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SOCIAL STUDIES (2192/1)
Causes of Conflict in Sri Lanka ............................................................................................. 2 Consequence of Sinhalese-Tamil conflict.............................................................................. 4 Efforts to resolve conflict ....................................................................................................... 6 Reasons for conflict in Northern Ireland ................................................................................ 7 Impact of Conflict in NI .......................................................................................................... 9 Challenges of a Multi Ethic Society ..................................................................................... 10 Managing ethnic diversity .................................................................................................... 12 Why conflicts occur ............................................................................................................. 14 Reasons for Gulf War.......................................................................................................... 16 Consequence of Gulf War ................................................................................................... 18 Impact of transnational terrorism ......................................................................................... 20 Positive impacts of Globalization ......................................................................................... 22 Negative impacts of globalization ........................................................................................ 23 Keeping environment clean ................................................................................................. 24 How Singapore overcome the challenges of globalization ................................................... 25
THEME: CONFLICT AND HARMONY IN MULTI ETHNIC SOCIETIES CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN SRI LANKA (causes of conflict among ethnic and religious groups) „Sinhala Only‟ policy o Originally. o The Tamils felt marginalized. As many as 100 000 Tamils remain stateless o As a result. under British rule. Peaceful demonstration by Tamils disrupted by Sinhalese. Rest granted Sri Lanka citizenship. They occupied some of the most powerful jobs in the country o 1956: Sinhala declared official language and language of administration under the Official Language Act. English-educated Tamils could enter the government service and be promoted. education. many Tamils felt discriminated against o Increased tension between the Tamils and Sinhalese 2 . o Eg. Allowed certain number of Indian Tamils to return to India. voting o Hence. agreement not carried out fully by Sri Lankan government. this increased tension between Tamils and Sinhalese. o Tamils in civil service given 3 years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed o Also found it hard to find jobs or get promoted o This threatened the livelihood of the Tamils as they found it difficult to be promoted or find jobs if they left the civil service. making a conflict easy to break out. However. many Indian Tamils found themselves stateless despite having lived in Sri Lanka for many years and contributed significantly to the economy o To be stateless meant that one did not have basic rights such as housing. leading to riots and deaths Citizenship rights o Ceylon citizenship act of 1948: Those who were born in Sri Lanka or those whose forefathers were born in Sri Lanka were granted citizenship o 1964: India agreed to help the Indian Tamils who were stateless.
Tamil and Sinhalese students almost equal] o 1970 New university admission criteria. 18% Tamils in population. As the admission criteria was unfair. o Those with better results/degrees/diplomas are able to find better jobs. Eng educated Tamils did well (Exams set in Eng) Proportion of Tamils in uni was significantly greater than proportion in the population. o Fixed number of Sinhalese students o Eg. one will have to enter and graduate university. many Tamils found themselves not eligible for university and this affected their livelihoods as they did not have the qualifications to have a high paying job o They felt discriminated and this increased the anger and tension between the Tamils and Sinhalese Resettlement o Landless Sinhalese peasants were transferred from the densely populated southwestern and central areas to the Tamil areas to provide them with land for padi cultivation to support themselves o Furthermore. University Admission Criteria o Originally. o Furthermore. o Tamils had to score higher marks than Sinhalese to enter same course. To be able to achieve that. felt discriminated and this increased the feelings of resentment and hatred the Tamils had towards the Sinhalese. Physical Sciences 183 (Tamils) vs 204 (Sinhalese) o Tamils felt discriminated against as it deprived them of future opportunities. they perceived this as a systematic elimination of Tamil Rights and hence. 3 . Buddhist monks and Sri Lankan Army (mostly Sinhalese) also occupied lands o Tamils unhappy as Buddhist monks and Sri Lankan Army also joined the peasants to occupy the traditional Tamil areas o This affected the livelihood of the Indian Tamils as the Indian Tamils depended on the land for tea plantation for their livelihood o This affected their quality of life and made them bitter towards the Sinhalese who took over their land.
o All these economic detriments led to a loss of revenue for Sri Lanka o Government had little funds to develop infrastructure and amenities (ie transport and housing) 4 . in an anti-Tamil riot in 1983 (July) 13 Sinhalese soldiers were killed.CONSEQUENCE OF SINHALESE-TAMIL CONFLICT (impact of conflict on social. Tamil politicians who did not support the proposed separate state. For example. o For example. political and economic development) Armed conflict (Political impact) o Because the demands of the Tamil United Liberation Front (1976) for a new separate independent state in the north and east of Sri Lanka was denied. Tamil members of police force. the people are left homeless and their quality of life suffers o Many factories were also destroyed. Tamil members and supporters of the ruling party. a militarist group called the LTTE was formed by Tamil youths o LTTE believed in the creation of a new Tamil State of Tamil Eelam and resorted to violence as they believe this is the only way to demand and obtain their rights o Attacked Sinhalese. o Conflict which spanned 20 years cost more than 60000 lives o Armed conflict resulted in the loss of lives of Sinhalese o Contributed to suffering of Sinhalese. o People lived in fear Economic Consequence o Unemployment After conflict. which caused many to become unemployed. 150 000 jobs lost and 90% of jobs belonged to Sinhalese 1983 Anti Tamil riots: 25 000 Tamil jobs lost o Loss of investments Foreign investors unwilling to invest in a politically and socially unstable country 1982: $70m 1985: $20m o Tourism Tourists do not want to come to an unsafe country 1982 – 400 000 arrivals 1986 – 200 000 arrivals o The loss in investments and fall in tourism also resulted in many job losses = hardship amongst people to had difficulty making a living AND social problems such as increase in crime rates. when houses are destroyed.
o o Furthermore. it violated Sri Lankan airspace and violated Sri Lanka‟s sovereignty o This meant that Sri Lanka faced a massive humiliation as this meant that India felt that the Sri Lankan government could not solve the crisis on their own. 5 . the quality of life suffered as they did not possess a livelihood to make money The fall in tourism also affected the country heavily as much of the countries revenue depended on tourism as Sri Lanka is a tourist destination Social consequence o Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of homeland 1983 riots: thousands of Tamils fled to India Today. but failed o 3 June 1987: Sent 20 ships with food and petroleum to Sri Lankan Tamils but turned back by Sri Lankan navy o Indian Airforce dropped food and medical supplies in Jaffna following day o In doing so. o Tried to play mediator. as many people were unemployed. 65000 Sri Lankan Tamils remain in India o 1990: High Security Zones (HSZ) set up o 1995: Many Tamils fled their homes when Sri Lankan army moved to Jaffna to combat LTTE o Today. many Tamils still living in overcrowded conditions in refugee camps o Quality of life suffered (packed refugee camps) o Loss of Tamil homes (Quality of life) and livelihood (unemployment when Tamils driven from their farmlands and plantations) Foreign Intervention (Political impact) o Anti Tamil riots attracted India’s attention o India sent its foreign minister to Sri Lanka as a mediator after the July 1983 riots. No agreements could be reached.
2002 Peace talks o Between the Sri Lankan government and LTTE. o After numerous clashes between the Tamil Tigers and Indian peacekeeping forces. o 2005: Foreign Minister who was Tamil against a separate Tamil state as well as several attackers blamed on the LTTE threatened civil war 6 . o Ceasefire agreement signed in 2002. mediated by Norway.EFFORTS TO RESOLVE CONFLICT (efforts to resolve the conflict) July 1987 Peace Accord o There was to be a ceasefire between the Tamil Tigers and the Sri Lankan forces. peacekeepers were withdrawn in 1990. Indian Army took Jaffna by force. an agreement for the Tamils and Sinhalese to share international aid for the Tsunami victims not implementd. said they were marginalized o Suicide bomb blast in Colombo in 2004. o BUT: o LTTE withdrew from talks in 2003. o LTTE were to surrender all their arms to Indian Peacekeeping troops o Tamil dominated northern provinces were to be merged with the eastern provinces o BUT: LTTE failed to fully surrender arms by October 1987.
they were suspicious and hostile to each other. political and economic development) Divided Loyalties o Protestants: Saw themselves as British and wanted NI to be part of UK o Catholics: Saw themselves as Irish and wants union with Ireland o Catholics resented English conquest of the 12th Century o Catholics remember massacre. grow up distrusted and hostile to each other o Therefore. Protestants and Catholic children rarely got you meet and know each other o Grew up in an environment intolerant of the other o Hence. making a conflict likely to happen Social Segregation o Public Schools cater for Protestants (Mainstream Schools) o Private schools cater for Catholics o Protestant Taught British History Played British sports Very Loyal to Britain o Catholics Taught Irish History Played British sports Very Loyal to Britain o As a result. Battle of Boyne (Orange Parade) as a mark of Protestant Dominance Marched through Catholic residential areas o St. increase in tension between the 2 groups. events that made the other angry were celebrated and this worsened the segregation between the Catholics and Protestants. they were not given opportunities o Catholics overrepresented in low pay sectors o Fewer Catholics in senior positions Eg. harsh rule and treatment o Celebrated events which other hated in plain view of other o Eg. which leads to an increase in tension between the 2 groups. making a conflict likely to happen Unequal allocation of jobs o Though equally qualified.REASONS FOR CONFLICT IN NORTHERN IRELAND (impact of conflict on social. Patrick’s day by Catholics o This sense of loyalty to different countries made them intolerant of each other o Furthermore. o This increased the feeling of mistrust and anger between both groups. 1925-49: 0 Catholic as judge of Supreme countrt 7 .
Voting o Before 1969: Voting criteria based on who owned homes and businesses o Votes for companies depended on size o Many Protestants owned companies Protestants get most votes o Gerrymandering redrawing of electoral boundaries to give advantages to political parties practiced. if the livelihood is affected. the voting system was unfair to poorer Catholic population o Unhappy that voting districts drawn up to include large proportion of Protestants o Resentment Battle for rights Conflict o Increased tension between both groups 8 . the fact that they lived separately increased social segregation and led to a lack of social communication intolerant of each other. o As a result.o o o 10% Catholic males unemployed compared to 5% Protestant males Catholics felt discriminated in terms of employment Employment affected the livelihood. the standard of living will be affected as their may be a lack of money to buy certain products The Catholics hence resented the unequal allocation of jobs Fight for rights Conflict Unequal allocation in Housing o Long delay in getting public housing o Approving council comprise largely of Protestants o 1968: 71% of local houses in Duncannon given to Protestants but 53% of the people there were Catholics o Protestants and Catholics lived separately o This frustrated many Catholics o Catholics felt marginalized o Increased tension between Catholics and Protestants o Furthermore. Hence.
Belfast ‘Peace’ Wall set up (1969). etc.5m o Unemployment Livelihood affected Quality of life suffers o Econ. Worsened Segregation between Protestants and Catholics o Grew up in environment of tension. 40 000 injured o Continued conflicts and hostilities o Prejudices towards one another o This led to a vicious cycle of killing and hatred. lack of understanding and bitterness towards the other group o Eg. people killed. When one group kills a member of the other. leading to a vicious cycle. 1948 govt agreed to abolish voting system o Decrease discrimination o Decrease tension between both groups o Leads to peace 9 .IMPACT OF CONFLICT IN NI (impact of conflict on social. o Both sides grew up in an atmosphere of suspicion and hatred o Made peace by both sides impossible o No social interaction Mistrusts other group Impossible for peace Vicious cycle of hatred more conflict Economic cost o Affected economic stability o NI Highest unemployment rate in UK o Investments decreased o Many areas suffered from poverty and social deprivation o Immense drain on British economy. the other takes revenge. political and economic development) Innocents killed o 3600 died. fear. Both sides have even less opportunities to interact. Drain Money could go to better areas Hastened introduction of anti-discriminative reforms o Pressure from Civil Right marches and Bri to reform and pass antidiscriminating laws o Eg. daily cost of BA: S$1. Est. “an eye for an eye” o Caused suffering as homes were destroyed.
Eg. Racial riots broke out as a result. their outrage will turn into violence. Many lives were lost. riots and demonstrations) Managing perceptions of different religious groups In a multi ethnic society. and many lives were lost. UMNO made use of race to incite Singapore Malays to support them and go against the PAP government (portrayed as Anti Malay). If we do not practice tolerance towards each other’s religious beliefs and practices. By denouncing the marriage of Maria Hertogh to her teacher and placing her in a convent the British government was not respecting the Muslims traditions. All this shows that if there is a slur against another race. As we live in a multi-ethnic society. they will fight for their rights. with the existence of different races. If not handled properly. potentially 10 . During 1964 elections. Maria Hertogh was brought up in a Muslim family with adopted parents.CHALLENGES OF A MULTI ETHIC SOCIETY (explain the internal and external threats to Singapore’s harmony) Managing perceptions of different racial groups Race can unite different groups of people together. or if the minority race feels their traditions are not respected. there are people from many religious groups. they will naturally feel outraged about it. riots occurred. social cohesion will not be achieved. Lack of understanding outbreaks of violence Any slight slur against another race may be perceived as an insult internal conflict As long as one race feels that they are being discriminated against. and may lead to social unrest (strikes. Maria Hertogh riots. It is difficult to manage perceptions of different racial groups as each culture has its beliefs and traditions that may conflict with other groups. any lack of understanding among different racial groups can create conflict easily. As such. Eg. but may divide the country as a whole.
This is as if one terrorist organization is associated with one religion (eg. they also threaten our racial and religious harmony. as can be seen from the Maria Hertogh riots. This causes the people who practice the religion to feel discriminated. 11 . such as riots. Threats from external forces External forces like terrorists may make use of religion to get support. as well as to create ill feelings among the people in a multi-ethnic society. and angry. the other religions in Singapore may feel distrustful of those who practice Islam. Jamaah Islamiyah (JI) wanted to set up an Islamic state in Asia. Terrorists attacks threaten our economy as people will tend to not travel to Singapore due to security reasons Terrorist attacks not only affect our economy. They used religion as a tool to create ill feelings among the people in a multi-ethnic society. and this anger may translate into violence. Eg.leading to strikes and riots as they vent their anger and fight for their rights. JI with Islam).
which reduces conflicts between different groups Developing common space This means that Singaporeans are given time and space to interact Eg. language or religion. Self help groups like CDAC and SINDA formed to help less fortunate of each racial group so that everyone will have a chance to excel in studies and work. GRC made it compulsory for teams participating in election to consist of at least one minority race. so that people will see themselves as part of the country. National Service. The Presidential Council of Minority Rights (PCMR) to ensure that no racial or religious group is disadvantaged when a law is passed. Eg. Eg. This allows Singaporeans to interact. such that Singaporeans put aside ethnic differences and work towards a common goal. regardless of race. Common Practices This creates a common history. Put racist bloggers on trial to discourage posting of racial comments. which fosters friendships between people of different races. Public housing. National Education made necessary (1997) Eg.MANAGING ETHNIC DIVERSITY (Explain how social cohesion and racial and religious harmony may be achieved in a multi ethnic society like Singapore) Building a national identity Eg. mother tongue [equality]). Boys from different backgrounds will serve in army together. Educational institutions (schools) have CCA different racial groups in each CCA to allow students from different races to study and participate in different activities together. culture and identity for Singaporeans. This promotes social stability as it gives the people a sense of belonging and pride. Also so that everyone can communicate through a common language Eg. and their mother tongue. Students make friends with other ethnic groups. This promotes social stability as it reduces the slurs against other minority groups. Minority rights. Different races in each block interact with one another Eg. Events and programmes by grassroot organizations like beach clean ups or jogathons Eg. so that they are represented in the parliament. 12 . Eg. All races have to take English (which no race has as a native. Bilingualism – Equality among races as no race have advantage. This makes sure that the minorities are not being left out in our society and to let them feel part of society. Safeguarding interests of minority groups Eg. not of an ethnic group Singaporeans see themselves as loyal and full of national pride This creates a national identity as Singaporeans.
hence. 13 . Economic Progress Stability in a society encourages foreign investors and trade Tourism industries boom since foreigners feel safe to travel here Unique characteristics of a multi ethnic society attracts tourists. which leads to less internal unrest. Why is it important to manage ethnic diversity in Singapore (appreciate living in a multi ethnic society) Security and Peace People feel safe in Singapore Not having the stress to be cautious over all areas This can only continue if Singapore continues to be a place where the different racial groups can live harmoniously together. It allows Singaporeans to respect the different races and religions in Singapore. Singaporeans will be less likely to slur another race.
and if diplomacy cannot solve the problem. argued that road violated territory rights. it results in tension being built up. national interests (profit from fishing industry) was threatened o Iceland tried to sought help from UN o 1975: extended zone of control over fishing grounds from 50 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles beyond its shore. o If countries try to extend their control by taking over territories not belonging to them. Competition over scarce resources o 1970s: Iceland and Britain in conflict over fishing grounds o Iceland has few natural resources and depended on fishing industry for survival o As a result. o 1959: Fighting broke out o mid 1961: China occupied even more territories India regarded as her own o 1962: War broke out o Territories are an indication of the strength of a country. o Having more territories is important to a country especially if the land is important to its defense or national pride. a conflict may arise as a result because land means a lot to a country. China claimed that border was not fixed. China unwilling to negotiate seriously and draw up definite boundaries o 1958: China announced that it built a road on Aksai Chin plateau o Indian government protested.THEME: REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT WHY CONFLICTS OCCUR (Understand why conflicts exist among nations) Competing territories o 1947: Indian gain independence from Britain o Inherited frontier drawn by British o China protested because they had not agreed to border o Hard to decide border because of inaccessible Himalayas o Areas of conflict – Aksai Chin Plateau and North East Frontier Agency (NEFA) o 1950: China began to contest India’s presence in several localities along border. o Britain refused to acknowledge new boundaries o 1976 (Feb): Iceland cut diplomatic ties with Britain 14 .
o UN pushed North Korean and Chinese forces back to 38th parallel o 1951: China joined the war and aided North Korea in pushing UN troops back into South Korea o 1953: Agreement signed to stop fighting. Countries pursuing different ideologies can come into conflict if they see their ideology beliefs are threatened or to force their beliefs on another country to prove that their beliefs were the best 15 . known as Democratic People’s Republic of Korea o 1948: Independent Republic of Korea formed with support of USA o 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea o Fearing that North Korea would spread the communist ideology to South Korea.o o o 1976 (June): Ties restored after agreement signed Scarce resources can mean a lot to a country. demilitarized zone created o Different values and beliefs among countries may cause conflicts. especially if a country depends mainly on one type of resource for its survival If that source of revenue is threatened. and diplomatic attempts with the other country fails. o UN called for election in 1947 to establish a single government to reunite Korea o USSR refused election and installed Communist regime. tensions may arise as a result and conflicts may occur as their national interests are being threatened. Ideology differences o Korean War o Korea divided into 2 halves at 38th parallel after WWII. its allies and the UN defended South Korea. Northern part temporarily occupied by USSR and southern part by USA. the USA.
Kuwait refused. o Made Iraq angry at Kuwait 16 . US$230b reconstruction costs o Increased tensions between Iraq and Kuwait (Kuwait is so rich yet Iraq is so poor) o Problems diverted to rich neighbor (Kuwait) o Economic differences Overproduction of oil by Kuwait and UAE Violated OPEC Quota Oil prices fell (US$18 – US$17 per barrel) Iraq lost US$1b each time oil prices fell by US$1 o Iraq blamed Kuwait for failing economy o Increased tension between Iraq and Kuwait o Land and resources Rumailo oilfield Divided by unclear borders 1990: Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil by slant drilling Bubiyah and Warbah Islands Near Iraq’s port of Umm Qasr Can block Iraq’s access to gulf 1960s: Iraq tried to use force to get islands 1978: Iraq offered to lease Islands.REASONS FOR GULF WAR (analyze causes of conflict) Worsening of Iraq-Kuwait Relations o Iraq’s economic problems Before Iraq-Iran war: UA$35b reserves After war: US$80b debt.
4 billion lost to Kuwait) o Agreed to increase oil prices from US$18 – US$21 o Kuwait Cancelled war debt o Agreed to give US$500 million loan o Didn’t agree to give territory o This made Iraq angry at Kuwait insolence o Increased tensions o Led to war Saddam leadership o Dissatisfaction Econ.o Increased tensions Diplomacy failure to solve problem o Iraq complained to Arab league (2. Devastated Hyperinflation Threat of Shia uprising Afraid Shia will overthrow him Threat posed by large army Army did not respect him o Personality Great leader Though he should be respected o If Saddam can win the war. he can prove himself o Divert the people‟s dissatisfaction to Kuwait o People will be angry at Kuwait instead of him War is answer to problem Misreading of US position o Saddam met the US ambassador o Thought US sympathetic to Iraq plight o Thought US will not react o Emboldened Saddam o Believed he could act without facing consequences 17 .
income Livelihood affected standard of living decreased Workers displaced to refugee camps Crowded Standard of living decreased Iraq o o Suffering of Iraqis Infrastructure destroyed Water supply contaminated Lead to spread of diseases This affected the standard of living (eg. Infrastructure destroyed loss of convenience) Affected health (diseases ran rampant) affected standards of living Political instability Kurds revolted Unsuccessful (Coalition forces didn’t help) Reprisal by Saddam Thousands massacred.CONSEQUENCE OF GULF WAR (analyze impact of conflict) Kuwait o Monetary 600/950 oilfields burnt o Death and suffering 1000 civilians killed Many tortured o Loss of oilfields meant that drop in economy (depended a lot on oil production) o Decrease in rate of rebuilding Decrease in standard of living o Many killed and tortured Others o Environment Oilfields burnt 11m barrels of oil dumped into Persian gulf This threatened marine life and costs millions to clean The money to clean could go to betters areas Rebuilding infrastructure Destruction of oilfields Oil is non renewable energy source Decrease in oil reserves of world Sustainable development affected o Foreign workers 2 million workers displaced Lost jobs. 1m Kurdish refugees Refugees lived in crowded camps Standards of living Many died 18 .
o Instability hinders progress and recovery Military 1/3 forces destroyed Morale of troops low Affected defense Blow to national pride (Iraq prides itself for having 4th largest army in the world at that time before Gulf War) 19 .
9/11 Attacks. which may compromise the standard of living and convenience of the people. such as riots. and angry. Eg. When a community is not prepared for a terrorist attack. Feelings of distrust and suspicion will arise. Can lead to social unrest Political impact Trade off between security and freedom Eg. People will not have freedom to do as they wish because of increase security. Social impact Creates suspicion and mistrust amongst different segments of society. Good relations built up over the years in a multi ethnic community may be shackled by terrorist acts especially if a loved one is involved. Tourism fell by 50%. This is especially so if a terrorist organization is affiliated with a particular race or religion as the other religions in Singapore may feel distrustful of those who practice Islam. and this anger may translate into violence. This causes the people who practice the religion to feel discriminated. Insurance payouts of US$40 billion. Airlines and tourist trade plunged to a near standstill.IMPACT OF TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM (Understand the impact of terrorism on world and national security) Economic impact Eg. Bali bombings. Airlines industries affected. Eg. Ban on liquids Longer time to check in. 20 . Singapore. it is even more vulnerable when tensions arise after an attack. Misunderstanding amongst Singaporeans Singapore Chinese refuse to enter same lifts as Malays Eg. and there are wrong perceptions of being unfairly singled out Social bonds are put to the test. Revenue lost and US government had to provide economic help to revive the airlines industry. Inconvenience caused by increase in security checks. All governments taking an anti terrorist stance now have to spend a lot of money and resources on increased security This may result in a divergence of funds to improving or developing new infrastructure or amnesties. London bombings discrimination against Muslims Hate crimes against Muslims 344 violent incidents in 2002 Eg. UK has 4 million CCTV cameras and 400000 official requests to tap phones People‟s privacy and freedom (civil liberties) are eroded away. Economy suffered as tourism is main source of revenue for Bali.
Their money is frozen and cannot buy arms. Makes it more difficult for terrorists to operate in the region. 1st Legally binding terrorism accord. Members cooperate to share information and persecute terrorists Eg. International efforts Eg.Ways to manage transnational terrorism (Examine measures taken to deal with transnational terrorism) Regional efforts Eg. Eg. Convention on counter terrorism signed by ASEAN leaders (2007). Member countries to freeze terrorist assets and prevent terrorists from buying arms. Furthermore. Society takes a firm. making them more difficult to operate. It allows for Singapore to deal with terrorists in other ASEAN countries more effectively. Shows the steps ASEAN has made in dealing with terrorism Because of regional efforts. Political/religious leaders speak out against terrorism) Makes it more difficult for terrorists to recruit or operate as they face the entire nation. Community Engagement Program launched by PM Lee in 2005 to promote social cohesion. support from international organizations allows ALL countries to be able to fight terrorism Creating an environment non-conducive for terrorism. Provides help to countries to implement legislation. many terrorists suspects have been arrested. Froze more than US$200million in terrorist funds Eg. not just the military of civil force alone. Makes it more difficult for terrorists to escape to another country. Monitors countries adherence to anti terrorism legislation. Eg. unambiguous stance against terrorism (eg. 21 . Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC) formed. ARF. Passed anti terrorism legislation. Philippines authorities arrested JI bomb maker Al Ghazi based on info provided by Singapore in 2002 Eg. Provides a platform to discuss how to deal with transnational terrorism Eg. terrorist EVERYWHERE will face persecution. Because countries work together. Over 4000 terrorists arrested by info sharing Makes it more difficult for terrorists to operate as their activities are monitored. Creating strong social bonds amongst different groups to ensure our society is united against terrorism. Joint police and intelligence measures. Eg.
healthcare. infrastructure People enjoy higher standards of living Increase awareness of other cultures o 1930s: Singapore ppl didn’t know of events outside Singapore o Now: Internet + TV Find things out easily o Hence.THEME: SUSTAINING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN A GLOBALISED WORLD POSITIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION (Explain how globalization creates opportunities and challenges for nations) Increase in standards of living o Increase in income levels: o 2000: $4940 o 2004: $5400 o Because of free trade. wide range of foreign products. foreign products become cheaper. culture and way of life of other countries through traveling or the internet o This would not be possible without globalization Increase awareness of environmental management o Increase in awareness that sustainable growth is key to future growth o Eg. Countries are learning to sustain power supply through conservation and alternate sources of energy o Hence. This increases lifestyle choices. housing. leading to higher quality of life o Globalizing countries Increase in income levels when they open to foreign investment o Greater revenues spent on education. Singaporeans will not be ignorant of the outside world o Singaporeans are able to learn about history. the Earth‟s resources would not be drained past the sustainable levels 22 .
a social division within the country is formed Social instability Increasing resentment of poor towards rich Conflict o Possibly lead to increasing crime rates Loss of local culture o Spread of pop culture (eg MTV) o Local beliefs. o May result in increasing crime rates (eg. the resources can still be sustained and used for future generations NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION Environmental impact o High demand for Brazilian beef Results in the total area of forest lost in Amazon increase from 41.5 million hectares (1990) to 58. MTV o Eg.7 million hectares (2000) to make way for cattle ranches o Tropical rainforests disappearing in Indonesia Forests cleared to plant cash crops o Impact Environmental problems such as soil erosion o Environmental problems such as haze Affect tourism/health Increasing gap between rich and poor o Countries Rich country prosper as they are able to attract many TNCs to be based there Able to draw investors from poor countries Ppl in these countries have good jobs Ppl from developing countries have low skilled industries which generates little revenue o People Rich and highly educated prosper because of better economic opportunities Poor ppl face econ. Getai lost o Loss of identity as people forget roots/values o Local cultures give way to a homogenous culture created by the likes of MacDonalds. Uncertainties as they are unskilled Eg. Retrenchment o As a result. Traditional Chinese values lost) o Once lost. etc. MTV. very difficult to gain back 23 . cultures and languages may be lost in the face of western influences o Eg.o This ensures that in the years to come. MacDonalds.
its people must adopt environmentally friendly ways and be instilled with a sense of responsibility and personal interest to keep surrounding clean o Long tern solution where public is educated to dispose of wastes properly Reduce rubbish and wastes 24 . Clean and Green Week Educate people on environmental issues o Activities like exhibitions. Global problems Signing an international agreement that restricts the use of harmful ozone depleting substances in individual countries Singapore banned use of CFCs o Allows Singapore to deal with pollution from other countries which Singapore alone may not be possible to deal Public education o Eg. beach cleaning and planting of trees o Bring your own bag day program o For Singapore efforts in environmental protection to be effective in the long run. Tuas. Haze Singapore detect haze by satellites 1997: Singapore hosted the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Haze to discuss measures to combat problem o Eg. seminars and workshops.KEEPING ENVIRONMENT CLEAN (Understand how environment management in necessary to maintain economic growth) Managing limited land resources o Singapore is small (680 km2) o Need for proper planning for land use o Land is set aside for waste disposal Offshore Pulau Semakau landfill built because land area on mainland is limited Palau Semakau expected to last till 2030 Incineration plants in Ulu Pandan. Tuas South and Senoko o Ensures that Singapore have enough land for waste disposal o Wastes will not stack up in mainland o Deal with local wastes Regional and International cooperation o Eg.
to create 35000 jobs. Provide training. regular workshops and seminars organized for SME staff o Govt. increase tourism revenue to US$15billion in 2015 o Reduce over dependence on any single industry o Other sources of revenue available even if one industry experiences a downturn o Leads to economic stability Nurturing SMEs o Association of Small and Medium Enterprises set up in 1986 to help SMEs Eg. Manuafacturing Life sciences) o Other industries: Life sciences A*STAR set up Tourism Integrated resorts Marina Bay Sands Resort world at Sentosa Est.HOW SINGAPORE OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION Diversifying the economy o Move away from economic mainstays to other industries (eg. helps to nurture SMEs through tax exemption 1st 100 000 dollars of income tax exempt for 3 years o Frees up more capital for these new SMEs to grow o SMEs provides a stable source of jobs for Singaporeans whereas TNCs can relocate into a cheaper country o SMEs also provides raw materials/contacts for TNCs Attract TNCs Economy boosted 25 .
through expanding market reach.e. the introduction of SEZs allow her to gain a bigger market and overcome her saturated market o Furthermore. Furthermore. Singapore‟s goods receive less taxation More competitive Increase profits Managing resources efficiently o Developing our people Promote entrepreneurship Rewritten bankruptcy laws o Promote continuous learning WDA set up in 2003 Carry out self improvement seminars o Ensures that our people remain competitive in the changing econ. India o Through expanding Market reach by econ cooperation.Venturing abroad o Suzhou industrial park o Singtel: investments in over 20 countries i. owns optus. Between US and Singapore o Singaporean products become cheaper More competitive overseas o Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Eg. 2nd largest telecommunications company in Australia o Overcomes small domestic markets (markets are currently saturated) o Gain larger markets for local products o Low costs of goods ensures that Singapore remains competitive in the globalizing world Expanding market reach through economic cooperation o FTAs signed Eg. Singapore can overcome her small domestic markets as she can sell more to other countries. o Ensures that Singapore will not be out of jobs 26 .
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