2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials

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4.5.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Products: Abaqus/Standard  Abaqus/Explicit   This section describes the concrete damaged plasticity model provided in Abaqus for the analysis of concrete and other quasi-brittle materials. The material library in Abaqus also includes other constitutive models for concrete based on the smeared crack approach. These are the smeared crack model in Abaqus/Standard, described in “An inelastic constitutive model for concrete,” Section 4.5.1, and the brittle cracking model in Abaqus/Explicit, described in “A cracking model for concrete and other brittle materials,” Section 4.5.3. The concrete damaged plasticity model is primarily intended to provide a general capability for the analysis of concrete structures under cyclic and/or dynamic loading. The model is also suitable for the analysis of other quasi-brittle materials, such as rock, mortar and ceramics; but it is the behavior of concrete that is used in the remainder of this section to motivate different aspects of the constitutive theory. Under low confining pressures, concrete behaves in a brittle manner; the main failure mechanisms are cracking in tension and crushing in compression. The brittle behavior of concrete disappears when the confining pressure is sufficiently large to prevent crack propagation. In these circumstances failure is driven by the consolidation and collapse of the concrete microporous microstructure, leading to a macroscopic response that resembles that of a ductile material with work hardening. Modeling the behavior of concrete under large hydrostatic pressures is out of the scope of the plastic-damage model considered here. The constitutive theory in this section aims to capture the effects of irreversible damage associated with the failure mechanisms that occur in concrete and other quasi-brittle materials under fairly low confining pressures (less than four or five times the ultimate compressive stress in uniaxial compression loading). These effects manifest themselves in the following macroscopic properties:

different yield strengths in tension and compression, with the initial yield stress in compression being a factor of 10 or more higher than the initial yield stress in tension; softening behavior in tension as opposed to initial hardening followed by softening in compression; different degradation of the elastic stiffness in tension and compression; stiffness recovery effects during cyclic loading; and rate sensitivity, especially an increase in the peak strength with strain rate.

The plastic-damage model in Abaqus is based on the models proposed by Lubliner et al. (1989) and by Lee and Fenves (1998). The model is described in the remainder of this section. An overview of the main ingredients of the model is given first, followed by a more detailed discussion of the different aspects of the constitutive model. Overview The main ingredients of the inviscid concrete damaged plasticity model are summarized below.



4. the stiffness degradation is isotropic and characterized by a single degradation variable. the factor represents the ratio of the effective load-carrying area (i. . Damaged states in tension and compression are characterized independently by two hardening variables.html 21-09-2010 . convenient to formulate the plasticity problem in terms of the effective stress. They are also intimately related to the dissipated fracture energy required to http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6. d. however. . and the effective stress. In the absence of damage. the overall area minus the damaged area) to the overall section area. and . These variables control the evolution of the yield surface and the degradation of the elastic stiffness.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 2 of 13 Strain rate decomposition An additive strain rate decomposition is assumed for the rate-independent model: where is the total strain rate. strain rate. which are referred to as equivalent plastic strains in tension and compression. Following the usual notions of continuum damage mechanics. Stress-strain relations is the elastic part of the strain rate. which can take values in the range from zero (undamaged material) to one (fully damaged material). is the degraded elastic stiffness. Damage associated with the failure mechanisms of the concrete (cracking and crushing) therefore results in a reduction in the elastic stiffness.e. The evolution of the hardening variables is given by an expression of the form as described later in this section. Within the context of the scalar-damage theory. Hardening variables . It is. that is.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120. and d is the scalar stiffness degradation variable. When damage occurs. and is the plastic part of the The stress-strain relations are governed by scalar damaged elasticity: where is the initial (undamaged) elastic stiffness of the material. respectively.. As discussed later. . Microcracking and crushing in the concrete are represented by increasing values of the hardening variables. the effective stress is defined as The Cauchy stress is related to the effective stress through the scalar degradation relation: For any given cross-section of the material. the effective stress is more representative than the Cauchy stress because it is the effective stress area that is resisting the external loads. therefore. the effective stress is equivalent to the Cauchy stress. the evolution of the degradation variable is governed by a set of hardening variables.5.

Uniaxial conditions http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6.5. The model uses nonassociated plasticity. the elastic-plastic response of the concrete damaged plasticity model is described in terms of the effective stress and the hardening variables: where and F obey the Kuhn-Tucker conditions: The Cauchy stress is . represents a surface in effective stress space. The plastic potential is defined in the effective stress space. The inviscid model summarized here can be extended easily to account for viscoplastic effects through the use of a viscoplastic regularization by permitting stresses to be outside the yield surface. therefore requiring the solution of nonsymmetric equations.5.5. The specific form of the flow potential for the concrete damaged plasticity model is discussed later in this section. Equation 4.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 3 of 13 generate micro-cracks. which makes the model attractive for an effective numerical implementation. The constitutive relations for the elastic-plastic response. are decoupled from the stiffness degradation response.2–2.html 21-09-2010 . which determines the states of failure or damage. Equation 4. For the inviscid plastic-damage model The specific form of the yield function is described later in this section.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120. . Damage and stiffness degradation The evolution equations of the hardening variables and are conveniently formulated by considering uniaxial loading conditions first and then extended to multiaxial conditions.4.2–1. Summary In summary. Flow rule Plastic flow is governed by a flow potential G according to the flow rule: where is the nonnegative plastic multiplier. Yield function The yield function. and the effective stress as calculated in terms of the stiffness degradation variable.

are other predefined field variables.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 4 of 13 It is assumed that the uniaxial stress-strain curves can be converted into stress versus plastic strain curves of the form where the subscripts t and c refer to tension and compression. when the concrete specimen is unloaded from any point on the strain softening branch of the stress-strain curves. and . the unloading response is observed to be weakened: the elastic stiffness of the material appears to be damaged (or degraded). and field variables: Figure 4. temperature. Under uniaxial loading conditions the effective plastic strain rates are given as In the remainder of this section we adopt the convention that the magnitude of the uniaxial compression stress. is the temperature.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120.4.5. http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6.html 21-09-2010 .2–1.5. which are assumed to be functions of the plastic strains. and and are the and are the equivalent plastic strains. The degradation of the elastic stiffness is significantly different between tension and compression tests.5. in either case. the effect is more pronounced as the plastic strain increases. equivalent plastic strain rates. The degraded response of concrete is characterized by two independent uniaxial damage variables. is a positive quantity representing . As shown in Figure 4. respectively. that is.2–1 Response of concrete to uniaxial loading in tension (a) and compression (b).

9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120. however. The nucleation and propagation of cracks.5. respectively: Under uniaxial loading cracks propagate in a direction transverse to the stress direction. after a significant http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6. They can take values ranging from zero. for the fully damaged material. therefore. which in turn leads to an increase in the effective stress. to one. causes a reduction of the available load-carrying area.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 5 of 13 The uniaxial degradation variables are increasing functions of the equivalent plastic strains.4. the stress-strain relations under uniaxial tension and compression loading are. The effect is less pronounced under compressive loading since cracks run parallel to the loading direction. for the undamaged material. If is the initial (undamaged) elastic stiffness of the material.html 21-09-2010 .

5. as well as their interaction. The effect is usually more pronounced as the load changes from tension to compression. and . control the recovery of the tensile and compressive stiffness upon load reversal. are given as The effective uniaxial cohesion stresses determine the size of the yield (or failure) surface. http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6. Assume that there was no previous compressive damage (crushing) in the material. and . is a function of the stress state and the uniaxial damage variables. causing tensile cracks to close. consider the example in Figure 4. Then Figure 4.” is an important aspect of the concrete behavior under cyclic loading. The effective uniaxial cohesion stresses. involving the opening and closing of previously formed micro-cracks.2–2. which are assumed to be material properties. the effective load-carrying area is also significantly reduced. as where is the initial (undamaged) modulus of the material. Experimentally. d. also known as the “unilateral effect.4. Abaqus assumes that where and are functions of the stress state that are introduced to represent stiffness recovery effects associated with stress reversals. which results in the recovery of the compressive stiffness. where the load changes from tension to compression.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 6 of 13 amount of crushing. The concrete damaged plasticity model assumes that the reduction of the elastic modulus is given in terms of a scalar degradation variable.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120.html 21-09-2010 . This expression holds both in the tensile ( ) and compressive ( ) sides of the cycle. Uniaxial cyclic conditions Under uniaxial cyclic loading conditions the degradation mechanisms are quite complex.5. that is. For the uniaxial cyclic conditions. The stiffness recovery effect. and . d. The stiffness reduction variable. They are defined according to where The weight factors and . it is observed that there is some recovery of the elastic stiffness as the load changes sign during a uniaxial cyclic test. To illustrate this.5.2–2 Illustration of the effect of the compression stiffness recovery parameter .

respectively. Intermediate values of result in partial recovery of the stiffness. on the other hand.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 7 of 13 In tension ( . In compression ( ).9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120. Multiaxial conditions The evolution equations for the hardening variables must be extended for the general multiaxial conditions. therefore. . If.2–4 during the tensile and compressive phases of the cycle.5. If .5. then . thus. Based on Lee and Fenves (1998) we assume that the equivalent plastic strain rates are evaluated according to the expressions where and rate tensor and are.4. .html 21-09-2010 . as expected. and . the material fully recovers the compressive stiffness (which in this case is the initial undamaged stiffness. The evolution equations of the equivalent plastic strains are also generalized to the uniaxial cyclic conditions as ). then and there is no stiffness recovery. the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of the plastic strain http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6. which clearly reduces to Equation 4. ).

In uniaxial loading conditions Equation 4. and in compression.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120.2–10 for the scalar degradation variable is consistent with the uniaxial response.5. For the general multiaxial stress conditions Abaqus assumes that similar to the uniaxial cyclic case. http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6.–4 and Equation 4. d: The definition of the scalar degradation variable d must be consistent with the uniaxial monotonic responses ( and ). since in tension. the evolution equation for general multiaxial stress conditions can be expressed in the following matrix form: where and Elastic stiffness degradation The plastic-damage concrete model assumes that the elastic stiffness degradation is isotropic and characterized by a single scalar variable.5.2–7. are positive and equal to zero if they are negative. and it should also should capture the complexity associated with the degradation mechanisms under cyclic loading. only that and are now given in terms of the function as It can be easily verified that Equation 4. ) are ordered such that If the eigenvalues of the plastic strain rate tensor ( .html 21-09-2010 .2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 8 of 13 is a stress weight factor that is equal to one if all principal stresses . The Macauley bracket is defined by .4.2–8 reduces to the uniaxial definitions Equation 4.

This behavior.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120.5. In terms of effective stresses the yield function takes the form where and are dimensionless material constants. Figure 4. Yield condition The plastic-damage concrete model uses a yield condition based on the yield function proposed by Lubliner et al. including concrete. which corresponds to and . (1989) and incorporates the modifications proposed by Lee and Fenves (1998) to account for different evolution of strength under tension and compression. On the other hand. http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6.2–3 Uniaxial load cycle (tension-compression-tension) assuming default values for the stiffness recovery factors: and .2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 9 of 13 The experimental observation in most quasi-brittle materials.5. Figure 4. the tensile stiffness is not recovered as the load changes from compression to tension once crushing micro-cracks have developed.html 21-09-2010 . is that the compressive stiffness is recovered upon crack closure as the load changes from tension to compression.4. is the default used by Abaqus.5.2–3 illustrates a uniaxial load cycle assuming the default behavior. is the effective hydrostatic pressure.

and eigenvalue of . along the tensile and compressive meridians. The coefficient enters the yield function only for stress states of triaxial compression. The coefficient can be determined from the initial equibiaxial and uniaxial compressive yield stress.08 and 0.html 21-09-2010 . .. 1989). and . as Typical experimental values of the ratio for concrete are in the range from 1.5. 1989). is the deviatoric part of the effective stress tensor .2–11 reduces to the well-known DruckerPrager yield condition. In biaxial compression. The function is given as is the algebraically maximum where and are the effective tensile and compressive cohesion stresses.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120. which is typical for concrete. gives http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6. respectively. the tensile meridian (TM) is the locus of stress states satisfying the condition and the compressive meridian (CM) is the locus of stress states such that .. with .4. The coefficient is. when This coefficient can be determined by comparing the yield conditions along the tensile and compressive meridians. By definition.16. respectively.5. and are the eigenvalues of the effective stress tensor. With the corresponding yield conditions are Let for any given value of the hydrostatic pressure with . therefore. where . yielding values of between 0.10 to 1. evaluated as A value of .2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 10 of 13 is the Mises equivalent effective stress. Equation 4. It can be easily shown that and .12 (Lubliner et al. then The fact that is constant does not seem to be contradicted by experimental evidence (Lubliner et al.

2–4 in the deviatoric plane and in Figure 4.5. the yield conditions along the tensile and compressive meridians reduce to Let for any given value of the hydrostatic pressure with .2–5 for plane-stress conditions.html 21-09-2010 .4. Figure 4.2–4 Yield surfaces in the deviatoric plane.5. corresponding to different values of .5.2–5 Yield surface in plane stress. Figure 4. then Typical yield surfaces are shown in Figure 4.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120.5.5.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 11 of 13 If . http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6.

html 21-09-2010 . and is a parameter.4.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 12 of 13 Flow rule The plastic-damage model assumes nonassociated potential flow. ensures that the flow direction is defined uniquely. See “Models for granular or polymer behavior.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120. Because plastic flow is nonassociated. referred to as the eccentricity. that defines the rate at which the function approaches the asymptote (the flow potential tends to a straight line as the eccentricity tends to zero). The function asymptotically approaches the linear DruckerPrager flow potential at high confining pressure stress and intersects the hydrostatic pressure axis at 90°. This flow potential.” Section 4. for further discussion of this potential.5. The flow potential G chosen for this model is the Drucker-Prager hyperbolic function: where is the dilation angle measured in the p–q plane at high confining pressure. the use of the plastic-damage concrete model requires the solution of nonsymmetric equations. Viscoplastic regularization http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6.2. which is continuous and smooth.4. is the uniaxial tensile stress at failure.

a viscous stiffness degradation variable. . where t represents time. therefore permitting stresses to be outside of the yield surface. The stress-strain relation of the viscoplastic model is given as The solution of the viscoplastic system relaxes to that of the inviscid case as . according to which the viscoplastic strain rate tensor. Using the viscoplastic regularization with a small value for the viscosity parameter (small compared to the characteristic time increment) usually helps improve the rate of convergence of the model in the softening regime. Some of these convergence difficulties can be overcome by using a viscoplastic regularization of the constitutive equations.4. A material Jacobian consistent with this integration operator is used for the equilibrium iterations.9/books/stm/ch04s05ath120.5.html 21-09-2010 . Integration of the model The model is integrated using the backward Euler method generally used with the plasticity models in Abaqus. is defined as Here is the viscosity parameter representing the relaxation time of the viscoplastic system and is the plastic strain evaluated in the inviscid backbone model. without compromising results. We use a generalization of the Duvaut-Lions regularization. http://hitesh-vaio:2080/v6. for the viscoplastic system is defined as where d is the degradation variable evaluated in the inviscid backbone model. Similarly. The concrete damaged plasticity model can be regularized using viscoplasticity.2 Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials Page 13 of 13 Material models exhibiting softening behavior and stiffness degradation often lead to severe convergence difficulties in implicit analysis programs. .