Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and

Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Contents Page Summary ......................................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... 2 Copyright notice ............................................................................................................. 2 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................ 3 1.1 Assessment area proposal............................................................................ 3 1.2 Specification and methodology for study.................................................... 3 1.3 Assessment criteria...................................................................................... 3 2. Background......................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Location and topography............................................................................. 6 2.2 Geology ....................................................................................................... 6 2.3 General archaeological background ............................................................ 7 3. Site specific archaeology and zonation ............................................................. 8 3.1 Archaeological interests .............................................................................. 8 3.2 Site zoning................................................................................................... 8 3.3 Walkover survey ....................................................................................... 14 3.4 Cartographic sources ................................................................................. 14 4. National and local planning constraints and policies.................................... 16 5. Summary of archaeological potential............................................................. 19

Bibliography ................................................................................................................. 20 Appendix I..................................................................................................................... 22 Summary of data from the Tithe maps of Caerleon and Christchurch parishes including tithe plan extract Appendix II ................................................................................................................... 24 St.Aarons. Extract from Early Medieval ecclesiastical sites in southeast Wales Appendix III ................................................................................................................. 27 Aerial photographs with coverage of the evaluation area Appendix IV.................................................................................................................. 29 Gazetteer of archaeological interests Figures Page Figure 1: Location of the study area (green)................................................................... 6 Figure 2: Map showing zones and known archaeological interests.............................. 37 Figure 3: Archaeological potential plan........................................................................ 38 Tables Page Table 1: Identified archaeological interests..................................................................... 6 Plates Page Plate 1: Zone A, view to the south shows the railway embankment in middle distance and the slopes on which the Roman cemetery is located. ................................. 9 Plate 2: Zone B, view to the northeast shows dense tree coverage, River Afon Llwyd in foreground....................................................................................................... 10 Plate 3: Zone C, general view to the north of floodplain .............................................. 11 Plate 4: Zone D, general view to the southwest across the floodplain.......................... 13

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Summary The Celtic Manor Resort has commissioned the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Contracts Division to undertake an archaeological desk-based assessment of the potential archaeological resource in the parcels of land within their ownership that border the River Afon Llwyd. Twenty-two sites of archaeological interests, including two Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAM), were identified in the assessment area. One SAM (Mm 244) is located within the landholding. The greater part of the site, to the east of Caerleon, is located on the floodplain of the Rivers Usk and Afon Llwyd. The Afon Llwyd has changed course on numerous occasions and it is unlikely that archaeological remains will be discovered on the floodplain due to the cutting action of both rivers. However, archaeological remains of national and regional importance are located on the western and northern boundaries of the landholding including a probable bathhouse scheduled as an ancient monument (SAM MM 244). The remains, of Roman date, are associated with the Roman fortress of Caerleon and include the roads, civilian settlement and burial grounds outside the fortress walls. Newport City Council as the Unitary Authority recognises the importance of Roman Caerleon and designated the area as an Archaeologically Sensitive Area; part of the western boundary falls within its curtilage. The Newport Unitary Development Plan contains a number of specific policies that are applicable to the site and the floodplain in particular; excepting proposals that will enhance tourism in Caerleon, these policies generally discourage other forms of development. Whilst the landholding benefits from some previous geophysical survey and trial investigations this has not been on a scale to pin-point all archaeological interests. However, this assessment has allowed areas of high, medium and low potential to be determined and should proposals be advanced for development in these areas then further evaluation followed, if necessary, by implementation of appropriate mitigation measures, is likely to be required. In line with current guidance it would be preferable to avoid or minimize development in those areas with the highest potential. Acknowledgements Information to assist this project was provided by the following records holders, GGAT SMR, Cadw, CRAPW, RCAHMW, National Library of Wales, Gwent Record Office, and Newport Library Reference Department. The project was managed by Andrew Marvell BA MIFA and the report researched and prepared by Martin Tuck of GGAT. Copyright notice The copyright of this report is held by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, which has granted an exclusive licence to Celtic Manor Resort and their agents to use and reproduce material it contains. Ordnance Survey maps are reproduced under licence (AL 10005976), detailed mapping copyright of Celtic Manor Resort; annotations are GGAT copyright.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

1. Introduction
1.1 Assessment area proposal The Celtic Manor Resort is considering options for maximising the potential of the parcels of land within their ownership that border the River Afon Llwyd. The northern and western boundaries of the assessment area are known to contain Scheduled Ancient Monuments and other remains of Roman date associated with the fortress of Caerleon. The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust was commissioned by the Celtic Manor Resort to undertake an archaeological desk-based assessment in order to determine the effect of possible future development undertakings on the archaeological resource. 1.2 Specification and methodology for study The study comprised a review of existing information about the archaeological resource within the assessment area centred at NGR ST 345 910, and included sites bordering the specific area. The assessment conformed to the Institute of Field Archaeologists Standards and Guidance for Archaeological desk-based assessments with the addition that the landholding was microzoned into areas of differing archaeological potential with confidence ratings; these zones are presented graphically and with a written description. Some of the confidence ratings benefit from recent field evaluation works. Information recorded on the regional Sites and Monuments Record (SMR) and National Monuments Record (NMR) was assessed. Cartographic and documentary sources were studied, along with relevant published information. Current Listed Building data and information on Scheduled Ancient Monuments and registered landscapes was obtained from Cadw. Collections of aerial photographs held by the Central Register of Air Photography for Wales were examined and additional information requested from the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales (RCAHMW). In addition, the relevant unitary development plan and other documents relating to national and local planning policy were consulted. It was not the purpose of this assessment to assess any particular development impact but rather to identify possible archaeological sites of interest and zones of constraint. When development proposals are formulated further assessment or evaluation may be necessary in order to clarify impact and ascertain the need for and extent of appropriate mitigation measures. 1.3 Assessment criteria The archaeological sites within the study area are categorised in accordance with the only available criteria that are nationally agreed; these are set out in the Department of Transport/Welsh Office/Scottish Office Design Manual for Roads and Bridges paragraph 3.4 Vol. 11 Section 3 Part 2 (Cultural Heritage).  Category A: national importance  Category B: regional importance  Category C: local importance  Category D: low importance To these an additional category has been added  Category U: unknown

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

The assessment of the importance of individual sites is essentially a subjective exercise based upon the experience of the project team. The importance of certain sites will be implied by their status within the statutory framework. Scheduled Ancient Monuments will always be of national importance; Listed Buildings will be of at least regional importance. Values assigned to other sites are given both in relation to their individual importance and to their context within the wider landscape. The condition of individual sites and the general overall condition of surviving remains has bearing on the value of the sites themselves and on the value that they impart within a wider landscape context. The condition of sites is recorded following the system used by the GGAT SMR, using the following criteria:  Intact: the site is intact  Near intact: the site is nearly intact  Damaged: the site has been moderately damaged  Near destroyed: the site has nearly been destroyed  Destroyed: the site has been destroyed  Restored: the site has been restored  Moved: the site has been moved (usually finds)  Not known: the condition of the site is not known For the purposes of desk-based assessments, rarity is assessed at regional level only. The following criteria are used:    High: very few sites of this type are known Medium: the site is not unusual, but cannot be considered common Low: the site is quite common

Group association is where a connection between sites within the landscape can be demonstrated. These will usually be of the same period, but may include groups where the presence of an earlier site or sites has led to the formation of a later complex, or where an earlier site or sites can be shown to have acquired importance as part of a later complex. The criteria are as follows:    High: the site forms part of an interconnected complex occupying a clearly definable landscape where little or no fragmentation has occurred Medium: the site is part of an interconnected complex which is either limited in scope or badly fragmented Low: there are few or no other sites which are associated

Historical association is where there is a link between the site and known historical or cultural persons or events. Prehistoric sites, which are by definition before historical evidence, cannot have any contemporary historical association, but they may acquire later associations. For the Roman and Early Medieval periods, where survival of historical evidence is poor and patchy, any contemporary documentation at all will be important. Two classifications are given for historical association, one reflecting the certainty of the identification, and the other its importance. Only sites with certain or possible association can be assessed for importance, and

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

historical association can only increase the importance of a site; the absence of it will never decrease its importance. Historical association- identification       Certain Possible Unknown High Medium Low

Historical association- importance

The assignment of values to identified interests requires consideration of the reliability and accuracy of the source data, ranging from fully-recorded features seen in open excavation to antiquarian comments on finds of note from a poorly-defined location. The confidence with which the values have been assigned is noted, using the following criteria:  High: existing information is reliable and detailed  Medium: existing information is apparently reliable but limited in detail  Low: existing information is too limited to allow its reliability to be assessed As there are no specific development proposals, the effect on the archaeological resource cannot be assessed. However, when or if specific proposals are forwarded the following criteria will be applied to assess the effect on the archaeological resource:  Severe: total loss  Major: significant loss, likely to result in a reduction of value of the surviving site  Minor: loss unlikely to result in a reduction of value of the surviving site  None: no identifiable effect  Beneficial: development will protect, preserve or enhance the site better than if the development did not occur

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

2. Background
2.1 Location and topography The assessment area is located to the east and northeast of Caerleon on part of the flood plain of the rivers Usk and Afon Llwyd and the Sor Brook (Figure 1). The site boundary is well defined by the Usk Road to the north, the confluence of the Sor Brook with the River Usk to the east, the River Usk to the south and the relatively modern housing estates of Caerleon to the west. The River Usk is tidal through this stretch of water and the normal tidal limits extend to the Sor Brook and the greater part of the Afon Llwyd. The River Usk is of considerable nature conservation importance and has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) (Landscape Strategy 1999). The land is generally low-lying pasture at around 7m Ordnance Datum (OD) but a spur of high ground at around 18m OD lies to the north; the Usk Road is built on the high ground. The assessment area is also neatly divided into two near equal parts by the Afon Llwyd, which meanders through the area on a northwest/southeast course. The major rivers and watercourses are not within the ownership of the Celtic Manor Resort. 2.2 Geology The solid geology consists mainly of Lower Devonian and Triassic sandstones and marls, which form the uplands on either side of the Usk Estuary. The marls are continuous beneath the valley floor, where they constitute a buried valley overlain by Pleistocene and Recent deposits. These latter deposits consist of fluvio-glacial sands overlain by fluvial and alluvial sands, and clays or estuarine deposits of similar nature. The surface geology of the assessment area consists of riverine deposits of silts and clays overlying estuarine alluvium including clays, silts, sands and peats (Environmental Statement 2000).
Figure 1: Location of study area (green)

N

0

0.5

1

kilometres
Base map reproduced from the OS 1:50,000 with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, © Crown Copyright 2000. All rights reserved. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Licence Number: AL 10005976. Annotations © GGAT

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

2.3 General archaeological background At present there is little evidence for prehistoric activity surrounding the assessment area and, if present, is likely to be masked by alluvial deposits. However, the area is dominated by the influence of Roman settlement patterns linked to the principal Roman fortress of Isca situated on the west of the assessment area. Evidence for settlement has been discovered on the east, west and south sides of the fortress; it also extended across the river. The fortress was also served by a major road system allowing access to Cardiff to the west and Usk to the east. It is likely that two roads connected Caerleon to Usk, one road on either side of the River Usk. The eastern road connecting Usk and Caerwent crossed the river by means of a bridge before entering the fortress. It is around 1.5km along this road from Caerleon that the small Roman settlement of Bulmore was situated. The Roman occupation of Caerleon is thought to have lasted from around AD75 to probably the mid fourth century AD (Manning 2004). Little direct evidence for the early medieval period in the valley area is known but it is likely that a cultural continuity extended from the Romano-British period (Howell 2004). Caerleon was a major Welsh stronghold during the medieval period and the town with its castle probably guarded and controlled shipping movement along the river and also passage of movement along the old Roman roads. It has been postulated that Newport replaced Caerleon as the major port on the River Usk during the later medieval period, as silting of the river channel and the construction of Newport Bridge made navigation upriver to Caerleon increasingly difficult for larger vessels. The medieval port is likely to be located near the old bridge crossing (00560g) but has yet to be proven. In addition, various pills along the River Usk around Caerleon may also have been utilised as havens for small vessels during any period. It therefore seems likely that whilst Newport was the primary medieval and postmedieval port, Caerleon continued to function as an important secondary port throughout these periods and until the 19th century (Dunning and Howell 2005). Archaeological interests of later periods are generally concerned with relatively small-scale industrial activities located above Caerleon along the upper reaches of the Afon Llwyd valley. The area is of major archaeological importance due to the Roman period sites and also the potential for important archaeological remains to be discovered buried under alluvial deposits (Newport Landmap1998).

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

3. Site specific archaeology and zonation
3.1 Archaeological Interests The register of Sites and Monuments identifies 22 sites of archaeological interest within the land parcel (Figure 2) including two Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAM). No Listed Buildings, or Registered Landscapes or Parks and Gardens were located within the study area. Further information relating to these interests can be found in the gazetteer in Appendix IV. Numbers with a letter suffix are Primary Record Numbers (PRNs) in the regional SMR. Fiveand six figure numbers without a suffix are National Primary Record Numbers (NPRNs) of the National Monuments Record, as supplied to the SMR under the ENDEX agreement.
Table 1: Identified archaeological interests

ID
MM244 04370g 05136g 275989 MM262 01383g 05154g 04059g 05894.0g 05137g 05138g 05322g 04498g 05008g 00647g 05139g 05333g 00649g 00650g 04455g 04496g 08886g

NGR
ST34439045

Name
Caerleon civil settlement: Site of Roman buildings SE of Castle St

Period
Roman

Status
SAM

Value
A

ST341908 ST342908 ST34109095 ST341909 ST342908 ST342908 ST34239079 ST345912 ST34669125 ST34229116 ST345911 ST34479113 ST34669125 ST34899144 ST34579127 ST344907 ST33518978

Caerleon Legionary Fortress: Former Ambulance Station Field Mill Street buildings Mill Street excavation Mill Street Roman road Mill Mill Corn mill Great House excavation Usk Road excavation Pont Sadwrn Skinyard (tannery) Assessment. Skinyard (building) Caerleon Usk Road cemetery St. Hennwg's Usk Road, inhumation Tan House Drive excavation Pill

Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Medieval Medieval Modern Modern Post-Medieval Post Medieval Post-Medieval Roman Unknown Roman Natural Natural

SAM None None None None None None Extant Extant None None None Removed None Removed None None

A B B B C C C D D D D D U U U U U

3.2

Site zoning

The area can be sub-divided into distinct compartments on the basis of archaeological, natural and man-made divisions; these zones are labelled A to E on Figures 2 and 3. The greater part of the landholding lies within two parishes, Llangattock-juxta-Caerleon and Christchurch, but an isolated part belongs to the parish of Llanhennock. The archaeological background of each zone is addressed individually. There is however one factor that influences all zones and that is the action of the rivers. It is considered that fluvial activity has contributed much to the formation of the existing landscape and the floodplain is still subject to this dynamic force. Therefore the greatest influence on the assessment area has been the cutting action of the Rivers Usk and Afon Llwyd and probably to a lesser extent the Sor Brook; there appears to be little in the way of solid geology to constrain, interrupt or divert the heading of these channels. During the 1980s, in an attempt to gain some idea of the development of the course of the Afon Llwyd in recent times, trial excavation allied with the study of mapping evidence took place in zones C and D. The results showed an old meander of the Afon Llwyd cutting through the area (Figure 3). Trial pits 8

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

established that over 3m of grey alluvium lay deposited within the area enclosed by the meander; similar observations were also made to the north in zone C. In addition the tithe map (of 1840) records that the fields lay not in the parish of Caerleon but in the adjoining parish of Christchurch, which was largely on the other side of the river. The inference therefore is that the parish boundary fossilised the westernmost extent of the course of the Afon Llwyd in historical times (Evans 2000, 489). A similar process can be assumed for the course of the River Usk and the Sor Brook. As a consequence it is also likely that the greater part of any archaeological deposits within the floodplain may have been destroyed, but in some instances isolated archaeological sites might survive including the possibility of discovering maritime craft within alluvial deposits. Zone A This zone (Figure 2) is located at the north and east of the assessment area and is bounded by the Usk Road, the Sor Brook and the floodplain of the River Usk and the Afon Llwyd and comprises the high ground alongside the Usk Road where Roman funerary remains were discovered in the mid 19th century. The first indication of a Roman cemetery (00649g) occurred in 1847 when stone coffins, glass vessels and an amber necklace (00455g) were discovered during cutting for the formation of a railway. Recent evaluation work (05008g) discovered areas of metalling and two cremation burials on the areas of hard geology but no indication of any archaeological deposits on the alluvial floodplain (Zone E). Figure 3 shows the locations of the evaluation trenches; archaeological deposits were found in Trenches 1, 2, 3, 4, 16 and 17. All these trenches had probable Roman period deposits except Trench 4 where the remains of a post-medieval trackway were discovered. As modern waste material was noted in Trenches 1, 18a, 18b, 21 and 22, it seems likely that an attempt has been made to extend parts of the higher ground and also raise the level of the floodplain; the extent of this infilling is not known.

Plate 1: Zones A and E, view to the south shows the railway embankment in middle distance and the
slopes on which the Roman cemetery is located. © GGAT

The field at the west of the known cemetery (00649g) is also the possible site for the chapel of St. Aaron (See chapter 2.6 Cartographic sources and Appendix II); the building has not been

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

located but the most likely position is suggested to be under the stables adjoining the field (Evans 2004, 116). The cremations encountered at Usk Road were likely to form the edge and part of a larger cemetery discovered in the 19th century and during housing development (04498g) to the west (Yates 2001). It was common practice in the Roman period to use the roadsides adjacent to settlements for cemeteries. The Roman road (route RR62a, Y Gaer (Brecon) to Caerleon, Margary 1957) leaving the east gate of the fortress (05894.0g) has been traced to the edge of the modern development (Evans 2000) but thereafter its course toward Usk and the location of the crossing point of the Afon Llwyd is uncertain (see map Appendix II). A straight extension of the known Roman Road would cross part of Zone C and continue until it meets the present Usk Road in Zone A. The road alignment has not yet been located and it is possible that it deviates to the north after crossing the Afon Llwyd, but it is unlikely to be located on the steeper ground immediately north of the Usk Road; there is also a possibility that part of the Roman road, if on the same alignment as the Usk Road, was destroyed during construction of that road. The present bridge across the river, Pont Sadwrn (00647g), which carries the Usk Road (a turnpike road) across the Afon Llwyd, was originally constructed before 1622 (Bradney 1923). At the confluence of the Sor Brook with the River Usk is the suggested site for a church dedicated to St. Gwynnog or Hennwg (00650g); Llanhennock, the village just to the northeast of the assessment area is derived from the name of the saint. The church site is more likely to be found on the higher ground to the north of the brook and not in the assessment area, which is part of the floodplain. A detached part of Llanhennock parish is recorded at the tip of the spur of land projecting to the northeast, with the River Usk. There is a high potential for the discovery of further archaeological remains on the high ground in this zone. Figure 3 shows the areas of potential. Zone B

Plate 2: Zone B, view to the northeast shows dense tree coverage. River Afon Llwyd in foreground ©
GGAT

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

This zone comprises the land contained by a U-shaped meander of the Afon Llwyd with its northern boundary defined by an access track to the floodplain that also extends into Zone A (Figure 2). The greater part of this area lies on the floodplain but the skinyard and track is built on higher ground. The only known area of archaeological interest is the skinyard (05139g, 05333g) now ruinous, of 19th century date. However, because of the high ground and proximity of the Roman cemetery (Zone A) it may be expected that further funerary remains of Roman date await discovery in this area. As in Zone A, there is a high potential for the discovery of further archaeological remains on the high ground. Figure 3 shows the areas of potential. Zone C The north boundary of Zone C follows the course of a field drain to its junction with the River Afon Llwyd where it then continues to follow a meander of the same river southward before heading west along another well-defined but minor tidal branch of the river toward Caerleon. The western boundary follows the limit of modern housing development off Mill Street. All of this land except for a narrow swathe at the rear of the developed area is designated as floodplain; the western part is also within the boundary of an Archaeologically Sensitive Area (Figure 3). Almost all of Zone C lies in the parish of Christchurch (apportionment 117), which effectively made it an isolated 'island' within the parish of Llangattock-juxta-Caerleon, and as previously mentioned may suggest a former course of the Afon Llwyd.

Plate 3: Zone C, general view to the north of floodplain. © GGAT As Zone C shares a border with the Roman fortress and its environs it might be expected to possess the greatest potential for the discovery of further Roman period archaeological remains. In the 1980s, archaeological excavations conducted in advance of housing development revealed extensive Roman remains comprising buildings and roads on the western boundary of the assessment area (Evans 2000). These remains (MM 262, 01383g, 04059g, 05154g and 05138g) form part of the eastern suburbs (canabae) of the civilian 11

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

settlement outside the fortress walls. However, apart from the projected line of the Roman road (05894.0g), little is known of the archaeological potential, as only limited trial excavations have taken place on the undeveloped floodplain. A recent report (Sherman and Evans 2004) mentioned a localised deep band of cobbles eroding out of the east bank of the Afon Llwyd (ST 34290 91020) and suggested that it may represent the Roman road as it crosses the river; Roman pottery and possible post settings have also been recorded eroding from the opposite bank in this location (Tuck and Leaver 2000). A similar band of cobbles can be seen in the riverbed and the bank at ST 3438 9118. Both cobble formations are broadly on the projected line of the Roman road however, similar bands of shingle can be seen in the River Usk at ST 34729050 which is not on any road alignment and is thus interpreted as of natural origin; it is therefore postulated that these deposits are the result of the erosion of natural gravels. Recently (2005), geophysical survey and subsequent trial pitting (Evans 2006) within Zone C confirmed Roman deposits just outside of the developed area (ST 3425 9093, T2 (2005), Figure 3) but no remains were discovered nearer the river edge (ST 3425 9093, T3 (2005), Figure 3); the geophysical anomalies were attributed to natural springs. A corn mill (05137g) and fulling mill (05138g) of medieval date are recorded on the western boundary of the assessment area. The corn mill was first mentioned in 1314 and appears to have been rebuilt several times. The fulling mill, which stood nearby was also mentioned at the same date. By 1663 there were two working grain mills but the fulling mill had become a victim of river movement whereby the water supply had ceased (Usk Barrage report 1991). It is assumed that the mills drew water from the Afon Llwyd; no trace of the mills or probable leats has been discovered. The grid position for the mills at the southwestern corner of the boundary between Zones C and D is not detailed enough to give a precise location and therefore any archaeological remains may occur in either or both Zones. Another corn mill (05322g) in the same area is depicted as disused on Ordnance Mapping surveyed in 1881. The western and part of the northern section of Zone C has the highest potential to the further discovery of major archaeological remains than any other zone. This is also acknowledged in the Newport UDP (2005), which has designated these areas as an Archaeologically Sensitive Area. Figure 3 shows areas of potential. Zone D The northern boundary adjoins Zone C and then follows the meander of the Afon Llwyd further to the northeast before turning east and then southwest until it meets the River Usk where it turns south and follows the loop of the river. The west boundary leaves the riverside near Caerleon and heads northward along the rear of the developed land. The greater part of the land is within the parish of Christchurch but an area between Zone C and Zone D belongs to the parish of Caerleon; the fields within the Caerleon section (apportionments 182, 183 and 184) are bounded by an old meander of the Afon Llwyd. All the land is within the floodplain and the western boundary is also designated as an Archaeologically Sensitive Area (Figure 3). The archaeological concerns in Zone D are mostly of Roman date and include part of the canabae (MM244, 04370g, 05136g, 275989) located to the south of the fortress walls. The only Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) within the assessment area is the site of a probable bath-house (SAM MM244), located in an area of rough riverside pasture on the southwest boundary. The bath-house was discovered in 1990 when a series of trial pits were cut following geophysical survey, as part of an environmental impact assessment (Evans 2000, 173-175). Modern deposits connected with the pumping station and archaeologically sterile areas were also noted further west, nearer the river edge. Test pits were also cut to the north of the bath site in the fields to the east of the housing development (04496g); no evidence for Roman occupation was noted but alluvium was recorded to below 3m from the present ground surface 12

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

(Evans 2000, 173). Following further geophysical survey another test pit was recently excavated (ST3450 9038) to the southeast of the SAM (Evans 2006); no Roman remains were encountered only a compacted surface of modern material which was interpreted as a pathway. Most of the features registered by geophysical survey techniques were connected with modern field drains. However, an archaeological explanation is still possible for some of the geophysical anomalies as their alignments match that of the fortress alignment.

Plate 4: Zone D, general view to the southwest across the floodplain. © GGAT One other site of interest, located at the southeast boundary of the area, is the unnamed pill opening onto the River Usk (08886g); there is a possibility that small vessels in all periods may have used the pills around Caerleon as havens. As might be expected those areas closest to the fortress (the western and southern boundaries) have the greatest potential to the discovery of further archaeological remains. The SAM site is within the designated Archaeologically Sensitive Area (Newport UDP 2003 and 2005). The remaining area is likely to have been crossed at sometime by the River Afon Llwyd whose cutting action may well have destroyed any archaeological deposits. Figure 3 shows the areas of potential. Zone E This zone comprises part of the floodplain of the Rivers Usk and Sor Brook and adjoins the base of the high ground of Zone A. No archaeological sites are known on the floodplain. The embankment of an abandoned 19th century railway is the only prominent feature of the landscape in Zone E; the associated masonry remains of a planned bridge to span the River Afon Llwyd can still be seen downstream of the road bridge. The embankment, around 200m in length, around 20m wide and up to 3m high, is aligned broadly east/west and is constructed on the floodplain; it terminates near the bank of the River Usk.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

3.3 Walkover survey A walkover survey was conducted on 25th January 2006 to assess the landscape and the known sites and to look for any previously unrecorded sites. No new sites were discovered. However, some general observations can be made. All the fields were under pasture and cattle were noted in Zone D. Ground conditions were generally dry to the north of the site but became increasingly wet toward the south, particularly in Zone D where there was also a marked change to a coarser variety of grass. Most of the lowlying fields showed signs of drainage measures in the form of linear, parallel, shallow depressions known as grips. Earth bunds to protect against flooding were generally around 0.6m high but in places up to around a metre high. Hedgerows and mature trees line most of the field and river boundaries. The railway embankment (Zone E) is also lined with mature trees and a badger sett was noted in the embankment at ST 3480 9126. The hedgerow species appeared to be similar to that found across the River Usk on the site of the new Ryder Cup Golf Course. In addition, mature trees and scrub line the watercourses surrounding the parcels of land in the Caerleon parish between area C and D. Zone B was dense with scrub and trees particularly at its southern end. This would suggest that the land had not been actively managed or used for animal grazing which as a consequence allowed the growth of trees and scrub. Only two buildings are recorded within the assessment area, the buildings in the skinyard (05139g) and a small shed at ST 91213448, both are ruinous and covered by scrub. However, there are other buildings on the boundary including a bungalow on the line of the old railway embankment and a series of sheds used as stables on the western boundary of Zone A; access to the stables and the skinyard is gained from a metalled track that leads to the floodplain from the Usk Road. Below the stables the track falls within the assessment area; a large swathe of modern dumped materials were observed covering the lower part of the route to the edge of the River Usk. The track allows access to Zones A, B and E alone. Zones A, B and E are separated from Zones C and D by the River Afon Llwyd; there is no crossing point over the river within the assessment landholding. Zones C and D are accessed from a stub road in a housing estate at ST 3434 9064 and a track at ST 3430 9050. In addition to the above observations, three electricity transmission lines were observed crossing the area; two lines cross Zones B, C and D and one line crosses the easternmost tip of Zone E. Raised manholes indicating a pipeline network was noted in Zones C and D and an outfall discharging into the River Usk can be seen at ST 3467 9042. 3.4 Cartographic sources

There is little change depicted in the assessment area from the date of the earliest mapping to the present; the meander pattern of the rivers is also broadly similar which possibly reflects a slow rate of change attributed to erosion. The tithe maps of 1840 show the area as mostly pasture, mead (meadow) and isolated arable fields. However, a field (Appendix I, apportionment 520) on the high ground at the northwest of Zone A (ST 3450 9117) has the name 'Copper Field'. The field bearing this name may be the site or near the site of the chapel of St Aaron one of the earliest Christian martyrs in the country (See Appendix II). Although the site has been the subject of archaeological excavation, the existence of the early medieval chapel has not been proved but the combination of a Roman cemetery with church-owned lands points to a possible Early Medieval ecclesiastical site (Evans 2004, 114-18). Ordnance mapping dating from 1881-1882 shows similar boundaries to the tithe maps although the tithe maps depict more field boundaries. Two features of interest are shown on OS mapping, a corn mill and a clay pit. The corn mill (05322g) between Zone C and D was probably in use in 1881, but is shown as disused by 1901. The clay pit was noted at the west 14

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

angle (ST 3432 9038) of Zone D near the existing sewage works and SAM MM244; no pit is shown in 1881 but by 1901 it is annotated as 'old clay pit'. Neither corn mill or clay pit is extant. It is almost certain that the lack of development in the greater part of the assessment area is entirely due to regular flooding of the fields. No rights of way were noted crossing the assessment area (The Definitive Map of Public Rights of Way, 1/10,000 scale, Sheet ST 39 SW, undated (possibly 1974), Newport Reference Library).

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

4. National and Local Planning Constraints and Policies
Apart from the known and potential archaeological sites within the assessment area the site is also subject to statutory and non-statutory constraints and policies. There are a number of statutory and non-statutory instruments that have a bearing on the assessment area. The greater part of the assessment area is designated as floodplain (U7, Newport Unitary Development Plan 2003 and 2005); only the higher ground to the north and a small tract of land adjacent to the existing housing development of Caerleon lies outside the floodplain. Furthermore, the eastern outskirts of Caerleon, adjoining current development, is designated an Archaeologically Sensitive Area (CE26). In addition to the Hedgerow Regulations (Countryside 1997 no. 1160), sections CE12 and CE13 cover local planning guidelines for future proposals that may impact on secondary woodland (CE12) and the trees and hedgerows (CE13) that mark old and current field boundaries in the assessment area. One Ancient Monument protected through enactment of the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 is present in the assessment area. This is the Roman building southeast of Castle Street, (SAM Mm 244, PRNs 04370g, 05136g and 275989). Any development in this area would need prior consent from the National Assembly of Wales. Advice regarding to works on an ancient monument or its setting are covered by Planning Policy Guidance (Wales) and Welsh Office Circular 60/96- Planning and the Historic Environment. PG Wales states that ‘where nationally important archaeological remains, whether scheduled or unscheduled, and their settings are affected by proposed development, there should be a presumption in favour of their physical preservation’. This is taken forward into the Newport City Council, Newport Unitary Development Plan 1996–2011 with an addition ‘not all monuments worthy of protection are scheduled and the County Borough will seek to protect unscheduled sites in appropriate cases’ (para. 2.99, NUDP, 2003 and 2005). There are no listed buildings in the assessment area. However, The Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 requires consideration to be given to the desirability of the setting of a Listed Building. Existing guidance recognises that ‘new uses may be the key to the preservation of a building….and controls over land use….and other planning matters should be exercised sympathetically where this would enable an historic building or area to be given a new lease of life’. There are a number of listed buildings to the west of Zone D on the opposite bank of the River Usk. It is considered unlikely that any future proposals in this part of Zone D would affect the setting of these listed buildings. In addition to specific policies reflecting requirements of underlying legislation, Newport City Council, Newport Unitary Development Plan 1996–2011 (2003 and 2005) contains some specific designations and requirements. Part of the site lies within the defined archaeologically sensitive area of Caerleon (CE26) The Archaeologically Sensitive Area includes ‘the area of the fortress, the suspected boundaries of the civilian settlement, the associated cemeteries and also includes the small hamlet of Bulmore’ (para. 2.105, NUDP, 2003 and 2005). The relevant policy and accompanying advice requires any planning application to be accompanied by ‘details of all proposed ground works and services, along with a written assessment of the likely archaeological impact of the development’. This assessment partially explores the requirement of the policy. Policy CE27 (para. 2.109 to 2.110) covers archaeological evaluation. The policy requires that ‘where development is likely to affect a known or suspected site of archaeological significance, further information (which may include archaeological field evaluation) will be required

16

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

before the proposal is determined, so that the effect of the proposed development on the archaeological resource can be determined’. It is likely that this policy will be initiated should development proposals be forwarded that encroach on those areas highlighted in Figure 3. Policy CE28 covers ‘permitted development on a site of archaeological interest’ where it is not ‘feasible to preserve the remains in situ the developer will be required to implement, prior to the commencement of the development, or as part of it, measures to mitigate the effect on the remains, which may include the carrying out of prior excavations and recording the archaeological evidence’. It is likely that this policy will be initiated should development proposals be forwarded that encroach on those areas highlighted in Figure 3. Policy CE29 refers to Historic Landscapes, Parks and Gardens. There are no designated historic landscaped parks or gardens in the assessment area. The Conservation and the Environment chapter (Part II, NUDP, 2003) is concerned with sustainability of the environment. Policies CE12, Secondary Woodland and policy CE13, Trees and Hedgerows on development sites are relevant here. The site contains a number of trees and hedgerows, some of whose boundaries are traceable on cartographic sources. Policy CE12 states that ‘ planning permission for development or change of use which would damage or destroy trees growing in secondary woodland which is worthy of retention will only be granted where all the following conditions are met 1. The proposal would not have an acceptably detrimental impact on the nature conservation and biodiversity value, archaeological value, landscape interest, amenity value, or the continuity of the woodland; 2. The loss is mitigated with the creation of at least an equal area of new, native mixed planting appropriate to the region and locality; 3. The developer makes provision for both new and existing woodland to be managed in accordance with an agreed management programme. The secondary (non-ancient) woodlands are ‘defined as woods on sites which have not been continuously wooded since 1600 but which have acquired a tree cover on what was previously open land’ (para. 2.59). However, ‘effective preservation does not preclude the controlled felling of identified individual trees from time to time’ (para. 2.60). In addition to attractive trees, rural areas have a significant network of field boundary hedgerows…whether historic or not, most of these hedrows are important for their contribution to the character and appearance of Newport’s landscape. The Council will use the enabling powers of the Hedgerow Regulations 1997 to ensure retention of important hedgerows…’ (para 2.61). The regulations were the subject of a review by the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Review of the Hedgerow Regulations 1997 (1998), which suggested a simplified set of criteria, notably to include all pre-1845 or pre-1800 hedgerows where the field system is substantially complete. The most recent statement from the Government (The Government’s response to the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee’s Report ‘The Protection of Field Boundaries’ 1999) noted the proposed changes but has not endorsed them. The 1997 criteria therefore remain in force. The criteria of historic importance in The Hedgerow Regulations 1997 can be summarised as:   marking a parish or township boundary incorporating or associated with a Scheduled Ancient Monument or site on the SMR (at the relevant date)

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

 

marking a pre-1600 AD manor or estate boundary, or related to a building of such a manor or estate an integral part of a field system pre-dating Parliamentary enclosure shown on an estate map

The criteria of the Regulations are intended to be applied individually rather than cumulatively, yielding a straightforward test of ‘importance’. In many cases, however, the strict application of the criteria is problematic (e.g. archaeological sites discovered since April 1997, or the definition of a field system as pre-Parliamentary enclosure or substantially complete). Policy CE13 covers trees and Hedgerows on Development sites. This policy states that ‘planning permission will only be granted for development which would damage or destroy one or more trees which are protected or which are worthy of protection or hedgerows which have amenity or wildlife value, where: 1. there is demonstrable environmental, economic or social need for development sufficient to outweigh the amenity and biodiversity value of the trees or hedgerows; 2. the trees or hedgerows can be replaced within the site boundary in a manner which ensures that there is no unacceptably detrimental impact upon the character and visual amenity of the area nor to local biodiversity’ Hedgerows which are not within a domestic curtilage are now subject to the provisions of The Hedgerow Regulations 1997 (para 2.63). Further paragraphs (2.64 to 2.69) refer to preservation of such features, justification for removal and policies to protect roots during development. It is likely that many of the hedgerows in the assessment area and the particularly the trees lining the old railway embankment may fall within policies CE12 and CE13 outlined above. It is not known whether any Tree Preservation Orders are in force on the site.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

5. Summary of archaeological potential
The known archaeological interests within the landholding are broadly contained within a swathe of land bordering the north and west boundaries of the site and includes all of Zone A and parts of Zones B to D (Figure3). The highest, medium and low archaeological potential areas are supplementary to those areas designated as an Archaeologically Sensitive Area in the Newport Unitary Development Plan. The archaeological potentials are based on best available knowledge. Zone A Zone A is an area of highest archaeological potential due to previously discovered Roman artefacts and funerary remains and, in addition, the area may be the location for remains related to St Aaron's chapel. Zone B Zone B has both medium and low archaeological potential areas. A small part of the area to the north has medium archaeological potential which reflects the possibility of remains being discovered adjacent to the line of the projected Roman road leaving the fortress. An area surrounding the skinyard has been designated a low potential area; this addresses the possibility that archaeological remains from Zone A extend to this area. Zone C Three areas of archaeological potential are highlighted for Zone C. These include areas of highest and medium potential and also part of the Archaeologically Sensitive Area designated in the Newport UDP. The highest and the medium potential areas account for the possibility of encountering remains of the Roman civilian settlement that may be aligned along the route of the Roman road to Usk. A similar area of high and medium archaeological potential can be postulated for those parcels of land outside of the landholding ownership to the north of Zone C. Zone D A statutory protected scheduled ancient monument is located within Zone D and, as its full extent is not yet known, an area surrounding the monument has been designated as of highest archaeological potential; this area also coincides with the Archaeologically Sensitive Area designated in the Newport UDP. The low potential areas of Zone D reflect not only the possibility of discovering further remains of the Roman civilian settlement but also the later mills that were known to be located in the area between Zones C and D. In addition, an area of low archaeological potential surrounds the riverside pill. This is in recognition of the possibility of discovering remains associated with maritime craft. Zone E At present Zone E has no designation of archaeological potential. It is unlikely that archaeological deposits will be discovered in this area due to the cutting action of the rivers, which have probably destroyed potential archaeological deposits. The remaining parts of the landholding areas of Zones B, C and D without any designation are considered to be similar to that of Zone E.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Bibliography
Bradney J A, 1923, The History of Monmouthshire Vol 111: Part 2, the Hundred of Usk, (1993 reprint Merton Priory Press, Cardiff), 192. Dunning R, and Howell K, 2005, Waterfronts in Southeast Wales: Phase 2, Volume 1, GGAT unpublished report 2005/039. Environmental Statement, 2000, Welsh Rugby Union, Centre of Excellence, Chapter 6, 99-100. Evans E M, 1990, Proposed Development on Land to the East of Caerleon, GGAT unpublished report. Evans E M, 2000, The Caerleon canabae: excavations in the civil settlement 1984-90, Britannia Monograph 16. Evans E M, 2004, Early Medieval Ecclesiastical sites in southeast Wales: rapid field survey of selected sites, Unpublished GGAT report 2004/019. Evans E M, 2006, Roman Roads and Vici in Southeast Wales: Year 4 report, GGAT unpublished report. Howell R, 2004, From the Fifth to the Seventh Century, in Aldhouse-Green M and Howell R, (editors), The Gwent County History Volume 1, Gwent in Prehistory and Early History, 244268. Lee J E 1862, Isca Silurum or an Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Antiquities of Caerleon, Longman, London. Manning W, 2004, The Romans: Conquest and the Army, in Aldhouse-Green M and Howell R (editors) The Gwent County History, Volume 1, Gwent in Prehistory and Early History. 178243. Margary I D, 1957, Roman Roads in Britain, Vol 2, London. National Library Wales, Tredegar Mss/167, 172. Newport City Council, Newport Unitary Development plan 1996-2011, Statement of Decisions and Reasons, November 2005. Newport City Council, Newport Unitary Development plan 1996-2011, 2nd Proposed Changes to Deposit Plan, May 2003. Newport Landmap 1998, Landscape Working for Newport, Historical Aspects GGAT 1998. Sherman A, and Evans E, 2004, Roman roads in South East Wales: Desk-based assessment with recommendations for fieldwork, unpublished GGAT report 2004/073. Tuck M, and Leaver A, 2000, Millmead, Caerleon, Archaeology in Wales, Volume 40, 97. Yates, A, 2001, The New Championship Course, Celtic Manor, Newport: supplement to the Environmental Statement, archaeological field evaluation final report, GGAT unpublished report 2001/040.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Cartographic Sources Llangattock-juxta-Caerleon tithe map and apportionment, 1840, Newport Reference Library. Christchurch tithe map and apportionment, 1840, Newport Reference Library. Ordnance Survey 6'' map Sheet XXIX 1881-1882, Newport Reference Library. Ordnance Survey 6'' map Sheet XXIX SW 1918, revision of 1917 with additions 1918, Newport Reference Library. Ordnance Survey 25'' map Sheet XXIX .9, 2nd edition 1901, Newport Reference Library. Ordnance Survey 25'' map Sheet XXIX .9, edition of 1920, Newport Reference Library.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Appendix I
Summary of data from the Tithe Map of Llangattock-juxta-Caerleon parish (1840)
Parcel No. 182 183 184 185 186 188 189 190 191 191a 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 527a 528 529 530 531 Landlord John Williams John Williams John Williams Thomas Evans Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Capel Hanbury Leigh Sir Digby Mackworth Capel Hanbury Leigh Revd. Daniel Jones Revd. Daniel Jones Capel Hanbury Leigh Capel Hanbury Leigh Capel Hanbury Leigh Edward Waters Revd. Daniel Jones William Baker William Baker William Baker William Baker Edward Waters Revd. Daniel Jones Revd. Daniel Jones Tenant William James William James William James William Rogers William and Edward Jones William and Edward Jones Anne Gibby William and Edward Jones Philip Leonard John Davies John Davies Philip Leonard Philip Leonard Philip Leonard James Price John Davies James Price James Price James Price John Davies James Price John Davies John Davies Name Use Mead Mead Mead Pasture Mead Mead Pasture Arable Pasture Plantation Mead Pasture Pasture Pasture Mead Pasture Mead Mead Mead Pasture Mead Pasture Pasture

Part of Mill Mead Angel A-----? Formerly part of Mill Mead

Copper field Cae Perbren ? Waun Wern

Apportionment (parcel no.) numbers 189 to 191a are to the north of Zone C outside the assessment area and are included here because they comprise undeveloped land on the border of the landholding. In addition a small parcel of land (384) belonging to Llanhennock parish (tithe of 1840) lies to the east of parcel numbers 526 and 528; this area is not tabled but is in the ownership of Capel Hanbury Leigh, tenanted by Philip Leonard and used as mead. Summary of data from the Tithe Map of Christchurch parish (1840)
Parcel No. 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 Landlord Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Sir Digby Mackworth Tenant Allen Arblaster Allen Arblaster Allen Arblaster Allen Arblaster Allen Arblaster William Edward Jones Thomas Gunter Thomas Gunter Allen Arblaster Allen Arblaster Name The Merges Use Pasture Pasture Arable Pasture Pasture Pasture Arable Pasture Pasture Pasture

The Mill Mead

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Extract of Tithe Map of Llangattock-juxta-Caerleon parish (1840). Plan also shows fields belonging to Christchurch parish.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Appendix II
Extract from Early Medieval ecclesiastical sites in southeast Wales (Evans 2004) St Aaron’s Chapel, Caerleon
Name

Number Type NGR PRNs Visit date Description

D11 Church, ? nunnery ST34139177 00649g, Roman cemetery, 00653g (church) 08/01/04
The chapel of St Aaron has had a rather shadowy existence in the archaeological and antiquarian literature. St Aaron, with St Julian, was one of the two saints martyred in the Diocletianic persecutions at a location which has generally been accepted as Caerleon (Boon 1992, 11-2). An entry in the Book of Llandaff (LL225), which is headed ‘de merthir Iun et Aaron’ records the regrant in c 864 (Davies 1979, 121) of ‘all the territory of the holy martyrs Julian and Aaron’ (totum territorium sanctorum Martium Iulii et Aaron). This is a single block of land lying on one side of the River Usk, presumably the east side, since it refers to the allt. A chapel or chapels 1 of SS Julius and Aaron and Alban] was given to the priory at Goldcliff in 1290: ‘ecclesia sanctorum Julii et Aaron atque Albani cum omnibus pertinentiis suis et ecclesiam Sancte Marie Magdalene de Goldcliva’ (Cal Charter Rolls vol 2, 1257-1300, p362). The problem is in determining how many chapels there were. Levison (1941, 340-3) argues that there was a single chapel, originally dedicated just to SS Julian and Aaron, to whom was later added St Alban. There seems to be virtually no dispute as to the site of St Julian’s chapel. This lay at ST32418995, near the house called St Julians, and was recorded by Coxe (1801, 104-5) as ‘an old barn of small dimensions…on the south wall are remains of an arched entrance which is now half filled up: the east & west windows may be traced & a small gothic doorway to the west still remains. The house of St Julians was demolished in the mid 20th century and the site is now built over. Coxe (1801, 95) was told that there were two other separate chapels: to St Aaron ‘at Penros’ [sic]; and to St Alban, ‘which was constructed on an eminence to the east of Caerleon, overlooking the Usk. A yew tree marks the site; an adjoining piece of land is still called the chapel yard, and in 1785 several stone coffins were discovered in digging for the foundations of a new house’. Bradney (1933, 305) quotes part of a deed of 1495 which refers to the overseers of St Alban’s church (procurators ecclesie Sancti Albon de Kairlion). 2 Knight (1993, 2-3) follows Levison in seeing a single church dedicated to all three saints, but places it at St Albans, on the ground that one of the four known Early Christian monuments from Gwent came from Bulmore, which lies at the bottom of the hill on which St Albans stands, but since the exact findspot and circumstances of discovery are unknown, too much weight cannot be placed on this.

1
P

2
P

Depending on the expansion. Though there is no evidence that the tenement named in the deed was anywhere near the chapel site; all the evidence indicates that St Albans was always in the parish of Christchurch, and there is no reason to doubt the continuity between the chapel and the house later known as St Albans, in the same way that the St Julian’s chapel site became the house known as St Julians. Bradney quotes other documents to indicate that the Powell family was known as ‘of St Albans’ in Christchurch from at least 1624.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment Taking all the evidence together, there seems little reason to doubt that St Alban’s was a separate church, 3 but it is more difficult to establish whether St Aaron’s had an independent existence. The tradition of a separate church of St Aaron goes back to Gerald of Wales, who was informed that Caerleon originally had three churches, one dedicated to St Julian and served by a community of nuns, one dedicated to St Aaron and served by a chapter of canons, and the third being the metropolitan church of Wales (p115 of the Penguin translation). The metropolitan church (an obsession with Gerald) is unlikely; 4 to what extent Gerald’s other information is correct can only be guessed at. The ecclie de Seint Aron is listed amongst the smaller churches in the deanery of Netherwent in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas IV (c 1291). The Book of Llandaff entry suggests that the martyrs were honoured together at a site on the east bank of the Usk; the details of their passio suggests that this may have been the site of the martyrdom (Boon 1992, 11-2). The mid 19th century Monmouthshire antiquary Octavius Morgan places St Aaron’s on the outskirts of Caerleon: ‘Rev Canon Edwards has kindly superintended an excavation in a field near the copper-field, half a mile from Caerleon on the Usk Road, in the hope of discovering the chapel of St Aaron (who was martyred here with St Julius in the Diocletianic persecution), which is believed to have been in this direction. Some small pieces of window glass and plaster and foundations of walls and of mortar floor were found, but nothing to indicate the nature of the building’ (Morgan 1882, iv). Examination of the tithe map indicates that the field called the Copper Field is centred at ST34509117 just above a bend in the River Usk, close to, but not on, the boundary with Christchurch. It is quarter-circle in shape, but the curve may be the result of the natural topography, since it is part of a rounded knoll rising above the river. Nothing can be seen of any continuation of the curve as a boundary or former boundary to the east either on the ground or in the geophysical survey which was carried out in 1989; to the north the site has been built over, but there was no evidence on the tithe map. Fields in this area adjacent to both sides of the road are recorded as belonging to the church, the Copper Field itself which is listed at the end of the apportionment after the church and churchyard and marked as being ‘in hand’, and eight fields forming part of the glebe. This was one of the cemeteries for Roman Caerleon (PRN 00649g), discovered when ‘six or seven’ stone sarcophagi and associated pottery and jewellery and an inscription (RIB 356) were found in the cutting for an abortive railway in the 19th century. This cutting is still traceable immediately north of the Copper Field, though it has now been partially filled in. Other Roman burials (in this case cremations) have been noted over the road at Twyn Oaks (PRN 00658g). This makes it a credible location for the growth of a cult over the grave of one or both martyrs, separate from the cult at the place of martyrdom. The phrasing of the description of the antiquarian excavations suggests that they took place on the same side of the road as the Copper Field. This area has been the subject of a fair amount of archaeological exploration, though not with the aim of looking for Early Medieval or Medieval remains, since its possible identification with the site of St Aaron’s was unknown at the time. In all cases this has been intended to test it for evidence of the Roman cemetery. A geophysical survey was carried out in 1989 (Gater and Gaffney 1989) and examined three areas. These have been plotted as accurately as possible on the map, but there seem to have been problems with the survey which laid them out and their positions cannot be regarded as definitive, particularly area 1, for which there is only a sketch location and no measured points. None of the areas produced any results which can be interpreted as relating to an Early Medieval ecclesiastical site. In addition, two trial excavations have been carried out in the field adjacent to the Copper Field. The one in 1990 (Evans 1990) consisted of two trial pits (TP28 and TP29), testing features noted during the geophysical survey, but proved to be completely abortive. The excavation in 2001 (Yates 2001) in the field adjacent to the
3

There is no reason to doubt Levison’s basic argument, that St Alban was added to the local saints at a fairly late date to produce a full set of Romano-British martyrs, but it would equally apply to a patron wishing to found a new chapel in the neighbourhood of Caerleon. 4 Although St Cadoc’s does seem to have been a major church, as attested by another of the four Early Christian monuments in Gwent.

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment Copper Field produced evidence for two cremations (in T3 and T16) but nothing suggestive of Early Medieval date. It would appear that the most likely part of the cemetery which might have developed into an Early Medieval ecclesiastical site is the western part, where the sarcophagi were found. No evidence, however, was found for any buildings, such as that noted in Morgan’s account of the 19th century excavations; the only possible associated anomaly is to the north of the smallholding buildings, which were interpreted as being related to them. The field visit failed to identify any feature which could securely be associated with any Early Medieval activity. The quarter-circle boundary to the west and south of the Copper Field was a narrow belt of trees, mainly hawthorn, probably a grown-out hedge, with possible slight traces of a bank but none of any ditch. The field contains a small (c 5.5m) circular earthwork slightly terraced into the slope, with a raised rim on the downhill side but this appears to have been formed by cattle trampling around a feeder located in this position at some time. No other surface feature showed either in this field (Plate 53) or the adjacent one where the 1990 and 2000 trial excavations took place (Plate 54). The line of the quarter-circle boundary did not continue into this field; the rounded knoll which roughly continues the line seems to be a purely natural topographic feature. The existence of St Aaron’s still remains shadowy. In particular, the site of the building, which on Morgan’s account might have been a church though it could not be proved, has not been located; the most likely position for it seems to be under the smallholding complex next to the Copper Field (most of the buildings of which seem to be fairly insubstantial). It is not clear either whether the identification of St Aaron’s in this location is a genuine continuous tradition, or whether it is the result of backprojection from the fact that inhumations have been found here. Nevertheless, the combination of a Roman cemetery with church-owned lands does point to a possible genuine Early Medieval ecclesiastical site.

Recommendations Monitor any development proposals
Further trial excavation might be of use, particularly towards the southwestern part of the site.

Area of the site of St Aaron,s. Key: Blue square: ecclesiastical site; Black star: photograph; Red - enclosure; Purple shaded - glebe; Maroon - area of geophysical survey; Pink - trial excavations. Crown Copyright Licence Number GD272221

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Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Appendix III Aerial photographs
The following is a list of the aerial photographs with coverage of the evaluation area held by the Central Registry of Air Photography for Wales. The photographs were examined but revealed no sites not already known from documentary sources. However the following was noted: Frames 5070/5071 from Sortie CPE UK 2326 (1947) and frames 5991, 33-35 Geonex (NRSC) 01/08/1991 likely show the site of the Roman building (SAM MM244); it appears as a trapezoidal shape. Frames 4226-4227 from Sortie 58 RAF 676 (1951) show the suggested site of St Aaron's chapel (Appendix II) under the stables/smallholding as a rectangular pattern of white lines. However, it is more likely that an area has been fenced and that animals have created a path that follows the fence thereby giving rise to a difference in ground vegetation, evident in the photographs. The skinyard (05139g) appears extant and clear of scrub up to 1983 thereafter deterioration becomes evident. Zone B is generally clear of vegetation until the same time. Clear land drainage measures are visible as parallel lines in all Zones. Hay cropping also appears to be taking place on the floodplain. Erosion to the riverbanks and silting caused by the Afon Llwyd between Zones C and B was noticeable throughout the date range of the photographs; this indicates a rapid rate of change to the northern parts of the floodplain. Shingle banks were also noted along the stretch of the same river. No trace of former courses of the rivers was noted. Sortie OS 85 080, frames 3-4, show probable disturbance to the cemetery area off Usk Road where wheel tracks can be seen. RAF Sorties Sortie CPE UK 1828 CPE UK 1997 CPE UK 2267 CPE UK 2326 CPE UK 2509 540 RAF 205 58 RAF 535 58 RAF 676 82 RAF 1104 58 RAF 5154 58 RAF 5516 58 RAF 5502 58 RAF 8659 39 RAF 3764

Scale 1:9840 1:9800 1:29000 1:4800 1:28600 1:28000 1:20400 1:10000 1:5000 various various various 1:15600 various

Date 04/11/1946 13/04/1947 29/08/1947 26/09/1947 13/04/1948 10/05/1949 03/08/1950 12/05/1951 10/03/1955 01/06/1962 17/10/1962 03/10/1962 18/03/1968 18/03/1968

Frames 3115, 3039 3052, 3033 5054 5024, 5047, 5072 5042 5003 5025, 5058 4203 - 4205, 4226 - 4228 125, 126, 138 F22: 105 - 108 ; 46, 47 F22: 22. V35 V15 F43/44: 126 F41/42: 94

27

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Ordnance Survey Sortie OS 63 074 OS 65 126 OS 67 089 OS 79 130 OS 85 080 OS 95 247 OS 96 563 OS 96 281 OS 99 944 OS 99 348

Scale 1:24000 1:10000 1:7500 1:24400 1:10800 1:5300 1:7900 1:8100 1:8602 1:5200

Date 31/05/1963 30/06/1965 10/05/1967 22/09/1979 31/05/1985 08/10/1995 06/05/1996 31/08/1996 23/07/1999 09/09/1999

Frames 7 18 95 225, 226 4, 5; 13, 14 11,12 2,3 5, 6 492 - 494 20 - 22; 54 - 56

Commercial Sorties Sortie Scale Medmenham BKS MAFF MAFF JA Story Geonex Geonex Getmapping 1:33600 1:12000 1:10000 1:12000 1:20000 1:5000 1:10000 1:10000

Date 17/08/1940 01/06/1971 03/07/1983 10/06/1984 28/04/1985 01/07/1991 01/08/1991 01/08/2000

Frames A16 649824 - 827 104, 105 208: 28, 29. 209: 245, 246 0985: 120, 121 9491: 184 - 186; 232, 233 5991: 33 –35 digital, on screen

28

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Appendix IV
Gazetteer of archaeological interests
ID MM244 / 04370g / 05136g / 275989 NAME CAERLEON CIVIL SETTLEMENT: NGR ST 34439045 PERIOD Roman

DESCRIPTION Remains of a bath house excavated by Dr Evans in 1990. The area was examined as part of an environmental impact assessment. Geophysical survey identified a number of areas of archaeological potential and subsequent trial pits proved the existence of a massive Roman masonry building; a succession of cut features was noted in its vicinity, below a rubble deposit which was probably derived from the building. Substantial cobble deposits (at c. 7.4m OD) were also noted. Fragments of tufa and a piece of painted wall-plaster with a curved surface suggested that the building was vaulted and perhaps apsed. (Evans 2000, 173)

Type Civil settlement Rarity High Confidence Very High

Condition Not known Group association Very High Value A

Status SAM Historical association High Effect NA

ID MM262 / 01383g / 04059g / 05154g / 05894.0g NAME CAERLEON LEGIONARY FORTRESS:

NGR ST341908 PERIOD Roman

DESCRIPTION Extensive archaeological excavations took place in the canabae on the northeastern side of the fortress between 1984 and 1990 (Evans 2000). The Roman road (05894.0g) exiting the eastern gate porta principalis sinistra of the fortress crossed the area that is now a scheduled ancient monument (SAM Mm262). Immediately to the east of the scheduled area it intersected with a road that appeared to form an extramural route around the fortress. Buildings including stone-built structures, timber frame buildings and probable mud-brick buildings were found on either side of both roads with side roads coming off the extramural road.

Type Buildings Rarity High Confidence High

Condition Near intact Group association High Value A

Status SAM Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

29

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment ID 00428g NAME CAERLEON BULMORE ROAD CEMETERY NGR ST35209020 PERIOD Roman

DESCRIPTION Numerous interments have been found, and also fragments of tombstones. The ground has been nearly all dug over to form a potato garden, so that probably nothing further will be brought to light

Type CEMETERY Rarity Medium Confidence High

Condition Moved Group association High Value B

Status None Historical association Unknown low Effect NA

ID 00647g NAME PONT SADWRN

NGR ST34229116 PERIOD Post-Medieval

DESCRIPTION A document of 1677 defining the bounds of the manor of Edlogan states that it extends from Sore Bridge "along the highway towards a bridge called Pont Saturne."

Type Bridge Rarity Low Confidence Low

Condition Restored Group association Unknown Value C

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

30

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment ID 00649g NAME CAERLEON USK ROAD NGR ST34669125 PERIOD Roman

DESCRIPTION Six or seven' stone sarcophagi and associated pottery and jewellery, includes RIB 356 discovered during the cutting of a Monmouthshire branch of the South Wales Railway (later abandoned). Site first discovered during railway cutting (1847) and a cemetery proved when the later turnpike road to Usk was made which cut through the same hill close to the railway. The first stone coffin was buried around three feet six inches below the surface of the ground. Apart from the coffins other objects including a bronze lamp, glassware and pottery were discovered (Isca Silurum 1862, 49-50 and Arch. Cambrensis, Vol iii, 187)

Type CEMETERY Rarity Medium Confidence High

Condition Moved Group association High Value B

Status None Historical association Unknown-low Effect NA

ID 00650g NAME ST HENNWG'S

NGR ST34899144 PERIOD Unknown

DESCRIPTION Tradition of a church in Llanhennock parish built by Taliesin and dedicated either to his father, St Hennwg, or to St Gwynnog.

Type CHURCH Rarity Low Confidence Low

Condition Unknown Group association Unknown Value U

Status None Historical association Possible -high Effect NA

31

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment ID 04455g NAME USK ROAD NGR ST34579127 PERIOD Roman

DESCRIPTION Amber bead necklace of some 40 beads found in 1926, now lost. Associated with a Roman inhumation cemetery. See PRN 0649g.

Type Finds Rarity Low Confidence Medium

Condition Moved Group association Unknown Value Unknown

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

ID 04496g NAME TAN HOUSE DRIVE

NGR ST344907 PERIOD Modern

DESCRIPTION A series of test pits was excavated mechanically in the field to the east of Tanhouse Drive. All pits indicated that the alluvium in this area extended to below 3m from the present ground surface. The excavation revealed no features of Roman date.

Type EXCAVATION Rarity Low Confidence High

Condition Not known Group association Unknown Value Unknown

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

32

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment ID 04498g NAME GREAT HOUSE NGR ST345912 PERIOD Modern

DESCRIPTION Trial excavations at Great House revealed a considerable depth of post-medieval leveling, but no archaeological features.

Type Excavation Rarity Low Confidence Very high

Condition Not known Group association Unknown Value D

Status Extant Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

ID 05008g NAME USK ROAD

NGR ST34669125 PERIOD Modern

DESCRIPTION Evaluation see Appendix II St Aarons. Evidence for two cremations of probable Roman date See also 00649g

Type EXCAVATION Rarity Low Confidence Very High

Condition Extant Group association Unknown Value D

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

33

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment ID 05137g NAME SITE NAME NOT KNOWN NGR ST342908 PERIOD Medieval

DESCRIPTION This is a mill first mentioned in 1314 (PRO Sc6/ 1202/ 6m) and by 1663 there were two grain mills working in the same area (NLW Tredegar Mss/167, 172).

Type Mill Rarity Low Confidence Low

Condition Not known Group association Unknown Value C

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

ID 05138g NAME SITE NAME NOT KNOWN

NGR ST342908 PERIOD Medieval

DESCRIPTION This is a fulling mill first mentioned in 1314 (PRO Sc6/ 1202/ 6m). By 1663 there were two grain mills working in the same area but the fulling mill had become a victim of the movement of the river. A lease of the mills described it as: 'one fulling mill now out of reparation (having not water running there to)' (NLW Tredegar Mss/167, 172)

Type Mill Rarity Low Confidence Low

Condition Not known Group association Unknown Value C

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

34

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment ID 05139g NAME SKINYARD NGR ST345911 PERIOD Post-Medieval

DESCRIPTION Skinyard (tannery) extant in 1988 as a range of buildings. See also 05333g

Type TANNERY Rarity Low Confidence Medium

Condition Ruin Group association Unknown Value D

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

ID 05322g NAME SITE NAME NOT KNOWN

NGR ST34239079 PERIOD Post-Medieval

DESCRIPTION Corn mill marked on Tithe map (1840). Also marked as disused on later OS maps

Type Corn Mill Rarity Unknown Confidence Low

Condition Not known Group association Unknown Value Unknown

Status None Historical association Unknown Effect NA

35

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment ID 05333g NAME Skin Yard NGR ST34479113 PERIOD Post-Medieval

DESCRIPTION GGAT Assessment of land East of Caerleon 1990. Skin Yard (tannery) extant as a range of buildings in 1988.

Type BUILDING Rarity Low Confidence Medium

Condition Ruin Group association Unknown Value D

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

ID 08886g NAME Pill

NGR ST3351189778 PERIOD Natural

DESCRIPTION An unnamed pill which is depicted on the 1st edition OS map (1883). The pill is approximately 80m in length and around 10m wide at its mouth where it opens into the River Usk. The feature is aligned north-south and no meanders were apparent, furthermore no silting was noted.

Type Pill Rarity Low Confidence Low

Condition Damaged Group association High Value Unknown

Status None Historical association Unknown -low Effect NA

36

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment
1449
E OS E CL RG

BE LL

IN

FO

C LO SE

1644 SL

50 .8m

ing Sh

Issues

LB

le

Rises

Mud

46.0m

0637

Wsy g)

N
TCB El Sub Sta 25.6m Tk TCB LB

Penrhos Cottage
TH E

Tra ck

8435
ain

fon

Ty Fferm

Corinium
Collects
Sunrays

1533

Inglenook 36.3m Post
BM 30.34m

Rugby Football Ground
k Trac

04498g
Pat h (um )

A
19.2m 6022
Drain

00649g
D ra in

Riv er

Usk (A

Dr

Charlbury

BR AD ES

Drain

Saint Arons MP 39.25

04455g
Pond
TW YN OAK S

ain Dr

Dr

0035

00650g
L ET

ain

Drain

ain Dr

Dra

Dra in

BM 21.93m

d wy nL Afo

Me an

Mean High Water
Mud

s st Po

Hig

Gwynfryn

h Wa ter

The Sycamores 16.3m Cattle Grid 10.4m

Bryn Hafod LB Willowdene The Crest Oakdene Glen View SL Yewtree House
E CL C'S DO OS

Works

in Dra

ROMAN BURIAL GROUND

River Usk

ST
BM 36.50m

(Afon Wys

BM 8.10m

CA

LYNNE
en ce

EA

ST

32.4m 34.0m

Lumley

University College of Wales, (Newport)
E RO

r hi yn Gl

w yn nt Pe

Th

e Re

sid

Mu d

GA RD EN S

05008g

g)

Mud

Us k Me Vale ws

Hi

32

LE

Ponds
Is ca

US K

.2 8m

CO

32 .7 5m

M

E EG LL

BM

39 .5

VA

rt Cou

m .0

CRE
e Th

RO AD

DR

SC

N

ll G ro ve

IV E

P

18

BM

CRES

COLLEGE

6092
sb ur g

43 86

B

Bak

K

AL

AD W

AD

BRO

Co m

NO RM

Orchard House 16.9m Tk

Go ldc roft

18 .2 m

Pavilion

ng vi

ew

PH

Bowling Green
te es W

St Cot on ta e ge

El Sub Sta

NTL

H op

g rr in

e

CR

C ro

ft

Ba lla

NO RM AN

Playground
Sa lu
e at

Allstone Cottage

ST

Holmlea
GO LD

RE

Issues

CAERLEON
Har dw ic k

ROMAN GATE (site of)
wy Cl

Clinic

OW N CL RO O MAN SE G AT

NTL
M IL L ST

Sluice

MH W

Lo

craie

CR

16.7m

OF T CT

ain

3073 Car Park
m llu

Sa
t Vi us Aug

BM 16.83m

5171

PC Ty Prisk War Meml FS

LD CO

CHURCH ST

BM 16.80m

AR TH UR

Football Ground
3669 Stand

AD RO

PH

CHURCH STREET

TH BA

16.2m

a ill rr Sa

ST REE T

lla

Va

Town Hall

El Sub Sta

Dr

nd

Dr

yg

05154g 05138g 05137g
ES

CE

NT UR

URT

IO

CO

use

N

Allotment Gardens

AT E

Ced Ho ar us e

Ho

AN

GA

TG

.2 8m

Ce arl eon

ST

TE

MP

39.7

mo n

ET

12.4m

04496g
Weir

ain

6969

Lond Ho useon

STREET

Ca m Cou el rt

Lo rra in

Vic

Church

BA

Pond

CK HA

CT

LL

(remains of)

ON

ara

HT

ge

Cemetery

BARRACKS

e

16.4m

ot

GH

Th Bo e Co dd in ttage gt Te on rr

17

ST

MU

M

Junior School

Museum

YR

Chimney

TL

Caerleon Endowed

E

LB Lych Gate

CR

UM SE

CO TT AG ES

ST

ET RE

OSS

RE ET

NE

LA

ain

LE

Stone

16.4m
Ro ma n Lo dg e

Pa th

Priory Broad House rs Towe

Fo

B 4326

La ne

Mu d

ss e

Priory Lodge
The Priory Bungalow

BM

16

CA ST

.96

Roman Baths

Castle Mound

Dr

m

PO

Ban

k

Th e Pr Ho iory te l

ET
Caer Cott
LE

PH
Ca er Ho leon us e

14.4m

(site of)
pl ey Ff w rrw

Av al

St

Car Park
0039
ta ge

ifr ed

Dra

s

in

ISCA ROMAN LEGIONARY FORTRESS

on

Uskside

Dra in

Outfall

12.8m

HA NB URY CL OSE

H an

Broadway Farm
Pavilion Pond AMPHITHEATRE

bu

ry

Cot

Inn Tower (rems of)
Stone

Sewage Works
Devonia
Outfall
Bou

Carlton Terrace

Outfall
lders

Quay

Me an

BM 11.93m

ers Bo uld

Hi gh

Wat er

Pa

05136g 275989
gle
M ud Us k (A fo nW

W in

Ch e

6143

Bla

Co

m

15 .8 5m

Church

0336

08886g
0331 11.0m
Tr ac k

Path (um)

BATHS (remains of)

th

(u m

)

Garage Rock 0031

Golf Course Issues Pump

Tower
(site of)

Sinks

ck

0
ain Dr

150

Club House

300
w ay Bro ad

FB
Bridge House

Castle Cottage

Pleasant View

Sh in
Wall Pool

BM

Bo uld

Pad

Hou

R V iver Riv iew er Cot t

se

metres

Caerleon Bridge

The Ship Inn

Riv er

(PH)

LW LU

e Ho AD stl RO Ca TH OR

8.35 m

ys g)

10.2m

Tra

Tower View Cottage

Issues

White Lion House

18.9m

ers

7.5m

ps to

irg ow rie

Playing Fields

(site of)

ROMAN GATE

BM

AD RO AN of) Mourse RO (c

w

Mews

04370g

BUL

ROMAN GATE

Castle

0545

m or

e

Gr an

ge

Li M ncol ar ro n Co w Us s k Co tt wel May Co tt l C Co tt ot tt ta ge

Pond

ud

Bec ks co tt

ng le

M

Cr om

Toll House
B4

Isca Grange
IS C

Gla nd wr

d

Figure 2: Map showing Zones A to E and known archaeological interests. The Roman fortress of Caerleon is shown green.
Base map reproduced with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, © Crown Copyright 2000. All rights reserved. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Licence Number: AL 10005976. Annotations © GGAT

37

l

1

2

0020

Lu Ho lwor us th e The Malthouse

Co B M tta 8. ge 93 s m

7919

ud M

Hi ll

ST CA

Shingle
Issues

MOR E ROA D

ET RE ST

Mu

ST RE

d

Sta
Ty Bryn Shelter

Me an

Hi gh

Al cq be

Wate

Club

GE LE COL

CH
to e
Mei lyr
K US

ER

Felthorpe
es W

RY

TREE

CLOSE
Drain
E TH

El Sub Sta

Coleg Brifysgol Cymru, (Casnewydd)

31.3m

Ll

ys

El Sub Sta

ld fie gh Hi

El Sub

Sta

HO WT E HA TH
W HA TH

S RN

00647g
US K RO AD

Pont Sadwrn
Mean
BM 10.35m

r

Spring

DG LO AD
Pollards Well 31.6m Sinks Isca Isca Soth East Wales College of Nursing and Midwifery Car Park
rch Chu

05333g
3112
ET L

Mean High

RO AD
33.4m Westbury Lichfield
T EN
W es th ill

High Wate r

Water

LE VA OS CL E

Track

OR NS

YE W EE TR LA NE

8.4m

Pumping Station
Glen Haven

Normal Tidal Limit
gh n Hi M ea W ater

ST

AT IO

AfoMean

yd n Lw

High Water

3504
LW

E
Mud

Mud

ffe secli Ro

16.9m

AF ON

e Ha Th

G ve ro
ds

oo W an dl

YD

Traverner Trading Estate

22.4m Vorda
B 42 36

The Coach House
Hi

Glen Plas 12.3m

llc

re

st

Glentar

d

B

42 36

The Nook
in ad g te ta Es

South Lodge

Crescent House

The Hollies
Inte r Nos

aid i Hin

ST AT IO N RO AD

Br yn -D

er

i
USK

AD RO

LB 25.9m

BM m .18 26

Tr

er av

r Tr ne

Westward House The Forge

17.7m

04059g 05894.0g
th Pa (u m ) Pa
th

AD RO K US Coed Deryn

CL OS E

01383g
Spring

ve n

Tram Road rn ho wt e Ha Hous ay ew Ri dg

Th e ch Bee es rb Fi an k

3900

6400

3800

CAERLEON

05139g
M ud

2900 18.8m

Iss

(um

)

LA NS DO W NE

MIL DW L An ST ge RE BROA l Ho ET te l (P H)

EL

L

UR CO

T

Ll

ew a

do

r Co

RO AD

PH Lewvia 17.5m

Brodawel

ur

t

C
ain Dr

Mud

LO DG E

B

RO

St Donats

TCB LB
Th e Ol d Po

43

The Withys
26
B

Pol Sta Post
lic e Ho us e
Pla s Ne wy dd

B
yd lw nL Afo
MHW

Me

an

Hi gh

W

r ate

er Riv

k Us

(A

fon

W

ys

g)

TRAM

5

W

ES

BM

20

MM262
42 36

Pa

th

ROAD

(um

)

ET L

n Mea

gh Hi

W

ater

MBR CA IA CL OSE

14.7m

Mud

Mean High

Water

Green Oak 12.6m

d Mu

yd Afon Lw
Mean

Mud

High Water

15.1m

d Mu

AD RO LM BU ORS

0582

12.6m

Spring

REE T

3376

Vine

Cottages

CAERLEON ISCA
12 .1m

ater W M ea n gh Hi

d y rle mbe e Ca dg Lo

Bk

9.6m

PW

KN IG

St Cadoc's

Tel Ex Tel Ex
ST

05322g
Azo re s

BM 12.23m

D
ain Dr

Dra

in

0768

11.6m

Drain

M US

EU

M

0264

HI

The Hall
ew M

Is ca

ST

BM

RE ET .25m

BM 17.04m

Pen-y-mynde

s

11.1m

Castle Acre

BM 10.63m
Tank

TAN HOUSE DRIVE

Spring

B 423 6
PH
The Firs

9954
Su El b St a

Stones

Caerleon Secondary School

Broadway House

DFn

14.2m LB Broadlands
TCB

The Mynde

MM244

Clawdd
8.2m

Issues

9455

HI

GH

0549

Issues

W EH HIT AR

T NE LA

105.3m

BM 10 .29 m

Land either side of the Afon Llwyd River between the River Usk, the Usk Road and Caerleon, Newport: archaeological assessment

Addendum to Zone E Since publication of the approval copy, another source of information has come to light that has a bearing on the archaeological potential of Zone E. A still from a video film 1 , (video footage is not one of the normal research sources) shows an indistinct parchmark of what appears to be a large rectangular building or buildings centred around ST 3505 9109 in a field between the Afon Llwyd and the bend of the River Usk (See attached figure and photograph, parchmark area indicated in red outline). The faint marks are typical of the layout of a Roman building and their location may suggest a connection with waterfront activities. However, as these marks do not appear on archived aerial photographs it is more likely that the image shows the pattern of rectangular drainage grips that can be found in the fields of the floodplain. Geophysical survey and/or trial trenching would probably elucidate the nature of these marks.

1

Video image taken from River Flight. Episode: To the Open Sea, broadcast by Channel 4, Wednesday 06 Oct 2004. Information

supplied by Dr. E. Evans via Mr Jim Sullivan of Caerleon.