EVALUATION OF TRADITIONAL PURIFICATION METHODS OF KANDHAGAM

P. Rajalakshmi, K.L. Niraimathy, S. Moscow, M. Abeetha, G.Victor Rajamanickam, CARISM,SASTRA

Sulphur is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form,
is a yellow crystalline solid. Classification of Kandhagam General Classification • Pirappu Kandagam • Kozhitalai Kandagam • VanaKenthi vaipu • Vaipu Kandagam Based on Colour • White Kandagam – it cures all diseases • Parrot nose red Kandagam – used for calcinating 9 types of metals • Gold coloured (or) Gooseberry Kandagam – commonly used for medicine • Black Kandagam – Rare type, Rejuvenator

Kandhagam (sulphur)

Significance of Sulphur in Siddha
• It increases bile secretion, Laxative, Alterative, Antimicrobial, generally excreted by duct glands. • It is used for curing Leucoderma, Hepatomegaly, Ascites, Peptic Ulcer, Eye disease, Cysts, Chronic venereal diseases and skin diseases. • It is a potent drug used for the preparation of Rasayanam, Pills, Mezhugu and Bhasmas and Chenduram.

Sulphur toxicity
Sulphur is not an higlhy toxic substance. Improperly purified and irregularly prepared Sulphur medicine if consumed over a long period then it causes toxic effects. The toxic feautures are
– – – – – – – – – – – – Yellowish discolouration of conjuctiva Pallor of the face Discolouration of the skin similar to the colour of ridged gourd flower Disfigured and blackish teeth Profuse hyperhidrosis with yellowish colour Urine appears like goat’s urine Faeces is dark yellow coloured Bad breath (halitosis) Dyspepsia Flatulence Distended abdomen with pain Macules

Need for purification of Kandagam
• Detoxification implies removing the impurities inhibiting the potency of the medicine. • Impurities of Kandagam should be removed with the detoxifying agent provided in Siddha literature. • Four detoxifying agents are used for purification of Kandagam • They are Milk, Henna, Banana stem, Peels of Tamarind fruit.

Process of Sulphur Purification

Melting of Butter

Melting of Sulphur in Butter

Molten Sulphur poured into milk

Solidified sulphur in milk

This process is repeated for 30 times and the sample is analysed at initial, interim and final stages.

Chemical investigations
• Detoxified substance- Kandagam • Detoxifying agent – Milk Parameters investigated • Estimation of Sulphur • Estimation of Calcium • Estimation of Phosphorous • Estimation of Lead • Estimation of Mercury

Investigated chemical parameters
Sulphur %

I SULPHUR
39.132

II SULPHUR
46.02011

III SULPHUR
86.5871

I MILK
1.860034

II MILK
3.89373

III MILK
4.213638

Calcium

140

140

120

160

140

100

Phosphorous

0.14535

0.18282

0.22601

0.14456

0.194306

0.23834

Mercury

0.082

0.00864

0.00942

0.00842

0.00662

0.00581

Lead

0.1157

0.3912

0.4235

0.4209

0.5741

0.3378

Percentage of Sulphur

100 80 Sulphur (%) 60 40 20 0
39 .13 2 46 .02 01 86 .58 71

I SULPHUR

II SULPHUR

III SULPHUR

% OF SULPHUR IN MILK

5 % OF SULPHUR 4 3
1. 86 00 3 3. 89 37 3 4. 21 36 4

2 1 0

I MILK

II MILK

III MILK

LEVELS OF CALCIUM IN KANDAGAM

140 CONCENTRATION IN ppm 135 130
14 0 14 0

125 120 115 110

I SULPHUR

II SULPHUR

III SULPHUR

LEVELS OF CALCIUM IN MILK

200 CONCENTRATION IN ppm 150 100 50 0
0 16

14 0

I MILK

II MILK

III MILK

Calcium is a reducing agent, used for reducing metals It is also employed as a chelating agent (Calcium-EDTA)

10 0

12 0

LEVELS OF PHOSPHOROUS- KANDAGAM

LEVELS OF PHOSPHOROUS IN MILK

0.25 % OF PHOSPHOROUS % in Phosphorous 0.2 0.15
0. 14 53 5 0. 18 28 2 0. 22 60 1

0.25 0.2 0.15
0. 14 45 6 0. 19 43 1

0.1 0.05 0

0.1 0.05 0

I SULPHUR

II SULPHUR

III SULPHUR

I MILK

II MILK

III MILK

Phosphorous, a mineral, helps build strong bones and teeth. Phosphorous is also involved in the release of energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrates during metabolism, and in the formation of genetic material, cell membranes, and many enzymes. RDA - 800 milligrams for women and men 25 to 50 years

0. 23 83 4

LEVELS OF MERCURY IN KANDAGAM

0.1 CONCENTRATION IN ppm 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 I SULPHUR
0. 08 2

II SULPHUR

0. 00 86 4

III SULPHUR

•The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum permissible level of 1 part of methyl mercury in a million parts (1 ppm). •Exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic, or organic mercury can permanently damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetus.
LEVELS OF MERCURY IN MILK

0. 00 94 2

0.01 CONCENTRATION IN ppm 0.008
0. 00 84 2 0. 00 66 2

0.006 0.004 0.002 0

I MILK

II MILK

III MILK

0. 00 58 1

LEVELS OF LEAD IN KANDAGAM

CONCENTRATION IN ppm

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2
0. 11 57 0. 39 12 0. 42 35

0.1 0

I SULPHUR

II SULPHUR

III SULPHUR

Lead in dietary allowances. • Lead perturbs multiple enzyme systems. As in most heavy metals, any ligand with sulfhydryl groups is vulnerable. Perhaps the best-known effect is that on the production of heme.

• The FDA has set a maximum permissible level of LEVELS OF LEAD IN MILK
CONCENTRATION IN ppm 0.6 0.5 0.4
0. 57 41

10 parts per million of

0.2 0.1 0

I MILK

II MILK

III MILK

0. 33 78

0.3

0. 42 09

Need for Detoxification
• Sulfur is present in all proteins, which makes it universally available throughout the body for binding with mercury. Mercury has a particularly high affinity for thiol groups sulphur> amides> amines>carbon> phosphate. Mercury-induced intracellular calcium modulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) •

Cell apoptosis and necrosis Calcium antagonists abolished ROS production. (Kim et al.,2004 )

Calcium and lead are absorbed at the same site in the intestine (vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene ) It prefers calcium. The ingested lead passes though the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted if there is also calcium present to prevent lead absorbtion. As more calcium is consumed, less lead is able to get into the bloodstream. The Centre for Disease Control guidelines for prevention of childhood lead poisoning recommends adequate dietary calcium and iron as measures to prevent lead toxicity

Uses of Sulphur – Siddha Literature It is used for curing Leucoderma, Hepatomegaly, Ascites, Peptic Ulcer, Eye disease, Cysts, Chronic venereal diseases and skin diseases. Uses of Lead – Siddha Literature It is used for curing Leucoderma, Ascites, Peptic Ulcer, Eye disease, Chronic venereal diseases and skin diseases. Uses of Mercury– Siddha Literature It is used for curing Leucoderma, Peptic Ulcer, Eye disease, Chronic venereal diseases.

Conclusion
The Detoxification of Sulphur by traditional method involves removing of toxic substances both in the medicine and also safeguarding the body from heavy metal toxicity during the course of administration of the drug. The nutritive value of the detoxifying agent-Milk also serves as a supplement for Balanced diet

References
Thyagara Mudaliyar,GunapadamThaathu Jeeva vaguppu, IIIrd Edn, Indian Medical Association, 1981. P. Jeyaraj, Siddha Toxicology, Ist Ed. Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy, 1999. Kuppusamy Mudaliyar, Siddha Vaithiya thiratu. Van Cromphaut SJ, Dewerchin M, Hoenderop JG, Stockmans I, Van Herck E, Kato S, Bindels RJ, Colle D Carmeliet P, Bouillon R, Carmeliet G Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: functional and molecular aspects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Nov 6;98(23):13324-9. Sang Hyun Kim and Raghubir P. Sharma Mercury-induced apoptosis and necrosis in murine macrophages: role of calcium-induced reactive oxygen species and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology Volume 196, Issue 1, 1 April 2004, 47-57. Title 21—Food and Drugs Chapter I—Food and Drug Administration Department of Health and Human Services Subchapter D—Drugs for Human Use Code of federal regulations. United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 1 May 2007. Preventing Lead Exposure in Young Children: A Housing-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Lead Poisoning (2004) – Recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention, 2004.