CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION AND SOIL FORMATION

1.0 INTRODUCTION 
Almost every work of construction in CE is built on soil or rock.  In many instances these are also the raw materials of construction.

1.0 INTRODUCTION 
The term soil has various meanings, depending upon the general field in which it is being considered.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Meanings of SOIL

To a PEDOLOGIST

To a GEOLOGIST

To an ENGINEER

0 INTRODUCTION Soil is the substance existing on the Earth¶s surface. which grows and develops plant life To a PEDOLOGIST .1.

0 INTRODUCTION To a GEOLOGIST Soil is the material in the relative thin surface zone within which roots occur. .1. and all the rest of the crust is grouped under the term ROCK irrespective of it sharpness.

0 INTRODUCTION ‡ Soil is the unaggregated or uncemented deposits of mineral and/ or organic particles or fragments covering large portion of the Earth¶s crust. ‡ The void space between the particles containing water and/ or air.1. To an ENGINEER .

1.0 INTRODUCTION Soil means material that can be worked without drilling or blasting .

0 INTRODUCTION SOIL MECHANICS is single of the youngest disciplines of CE involving the study of soil.1. its behaviour and application as an engineering material. .

Geotechnical Engineering.0 INTRODUCTION The study of soil and rock materials is an important part of a wider area of study.1. .

1.0 INTRODUCTION Soil Mechanics (Soil Properties and Behaviour) Geosynthetics (Soil Improvement) Rock Mechanics (Rock Stability and Tunneling) GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING Soil Dynamics (Dynamic Properties of Soils. Earthquake Engineering. Machine Foundation) Pavement Engineering (Flexible & Rigid Pavement) Foundation Engineering (Deep & Shallow Foundation) .

0 SOIL FORMATION SOIL The un-cemented or weakly cemented material overlying the harder rock on the plane¶s surface. All soils originate. directly or indirectly from solid rocks and these are classified according to their mode of formation: -Igneous rocks -Sedimentary rocks -Metamorphic rocks .2.

such as seas and lakes. dolcrite. marble.g. . conlonerate.0 SOIL FORMATION IGNEOUS ROCKS ‡ Formed by cooling from hot molten material (magma) with or on the surface of the earth¶s crust ‡ e. METAMORPHIC ROCKS ‡ Formed by alternation of existing rocks due to extreme heat & extreme pressure..2.. shale. sandstone. ‡ e. granite basalt. andesite.g. slate. limestone. gabbro. ‡ e.. porphyry.g. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ‡ Formed in layers from sediments settling in bodies of water. syenite. quartzite. schist. mudstone.

g.0 SOIL FORMATION Mode and condition of transport. action of man etc. e. Length of time relate to particular prevailing conditions. cataclysmic storms. Topographic and general terrain conditions. such as degree of shelter or exposure. earthquakes. particularly temperature and humidity. etc. CONTROLLING FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION Climate conditions. Interference by other agencies. Nature and composition of the parent rock. .2. density and type of vegetation.

2.0 SOIL FORMATION Igneous Rock .

2.0 SOIL FORMATION Igneous Rock .

0 SOIL FORMATION Metamorphic Rock .2.

2.0 SOIL FORMATION Metamorphic Rock .

2.0 SOIL FORMATION Sedimentary Rock .

0 SOIL FORMATION Sedimentary Rock .2.

2.0 SOIL FORMATION The geological process that produce soil The effect of WEATHERING The effect of TRANSPORT .

The resultant debris is therefore sharp and angular. causes the particles to become rounded. .2. Wind action. frost. temperature change and gravity. in which water within the pore spaces of a rock expands upon freezing causes flakes or rock to split away. Frost action.1 THE EFFECT OF WEATHERING The effect of WEATHERING Weathering embraces a number of natural surface processes which result from the single or combined action of such agencies as wind.

.1 THE EFFECT OF WEATHERING Wind action causes the particles to become rounded.2.

.2.1 THE EFFECT OF WEATHERING The volume change as liquid water transforms to ice is an important physical weathering force in temperate climates.

1 THE EFFECT OF WEATHERING .2.

1 THE EFFECT OF WEATHERING .2.

2 THE EFFECT OF TRANSPORT Soils that have not been transported and have remained at their parent site are termed RESIDUAL SOILS.2. .

In hot arid climates. . During the processes of movement. separation of the original constituents takes place.2 THE EFFECT OF TRANSPORT The principal effect of transportation is that of sorting. a fine wind-blown dust known as LOESS may be carried considerable distances before being deposited.g.2. e.

‡Thus. The principal effect of transportation is that of sorting. i. because of their smallness of size and flaky shape. ‡The load carried by a river or stream depend largely on the flow velocity.2 THE EFFECT OF TRANSPORT ‡The action of flowing water may dissolve some minerals. the velocity falls as the river drops down towards the sea. tend to be carried well out into the sea or lake. finally fine sands and silts in the estuary or delta area. and so deposition takes place: first. . ‡Clay particles. ‡In the upper reaches the velocity is high and so even large boulders maybe moved. carrying some particles in suspension and bounce or roll others along. During the processes of movement.2. gravel-sized particles are deposited in the flood plain and then coarse to medium sands. ‡However.e. separation of the original constituents takes place. poorly or uniformly graded. river-deposited (alluvial) soils are usually well sorted.

The movement of ice also provides transport for weathered debris e.2.2 THE EFFECT OF TRANSPORT The principal effect of transportation is that of sorting. boulder clay. During the processes of movement.g. separation of the original constituents takes place. .

Boulders. gravel cohesionless. sand and silt cohesive and clay .They have different shapes and textures. What type of soils are usually produced by the different weathering and transportation process? These soils can be dry. saturated and partially saturated.

sedimentary or metamorphic origin. Soft materials such as clays.2. which may be of igneous. whereas an engineer will use the term soil. ROCK To geologist. . shales and sands. may be described by a geologist as rock. the term rock indicates coherent crustal material over about 1 million years old.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY Hard rigid coherent deposit forming part of the earth¶s crust.

2. . worked on or worked with.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY SOIL In engineering taken to be any loose or diggable material that is worked in.

2.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY ORGANIC SOIL This is a mixture of mineral grains and organic material of mainly vegetable origin in varying stages of decomposition. .

. void ration and moisture content. peat poses many problems because of their high compressibility. highly compressible and combustible.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY From an engineering point of view. PEAT Inorganic materials may also be present and as this increased the material will grade towards an organic soil. True peat is made up entirely of organic matter. it is very spongy.2. and in some case their acidity.

.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY These are the weathered remains of rocks that have undergone no transportation.2. E. RESIDUAL SOILS They are normally sandy and gravelly.g. China clay. .

ALLIVIAL SOILS (ALLUVIUM) .2.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY These are materials. such as sands and gravels which have beeb deposited from rivers and streams.

2.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY COHESIVE SOIL Soils containing sufficient clay or silt particles to impart significant plasticity and cohesion. .

such as sands and gravels. which consist of rounded and angular (nonflaky) particles and which do not exhibit plasticity or cohesion. COHESIONLESS SOIL .2.3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY Soils.

3 ENGINEERING SOIL TERMINOLOGY This is soil of glacial origin consisting of a very wide range of particle sizes from finely-ground rock flour to boulders. BOULDER CLAY .2.

SOIL MECHANICS (7 TOPICS) 1. Physical Properties 4. liquid and plasticity index 2. Soil Formation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Formation Soil classification system Soil compositions and their relationships Plastic. Soil Classification 3. Index Properties .

Moisture Density Relationships ‡ ‡ ‡ Soil compaction Permeability and seepage Effective stress and pore water pressure 6. Stress Distribution .SOIL MECHANICS (7 TOPICS) 5. Flow of Water in Soils 7.

Liquid Limit & Plastic Limit Liquid Limit Plastic Limit .LAB TESTS 1.

Sieve Analysis & Field Density Sieve Analysis Field Density .LAB TESTS 2.

LAB TESTS 3. Determination of Specific Gravity of Soil .

Water Content Determination Drying Oven Compaction Graph .LAB TESTS 4.

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By: fiza .

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