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all have molecules which are widely spaced, and nowadays the equation of state for an ideal gas is derived from kinetic theory. The Gas Laws that have been subject to testing were Combined Gas Law and Graham¶s Law. The tables below show the results of the experimentation.

Combined Gas Law

Temperature of boiling water (t1)

373.15 K

Temperature of water in the basin (T2) Volume of water drawn in the flask, (¨V2 observed) Volume of air in the flask at T1, (V1)

298.15 K

26 mL

171 mL

Barometric Pressure of water at T2 (P water)

760 mmHg

Vapor Pressure of water at T2 (P water)

23.8 mmHg

Partial Pressure of dry air (P2)

736.2 mmHg

Calculated volume of air in flask at T2, (V2 calculated)

141.03 mL

V2 Observed

29.97 mL

% difference between V2 calc and V2 obs

71.18 %

Table 1: Combined gas law tabulated data

**Graham¶s Law Length of the cylinder in cm
**

61.5 cm

Time required for HCl to travel the length of the cylinder

0.6 min

Rate diffusion of HCl

45.67 cm/min

Time required for NH3 to travel the length of the cylinder

0.7 min

Rate diffusion of NH3 Observed ration of diffusion rate of HCL / NH3

49.29 cm/min 0.93

Calculated ratio of the rate of diffusion of HCl / NH3 (based on their MW)

0.98

% difference between calculated and observed

5.9 %

Table 2: Graham¶s law tabulated data

The combined gas law is a gas law which combines Charles's law, Boyle's law, and GayLussac's law. These laws each relate one thermodynamic variable to another mathematically while holding everything else constant. Charles's law states that volume and temperature are directly proportional to each other as long as pressure is held constant. Boyle's law asserts that pressure and volume are inversely proportional to each other at fixed temperature. Finally, Gay-Lussac's law introduces a direct proportionality between temperature and pressure as long as it is at a constant volume. The interdependence of these variables is shown in the combined gas law, which clearly states that: The ratio between the pressure-volume product and the temperature of a system remains constant

This can be stated mathematically as:

Fig.1: ration of Pressure, volume and temperature

where: p is the pressure V is the volume T is the temperature measured in Kelvin k is a constant (with units of energy divided by temperature). For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as:

Fig. 2: Combined gas law equation

Graham's law, also known as Graham's law of effusion, was formulated by Scottish physical chemist Thomas Graham. Graham found experimentally that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles. This formula can be written as:

Fig. 3: Graham¶s Law equation

where: Rate1 is the rate of effusion of the first gas (volume or number of moles per unit time). Rate2 is the rate of effusion for the second gas. M1 is the molar mass of gas 1 M2 is the molar mass of gas 2. Graham's law is most accurate for molecular effusion which involves the movement of one gas at a time through a hole. It is only approximate for diffusion of one gas in another or in air, as these processes involve the movement of more than one gas.

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