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17.

11 Waffle Slabs

641

Slab

y = 20"

Drop panel

Column

Torsional part of the drop panel

(e)

Figure 17.32 (continued)

The width of column strip in each direction is 22° = 10 ft, whereas the width of the middle strip is 10 ft in the long direction and 14 ft in the short direction.

5. Calculations of moments and steel reinforcement are shown in Table 17.11. Use an average d = 10 - 1.5 = 8.5 in. in the column strip and d = 8 - 1.5 = 6.5 in. in the middle strip.

Bars are chosen for adequate distribution in both the column and middle strip. Reinforcement details are similar to those in flat-plate examples.

17.11 WAFFLE SLABS

A two-way waffle slab system consists of concrete ribs that normally intersect at right angles. These slabs might be constructed without beams, in which case a solid column head is made over the column to prevent any punching due to shear. Wide beams can also be used on the column centerlines for uniform depth construction. Square metal or fiberglass pans are commonly used to form these joists. A thin slab of 3 to 5 in. is cast with these joists to form the waffle slab.

Each panel is divided into a column and a middle strip. The column strip includes all joists that frame into the solid head; the middle strip is located between consecutive column strips. Straight or bent bars could be used as a reinforcement in a waffle slab. The design of a two-way waffle slab is similar to that of flat slabs by considering the solid head as a drop panel. To prevent any excess in the diagonal tension in the head, a sufficient size of column must be used or a shear cap must be provided.

In the design of a waffle slab, the top slabs with each rib form a T-section, with considerable depth relative to flat plates. Consequently, long spans carrying heavy loads may be designed with great savings in concrete. Waffle slabs also provide an attractive ceiling, which is achieved by leaving the rib pattern or by integrating lighting fixtures. The standard pans that are commonly used in waffle slabs can be one of the following two types:

642

Chapter 17 Design of Two-Way Slabs

Table 17.11 Design of an Interior Flat-Slab Floor System

Long Direction
Mol = 358 K·ft Column Strip Middle Strip
M factor -0.49Mo 0.21Mo -0.16Mo O.l4Mo
u; (K·ft) -175.4 ±75.2 -57.3 ±50.l
Width of strip (in.), b 120 120 120 120
Effective depth (in.), d 8.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
M; ( . 243 178 129 119
R, = bcP pSI)
Steel ratio p (%) 0.48 0.34 0.25 0.23
As = pbd (in.") 4.9 2.65 1.95 1.79
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.") 2.16 2.16 1.73 1.73
Selected bars 16 no. 5 14 no. 4 10 no. 4 9 no. 4
Short Direction
Mos = 289.3 K·ft Column Strip Middle Strip
M factor -0.49Mo 0.21Mo -0.16Mo O.l4Mo
Mu (K·ft) -142 ±60.8 -46.3 ±40.5
Width of strip (in.), b 120 120 168 168
Effective depth (in.), d 8.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
Mu ( .) 196 144 78 68
R; = bcP pSI
Steel ratio p (%) 0.38 0.28 0.15 0.13
As = pbdEin?) 3.9 2.2 1.64 1.42
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.") 2.16 2.16 2.42 2.42
Selected bars 13 no. 5 11 no. 4 12 no. 4 12 no. 4 Width of rib = 6 in., spaced at 36 in. on centers Depth of rib = 14 in. and slab thickness = 3 in. Column size = 20 X 20 in.

1. 30 X 30-in. square pans with a 3-in. top slab, from which 6-in.-wide ribs at 36 in. (3 ft) on centers are formed. These are available in standard depths of 8 to 20 in. in 2-in. increments. Refer to Example 17.12 and Fig. 17.33.

2. 19 x 19-in. square pans with a 3-in. top slab, from which 5-in.-wide ribs at 24 in. (2 ft) on centers are formed. These are available in standard depths of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 in. Other information about pans is shown in Table 17.12 [21]. Other types, ranging from 19 x 19-in. pans to 40 x 40-in. pans, are available in the construction industry.

Example 17.12: Waffle Slab

Design a waffle floor system that consists of square panels without beams considering the following data (Fig. 17.33):

Span, center to center of columns = 33 ft

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643

644

Chapter 17 Design of Two-Way Slabs

slab

(b)

17"

3"

14"

36"

(c)

r - - - - - - - - - - -I

: I 1

1 ' 1

1 0 I 1

1 1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 I 1

1 , 1

L-----l-----~

I I

r - - - - - - - - - - -I

: I 1

1 20" X 20" 1

r----I

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 I 1

1 , 1

i-----!-----l

I

21'

33'

(d)

Figure 17.33 (continued)

Dead load (excluding self-weight) = 50 psf Live load = 100 psf

f; = 5 ksi

i, = 60 ksi

12'

Solution

1. Determine minimum slab thickness using Table 17.1: Minimum h = V 30, In = 33 - -w = 31.33 ft, h = 31.33(12)/30 = 12.5 in. for exterior panels, and h = In/33 = 11.4 in. for interior panels. Equations 17.1 and 17.2 may be used. Assume the total depth is 17 in. consisting of 3- in. slab thickness and 14-in. rib depth.

2. Calculate loads on the waffle slab:

7.11 Waffle Slabs 645
Table 17.12 Gross Section Properties [21]
For the Joists (30 x 30-in. pans)
Top Slab Rib Depth Volume Gross Area Ycg Ig
(in.) (in.) (ef/pan) (in.2) (in.) (in.4)
3 8 3.85 161.3 3.28 1393
3 10 4.78 176.3 3.95 2307
3 12 5.53 192 4.66 3541
3 14 6.54 208.3 5.42 5135
3 16 7.44 223.3 6.20 7127
3 20 9.16 261.3 7.83 12,469
4.5 8 3.85 215.3 3.77 2058
4.5 10 4.78 230.3 4.35 3227
4.5 12 5.53 246.0 4.97 4783
4.5 14 6.54 262.3 5.66 6773
4.5 16 7.44 279.3 6.36 9238
4.5 20 9.16 315.3 7.86 15,768
For the Joists (19 x 19-in. pans)
3 6 1.09 105 2.886 598
3 8 1.41 117.4 3.564 1098
3 10 1.9 130.4 4.303 1824
3 12 2.14 144 5.083 2807
4.5 6 1.09 141 3.457 957
4.5 8 1.41 153 4.051 1618
4.5 10 1.9 166.4 4.709 2550
4.5 12 2.14 180 5.417 3794 a. Factored load of solid head part = 1.2(150)(17112) = 255 psf.

h. Voided volume of 14-in. rib = 6.54 ft3 on 3 X 3-ftl area. Total weight of 9-ftl area is

1.2(150)(9 X -H- - 6.54) = 1118 lb. Weight per square foot is 1~18 = 125 psf.

c. Factored additional dead plus live load is 1.2(50) + 1.6(100) = 220 psf. Uniform w" (at solid head) = 255 + 220 "'" 500 psf. Uniform w" (at ribbed area) = 125 + 220 = 345 psf.

d. Loads on one panel (refer to Fig. 17.34): At the solid head, W = 0.5(12) + 0.345(21) = 13.22 K/ft. At the ribbed area, W = 0.345(33) = 11.39 K/ft.

3. Calculate shear and total static moment:

(11.39)(21 )

V" (at the face of column) = 13.22(5.17) + 2 = 188 K

. 5 5 11.39(10.5)2

M; (at midspan) = 188(1 .67) - 13.22( .17)(13.09) - 2 = 1424 K·ft

4. Check punching shear (refer to Fig. 17'.35):

a. In solid head at dl2 from column face, h = 17 in., d = 17 - 1.25 = 15.75 in., c (column) = 20 in., b; = 4(20 + 15.75) = 143 in., V" = 11.39(21 ft) + 13.2202 ft) - 0.5(37.751 12? = 393.4 K and ctNc = cf>4~bod = 0.75(4)(v'SOOO) (143)(15.75) = 478 K > V".

h. In the slab at distance dl2 from the edge of the solid head, slab thickness is 3 in.; let d = 2.15 in. Then

646

Chapter 17 Design of Two-Way Slabs

Waffle slab (looking upward).

b; = 4(1S0 + 2.S) = 610 in.

Vu = 11.39(21) + 13.22(12) - o.sc~~·sr = 317.4 K ljJVc = 0.75(4)(v'sOOO)(61O)(2.S) = 324 K > Vu

5. Design moments and reinforcement: a. Exterior panel: M; = 1424 Kvft

Exterior negative moment = 0.26Mo = - 370 K oft Positive moment = 0.S2Mo = + 740 Krft

Interior negative moment = 0.7Mo = -997 Krft

h. Interior panel: M; = 1424 K·ft

Negative moment = 0.6S(1424) = -92S.6 Krft Positive moment = 0.3S(1424) = 498.4 Kvft

Design details are shown in Table 17.13 and Fig. 17.36. Note that all steel ratios are low and ljJ = 0.9.

6. Calculate the unbalanced moments in columns and check shear for Vu and Mv, as in Examples 17.8 and 17.9.

7.11 Waffle Slabs

647

33'

uTi";':IIIIIIIIIII I II rn III j' (ITr I

--I I--

'10"

I

Column centerline ____J

,

5.17'

10.5'

10.5'

5.17'

13.09'

I (a)

188 K

r--119.7K

(b)

M() = 1424 Kft

(c)

Figure 17.34 Load, shear, and moment diagrams: (a) load distribution on the span, (b) shear force diagram, and (c) bending moment diagram.

648

Chapter 17 Design of Two-Way Slabs

1----------

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1 d/2

d/2

an

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

---- 1

d/2

I 7.87S" ,

of ...

20"

, 7.87S" ,

• of •

(a)

d/2

d/2

1.2S"

ISO"

1.2S"

(b)

Figure 17.35 Punching shear locations: (a) punching shear in column head and (b) punching shear in slab.

17.12 Equivalent Frame Method

649

Table 17.13 Design of an Exterior and an Interior Waffle Slab (5 Ribs in Column Strip and 6 Ribs in Middle Strips)

Column Strip Middle Strip
Exterior Interior
(-M) ±M -M -M ±M
100 60 75 25 40
370 444 748 249 296
150 198 150 36 (6 ribs) 198
15.75 15.75 15.75 15.75 15.75
120 108 241 334 72
0.226 0.204 0.465 0.657 0.135
5.33 6.36 11.0 3.73 4.2
2.6 1.22 4.6 1.1 1.47
14 no. 6 2 no. 8/rib 26 no. 6 10 no. 6 2. no. 7/rib
Column Strip Middle Strip
Exterior Interior
(-M) ±M -M -M ±M
60 75 25 40
299 694.2 231.4 200
198 150 36 (6 ribs) 198
15.75 15.75 15.75 15.75
73 224 311 49
0.137 0.431 0.61 0.091
4.27 10.18 3.45 2.84
1.22/rib 4.6 1.1 1.47
2 no. 7/rib 24 no. 6 10 no. 6 2 no. 6/rib Exterior Panel

Moment factor (%) M. (K·ft)

Strip width, b (in.) d (in.)

R. = ~ (psi) Steel ratio, p (%) As = phd (in.")

Min. As = 0.0018bh Bars selected

Interior Panel

Moment factor (%) M. (K·ft)

Strip width, b (in.) d (in.)

R. = ~ (psi) Steel ratio, p (%) As = pbd (in.")

Min. As = 0.10018bh Bars selected

17.12 EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD

When two-way floor systems do not satisfy the limitations of the direct design method, the design moments must be computed by the equivalent frame method. In the latter method, the building is divided into equivalent frames in two directions and then analyzed elastically for all conditions of loadings. The difference between the direct design and equivalent frame methods lies in the way by which the longitudinal moments along the spans of the equivalent rigid frame are determined. The design requirements can be explained as follows.

1. Description of the equivalent frame: An equivalent frame is a two-dimensional building frame obtained by cutting the three-dimensional building along lines midway between columns (Fig. 17.4). The resulting equivalent frames are considered separately in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the building. For vertical loads, each floor is analyzed separately, with the far ends of the upper and lower columns assumed to be fixed. The slabbeam may be assumed to be fixed at any support two panels away from the support considered, because the vertical loads contribute very little to the moment at that support. For