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CH 24 #1: Understand what constitutes a population and the changes that can occur in its characteristic features. Population: A population consists of a group of the same species living together. Most populations have a restricted geographical area. Every population has their own necessities; it all depends on what habitat is suitable for what population. There are a lot of factors that affect where a population can reside; the temperature, the food supplies, the predators, etc. A population range does not change over night it varies through out time. A population can increase or decrease depending on various factors, for example, the environment, and other competition. A population can spread out to different habitats depending on appropriate CH 24 # 2: differentiate among random, even, and clumped and spacings. Randomly spacing: Random spacing occurs when populations don¶t interact with each other. So there isn¶t a lot of competition either. Random spacing isn¶t that common. Even/uniform spacing: Clumped spacing: clumped spacing occurs when there are difficulties in the current area of habitation. CH 24 # 3: Understand what a metapopulation is and how it is associated with source and sink populations. Metapopulation: (the exchange of individuals from different species) usually occurs in an area where there are two kinds of habitats: suitable and unsuitable. The suitable habitat is patchily distributed and has intervening stretches of unusual habitat. Interaction
which is not always balanced or equal. populations that are remote usually receive few immigrants. Professors from the Helsinki University trialed with the Glanville fritillary butterfly of southwest Finland. If the sources were to stop sending out dispersals there would be a harmful effect on the sink population. while the sink is the inferior habitat. Dispersal helps save populations that may go extinct otherwise. and these populations become populated again. The second impact is the inhabitation of a larger area. the constant colonization of vacant spaces.. a whole population could die. Source and sink populations: (is another kind of metapopulation. while smaller populations usually receive more immigrants than they send. Two important impacts caused by metapopualtion are. One of the most studied metapopulations is that of butterflies. inhabiting an area that is remote from sources of immigrants. A lot of different reasons affected the extinction of a population. if the metapopualtion system did not exist. and it could eventually go extinct.) the source is the better area. in which some surroundings are suitable for long-term population maintenance. like small population. constant source immigrants and a constant metapopulation system are vital to the survival of the population. Also. They found that 200 populations of the Glanville fritillary butterfly became extinct per year but 114 meadows were also colonized each year.between populations in a metapopulation depends on a number of factors. If the metapopulation . For example. The source constantly sends out dispersals to the sink area to help strengthen it. and some habitats are not suitable to inhabit for a long-term. unsuitable habitat. it depends on the amount of distribution. thus leading to the extinction of the species from the whole region. so larger populations usually send out more dispersers than they receive.
A population is highly affected by the age structure. Populations with a large amount of young individuals are usually larger in size and tend . The age structure (number of individuals in each age group) is calculated by examining each cohort (a group of individuals of the same age). each cohorts fecundity (number of offspring produced in a year) and the mortality (the number of individuals that die in that period). Populations that have shorter generation times can increase in size faster than populations that have a longer generation time. less area would be occupied. One of the factors is sex ratio (the ratio of females and males in population). Ch 24 # 4: define demography and understand how such information indicates the stability and composition of a population. as females are the ones that will give birth. All of these reasons show that the metapopulation system is very important in the maintenance of habitats and populations. as different ages have different fecundity rates. The number of females matters more than the number of males. A population that has a higher birth rate than death rate will grow larger.system did not exist. The birth rate is directly linked the number of females. if death rates surpass birth rates then the population will decrease in size. and different mortality rates. Demography ( is the statistical study of populations) shows how the size of a population changes through time. r Generation time (is the average interval between the birth of an individual and the birth of its offspring) is another factor that affects the population growth rates. then the population will grow. If birth rates surpass death rates. There are a number of factors that affect population growth rates.
they are likely to die at any age. and the fourth represents the mortality rate (the number of individuals that were alive at the beginning of the interval but died by the end of it). Survivorship Curve Type 2: Organisms belonging to this curve have no fixed death age.to grow more as there is a larger population that is reproductive. An example of this kind of organism is the Hydra. Life tables are very useful as a lot of things can be calculating by examining them. The life table is set out in this way: the first column represents the age of the cohort. Ch24 # 6: Describe three types of survivorship curves and give examples of each. they have a very low mortality rate. and the sixth and last column represents the number of seeds produced in proportion with the surviving cohorts. . the fifth column represents the fecundity. There are three kinds of survivorship curves: Survivorship Curve Type 1: Organisms belonging to this curve have a higher mortality rate. Examples of these organisms are human beings and animals. Life tables (used to assess how populations are changing and evolving) are used to assess a cohort from when it¶s born and till its death. Survivorship Curve Type 3: Organisms from this type of curve reproduce in large amounts but only a few offspring survive. Ch 24 # 5 Understand the value of life tables. Survivorship curve (the percentage of an original population that survives to certain age). But if most of a population consists of old people. then the population is usually smaller. the second column represents the number alive at the beginning. the third represents the number of survivors. But once the surviving offspring grow to be reproductive. and a life table is also used to follow the offspring of the cohort. the number of offspring and the number of deaths per year.
This experiment shows how reproductive success is maximized. In natural selection. laid less eggs the next year. Cost of reproduction would be low when there is a profuse amount of resources and also when the mortality rates are high. On the other hand. This experiment is referred to as an example of cost of reproduction (the reduction of future reproduction depending on present reproduction level). Individuals should increase the number of offspring when the cost of reproduction is low. and the reproduction rate is increased. reproductive success can be maximized by reducing the reproductive rate. when cost of reproduction is high. resources are limited. in which they changed the number of eggs in the nest of a bird. birds that had the number of eggs increased by researchers.Ch24 # 7: Understand why and how reproductive success is maximized. the individual has higher chances of survival and grows faster. that would have difficulty in survival. . the number of offspring isn¶t as important as how many of the offspring survive to reproduce themselves. and as the number of eggs was decreased. Researchers conducted an experiment. There has to be a balance between the number of offspring and the sizes of the offspring. the bird laid more eggs the following year. the survival rate is decreased. It wouldn¶t be beneficial for reproductive success to produce tons of small and weak offspring. On the other hand. studies have shown that when reproduction is deferred. which decreases future reproduction as well. like when. or to produce only one strong and healthy. But on the other hand. All life histories (complete life cycle of a organism) have huge trade-offs. and thus maximizes future reproduction.
dN/dt represents the rate of change in the population number. its natural ability for growth. The actual rate of a population¶s growth is defined by this formula: r = (b ± d) + (i ± e) where r represents the actual rate of population increase. while i represents movement into the area. and gain experience when they are young. and try to reproduce as soon as possible. that usually have a longer life span. The actual increases in numbers of a population don¶t . Ch24 #8: Explain how a population¶s biotic potential differs from its actual rate of increase. and e represents movement out of the area. reproduce later. Iteroparity (organisms that reproduce several times throughout years) is another kind of life history adaption. d represents death rate. The biotic potential is defined by this formula: dN/dt = r i N. Semelparity (when some species of plants and insects use all their reproductive resources once and die) is on kind of life history adaption. where N represents the number of individuals in a population. Semelparity is usually found in species that have a short life span. before they start reproducing. they instead invest all their resources into reproduction. Mammals and other animals. Mostly these kind of species don¶t spend resources on an unlikely survival. b represents birthrate.A balance between age and fecundity has a major impact on the life histories. and r i represents the basic rate of increase for the population. While animals with life spans skip the experience as juveniles. The biotic potential (the rate at which a population increases if no limit is placed on the growth rate) is a representation of population growth if no limits were assigned. The natural ability for growth of any population is exponential.
is multiplied by K Ch 24 # 10: Compare density-dependant and density independent growth regulating effects and give examples of each. resources become limited and there is competition. A large population can also cause huge . like food. for example it affects the population growth rates and the population size. no population can keep on growing without having a lack of many important environmental essentials. Ch 24 # 9 Define carrying capacity and understand how it¶s associated with population size. Furthermore. where dN/dt represents the growth rate of the population. There is always a limit on all population. Even if the rate of increase remains constant. shelter. symbolized by K. and light. which decreases the birthrate and increases the mortality rate) affects many factors in a population. rN represents the individuals in a population at any time. water.depend on the rate of increase. Carrying capacity. as the quantity of resources start to decrease. it doesn¶t necessarily effect the actual growth. the growth rate decreases a lot. one common prey usually catches the eye of most predators. The Density dependant effect (when populations reach their carrying capacity. which increases mortality rates. is defined as the greatest amount of individuals a single environment can hold. as all predators will try and achieve that same prey. The growth curve of such a population is defined by this formula: dN/dt = rN (K ± N/ K). As a population comes closer to reaching its carrying capacity.
. An example of a density dependant population is a species of rodents.amounts of toxic wastes.
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