A

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SUBMITTED BY DIVISION COMPANY GUIDE
MURTI :

:

VIKAS SENGAR HUMAN RESOURCE

:

Mr. NARSINGH

(PERSONAL AND ADM. MANAGER)

BATCH

:
1

2008-2009.

A PROJECT REPORT ON

“JOB SATISFACTION”
FOR

PVT. LTD.

Submitted to
BIRLA ERICSSON OPTICAL LIMITED

Submitted by VIKAS SENGAR VNS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, BHOPAL (M.P.)
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of MBA Program (HUMAN RESOURCE) Batch (2008-2010)
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DECLARATION

I, the under signed

VIKAS SENGAR

hereby declare

that the Project Work entitled “ JOB SATISFACTION FOR BIRLA ERICSSON OPTICAL LIMITED”

undertaken during the Period For 6 weeks is the result of my Own efforts and the same has not submitted to any Examination BHOPAL of been the

previously

BARKATULLAH

UNIVERSITY,

(M.P.) or

any other University.

VIKAS SENGAR MBA

3

PREFACE
It is mandatory for every student of master of business administration from VNS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT affiliated to BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL to undergo project training at organization location with a project on live program. My training has been a faithful experience for me. Now I got a broad idea about the functioning of organization and this will be helpful for me in the coming days. In this report I describe the company profile and history of the company.

VIKAS SENGAR MBA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Neeraj Singh, Department Head of MBA (VNS Institute Of Management) Bhopal (M.P.) giving me opportunity to work with Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. for my Summer Internship Program. I would also like to thanks Mr. Narsingh Murti, (Personal and Administration Manager), Mr. I.M. Sheikh (DGM), Mr. R.K. Lakhera (Personnel Officer), Mr. Vinay Nigam (Asst. Personnel Manager) and Mr. Kamleshwar Pd. Dwivedi (Computer & Data Operator) of Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. At Rewa (M.P.) for giving me an opportunity to work under his guidance .My extended thanks to Mr. M.P. Singh, Placement cell Head (VNS Institute Of Management, Bhopal) for his guidance during the course of my project for his suggestions which has lead to a successful completion of my Summer Internship Program. Last but not the least I would also like to acknowledge contributions of various official websites and books named in the references for helping me with the data collection and analysis which have provided me with the relevant information for me to successfully complete my Project Report.

VIKAS SENGAR MBA

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Sr. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Content
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION OF HRM JOB SATISFACTION OBJECTIVES OF STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY COMPANY PROFILE SCOPE OF JOB SATISFACTION DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION LIMITATION OF STUDY BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURES

Page No.
7-8 9-14 15-40 41-42 43-46 47-60 61-62 63-84 86-87 88-88 89-89 90-97

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Job satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with their supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.

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Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been defined variously from time to time. person’s attitude towards job. Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largely upon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these ends. According to pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employee’s feelings in four important areas. These are: 1. Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers, opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime regulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools. 2. Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments, praises and blames, leaves policy and favoritism. 3. Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in community, participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier. 4. Personal adjustment-health and emotionality. In short job satisfaction is a

Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity.

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Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which the possessions of feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals. Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual state of mind.

INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Definition –
Edwin Flippo defies HRM as “planning, organizing, directing, controlling of procurement, development, compensation, integration , maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are achieved.”

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Features of HRM or characteristics or nature
1. HRM involves management functions like planning, organizing, directing and controlling 2. It involves procurement, development, maintenance of human resource 3. It helps to achieve individual, organizational and social objectives 4. HRM is a mighty disciplinary subject. It includes the study of management psychology communication, economics and sociology. 5. It involves team spirit and team work.

Evolution of HRM
The evolution of HRM can be traced back to Kautilya Artha Shastra where he recommends that government must take active interest in public and private enterprise. He says that government must provide a proper procedure for regulating employee and employee relation In the medieval times there were examples of kings like Allaudin Khilji who regulated the market and charged fixed prices and provided fixed salaries to their people. This was done to fight inflation and provide a decent standard of living

During the pre independence period of 1920 the trade union emerged. Many authors who have given the history of HRM say that HRM started because of trade union and the First World War. The Royal commission in 1931 recommended the appointment of a labour welfare officer to look into the grievances of workers. The factory act of 1942 made it compulsory to appoint a labour welfare officer if the factory had 500 or more than 500 workers. The international institute of personnel management and national institute of labour management were set up to look into problems faced by workers to provide solutions to them. The Second World War created
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awareness regarding workers rights and 1940’s to 1960’s saw the introduction of new technology to help workers. The 1960’s extended the scope of human resource beyond welfare. Now it was a combination of welfare, industrial relation, administration together it was called personnel management. With the second 5 year plan, heavy industries started and professional management became important. In the 70’s the focus was on efficiency of labour wile in the 80’s the focus was on new technology, making it necessary for new rules and regulations. In the 90’s the emphasis was on human values and development of people and with liberalization and changing type of working people became more and more important there by leading to HRM which is an advancement of personnel management.

Scope of HRM/functions of HRM
The scope of HRM refers to all the activities that come under the banner of HRM. These activities are as follows

1. Human resources planning :Human resource planning or HRP refers to a process by which the company to identify the number of jobs vacant, whether the company has excess staff or shortage of staff and to deal with this excess or shortage. 2. Job analysis design :Another important area of HRM is job analysis. Job analysis gives a detailed explanation about each and every job in the company. Based on this job analysis the company prepares advertisements.

3. Recruitment and selection :Based on information collected from job analysis the company prepares advertisements and publishes them in the news papers. This is recruitment. A number of applications are received after the advertisement is published, interviews are conducted and the right employee is selected thus recruitment and selection are yet another important area of HRM. 4. Orientation and induction :Once the employees have been selected an induction or orientation program is conducted. This is another important area of
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HRM. The employees are informed about the background of the company, explain about the organizational culture and values and work ethics and introduce to the other employees. 5. Training and development :Every employee goes under training program which helps him to put up a better performance on the job. Training program is also conducted for existing staff that have a lot of experience. This is called refresher training. Training and development is one area were the company spends a huge amount. 6. Performance appraisal :Once the employee has put in around 1 year of service, performance appraisal is conducted that is the HR department checks the performance of the employee. Based on these appraisal future promotions, incentives, increments in salary are decided. 7. Compensation planning and remuneration :There are various rules regarding compensation and other benefits. It is the job of the HR department to look into remuneration and compensation planning. 8. Motivation, welfare, health and safety :Motivation becomes important to sustain the number of employees in the company. It is the job of the HR department to look into the different methods of motivation. Apart from this certain health and safety regulations have to be followed for the benefits of the employees. This is also handled by the HR department.

9. Industrial relations :Another important area of HRM is maintaining co-ordinal relations with the union members. This will help the organization to prevent strikes lockouts and ensure smooth working in the company.

Challenges before the HR manager/before modern personnel management
Personnel management which is know as human resource management has adapted itself to the changing work environment, however these changes are
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still taking place and will continue in the future therefore the challenges before the HR manager are 1. Retention of the employees :One of the most important challenge the HR manager faces is retention of labour force. Many companies have a very high rate of labour turnover therefore HR manager are required to take some action to reduce the turnover 2. Multicultural work force :With the number of multi cultural companies are increasing operations in different nations. The work force consists of people from different cultures. Dealing with each of the needs which are different the challenge before the HR manager is integration of multicultural labour work force. 3. Women in the work force :The number of women who have joined the work force has drastically increased over a few years. Women employees face totally different problems. They also have responsibility towards the family. The organization needs to consider this aspect also. The challenge before the HR manager lies in creating gender sensitivity and in providing a good working environment to the women employees. 4. Handicapped employees :This section of the population normally faces a lot of problems on the job, very few organization have jobs and facilities specially designed for handicapped workers. Therefore the challenge before the HR manager lies in creating atmosphere suitable for such employees and encouraging them to work better.

5. Retrenchment for employees :In many places companies have reduced the work force due to changing economic situations, labourers or workers who are displaced face sever problems. It also leads to a negative atmosphere and attitude among the employees. There is fear and increasing resentment against the management. The challenge before the HR manager lies in implementing the retrenchment policy without hurting the sentiments of the workers, without antagonizing the labour union and by creating positive attitude in the existing employees. 6. Change in demand of government :12

Most of the time government rules keep changing. While a lot of freedom is given to companies some strict rules and regulations have also been passed. The government has also undertaken the disinvestment in certain companies due to which there is fear among the employees regarding their job. The challenge before the HR manager lies in convincing employees that their interest will not be sacrificed. 7. Initiating the process of change :Changing the method of working, changing the attitude of people and changing the perception and values of organization have become necessary today. Although the company may want to change it is actually very difficult to make the workers accept the change. The challenge before the HR manager is to make people accept change.

Significance/importance/need of HRM
HRM becomes significant for business organization due to the following reasons. 1. Objective :HRM helps a company to achieve its objective from time to time by creating a positive attitude among workers. Reducing wastage and making maximum use of resources etc. 2. Facilitates professional growth :Due to proper HR policies employees are trained well and this makes them ready for future promotions. Their talent can be utilized

not only in the company in which they are currently working but also in other companies which the employees may join in the future. 3. Better relations between union and management :Healthy HRM practices can help the organization to maintain co-ordinal relationship with the unions. Union members start realizing that the company is also interested in the workers and will not go against them therefore chances of going on strike are greatly reduced. 4. Helps an individual to work in a team/group :13

Effective HR practices teach individuals team work and adjustment. The individuals are now very comfortable while working in team thus team work improves. 5. Identifies person for the future :Since employees are constantly trained, they are ready to meet the job requirements. The company is also able to identify potential employees who can be promoted in the future for the top level jobs. Thus one of the advantages of HRM is preparing people for the future. 6. Allocating the jobs to the right person :If proper recruitment and selection methods are followed, the company will be able to select the right people for the right job. When this happens the number of people leaving the job will reduce as the will be satisfied with their job leading to decrease in labour turnover.

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DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION
Different authors give various definitions of job satisfaction. Some of them are taken from the book of D.M. Pestonjee “Motivation and Job Satisfaction” which are given below: Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, emotional, state resulting from appraisal of one’s job. An effective reaction to one’s job.
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Weiss Job satisfaction is general attitude, which is the result of many specific attitudes in three areas namely: Specific job factors. Individual characteristics. Group relationship outside the job Blum and Naylor Job satisfaction is defined, as it is result of various attitudes the person hold towards the job, towards the related factors and towards the life in general. Glimmer Job satisfaction is defined as “any contribution, psychological, physical, and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully say, ‘I am satisfied with my job.” Job satisfaction is defined, as employee’s judgment of how well his job on a whole is satisfying his various needs Mr. Smith

Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive state of mind resulting from appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. Locke

HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION

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The term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by hoppock (1935). He revived 35 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observes that Job satisfaction is combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances. That causes a person to say. “I m satisfied with my job”. Such a description indicate the variety of variables that influence the satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of Job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has been most aptly defined by pestonjee (1973) as a job, management, personal adjustment & social requirement. Morse (1953) considers Job satisfaction as dependent upon job content, identification with the co., financial & job status & priding group cohesiveness One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne study. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later

found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.

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Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work. Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.

IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION
 Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational, citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.
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 Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behavior.  Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style. This correlation is reciprocal meaning the people who are satisfied with the life tends to be satisfied with their jobs and the people who are satisfied their jobs tends to satisfied with their life.  This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job performance is directly related to one another. Thus it can be said that, “A happy worker is a productive worker.”  It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more like to resign and satisfied worker likely to work longer with the organization.

IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION
Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that can often leads to a
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positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible, innovative, and loyal. For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity- the quantity and quality of output per hour worked- seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent. However, studies dating back to Herzberg’s (1957) have shown at least low correlation between high morale and high productivity and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of loss of job, will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerful motivator, it is also a temporary one, and also as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity.

Although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the “bottom line”.

WORKERS ROLE IN JOB SATISFACTION
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If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well being on the job. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. Develop excellent communication skills. Employer’s value and rewards excellent reading, listening, writing and speaking skills. Know more. Acquire new job related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. This will relive boredom and often gets one noticed. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often results in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively.

See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the work itself. This help to give meaning to one’s existence, thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction. Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burn out by developing healthy stress management techniques.

FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION
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Hoppock, the earliest investigator in this field, in 1935 suggested that there are six major components of job satisfaction. These are as under:  The way the individual reacts to unpleasant situations,  The facility with which he adjusted himself with other person  The relative status in the social and economic group with which he identifies himself  The nature of work in relation to abilities, interest and preparation of worker  Security  Loyalty Herberg, mausaer, Peterson and capwell in 1957 reviewed more than 150 studies and listed various job factors of job satisfaction. These are briefly defined one by one as follows: 1. Intrinsic aspect of job It includes all of the many aspects of the work, which would tend to be constant for the work regardless of where the work was performed.

2. Supervision This aspect of job satisfaction pertains to relationship of worker with his immediate superiors. Supervision, as a factor, generally influences job satisfaction. 3. Working conditions This includes those physical aspects of environment which are not necessary a part of the work. Hours are included this factor because it is
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primarily a function of organization, affecting the individuals comfort and convenience in much the same way as other physical working conditions. 4. Wage and salaries This factor includes all aspect of job involving present monitory remuneration for work done. 5. Opportunities for advancement It includes all aspect of job which individual sees as potential sources of betterment of economic position, organizational status or professional experience. 6. Security It is defined to include that feature of job situation, which leads to assurance for continued employment, either within the same company or within same type of work profession. 7. Company & management It includes the aspect of worker’s immediate situation, which is a function of organizational administration and policy. It also involves the relationship of employee with all company superiors above level of immediate supervision.

8. Social aspect of job It includes relationship of worker with the employees specially those employees at same or nearly same level within the organization. 9. Communication It includes job situation, which involves spreading the information in any direction within the organization. Terms such as information of employee’s status, information on new developments, information on

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company line of authority, suggestion system, etc, are used in literature to represent this factor. 10.Benefits It includes those special phases of company policy, which attempts to prepare the worker for emergencies, illness, old age, also. Company allowances for holidays, leaves and vacations are included within this factor.

REASONS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION
Reasons why employees may not be completely satisfied with their jobs:

1. Conflict between co-workers. 2. Conflict between supervisors. 3. Not being opportunity paid for what they do. 4. Have little or no say in decision making that affect employees. 5. Fear of loosing their job.

EFFECTS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION
1. HIGH ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism means it is a habitual pattern of absence from duty or obligation.
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If there will be low job satisfaction among the employees the rate of absenteeism will definitely increase and it also affects on productivity of organization.

J o b s a t i s f a c t i n

High

B

low

A low Rate of turn over and absences High

Perceived personal job inputs Fig.no. 1 Curve showing relationship between job satisfaction and rate of turn over and absenteeism.

In the above diagram line AB shows inverse relationship between job satisfaction and rate of turn over and rate of absenteesm. As th job satisfaction is high the rate of both turn over and absentiseesm is low and vise a versa. 2.HIGH TURNOVER
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In human resource refers to characteristics of a given company or industry relative to the rate at which an employer gains and losses the staff. If the employer is said to be have a high turnover of employees of that company have shorter tenure than those of other companies. 3.TRAINING COST INCREASES As employees leaves organization due to lack of job satisfaction. Then Human resource manager has to recruit new employees. So that the training expenditure will increases.

INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION
There are no. of factors that influence job satisfaction. For example, one recent study even found that if college students majors coinsided with their job , this relationship will predicted subsequent job satisfaction. However, the main influences can be summerised along with the dimentions identified above.

The work itself The concept of work itself is a major source of satisfaction. For example, research related to the job charactoristics approach to job design, shows that feedback from job itself and autonomy are two of the major job related motivational factors. Some of the most important ingridents of a satisfying job uncovered by survey include intersting and challenging work, work that is not boring, and the job that provides status.
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Pay Wages and salaries are recognised to be a significant, but complex, multidimentional factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic needs butevel need satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a reflection of how managemnet view their conrtibution to the organization. Fringe benefits are also important. If the employees are allowed some flexibility in choosing the type of benefits they prefer within a total package, called a flexible benefit plan, there is a significant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. Promotions Promotional opportunities are seem to be have avarying effect on job satisfaction. This is because of promotion take number of different forms.

WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION?
Many managers subscribe to the belief that a satisfied worker is necessarily good worker. In other words, if management could keep the entire worker’s happy”, good performance would automatically fallow. There are two propositions concerning the satisfaction performance relation ship. The first proposition, which is based on traditional view, is that satisfaction is the effect rather than the cause of performance. This proposition says that efforts in a job leads to rewards, which results in a
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certain level of satisfaction .in another proposition, both satisfaction and performance are considered to be functions of rewards. Various research studies indicate that to a certain extent job satisfaction affects employee turn over, and consequently organization can gain from lower turn over in terms of lower hiring and training costs. Also research has shown an inverse relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism. When job satisfaction is high there would be low absenteeism, but when job satisfaction is low, it is more likely to lead a high absenteeism. What job satisfaction people need? Each employee wants: 1. Recognition as an individual 2. Meaningful task 3. An opportunity to do something worthwhile. 4. Job security for himself and his family 5. Good wages 6. Adequate benefits 7. Opportunity to advance

8. No arbitrary action- a voice a matters affecting him 9. Satisfactory working conditions 10.Competence leadership- bosses whom he can admire and respect as persons and as bosses. However, the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction can contribute to morale and morale can contribute to job satisfaction. It must be remembered that satisfaction and motivation are not synonyms. Motivation is a drive to perform, where as satisfaction reflects the
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individual’s attitude towards the situation. The factors that determine whether individual is adequately satisfied with the job differs from those that determine whether he or she is motivated. the level of job satisfaction is largely determined by the comfits offered by the environment and the situation . Motivation, on the other hand is largely determine by value of reward and their dependence on performance. The result of high job satisfaction is increased commitment to the organization, which may or may not result in better performance. A wide range of factors affects an individual’s level of satisfaction. While organizational rewards can and do have an impact, job satisfaction is primarily determine by factors that are usually not directly controlled by the organization. a high level of job satisfaction lead to organizational commitment, while a low level, or dissatisfaction, result in a behavior detrimental to the organization. For example, employee who like their jobs, supervisors, and the factors related to the job will probably be loyal and devoted. People will work harder and derive satisfaction if they are given the freedom to make their own decisions.

MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION
There are various methods and theories of measuring job satisfaction level of employees in the orgnization given by different authers. List of all the theorise and methods measuring job satisfaction level is given below:

A MODEL OF FACET SATISFACTION
 Affect theory(Edwin A. Locke 1976)
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 Dispositional Theory( Timothy A. Judge 1988)
 Two-Factor

Theory

(Motivator-Hygiene

Theory)

(Frederick

Herzberg’s)  Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham)  Rating scale  Personal interviews  action tendencies  Job enlargement  Job rotation  Change of pace  Scheduled rest periods

MODEL OF FACET OF JOB SATISFACTION

Skill Experience Training Efforts Age Seniority Education Co loyalty Past performance

Perceived personal job inputs Fig.no. 1 Curve showing

Perceived amount that should be received (a)

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Level Difficulty Time span Amount of responsibility

Perceived job characteristics

Perceived outcome of referent others

a=b satisfaction a>b dissatisfaction a<b guilt Inequity Discomfort Perceived amount received (b)

Actual outcome received

Fig.no.2 Model of determinant of facet of job satisfaction

Edward E.lawler in 1973 propoed a model of facet satisfaction. This model is applicable to understand what determines a person’s satisfaction with any facet of job. According to this model actual outcome level plays a key role in a person’s perception of what rewards he recieves. His perception influenced by his perception of what his referent others recieves.

AFFECT THEORY
Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who
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doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

DISPOSITIONAL THEORY
Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory it is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.

A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of selfesteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction
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TWO-FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE THEORY)
Frederick Hertzberg’s Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out.Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifactFurthermore, the theory does not

consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors.. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured]

JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL

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Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.

MODERN METHOD OF MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION
In this method of measuring job satisfaction the comparision between various orgnizational terms and conditions at managerial level and also the orgnization at a large. SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICIES OF THE ORGANIZATION:
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1. Management has a clear path for employee’s advancement

2. Decisions are made keeping in mind the good of the employees 3. Management is extremely fair in personal policies 4. Physical working conditions are supportive in attaining targets 5. I nnovativeness is encouraged to meet business problems. SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION 1. I feel I can trust what my supervisor tells me 2. My supervisor treats me fairly and with respect 3. My supervisor handles my work-related issues satisfactorily 4. I get frequent appreciation of work done from supervisors 5. I get enough support from the supervisor 6.Individual initiative is encouraged SATISFACTION WITH COMPENSATION LEVELS 1. Overall I am satisfied with the company’s compensation package 2. I am satisfied with the medical benefits 3. I am satisfied with the conveyance allowance 4. I am satisfied with the retirement benefits 5. I am satisfied with the reimbursement of the expenses as per the eligibility 6. I am satisfied with the holiday (vacation) eligibilities

SATISFACTION WITH TASK CLARITY 1. Management decisions are Ad Hoc and lack professionalism (reverse scaled)

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2. Rules and procedures are followed uncompromisingly 3. My job responsibilities are well defined and clear SATISFACTION WITH CAREER DEVELOPMENT 1. I have adequate opportunities to learn and grow 2. I get opportunities to handle greater responsibilities 3. My skills and abilities are adequately used at work From all above we can conclude level of job satisfaction of our employees.

RATING SCALE
It is one of the most common methods of measuring job satisfaction. The popular rating scale used to measure Job satisfaction is to include: Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires: It helps to obtain a clear picture of pertinent satisfactions and dissatisfactions of employees. Job Description Index: it measures Job satisfaction on the dimension identified by Smith, Kendall, Hullin. Porter Need Identification Questionnaires: It is used only for management personnel and revolves around the problems and challenges faced by managers.

CRITICAL INCIDENTS
Fredrick Hertz berg and his Associates popularized this method of measuring Job satisfaction. It involves asking employees to described incidents on job when they were particularly satisfied or dissatisfied. Then the incidents are analyzed in terms of their contents and identifying those related aspects responsible for the positive and negative attitudes.
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PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
This method facilitates an in-depth exploration through interviewing of job attitudes. The main advantage in this method is that additional information or clarifications can be obtained promptly.

ACTION TENDENCIES
By this method, Job satisfaction can be measured by asking questions and gathering information on how they feel like behaving with respect to certain aspects of their jobs. This method provides employees more opportunity to express their in-depth feeling. In his study on American employees, hoppock identified six factors that contributed to job satisfaction among them. These are as follows: 1. The way individual reacts to unpleasant situations. 2. The facilities with which he adjust himself to other persons. 3. His relative’s status in the social & economic group with which he identifies himself.

4. The nature of work in relation to the abilities, interest & preparation of the workers. 5. Security. 6. Loyalty. Because human resource manager often serve as intermediaries between employees & management in conflct.they are concern with Job satisfaction or general job attitudes with the employees.
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Philip apple white has listed the five major components of Job satisfaction .as 1. Attitude towards work group. 2. General working conditions. 3. Attitude towards company. 4. Monitory benefits & 5. Attitude towards supervision Other components that should be added to this five are individual’s state of mind about the work itself and about the life in general .the individual’s health, age, level of aspiration. Social status and political & social activities can all contribute to the Job satisfaction. A person’s attitude toward his or her job may be positive or negative. JOB ENLARGEMENT The concept of job enlargement originated after World War II. It is simply the organizing of the work so as to relate the contents of the job to the capacity, actual and potential, of workers. Job enlargement is oblivious forerunner of the concept and philosophy of job design. Stephan offers three basic assumptions behind the concept of job enlargement.

Output will increase if 1. Workers abilities are fully utilized 2. Worker has more control over the work 3. Workers interest in work and workplace is stimulated. Job enlargement is a generic term that broadly means adding more and different tasks to a specialized job. It may widen the number of task the employee must do that is, add variety. When additional simple task are added

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to a job, the process is called horizontal job enlargement. This also presumably adds interest to the work and reduces monotony and boredom. To check harmful effects of specialization, the engineering factors involved in each individual job must be carefully analyzed. Perhaps, the assembly lines can be shortened so that there will be more lines and fewer workers on each line. Moreover, instead of assigning one man to each job and then allowed to decide for himself how to organize the work. Such changes permit more social contacts and greater control over the work process.

JOB ROTATION
Job rotation involves periodic assignments of an employee to completely different sets of job activities. One way to tackle work routine is to use the job rotation. When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee is rotated to another job, at the same level that has similar skill requirements. Many companies are seeking a solution to on-the-job boredom through systematically moving workers from one job to another. This practice provides more varieties and gives employees a chance to learn additional skills. The company also benefits since the workers are qualified to perform a number of different jobs in the event of an emergency.

CHANGE OF PACE
Anything that will give the worker a chance to change his pace when he wishes will lend variety to his work. Further if workers are permitted to change their pace that would give them a sense of accomplishment.

SCHEDULED REST PERIODS
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Extensive research on the impact of rest periods indicates that they may increase both morale and productivity. Scheduled rest periods bring many advantages: They counteract physical fatigue They provide variety and relieve monotony They are something to look forward to- getting a break gives a sense of achievement. They provide opportunities for social contacts.

40

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

• To find that whether the employees are satisfied or not. • To analyse the company’s working environment. • To check the Degree of satisfaction of employees.
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• To find that they are satisfied with their job profile or not. • To find that employees are working with their full capabilities or not.

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Research Methodology

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 INTRODUCTION Research refers to a search for knowledge. It is a systematic method of collecting and recording the facts in the form of numerical data relevant to
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the formulated problem and arriving at certain conclusions over the problem based on collected data. Thus formulation of the problem is the first and foremost step in the research process followed by the collection, recording, tabulation and analysis and drawing the conclusions. The problem formulation starts with defining the problem or number of problems in the functional area. To detect the functional area and locate the exact problem is most important part of any research as the whole research is based on the problem. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions: collecting, organizing and evaluating data: making deductions and reaching conclusions: and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. Research can be defined as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art” In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.

4.2 DRAFTING QUESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire is considered as the most important thing in a survey operation. Hence it should be carefully constructed. Structured questionnaire consist of only fixed alternative questions. Such type of questionnaire is inexpensive to analysis and easy to administer. All questions are closed ended.
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4.3SAMPLING It was divided into following parts: Sampling universe All the employees are the sampling universe for the research. Sampling technique Judgmental sampling Sample was taken on judgmental basis. The advantage of sampling are that it is much less costly, quicker and analysis will become easier. Sample size taken was 100 employees. 4.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research has been undertaken with following objectives.  To study the level of job satisfaction among the employees of SEVA Automotive Pvt. Ltd. if any.  To study the methods of measuring job satisfaction of SEVA Automotive Pvt. Ltd.

4.5 DATA COLLECTION The task of data collection begins after the research problem has been defined and research design chalked out. While deciding the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz. Primary and secondary data. Primary Data: 45

The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. The primary data were collected through well-designed and structured questionnaires based on the objectives. Secondary Data: The secondary data are those, which have already been collected by someone else and passed through statistical process. The secondary data required of the research was collected through various newspapers, and Internet etc. 4.6 RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The study was thoughtful for knowing the existing job satisfaction level of the employees of B.E.O.L., Rewa (m.p.). Limitation for the study, the study was restricted to B.E.O.L., Rewa only. 4.7 CHAPTERISATION 1. Introduction 2. Research methodology 3. Organizational profile 4. Data presentation, analysis and interpretation
5. Conclusions and suggestions

1

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COMPANY PROFILE

Birla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), an IS/ISO 9001:2000 and IS/ISO - 14001:2004 certified company under the M.P. Birla Group of Industries entered into the field of optical communication, by way of manufacturing optical fibre cables, in technical and financial collaboration with Ericsson Cables AB, Sweden (now known as Ericsson Network Technologies AB, Sweden). Ericsson is a leading name in telecommunications for the last 110 years, with activities ranging from turnkey telecom networks to
47

Cellular Mobile Telephone Systems and Business Communications. M/s Ericsson Cables AB are the pioneers in S-Z stranding and Ribbon Cable technologies for optical fibre cables. BEOL has installed capacity of above more than 53,000 cable Kms. per annum to produce complete range of optical fibre cables including ribbon type optic fibre cable made to design and construction conforming to national and international standards. BEOL has the capability to produce speciality fibre optic cables for use in medical equipment, computers and local area networks, cable TV network or any other type as per customized specification. BEOL also has installed capacity to produce 43.25 lac conductor Kms. of jelly filled copper telephone cables complying to national and international standards ranging from 5 pair to 2400 Pair and also has capability to produce switchboard cables for switching equipment. BEOL has fully computerized system for process monitoring and quality control to ensure consistency and reliability of its entire product range. All production activities are carried out as per approved quality assurance plan. BEOL, therefore, provides the best possible solutions with latest state of the art technology. BEOL has an exclusive marketing agreement with M/s AFL Telecommunications for sale of hi-tech overhead fibre optic cables, specially OPGW and associated accessories which find applications with electric power utilities etc. BEOL has marketing arrangement with M/s ILSINTECH Co. Ltd.

Quality policy
Birla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), an IS/ISO 9001:2000 and IS/ISO - 14001:2004 certified company under the M.P. Birla Group of Industries entered into the field of optical communication, by way of manufacturing optical fibre cables, in technical and financial collaboration with Ericsson Cables AB, Sweden (now known as Ericsson Network Technologies AB, Sweden). Ericsson is a leading name in telecommunications for the last 110 years, with activities 48

ranging from turnkey telecom networks to Cellular Mobile Telephone Systems and Business Communications. M/s Ericsson Cables AB are the pioneers in S-Z stranding and Ribbon Cable technologies for Optical Fibre Cables. BEOL has installed capacity of above more than 53,000 cable Kms. per annum to produce complete range of optical fibre cables including ribbon type optic fibre cable made to design and construction conforming to national and international standards. BEOL has the capability to produce speciality fibre optic cables for use in medical equipment, computers and local area networks, cable TV network or any other type as per customized specification. BEOL also has installed capacity to produce 43.25 lac conductor Kms. of jelly filled copper telephone cables complying to national and international standards ranging from 5 pair to 2400 Pair and also has capability to produce switchboard cables for switching equipment. BEOL has fully computerized system for process monitoring and quality control to ensure consistency and reliability of its entire product range. All production activities are carried out as per approved quality assurance plan. BEOL, therefore, provides the best possible solutions with latest state of the art technology. BEOL has an exclusive marketing agreement with M/s AFL Telecommunications for sale of hi-tech overhead fibre optic cables, specially OPGW and associated accessories which find applications with electric power utilities etc.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. is committed to :

Comply with Environmental legislations and prevention of pollution
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Make all efforts for continual improvement in the Environmental performance We shall conserve the resources and minimize the Environmental impact of our operations on Air, Water, and Land By :
• •

Implementing Environmental Management System to meet the objectives and targets Bringing awareness amongst all employees

PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT

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Brig. H I S Arora (President)
Mr. I.M. SHEIKH (DGM) Mr. NARSINGH MURTI (PERSONNEL AND ADM. MANAGER) Mr. R.K. LAKHERA (PERSONNEL OFFICER) Mr. VINAY NIGAM (ASST. PERSONNEL MANAGER)

Mr. Harsh V. Lodha Mr. Janne Sjoden (Alternate Mr. S.K.

Chairman

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Daga) Mr. Magnus Kreuger (Alternate Mr. Dinesh Chanda) Mr. A.P. Dadoo Dr. Aravind Srinivasan Mr. B.R. Nahar Mr. D.R. Bansal Managing Director

Mr. Y. S. Lodha Marketing New Delhi Mr. Sandeep Chawla Mr. Roby Sood Mumbai Mr. R. Sridharan Mr. Devesh R. Dakwale

President

Sr. Vice President (Marketing) General Manager (Marketing)

Sr.Vice President (Marketing) General Manager (Sales)

Rewa Mr. R.K. Shahi

General Manager(sales)

Mr. Ashish Mishra Kolkata Mr. Dipankar Chaterjee Technical (Rewa)

General Manager (Sales & Logistics)

Manager(Marketing)

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Mr. Raghu Nair Mr. J.K. Mahajan Mr. Sanjeev Dubey Mr. B.S. Sisodia Mr. Shekhar Banerjee Mr. Maneesh Nayak

Sr. Vice President (Works) Asstt. Vice President(Prod.&QA) Asstt. Vice President (Devp. & Maintt.) General Manager (Production) Dy.General Manager (QA & Product Devp.) Dy.General Manager (Design & Devp.)

Core strength
Birla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), has been a major player in the telecom industry and proven core strengths like –
• • • • • • •

Pioneer in the field of OFC & Copper Cables since 1992. Experienced, Skilled Engineers and work force. Diversified Product Range. Excellent Financial Strength. IS/ISO-9001:2000 and IS/ISO-14001:2004 certification. Collaboration with Ericsson Network Technologies AB of Sweden, the world leader in Telecommunication Industries State of the art Plant & Machinery. Fully computerized & Airconditioned manufacturing facilities
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Approval with TSEC, Indian Railways (RDSO), Engineers India Ltd., Director General of Quality Assurance (Ministry of Defence), DGS&D, Dun & Bradstreet.

Certification detail
Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. Rewa is committed to achieve customer satisfaction by meeting the customer's requirements as well as the applicable product related statutory and regulatory requirements and has also been awarded quality certifications from reputed agencies.

COMPETITORS OF COMPANY
STERLITE INDUSTRIES
Telecommunication has become the buzzword today the entry of private sectors into the basic services sector compiled with the government’s increased allocation of resources and access to leasing/deferred credit is expected to further accelerate the telecommunication drive in the country. The department of telecommunication (Dot) has decided to replace all trunk lines with optical fiber cables and in tune with this the company has also commissioned to optical fiber cable plant.
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UNIFLEX CABLES
UNIFLEX cables limited are an existing profit making company manufacturing a variety of power cables, which are sold mainly to government org. The company is diversifying in to manufacturing telesales optical fibers cables (OFC) with a capacity to produce 4,000 cable Km. and in to jelly filled telephone cables (JFTC) with a capacity to produce 12.5 lacks crores Km. per annum. Some others company of telecom sector is as Follows: I. II. III. IV. Vindhya Telelinks Ltd. Paramount communication Ltd. M.P. Telelinks Ltd. Finolex telecom Ltd.

PRODUCT PROFILE
PRODUCT OF B.E.O.L.The main product of company is:    fiber cables. Optical Jelly filled cables (PIJFTC) Fiber Ribbon Cable (FRC).

1) OPTICAL FIBRE CABLES: 55

Birla Ericsson Optical Limited Manufactures all type of optical fiber cables for use in communication type of optical fiber cables for use in communication data transmission, Internet, E-commerce and multimedia. The company is fully equipped to manufacture all types of Duct/Armored optical fibro cables including ribbon type optical, custom made to shit the individual requirement of any customer conforming to any national or international specification.

COMCENTRIC LOOSE TUBE CABLE: PRIMARY coated fibers are protected in loose tube of PBTP/Polyamide filled with a special thyrotrophic gel in order to prevent water penetration. The loose tube containing fibers are standard around the control strength member of fiber-reinforced plastic for better pulling strength. A later of polyethylene sheath acts as a cushion for the cable core, the outer jacket is made of polyamide to offer a more resistance to mechanical and environmental efforts.

CENTRAL LOOSE TUBE CABLE: Primary coated fiber are protected in loose tube PBTP/Polyamide filled with a special thyrotrophic gel in order to prevent water penetration. To provide cushioning, a circular layer of polyethylene is executed around

the loose tube containing fibers. The strength members are embedded this layer of polythene to provide the required pulling strength.

2) JELLY FILLED CABLES: Birla Ericsson Optical limited manufactures polythene insulated (both solid and from skin) Jelly filled underground telephone cables for use in local distribution network and for Junctions between exchanges; these cables form a vital link for telecommunication distribution system. These can be used for large capacity exchanges used by department of telecommunication, MTNL, on Major cities and also for small exchanges used in ruler areas and for local networks in industries. These are also use by railways defense departments and various others specials users. Cable is available in conductor size 0.4, 0.5, .63 and .9 mm diameter with cables sizes varying from 10 pair to 2400 pairs.
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These cables are generally conforming to Indian P & T department specification. These can also be custom made suitable to individual requirement of any customer or to other national or international specifications.

3) OPTICAL FIBRE RIBBON: After decreasing sales of Optical Fiber Cable Company diversify his product in to fiber ribbon cable.

PLANT TOUR OF B.E.O.L.

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QUALITY FEATURESQuality Features are assured through systematically structured quality planning and its execution covering every stage of operation starting from Purchase and up to Packing and Dispatch. People at work are adequately trained and given elbow space to implement quality infusion and quality check at every stage
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All the latest equipments and gadgets, required to observe, test, evaluate and check every feature of Optical Fibre are imported from world's best manufacturer and installed at our Test Centers. Proof Testing : Fibre is tested to stand certain specified strain level to conform strength, using an advance proof testing machine. In addition to above, other test facilities for various other tests are Environmental Chambers, Ovens, Hydrogen Ageing Equipment, System for Static Fatigue and Dynamic Fatigue Tests etc. We also take services from Outside Quality Agencies like IICT, CABS, CACT, RITES, ETDC, IIT, ERDA, Lloyds, Sameer, CSIO etc

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVALS

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM to IS/ISO:9001-2000 59

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM to IS/ISO:14001-2004 Registration/Approval with BSNL Indian Railways (RDSO) Engineers India Ltd. Director General of Quality Assurance (Ministry of Defence) Dun & Bradstreet

DGS & D
2

Scope Of The Study
The scope of the study is very vital. Not only the Human Resource department can use the facts and figures of the study but also the marketing and sales department can take benefits from the findings of the study.

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Scope for the sales department

The sales department can have fairly good idea about their employees,tat they are satisfied or not.

Scope for the marketing department

The marketing department can use the figures indicating that they are putting their efforts to plan their marketing strategies to achieve their targets or not.

Scope for personnel department

Some customers have the complaints or facing problems regarding the job. So the personnel department can use the information to make efforts to avoid such complaints.

Sample Size :Questionare is filled by 20 employees of Kotak life Insurance, Kaithal. The questionnaire was filled in the office and vital information was collected which was then subjects to: A pilot survey was conducted before finalizing the questionnaire.
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 Data collection was also done with the help of personal observation.  After completion of survey the data was analysed and conclusion was drawn.  At the end all information was compiled to complete the project report.

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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I have been passed up at least once for a promotion in the past few years.
0%

20%

50% 30%

Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree

Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 20% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nor disagree,50% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

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65

I spend parts of my day daydreaming about a better job.
10% 15% 0%

15%

60%

Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree

Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 60% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 15% of employees are agree on the point, 15% are neither agree nor disagree,10% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

66

I find much of my job repetitive and boring.
10% 10% 5% 0%

75%

Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree

Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 75% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 10% of employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nor disagree,5% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

67

I am mentally and/or physically exhausted at the end of a day at work.
5% 0%

10%

85%

Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree

This graph shows that 85% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 10% of employees are agree on the point, 5% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

68

I feel that my job has little impact on the success of the company.
0%

20%

50% 30%

Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree

This graph shows that 50% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 30% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

69

I have an increasingly bad attitude toward my job, boss, and employer
0%

20%

20%

60% Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 0% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor disagree,60% are disagree and rest 20% of employees are strongly disagree.

70

I am no longer given the resources I need to successfully do my job.
0% 10%

60%

30%

Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree

Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 10% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 30% of employees are agree on the point, 60% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

71

I am not being used to my full capabilities.
0% 40% 40%

20% Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 40% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor disagree,40% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

72

I have received no better than "fair" evaluations recently.
0% 40%

25%

35%

Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree

Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 40% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 35% of employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

73

I feel as though my boss and employer have let me down.
0% 35% 10%

55%

Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree

Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 0% of employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nor disagree,55% are disagree and rest 35% of employees are strongly disagree.

74

I often feel overworked and overwhelmed.
0% 35% 45%

20% Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 45% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 20% of employees are agree on the point, 35% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

75

I am frequently stressed out at work.

0%

20%

50% 15%

15%

Strongly Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Strongly Disagree

Agree Disagree

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 20% of employees are agree on the point, 15% are neither agree nor disagree,15% are disagree and rest 50% of employees are strongly disagree.

76

I live for weekends and days away from the job.
0% 10%

60%

30%

Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 0% of employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nor disagree,30% are disagree and rest 60% of employees are strongly disagree.

77

I find myself negatively comparing my situation to my peers.
0% 15%

20%

25% 40%

Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 15% of employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nor disagree,40% are disagree and rest 20% of employees are strongly disagree.

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I fe e l m y b a d d a y s a t w o rk o u tw e ig h th e g o o d ones.
0% 45%

2 5%

30%

S t ro n g ly A g re e S t ro n g ly D is a g ree

A gre e

N e ith e r A g ree n o r D is a gD is a g re e re e

This graph shows that 25% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 30% of employees are agree on the point, 45% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

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I o fte n e x p e rie n c e a s e n s a tio n o f tim e s ta n d in g s till w h e n I a m a t w o rk .
0% 15%

20%

30%

35%

S t ro n g ly A g re e S t ro n g ly D is a g re e

A g re e

N e ith e r A g re e n o r D is a D re e g re e g is a

This graph shows that 15% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 35% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nor disagree,20% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

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I h a v e b e e n to ld th a t I a m b e c o m in g a m o re c y n ic a l p e rs o n .
S tro n g ly A g re e 0% 35% 10% 25% A g re e N e ith e r A g re e n o r D is a g re e D is a g re e 30% S tro n g ly D is a g re e

This graph shows that 10% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 25% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nor disagree,35% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

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I fe e l a s th o u g h m y e m p lo y e r h a s b ro k e n p ro m is e s a b o u t m y fu tu re w ith th e o rg a n iz a tio n .
0% 40% 10% 25%

25% S t ro n g ly A g re e S t ro n g ly D is a g re e A g re e

N e it h e r A g re e n o r D is aD is a g re e g re e

This graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 10% of employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nor disagree,25% are disagree and rest 40% of employees are strongly disagree.

82

I h ave lo st sig h t o f m y career g o als an d asp iratio n s.
15% 0% 15%

25% 45%

S trongly A gree S trongly Dis agree

A gree

Neither A gree nor Dis agree agree Dis

This graph shows that 15% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 25% of employees are agree on the point, 45% are neither agree nor disagree,15% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.

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I n o lo n g e r fe e l v a lu e d fo r m y w o rk .

10% 20%

25%

20%

25%

S t ro n g ly A g re e S t ro n g ly D is a g re e

A g re e

N e it h e r A g re e n o r D is a gis ae re e D re g

This graph shows that 25% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 25% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nor disagree,20% are disagree and rest 10% of employees are strongly disagree.

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Findings
o Employees are not completely satisfied with their job although their salary is good enough. o Employes are not getting value to their work. o Most of employees think that they are nt on their actual path. o Most of the employees think that the organization haven’t fulfill their promises,what they do in beginning especially regarding Promotion. o There is negatively comparison between peers especially regarding targets. o They often feel overworked.

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SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION

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To increase the job satisfaction level of the employees the company should concentrate mainly on the incentive and reward structure rather than the motivational session.

• Ideal employees should concentrate on their job. • Educational qualification can be the factor of not an effective job. • Company should give promotion to those employees who deserves it.

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LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
However I shall try my best in collecting the relevant information for my research report, yet there are always some problems faced by the researcher. The prime difficulties which I face in collection of information are discussed below:1. Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was

short as a result of which many facts have been left unexplored.
2. Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not

possible to conduct survey at large level.
3. Small no. of respondents: Only 20 employees

have been chosen

which is a small number, to represent whole of the population.
4. Unwillingness of respondents: While collection of the data many

consumers were unwilling to fill the questionnaire. Respondents were having a feeling of wastage of time for them.
5. Small area for research: The area for study was Kaithal, which is

quite a small area to judge job satisfaction level.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:  Hitt, Miller, Colella “Organizational Behavior A Strategic Approach”, Wiley Student’s Edition.
 

Luthans Fred “Organizational Behavior”, McGraw Hill 7th Edition. Newstrom John W., Davis Keith, “Organizational Behavior Human Resource At Work”, 9th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Edition. Pestonjee D. M. “Motivation and Job Satisfaction”, 1st Edition.

Macmillan India Limited.

Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, New Delhi; New Age International Publication, second edition.

Websites: www.hrcouncil.com www.workforce.com www.google.com

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ANNEXURE
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QuestionnaireS for JOB SATISFACTION
NAME: …………………………………………. DESIGNATION: ………………………………. COMPANY: ……………………………………. 1. I have been passed up at least once for a promotion in the past few years. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

2. I spend parts of my day daydreaming about a better job. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

3. I find much of my job repetitive and boring. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

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4. I am mentally and/or physically exhausted at the end of a day at work. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

5. I feel that my job has little impact on the success of the company. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

6. I have an increasingly bad attitude toward my job, boss, and employer . • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

7. I am no longer given the resources I need to successfully do my job. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

92

8. I am not being used to my full capabilities. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

9. I have received no better than "fair" evaluations recently. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

10. I feel as though my boss and employer have let me down. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

11. I often feel overworked and overwhelmed. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

93

12. I am frequently stressed out at work. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

13. I live for weekends and days away from the job. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

14. I find myself negatively comparing my situation to my peers. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

15. I feel my bad days at work outweigh the good ones. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

94

16. I often experience a sensation of time standing still when I am at work. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

17. I have been told that I am becoming a more cynical person. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

18. I feel as though my employer has broken promises about my future with the organization. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

19. I have lost sight of my career goals and aspirations. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree 95

20. I no longer feel valued for my work. • • • • • Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

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