is will allow you to use another computer to re-download all of your new messages.example.

Aer you finish setup. e first group of folders in the list is titled “On is Computer.x. Understanding the folder list e folder list is the way that Evolution separates and categorizes your email. cli Apply to finish setup. Finalizing your account options On the next screen. enter a descriptive name for this account. in the Username field. Cli Yes if you plan on reading and sending email only with Evolution. If a message is selected in this list. On the le side of the window is the folder list. “Account Management”. and Memos buons. its contents are shown in the message preview pane below. Otherwise. or joe. or mating your sear request. Contacts. Around the Evolution workspace e Evolution window is divided into four parts.user. Cli No if you plan on installing or using a different email program. Otherwise. On the right side of the window are the message list. as specified by your email provider.    In the “Authentication” section of the screen. cli Forward to proceed to the next screen. If your connection does not use security. Evolution may ask you if you would like to make it your default email client. oose either  encryption or  encryption. Calendars.x. and the message preview beneath it. cli Ba to go ba one or more screens to correct your seings. When finished. joe. is should open the “Done” screen.com. for example. Below the folder list on the le side of the window are the Mail. the Mail buon is selected.user@example. If you believe that you’ve entered the correct options. or cli Cancel to abort setup and discard your account seings. e menubar lets you access most of the functionality of Evolution.” ese are . while the toolbar provides convenient shortcuts to some of the most frequently used features. Your email provider may specify the security seings you will need to use in order to send email. At the top are the menubar and toolbar. e other buons take you to those other parts of Evolution. If you set up more email accounts with Evolution the name provided here will help distinguish those accounts. cli Forward. enter your username. Tasks. When working with email. Aer oosing these options. Every message that you send or receive will reside in one of the folders in this list.” Below that. e message list shows all of the messages in the currently selected folder. oose the type of authentication from the Type drop-down list—the most common authentication type is “. leave the Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption.

     . you can still cli the Send buon once you’ve finished writing an email. but have not yet sent. You can cli on any folder to see its contents appear in the message list on the right side of the window. . all email messages in the Outbox will be sent out. Figure . any new message will be placed in the Inbox local folder.: Evolution allows you to manage your mail. and will remain there until the next time you are able to send and receive messages. e message will be moved to the Outbox. If you use  servers to retrieve your email. contacts and tasks. For example. ‣ Dras stores messages that you’ve worked on. Ea of the initial folders in the list is special: ‣ Inbox stores your incoming messages. if you are in an airplane or another location without an Internet connection. your local folders—they reside on your computer only. Junk mail is also known as “spam. but whi have not been sent yet.” ‣ Outbox contains messages that you’ve finished composing. ‣ Junk stores messages that have been identified as unsolicited email that you did not want. Once you can send and receive messages.

Managing folders In addition to the initial folders. you can create your own folders to manage your email.” then your new folder will be placed under “On is Computer” in the folder list. If you select “On is Computer. Towards the boom of the folder list. right-cli on the folder and oose the Delete option. from the list of folders below. You can also right-cli on a folder. and cli on the Move buon. open the Folder menu. Please see the section on Finding Messages for more on sear folders. and oose the Move… option. Evolution will show a list of “Sear Folders. Enter a name for the folder that you would like to create. If a folder contains any unread messages. release the mouse buon to finish the move. Your new folder should now be in the folder list. hold down the mouse buon. To create a new folder. cli on the Create buon to create the folder. for example. a blank invoice. and then oose New. select the new parent folder. that can be used as the starting point for other messages. below the “On is Computer” section. and the number of unread messages will be displayed in parentheses following the folder name. ‣ Trash contains messages that you have deleted. Once a message from an Outbox is sent. You can move folders that you have created. By default. . it is copied to the Sent folder. and drag the folder to a new parent folder. A template is a partial message. Once you’ve made your selection. ‣ Templates stores any email message templates you have saved. cli on the Delete buon. the folder’s name will be displayed in bold. select the parent folder. Once the mouse cursor highlights a new parent folder. To do so. Ea -enabled account has its own Inbox for new messages.    ‣ Sent contains copies of messages that have been sent successfully. To delete a folder. then your remote  folders will also be shown in the folder list. en. en.” ese are special folders that represent certain messages that mat sear rules. If you use an  server to retrieve your email. e heading for ea folder list uses the name you gave to that account. To confirm that you want to delete the folder. if you would like your new folder to be placed under the Inbox then select the Inbox folder. cli on the folder that you would like to move. the trash will be emptied every time you exit Evolution. For example.

Once you select a message by cliing it. may be displayed in this column. and will ask you for it. the message list shows six columns of information for ea message. e third column is an importance indicator. If a message contains an aaed file. or just the email address. Finally. Listing messages e top right portion of the Evolution window is the message list. Evolution will need to know your email account password. Both the name and email. Figure . the icon will show a closed envelope. enter your password and cli OK. If a message has not been read. Otherwise. or mating your sear terms. e fourth column contains the sender of the message. Otherwise. Evolution will show an icon of a paperclip in this column. In the “Enter Password” window. showing the progress of the operation su as how many messages are being retrieved. the sixth column is the date that the email was sent. the column shows an icon of an open envelope. If someone sends you a message marked with high importance.     . its contents will be displayed in the preview pane below the message list. e first column is a read/unread indicator. If a message has been read. you can . you can see email messages for your currently selected folder. you can select the Remember this password option. Evolution will then show a “Send & Receive Mail” window.: You need to enter your password to authenticate your account. By default. e fih column contains the subject of the email message. Here. If you wish for Evolution to remember this password and not ask you in the future. the column will be blank. Evolution will first try to connect to your email provider to e your email. or when you start Evolution in the future. this column will be blank. In order to connect. Checking and reading messages Checking mail When you finish setup. Evolution will show an exclamation mark in this column. When you cli on a message. e second column is an aament indicator.

Previewing messages When you select an email message. Evolution will open a menu with actions that you can perform for the message. You can use the Show drop-down list to filter your view to show only unread messages. Note that Evolution. some of the images may not be displayed when a message is previewed. In addition to the buons on the toolbar. double cli a message in the message list. To open a message in its own window. If a message was sent with  formaing. you may want to display multiple messages at the same time. All messages in the list between the original selection and the one you just clied on will be selected. You can also cli on the Trash buon in the toolbar to put the message in the Trash folder. then press-and-hold the Shift key and cli on another message in the list. or only messages with aaments. Note that loading images may provide a way for the sender to track your receipt of the message. Below the header.    cli on the Reply buon in the toolbar to begin composing a reply message to be sent to the sender. Evolution shows the contents of the message itself. or forward them to a new recipient). Opening messages At times. you can open ea message in a separate window instead of just viewing it in the preview pane. may automatically classify some mail as Junk. or cli on the Reply to All buon to begin composing a reply message to be sent to the sender and other recipients of your selected message. e top of the preview pane will show the message header. or press Ctrl+I. its contents will be shown in the preview pane below the message list. if needed. e sear options will be covered in a later section. To display the missing images. e message should then open in a separate window. or on the Junk buon to move the message into the Junk folder. etc. You can go ba to the message list and open another message. recipients. press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliing on multiple messages—the messages you cli on will be selected. and subject of the message. We do not recommend loading images in messages that you suspect are Junk. then Load Images. you can right-cli on a message in the list. or your mail server. as well as the date the message was sent. delete multiple messages. Directly above the message list are the Show drop-down list. right-cli on one of them to perform your desired action. . Once you have multiple messages selected. whi contains the sender. open the View menu from the menubar. Sometimes. You can also cli on one message to select it. and the sear options. If your Internet connection is active. To do so. the missing images should then load. To do this in Evolution. you may wish to take an action on multiple email messages (for example.

     . Finding messages ere are three ways to sear for messages in Evolution: you can use the sear option at the top of the message list. open the Sear menu from the menubar and then oose Clear. or instead erase all the text you’ve entered in the Sear field and press Enter. If no messages mat the text you’ve entered. e list of messages will ange to show only those messages containing the text you entered. If you have multiple email accounts added to Evolution. Evolution should open the “Advanced Sear” window. To return to the folder display.: To use more search terms you can use the advanced search window. To use Advanced Sear. In the open message window. oosing the “All Accounts” option lets you sear for messages in all of your accounts.” and “All Accounts. as well as perform other message actions. In the middle section of the Figure . or create a sear folder. you can use the options in the menubar or on the toolbar to reply to the message. you may want to sear for messages using multiple criteria. oose Sear ‣ Advanced Sear. and press Enter. enter the text you want to find in the Sear field at the top right of the message list. Evolution will use the “Current Folder” option and will only show you results within the folder you’ve got selected in the folder list on your le. you can perform this sear using the Advanced Sear function. categorize it.” “Current Account. To the right of the sear field you should be able to see a drop-down list of options su as “Current Folder. you may want to find a message from a particular user with some specific words in the subject of the message. .” By default. use the Advanced Sear function. For example. To use message list sear. In some cases. delete it. you can edit the text and try searing again. In Evolution. If you oose the “Current Account” option. Evolution will sear for messages in all folders within the current email account—su as all the folders “On is Computer” or in your  folders. depending on your email setup.

For our example. Folders like Inbox. Evolution should open the “Folder Subscriptions” window.    window. For example. oose Sear ‣ Create Sear Folder From Sear from the menubar.com regardless of whi folder you’ve used to store the message. Choose the folders you would like to subscribe to by selecting the e . To subscribe to a folder select Folder ‣ Subscriptions from the menubar. Below the criteria. or ange the drop-down with “contains” selected by default in order to have a different type of a mat. en. Evolution allows you to create Sear Folders. Junk and others should be displayed in the folder list. you may want to always be able to see all messages from myfriend@example. You can also ange the selection in the drop-down list at the beginning of ea line to specify a different field to be eed. you may want to perform the same sear request on a regular basis. Dras. Evolution will download messages for that folder whenever you e your email. To create a sear folder. e message list should then only display messages that mat your advanced sear criteria. en. Please refer to the Evolution help documents for more information. Give the folder a name by entering it in the Rule name field at the top. cli OK. and would enter boat in the text field to the right of the drop-down list with “Subject” selected. When you are finished. you can oose “All local and active remote folders” to sear in all of your account’s folders. to find messages from myfriend@example. To help with this type of a sear. and cli OK to perform the sear. you would enter myfriend@example. Subscribing to IMAP folders If you use  to retrieve your email. you should be able to see a list of messages that mat your sear criteria. you can cli on the Add Condition buon to add additional lines. specify sear criteria in the same way as in Advanced Sear. you should see a set of folders in the folder list on the le side of the window that is titled with the name of your  account. If you cli on the sear folder to select it. cli on Remove to the right of all lines that are unused. pi whi folders should be seared by this sear folder—for example. specify your sear criteria. e new sear folder should now be added to the list of sear folders towards the boom of the message list. When specifying the criteria for advanced sear. From the Server drop-down list oose your account name. you will need to subscribe to them. If you subscribe to a folder. If you have other folders in your  account. In some cases.com in the text field to the right of the drop-down list with “Sender” selected.com that contained “boat” in the subject. Evolution should then show a list of folders in the list below.

cli Close. Enter a subject for your email. Your selected contact will be added to that list. Use the list on the le side of the window to select your contact. en. of the contacts you are addressing in the message. cli on the Add buon to the le of either the To:. Instead of typing the email addresses. Evolution will display the list of mating contacts below your text. Cc: or Bcc: buons to the le of the text fields. or names. If there is more than one contact to whom you are writing. Once you see the contact you intend to address. enter their email addresses in the Cc: field in the same manner as the To: recipients. Start typing the name of the contact. and will see the rest of the contacts to whom an email was sent. separate multiple recipients with commas. cli on their name in the list. Messages should have a subject to help the . cli on the To:. Contacts on the To: and Cc: lines will receive the email. To enable Bcc. select View ‣ Bcc Field from the menubar. Evolution should open the “Select Contacts from Address Book” window. cli Close to return to the composing screen. or compose new messages. To do so. or type a few leers from your contact’s first or last name in the Sear field to filter the list to only show mating contacts. cli on the New buon on the toolbar. When you are finished. e folders will be updated the next time you e your email. If you would like to send an email to some contacts without disclosing to whom your email was sent. enter the email address of the destination—the contact to whom you are sending this email. or Bcc: fields located on the right of the screen. Composing new messages To compose a new message. Evolution should open a “Compose message” window. you can also select the contacts from your address book. A Bcc: field should appear below the Cc: field. cli their name in the list on the right. If a contact that you are addressing is in your address book. but none of the recipients will see the names or emails of contacts on the Bcc: line. cli on their email address or use the down arrow key and then Enter to select the address. Any contacts entered in the Bcc: field will receive the message. If you’ve added the contact in error.     . you can address them by name. Cc:. or Bcc. Once you identify the contact you would like to address. box to the le of the folder name. When you are finished piing contacts. Composing and replying to messages In addition to reading email. If you would like to carbon-copy some contacts. and cli on the Remove buon. In the To: field. you will likely want to reply to the email you read. you can send a blind carbon-copy.

and will be sent when you next e your email. you can send them messages that include formaing. a new toolbar should appear right under the mode selection that will allow you to perform advanced font styling and message formaing. and your selected file should be listed in a section below the Add Attament buon. is means that no formaing or graphics will be shown to the recipient. ‣ Forward—allows you to send the message. Evolution will return you to the email message window. cli on the message to whi you want .    recipient to identify the email while glancing at their message list. Evolution will warn you about this. you may want to reply to messages that you receive. cli on the Send buon on the window’s toolbar. if you do not include a subject. ere is no practical limit on the amount of text you can include in your message. By default. Replying to messages In addition to composing new messages. Evolution should show the “Add aament” window. To send files. with any additional comments you may add. you will need to aa them to your email message. Your message will be placed in the Outbox. as well as anyone else on the To or Cc lines. ere are three types of email replies: ‣ Reply (or “Reply to Sender”)—sends your reply only to the sender of the message to whi you are replying. you may want to send files to your contacts. cli the drop-down list buon on the le side directly above the text field for the message contents. cli on the Add Attament buon at the boom right of the email message window. To use any of these methods. ‣ Reply to All—sends your reply to the sender of the message. Select the file you would like to include in your message and cli on the Atta buon. but the message is least likely to be rejected or displayed illegibly to the recipients. to some other contacts. new messages will be sent in “Plain Text” mode. When using  mode. When you have finished composing your email. Change the selection from “Plain Text” to “” to enable advanced formaing. Enter the contents of your message in the big text field below the subject. Aaching files At times. To aa a file to an email you are composing. To swit to this mode. If you know that your recipient uses a contemporary computer and a modern email program.

select Composer Preferences and then select the Signatures tab.” Signatures in email are a bit of standard text that is added to the boom of any new messages or replies. maintain a calendar. as well as keep tra of tasks and memos that you can create for yourself. is window should look mu like the window for composing new messages. On the le side of the Evolution Preferences window. and will be sent when you next e your email. Your message will be placed in the Outbox. When finished. To create a signature. cli on the Save buon on the toolbar (the buon’s icon looks like a floppy disk). Edit the To.     . you can still use it for managing your contacts or maintaining a sedule. If you have already set up Evolution with an email account. cli on the Signature dropdown list below the toolbar just above the To: field. Close the preferences window. . open the “Evolution Preferences” window by selecting Edit ‣ Preferences from the menubar. When composing of replying to a message. Bcc. is list should contain any signatures that you have created. Evolution allows you to use a “signature. When your reply is finished. and main message content fields should be filled in from the message to whi you are replying. Reply to All. and then your name and email address to the boom of the email message. Staying organized e Evolution application in Ubuntu can let you keep and manage a list of your contacts. Cc. cli on the Send buon on the toolbar. If you select Autogenerated. Using signatures In order to give your messages a footer. Evolution should then open the “Edit Signature” window. To start Evolution. as well as an “Autogenerated” signature. Note that the two dashes are added automatically by Ubuntu. Evolution should open the reply window. You can also specify some custom signatures. open the Applications menu. you do not need to do any further setup to use these features. Subject or main body as you see fit. Subject. If you do not wish to use Evolution for email. but the To. and enter the contents of your signature in the big text field below. Your signature should now show up in the drop-down list in the compose/reply window. Cli on the Add to add a new signature. or Forward buon on the toolbar. Evolution will add two dashes. Your new signature’s name should appear in the list in preferences. then oose Office and then Evolution Mail and Calendar. Give your signature a name. Ea line in the message should be prefixed with a “>” aracter. to reply and then cli the Reply. so there is no need to include them in your custom signature. Cc. and a task list.

and add contacts. You can add contacts to either address book. It can either be stored on your computer. and an “Ubuntu One” address book. . To view contacts. If you use Ubuntu One. though only the “Ubuntu One” address book is synronized to your Ubuntu One account.: You can view. An address book is a collection of contacts and contact lists. e folder list on the le will be replaced by a list of address book types. for example “Personal. For more information on Ubuntu One see the dedicated section later in this chapter. or on a remote server. Ubuntu One is a free service you can use to sync and store contacts. you may have two address books—a “Personal” address book stored on your computer.” e right side of the window will display a list of contacts. Cli a contact to show the contact’s details in the lower portion of the right side of the window. edit. as well as other information. cli on the Contacts buon below the folder list on the le side of the Evolution window. Cli on an address book.    Managing your contacts If you would like to keep a list of your contacts—personal or professional contact information for people and organizations—you can manage these contacts in Evolution. Figure .

 Searching for contacts To find a contact. you can cli on a different day on the mini-calendar on the le side of the screen. Enter the contact’s details in the contact editor window. showing all the hours of the current day. find the contact in the list and doublecli on the entry. Evolution allows you to manage more than one calendar. Swit between the different tabs in the contact editor to make anges to the contact. you could have a personal calendar and a sool or work calendar. e folder list on the le will be replaced by a list of calendars. In Evolution. Evolution should open the “Contact Editor” window. you can maintain this sedule in Ubuntu using Evolution. Cli OK when you have finished making your anges. For example. Cli on one of the calendars in the list. and a mini-calendar showing the current month. If the calendar already has some events. You can double-cli on the event to open its details.     . Evolution should open a “Contact Editor” window for the contact. Managing your schedule If you like to manage your sedule with a computer. is will allow you to compare sedules on different days. and press Enter. You can also subscribe to the calendar of a friend or family member who may oose to share their calendar with you. To add a new contact. cli on the Calendars buon below the folder list on the le side of the Evolution window. e list below should ange to only show contacts whose name mates your sear term. or find a free day for an event you wish to sedule. or drag the event to a different time or date to resedule it. Evolution will show the event in the day view between the hours when the event starts and finishes. Adding or editing a contact To make anges to an existing contact. Evolution will then display that day in the day view. cli on the New on the toolbar. e middle of the window should now show a view of the current day. Cli on the Month buon on the toolbar to see a view of the entire month—if an event . You may also wish to see more than one day at a time. type in a few a few leers from the contact’s first or last name in the sear text box on the upper right of the window. you can cli on the Work Week or Week buons on the toolbar to see an entire week at the same time. By default. and cli OK when finished. you should have a “Personal” calendar in the list. In the day view. To view your calendar.

and is the first buon on the toolbar). Finally. enter a short title for the event as you want it to appear on the calendar. . Scheduling a meeting If you would like to sedule a meeting with one of your contacts.    is difficult to read due to the small space alloed to ea day. In the Summary field. are as you want them. and begin typing. You can add a new task or memo to Evolution Adding a new event e simplest way to add a new task is to cli a time in the day view. cli on the Save buon on the toolbar to save this new event (the buon looks like a hard drive. To create a meeting invitation. Make sure that the time and date. Evolution displays a list of tasks and memos. cli on the New buon on the toolbar. oose File ‣ New ‣ Meeting from the Figure . To add a new event without using the day view. Evolution can assist you in sending out an invitation and processing replies. Finally. the List buon on the toolbar shows upcoming appointments in a list. as well as the duration.: You can stay organized by adding events to your calendar. An event “bubble” will appear. Optionally specify the location and enter a longer description if you would like. you can hover your mouse over the event to have Evolution show the full title of the event. On the right side of the window. drag your mouse from the first time slot to the last before starting to type. If you want to add a longer event. allowing you to see all of your upcoming appointments at a glance. containing the text that you are typing. Evolution should open the “Appointment” window.

cli on the Save buon on the toolbar. you will need to visit the website of the instant messaging network to retrieve that information. en. Yahoo. open the Applications menu from the menubar. Google Talk. location. Gadu-Gadu. Sametime. Choose the option corresponding to your situation. In the body of the email message. You have an account If you have an account that you have used previously with another instant messaging program then select the Yes.     . Silc. Evolution should then ask you if you would like to send meeting invitations to your selected participants. Cli Send to send out these invitations. . . menubar. e invitations will be sent the next time you e email in Evolution. enter your account details in the field below. Running Empathy for the first time When you open Empathy for the first time you will need to configure it with the details of your instant messaging accounts. or Zephyr. cli Forward to continue. or an  for your account. To start Empathy. en. QQ. Groupwise. To add an aendee. Using instant messaging Instant messaging allows you to communicate with people you know in real time. followed by a password. Specify the subject. Evolution will add a new row —type the aendee’s email address or contact name. If you do not remember your account information. You will then need to add aendees to this meeting. Empathy may request that you enter a username. If you have another account to add then select the Yes option. . Jabber. On the next screen. MySpace. Evolution will show you a new email message. You can connect to . Cli on that buon to mark your contact as aending the meeting. Evolution will display an Update Attendee Status buon. and cli . . time and duration. cli on the Add buon. then oose Internet and then Empathy IM Client. oose your account type from the drop-down list below What kind of at account do you have?. If your contact ooses to reply to the meeting invitation. When Empathy starts you will see the “Welcome to Empathy” window. I’ll enter my account details now option. In the list of aendees. Ubuntu includes the Empathy application that lets you use instant messaging features to keep in tou with your contacts. Empathy lets you connect to many instant messaging networks. and description as when you create a regular event. Depending on the account type that you oose. When you are finished adding aendees.

I want a new account option. you will be able to communicate with people who are on your local network either at home or in an office. enter the account name that you would like in the text field. Note: If you wish to create another account type then you will need to visit the relevant website and create the account. and cli Forward.: Creating a new instant messenger account in Empathy. Next. that’s all for now option selected. select the I don’t want to enable this feature for now option and cli Apply. Next. then you can create one by selecting the No. and in the proceeding text field enter a password of your oice. When you have entered all the accounts leave the No. If you oose to fill out this information. . If you don’t want to communicate with people on your local network. If you would like to set up another account then select the Yes option. cli Apply. Choose the account type that you would like to create from the drop-down list below What kind of at account do you want to create? You can create either a Jabber or a Google Talk account. Then follow the “You have an account” section. When you have entered all the accounts leave the No. and repeat the above process. and your last name in the Last name field. Cli Forward to display the next set of options. and cli Apply to finish the setup process.    Figure . When you have filled all of the information. Empathy should display the “Please enter personal details” screen. that’s all for now option selected. Type in a way that you would like to be identified on your local network in the Niname field. You would like an account If you don’t have an account that you can use. Enter your first name in the First name field. Forward to repeat the above process.

 Empathy should display the “Please enter personal details” window. and enter your Last name in the next field. then you should select the No. Providing this information allows you to communicate with people who are on your local network either at home or in the workplace. Empathy will then display the “Accounts” window. then oose Accounts.     . Changing account seings If you need to add more accounts aer the first laun. Enter your First name in the text field. When you have filled all of the text fields. then open the Edit menu. If you don’t want to talk to people on your local network then select the I don’t want to enable this feature for now option and cli Apply. In the Niname field enter a niname by whi you would like to be identified. I just want to see people online nearby for now option.: You can talk to people nearby by entering your information. en enter your First name in the text field. cli Forward. Cli Forward to display the next set of options. . Figure . You want to talk to people nearby If you would only like to communicate with people on your local network either at home or in the workplace. When you have filled all of the text fields cli Apply to save your seings. In the Niname field enter a niname by whi you would like to be identified. and enter your Last name in the next field.

Cli on the Remove buon to confirm that you want to remove the account. then oose Add contact. then Remove. Once you have made your anges. enter your account name in the first text field. Next. or cli Cancel to keep the account. Removing a contact Cli on the contact that you want to remove and then open the Edit menu. their username.com” then you would need to add it to an account ending in “@hotmail. then oose Contact. Finally cli on the Log in buon to save and verify your seings. you will need to enter their login . Removing an account To remove an account select the account on the le hand side of the window and cli on the Remove buon. in the Alias text field. en enter your password in the Password text field.com. Select the account you want to ange on the le side of the “Accounts” window. Cli Add to add the contact to your list of contacts. Empathy should open the “Do you want to remove” window. In the Account drop-down list oose the account that you want to add the contact to. en. their screen name or their email address in the Identifier text field.” Aer oosing the account you wish to add the contact to. Empathy should open the “New Contact” window. Editing contacts Adding a contact To add a contact open the Chat menu.com. Empathy should display some options on the right hand side of the window. Choose your account type from the Protocol drop-down list. is will open the “Remove contact” window. Editing an account You might need to edit an account if you ange the password or get the password wrong. enter the name that you would like to see it in your contact list. For example if your contact’s address ends in “@googlemail. Empathy should show the current seings for the account. cli Save.com” then you will need to add it to an account that ends in “@googlemail. When creating a contact you must select a service that mates the service you contact is using.    Adding an account To add an account cli on the Add buon.” Likewise if the contact’s email ends in “@hotmail. .

     . Empathy should open a new window where you can type messages to your contact. is window shows your picture on the right and your contact’s picture on the le. You can finish the call by cliing on the Hang up buon. When you have typed your message press the Enter key to send the message to your contact. Video If your contact has video at capabilities then there will be an icon of a webcam next to their name. If you are communicating with more than one person then all of the conversations will be shown in tabs within the same window. If you don’t have a webcam then your picture will be shown instead. Cli on the icon to open a popup menu. Choose the Video call option from the menu. Empathy should then open the “Call” window. select the contact in Empathy’s main window and double-cli their name. Ensure that your microphone and speakers are connected. To send a message to the contact. Empathy should open the “Select file” window. Cli on the microphone icon to open a popup menu. Sending and receiving files Sending a file When you are in a conversation with a contact and you would like to send them a file. Communicating with contacts Text To communicate with a contact. open the Contact menu and then oose Send file. and see a record of previously exanged messages. Choose the Audio call option from the menu. Empathy should then open the “Call” window. You can finish the conversation by cliing on the Hang up buon. or cli Cancel to keep the contact. is window shows your webcam view in the top right and your contact’s webcam will be in the middle. Find the file that you wish . and proceed with the audio conversation. Audio If your contact has audio capabilities then there will be an icon of a microphone next to their name. type your message in the text field below the conversation history. Cli on the Remove buon to confirm that you want to remove a contact.

and clear the list of completed transfers by cliing on the Clear buon. Receiving a file When a contact wants to send you a file. the status icon to the le of the contact’s name will flash with an icon of a paper plane.    to send and cli on the Send buon. A “File Transfers” window will open showing the osen file and its transfer progress. Empathy should open the “File Transfers” window.” ese can be anged in the main Empathy window from the drop-down list at the top of the window. and cli on the green e mark. If you would like to return it to the default avatar. From the Account drop-down list oose the account that you want to ange. whi are “Available. Empathy will open the “Select a destination” window. you can close the “File Transfers” window. When the file transfer is complete. then cli on the picture on the right hand side of the window. then oosing Personal Information. . cli on the No Image buon instead. e default picture is the outline of a person. and cli Open. You can stop file transfers by cliing on the Stop buon. Changing your picture Your picture is what your contacts will see next to your name in their contact list. Find the file containing your picture. and cli Save. e same drop-down list lets you set a custom status by oosing “Custom Message…” next to the icon that mates your status.” “Invisible. Type what you would like your status to say.” “Busy. Until you add accounts. open transferred files by cliing on the Open buon.” and “Off-line. the “Social Accounts” window will open. To receive the file double-cli the contact’s name. then oosing Internet and then Gwibber Social Client. You can ange your picture by opening the Edit menu. e “File Transfers” window shows you the progress of current file transfers.” “Away. Choose a location where you would like Empathy to save the file. Empathy should open the “Personal Information” window. Microblogging You can connect several microblogging services by opening the Applications menu. You can use the standard statuses. Empathy should open the “Select Your Avatar Image” window. Changing your status You can use your status to show your contacts how busy you are or what you are doing.

Adding accounts In the “Social Accounts” cli Add…. the “Social Accounts” window will open. cli Allow publishing. you will see the “MeMenu. MeMenu If you cli your name in the top panel. Qaiku. . Qaiku: You will need an  key.: Gwibber lets you add many different account types. StatusNet: A login . If you want to be able to post on Facebook from Gwibber. Cli Edit then Accounts. Twitter: Requires a user name and password. You will also need your login . and Identi. Digg. Twier. otherwise cli Don’t allow. FriendFeed.” in the box below your name you can type a message to post on the sites that you have set up with Gwibber. Flir: To set up a Flir account all you need is the account login . Facebook: Cli Authorize. instructions for this are provided in the Gwibber window. Aer you have added accounts you will see the “Social broadcast messages” window. You can also ange your account seings by cliing Broadcast Accounts…. StatusNet. ea account will need you to enter your account details.ca. e details that you require for ea account is detailed as follows. Changing accounts To add more accounts aer you have already added some. Figure . Facebook. this opens the “Broadcast Accounts” window. In this window in the Add new drop-down list you can oose the from Flir. domain and password is needed.     . then enter your email address and password and cli Connect.

You will also need to allow status updates—cli Allow status updates. open the Applications menu.ca: A login  and password is required for Identi. Selecting ea one of these icons allows you to do tasks for that specific account. If not. Cliing on an icon so that it is disabled (appears gray) means that you will not post to that account. and oose Sidebar—making sure the option is selected. Once you have decided on whi accounts you want to post to you can type your message in the text field above the icons. Digg: A login  is all that is required for Digg. open the View menu. When you start F-Spot for the first time. then F-Spot Photo Manager. You can also play slide shows of your pictures by cliing on the Play buon on the toolbar (this buon looks like a green triangle). To start F-Spot. Removing accounts In the “Broadcast Accounts” window cli the account that you want to remove and cli Remove. you will have to authorize it ea time you use it. F-Spot displays your photos by date. In order for Gwibber to interact with Facebook ea time it is used. To allow constant authorization cli Allow. . it will need to have constant authorization. You will also need a login . Identi.ca. then oose Components. If you can’t see it. is guide oen refers to the side bar on the le. cli Don’t allow. then cli Send. if you don’t want Gwibber to be able to update your status. otherwise cli Don’t allow. How Gwibber displays accounts Gwibber allows you to post to either all. You can view photos from a specific month by cliing on that month in the timeline near the top of the window. FriendFeed: A remote key is required for friend feed. you will see the “Import” window—how to use this is covered in ‘Importing’. you will need to cli Allow access. Ea one of your accounts will have a set of icons to go with it.    If you want Gwibber to show your news feed. e set of icons that goes with an account has a baground color. Gwibber provides information on where to get one from. is can be set at the boom of the “Social broadcast message” window—ea of the accounts that you can post with will have an icon. Viewing and editing photos To view and edit photos in Ubuntu. ese icons are displayed on the le hand size of the “Social broadcast message” window. then oose Graphics. By default. one or a selection of accounts. you can use the F-Spot Photo Manager application.

A new version will then be created. Version system When you edit a photo. You can create a new version by opening the Photo menu. then cliing on the Edit Image buon. then oosing Create New Version…. is opens the “Create New Version” window. Open the Photo menu. Figure . You can view previous versions of photos by cliing on the photo that you wish to view. To rename a version. then cli on the Edit Image buon. In the Name text field you can type what you would like to call the version and then cli OK. then oose Rename Version. tag. is will open the “Rename Version” window. and edit your photos. . In the boom le the Version drop-down list lets you oose the version of the photo that you want to rename. In the boom le. is anges the side bar on the le to the “Edit” side bar.     . Enter the new name in the New name text field. F-Spot creates a new version so that the original is not lost. is anges the side bar on the le to the “Edit” side bar. cli on the photo that you want to ange. You might want to rename a version so that you remember whi version is whi. the Version dropdown list allows you to oose previous versions of the photo.: F-Spot lets you store.

When you import some photos. If you don’t want to rename the version. If the Copy files to the Photos folder option is unselected then F-Spot will not copy the pictures into the Photos folder. is will open the “Really Delete?” window. cli Cancel. then cli on the Edit Image buon. To show all of your photos.    then if you want to rename the version cli OK. In the boom le the Version drop-down list oose the version of the photo that you want to delete. All of the photos are imported by default. cli Cancel. Importing When you laun F-Spot for the first time you will see the “Import” window. If the Copy files to the Photos folder option is selected then F-Spot will copy the photos into the Photos folder. cli on the photo that you want to ange. . To do so. whi is within your Pictures folder. is opens the “Import” window. When editing photos. you may make a mistake and may decide to remove that version as you no longer need it. When the loading bar says “Done Loading” all the photos in that folder and any sub-folders are then displayed in the “Import” window. Navigate to the folder containing your photos and cli Open. Duplicates are automatically detected when the Detect duplicates option is selected. You can exclude importing photos from sub-folders by deselecting the Include subfolders option. oose Select Folder from the Import Source drop-down list. e pictures are then sorted by year. If you want to delete the version cli Delete. but you can oose to import only some photos. Choosing where F-Spot saves photos When importing pictures in the “Import” window. month and then date. press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliing the photos you do not want to import. To delete a version. Aer the first laun you can import more photos by cliing on the Import buon. cli on the gray X to the right of the blue Find. You can aa tags by typing the names of the your current tags in the Atta Tags text field. Importing from file To import photos that are saved on your computer. is anges the side bar on the le to the “Edit” side bar. If you don’t want to delete the version. the Copy files to the Photos folder option determines where the photos are saved. only the photos that you have just imported are shown. then oose Delete Version. en open the Photo menu. If you want to use multiple tags then separate them with a comma.

If your camera is detected. cli on the Import buon. is will show the “Import” window. All of the photos are selected by default but you can add or remove individual photos by pressing-and-holding the Ctrl key while cliing on photos to deselect them. Finally. Once you have osen the photos that you want to import. When copying is complete. Figure . A “Select Photos to Copy from Camera…” window will open. cli on the Copy buon. For more information about tags see Organizing photos. e default is the Photos folder—this is where F-Spot saves the photos. Ubuntu should open a new window prompting you to import photos. From digital camera To import photos from a digital camera. e “Transferring Pictures” window should open.     . You can aa tags to all of them by cliing on the Atta tag option and oosing the tag in the Atta tag: drop-down list. plug your camera into the  port of your computer.: You can import all of your photos. Ensure that Open F-Spot is osen in the drop-down list and cli OK. the progress bar will display Download Complete. . Once you have osen the photos that you want to import. You can then cli the photos that you want to copy. In the Import Source drop-down list oose the option that looks like …Camera. and turn your camera on. cli OK to show your photos in F-Spot. You can ange where the files are saved in the Target location drop-down list. and will show the copying progress.

Cli the tag you want add to your photos. You can aa tags when importing photos. move the cursor to one corner of the section of the photo that you want to keep. is anges the side bar on the le of the “F-Spot” window. You might want oose the ratio that mates the ratio that you would like to print. You can make new tags by opening the Tags and oosing Create New Tag…. Straighten. you need to cli on the edge of the cropping selection box as if you . To resize the cropping selection box. So Focus. or straighten a photo. Release the the mouse buon to finish your cropping selection. You can apply as many tags to a photo as you like. Editing Images You may want to edit some of the photos you import into F-Spot. To apply tags to photos. e Parent Tag: drop-down list allows you to oose the “parent” tag for your new tag. so that the photo is not streted. as covered in the “Importing” section. All ratios work in portrait and landscape mode. you may want to remove something at the edge. and move the mouse until the edge is in the right place. is is done by oosing Custom Ratios from the Select an area to crop drop-down list. You can create custom constraints if one of the defaults does not meet your requirements.    Organizing photos F-Spot makes finding photos of the same type easier by using tags. fix red eyes. Cli-andhold the le mouse buon. some discoloring. Cropping photos You might want to crop a photo to ange the framing or remove part of the edge of the photo. first select the photos. Once you have osen your constraint. Cli Add to place a new entry on the le of the window. For example. De-saturate. Cli-and-hold the le mouse buon and drag it to the opposite corner of the section that you want to keep. Auto Color. Cli on the Crop on the le panel. cli on the photo that you want to edit and then cli on the Edit Image buon. To ange between the two. move the mouse until an arrow points to the side of the cropping selection box that you want to move. e panel will show eight options: Crop. is opens the “Selection Constraints” window. is will open up the “Create New Tag” window. Enter the name of the tag in the Name of New Tag: text field. To edit a photo. Red-eye Reduction. Some of these options are explained in more detail in the next section. then in the Select an area to crop drop-down list oose the ratio that you would like to crop with. Sepia Tone. and Adjust Colors. en right-cli on the photos and oose Atta Tag.

Move the cursor to the one corner of the subject’s eye and cli-andhold the le mouse buon as you drag the cursor to the opposite corner of the eye. Straighten If you have a photo where the subject is at an angle. F-Spot will auto crop the picture to remove any white parts that occur due to the rotation. cli on the Straighten buon. en. . Red-eye Reduction If you have taken a photo and the flash caused the subject to have red eyes. hq and Zooomr. you can straighten the photo with F-Spot. cli on the Straighten buon. is will open a window in whi you can enter your account name and password for the service. Flir. You will need to repeat the process for ea of the subject’s eyes that is affected. Moving the cursor between top right and boom le swites between portrait and landscape modes. cli on the Auto Color buon. move the mouse until an arrow points to the side of the red eye selection box that you want to move. cli the Fix buon. then oosing Export to and cliing the service that you require. en move the slider until the picture is straight again. To resize the box. Exporting to web services F-Spot allows you to export you photos to a Web Gallery. cli on the Red-eye Reduction buon. Auto Color To automatically correct the coloring of a photo. First.     . release the mouse buon. move the mouse until the edge is in the right place. en. When the box covers all of the red in one eye. were to resize the box. you can fix this problem in F-Spot. You can export to these services by selecting a picture and then opening the Photo menu. Picasa Web. When you are happy that the picture is straight. cli-and-hold the le mouse buon and move the selection box into the correct place. is box can be moved by placing the cursor into the middle of the red eye selection box until a hand cursor is shown. Cli-and-hold the le mouse buon. is will allow you to upload pictures to this service. When it is in the correct place you can release the le mouse buon. First. Folder or  and the following services: SmugMug.

open the Applications menu. then oose Sound & Video. So that you can play all videos and s. is will open the “Movie Player” window. and display the video. . To start the Movie Player. you will need to install some codecs. Please obtain legal advice if you are unsure whether a particular patent or restriction applies to a media format you wish to use in your country. Figure . then oose Movie Player. is is now enabled by default. Codecs Wating s may require Ubuntu to install a “codec. you can use the Movie Player application.: Totem plays music and videos.    Watching videos and movies To wat videos or s in Ubuntu. Legal Notice: Patent and copyright laws operate differently depending on whi country you are in. ese are located within the Multiverse repository.” whi is a piece of soware that allows your computer to understand the contents of the .

Wait for the process to finish. To finish codec installation.     . is will open the “Select Movies or Playlists” window. then oose Ubuntu Soware Center. Once it has finished you can close the “Terminal” window. $ sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/install-css. When the “Ubuntu Soware Center” window opens. Playing videos from file Open the Movie menu. select it with a double-cli and then cli the Install buon. Playing a DVD When you insert a  in the computer. then oose Play Disc… and the movie will start. . To install the codecs. Choose what application to laun” window. such as installing new soware.sh For more information on the terminal see Chapter : The Command Line Once you have typed the command.-ffmpeg gstreamer. Sudo is a way to gain temporary administrative rights to perform certain tasks. Ubuntu should open the “You have just inserted a Video . Usually. Make sure that Open Movie Player is osen in the drop-down list and then cli OK. Type the command as shown below. you also need to run a command in the terminal. use the sear box in the top right and sear for the following: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ gstreamer.-plugins-good libdvdread libdvdnav When you find ea one.-plugins-ugly gstreamer. press Enter. is will open the “Terminal” window. sudo is presented in a window for you to enter your password.-plugins-ugly-multiverse gstreamer. Open the Applications menu. enter your password then cli Authenticate to start the installation process.-plugins-base gstreamer. e video or videos will start playing. You will be asked for your password—to authorize this action. it will not be shown. e “Movie Player” window will open and the movie will start. When you enter your password in a terminal. If the “Movie Player” window is already open. type in you password and press Enter.-plugins-bad-multiverse gstreamer. then oose Open…. then oose Accessories and then oose Terminal. open Movie menu. is may open an “Authenticate” window.-plugins-bad gstreamer. open the Applications menu. Find the file or files that you want to play and cli on the Add buon. If so.

Next. then oose Sound & Video. managing playlists and podcasts. streaming Internet radio. You can also oose it from this menu to quit Rhythmbox. then Rhythmbox Music Player. Playing music Figure . and Previous) are available from the Rhythmbox Music Player icon in the notification area (typically the top right of your screen).    Listening to audio and music Ubuntu comes with the Rhythmbox Music Player for listening to your music. Starting Rhythmbox To start Rhythmbox. To quit Rhythmbox. Rhythmbox will continue to run if you oose Music ‣ Close or close the window. . and purasing songs.: Rhythmbox with a  in. A few Rhythmbox tools (su as Play. open the Applications menu. oose Music ‣ it or press Ctrl+Q.

select a tra and cli on the Play buon on the toolbar (you can also oose Control ‣ Play from the menubar or press Ctrl+Space). Choose Shared from the Side Pane for a list of shared libraries on your network. Features will vary depending on the player but common tasks like transferring songs and playlists should be supported. oose the tra and press Play. In order to play music.fm. and tra names. To listen to an Internet radio station. To import the songs into your library. and Visualization. Rhythmbox will aempt to find the correct artist. Connected players will appear in the Devices list.fm. album. make any anges if needed. e toolbar will display additional options to reload album information. Listening to streaming radio Rhythmbox is preconfigured to enable you to stream radio from various sources. Connect digital audio players Rhythmbox can connect with many popular digital audio players. and copy the tras to your library. eject the . ese include Internet broadcast stations (Radio from the Side Pane) as well as Last. you can share your music and listen to their shared music. it will appear in the list of Devices in the Side Pane. Choose Music ‣ Import Folder or press Ctrl+O on your keyboard to import a folder of songs or Import File for single songs. e Rhythmbox toolbar contains most of the controls that you will use for browsing and playing your music. To listen to music from Last. Shuffle (Control ‣ Shuffle or Ctrl+U). the Artist/Album browser (View ‣ Browse or Ctrl+B). select the  in the Devices list. configure your Account Settings. .” and is a method designed by Apple Inc. Enable and disable the Side Pane by oosing View ‣ Side Pane or F9. to let soware share media across a network. You can cli on these buons to play the next and previous songs in your library. When you insert a  into your computer. Press the Copy buon to import the songs. If you want to play a song. To play the songs on the . You can review information about the .     . oose a station from the list and cli Play. Usually shares will be listed automatically but some stands for “Digital Audio Access Protocol. Streaming radio are radio stations that are broadcast over the Internet. Select the  in the Devices list. or deselect songs that you do not want to import. you must first import music into your library. Listen to shared music If you are on the same network as other Rhythmbox users (or any music player soware with  support). Next and Previous buons are next to the Play buon. Cliing on the Play buon again will pause the song. e Rhythmbox toolbar also has options to enable or disable Repeat (Control ‣ Repeat or Ctrl+R).

Select Podcasts from the Side Pane to view all added podcasts. en cli Add. You can also delete episodes. Ctrl+P.    times you will be required to add the IP manually. . Select an episode and cli Play. Choose Music ‣ New Podcast Feed. Manage podcasts Rhythmbox can manage all of your favorite podcasts. e toolbar will display additional options to Subscribe to a new Podcast Feed and Update all feeds. Figure . To do this cli Music ‣ Connect to DAAP share…. Podcasts will be automatically downloaded at regular intervals or you can manually update feeds.: You can add and play your podcasts in Rhythmbox. en enter the IP address and the port number. or press the Subscribe buon in the toolbar to import a podcast . Cliing a shared library will enable you to browse and play songs from other computers.

oose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Playlist or Ctrl+N and give the new playlist a name. Music. Automatic Playlists will appear in your side pane with a different icon than any static playlists. If you ever want to move a song (for example to another computer). Artist. You can then either drag songs from you library to the new playlist in the side pane or right-cli on songs and oose Add to Playlist and pi the playlist. Select a song in your library and oose Music ‣ Properties. ey do not contain the actual song file. You can update any playlist by right-cliing on the name and oosing Edit…. and Podcasts. Select the Details tab and set the rating by piing the number of stars. e Preferences tool is broken into four main areas: General. To delete a song. the Library Structure of how folders are created based on your imported music.     . Playlists are either static lists of songs that are played in order or can be automatic playlists based on your specific filter criteria. Rhythmbox preferences e default configuration of Rhythmbox may not be exactly what you want. oose . ‣ Music options define the Library Location on your computer where imported music is added. and the Preferred format for imported music. select it in your library and oose Edit ‣ Move to Trash or right-cli on the song and oose Move to Trash. and Album can be anged from the Basic tab. Playba. Cli Close to save any anges. Next. ‣ Playba options allow you to customize the crossfading feature and define the buffer seing for streamed music from sources su as Internet radio and shared libraries. Other song information su as Title. Automatic Playlists are created almost the same way as static playlists —oose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Automatic Playlist. If you remove a song from a playlist (Remove from Playlist). it will remain in your library. cli Close and give the new automatic playlist a name. You can add multiple filter rules. Managing your music Rhythmbox supports creating playlists. is will move the song file to your trash. or right-cli on the file and oose Properties. Finally. Alt+Enter. To create a playlist. define the filter criteria. Rhythmbox supports seing song ratings. Choose Edit ‣ Preferences to alter the application seings. Playlists contain references to songs in your library. ‣ Podcasts options define the Download location podcast episodes and the frequency to Che for new episodes. ‣ General options include music filtering and sorting options and a configuration seing for toolbar buon labels.

  

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the song (or group of songs) from your library and drag it to a folder or to your desktop. is will make a copy in the new location.

Rhythmbox plugins
Rhythmbox comes with a variety of plugins. ese are tools that you can enable and disable that add more features to Rhythmbox. Examples include Cover art, Song Lyrics, and various music stores. A few plugins are enabled by default. To view the list of available plugins, oose Edit ‣ Plugins. e Configure Plugins window allows you to enable or disable individual plugins, view descriptions, and configure additional options if they are available for the plugin.

Music stores
Rhythmbox has three music stores whi give you access to an extremely large catalog of music with a variety of licensing options. e Jamendo store sells free, legal and unlimited music published under the six Creative Commons licenses. You can browse the catalog and play songs by oosing Jamendo in the Stores list in the side pane. More information about their catalog can be found at http://www.jamendo.com/. e Magnatune store sells music from independent musicians. ey work directly with artists and hand-pi the songs available. eir catalog is composed of high quality, non- (no copy protection) music and covers a variety of genres from Classical and Jazz to Hip Hop and Hard Ro. You can browse the catalog and play songs by oosing Magnatune in the Stores list in the side pane. More information about their catalog and subscription service can be found at http://www.magnatune.com/. e Ubuntu One Music Store sells music from major and minor music labels around the world. e store offers non- (no copy protection) songs encoded in either high quality  or  format. Ubuntu does not come with support for  playba, but the store will install the proper codecs automatically for free. You can browse the catalog, play previews, and buy songs by oosing Ubuntu One in the Stores list in the side pane. e Ubuntu One Music Store integrates with the Ubuntu One service. All purases are transferred to your personal cloud storage and then automatically copied to all of your computers so an Ubuntu One account is required. e catalog of music available for purase will vary depending on where you live in the world. More information about the Ubuntu One Music Store can be found at http://one.ubuntu.com/music/.

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    .

Audio codecs
Different audio files (e.g., , , ) require unique tools to decode them and play the contents. ese tools are called codecs. Rhythmbox will aempt to detect any missing codecs on your system so you can play all of your audio files. If a codec is missing, it will try to find the codec in online resources and guide you through installation.

Rhythmbox support
Rhythmbox is used by many users throughout the world. ere are a variety of support resources available in many languages. ‣ Choose the Help buon for a variety of support options and information about reporting Rhythmbox bugs. ‣ e Rhythmbox website: http://projects.gnome.org/rhythmbox/ ‣ e Multimedia & Video category of Ubuntu Forums: http://ubuntuforums. org/forumdisplay.php?f=

Working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
ite oen, you may need to use your computer for work. You may have a need to use a word processor to write a document. You may need to work on a spreadsheet, do calculations on a table of data or create a data art. You may want to work on slides for a presentation. In Ubuntu, you can use the OpenOffice.org suite of applications for these tasks.

Working with documents
If you need to work with documents, you can use the OpenOffice.org Word Processor. To start the word processor, open the Applications menu, oose Office, and then oose OpenOffice.org Word Processor. Ubuntu should then open the main window for the word processor.
The OpenOffice.org Word Processor is also known as the OpenOffice.org Writer. Spreadsheet is also known as Calc, and Presentation is known as Impress.

Working with spreadsheets
If you need to work with spreadsheets, you can use the OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet. To start the spreadsheet application, open the Applications menu, oose Office, and then oose OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet.

Working with presentations
If you need to work with slides for a presentation, you can use the OpenOffice.org Presentation. To start the presentation application, open the Applications menu, oose Office, and then oose OpenOffice.org Presentation.

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

Geing more help
Ea of these applications comes with a comprehensive set of help screens. If you are looking for more assistance with these applications, press the F1 key aer starting the application.

Taking notes
You can take notes in a program called Tomboy Notes. You can use it to make a shopping or a to do list. Cli Applications, then cli Accessories and cli Tomboy Notes.

You can sear all of your notes by typing a word in the Sear: text field in the main tomboy window.

Figure .: You can record information that you need to remember.

Making notes
To create a new note cli File, then cli New. e “New Note” window will open.

You can add a note to a notebook by cliing the Notebook buon and cliing the option next to the notebook that you want to move the note to. Firefox will then display a page that says something similar to “Tomboy Web Authorization Successful. type the name of the notebook in the Notebook name: text field. . is will open a “Really delete this note?” window. e “Create a new notebook” window will open. Once you have typed the notebook name cli the Create buon. otherwise cli the Cancel buon. then Notebooks. is will open the “Tomboy Preferences” window. Synchronizing You can synronize your notes with your Ubuntu One account.” is makes finding you notes quier and in a more logical location.     . en cli Preferences. If you want to synronize the notes again cli Tools and cli Synronize Notes. then in the Computer Name text field enter a name that reminds you of that computer and cli the Add is Computer buon. e “New Note” window will contain a blue title “New Note”—this can be deleted and anged to a title that makes the note more memorable. whi means that you can access them across all of your Ubuntu computers. Next cli the Connect to Server buon.ubuntu.” Once you have entered your text just close your note as all anges are automatically saved. To synronize your notes cli the Edit. e notebook will now show up in the sidebar of Tomboy Notes. You can cli and hold on the note of your oice and drag it on top of the notebook that you want to move it to.com/. Cli the Synronization tab and then in the Service drop down cli Tomboy Web. is will open a web page in Firefox you will need to enter the email address that you use for Ubuntu One and your password. To delete the note cli the red delete note buon. When they are done. cli the close buon. You can also access them from https://one.” Ba at the “Tomboy Preferences” window cli the Save buon. Organizing notes You can organize your notes in Tomboy using “Notebooks. Once the synronization is complete cli the Close buon. and cli New Notebook…. en cli the Continue buon.” Cli the Yes buon and the “Synronizing Notes…” window will show. A new window will pop up asking if you want to “synronize your notes now. To create a new note book cli File. If you do want to delete the note cli the Delete buon. Your notes will start synronizing. e main content of the note can be typed where it says “Describe your new note here.

ubuntu. Ensuring that all of your files are accessible no maer what computer you’re using is quite a difficult task. Aer you set up Ubuntu One you can continue to use your computer as you normally would. Ubuntu One can help you keep your digital life in sync. bookmarks. When you’re finished. All of your documents. If this is your first time running the Ubuntu One Preferences application. . e Account tab displays your account information like name and email address and links to more account management and tenical support resources. and your computer will be setup for synronization. For the computer that you are currently using. and notes stay in sync across all of your computers. If you don’t already have an Ubuntu  account. You can also remove computers and mobile phones from your Ubuntu One account. Ubuntu One uses the Ubuntu Single Sign On () service for user accounts. Seing up Ubuntu One To set up Ubuntu One. then oose Preferences. sool. you will have an Ubuntu  account. Ubuntu One provides all Ubuntu users with   of storage for free.    Ubuntu One It is common for many people to use multiple computers in the course of their work. e Devices tab lists all of the devices that are currently added to synronize with your account. Tomboy notes. the setup process will let you create one. a free Ubuntu One subscription. or Firefox bookmarks in sync. Ubuntu One Preferences e Ubuntu One Preferences application shows how mu of your storage capacity you are currently using as well as provides account management tools. it will add your computer to your Ubuntu One account. You might have a desktop at your office as well as a laptop for traveling or just going to a coffee shop. first open the System menu.com/). In addition. they’re all stored in your personal cloud so you can use a web browser from any computer to access all of your stuff from the Ubuntu One website (http://one. and personal life. Devices are either computers or mobile phones. music. then Ubuntu One. e same could be said for the complexity of keeping your Evolution address book. More storage capacity and contacts synronization with mobile phones is available for a monthly fee. address book contacts. you can adjust how mu of your bandwidth is used by synronization and connect or reconnect to Ubuntu One. with Ubuntu One taking care of making your data appear on all your other computers with Ubuntu One installed.

. and tenical support resources.com/blog for news on the latest features. visit the Ubuntu One website at http://one. Follow the Ubuntu One blog at http://one. More information For more information about Ubuntu One.     . its services. You can enable or disable the synronization of files. and bookmarks. purased music.com/. contacts.ubuntu. e Services tab is where you manage what Ubuntu One features synronize with your cloud storage and other computers.ubuntu.

e Sysinfo program will then open a window with information about the hardware that is part of your system. Ubuntu takes care of it on its own. whi tells your computer how to utilize a piece of hardware. To run the application.  player.” Now select the Application cli Install and enter your password to install the application. is means that the drivers can be modified by the Ubuntu developers and problems with them can be fixed. In keeping with Ubuntu’s philosophy. In other cases. oose Applications ‣ System Tools ‣ Sysinfo. You can find your card manufacturer by referring to your computer manual or looking for the specifications of your particular model on the Internet. in some cases the proprietary driver (restricted driver) provided by the company may provide beer performance or features that are not present in the open source driver wrien by the developer community. and  Corp. When the “Ubuntu Soware Center” window opens. /. e Ubuntu Soware Center houses a number of programs that allow detailed system information to be obtained. at means that you don’t have to find and install any drivers by yourself. Hardware identification To identify your hardware you can install the following application: Cli Applications. Every component in a computer requires a driver to function. However. SysInfo is one su program that you can use to find relevant information about your System devices. whether it’s the printer. scroll down to Ubuntu Soware Center. . and support for new hardware improves with every release. or graphics card. your graphics device is doing the hard work behind the scenes. your particular device may not be supported by the open source Your graphics card is the component in your computer that powers your display. When you’re watching videos on YouTube or s or simply enjoying the smooth transition effects when you maximize/minimize your windows. hard disk. Hardware Using your devices Ubuntu supports a wide range of hardware. Ubuntu comes with support for graphics devices manufactured by the above companies. use the sear box in the top right and sear for the following: “sysinfo. the drivers that are used by default for powering graphics devices are open source. out of the box. A majority of graphics cards are manufactured by three well known companies: Intel. Displays Hardware drivers A driver is some code paaged in a file. and many others.

However.g.. Ubuntu does not install restricted drivers by default but allows the user to make an informed oice. Seing up your screen resolution One of the most common display related tasks is seing up your screen resolution. is process will require an active Internet connection and will ask for your password. You can use the Ubuntu Live  to e for your device compatibility before installing Ubuntu or go online in the Ubuntu forums to ask about your particular device. To see if restricted drivers are available for your system. e Ubuntu developers prefer open source drivers because they allow the problem to be identified and fixed by anyone with knowledge in the community. it will be listed there. and when combined they all display the image that you see. When you want to add a printer. Each pixel displays a different color. unlike the open source drivers for your device. remove. you will need to make sure that it swited on. . e Monitors application shows you your monitor name and size. Another useful resource is the official online documentation (http://help. Ubuntu correctly identifies your native screen resolution by itself and sets it for you.ubuntu. and plugged into your computer with a  cable or connected to your network.com). Cliing on the displayed resolution (e. sometimes it can make a mistake and set up an undesirable resolution.     . You can add a printer by cliing on the Add Printer buon. due to a huge variety of devices available. Displays are made up of thousands of tiny pixels. For both philosophical and practical reasons. In those scenarios. Remember that restricted drivers. If a driver is provided by the company for your particular device. cli System in the top panel. you may want to install the restricted driver provided by the manufacturer. “× (:)”) would open a drop-down menu where you can select the resolution of your oice. which contains detailed information about various graphics drivers and known problems. are not maintained by Ubuntu. You can simply cli Activate and use the driver if you want. and ange printer properties by navigating to System ‣ Administration ‣ Printing. go to Administration and find Hardware Drivers. Adding a local printer If you have a printer that is connected to your computer with a  cable then this is termed a local printer. drivers yet. The native screen resolution is a measure of the amount of actual pixels on your display. Problems caused by those drivers will be resolved only when the manufacturer wishes to address them. To set up or just e your screen resolution. is will display the “Printing-localhost” window. Ubuntu development is extremely fast and it is likely that your device will be supported by open source drivers. go to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Monitors. the screen resolution and refresh rate. Connecting and using your printer You can add.

description and location. paper size and media type. Some of the options that you might see are explained. Changing printer options Printer options allow you to ange the printing quality. To set a printer as default. Ubuntu will find the printer and add it. ey can be anged by right-cliing a printer and oosing Properties. description and location. . If your printer is found automatically it will appear under Network Printer. right-click the printer that you want to set as default and then click Set As Default. If your printer can automatically do double sided printing it will probably have a duplexer. cli Apply. You can also add your network printer by entering the  address of the printer. Media source is is the tray that the paper comes from. Color Model is is very useful if you want to print in Grayscale to save on ink. If you do have a duplexer you will need to make sure the Duplexer Installed option is checked and then click the Forward buon. If Ubuntu cannot detect the printer automatically. Adding a network printer Make sure that your printer is connected to your network with an Ethernet cable and is turned on. Select Find Network Printer. Cli the “+” sign next to Network Printer. In the text fields you can now specify the printer name. You can add a printer by cliing Add Printer. Finally cli Apply. e “Printer Properties” window will show. in the le pane oose Printer Options. e “New Printer” window will open. You can now specify the printer name. Cli the printer name and then cli Forward. Ea of these should remind you of that particular printer so that you can oose the right one to use when printing. Ea of these should remind you of that particular printer so that you can oose the right one to use when printing.  In the le hand pane of the “New Printer” window any printers that you can install will be listed. or to print in Color. type in the  address of the printer in the box that reads Host: and press the Find buon. it will ask you to enter the make and model number of the printer. or Inverted Grayscale. The default printer is the one that is automatically selected when you print a file. Most printers are detected by Ubuntu automatically. Select the printer that you would like to install and cli Forward. You can now specify seings by anging the drop-down entries. Finally. Please refer to the instructions that came with the printer if you are unsure. Media Size is is the size of the paper that you put into your printer tray.

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    .

Media type Depending on the printer you can ange between: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Plain Paper Automatic Photo Paper Transparency Film  or  Media

Print ality is specifies how mu ink is used when printing, Fast Dra using the least ink and High-Resolution Photo using the most ink.

Sound
Ubuntu usually detects the audio hardware of the system automatically during installation. e audio in Ubuntu is provided by a sound server named PulseAudio. e audio preferences are easily configurable with the help of a very easy to use  whi comes preinstalled with Ubuntu. A volume icon, siing on the top right corner of the screen, provides qui access to different audio related functions. Le cliing on the volume icon shows up a slider buon whi you can move horizontally to increase/decrease volume. Le cliing on the volume icon also allows you to oose between muting the sound and Sound Preferences. Selecting Sound Preferences opens up another window whi provides access to sound themes, hardware, input and output preferences. Sound Preferences can also be found if you go to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Sound. e first tab whi shows up by default is sound themes. You can disable the existing sound theme or configure it with the options available. e hardware tab will have a list of all the sound cards available in your system. Usually there is only one listed, however, if you have a graphics card whi supports  audio it will also show up in the list. is section should be configured only if you are an advanced user. e third tab is for configuring input audio. You will be able to use this section when you have an inbuilt microphone in your system or if you add an external microphone. You can increase/decrease and mute/unmute input volume from this tab. If there is more than one input device, you will see them listed in the white box whi reads Choose a device for sound input. e output tab is used for configuring the output audio. You can increase/decrease and mute/unmute output volume and select your preferred output device. If you have more than one output device, it will be listed in the section

You can add new sound themes by installing them from Soware Center (e.g., Ubuntu Studio Sound theme.) You will get the installed sound themes from the drop down menu. You can also enable window and buon sounds. A microphone is used for making audio/video calls which are supported by applications like Skype or Empathy. It can also be used for sound recording. You should note that by default in any Ubuntu installation, the input sound is muted. You will have to manually unmute to enable your microphone to record sound or use it during audio/video calls. By default, the volume in Ubuntu is set to maximum during installation. If you change your sound output device, it will remain as default.

 

whi reads “Choose a device for sound output.” e default output hardware, whi is automatically detected by Ubuntu during installation will be selected. e Applications tab is for anging the volume for running applications. is comes in very handy if you have multiple audio programs running, for example, if you have Rhythmbox, Totem Movie Player and a webbased video playing at the same time. In this situation, you will be able to increase/decrease, mute/unmute volume for ea application from this tab.

Burning CDs and DVDs
To create a  or  go to Applications ‣ Sound and Video ‣ Brasero Disc Burner. is opens Brasero, whi gives you five options to oose from. Ea one of these is explained below.

Figure .: Brasero burns music, video, and data s and s.

Universal options
ese options apply for all projects except Disc copy and Burn Image.



    .

Adding files to a project To add files to the list, cli the Green + buon, whi opens the “Select Files” window. en navigate your way to the file you want to add, cli it, and then cli the Add buon. Repeat this process for ea file that you want to add. Saving a project To save a project so that you can finish it later, oose Project ‣ Save. e “Save Current Project” window will be opened. Choose where you would like to save the project. en, in the Name: text field, enter a name for the project so that you will remember it. Now cli the Save buon. Removing files If you want to remove a file from the project, cli the file in the list and cli on the Red - buon. To remove all the files in the list cli on the Broom shaped buon. Burning the disc When you cli the burn buon you will see the “Properties of …” window. You can specify the burning speed in the Burning speed drop down. It is best to oose the highest speed. To burn your project directly to the disc, select the Burn the image directly without saving it to disc option. With this option selected, no image file is created and no files are saved to the hard disk. e Simulate before burning option is useful if you encounter problems burning discs. Selecting this option allows you to simulate the disc burning process without actually writing data to a disc—a wasteful process if your computer isn’t writing data correctly. If the simulation is successful, Brasero will burn the disc aer a ten second pause. During that ten second pause, you have the option to cancel the burning process. Blanking a disk If you are using a disc that has  wrien on it and you have used it before, then you can blank it so that you can use it again. Doing this will cause you to lose all of the data currently on the disc. To blank a disc, open the Tools menu, then oose Blank. e “Disc Blanking” window will be open. In the Select a disc drop down oose the disc that you would like to blank. You can enable the Fast blank option if you would like to shorten the amount of time to perform the blanking process. However, selecting this option will not fully remove the files; if you have any sensitive data on your disc, it would be best not to enable the Fast blank option. Once the disc is blank the you will see e disc was successfully blanked. Cli the Close buon to finish.
 stands for Re-Writable which means that disc can be used more than once. Icons of a broom are oen used in Ubuntu to represent clearing a text field or returning something to its default state.

Temporary files are saved in the /tmp folder by default. Should you wish to save these files in another location, you will need to change the seing in the Temporary files drop down menu. Under normal conditions, you should not need to change this seing.

en cli the Burn buon. In the drop down at the boom of the main “Brasero” window make sure that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. then type the name of the folder. So that ea file does not play straight aer ea other you can add a two second pause aer a file. You can start a data project by cliing Project then cliing New Project and then New Data Project. In the Select disc to copy drop-down oose the disc to copy. In the drop down at the boom of the main “Brasero” window make sure that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. the disc that you want to copy to must be in the / drive. If you have only one drive you will need to make an image and then burn it to a disc. Video project If you want to make a  of your family videos it would be best to make a video project. You can start a video project by cliing Project. In the drop down at the boom of the main “Brasero” window make sure that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. is opens a “Split Tra” window. Disc copy You can copy a disc cliing Project. is opens the “Copy /” window. . Once you have split the tra cli OK. is can be done by cliing the file and then cliing the || buon. In the Select a disc to write to drop-down either oose image file or the disc that you want to copy to.  Audio project If you record your own music. Data project If you want to make a ba up of your documents or photos it would be best to make a data project. You can start an audio project by cliing Project. then New Project and then New Video Project. You can slice files into parts by cliing the Knife buon. e Method drop down gives you four options ea one of these lets you split the tra in a different way. then you may want to transfer this music onto an audio  so your friends and family can listen. If you want to add a folder you can cli the Folder picture. then New Project and then Disc copy. then New Project and then New Audio Project. If you have two / drives you can copy a disc from one to the other. en cli the Burn buon. en cli the Burn buon.

visit https://wiki. then cli Create Image. When the process is complete cli Close. . Go to Applications ‣ Graphics ‣ Simple Scan. follow these steps: . Burn image To burn an image. . To use a  webcam. . Ubuntu will simply detect your scanner and you should just be able to use it. also have webcams built into the monitors. Image file You can ange where the image file is saved by cliing Properties. you can ange this by cliing the + next to Browse for other folders .     . Navigate your way to the image you wish to burn. Scanning text and images Most of the time. Cheese can capture pictures with your webcam and VLC media player can capture video streaming from your webcam. and then cli Open. Brasero will open the “Creating Image” and will display the job progress. e default save location is your home folder.com/Webcam for help. Place what you want to scan on the scanner. Cli the Paper Icon to add a another page.ubuntu. Once you have osen where you want to save it cli Close. Cli Save to save. . and then Burn Image. You can edit the name of the file in the Name: text field. Almost all new webcams are detected by Ubuntu automatically. In the Select a disc to write to drop-down menu. Cli Scan. You can configure webcams for individual applications su as Skype and Empathy from the application’s setup menu. You can install these from the Ubuntu Soware Center. cli on it. su as Apple desktops. Ba in the “Copy /” window cli Create Image. Using a webcam Webcams oen come built into laptops and netbooks. open the Project ‣ New Project. . Cli on the Cli here to select a disc image drop-down and the “Select Disc Image” window will appear. There are quite a few applications which are useful for webcams. this shows the “Location for Image File”. Brasero will open the “Image Burning Setup” window. plug it into an open  port in your computer. e rest of the webcams typically use  connections. cli on the disc to whi you’d like to write. To scan a document. Some computers. For webcams whi do not work right away with Ubuntu.

Bluetooth Bluetooth is widely used on  devices. mobile phones. Other devices Firewire Firewire is a special type of port that makes use of Firewire tenology to transfer data.. music players. Ubuntu can’t find my scanner ere are a few reason why Ubuntu may give you a “No devices available message”: ‣ Your scanner is not supported in Ubuntu. To find out more about Kino. . If you want to import video from your camcorder you can do so by connecting your camcorder to the Firewire port. headsets. Che https://wiki.kinodv. listening to music. ‣ e driver for your scanner is not being automatically loaded. You can access the Bluetooth preferences by le-cliing on the Bluetooth icon on the right hand side of the top panel.  Does my scanner work with Ubuntu? ere are three ways to see if you scanner works in Ubuntu: .. it is likely that it will just work.ubuntu. desktops and laptops for data transfer. is port is generally used by camcorders and digital cameras.  project listing of supported scanners. visit http:// www. Simply plug it in. e Bluetooth preferences can also be accessed from System ‣ Preferences ‣ Bluetooth. . If it is a newer  scanner. When you cli Forward. e most common type of scanner not supported is old parallel port or Lexmark All-in-One printer/scanner/faxes. It is usually located next to the volume icon. oose the option that reads Setup new device. mouses.com/HardwareSupportComponentsScanners to find out whi scanners work with Ubuntu. Le-cliing on the Bluetooth icon opens a popup menu with several oices.org/. su as an option to Turn off Bluetooth. All modern operating systems support Bluetooth and Ubuntu is no exception. You will need to install a program called Kino whi is available in the Ubuntu Soware Center. playing games and for various other activities. If you want to setup a new device su as a mobile phone to synronize with your computer. Ubuntu will open the second screen whi will show you how . Ubuntu will then open a window for new device setup. e  (Scanner Access Now Easy) project provides most of the ba-ends to the scanning soware on Ubuntu.

if you want your Bluetooth device to find your Ubuntu system. en. In Ubuntu. . Once the device has been paired. You will need to enter this  on the device you will be pairing with Ubuntu. many Bluetooth devices are present within the range of your system.: The Bluetooth applet menu. select the  number by selecting PIN options. Cli on the required Bluetooth device from the list of devices. Figure . e list of available devices might take a minute or so to appear on the screen as your system will be scanning for the devices.     . You can also add a fancy name for your Bluetoothenabled Ubuntu system by anging the text under Friendly Name. Ubuntu will open the “Setup completed” screen. your computer is hidden by default for security reasons. is means that your Ubuntu system can sear other Bluetooth enabled systems but they cannot sear for your Ubuntu system. You can do this by selecting the option “Make computer discoverable” in Bluetooth preferences. You will have to enable the option. ree predefined  numbers are available but you can create a custom  if you like. e scan and display is in real time. whi means that every device will be displayed as soon as it is found.

You will need to use the Synaptic Package Manager (discussed towards the end of this chapter) to install these packages. Cli the Get Soware buon on the le to Some soware packages have more advanced purposes. Ubuntu keeps tra of many different soware paages. For example. At some point you may decide to test out an alternative web browser. or try some new games (for example). and is based on the concept of repositories. a range of default applications are available in Ubuntu that are suitable for many everyday tasks. Using the Ubuntu Soware Center e Soware Center can be used to install most applications that are available in the official Ubuntu repositories. or otherwise sear the Internet for a free alternative (if one is available). you may prefer to browse through the extensive library of available applications. e Soware Center window has two parts—a list of sections on the le. followed by the user proceeding through a number of installation prompts and options. e correct installation file must then be downloaded and located on the computer. To start the Soware Center. whi is a category of soware. You automatically have access to the official Ubuntu repositories when the operating system is installed. Alternatively. and to do any of these you will need to install new soware. the “Games” department contains “Sudoku. edit an audio file. While at times a similar process may be used for installing soware in Ubuntu. and cannot be installed using the Soware Center. such as programming or running a server. Soware Management Soware management in Ubuntu As discussed in Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. Differences from other operating systems Most other operating systems generally require a user to purase commercial soware (online or through a physical store). additional repositories can be added later in order to access more soware. A repository can be thought of as a catalog of paages that are available for downloading from a single location. is is a central location for accessing new soware. set up a different email client. Ea icon represents a department. . open the Applications menu and oose Ubuntu Soware Center. and a set of icons on the right. however. and finding and installing what you are aer is designed to be as qui and easy as possible. the quiest and easiest way to find and install new applications is through the Ubuntu Soware Center.” e sections on the le side of the window represent your current view of the Soware Center’s catalog. and try any that cat your interest.

you may already know a specific name (for example. . the “Games” department has subcategories for “Simulation” and “Card Games. When you select a department.: You can install and remove applications from your computer using the Soware Center. the “sound and video” category includes a number of different soware applications su as video converters. Figure . you can browse the Soware Center catalog by cliing on the department that reflects the category of soware you are aer. To help you find the right application.     . Some departments have sub-categories—for example.” Check out the Featured Applications department to see a list of highly recommended applications. “underbird” is a popular email client). see soware that is available to install. Finding soware If you are looking for an application. and music players). audio editors. and Installed Soware to see a list of soware that is already installed on your computer. you will be shown a list of applications that fit within that category. or alternatively use the built-in sear at the top-right of the window to look for specific names or keywords. or otherwise you may just have a general category in mind (for example.

you will see an animated icon of rotating arrows to the le of the In Progress buon in the sidebar. If you would like to read more about the soware paage before installing it. cliing the In Progress buon on the le will take you to a summary of all operations that are currently processing. you can also cli Install from this page. Ubuntu will usually place an entry in your Applications menu under the relevant sub-menu—its exact location will depend on the purpose of the application. as well as the navigational buons (oen referred to as “breadcrumbs”) next to these. First. this may mean that your account is not authorized to install soware on the computer. Type your password into the authentication window that appears. see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. Installing soware Installing applications is practically only one cli away. If the error continues. . as well as a screenshot and a web link when available. Type your password into the authentication window that appears. Cli the Install buon to the right of the selected paage. Removing soware Removing applications is very similar to installing them. in order to prevent someone without administrator access from making unauthorized anges to your computer. Wait until the paage is finished installing. which is discussed further in the Synaptic Package Manager section below. Once you have found an application that you would like to try: . and then: . Note that you will need to be connected to the Internet for the Soware Center to work. During the installation (or removal) of soware paages. If you like. Once the Soware Center has finished installing an application. Here you can also cli the X icon to cancel any operation. Removing soware also requires that you enter your password to help protect your computer against unauthorized anges. At any time. . If you receive an “Authentication Failure” message aer typing in your password. e paage will then be queued for removal. To learn how to set up your connection. is will take you to a short description of the application. . and will appear under the In Progress section in the sidebar. cli on the Installed Soware buon in the Soware Center’s sidebar. If you wish to proceed. In some cases an application will appear in one of the System ‣ Preferences or System ‣ Administration menus instead. it is now ready to be used. first cli on More Info. Cli the Remove buon to the right of the selected application. You can do this with the more advanced Synaptic Package Manager.   To move through categories you can use the ba and forward buons at the top of the window. . You are required to enter it whenever installing new soware. you will need to purge it. Scroll down to the application you wish to remove (or use the sear field to quily find it). To completely remove a package and all its configuration. you can now go ba to the main browsing window and queue additional soware paages to be installed by following the steps above. check that you typed it correctly by trying again. is is the same password you use to log in to your account.

ere are five tabs at the top of this window: Ubuntu Soware. You will be asked to enter your password. e Source code option should not be selected unless you have experience with building applications from source. four of these are enabled—main. and Statistics. ‣ Canonical-supported open source soware (main): is repository contains all the open-source paages that are maintained by Canonical. If this happens. ‣ Proprietary drivers for devices (restricted): is repository contains proprietary drivers. ‣ Source code: is repository contains the source code that is used to build the soware paages from some of the other repositories. we will look at how to manage your repositories through Soware Sources. ea containing different types of paages. When Ubuntu is first installed. . or if trying to use the latest version of an application before it is released for Ubuntu. Soware Sources e Soware Center lists only those applications that are available in your enabled repositories. Payment is not required to use these packages. ‣ Soware restricted by copyright or legal issues (multiverse): is repository contains soware that may be protected from use in some states or countries by copyright or licensing laws. First. Other Soware. Authentication. restricted. Simply go to Edit ‣ Soware Sources. or adding extra repositories. You can also open Soware Sources from the Soware Center. Updates. universe. and multiverse. Managing the official repositories e Ubuntu Soware tab lists the five official Ubuntu repositories. ‣ Community-maintained open source soware (universe): is repository contains all the open-source paages that are developed and maintained by the Ubuntu community. You may also require source files when using a custom kernel. rather than monetary cost. Closed-source packages are sometimes referred to as non-free. This is a reference to freedom of speech. To open this. As this is a more advanced area. Managing additional soware Although the Soware Center provides a large library of applications to oose from. whi may be required to utilize the full capabilities of some of your devices or hardware. By using this repository you assume responsibility for the usage of any paages that you install. At times. Building applications from source is an advanced process for creating packages. Removing a paage will also update your menus accordingly. Repositories can be added or removed through the Soware Sources application. cli System ‣ Administration ‣ Soware Sources in the top panel. a particular application you are aer may not be available in these repositories. it is important to understand some alternative methods for accessing and installing soware in Ubuntu. and usually only concerns developers. initially only those paages available within the official Ubuntu repositories are listed. then the “Soware Sources” window will open.     . su as downloading an installation file manually from the Internet. it will not be covered in this manual.

third-party repositories to your list of soware sources. select one then cli Choose Server when you are finished. insert the disc into your computer’s  drive. and select Other from the menu. oose your location in the “Server Selection” window. digital projects. Adding more soware repositories Ubuntu makes it easy to add additional. they host an exact copy of all the files contained in the official Ubuntu repositories. A  is a Personal Package Archive. then select the one with the fastest speed. These are online repositories used to host the latest versions of soware packages.” Underneath will be a short paragraph containing a unique  in the form of ppa:test-ppa/example. you will see a heading to the le called “Adding this PPA to your system. Ubuntu provides a tool for selecting the server that provides the fastest connection with your computer. If you are happy with the automatic selection. ese allow you to install soware paages that are not available in the official repositories. the connection speed may vary. Providing you know the web address of a ’s Launpad site. To do so. if you do not have a working Internet connection. then right-cli and oose copy. . First. you can select the server that will give you the best possible download speeds. On the Launpad site for a . at is. To do this. Highlight this  by selecting it with your mouse. cli Choose Server to return to the “Soware Sources” window. e most common repositories added to Ubuntu are called s. Finally. Once this e box is tied. you may want to consider the following: ‣ Connection speed. Depending on the physical distance between you and a server. and applications will be installable straight from the  through the Soware Center. cli the dropdown box next to “Download from:” in the “Soware Sources” window. To select a server by country. ‣ Location. cli the Select Best Server buon in the upper right. and automatically be notified whenever updates for these paages are available. When selecting a server. In the “Server Selection” window that appears. you will need to use the Other Soware tab in the “Soware Sources” window. Ubuntu can install some soware paages straight from your installation . and other applications. Your computer will now aempt a connection with all the available servers. Choosing a server that is close to your location will oen provide the best connection speed. If there are multiple servers available in your location.   Selecting the best soware server Ubuntu grants permission to many servers all across the world to act as mirrors. adding it to your list of soware sources is relatively simple. In the Ubuntu Soware tab. the disc will be treated just like an online repository. then select the e box next to Installable from the /.

Cli Reload. and wait while Ubuntu refreshes all of your enabled repositories (including this new one you just added). You can now open the Soware Center and install applications from this . you have just added a  to your list of soware sources. Right-cli on the empty space in this text field and select Paste. and it now needs to connect to that repository and download a list of the paages that it provides. with a tied e box in front meaning it is enabled. by adding this PPA to your list of soware sources. . A new window will appear. If you cli Close in the boom right corner of this window. it would then be easy to install and update this application through the Soware Center.” is is because you have just added a new repository to Ubuntu. Figure . Cli Add Source to return to the “Soware Sources” window. a message will appear informing you that “e information about available soware is outof-date. Return to the “Soware Sources” window. Congratulations. You will see a new entry has been added to the list of sources in this window.: This is an example of the Launchpad page for the Lifesaver PPA. Lifesaver is an application that is not available in the official Ubuntu repositories. and you will see the words “Apt line:” followed by a text field. and you should see the  appear that you copied from the s Launpad site earlier.     . When it has finished. the window will close automatically. However. and in the Other Soware tab cli Add… at the boom.

com/community/SynapticHowto. paage size. For example. head to https://help. navigate to System ‣ Administration ‣ Synaptic Paage Manager. it provides the following options: ‣ Install any paage in your repositories. ‣ Che properties of any paage. su as the version number. you are able to specify the kinds of updates you wish to install on your system. including any stored preferences or configuration files (whi are oen le behind when a paage is removed). and generally not essential for a new user just geing started with Ubuntu. and usually depends on your preferences around stability. ‣ Important security updates: ese updates are highly recommended to ensure your system remains as secure as possible. In many cases you can even select whi version of a paage to install. contained files. but also allows for more control over your paages. ‣ Remove any paage you no longer need. is may be useful if you wish to revert a paage to its default state. To open the Synaptic Paage Manager. or require more support managing the soware on your system. dependencies. It can be used to perform the same tasks as the Ubuntu Soware Center. ‣ Update a paage when a newer version is released. If you want to read more information on how to use this program. Ubuntu updates In this section. ‣ Reinstall a paage. ‣ Fix broken paages. Updates and Upgrades Ubuntu also allows you to decide how to manage paage updates through the Updates tab in the Soware Sources window. As explained above. Synaptic Package Manager e Synaptic Paage Manager is a more advanced tool for managing soware in Ubuntu. . versus having access to the latest developments. su as installing and removing applications. or repair any conflicts or damaged files. ese are enabled by default. and more.ubuntu.   in the same way you previously installed programs from the default Ubuntu repositories. Synaptic is a more complex tool than the Soware Center. although this option is only available if there are multiple versions in the repository. ‣ Purge a paage to completely remove it.

at the risk of installing an update that has unresolved bugs or conflicts. However. you may want to consider selecting this option. is option is also enabled by default. and so this option is also not enabled by default. Long Term Support releases are intended to be the most stable releases available. ‣ Long Term Support releases only: Choose this option if you need a release that will be more stable and have support for a longer time. but will mean your paages always have the most recent bug fixes or minor updates that have been tested and approved. ‣ Pre-released updates: is option is for those who would rather remain up-to-date with the very latest releases of applications.     . If you use Ubuntu for business purposes. therefore this option is not enabled by default. Every  months. su as the frequency with whi it es for new paages. is option is recommended for normal home users. Some bugs may occur when using these updates. ‣ Normal releases: Choose this if you always want to have the latest Ubuntu release. and are supported for a longer period of time. ‣ Unsupported updates: ese are updates that have not yet been fully tested and reviewed by Canonical. download them only. Canonical will release a new version of the Ubuntu operating system. or just notify you about them. . ‣ Recommended updates: ese updates are not as important for keeping your system secure. Release upgrade Here you can decide whi system upgrades you would like to be notified about. Automatic updates e middle section of this window allows you to customize how your system manages updates. as well as whether it should install important updates right away (without asking for your permission). if this happens it is possible to “roll-ba” to a previous version of a paage through Synaptic Paage Manager. Note that it is possible that you will encounter problems with these updated applications. regardless of whether it is a Long Term Support release or not. ‣ Never: Choose this if you would rather not be notified about any new Ubuntu releases. These are called normal releases. Every four normal releases—or  months —Canonical releases a Long Term Support (LTS) release.

followed by a blinking blo. e second. in order to fully realize the power of Ubuntu. and mu older. menus. In  environments the term “folder” is commonly used to describe a place where files are stored. cd or pwd) throughout this chapter. including Ubuntu. most day-to-day activities can be completed without ever needing to open the terminal. ‣ A command-line interface is sometimes a faster way to accomplish a task.. followed by the current directory. However. It is a method of controlling some aspects of Ubuntu using only commands that you type on the keyboard. it is oen easier to perform operations on many files at once using the terminal. and toolbars that you cli to get things done.e. the terminal is a powerful and invaluable tool that can be used to perform many useful tasks. However. ‣ Learning the command-line interface is the first step towards more advanced troubleshooting. In  environments the term “directory” is used to describe the same thing and this metaphor is exposed in many commands (i. resulting in the desired action. What is the terminal? Most operating systems. Opening the Terminal You can open the terminal by cliing Applications ‣ Accessories ‣ Terminal. There are different types of shells that accept slightly different commands. . e terminal is Ubuntu’s command-line interface. The most popular is called “bash. knowledge of the command-line will be essential. If you are interested in becoming a developer or an advanced Ubuntu user. we have focused primarily on the graphical desktop user interface. is is the desktop. For example: ‣ Troubleshooting any difficulties that may arise when using Ubuntu sometimes requires you to use the terminal. e first is a graphical user interface (). windows. For example. you may want to learn how to use the terminal. it will be largely blank apart from some text at the top le of the screen. have two types of user interfaces. and soware development skills. e tilde (~) means that the current directory is your The terminal gives you access to what is called a shell. Why would I want to use the terminal? For the average Ubuntu user. is text is your prompt—it displays your login name and your computer’s name. The Command Line Introduction to the terminal roughout this manual.” and is the default shell in Ubuntu. When you type a command in the terminal the shell interprets this command. When the terminal window opens. system administration. type of interface is the command-line interface ().

e terminal should display /home/yourusername.” You have just used the pwd (print working directory) command. for example. Parameters are extra segments of text. These usually take the form of -h or --help.     .: The default terminal window allows you to run hundreds of useful commands. the blinking blo is the cursor—this marks where text will be entered as you type. possibly followed by some parameters. Ubuntu file system structure Ubuntu uses the Linux file system. type pwd and press Enter. roughout the second part of this manual we will continue to refer to the command line. as well as a list of any other parameters that can be used with that command. Ea of these folders contain important system files that cannot be modified unless you are running as the root user or use sudo. All commands in the terminal follow the same approa. there are almost infinite possibilities available to you when using the command-line interface in Ubuntu. home directory. is text is called the “output. e rest of this apter covers some very common uses of the terminal. although this depends on the command. and press Enter to perform the specified action. However. using the cd command to ange your current directory (see below) will ange the prompt. usually added at the end of a command. but will not display any output. that change how the command itself is interpreted. Finally. Oen some output will be displayed that confirms the action was completed successfully. For example. particularly when discussing steps involved in troubleshooting and the more advanced management of your computer. and the output that was displayed shows the current directory. whi is based on a series of folders in the root directory. Type in the name of a command. is restriction exists for both security and safety reasons: computer viruses will . To test things out. Figure . In fact. --help can be added to most commands to display a short description of the command.

Here are the contents of some system essential directories: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ & /sbin: Many essential system programs System-wide configuration files /home: Ea user will have a subdirectory to store personal files (for example /home/your-username) /lib: Library files.dll files on Windows /media: Removable media ( and  drives) will be mounted in this directory /root: is contains the root user’s files (not to be confused with the root directory) /usr: Pronounced ‘user’. Below are some of the most important directories.    not be able to ange the core system files. similar to . e root directory—denoted by /—contains all other directories and files.: Some of the most important directories in the root file system. it contains most program files (not to be confused with ea user’s home directory) /var/log: Contains log files wrien by many programs /bin /etc: Figure . . and users should not be able to accidentally damage anything vital.

e path is a directory’s full name—it describes a way to navigate the directory from anywhere in the system. /home/your-username/. or by pressing Ctrl+H. Unmounting a device means to disassociate the device from its directory. a —it needs to be mounted before it is accessible. Every directory has a path. In the Nautilus you can show hidden files and directories by selecting View ‣ Show Hidden Files. Mounting and unmounting removable devices. the path goes into the home directory . a folder is automatically created for it in the media directory and you are given the appropriate permissions to be able to read and write to the device. e path. For example.evolution stores preferences used by the Evolution mail application. When you are done using a device. . allowing you to navigate to the directory to access the device’s files. Desktop—from the your-username directory. the directory /home/your-username/Desktop contains all the files that are on your Ubuntu desktop. a  flash drive. Any time you add storage media to your computer—an internal or external hard drive. your-username/—from the home directory. can be broken down into a few pieces: . /home/your-username/Desktop. the path ends up in the Desktop directory Every directory in Ubuntu has a complete path that starts with the / (the root directory) and ends in the directory’s own name. For example. ese are usually only visible with a special command or by selecting a specific option. the path goes into the yourusername directory . You shouldn’t have to physically navigate to the media directory in Ubuntu.     . home/—from the root directory. you can unmount it. Mounting a device means to associate a directory name with the device. unless you oose to do so from the command line. allowing you to eject it. Directories and files that begin with a period are hidden directories. /—indicates that the path starts at the root directory . When a device su as a  flash drive or a media player is mounted in Ubuntu. Most File Managers will automatically add a shortcut to the mounted device in its side bar so it’s easy for you to get to. ere are many hidden directories in your home folder used to store program preferences.

otherwise the command will not work. It allows you to navigate from your current working directory to another of your oosing. the terminal will think that you are trying to ange to a directory named ~/Music/The. $ pwd /home/your-username/ e cd command is short for ange directory.mp3 baby-blue. ~ is a special name that always refers to your home directory. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band/" If you leave out the quotation marks.mp3 Moving things around e mv command is used to move a file from one directory to another.    Geing started with the command line Navigating directories e pwd command is short for print working directory. will navigate to the /home directory.mp3 frub. you must remember to include the capital leer whenever referring to it in the terminal. if your current working directory is /home/your-username then typing cd . $ ls alligator-pie. you will need to put quotation marks around the path: $ cd ~/"Music/The Beatles/Sgt. .. You can type cd ~ to navigate to your home directory from anywhere in the system. For example. $ mv /dmb/big-whiskey/grux. (two periods) is a special name that refers to the directory’s “parent”—the directory one level above it in the directory tree.mp3 Note that the terminal is case-sensitive. e cp command is used to copy a file from one directory into another. It can be used to display the directory you are currently in.mp3 /home/john You can also use the mv command to rename a file. Geing a list of files e ls command is used to get a list of all the files and directories that exist inside the current directory. Note that the prompt (the text just before the blinking cursor) also displays your current directory. if you have a directory called Directory1.mp3 squirm. e name . ere are some special directory names. For example.. $ cd /directory/you/want/to/go/to/ If there are spaces in one of the directories. For example: $ mv grux.

whereas your primary user account does not. except it is used to delete folders. to delete a file named deleteme. For example. you would need to include the path to the file. and is used to create a new directory in the current directory or another specified location. you can use the sudo command (for command line applications) and gksudo to borrow root account privileges . you are specifying the file’s location. Rather than logging out of your primary user account and then logging ba in as root (whi can be very dangerous).. use the following command: $ rm /tmp/example/deleteme. $ rmdir /tmp/example/newdirectory/ Introducing sudo When you installed Ubuntu.e. is root account has the necessary privileges required for modifying system files and seings. For example.txt To delete a file located in another directory (i. this command will make a directory called newdirectory inside the current directory: $ mkdir newdirectory e following command will ignore your current directory. $ cp /dmb/big-whiskey/grux. In other words.txt located in the current directory: $ rm deleteme. this command would delete the directory called newdirectory that we created earlier. the system automatically created two user accounts: your primary user account.mp3 /media/ipod Creating directories e mkdir command is short for make directory. not inside your current working directory). to delete the file deleteme.     . For example. $ cd /tmp/example/newdirectory Deleting files and directories e rm command is used to delete files.txt located in the /tmp/example/ directory. and instead make one called newdirectory inside a hypothetical directory called /tmp/example/: $ mkdir /tmp/example/newdirectory You could then navigate to this new directory by using the cd command. For example.txt e rmdir command is similar to the rm command. and a “root” account that operates behind the scenes.

as well as any additional repositories added by the user (see Chapter : Soware Management for more information on repositories). you will be prompted to enter your password. and is set up during the Ubuntu installation process. however. . For example. It is best to run apt-get update prior to running apt-get upgrade. Using apt-get e apt-get command is used for installing and removing paages from your system. Managing soware through the terminal In Ubuntu there are many ways to manage your soware. You will not see any dots.. creating or removing new users. e various apt commands should be prefixed with the sudo command. You can find out more about using sudo in Chapter : Security. as well as download and install any new updates for your soware.. $ gksudo gedit [sudo] password for username: Opening gedit. Updating and upgrading e apt-get update command can be used to quily refresh the list of paages that are available in the default Ubuntu repositories. the following command would open Ubuntu’s default text editor gedit with root privileges.    for performing administrative tasks su as installing or removing soware. e sudo command gives you virtually unlimited access to important system files and seings. and modifying system files. stars. You will then be able to edit important system files that would otherwise be protected. When using sudo in the terminal. since they typically require root privileges. many people prefer to use the apt command (Advanced Paaging Tool) to manage their soware from within the terminal. Graphical tools su as the Ubuntu Soware Center and Synaptic Paage Manager were discussed in Chapter : Soware Management. $ sudo apt-get update You can then use apt-get upgrade to download and install any available updates for your currently installed paages. the most commonly used of whi is apt-get. or other characters appearing in the terminal as you type your password—this is an extra security feature to help protect your password from any prying eyes. It can also be used to refresh the list of paages available in the repositories. It is important you only use sudo if you understand what you are doing. as this will ensure you are geing the most recent updates available for your soware. e apt command is extremely versatile and encompasses several tools. e password you use with sudo is the same password that you use to log in to your primary account.

s.. In most cases it will be necessary to use sudo when installing soware. After this operation. press n and then Enter. any dependencies that were installed alongside the original paage are not also automatically removed. and how mu extra disk space will be used (or freed). or personal . 0 newly installed. ese paages sit in your system and can build up over time. taking up disk space. Do you want to continue [Y/n]? e terminal will give you a summary of what paages are to be upgraded. Done Building dependency tree Reading state information. 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. press y and then Enter. A simple way to clean up your system is to use the apt-get autoremove command. When you remove a paage in Ubuntu.     . If you do not want to proceed with the installation. Installing and removing e following command would be used to install  media player using apt-get: $ sudo apt-get install vlc [sudo] password for username: To remove . 24. and the upgrades will be downloaded and installed for you. so expect to see sudo appearing frequently. Ubuntu will automatically download and install them for you at the same time (provided the correct paages can be found in your repositories). as you will be modifying protected parts of your system.. Adding extra soware repositories Sometimes you might want to install some soware that isn’t in the official repositories but may be available in a what’s called a . Done The following packages will be upgraded: tzdata 1 upgraded.. To proceed with the installation. you would type: $ sudo apt-get remove vlc [sudo] password for username: Notice the sudo command before the apt-get command. the download size. $ sudo apt-get upgrade Reading package lists. Many of the commands we will be using from here on require root access. $ sudo apt-get autoremove Another useful cleaning command is aptget autoclean which removes cache files le over from downloading packages. Need to get 683kB of archives.. and then ask you to confirm before continuing. is will select and remove any paages that were automatically installed but no longer required.6kB disk space will be freed. Cleaning up your system Oen soware in Ubuntu depends on other paages being installed on your system in order to run correctly. If you aempt to install a new paage and these dependencies are not already installed.

.    paage arives. To add a PPA repository: $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:example/ppa Once you have installed the  you may install soware from it in the usual way using the apt-get install command. contain soware that you can install by adding that  to your system.

.

it is automatically configured for a single person to use. or run them. modify. Security is apter discusses ways to keep your Ubuntu computer secure. you can also protect files from being viewed or modified by users without administrative privileges. If necessary.ubuntu. Why Ubuntu is safe Ubuntu is secure by default for a number of reasons: ‣ Ubuntu clearly distinguishes between normal users and administrative users. Ubuntu controls access to files on your computer through a system of “permissions. For instance.com/ community/FilePermissions.” Permissions are seings that you can configure to control exactly how files on your computer are accessed and used. ‣ Many viruses designed to primarily target Windows-based systems do not affect Ubuntu systems. . files and folders can be set up so that only specific users can view. ea user can have separate seings. Basic Security concepts and procedures When Ubuntu is installed. Permissions In Ubuntu. visit https://help. but do not want those users to be able to edit the file. is way. documents. If more than one person will use the computer with Ubuntu. ‣ Open-source soware like Ubuntu allows security flaws to be easily detected. and other files. See Users and groups to learn more about creating additional users accounts. you might wish to share an important file with other users. whi contains no false or malicious soware. ‣ Security pates for open-source soware like Ubuntu are oen released quily. ea person should have her or his own user account. To learn more about modifying permissions. ‣ Soware for Ubuntu is kept in a secure online repository.

you may want to lo the screen. . or various community repositories (su as getdeb. whi can be added as described in Chapter : Soware Management. Trusting third party sources Normally. To lo the screen: ‣ Cli the session menu icon in the right corner of the top panel.net and Launpad s. You should apply these updates regularly. We recommend a password with more than the minimum number of aracters. or when you need a newer version of the one available in the Ubuntu repositories. Loing your screen prevents anyone from using your computer until your password is entered. Locking the screen When you leave your computer unaended. and be sure you know exactly what you’re installing on your computer. the minimum length of a password in Ubuntu is four aracters. Using only recognized sources su as a project’s site. See Chapter : Soware Management to learn how to update your Ubuntu computer with the latest security updates and pates. Alternately. System updates Good security depends on an up-to-date system. By default. it is occasionally necessary to add soware from other sources. or ‣ press Ctrl+Alt+L to lo the screen. When using a third party source. common words or common phrases. Additional repositories are available from sites su as getdeb.net) is more secure than downloading applications from an arbitrary (and perhaps less reputable) source. you may need to do this when an application is not available in the Ubuntu repositories. However. you can build applications from their source code (an advanced method of installing and using applications). whi downloads soware from the Ubuntu repositories as described in Chapter : Soware Management. You can download the  paages for some applications from their respective project sites on the Internet. consider its trustworthiness. . is keyboard shortcut can be anged in System ‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard Shortcuts. you will add applications to your computer via the Soware Center. then select Lo Screen.     . Your password should not contain names. Passwords You can use a strong password to increase the security of your computer. Ubuntu provides free soware and security updates. For example.

Fill in the requested information. To adjust the user and group seings cli the keys icon next the phrase “Cli to make anges. Ubuntu also supports user groups. A window will appear that has two fields. then cli OK. Privileges you grant to the new user can be altered in “Users Seings”. whi allow you to administer permissions for multiple users at the same time.: Add. then cli OK.  Users and groups Like most operating systems. Managing users You can manage users and groups using the Users and Groups administration application. remove and change the user accounts. To find this application. e “Short Name“ field is for the actual username. By default. Figure . Fill out the fields. a user’s files are only accessible by that user. Adding a user Cli the Add buon whi appears underneath a list of the current user accounts that have already been created.” You will need to input your password in order to make anges to user and group seings. cli System ‣ Administration ‣ Users and Groups. A new dialog box will appear asking you to enter a password for the user you have just created. You can configure some files and folders to be accessible only by a user and a group. e “Name“ field field is for a friendly display name. system files are only accessible by the root user. Every user in Ubuntu is a member of at least one group—the group’s name is the same as the name of the user. Ubuntu allows you to create separate user accounts for ea person that use the computer. A user can also be a member of additional groups. .

whi appears next to ea of following options: ‣ Account type: ‣ Password: For more advanced user options cli on the Advanced Settings buon.html . Select and deselect the users as required. en close the window. Cli OK to save the anges. Modifying a user Cli on the name of a user in the list of users. For more information on using the command line to modify users and groups. then cli on the Change… buon.com/. Deleting a group To delete a group. either select the folder and oose File ‣ Properties from the menubar. Applying groups to files and folders To ange the group associated with a file or folder. or right-cli on the file or folder and oose Properties. then cli OK to apply the anges. enter the group name and select the names of users you would like to add to the group. select a group and cli Delete. Change the details as required in the dialog that appears. Using the command line You can also modify user and group seings via the command line. open the Nautilus file browser and navigate to the appropriate file or folder. We recommend that you use the graphical method above unless you have a good reason to use the command line. Ubuntu will deactivate the user’s account.     . Managing groups Cli on the Manage Groups buon to open the group management dialog. Deleting a user Select a user from the list and cli Delete. see the Ubuntu Server Guide at hps://help. In the dialog that appears.ubuntu. cli on the Permissions tab and select the desired group from the Groups drop-down list./serverguide/C/user-management. and you can oose whether remove the user’s home folder or leave it. cli Add. Adding a group To add a group. select a group and cli on the Properties buon. Modifying a group To alter the users in an existing group. In the Properties dialog that appears. en.

If you are not familiar with servers.com/community. It is a program that runs from the command line. Encryption You may wish to protect your sensitive personal data—for instance. all incoming connections are denied. e simple tab can be used to allow access on a single port. By default. is seing should be suitable for most users. and the Advanced tab can be used to allow access on a range of ports. is apter will discuss two of these. Select Allow from the first box and then select the program or service required. Firewalls blo connections to your computer from unknown sources. is helps prevent security breaes. Encrypting a file or folder essentially “los” that file or folder by encoding it with an algorithm that keeps it scrambled until it is properly decoded with a password. Uncomplicated Firewall () is the standard firewall configuration program in Ubuntu. . To enable the firewall. financial records—by encrypting it. start Gufw by cliing System ‣ Administration ‣ Firewall configuration. For further information on using encryption with either single files or email. or use encryption. see Ubuntu Community Help documents at hps://help. Ubuntu includes a number of tools to encrypt files and folders. To open a port cli on the Add buon. See Chapter : Soware Management to learn more about installing the Gufw paage. or an  server). the Preconfigured tab is sufficient. Once it’s installed. If you are running server soware on your Ubuntu system (su as a web server.ubuntu. For most purposes. you will likely not need to open any additional ports. then you will need to open the ports these services use. Firewall A firewall is an application that protects your computer against unauthorized access by people on the Internet or your local network. to further increase the security of your system. select the Enable option. Encrypting your personal data ensures that no one can open your personal folders or read your private data without your private key.  Seing up a secure system You may also want to use a firewall. but a program called Gufw allows you to use it with a graphical interface.

Log out and log ba in to mount the encrypted folder. Home folder When installing Ubuntu. . Record both passphrases in a safe location. See Chapter : Installation for more on encrypting the home folder. To do this. Enter your account’s password when prompted. any files or folders in it will automatically be encrypted. .     . Private folder If you have not osen to encrypt a user’s entire home folder. . .com/community/EncryptedPrivateDirectory. ese are required if you ever have to recover your data manually. If you need to recover your encrypted files manually see https://help. ubuntu. it is possible to encrypt a user’s home folder. Aer the Private folder has been set up. . Either oose a mount passphrase or generate one. . it is possible to encrypt a single folder—called Private—in a user’s home folder. Install the ecryptfs-utils soware paage. Use the terminal to run ecryptfs-setup-private to set up the private folder. follow these steps: .

On the Applications menu. things simply do not work as they should. First. making sure to have your computer start the operating system that is on the  itself (see Chapter : Installation). When you first turn on your computer. su as Ubuntu. you may find that aer installing Windows you may no longer be able to start Ubuntu. You can easily restore —and regain the ability to oose your operating system—by using the same  you used to install Ubuntu. Below. is way. Luily. documenting anges you make to your Ubuntu system at every step. Next. You will need to type some code to restore your bootloader. in the unlikely event that you should need to turn to the community for support. insert your Ubuntu  into your computer and restart it. If you exhaust the troubleshooting advice below. Windows and others. you installed an advanced bootloader called  that allowed you to oose between the various operating systems on your computer. it replaced  with its own bootloader. Troubleshooting guide e key to effective troubleshooting is working slowly and methodically. when you installed Windows. thus removing the ability to oose whi operating system you’d like to use. Troubleshooting Resolving problems Sometimes. cli Accessories. you will always be able to roll ba your work—and give fellow users information about your previous aempts. Ubuntu fails to start aer I’ve installed Windows Occasionally you may install Ubuntu and then decide to install Microso Windows as a second operating system running side-by-side with Ubuntu. Wait while the soware loads. a program called a “bootloader” must start Ubuntu or another operating system. see Geing more help to learn about seeking support from the Ubuntu community. When you installed Ubuntu. 120034123776 bytes A bootloader is the initial soware that loads the operating system when you turn on the computer. oose your language and select Try Ubuntu. While this is supported by Ubuntu.0 GB. Enter the following: $ sudo fdisk -l Disk /dev/hda: 120. and then cli the Terminal item. . However. we offer a guide to resolving basic problems that users may encounter while using Ubuntu. problems encountered while working with Ubuntu are easily fixed.

Please consider starting with the third section.ubuntu. (hd0) /dev/sda Finally. /dev/sda.img media proc selinux tmp vmlinuz Now. 63 sectors/track. you can reinstall : $ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/root /dev/sda Installation finished. 14593 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Boot /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sda4 * Start 1 1225 2441 14532 End 1224 2440 14593 14593 Blocks 64228+ 9767520 97618972+ 498015 Id 83 a5 5 82 System Linux Windows Extended Linux swap Partition table entries are not in disk order is output means that your system (Linux. If following this guide does not restore  on your computer. Modify the instructions below if necessary. etc) we are looking for is identified by the word “Linux” in the System column. link your Ubuntu installation and this new folder: $ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/root If you’ve done this correctly. . https://help. please note that your Ubuntu installation uses Grub. first create a place to manipulate your Ubuntu installation: $ sudo mkdir /media/root The device (/dev/sda.ubuntu. Check if this is correct or not. remove the Ubuntu disc from your  drive. and enjoy your Ubuntu system once again. fix it and re-run the script grub-install. this is the recommended method. Next.com/community/ RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows. is guide may not work for all Ubuntu users due to differences in system configuration.     . If any of the lines is incorrect. This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/device. on whi Ubuntu is based) is installed on device /dev/sda. To do this. 255 heads. replacing /dev/sda with the name of your Linux device. please consider trying some of the other troubleshooting methods at https://help. is guide replicates the method described in the first section of the referenced web page. but your computer is booting to /dev/sda (where Windows is located). Still.com/community/ RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows. and the most successful method. for restoring the  bootloader. We need to rectify this by telling the computer to boot to the Linux device instead. When following the instructions.map. then you should see the following: $ ls /media/root bin dev home lib mnt root srv usr boot etc initrd lib64 opt sbin sys var cdrom initrd. No error reported. reboot your computer.

Alt and F. Enter your username. Next. shut down your computer. Press and hold Control. press Shi (Grub) Esc (Grub) when you see the white-on-bla screen with a countdown (the  prompt). enter the following commands. Ubuntu will prompt you for a new password. Your password will be needed again. press Enter.conf. You should now see a bla and white screen with a prompt for your username and password./xorg. you will be presented with a terminal prompt that looks something like: root@something# To reset your password. and your login screen should be restored.conf $ sudo reboot now Ubuntu will reboot.” To start Recovery mode.conf_old $ sudo service gdm stop $ sudo X -configure $ sudo mv .  Ubuntu doesn’t present the login screen when my computer boots e simplest and easiest way to correct this issue is to order Ubuntu to reset the graphics configuration./xorg. (Characters will not appear on the screen as you enter your password. (Ubuntu asks for your password twice to make sure you did not make a mistake while typing). As the computer starts up./xorg. .new . $ sudo cd /etc/X11 $ sudo mv . Select the Recovery mode option using the arrow keys on your keyboard.conf . Enter your desired password./xorg. Don’t worry —this behavior is normal and was implemented for security purposes). then power it up. you will need to reset it using “Recovery mode. Wait while Ubuntu starts up. I forgot my password If you forget your password in Ubuntu. Recovery mode should be the second item in the list. enter: $ passwd username Replace “username” above with your username. press enter and then type your password again. and then enter your password. pressing enter aer you are done. You will not see a normal login screen. return to the normal system environment by entering: $ init 2 Login as usual and continue enjoying Ubuntu. Instead. Once you have restored your password.

. right-cli on the items you want and select Restore. then oose Trash from the list of places in the le-hand sidebar of the window that appears (alternatively. This is a known issue and will be resolved in the next version of . The Wastebasket is called different things in various parts of the desktop. or otherwise drag them wherever you would like (we recommend a memorable location. su as your home folder or desktop).: This is the grub screen in which you can choose recovery mode. select Places ‣ Computer from the top panel. cli on the trash applet at the far right of the boom panel). Figure . is is a special folder where Ubuntu stores deleted files before they are permanently removed from your computer. I accidentally deleted some files that I need If you’ve deleted a file by accident. To access the trash folder. This could cause confusion. you may be able to recover it from Ubuntu’s trash folder. The Wastebasket could also be know as the “Deleted Items Folder“.     . To remove items from this folder and restore them to your computer.

To run clean. modify and distribute with an open-source operating system like Ubuntu. Sear for ubuntu-restricted-extras by typing “ubuntu restricted extras” in the sear box on the right-hand side of the Ubuntu Soware Center’s main window. photographs. Eventually. your ri media content should work properly. e clean command will remove every single caed item. contain paage files from all of the paages that you have ever installed. erefore. If a paage was installed to assist with running another program—and that program was subsequently removed—you no longer need the supporting paage. music. meaning they are not free to use. however. Once Ubuntu has successfully installed soware. you can use either the clean. When the Soware Center finds the appropriate soware. see Chapter : Learning more. Removing them allows you to reclaim space on your computer’s hard drive for storing your documents.  How do I clean Ubuntu? Over time. then wait while Ubuntu installs the appropriate soware. also called caes. You can remove it with autoremove. ese temporary files. If you find yourself in need of a proprietary format. open Terminal and type: $ sudo apt-get clean Paages can also become unused over time. To clear the cae. Ubuntu does not include the capability to use these formats by default. Before initiating this command. or the autoclean option for a command-line program called apt-get. Open the Ubuntu Soware Center by selecting it from Applications. while the autoclean command only removes caed items that can no longer be downloaded (these items are oen unnecessary). . Load Terminal and type: $ sudo apt-get autoremove to remove the unnecessary paages. users can easily configure Ubuntu to use these proprietary formats. or other files. cli the arrow next to its title. Cli Install. ensure that you have Universe and Multiverse repositories enabled. you may install the files necessary for using this format with one command. this cae can grow quite large. See the Synaptic Paage Manager section to learn how to do this. Ubuntu’s soware paaging system can accumulate unused paages or temporary files. For more information about the differences between open source and proprietary soware. I can’t play certain audio or video files Many of the formats used to deliver ri media content are proprietary.

Changing the number of pixels displayed on your monitor is called “anging the resolution.: You can change your display seings. How can I change my screen resolution? e image on every monitor is composed of millions of lile colored dots called pixels. . You can experiment with various resolutions by cliing Apply at the bottom of the window until you find one that’s comfortable for you. e resolution can be anged using the drop down list within the program. e dialog box will disappear in  seconds. restoring the old resolution. Piing options higher up on the list (for example. but will also tend to make them smaller. Your display will usually be sharpest when your operating system uses a resolution that mates your display’s native resolution. Selecting a resolution and cliing Apply will temporarily ange the screen resolution to the selected value. cli Close. It allows you to revert to the previous resolution seing or keep the new resolution. those with larger numbers) will increase the resolution. then oosing Preferences and then Monitors. Figure .” whi is a resolution that most closely mates the number of pixels in the monitor.is feature was implemented to prevent someone from being loed out of the computer by a resolution that distorts the monitor and makes it unusable. Most monitors have a “native resolution. Typically the highest resolution will be the native resolution. e Ubuntu configuration utility Monitors allows users to ange the resolution. When you have finished seing the screen resolution.     .” Increasing the resolution will make the displayed images sharper. e opposite is true when screen resolution is decreased. A dialog box will also be displayed. Open it by oosing System from the Main Menu.

: You can revert back to your old seings if you need to. visit the web page above.ubuntu.com/community/EeePC. including the keyboard shortcut keys and the wireless Internet adapter. If your hardware problems persist. scanners. please follow the instructions at https://help. generally when hardware manufacturers use non-standard or proprietary components. .com/HardwareSupport. including the iSight camera and the Airport wireless Internet adapter. is documentation page contains information pertaining specifically to EeePC netbooks. My hardware is not working properly Ubuntu occasionally has difficulty running on certain computers. ubuntu. please see Geing more help for more troubleshooting options or information on obtaining support or assistance from an Ubuntu user. e Ubuntu community offers documentation on enabling these components and fixing other problems. e Ubuntu community offers documentation to help you troubleshoot many issues that may arise from this situation. Luily. Ubuntu is not working properly on my Apple MacBook or MacBook Pro When installed on notebook computers from Apple—su as the MacBook or MacBook Pro—Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in components.ubuntu. If you are having trouble installing or using Ubuntu on your Asus EeePC. accessible at https://wiki.com/community/MacBook. the Ubuntu community offers documentation on fixing these and other problems. Ubuntu is not working properly on my Asus EeePC When installed on netbook computers from Asus—su as the EeePC— Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in components. You can select the appropriate guide aer identifying your computer’s model number. You can find the complete hardware troubleshooting guide on Ubuntu’s support wiki. For instructions on doing this. If you are having trouble installing or using Ubuntu on your Apple notebook computer.  Figure . please follow the instructions at https://help. including problems with wireless cards. mice and printers.

you can find a variety of support opportunities online. task or issue in Ubuntu. You can access extensive and free documentation.     . If you require assistance beyond the information in the manual.com/support . query the community for free support or explore tenical solutions. More information is available here: http://www. buy professional support services.ubuntu. Geing more help is guide does not cover every possible workflow.

 Learning more What else can I do with Ubuntu? By now. Proprietary soware is soware that cannot be copied. and made more secure every day as programmers all over the world continue to improve it. open source soware is updated. enhanced. the terms of many open source licensing agreements make it illegal not to do so. or share it for any purpose they wish. Computer users can modify open source soware to suit their individual needs.Microso Windows and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary soware. they needn’t pay to obtain this license. While not all open source soware is free of monetary costs. Ubuntu is specifically licensed to promote sharing and collaboration. Unlike proprietary soware programs. In fact.opensource. available at http://www. we’ll provide you with more detail about versions of Ubuntu that are specialized for certain tasks. Because open source soware is developed by large communities of programmers distributed throughout the globe. modified. But you may be interested in learning about other versions of Ubuntu you can integrate into your digital lifestyle. see the Open Source Initiative’s open source definition. In other words. e legal rules governing Ubuntu’s production and distribution ensure that anyone can obtain. run. it benefits from rapid development cycles and speedy security releases (in the event that someone discovers bugs in the soware). But first. you should be able to use your Ubuntu desktop for all your daily activities—su as browsing the web and editing documents. open source soware also has economic benefits. or distributed freely. Open source soware differs from proprietary soware—soware whose source code is patented and is therefore not freely available for modification or distribution by anyone but the rightsholder. To learn more about open source soware. share it. . Open Source Soware Ubuntu is open source soware. The source code of a program is the collection files that have been wrien in a computer language to make the program. we’ll first discuss the tenologies that make Ubuntu a powerful collection of soware. Aside from these tenical advantages. or translate it into other languages—provided they release these modifications so others can do the same. mu is. for instance. In this apter.php. While users must adhere to the terms of an open source licensing agreement when installing and using Ubuntu. improve it.org/docs/ definition.

Some of these are made for general use. Ubuntu is part of the Debian family of distributions. Xandros. Next. whi uses the  graphical environment instead of the  environment found in Ubuntu. several distributions are subsequently based on Ubuntu. Package management systems are the means by which users can install. Others are designed for specialized uses. while Red Hat soware paages are  files. A distribution. and ea differs with respect to the soware included as part of the distribution. Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its derivatives Just as Ubuntu is based on Debian. bundled together to make them easier to install and use. Distribution families Ubuntu is one of several popular operating systems based on Linux (an open source operating system). and Mandriva. ese are: ‣ Ubuntu Netbook Edition. ese include: ‣ Xubuntu. For more information about paage management. remove. e most significant difference between Debian-based and Red Hat-based distributions is the system ea uses for installing and updating soware. and typically is not used as a desktop operating system because it doesn’t have a graphical interface. whi uses the  graphical environment instead of the  environment found in Ubuntu. and ‣ Mythbuntu.” may look different from Ubuntu at first glance. whi is designed for creating a home theater  with MythTV (an open source digital video recorder). While other versions of Linux. they share similar aracteristics because of their common roots. or “distro. For example.”Debian soware paages are  files. Ea family is named for a distribution on whi subsequent distributions are based. whi is designed for use on servers. ‣ Kubuntu. or “distributions. Four other derivatives of Ubuntu are available. we’ll describe these versions of Ubuntu and explain the uses for whi ea has been developed. . ‣ Edubuntu. ‣ Ubuntu Studio. and organize soware installed on computers with open source operating systems like Ubuntu. ese systems are called “paage management systems. You will also find distributions that have been specialized for certain tasks. whi is designed for creating and editing multimedia. “Debian” refers to both the name of a distribution as well as the family of distributions derived from Debian. Linux distributions can be divided into two broad families: the Debian family and the Red Hat family. as are Linux Mint. whi is designed for use in sools.     . see Chapter : Soware Management. openSUSE. Distributions in the Red Hat family include Fedora. Four derivative distributions are officially recognized and supported by both Canonical and the Ubuntu community. and CrunBang Linux.” is a operating system made from open source programs. whi is optimized for netbook computers. and ‣ Ubuntu Server Edition.

Su tasks include file sharing and website or email hosting. ubuntu. Ubuntu Netbook Edition sports a unique interface and features a collection of soware applications particularly useful to on-the-go users.com/ server. see http://www. If you would like to learn more about Ubuntu Studio (or obtain a copy for yourself). is manual does not explain the process of running a secure web server or performing other tasks possible with Ubuntu Server Edition. To learn more about using a flash drive to install Ubuntu Netbook Edition on a netbook computer. compose music.   For more information about these derivative distributions. and edit video. low-power notebook computers designed chiefly for accessing the Internet.ubuntu.ubuntu. Users with  tuners in their computers can also use Mythbuntu to record live video and television shows.com/project/derivatives. you may wish to use this specialized server distribution in conjunction with server hardware. Mythbuntu Mythbuntu allows users to turn their computers into entertainment systems. Netbooks are low-cost. . or “serve. For details on using Ubuntu Server Edition. visit http://ubuntustudio. While users can install these applications on computers running the desktop version of Ubuntu. If you are planning to use a computer to perform tasks like these. television shows. Ubuntu Netbook Edition allows users to install it on their computers using  flash drives. Ubuntu Studio is derivative of Ubuntu is designed specifically for people who use computers to create and edit multimedia projects. visit https://help. it features applications to help users manipulate images. refer to the manual at http://www.It is optimized for computing devices with small screens and limited resources (like the energy-saving processors and smaller hard disks common among netbooks). Ubuntu Netbook Edition Ubuntu Netbook Edition is a version of Ubuntu designed specifically for netbook computers. Ubuntu Studio makes them all available immediately upon installation.com/community/Installation/ FromImgFiles. Because many netbooks do not contain  drives. A server is a computer that’s been configured to manage.org/home. It helps users organize and view various types of multimedia content su as movies.” files many people wish to access. Ubuntu Server Edition e Ubuntu Server Edition is an operating system optimized to perform multiuser tasks when installed on servers. For instance. and video podcasts.

Computers capable of running -bit soware are able to process more information than computers running -bit soware. then you may need to install the -bit version in order to use all the installed memory. To learn more about Mythbuntu. Why oose one over another? Pay aention to the version you select in the following cases: ‣ If your computer is fairly old (made before ).org/. Nevertheless. is is also the case for most netbooks. then you may want to install the -bit version of Ubuntu. cli the Help icon on the top panel.     . Finding additional help and support is guide is not intended to be an all-encompassing resource filled with everything you’ll ever need to know about Ubuntu. You can access these at http://help. -bit systems require more memory in order to do this. ‣ If your computer has more than   of memory (). visit http://www. To create . we’ll discuss a few of these resources—located both inside the operating system and on the Internet—so you can learn more about Ubuntu or other Linux distributions. these computers gain performance enhancements by running -bit soware. Ubuntu’s built-in help guide covers a broad range of topics in great detail. Because Geing Started with Ubuntu . troubleshooting tenical issues. or navigate to System ‣ Help and Support. is difference refers to the way computers process information. -bit or -bit? As mentioned earlier in this manual.com.ubuntu. Online Ubuntu help e Ubuntu Documentation team has created and maintains a series of wiki pages designed to help both new and experienced users learn more about Ubuntu. Millions of Ubuntu users use them daily to seek help and support from one another. Below. You can create an Ubuntu Forums account in minutes. we encourage you to take advantage of Ubuntu’s vast community when seeking further information.mythbuntu. System help If you need additional help when using Ubuntu or its applications. or asking questions about your computer. however. Ubuntu and its derivatives are available in two versions: -bit and -bit. could never answer all your questions. The Ubuntu Forums e Ubuntu Forums are the official forums of the Ubuntu community.

you will oen find third-party help available on the Internet.” Spread throughout the world.launchpad.net. Launchpad Answers Launpad. visit http://loco. In addition to official Ubuntu and community help. Community support If you’ve exhausted all these resources and still can’t find answers to your questions.com/support/ community. LoCo teams Within the Ubuntu community are dozens of local user groups called “LoCo teams. answer questions and promote Ubuntu in their communities by hosting regular events.freenode. these teams offer support and advice. provides a question and answer service that allows anyone to ask questions about any Ubuntu-related topic.com/. some could be misleading or outdated.ubuntu. an open source code repository and user community. net/ubuntu/+addquestion.ubuntu.org.   an account and learn more about Ubuntu from community members. Live chat If you are familiar with Internet relay at (). . To locate and contact the LoCo team nearest you. you can use at clients su as XChat or Pidgin to join the annel #ubuntu on irc. Here. Signing up for a Launpad account requires only a few minutes. It’s always best to verify information from third-party sources before taking their advice. hundreds of user volunteers can answer your questions or offer you support in real time. While these documents can oen be great resources. visit http://ubuntuforums. visit Community Support at http://www. Ask a question by visiting Launpad at https://answers.

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meaning and effect as the License . at a minimum. Definitions (a) “Adaptation” means a work based upon the Work. or adapted including in any form recognizably derived from the original. adaptation. (b) “Collection” means a collection of literary or artistic works. in whi the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more other contributions.         . arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or artistic work.                  .A License   (  )             (“”  “”). because that license: (i) contains terms that have the same purpose. by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents. whi. su as encyclopedias and anthologies.                  . . phonograms or broadcasts.        /   . For the avoidance of doubt. including. whi together are assembled into a collective whole. the synronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image (“syning”) will be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License. A work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation (as defined below) for the purposes of this License. or other works or subject maer other than works listed in Section (f) below. (c) “Creative Commons Compatible License” means a license that is listed at http://creativecommons. or phonogram or performance and includes cinematographic adaptations or any other form in whi the Work may be recast. performance or phonogram. except that a work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License.             . su as a translation. constitute intellectual creations. where the Work is a musical work. or upon the Work and other pre-existing works.org/compatiblelicenses that has been approved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this License.            . ea constituting separate and independent works in themselves. transformed. or performances. derivative work.

entity or entities who created the Work or if no individual or entity can be identified. (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of adaptations of works made available under that license under this License or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same License Elements as this License.     . ShareAlike. and other persons who act. scientific and artistic domain. a oreographic work or entertainment in dumb show. aritecture or science. deliver. address. “Original Author” means. “Distribute” means to make available to the public the original and copies of the Work or Adaptation. (ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds. a cinematographic work to whi are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography. declaim. engraving or lithography. as appropriate. “Licensor” means the individual. in the case of a literary or artistic work. dancers. a lecture. play in. sculpture. sermon or other work of the same nature. sing. a broadcast. a work of applied art. an illustration. the individual. or who has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation. “Work” means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms of this License including without limitation any production in the literary. “Publicly Perform” means to perform public recitations of the Work and . a work of drawing. a musical composition with or without words. a phonogram. (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Elements of this License. whatever may be the mode or form of its expression including digital form. a dramatic or dramatico-musical work. su as a book. the publisher. through sale or other transfer of ownership. “License Elements” means the following high-level license aributes as selected by Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Aribution. individuals. (iii) in the case of broadcasts. individuals. entity or entities that offer(s) the Work under the terms of this License. topography. aritecture. and in addition (i) in the case of a performance the actors. a compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work. plan. map. and. sket or three-dimensional work relative to geography. or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work. pamphlet and other writing. and. painting. musicians. the organization that transmits the broadcast. “You” means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work. singers. interpret or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore. a performance. a photographic work to whi are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography.

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or accessing the main menu. . provides support for the core Ubuntu system. Canonical Canonical. To learn more about Canonical. desktop environment A generic term to describe a  interface for humans to interact with computers. and can refer to more than two operating systems. dialup connection A dialup connection is when your computer uses a modem to connect to an  through your telephone line.com. the financial baer of Ubuntu. as well as eing all the work submied by volunteer contributors. ere are many desktop environments su as . go to http://www. Dual booting is a generic term. it is used by a  server to assign computers on a network an  address automatically. It has over  paid staff members worldwide who ensure that the foundation of the operating system is stable. and viewable. decrypted When you decrypt an encrypted file it becomes decrypted. Applets provide useful functions su as starting a program.Glossary applet An applet is a small program that runs in a panel. You can move it around with arrow keys on your keyboard. dual-booting dual-booting is the process of being able to oose one of two different operating systems currently installed on a computer from the boot menu.  e  (whi stands for Graphical User Interface) is a type of user .  and  just to name a few. Ubuntu is an example of a distribution.   stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Ethernet port An Ethernet port is what an Ethernet cable is plugged into when you are using a wired connection. once selected your computer will then boot into whiever operating system you ose at the boot menu. they are just a string of random numbers and leers until they are decrypted using a password. Encrypted files on Ubuntu are not recognizable in any language. distribution A distribution is a collection of soware that is already compiled and configured ready to be installed. viewing the time.canonical.   (whi once stood for  Network Object Model Environment) is the default desktop environment used in Ubuntu. cursor e blinking cursor that appears aer the prompt in the terminal is used to show you where text will appear when you start typing.

It also allows you to publish status messages to all of your accounts by entering updates into a text field. or accessing the main menu. prompt e prompt displays some useful information about your computer. paage Paages contain soware in a ready-to-install format. notification area e notification area is an applet on the panel that provides you with all sorts of information su as volume control. it can be customized to display in different colors as well as being able to display the time. the window will no longer be shown. date and current directory as well as almost anything else you like. minimize When you minimize an open application. panel A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen. responsible for running applications.. if you type pwd into a terminal and press Enter. allows you to manage your presence on social networking services. your Internet connection status and email status. If you cli on a minimized application’s panel buon. Most of the time you can use the Soware Center instead of manually installing paages.     . the directory name it displays on the next line is the output. kernel A kernel is the central portion of a Unix-based operating system. maximize When you maximize an application in Ubuntu it will fill the whole desktop. parameter Parameters are special options that you can use with other commands in the terminal to make that command behave differently. this can make a lot of commands far more useful. e. . Paages have a .deb extension in Ubuntu. an  is a company that provides you with your Internet connection. processes. output e output of a command is any text it displays on the next line aer typing a command and pressing enter. and providing security for the core components. partition A partition is an area of allocated space on a hard drive where you can put data.g. interface that allows humans to interact with the computer using graphics and images rather than just text. MeMenu e MeMenu in Ubuntu . the current song playing in Rhythmbox.   stands for Internet Service Provider. It contains applets whi provide useful functions su as running programs. viewing the time. partitioning partitioning is the process of creating a partition. excluding the panels. it will then be restored to its normal state and allow you to interact with it.

wireless connection A wireless connection involves no cables of any sort and instead uses a wireless signal to communicate with either a router. access point or computer. It is also sometimes called a gateway. routes information from the Internet to a network. server A server is a computer that runs a specialized operating system and provides services to computers that connect to it and make a request. it is a method of controlling some aspects of the operating system using only commands entered via the keyboard. this is the most common connection for desktop computers.  proprietary Soware made by companies that don’t release their source code under an open source license. . terminal e terminal is Ubuntu’s text only interface. Soware Center e Soware Center is where you can easily manage soware installation and removal as well as the ability to manage soware installed via Personal Paage Arives. wired connection A wired connection is when your computer is physically connected to a router or Ethernet port with a cable. shell e terminal gives access to the shell. when you type a command into the terminal and press enter the shell takes that command and performs the relevant action. router A router is a specially designed computer that using its soware and hardware.

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Credits is manual wouldn’t have been possible without the efforts and contributions from the following people: Team Leads Benjamin Humphrey—Team Lead Kevin Godby—Lead TEXnician Jamin Day—Head of Editing Ilya Haykinson—Authors coordinator Josh Holland—Translation maintenance orsten Wilms—Design Adnane Belmadiaf—Web development Luke Jennings—ishot developer Neil Tallim—ishot developer Simon Vermeersh—ishot developer Authors Joe Burgess omas Cantara Sayantan Das Kelvin Gardiner Ma Griffin Ilya Haykinson Wolter Hellmund Josh Holland Benjamin Humphrey Luke Jennings Elan Kugelmass Ryan Macnish Editors Bryan Behrenshausen Jamin Day Kevin Godby Benjamin Humphrey Jason Cook Chris Woollard Alexander Lancey Designers K. Vishnoo Charan Reddy Wolter Hellmund Benjamin Humphrey David Nel orsten Wilms Developers Adnane Belmadiaf Kevin Godby Luke Jennings Neil Tallim Simon Vermeersh .

     . Translators Vytautas Bačiulis Dmitry Belonogov Francisco Dieguez André Gondim Jiri Grönroos Mohamad Imran Ishak Martin Kaba e KaniLUG Tamil translating team Kentaro Kazuhama James Kelly George Kontis Shushi Kurose Martin Lukeš Kostas Milonas Anwar Mohammed Abhijit Navale Emmanuel Ninos Robert Readman Roth Robert Daniel Sury Paulius Sladkevicius Pierre Slami Fredrik Sudmann Muhd Syazwan Ralph Ulri Chris Woollard John Xygonakis Konstantinos Zigourakis …and many others Special Thanks Chris_Ilias Bo underpass jehurd cl kjhass djstsys mozilla_help_view_project Joey-Elijah Alexithymia Jono Bacon Manualbot Chris Johnson Elan Kugelmass Elizabeth Krumba Josh Leveree Walter Méndez Martin Owens Tim Penhey Andy Piper Alan Pope Mahew Paul omas e Ubuntu Documentation Team e Ubuntu Community Learning Project .

 mv.  ecryptfs-setup-private.  Wine. .  Ubuntu Forums.  Ubuntu promise. .   Gufw.  philosophy of.  sudo. – ls. .  Rhythmbox.  OpenOffice. .  / Creator.  rm.  adrapassel. . .  Finder. . . .  Pitivi.  Take Screenshot. . .  Debian.  Cairo-Do.  Mahjongg.  Sudoku.  Calculator.  VLC.  Sear for Files.  F-Spot. .org Drawing.  Avant Window Navigator.  Network Connections. . . .  Dell. . –.  Firefox. . . . .  Ubuntu One. Help and Support.  Kino.  Brasero.  system requirements.  gBrainy.  Windows Explorer. . .  Sound Recorder.  Synaptic Paage Manager.  rmdir.  Doy.  Ubuntu Help Center.  mkdir. . . .  gedit.  cd. – history of.  Soware Center.  Canonical. .  Movie Player. .  .  NetworkManager. . .  grub-install.  Appearance Preferences.  Nautilus. password.  Pidgin.  Evolution. . .   Empathy. . Mark.  Ubuntu definition of. –.  Mines.  Shuleworth. – System.  Totem.  Tomboy Notes. . .  Ubuntu Soware Center.  AisleRiot Solitaire.  pwd. . . .  kernel. –. .  Simple Scan.  Linux.  Cheese.  About Ubuntu.  apt-get. .  Skype. .  apt.  Unix.  gksudo.  downloading. –.Index About GNOME.  XChat. . . – Soware Sources. . .  root.  cp.  Orca.  Lifesaver.

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