Design of Adaptables Structures Based on Application of Observed Principles in the Nature

Marroquín Rivera, Luis Alberto San Martin de Porres University
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture 1250 La Fontana Ave.,Lima , PERU

KEYWORDS Kinetic, fractal frame, unlimited growth, inflatable. 1. INTRODUCTION Nature is an infinite source of inspiration for all designers; the performance of the designs observed in its creatures surprises us every day, due to the fact that we achieve a better knowledge of the natural world. The principles of design used by nature are countless; in all of them we find an harmonic combination of parts that are destined to one purpose, This purpose is create a perfect balance with the environment. Biological analogies Moderns architects like Sullivan, Wright, Le Corbusier, R. Buckminster Fuller and Otto Frei employed biological analogies and the concept of the organic. Both of these concepts are central to the twentieth century. In our case three specific characteristics that we observe in the constructions of nature can be used in the creation of analogical designs of adaptable structures with excellent earthquake-resistant performance and minimum quantity of mass: a) Traction and resilience.- Is the study of organic structures, which strategy of design is the create mechanisms where predominate the efforts of traction with materials of high elasticity and resilience. These two characteristics are used to achieve a high performance with minimum energy consumption; we observe them in the spider webs (figure 1). Structures made with organic material and excellent properties of traction and resilience. b) Self-similarity and homotecy. Is the strategy of repeating a formal pattern of different scales, the goal is to generate a stable mechanism that can extend its volume and mass without losing the original form, we can observe this strategy in the vegetable kingdom and in the shells of molluscs. ( figure 2 ) c) Expansible pneumatic membrane. Is the analysis of mechanical design of insect wings (figure 3)

Figure 1. Spider web

Figure 2. Nautilius Shell

Figure 3. Dragonfly wing

The mathematical relationships between the bodies is the classic golden ratio. (Figure 6) The dodecahedral tensegrity is made of rigid post and coil spring to absorb the impact of the outer forces.2 DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPES 2. The prototype recovers its original form . The construction and test of prototypes is an integral part of structures adaptables development Figure 9 . cube. dodecahedron and icosahedron). octahedron. which uses the fibers to minimize the quantity of mass in the structure. Space frame: This prototype is constructed in a module named “Dodecahedral space frame” The module is assembled by the platonic bodies (tetrahedron. Dodecahedral module Figure 6. Tensegrity system The pentatensegrity house is the integration of five “tensegrity dodecahedral modules” that work in perfect structural unit. Figure 10 . Webs of araneid spiders have several structural devices designed to absorb the impact energy. Figure 7.The prototype absorbs the impact of the outer forces. Figure 4. The Platonic bodies Figure 5. Architectural model Figure 8. Dodecahedral tensegrity The principle of the tensegrity developed by Buckminster Fuller in the 1950s is used to convert the “dodecahedral module” (figure 5) to “tensegrity dodecahedral module”.1 The pentatensegrity house The inspiration comes from the spider web.

35% 5% 85% 100% Figure 13 . Figure 11. The prototype is based on a pattern of the fractal geometry.2. The curve of this shell is called Equiangular or Logarithmic spirals and is common in nature to build this armour. The “Logarithmic Geospiral Dome” is based on a geometry which allows an unlimited growth in function the increase of needs of space. The model uses the strategy of repeating a formal pattern of different scales. Creatures use the same proportions for each expanded chamber that is added. The copies are similar to the whole: same shape but different size. Figure 12. The protoype is assembled by an stable mechanism that can extend its volume and mass.2 Logarithmic Geospiral Dome The geometry used for the space frame of this model. growth follows a law which is everywhere the same. The driving system used to open and close the retractable dome is a wire traction system. The spaceframe is made of smaller copies of itself. which has a simple movement and does not require a lot of maintenance. This is the classic shape of the Chambered Nautilus shell. The Logarithmic Geospiral Dome is retractable by pulling outwards at the base. Percentage of opening of the retractable dome. . This is made to generate a stable mechanism that can extend its volume and mass without losing the original form. is the spiral generated by a recursive nest of Golden Triangles. The geometric characterization of the simplest fractals is self-similarity: where the shape is made of smaller copies of itself.

and inflated ribbed structures.3 Kaleidocyclical Pneumatic membrane. c) The Kaleidocycle The kaleidocycle are three-dimensional ring made up of tetrahedrons united by their edges. . They can turn on if same infinite times without breaking themselves nor becoming deformed themselves around his centre. Figure 14 . These wrinkled body parts of the insect are inflated by pumping body fluid after getting out through the slot. liquids. The body of the dragonfly shrinks and becomes wrinkled in the old body.2. Figure 15 . a special pump system and a special body fluid are created to be used in this process. Tensile stress pneumatic structures can be readily made from light collapsible. Inflatable Geodesic stabilized by pressure of gases developed in the 1940s b) The inflatable structures These structures are typically classified as Pneumatic structures (figure 15) and are structural forms stablized wholly or mainly by pressure differences of gases. The inspiration comes from the transformation of the nymph in a flying creature. The design is based around a few basic ideas: a) The Metamorphosis of the Dragonfly. The Kaleidocyclical Pneumatic membrane This prototype is a radical new form. In the meantime. very strong membranes. In order to open this body. air-inflated structures. chemical solvents start to break the ties of the new legs with the old ones. The Metamorphosis of the Dragonfly. Kinetic kaleidocycle and deployable systems in nature. body parts of the insect are inflated by pumping body fluid. The kaleidocyclical pneumatic membrane is the integration of several “kaleidocyclical pneumatic“modules. Figure 16. It is the combination of three concepts: air-Inflatable structure. there are a series of special mechanisms that help the dragonfly to shed its skin. etc. The four kinetic transformation of the Kaleidocyclical Pneumatic module Figure 17. They basically fall into three categories: single-layer air supported.

auditorium. gallery. I would thank to the characteristics of flexibility. and calculation of buildings of cables. Spain. On Growth and Form. Marks. Pallasmaa Juhani. Power of Limits . The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001. All of these all possibilities for the application in architecture. Tensiles structures : design. REFERENCES D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson. 1958. The future of architecture. Animales Arquitectos. Fundación César Manrique. structures and construction industry can be adapted to multiple functions: Pavilion. Freeman and Co. 1981 . biological analogy in architecture and applied arts. theatre. Buenos Aires : Poseidon. nets. New York: W. and membranes Cambridge : The MIT Press. Cambridge University Press. 1962. Figure 18 The structure of the pentatensegrity house Figure 19 The logarithmic geospiral dome 4.3 DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPES The potential of these adaptables structures is enormous. New York : Reinhold Pub. H. Robert W. house. Doczi Gyorgy. 1979. Philip. savings on installation costs and the potential for more rigorous factibility studies by computer. Madrid. Mandelbrot. Corp Otto. Frank Lloyd.El funcionalismo ecológico de las construcciones animales Colección Cuadernas. structure. playground equipment for kids. The evolution of designs. excellent earthquake-resistant performance. Wright. Frei. minimum quantity of mass. The dymaxion world of Buckminster Fuller. 1982. etc. Boston. Massachusetts. . London. Steadman. Shamballa Publications INC. 1961. Benoît B. 1973. rapidity of assemblage.

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