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Yujuan Dou 窦玉娟 2008/11/28
Whole Course Plan
Software Quality Assurance Framework Test Requirement Test Planning Test Case Design Test Execution and Defect Management Test Reporting
Write Test Requirement Write Test Plan （Group List) Delivery the test cases Summarize the test results and deliver a test report Home work delivery: To: Ydou@statestreet.com, Cc: firstname.lastname@example.org
Agenda What Is Software Quality? Software Quality Assurance Components of Quality Assurance Software Testing Quality Control Software Configuration Management .
. Characteristics of Good SQA Engineer. Responsibilities of testers.Agenda-con. Activities and responsibilities of SQA team. Software Quality Assurance Plan Steps to Develop and Implement a Software Quality Assurance Plan Quality Standards.
What Is Software Quality? .
the customer’s. .” Fitness for use.What Is Software Quality? Professional Views about Software Quality Conformance to requirements. the customer defines quality as to whether the product or service does what the customer needs. The first is that quality means “meeting requirements. is the one we use. Another definition of quality. With this definition.
software developers know they want to produce a quality product. . and users insist that software work consistently and be reliable.Software Quality is something everyone wants. Managers know that they want high quality.
Quality Assurance Quality Assurance [ISO 9000]: All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy requirements for quality .
2.Software quality assurance [IEEE]: 1. A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item or product conforms to established technical requirements. . A set of activities designed to evaluate the process by which the products are developed or manufactured.
. Customer is in absolute position to judge the quality. You also. can only sell assurances – in other words. Quality. they buy assurances that their expectations with the products would met.Role of Customer Customers don’t buy products.
Software quality assurance is achieved through the use of established guidelines for quality control to ensure the integrity and prolonged life of software. .Software Quality Assurance A formal definition of software quality assurance is that it is the systematic activities providing evidence of the fitness for use of the total software product.
Objectives of Software Quality Assurance Only Quality Control (testing) is not enough: What would you do if your software does not pass the QC test? QC is a reactive approach. . Quality Assurance includes Proactive as well as Reactive approaches. not proactive one.
PPQA in CMMI The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. .
Maintainability. Defect rate (defect/KLOC or defects/FP) Reliability (Failure free operation) IBM monitors CUPRIMDSO – Capability (Functionality). HP monitors FURPS – Functionality. Usability. Reliability. Installability. & Overall. . Performance & Service. Usability. Reliability.Measuring Software Quality Usually recognized in the form of bugs or defects. Documentation. Performance. Service.
How much efforts are needed to minimize the number of defects? are you developing a customized project or product? how critical your application is? .Purpose of SQA Activities Practically. zero defect product is not possible to achieve. The purpose of quality assurance practices are to minimize the number of defects.
Successful quality assurance managers know how to make people quality conscious and to make them recognize the benefits of quality to themselves and to the organization.Quality assurance is the function responsible for managing quality. management can be assured of product quality. . Quality assurance is a catalytic function that should encourage quality attitudes and discipline on the part of management and workers. The word “assurance” means that if the processes are followed.
. project leader. and users.It is not the sole responsibility of the software quality assurance group but is determined by the consensus of the project manager. project personnel.
industry does have some norms: For customized projects. ratio can be as high as 1:3 . However.Developer to Tester Ratio There is no standard developer to tester ratio in IT industry. ratio must be at least 3:1 For products.
Organizational Positioning of SQA (Observed) CEO CEO Development Development Manager Manager HR HR Manager Manager Admin Admin Manager Manager SQA SQA Manager Manager SCM SCM Manager Manager Project Project Manager 1 Manager 1 Project Project Manager 2 Manager 2 .
Organizational Positioning of SQA (Recommended) CEO CEO Admin Admin Manager Manager Development Development Manager Manager SQA SQA Manager Manager SCM SCM Manager Manager Support Support Manager Manager Project Project Manager 1 Manager 1 Project Project Manager 2 Manager 2 .
Top Management Support to SQA Department Proper staffing and hiring Separate budget for payroll and running expenses Separate capital budget Test facilities and environment Trust and confidence Authority Don’t force to close defects • Don’t force to sign acceptance • Act as an arbitrator for the conflicts between QA/Dev. • .
Components of Quality Assurance .
conventions.Components of Quality Assurance Most software quality assurance activities can be categorized into software testing. software configuration management. practices. that is. as shown in Exhibit 1. and quality control. But the success of a software quality assurance program also depends on a coherent collection of standards. .1. and specifications. verification and validation.
Exhibit 1. Quality Assurance Components .1.
Software Testing Software testing is a popular risk management strategy. . It is used to verify that functional requirements were met. The limitation of this approach. however. is that by the time testing occurs. it is too late to build quality into the product.
but they can be inspected to ensure that all the requirements are tested across all possible combinations of inputs and system states.Software Testing Tests are only as good as the test cases. not all defects are discovered during testing. . However.
In many organizations. organizational.Software Testing Software testing includes the activities outlined in this text. and project policy. are included within the charter for the software quality assurance function. The extent to which personnel independent of design and coding should participate in software quality assurance activities is a matter of institutional. or their supervision. including verification and validation activities. . these activities.
specifications derived from and designed to meet user requirements. test requirements at the modular. . and acceptance testing of the code after it has been fully integrated with hardware. subsystem. and integrated software levels. and documentation meet all the requirements imposed on them. code review and inspection criteria. code. Examples of requirements include user requirements.Software Testing The major purpose of verification and validation activities is to ensure that software design.
. The verification effort takes less time and is less complex when conducted throughout the development process. verification helps determine whether the products of one phase of the software development life cycle fulfill the requirements established during the previous phase.Software Testing During software design and implementation.
It focuses on reviews and removal of defects before shipment of products. .Quality Control Quality control is defined as the processes and methods used to monitor work and observe whether requirements are met.
or to establish a quality control group or department within the organizational unit that develops the product. It is possible to have the same group that builds the product perform the quality control function. .Quality Control Quality control should be the responsibility of the organizational unit producing the product.
Quality Control Quality control consists of well-defined checks on a product that are specified in the product quality assurance plan. quality control typically includes specification reviews. and checks for user deliverables. . For software products. inspections of code and documents.
Quality Control Usually. . and test plans. These criteria are normally provided in the requirements specifications. document and product inspections are conducted at each life cycle milestone to demonstrate that the items produced are within the criteria specified by the software quality assurance plan. conceptual and detailed design documents.
and the operations and maintenance guide. Additional documents are specified in the software quality assurance plan. the software code. user guide. design documentation.The documents given to users are the requirement specifications. . results from the user acceptance test.
For small projects. a member of the software quality assurance department. a configuration control board may be responsible for quality control. The board may include the users or a user representative. .Quality control can be provided by various sources. On large projects. and the project leader. the project personnel’s peer group or the department’s software quality coordinator can inspect the documents.
An inspection may be a detailed checklist for assessing compliance or a brief checklist to determine the existence of such deliverables as documentation. . project leader.Inspections are traditional functions of quality control. independent examinations to assess compliance with some stated criteria. Peers and subject matter experts review specifications and engineering work products to identify defects and suggest improvements. and project personnel for action. that is. A report stating the purpose of the inspection and the deficiencies found goes to the project supervisor. They are used to examine the software project for adherence to the written project rules at a project’s milestones and at other times during the project’s life cycle as deemed necessary by the project leader or the software quality assurance personnel.
a member of the software quality assurance group may lead an inspection performed by an audit team. Following the inspection. which is similar to the configuration control board mentioned previously. For large projects. .Quality Control Responsibility for inspections is stated in the software quality assurance plan. For small projects. project personnel are assigned to correct the problems on a specific schedule. the project leader or the department’s quality coordinator can perform the inspections.
Quality Control Quality control is designed to detect and correct defects. Quality assurance is a managerial function that prevents problems by heading them off. . whereas quality assurance is oriented toward preventing them. and by advising restraint and redirection. Detection implies flaws in the processes that are supposed to produce defect-free products and services.
tracking. .Software Configuration Management Software configuration management is concerned with labeling. It controls the evolution of a software system by managing versions of its software components and their relationships. and controlling changes in the software elements of a system.
It can provide a high cost savings in software reusability because each software component and its relationship to other software components have been defined. . and maintenance. document control. Software configuration management is a discipline that can be applied to activities including software development. problem tracking.Software Configuration Management The purpose of software configuration management is to identify all the interrelated components of software and to control their evolution throughout the various life cycle phases. change control.
Elements of Software Configuration Management .
Software Quality Assurance Plan .
The plan states the criteria by which quality activities can be monitored rather than setting impossible goals. . such as no software defects or 100 percent reliable software. Such an explicit approach ensures that all steps have been taken to achieve software quality and provides management with documentation of those actions.The objectives of software quality are typically achieved by following a software quality assurance plan that states the methods the project will employ to ensure the documents or products produced and reviewed at each milestone are of high quality.
Software Quality Assurance Plan The software quality assurance (SQA) plan is an outline of quality measures to ensure quality levels within a software development effort. management will respond appropriately as documented within the plan. If the levels of quality are not within the planned quality levels. . The plan is used as a baseline to compare the actual levels of quality during development with the planned levels of quality.
These ingredients help ensure the quality sought in a software project. writing. . It should be organized in this way because the plan ensures the quality of the software rather than describing specific procedures for developing and maintaining the software. These procedures affect planning.Software Quality Assurance Plan The plan provides the framework and guidelines for development of understandable and maintainable code. designing. and maintaining computer software. documenting. testing. storing. An SQA plan also provides the procedures for ensuring that quality software will be produced or maintained in-house or under contract.
Obtain Management Acceptance Step 3. Execute the SQA Plan . Plan for Implementation of the SQA Plan Step 5. Obtain Development Acceptance Step 4. Document the Plan Step 2.Steps to Develop and Implement a Software Quality Assurance Plan Step 1.
It should list the name(s) of the software items covered by the SQA plan and the intended use of the software. . • Reference Document Section — This section provides a complete list of documents referenced elsewhere in the text of the SQA plan. It states the portion of the software life cycle covered by the SQA plan for each software item specified. Document the Plan The software quality assurance plan should include the sections below: Purpose Section — This section delineates the specific purpose and scope of the particular SQA plan.Step 1.
and maintenance of the software. This includes the criteria and the identification of the review or audit by which the adequacy of each document will be confirmed. . It also states how the documents are to be checked for adequacy.• Management Section — This section describes the project’s organizational structure. use. tasks. verification and validation. • Documentation Section — This section identifies the documentation governing the development. and responsibilities.
and metrics to be applied. It also states how the reviews. Practices. .Standards. conventions. practices. • Reviews and Inspections Section — This section defines the technical and managerial reviews. Conventions. and inspections are to be accomplished including follow-up activities and approvals. and also states how compliance with these items is to be monitored and assured. and inspections to be conducted. walkthroughs. walkthroughs. and Metrics Section — This section identifies the standards.
. Problem Reporting and Corrective Action Section — This section is addressed in detail in the project’s software configuration management plan.Software Configuration Management Section — This section is addressed in detail in the project’s software configuration management plan. and methodologies that support SQA. and Methodologies Section — This section identifies the special software tools. states their purposes. Techniques. techniques. Tools. and describes their use.
Code Control Section — This section defines the methods and facilities used to maintain. secure. store. This may be implemented in conjunction with a computer program library and/or may be provided as a part of the software configuration management plan. and document the controlled versions of the identified software during all phases of development. .
This may be provided by the software configuration management plan.Media Control Section — This section states the methods and facilities to be used to identify the media for each computer product and the documentation required to store the media. and protects the computer program physical media from unauthorized access or inadvertent damage or degradation during all phases of development. . including the copy and restore process.
For previously developed software.Supplier Control Section — This section states the provisions for assuring that software provided by suppliers meets established requirements. In addition. the supplier will be required to prepare and implement an SQA plan in accordance with this standard. For software to be developed. . it should state the methods that will be used to assure that the software supplier receives adequate and complete requirements. this section states the methods to be used to assure the suitability of the product for use with the software items covered by the SQA plan. This section will also state the methods to be employed to assure that the developers comply with the requirements of this standard.
and Retention Section — This section identifies the SQA documentation to be retained. techniques. safeguard. and maintain this documentation. It states the methods and facilities to assemble. Maintenance. The implementation of the SQA plan involves the necessary approvals for the plan as well as development of a plan for execution.Records Collection. The subsequent evaluation of the SQA plan will be performed as a result of its execution. . and will designate the retention period. Testing Methodology — This section defines the testing approach. and automated tools that will be used.
Obtain Management Acceptance Management participation is necessary for the successful implementation of an SQA plan. .Step 2. Management is responsible both for ensuring the quality of a software project and for providing the resources needed for software development.
the SQA plan is placed under configuration control. approval should be obtained from all affected areas. If a project spans organizational boundaries.The level of management commitment required for implementing an SQA plan depends on the scope of the project. Once approval has been obtained. .
In the management approval process. management relinquishes tight control over software quality to the SQA plan administrator in exchange for improved software quality. Staff should be aware that management views the program as a means of ensuring software quality. . but management may express concern as to the cost of a formal SQA plan. and not as an end in itself. Quality is desirable. Software quality is often left to software developers.
In general. software life cycle costs should be formally estimated for projects implemented both with and without a formal SQA plan. implementing a formal SQA plan makes economic and management sense.To address management concerns. .
their approval and cooperation in implementing the plan are essential.Step 3. The software project team members must adhere to the project SQA plan. Obtain Development Acceptance Because the software development and maintenance personnel are the primary users of an SQA plan. . everyone must accept it and follow it.
.e. encompassing entire divisions or departments). all team members should actively participate in writing the SQA plan. . Constant feedback from representatives to team members helps gain acceptance of the plan.No SQA plan is successfully implemented without the involvement of the software team members and their managers in the development of the plan. Because project teams generally have only a few members. When projects become much larger (i. representatives of project subgroups should provide input.
limited availability of staff or equipment). reviewing. the commitment of resources requires management approval and. The individual responsible for implementing an SQA plan must have access to these resources. Plan for Implementation of the SQA Plan The process of planning. A schedule for drafting.. . formulating. To facilitate resource allocation. and drafting an SQA plan requires staff and word-processing resources.Step 4. and approving the SQA plan should be developed. consequently. In addition. management should be made aware of any project risks that may impede the implementation process (e.g. management support.
The auditing function must be scheduled during the implementation phase of the software product so that improper monitoring of the software project will not hurt the SQA plan.. Audit points should occur either periodically during development or at specific project milestones (e.g. at major reviews or when part of the project is delivered).Step 5. . Execute the SQA Plan The actual process of executing an SQA plan by the software development and maintenance team involves determining necessary audit points for monitoring it.
. it must first ensure that the quality target is clearly defined and understood. In order to do so.The SQA plan defines the means that will be used to ensure that software developed for a specific product satisfies the user’s requirements and is of the highest quality possible within project constraints.
The SQA plan should be consistent with the software configuration management plan (refer to the Software Configuration Management KA).It must consider management. . and maintenance plans for the software. development.
practices. .The SQA plan identifies documents. standards. and conventions governing the project and how they will be checked and monitored to ensure adequacy and compliance.
training. statistical techniques. procedures for problem reporting and corrective action. . techniques. and methodologies. security for physical media. and SQA reporting and documentation.The SQA plan also identifies measures. resources such as tools.
Moreover. the SQA plan addresses the software quality assurance activities of any other type of activity described in the software plans. and service after delivery of the software. such as procurement of supplier software to the project or commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) installation. .
.It can also contain acceptance criteria as well as reporting and management activities which are critical to software quality.
their overall management objectives. . with their costs and resource requirements. development. and their schedule in relation to those objectives in the software engineering management.The specific quality activities and tasks are laid out. or maintenance plans.
Pairs of Terms .
The aim.Prevention versus Detection Quality cannot be achieved by assessing an already completed product. therefore. 3 . is to prevent quality defects or deficiencies in the first place. and to make the products assessable by quality assurance measures.
inspection. internal failure.The total cost of effective quality management is the sum of four component costs: prevention. and external failure. .
Prevention costs consist of actions taken to prevent defects from occurring in the first place. evaluating. Inspection costs consist of measuring. and auditing products or services for conformance to standards and specifications. Internal failure costs are those incurred in fixing defective products before they are delivered. .
External failure costs consist of the costs of defects discovered after the product has been released. . The latter can be devastating because they may damage the organization’s reputation or result in the loss of future sales.
The greatest payback is with prevention. and reduces the cost of production and maintenance. Increasing the emphasis on prevention costs reduces the number of defects that go to the customer undetected. improves product quality. .
and validation checks that the system meets the customer’s requirements at the end of the life cycle. .Verification versus Validation Verification is proving that a product meets the requirements specified during previous activities carried out correctly throughout the development life cycle.
VV&T Verification the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of the given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase Validation determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements Testing the process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect faults .
Verification. Validation and Testing Validation Any Any Testing Verification .
. Validation: Says “Are we building the right product?” The test phase of the life cycle which assures that the end product meets the user’s needs.Verification: Says “Are we building the product right?” All QC activities throughout the life cycle that ensure that interim deliverables meet their input specification.
.QA Quality assurance is the set of support activities needed to provide adequate confidence that processes are established and continuously improved in order to produce products that meet specifications and are fit for use.
. Auditing is the inspection/assessment activity that verifies compliance with plans. and procedures.QC & Auditing Quality control is the process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. policies.
Software quality assurance is a planned effort to ensure that a software product fulfills these criteria and has additional attributes specific to the project. . for example. and flexibility. efficiency. It is the collection of activities and functions used to monitor and control a software project so that specific objectives are achieved with the desired level of confidence. portability. reusability.
Quality Standards .
ISO9000 Capability Maturity Model (CMM) PCMM CMMI Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award RUP Six Sigma .Quality Standards The following describes the leading quality standards for IT.
. presented here in alphabetical order by acronym: Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Configuration Management (CM) Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM+IPPD) Measurement and Analysis (MA) Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD+IPPD)6 Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Organizational Training (OT)  This process area has "+IPPD" after its name because it contains a goal and practices that are specific to IPPD. The material specific to IPPD is called an "IPPD addition." All process areas with IPPD additions have "+IPPD" after their name.There are 22 process areas.
Product Integration (PI) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) Project Planning (PP) Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) Quantitative Project Management (QPM) Requirements Development (RD) Requirements Management (REQM) Risk Management (RSKM) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Technical Solution (TS) Validation (VAL) Verification (VER) .
Process and Product Quality Assurance The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. .
and procedures Identifying and documenting noncompliance issues Providing feedback to project staff and managers on the results of quality assurance activities Ensuring that noncompliance issues are addressed . and services against the applicable process descriptions.The Process and Product Quality Assurance process area involves the following: Objectively evaluating performed processes. standards. work products.
. and feedback on.The Process and Product Quality Assurance process area supports the delivery of highquality products and services by providing the project staff and managers at all levels with appropriate visibility into. processes and associated work products throughout the life of the project.
Specific Goal and Practice Summary SG 1 Objectively Evaluate Processes and Work Products SP 1.2Establish Records .1Communicate and Ensure Resolution of Noncompliance Issues SP 2.2Objectively Evaluate Work Products and Services SG 2 Provide Objective Insight SP 2.1Objectively Evaluate Processes SP 1.
standards. processes.Quality assurance should begin in the early phases of a project to establish plans. and procedures that will add value to the project and satisfy the requirements of the project and the organizational policies. .
Escalating unresolved issues to an appropriate level of management. Providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of those reviews and audits. standards and procedures for the project.SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE INVOLVES Establishing a Quality Assurance Group who has required independence. Reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to ensure that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards. . Participation of SQA in establishing the plans.
Software Quality Assurance Activities SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURNACE ACTIVITIES ARE PLANNED A SQA plan is prepared for the software project according to a documented procedure. . The SQA group’s activities are performed in accordance with the SQA plan.
The SQA group’s activities are performed in accordance with the SQA plan The SQA group participates in the preparation and review of the project’s software development plan.ADHERENCE OF SOFTWARE PRODUCTS AND ACTIVITIES TO BE APPLICABLE STANDARDS. The SQA group reviews the software engineering activities to verify compliance The SQA group audits designated software work products to verify compliance. PROCEDURES. . AND REQUIREMENTS IS VERIFIED OBJECTIVELY. standards and procedures.
Software Quality Assurance Activities AFFECTED GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS ARE INFORMED OF SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS. . The SQA group periodically reports the results of its activities to the software engineering group.
Deviations identified in the software activities and software work products are documented and handled according to a documented procedure. The SQA group conducts periodic reviews of its activities and findings with customers SQA personnel, as appropriate.
Detailed plan for SQA group Structuring of SQA functions and management of the group like a project itself with detailed plan, schedules, configuration management etc SLAs for SQA group also Rotation mechanism for SQA team members for career planning Release approval authority for the SQA Effectiveness measurement of SQAs
RUP Steps for SQA
All the following text is from Rational Unified Process 7.0.
and captured ultimately in the Software Requirements Specification. which can form the basis for these definitions. in a quality policy statement.Ensure Quality Objectives are Defined for the Project The Project Manager may not necessarily define the quality goals for the project. but ensures that these definitions are created and agreed by the customer. . The developing organization may also have a standard set of quality goals.
.Where possible. For example: "Zero known severity 1 defects" (..and include a definition of a severity 1 defect) "Maximum 3 second response time" "User can pick up software and begin entering account information within 1 hour" . these objectives should be described in measurable terms.
Define Quality Assurance Roles and Responsibilities The next step is to define the organization. roles and responsibilities that will participate in these tasks. the Quality Assurance task should submit its reports directly to the Project Review Authority. In many situations. . This should include the reporting channel for the results of Quality Assurance reviews.
The Rational Unified Process recommends that the Software Engineering Process Authority (SEPA) should have responsibility for the process aspects of quality. . and perform process reviews and audits. as well as ensuring the proper planning and conduct of the review events described in the Review and Audit section of the Quality Assurance Plan.
. This information is used to help determine the types of Quality Assurance reviews that will be done. and their frequency. configuration management) to be handled.Coordinate With Developers of Referenced Plans The Quality Assurance Plan also references a number of other plans describing project standards and how various supporting process (e.g.
The referenced plans would normally include the following: Documentation Plan Measurement Plan Risk Management Plan Problem Resolution Plan Configuration Management Plan Software Development Plan Test Plan Subcontractor Management Plan .
Approval of deviations from the standard organizational project processes. Typically these reviews would include: Audit/review of project plans to ensure they follow the defined delivery process for the project. Process improvement assessments .Define Quality Assurance Tasks and Schedule Identify the tasks of Quality Assurance. Audit/review of project to ensure the work performed is following the project plans.
and the schedule is captured in the project and iteration plan.The Project Review Authority and Project Manager together determine the schedule for Quality Assurance reviews and audits. The contract may also allow the customer to request audits. . which may then be referenced from the Quality Assurance Plan.
SQA Responsibilities for a Project .
SQA seeks to maintain the quality throughout the development and maintenance of the product by the execution of a variety of activities at each stage which can result in early identification of problems. an almost inevitable feature of any complex activity. .
Implementation of test cases. Participating in code and design reviews. Management of bug repository. .SQA Responsibilities for a Project Review of documents developed by development team. Development of QA Plan (test plan + test cases). Track the compliance with standards.
.SQA Responsibilities for a Project (cont..) Typical SDLC phases and relevant Artifacts Requirements Collection Requirements Collection Requirement Specs Requirement Specs SQA Responsibilities Reviews Reviews Analysis Analysis Functional Specs Functional Specs Reviews Reviews Architecture & Design Architecture & Design Design Specs Design Specs Reviews Reviews Development Development Code & Executables Code & Executables Implement Implement Test Cases Test Cases Testing Testing Deployment Deployment Deployment Docs Deployment Docs Review Review .
Artifacts Requirement Specs Requirement Specs SQA Artifacts RS Reviews RS Reviews SQA Artifacts (more) Functional Specs Functional Specs FS Reviews FS Reviews Test Plan Test Plan Design Specs Design Specs DS Reviews DS Reviews Test Cases Test Cases Code & Executables Code & Executables Bug Reports Bug Reports More Test Cases More Test Cases Deployment Docs Deployment Docs DD Reviews DD Reviews .SQA Artifacts for a Project Dev.
Communication Between SQA and Development Development Development SQA SQA Development Development SCM SCM SQA SQA .
Responsibilities of Testing Team Responsibilities of a tester • • • Design test cases Write test scripts Implement test cases Give 25% time for reviewing test cases written Lead review meetings Resolve conflicts Responsibility of SQA manager • • • .
Other Responsibilities of SQA Participate in product and process audits. . Develop SQA’s own standards. Initiate and participate in developing standards. processes and checklists.
.The role of SQA with respect to process is to ensure that planned processes are appropriate and later implemented according to plan. and that relevant measurement processes are provided to the appropriate organization.
An Effective Testing Team SQA Team should be composed of: Members with different background Members from different domains Technical gurus and user representatives Members with more analytical abilities. .
Self sufficient. Firmness. Good sense of humor. . Tolerance for chaos.Characteristics of Good SQA Engineer Experience & Education as a programmer or analyst. A thick skin. Logical. Evidence oriented. Honest.
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