Devanagari Script: Short vowels

H ² 7 + ª
a i u ¤ µ
H is pronounced as in cup, bus etc.
² is pronounced as in inform, init etc.
7 is pronounced as in look, book etc.
+ has no direct equivalent and is pronounced
somewhere in between ri and ru, like crystal.
ª is also like + and is pronounced somewhere
in between li and lu similar to glycerene.
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Devanagari Script: Long vowels
The eight long vowels are
Hl ² 7 + 9 9 Hl H|
¡ ¢ £ ¥ ¦ ai § au
The first four are the long forms of the
corresponding short vowels.

9 and Hl are long vowels which do not have
short forms in Sanskrit.
9 and H| are often likened to diphthongs though
they are not strictly combinations of two vowels.
Hl is pronounced as in far, bar, fall etc.
² is pronounced as in easy, eagle etc.
7 is pronounced as in rooster, fool etc.
+ is the long form of +
9 is pronounced as in fable, gray etc.
9 is pronounced as in my, fly etc.
Hl is pronounced as in road, goat etc.
H| is pronounced as in down, noun etc.
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The Support Vowels
The two support vowels are known as "ubhayakshara"
and are mostly appended to syllables. They are not
used independently like other vowels.
They add specific sounds to the syllables they are
appended to. These two support vowels are represented
using the first vowel H .
H H-
a¨ a©

The first is known as the "anuswara" and the second
"visarga" The anuswara adds a sound similar to the
sound of m in "sum" to the syllable. The visarga
adds a sound similar to "ha" to the syllable.
The "ha" will change depending on the vowel ending
the syllable. The visarga more or less extends the
vowel in the syllable with h+the same vowel as in the
syllable.
Example: if the syllable ends in vowel ² then the visarga
would add a sound like "hi".
There may be differences in the manner in which these
two are introduced in conventional Sanskrit Primers.
When reading Sanskrit, it will be necessary to render
the visarga in a way that will distinguish it from the
syllables ha, hi, hu etc. This may be accomplished by
shortening the vowel in the visarga.
One is tempted to ask, "well how can Sanskrit be a
phonetic language then, if the sound for a letter is
context dependent?". We shall answer this in a later
section dealing with phonetics.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Let us look at the first consonant.
T (ka)
The generic form of T is T . The nether
stroke is attached below the letter T .
Now, the familiar form of a consonant in
Sanskrit is the form when it is sounded with the
first vowel i.e., H . Thus
T + H = T
Pronouncing a consonant in its generic form
requires that no vowel sound be added to the
consonant’s generic sound. The generic sound is
quite similar to the sound associated with a basic
phoneme corresponding to a consonant in English.
For the consonant T the associated generic sound
will be like the ending syllable of the words
"lake", "bake" etc..
A pure consonant is linguistically defined to be
one without any vowel attached to it. Consonants
can be meaningful in practice only when uttered
along with a vowel. Ancient linguistic scholars
refered to the vowels as "life giving" aksharas
while the consonants were likened to the body.
It is common practice to introduce the consonants
to the student, in the form where the first vowel H
forms the syllable with the generic sound of the
consonant. Thus the student learns that T is
is pronounced like the first syllable of "cup" . In
India, children are often taught the aksharas in
this manner.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The first group of consonants are the Gutterals.
T G ¬ ¤ =
ka kha ga gha °a
T sounds like the first syllable in cup
G is the aspirated form of T

¬ sounds like the g in gum
¤ is the aspirated form of ¬
= sounds like the ng in finger
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The second group consists of the Palatals.
¬ 7 = H ¬
ca cha ja jha ±a
¬ sounds as in chair
7 is the aspirated form of ¬
= sounds as in jar, just
H is the aspirated form of =
¬ sounds similar to the last syllable of the
spanish word espana where the n has the
combination sound of the English n and y.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The third group of consonants are the cerebrals.
³ ó 7 7 T
·a ·ha ¸a ¸ha ²a
³ sounds similar to the t in taylor
ó is the aspirated form of ³
7 sounds similar to the d in day, differ etc.
7 is the aspirated form of 7
T sounds similar to the n in fund.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The fourth group is made up of the dentals.

6 ¤ 7 « +
ta tha da dha na
6 sounds like the first syllable of thirty
¤ is the aspirated form of 6
7 sounds like the first syllable of thus
« is the aspirated form of 7
+ sounds like the n in null, name etc..
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The fifth group of consonants are the Labials.

9 T 4 ¬ P
pa pha ba bha ma
9 sounds like p in pun
T is the aspirated form of 9
4 sounds like the b in butter
¬ is the aspirated form of 4
P sounds like the m in man
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Semivowels
4 ¹ ¬ 4
ya ra la va
Sibilants
H 9 B
¹a ºa sa
Aspirate
r
ha
---------------------------------------------------------------------
4 sounds like the y in young
¹ sounds like the r in real, similar to the Scottish
pronounciation.
¬ sounds like the l in laugh
4 sounds like the v in vast
H has no direct equivalent in English. It is like
the "g" a German would pronounce while
speaking English and saying Germany !
9 sounds like the first syllable in shall
B similar to the s in same
r sounds like the h in harmony.
There are three other consonants that one finds in use.
= ¬ :'
µa kºa j±a
= is usually included in the semivowels.
It is similar to ¬ but is pronounced with the tip
of the tongue folded back.
¬ is actually a conjunct being T + 9
:' is also a conjunct = + ¬
The first and the third are used freqently in old
sanskrit texts. The second is in common use today.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Consonant Vowel combinations.
Sanskrit is a phonetic language. Any of the con-
sonants can form a syllable with any of the vowels.
Such combinations are written using special
ligatures (specific shapes different from those of
the normal vowels). The Devanagari script
follows fairly consistent rules to write a consonant
vowel combination. In standard literature, the term
medial vowel is sometimes used to refer to vowels
seen inside a word. Hence some scholars in the past
have refered to the ligatures as medial vowels. We
will see that while this is reasonable, exceptions do
occur.
Each vowel has a special shape associated with it
for use with a combining consonant. This is known
as a "matra" or simply vowel extension. A matra,
when added to the basic shape of a consonant, results
in a syllable consisting of the consonant and the
vowel.
Some matras are added to the right of the consonant,
some above or below the consonant and one specific
matra in Sanskrit is added to the left of the con-
sonant i.e., before drawing the consonant.
The matras associated with the vowels are shown
below.
Vowel: H Hl ² ² 7 7
matra : l | l
Ex. : T Tl |T Tl T T
Vowel: + 9 9 Hl H|
matra : l |
Ex. : T T T Tl T|
No matra is used for the combination with H since
this is considered the basic syllable for a consonant.
In consonants having a vertical stroke in their shapes,
the matras that get added above or below are drawn
coinciding the vertical stroke. For consonants not
having a vertical stroke, the matras are usually added
centered with respect to the horizontal span of
the consonant. Take 7 for example.
7 7l |7 7l 7 7
c 7 7 7l 7|
All the thirtythree consonants strictly follow
the above convention with very few exceptions.
The consonant ¹ has an exception for combinations
with 7 and 7 .
The forms for ¹ with 7 and 7 are 6 and -
respectively.
The combination of r and + is written as 8 .
As seen above 7 and + will be c .
----------------------------------------------------------------------
In respect of Sanskrit, the term conjunct refers
to a syllable formed with two or more consonants
and a vowel.
Let us look at an example of a conjunct.
The name Krishna is familiar to one and all.
In Devanagari it is written as T!Tl and
the word is made up of the two syllables T
and !Tl . The first syllable has the consonant T
combining with the vowel + and the second
syllable is a combination of 9 , T and Hl .
In Sanskrit, we reckon T!Tl as being made up of
two aksharas.
Here are some examples of two consonant conjuncts.
¬ = ¬ + +
¹9 = P + 9
F6 = B + 6
Note that in the first conjunct a half form of + is
attached to the vertical stroke of the first consonant.
In the second and third case, the first consonant has
lost its vertical stroke while the second consonant is
written in full.
Over the centuries, different conventions have been
adopted for writing conjuncts. We will see some
variations in the next section.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Writing methods for Conjuncts
As a general rule, consonants in a conjunct are
written in their half form except for the final
consonant which is written in its full form.
There are exceptions to this rule when the con-
sonants do not have a clear half form. The
consonants which do not have the vertical stroke
in their shape come under this category.
The following 22 consonants have a vertical stroke
in them.
G ¬ ¤ ¬ = H ¬
T 6 ¤ « + 9 4
¬ P 4 ¬ 4 H 9 B
The following do not have a vertical stroke in them.
= 7 ³ ó 7
7 7 ¹ r
T and T have a stroke in the middle.
For the twentytwo shown first, the half form is
obtained by simply removing the vertical stroke.
For T , the half form is 1 (not to be confused
with 4 ). The half form for T is very close to that
of 9 itself.
For the nine in the middle row above, a clear half
form is not standardized. Often the letters are just
reduced in size and placed before the succeeding
consonant in the conjunct. Considerable flexibility
exists in writing conjuncts with these consonants.
Examples of conjuncts with these nine, will be
given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Here are some examples of conjuncts. Please note that
there are nearly a thousand of these. Only some
are included here. The information relating to
IITM software has pointers to all the supported conjuncts.
¬ + ¬ - ¾
9 + 6 = |'
³ + ³ = '
7 + P = T
7 + 4 = "4
7 + 4 = ã
= + T = *
T + 6 = ±
H + ¹ = ~
r + P = ’
³ + ¹ = ³
7 + ¬ = 5
+ ÷ 7 + ¹ = -7
B + 6 + ¹ = F-'
9 + ³ + 4 = 74
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Devanagari- Rarely used Aksharas their
representations.
Among + + and ª only + is normally used as a
vowel with consonants. The other two are mostly
used as independent vowels and in cases where
they do combine with consonants, the following
consonants are the ones which figure most.
³ 6 7 « + B combine with +
ª is seen mostly with T
When ¹ combines with + , it is generally shown as
¹+ and not ¹ .
Note on timing.
The short vowels are pronounced for one unit of
time and the long ones two units. The unit of time
is not an absolute value by itself.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Letters which look similar and thus might confuse the
student initially are shown below..
² 7 r
i ¸a ha
¤ 4, ¬ P, ¤ «,
tha ya, bha ma, gha dha,
7 7, 6 +, 9 9,
¸ha da, ta na, pa ºa,
4 4
ba va
G may be confused with ¹ followed by a 4 i.e., ¹4.
The first part of G will in general be more curved
than ¹ but in in the case of the gutteral G , the bottom
stroke will overlap with the round of the 4 . The
comparison will be effected by writing the two aksharas
one below the other.
G
¹4
The student is urged to keep these similar looking shapes
in mind when learning the script.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Conjuncts with ¹ as the first consonant.
The consonant ¹ is special in that conjuncts
where ¹ occurs as the first consonant, are written
using a special ligature. In these conjuncts, the
presence of ¹ is indicated by a shape resembling
a hook above the last consonant of the conjunct.
Let us look at a few examples.
¹ + T = T
¹ + 6 = 6
¹ + T + 4 = 14
¹ + 6 + 4 = t4
¹ combines with almost every other consonant
and one finds several words in Sanskrit with ¹ as
well as 4 in a conjunct.
Earlier, we had mentioned about a conjunct with five
consonants. Here is the word with the conjunct.
TltF-4l Just two syllables in the word!
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Let us now look at some conjuncts in which
¹ appears as the second or third consonant.
We have already seen that ¹ belongs to the group
of semivowels. Most consonants will combine with
with ¹ and the resulting conjunct will usually end
with ¹ and an appropriate vowel. The presence of
¹ in the conjunct will be seen through a special
stroke added to the first consonant. Please observe
the following carefully and remember the writing
method for the consonant.
4 ¬ ³ -' 9 P
kra cra ·ra tra pra mra
Sanskrit books printed during the early part of the
twentieth century may show variations from the
above.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Now that you have learnt the basic writing
system used in Sanskrit, you might want to
see for yourself how well you can identify
and read the Devanagari script.
1. Identify the following aksharas and speak
them. You might also wish to distinguish
vowels from the consonants.
² 9 T ¬ r
Hl 4 7 G 6
¤ « ¹ 7 7
2. Speak out the folowing aksharas.
Bl rl 4l +| 7
4l Pl 6 ¬ 7l
3. Speak out the following conjuncts.
³ 4l |ã 9 F¬
4. No clues are given but figure out what
the words are. We have put spaces between
the letters for you to identify the aksharas
easily.
² = ¬ |¬ 9
¬ ¹l T
¬l |³ +
rl 4
H 4 B 6l
=l 9 +l B
H P |¹ T +
Hl P ¬l7
|7B ²B +l³
¬7 91BBB
At this point you would see the advantage of a
phonetic system of writing!
B94H-
INTRODUCTION:
In this first lesson, the student will learn some
expressions of common everyday use. In these
expressions, the verb HB (to be) is understood
and is not explicitly used.
Sanskrit, like other classical languages, has three
genders- masculine (m), feminine (f) and neuter (n).
These are indicated in the examples given. The student
is advised to learn these expressions by memory.
The prelude to these tutorial lessons introduced the
vowels and consonants of Sanskrit and also indicated
how they are to be pronounced. The student is advised
to refer to this prelude as well to memorize the basic
letters.
1.1 Here are some common expressions
in the first person.
PP +lP ¹lP- My Name is Rama (m)
mama n¡ma r¡ma©
PP +lP Bl6l My Name is Sita (f)
mama n¡ma s¢t¡
PP +lP HG¹- My Name is Sekhara (m)
mama n¡ma ¹¦khara©
PP +lP 7Pl My name is Uma (f)
mama n¡ma um¡
PP 74- |H4- My God is Siva (m)
mama d¦vaha ¹iva©
PP 74l 9l46l My Goddess is Parvati (f)
mama d¦v¢ p¡rvat¢
PP 9-'- Pl«4- My son is Madhava (m)
mama putra© m¡dhava©
PP 9-'l |4=4l My daughter is Vijaya (f)
mama putr¢ vijay¡
PP ¬6l |4!T My husband is Vishnu (m)
mama bhart¡ viº²u
PP ¬l4l 9Tl My wife is padma (f)
mama bh¡ry¡ padm¡
PP |96l =474- My father is Jayadeva (m)
mama pit¡ jayad¦va©
PP Pl6l B¬7l My mother is subhadra (f)
mama m¡t¡ subhadr¡
PP ¬l6l |4=4- My brother is Vijay (m)
mama bhr¡t¡ vijaya©
PP F4Bl P|~¬Tl My sister is Mallika (f)
mama svas¡ mallik¡
PP |P-' T!T- My friend is Krishna (n)
mama mitra¨ k¤º²a©
PP 4lr+ 6l4l6l My vehicle is Toyota (n)
mama v¡hana¨ t§y§t¡
Note that the verb "to be" (i.e., the form "is" in English)
is not used in any of the expressions. The explicit
form of the verb HB (to be) is always implied in
expressions of this nature and in Sanskrit, as in most
languages, the personal pronoun PP has no gender.
------------------------------------------------------------------
1.2 Simple expressions involving a question.
This subsection deals with expressions invoving
a question, the answers to which are similar
to the expressions in section 1.1.
64 +lP |T What is your name?
tava n¡ma ki¨
64 74- T- Who is your God?
tava d¦va© ka©
64 74l Tl Who is your Goddess?
tava d¦v¢ k¡
64 9-'- T- Who is your son?
tava putra© ka©
64 9-'l Tl Who is your daughter?
tava putr¢ k¡
64 ¬l6l T- Who is your brother?
tava bhr¡t¡ ka©
64 F4Bl Tl Who is your sister?
tava svas¡ k¡
64 |P-' |T Who is your friend?
tava mitra¨ ki¨
64 4lr+ |T What is your vehicle?
tava v¡hana¨ ki¨
Observe that there are no question marks in any
of the sentences. In Sanskrit, no punctuation is
ever used. Generally, the punctuation is recog-
nized from the intonation.
Even in the interrogative form, the verb HB
(to be) is not explicitly used.
Gender becomes apparent in these sentences as
can be observed with the ending akshara of the
words i.e., T- , Tl and |T .
T- is the masculine form known as
9|¬*- (pumli°ga©)
Tl is the feminine form known as
F-'l|¬*- (str¢li°ga©)
|T is the neuter form known as
+9BT|¬*- (napumsakali°ga©)
Among the words used in the sentences given
above, the following words are masculine
in gender.
¹lP-, HG¹-, 74-, 9-'-, |H4-, Pl«4-,
=474-, |4=4-, |96l, ¬l6l
The following are feminine words
Bl6l, 7Pl, 9l46l, |4=4l, 74l, 9-'l,
¬l4l, Pl6l, F4Bl, 9Tl, B¬7l, P|~¬Tl
Some examples of nouns in the neuter gender are
|P-', 4lr+P , +lP, «+P , =¬P ,
TP¬P , Hl¬¹TP
In Sanskrit, gender is not decided by the meaning
of the word but is fixed by other considerations
such as the form of the word and its ending.
A Note on the word 64 .
The form of address 64 , it should be noted , is
mostly used in circumstances involving persons
who enjoy a close relationship with the person
speaking the sentence. Often, the form with respect
¬46- (m) or ¬4t4l- (f) is used.
However, it is observed that the form 64 was in
regular use in earlier times and did not mean any
disrespect. In keeping with modern trends, we are
following the practice of using 64 for the familiar
form of address and ¬46-/¬4t4l- for the respectful
form. This is similar to the usage of the German
words "dein" and "ihr".
Demonstrative pronouns.
Masculine 99- He (who is nearby)
B- He (who is farther away)
Feminine 99l She (who is nearby)
Bl She (who is farther away)
Neuter 966 This
66 That
------------------------------------------------------------------
The use of the demonstrative pronoun will
depend on whether the speaker is refering to a
person in the immediate vicinity or someone
at a distance. Essentially, this is equivalent to
the difference between "this" and "that". In
Sanskrit this distinction applies for all the
three genders.
99- and B- (masculine)
¦ºa© sa©
99l and Bl (feminine)
¦º¡ s¡
966 and 66 (neuter)
¦tat tat
Let us look at some examples.
99- TlT- This (is a) crow
¦ºaha k¡ka©
99l Pl¬l This (is a) garland
¦º¡ m¡l¡
99- PP ¬=- This (is) my elephant
¦ºaha mama gaja©
99l PP ¬l4l This (is) my wife
¦º¡ mama bh¡ry¡
966 TP¬P This (is a) lotus
¦tat kamalam
966 64 TP¬P This (is) your lotus
¦tat tava kamalam
B- T!T- That (is) Krishna
sa© k¤º²a©
Bl T!Tl That is Krishnaa (f)
(Krishnaa is a feminine name)
66 HlB+P That (is a) seat
tat ¡sanam
66 64 HlB+P That (is) your seat
tat tava ¡sanam
------------------------------------------------------------------
1.3 Some common expressions used in
daily life.
+PF6 Greeetings
namast¦
B9¬l6P Good Morning
suprabh¡tam
TH¬P 4l How do you do?
ku¹alam v¡
«-44l7l- Thank you, Thanks
dhanyav¡d¡:
F4l¬6P Welcome
sv¡gatam
«-4l|FP I am thankful
(I am grateful)
dhany§smi
9+|P¬lP- See you again
punarmil¡ma©
¬¹46lP Please excuse me
kºamyat¡m
H¬PF6 Best wishes
¹ubhamastu
------------------------------------------------------------------
Glossary:
Words already seen in the sections.

74- - God 74l - Goddess
|P-'P - friend
|96l - father Pl6l - mother
+lP - name
9-'- - son 9-'l - daughter
4lr+P - vehicle
¬l6l - brother F4Bl - sister
PP - my
¬6l - husband ¬l4l - wife
Here are some more (new) words.

1. Masculine gender
+¹- - man TlT- - crow
P4¹- - peacock
4l+¹- - monkey H+T- - dog
T¹- - hand
¬=- - elephant H¬¬- - mountain
Pl=l¹- − cat
HH- - horse
2. Feminine gender
Pl¬l - garland T¤l - story
74l - mercy
B¬l - hall ¬l9l - language
T9l - sympathy
¬6l - creeper H+l - female dog
4l+¹l - female monkey
474l - mare P4¹l - peahen
Pl=l¹l - female cat
+l¹l - woman
Hl¹7l - name of a Goddess
B¹F46l - Goddess of learning
3. Neuter gender
¬4+P - house TP¬P - lotus
Hl++P - face
HlB+P - seat =¬P - water
«+P - wealth
------------------------------------------------------------------
Exercises.
1. Learn to pronounce all the words introduced in the earlier
sections. Correct pronounciation is essential for Sanskrit.
Make use of the Roman transliteration given alongside when
necessary.
Try and pronounce the following words.
¬l|4-7- ¬¹6- 4lP+- 9F6TP
¬l6P6l H6Tl ¬|¬6l H¹4l
¬lFT¹- ¬|T6- ¬lT- 9|'76-
BT-4l ¬÷Pl 4lTl ¬lP|6
2. Using the words intoduced in section 1.4, try
to form sentences similar to those in
sections 1.1 and 1.2.
3. Try and form sentences in Sanskrit.
This is your husband.
That is your son.
This is my lotus.
That is your lotus.
This is Govinda. (m)
That is Vimalaa. (f)
Salutations, Krishna.
See you again, daughter.
−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Lesson-10
General introduction to the tenses.
In Sanskrit, verbs are associated with ten different
forms of usage. Of these six relate to the tenses and
four relate to moods. We shall examine the usages
now.
Six tenses are identified as follows. The tenses
directly relate to the time associated with the
activity specified in the verb, i.e., whether the
activity referred to in the verb is taking
place now or has it happened already or if it
will happen or going to happen etc.
Present tense: 46Pl+ Tl¬-
There is only one form for the present tense.
Past tense: ¬6 Tl¬-
Past tense has three forms associated with it.
1. Expressing something that had happened sometime
in the recent past, typically last few days.
2. Expressing something that might have just happened,
typically in the earlier part of the day.
3. Expressing something that had happened in the distant
past about which we may not have much or any
knowledge.
Future tense: ¬|4!46 Tl¬-
Future tense has two forms associated with it.
1. Expressing something that is certainly going to happen.
2. Expressing something that is likely to happen.
------Verb forms not associated with time.
There are four forms of the verb which do not relate
to any time. These forms are called "moods" in the
English language. English grammar specifies three
moods which are, Indicative mood, Imperative mood
and the Subjunctive mood. In Sanskrit primers one
sees a reference to four moods with a slightly
different nomenclature. These are, Imperative mood,
potential mood, conditional mood and benedictive
mood. Since the nomenclature differs we will have
to see what the moods in Sanskrit actually refer to.
The ten forms of usage of the verb are each given a
name in Sanskrit and all the names start with the
akshara ¬. Hence the forms are called the ten "lakaras"
(Even though two of the forms do not strictly start
with ¬ , the term ¬Tl¹l- applies)
1. ¬³ Present tense
2. ¬= Past tense - imperfect
3. ¬= Past tense - aorist
4. |¬³ Past tense - perfect
5. ¬³ Future tense - likely
6. ¬³ Future tense - certain
7. ¬= Conditional mood
8. |4|«|¬= Potential mood
9. HlHl|¬= Benedictive mood
10. ¬l³ Imperative mood
It may be noted that five of the lakaras end in ³ and
the remaining five in = . One more Lakara is known to
be seen in Vedic texts. It is known as ¬³ .
It must also be remembered that verbs in Sanskrit belong
to two categories depending on whether the activity
specified in the verb applies to the person himself
or whether it applies to someone other than the subject
of the verb.
Verbs referring to the activity for the self are said to be
"Atmanepada" HltP+97 verbs.
Verbs referring to the activity for others are said to be
"Parasmaipada" 9¹FP97 verbs.
Verbs which can take both forms are known as
"Ubhayapada" 7¬497 verbs.
Each verb in Sanskrit can be traced to a root which we
may refer to as the root form of the verb. There are many
instances of verbs being derived from two different forms
of a root. The form of the root used in deriving the verb
will depend on the tense.
Forms of the verb for the different tenses and moods are
obtained by adding suffixes or prefixes or both to the
root form and adding an infix as well. So we may say
that the general for of any "lakara" is
(prefix) + root form + infix + suffix
The paranthesis indicates that the prefix is not present
in all the forms.
The infix is generally referred to as the conjugational sign.
The form of the infix is dependent on the root form as
well as person. In Sanskrit, the aksharas in the infix are
termed as |4T¹T9t44- and those in the suffix are
called |6=9t44- . The root form is known as «l6 .
The suffix is referred to as the verbal termination sign.
The form of the suffix depends on the lakara and we can
apply some rules to arrive at the suffixes. For each of
the lakaras, nine suffixes will have to be remembered.
Three persons and three numbers for each person make
up the nine.
It may be borne in mind that the verbal termination signs
also depend on the type of the verb, i.e., "Atmanepada"
or "Parasmaipada".
We have seen in lesson 3 the conjugations of the verb in
the present tense. Later in this lesson we shall study the
conjugations for the other tenses and moods. These will
be covered in independent sections.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Lesson10 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Past tense (simple past tense):
The form considered here is ¬=
As seen in the introduction, the formation of
the verb may be specified through a formula.
(prefix) + verb root + infix + suffix
The infix is based on the root and the personwhile
the suffix, referred to as the verb termination,
depends on the tense or the mood.
For the simple past tense, H is the prefix.
The terminations are as follows. These apply for
verbs in "parasmaipada".
Per. Sing. Dual Pl.
III. 6 6l H+
II. B 6 6
I. H 4 P
Applying the formula the forms of a verb will be
obtained as
III Sing. H÷vr÷H÷6
III Dual H÷vr÷H÷6lP
III Pl. H÷vr +H÷H+
II Sing. H÷vr÷H÷B
II Dual H÷vr÷H÷6P
II Pl. H÷vr÷H÷6
I Sing. H÷vr÷Hl÷H
I Dual H÷vr÷Hl÷4
I Pl. H÷vr÷Hl÷P
Now for the forms (past tense) of the verb ¬¬7|6.
The root form for the verb is ¬¬7
The infix corresponding to the root ¬¬7 is also H
for second and third person but Hl for first person.
Per. Sing. Dual Pl.
III. H¬¬76 H¬¬76l H¬¬7+
He went They two They went
went
II. H¬¬7- H¬¬76 H¬¬76
You went You two You went
went
I. H¬¬7 H¬¬7l4 H¬¬7lP
I went We two We went
went
The discerning reader would want to know why in
the case of the second person singular, there is
no conformity with the indicated termination B or
why differences are seen in applying Sandhi rules?
It must be remembered that there are specific grammar
rules in repect of how sounds are modified when suffixes
are added. Typically, the suffix B ,when added to a noun
or verb root, becomes a visarg. We will not dwell on this
much, as this is beyond the scope of our current lessons.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Lesson 10 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Future Tense- ¬|4!4tTl¬-
As seen in the introduction, Future Tense may
express something that is certainly going to happen
(¬³) or express something that may happen(¬³).
Of these two, ¬³ is seen in frequent use.
The infix for future tense is F4. This infix changes its
form to ²!4 when applied to some roots. In some cases
it may become !4. There is no direct rule or formula
which we can remember in respect of this infix. It
will be necessary to commit to memeory the forms
for different verbs.
For many verbs, two root forms may be seen. For
example,
¬P , ¬¬7 are the two root forms given for ¬¬7|6.
Likewise,
9l , |94 for |94|6 and
F¤l , |6U for |6U|6 .
The form of the verb for future tense will be based
on the first root where two roots are specified.
As seen earlier, the second form of the root will be
used in generating the verb in present tense, past tense
and imperative mood.
Let us look at the terminations for future tense.
The infix and the tense terminations are combined
together and shown here.
The table applies to verbs in "parasmaipada"
Per. Sing. Dual Pl.
III !4|6 !46- !4|-6
II !4|B !4¤- !4¤
I !4l|P !4l4- !4lP-
Now for the forms of the verb ¬¬7|6 in future tense.
III ¬|P!4|6 ¬|P!46- ¬|P!4|-6
He will They two They
go will go will go
II ¬|P!4|B ¬|P!4¤- ¬|P!4¤
You will You two You
go will go will go
I ¬|P!4l|P ¬|P!4l4- ¬|P!4lP-
I will go We two We will
will go go
The forms for |94|6. Please note that the form
of the root that is taken is 9l .
III 9lF4|6 9lF46- 9lF4|-6
He will They two They will
drink will drink drink
II 9lF4|B 9lF4¤- 9lF4¤
You will You (two) You will
drink will drink drink
I 9lF4l|P 9lF4l4- 9lF4lP-
I will We (two) We will
drink will drink drink
The student would have observed by now that he/she
will have to remember the root forms for many verbs
to be able to correctly form the verbs. Panini, the
foremost among Grammarians, had listed about 1950
root forms for Sanskrit. Surprisingly, knowledge of
just about 300 of the root forms will be adequate for
understanding Sanskrit texts.
If you arew curious as to what these 300 are, you may
have to wait for advanced lessons to be put up in these
pages! This is a big task and we would like to know if
you are interested. Send us a note.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−Lesson 10−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Summary of root terminations and verbal
terminations for different tenses and moods.
The tables given below may be used as a basic
reference for determining the forms of the verbs
in different tenses. The student is reminded that
the table is given only as a reference and the
terminations cannot be blindly applied to a root
form. It will be necessary to remember the root
forms for many verbs.
Terminations for the present Tense
9¹FP97 HltP+97
III |6 6- H|-6 6 ²6 H-6
II |B ¤- ¤ B ²¤ \4
I |P 4- P- ² 4r Pr
Terminations for the Past (imperfect) tense
III 6 6lP H+ 6 ²6l H-6
II B 6P 6 ¤l- ²¤l \4P
I HP 4 P ² 4|r P|r
Terminations for the Future Tense
III !4|6 !46- !4|-6 !46 !46 !4-6
II !4|B !4¤- !4¤ !4B !4¤ !4\4
I !4l|P !4l4- !4lP- !4 !4l4r !4lPr
In case of the Future Tense, we have already seen
that the general termination is F4. In some verbs,
F4 changes to !4 and also takes ² in the beginning
of the termination. The form shown above may be
interpreted in the light of this observation.
Terminations for the Imperative Mood
III 6 6l H-6 6l ²6l H-6l
II 6l6 6 6 F4 ²¤l \4P
I Hl|+ Hl4 HlP 9 Hl4r HlPr
Terminations for the Potential Mood
III ²6 ²6lP ²4- ²6 ²4l6l ²¹+
II ²- ²6P ²6 ²¤l- ²4l¤l ²\4
I ²4 ²4 ²P ²4 ²4|r ²P|r
Lesson-11
6l¤4l-'l - A pilgrimage
4B-6Tl¬- - Springtime
T³4P - |96lPr- , |96l (H*¹-), Pl6l (7Pl),
79l Plr+ ¬ ·
Family - Grandfather, Father (Shankar), Mother (Uma),
Mohan and Usha.
7Pl - |¬¹l6 44 |4¹lP + 9l|'4-6- ·
For a long time we have not had a vacation.
(It is a long time since we have had a vacation.)
H|FP+ ¬l!P T-'l5|9 ¬-6¤4P4 ·
We should certainly go somewhere this summer.
HFPl6 =+B*¬l6 F¤l+l6 7¹
T|FP|¾6 946 4+ 4l 9Tt4l
Br |T|¾tTl¬ 4BlP- ·
A place far away from this crowd into the mountains
or forests and spend some time with nature.
Hl ...... Hl ++ |rPl¬4946 ¬¬7lP- ,
|rP|HG¹l|T 974lP- ?
Ah!..... Yes, yes we will go to the Himalayas and
view the snow capped peaks.
H*¹- - |¬-644P ·
Let me think.
H|FP+ B4tB¹ PP 9¬ ³l Bl |4¹lP- 9l-F46 ·
This year my paid vacation is due.
6FPl6 ¤44F4 T6 |¬-6l |4+l 7¹4l-'l
T~9|46 HöP- ·
We can think of a long trip not worrying about the
expenses (or: and not worry about the expenses)
|96lPr-- H*¹ !, |¬¹T P4l 47¹l+l¤ T7l¹+l¤ ¬ 77
H|¬Tl|*6P · 6¬¬ PP Pt4l- 9lT ·
Shankar, for a long time I have had a wish to go to
Badrinath and Kedarnath before my death.
64 Pl6l H|9 966 94 Tl|*646l· 9¹-6 F4¬÷4
H¬-\4l 94 Bl P6l ·
Your mother too had the same wish. But she died
without achieving her desire ( without getting her
wish fulfilled)
7Pl- Hl 44 |rPl¬4946 94 ¬|P!4lP- ·
6¤l ã| B4lv'P| Hl¬4| 7÷4lP- ·
Yes, we will go to the Himalayas only and see two
of the most important shrines (temples).
FP¹|B 4l ? " |96¹l5|9 6|'l- HlPl- H|9 |B±l- ²|6 " ·
Remember the saying? The manes are satisfied and the
mangoe trees also watered.
6ã6 9T|6 H|9 ¬l÷4lP- 94 9'4¬*lFll+P|9
T|¹!4lP- ·
Like that we shall enjoy nature and also take our bath
in the holy Ganges.
H*¹- - 94 6|r 67¤ 4l=+l T|¹!4lP- ·
If so, we shall plan our trip.
79 , Plr+ 444l- |4Hl¬4F4 ¬l!P|4¹lP- T7l
Hl¹-46 ?
Usha, Mohan when does your school’s summer
vacation begin?
7Pl - 6|& P PlBF4 Hl¹¬ G¬ , 6|r T7l 6F4
9+6&l³+P ?
That is in the beginning of May and when does it
reopen?
Plr+ , 79l - 4HlGF4 P\4 ·
Middle of Visaka (End of May)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
lesson -11 Part-2
H*¹- - 94 ¬6 9T PlBF4 BP4- H|F6 G¬ ?
H4P4 7v'P- Tl¬- 47¹l+l¤¬-' ¬-6P ·
If so, we have a month’s time and that is the
best time to go to Badrinath.
|96lPr- - H¬¹466l4l- H+-6¹P4 47¹l+l¤-T7l¹+l¤l¬4|
7H+l¤ 7&l³46 ·
The two temples at Badrinath and Kedarnath open
for worship only after Akshaya thritheeya.
H*¹- - HT , 9¤P64l ¹~4l++ 7r¬l 9|6 ¬¬7lP- ·
66-9¹P .... r|¹ãl¹ 9|6 ¹~4l++ ¬lT4l++ 4l
¬-6 H146 ·
H¤4l 7r¹l7+ 9|6 ..... ·
Listen, first we go to Delhi by train and then ...
To Hardwar we can take a train or bus, or to
Dehra Doon....
|96lPr- - r|¹ãl¹P4 ¬¬7lP- , + 6 7r¹l7+ ·
6-' 9'4¬*l4l Fll+ Tt4l 6l¤4l-'l¹¬ TP- ·
Let us go to Hardwar and not Dehara Doon. After
a dip in the holy Ganges, we shall start our pilgrimage.
r|¹ãl¹¬-' B|'Pl¬9¹l9 H-46PP ·
T+G¬¬-' 94 7¬F4 |H¹- 4l¹¬7T 7|76P ·
It was at Kanakhal that Daksha’s head was severed by
Veerabhadra.
Plr+ , 79l - T¤4 , T¤4 ·
Tell me, Tell me !
Tl 4l 7¬- , Tl54 4l¹¬7- ?
Who was Daksha ? And who is this Veerabhadra ?
|96lPr-- H+-6¹ 4÷4l|P ·
I will tell later.
H*¹- - H6- 966 |+|¾6P ·
So it is decided.
94 7r¬l 9|6 ¹~4l++ ¬|P!4lP- ·
First we go to Delhi by train.
66-9¹ ¹~4l++ 94 , r|¹ãl¹ ¬|P!4lP- ·
Then we go by train again, to Hardwar.
¬lT4l+l6 ¹~4l+ BG6¹P ·
Train journey is more comfortable than journey
by bus.
|96l + 44l G¬ ·
Indeed! father is not young.
H*¹- - Tl4l¬4ãl¹l HFPlT ¹~4l+¬l|³Tl4l- Hl¹¬T
4l6l+T¬-|-'F6¹ H4+9|³Tl4l Tl¹|4!4l|P ·
I will get our A/C three tier sleeper berths reserved
through my office.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
lesson 11 Part-3
¬-' P\4 6l¤4l-'l4l- |74B- ·
Early May, the day of the pilgrimage.
7Pl - 79,Plr+ , äH Pl T66P ·
Hr 4l-'l¤ B7=lT¹l|P ·
Usha, Mohan, do not trouble me. I am preparing for
the trip.
¬¬76P · |96lPr+ Br B¬l9 T66 4l76P 4l·
Go, talk to your grandfather or play.
6l6 , ¬4l+ 6 4|r- 4l6l+ 97l¤l+ + Gl7|B ·
Father! you don’t eat anything bought from outside.
6FPl6 t47¤ |T|¾6 H!T¬÷4l|T B7=lT¹l|P ·
So I am preparing some dry food for you.
(that will last so that you can avoid eating food
from outside as far as possible.)
H*¹- - 7P , 6l¤9l-'l|T T¹7l9- 94 H4+F46l|+
²t4l7l|+ ¬rl6l|+ 4l ?
Uma, have you taken water cans, flash light,
sleeping bags and such?
79l,Plr+- 6l6 , Hl · H|9¬ |B&4|6Tl- H|¬9|³Tl 94
9ó+l¤ Tl|+¬+ 9F6Tl|+ H|9 F4lT6l|+ ·
Father, yes. We have also packed candles, match box
and some books to read.
7Pl - Hr T|694l|+ H|9«l|+ 7l9+l|+ 4F6|+ ¬ +!4l|P ·
I shall take few medicines and digestives.
H*¹- - Hr 94lT-«+l7Hl+ +!4l|P 6-' 6-' 9|¤ |4v'TlHl6
«+ltP+l 9|¹TlP TP- ·
I will take some traveller’s cheques. On the way
we can exchange them at banks for cash.
79l,Plr+- |4F66-Tl¹4l+ Hl¬6, 94 B|-6¬ H|9 H-'
Hl¬64l+ HFPlT 4l-'l4F6|+ +6P ·
The van is here and Senthil has come to pick up
our luggage.
7Pl - HF6 · ¬P+l6 9lT 746l 9l?4 4l-'l 9464lP- ·
OK, before departure, we shall pray to the Deity
and then proceed with our trip.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-11 Part-4
At the station ¹~4l+ |+¬4
H*¹- - 79 , Plr+ , ²6F66- Pl «l46P ·
PP rF6 ¬dl6 ·
H-4¤l =+B¹P7 +7| ¬46lP ·
Usha, Mohan, Don’t run here and there. Hold my hand,
lest you be lost in the crowd.
99l 6 4l6l+T¬ H4+9|³Tl, 9¹-6 |ãF6¹H4+9|³Tl ·
T-' H|F6 |-'F6¹H4+9|³Tl ? Hl ... 6-' H|F6 ·
This is an airconditioned compartment but it is
two tier. Where is three tier? Ah! there it is.
B|-6¬ , HFPlT 4l-'l4F6|+ 6-' +4 ·
H4+l4B=¹4l v¤ 6-
vv 94-6P ·
Senthil, please take the luggage there. Berth
numbers 40 to 44.
H*¹- - 6l6 ¬4l+ H-' ¬4l¬F4 |+T³ 79|4H6 ·
Father, you sit here next to the window.
Plr+- ++ Hr 6-' 79|4Hl|P ·
I will sit near the window.
79l - +,+, ++ Hr 6-' 79|4Hl|P ·
No, no, I will sit there (near the window)
|96lPr- - Plr+ t4 PP |+T³ H-' 79|4H ·
79 t4 6 PP 9¹6- 6F4 ¬4l¬F4 BPl9 79|4H ·
Mohan, you sit here next to me and Usha, you
sit in front of me near that window.
7v'P , 9¹-6 T¤ H-' H4+ ¬4|6 ?
H4+F¤l+ T-' ?
t4 6 7±4l+ |T¬ "H4+9|³Tl" ²|6 ·
Fine, but how do we lie down? Where is the
place (to sleep)? You said it is a sleeper compartment.
Plr+ , 79l - rl , rlrl (rB6-)
6l6 ¬4l+ +6+ |4Hl+ |T|¾6 + =l+l|6 ·
Ha, Ha Ha! (laugh)
Grandfather, you don’t know even a little bit
of things modern.
H-' 96 H* HlT946 , 9746 ¬46- H4+|4F6¹
Hl¬6P · H-' ¬4l+ H4+ T¹l|6 ·
Pull this lever. See your sleeper berth is spread
(folds out). You will sleep here.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-11 Part-5
9¹H- - Next Morning.
|96lPr- - T-' 44 9l|'l- ?
Where have we come?
H*¹- - 44 ²7l+l |4=44l7l BPl9 FP- ·
We are now near Vijayavada.
|96lPr- - Hl ! Hl-«97H FP- ·
H-' 6 6¬¬ ¬l9l 9¬¬|6·
¬l7l4¹l 6 BPl9 H|F6 |T ?
T|6 |+P9l- 6-' 9l|'P?
Oh! Are we in Andhra? Telugu is spoken here.
Isn’t Godavari close by? How many minutes
to reach there?
=l+l|6 4l ¬7l¬¬ , 4-' ¬¬4l+ ~l¹lP¬-7- 9¹l
|T|¾6Tl¬ H4B6 , B- H-|4 ¬l7l4¹l6l¹ H|F6 ·
Do you know Bhadrachalam, where long ago,
Lord Sri Ramachandra resided for some time?
It is situated here on the banks of the Godavari.
H*¹- - ²6- 9l4- 9T¤'³lBP4 9l9P- · 9¹-6 ¹~4l+
¬7l¬¬ + F¤lF4|6 ·
From here in about an hours time we will reach, but
the train does not stop at Bhadrachalam.
47l ¹~4l+ B6 6¹|6 , 67l +7l 77 HöP- ·
When the train crosses the bridge, we can see the river.
¬l=+l¤ +l¬9¹l 9l-F4lP- ·
For lunch we will be at Nagpur.
(Means: by lunch time we will reach Nagpur)
|96lPr- - +l¬9¹l HFPlT 9l¬l+ T¬l¬l¹F4 9T Pr6
T-7 HlBl6 ·
Nagpur was a great center of our ancient culture.
Bl |47¬7H H-6¬6l ·
She (Nagpur) is in Vidarbha.
79 , Plr+ , T- =l+l|6 ? |47¬7HF4 9¹4l66Pl
¹l=9-'l Tl HlBl6 ²|6 ?
Usha, Mohan, Who (between the two) remembers?
who was the most famous princess of Vidarbha?
Plr+ - Hr =l+l|P · 6|1PTl , S~lT!TF4 |94l ¬l4l ·
I know. Rukmini, the dear wife of Sri Krishna.
79l - 7P4-6l H|9, +¬F4 ¬l4l ·
Also Damayanti, wife of Nala.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-11 Part-6
|96lPr- − Hl · H|9 T|4¹l=l|«¹l=- Tl|¬7lB-
H-|4 =l6- ²|6 9T ·
Yes, according to some the king of kings among poets,
Kalidasa was also born here.
7Pl- 6l6, ¬46- P«+l ¬l¹T ¬ |P|~6 9¤T Gl76 ·
Father, please eat your beaten rice mixed with
milk and honey.
H*¹- - 79 , Plr+ , 9746 , 6l6- F4F4 Bl97l|4T
"Tl+ T¬1B" Gl7|6 ·
7Pl , HFP-4 79lrl¹ |T 94¬7|B ?
Usha, Mohan, see, Father is eating his traditional
"corn flakes"! Uma, what are you giving us for
breakfast?
7Pl - 96l¬F4 , 9|¹49T- Hl¬¬7|6 ·
|T Hl+4|6 ²|6 974lP- ·
Wait, the caterer will come. Let us see what he brings.
H-7- - 79lrl¹- , 79lrl¹- ·
Voice - Breakfast, breakfast.
H*¹- - ¬l · 79lrl¹l4 |T 94¬7|B ?
What are you giving (providing) for breakfast?
9|¹49T- - HlTlrl¹- 4l ? Bl|P9l 4l ?
Vegetarian or Nonvegetarian ?
H*¹- - HlTlrl¹- ·
Vegetarian.
9|¹49T- - ²7¬l , 47l , 9l*¬ ¬ · TlTl ¬l4l 4l·
Idli, Vada, Pongal. Coffee or Tea.
H*¹- - T|6 --4Tl|T ?
How much ? (How many Rupees?)
9|¹49T- - |4H|6 --4Tl|T ·
Twenty Rupees.
H*¹- - Bl|P9 |T |T 94¬7|B ?
What do you give in Non-vegetarian?
7Pl - |TP¤ 9¬7|B , t4 6 Bl|P9 + Gl7|B ·
Why do you ask? You do not eat Non-vegetarian.
H*¹- - :'l+l¤ 94 ·
Just to know.
9|¹49T- - ³lF³ 94 Hl¹¬³ ·
Toast and Omelette.
H*¹- - HFPlT ¬6¹- 79lrl¹l+ Hl+46 · HlTlrl¹- 94 ·
94 94 ¬l=+ T7l ¬-46 ?
We will have four breakfasts. Vegetarian only.
By the way, when do we get lunch ?
9|¹49T- - |ã4l7+ +l¬94l , BP4 9l-F4lP- ¬6 ·
Two O’clock at Nagpur, if we reach on time.
7|¬T ¬l¹6l4l 94 7v'¹¬l¹6l4l 9l³|¬Tl 9l-4l ·
South Indian and North Indian packets can be had.
Hl7+ , B9- , ¬-9l|v'- 9¹l 4l, HlT- , Bl4l¹ ,
7|« 94 9-9|³Tl · 9¾|4H|6 --4Tl|T ·
Rice, lentils, chappati or puri, vegetables,
sambhar, curds (yoghurt) and papad.
Twenty five Rupees.

H*¹- - HFPlT |6Fl- 9l³|¬Tl-, 7|¬T¬l¹6l4l- ·
For us three lunch packets, Southern type.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-11 Part-7
H9¹lñ- - Afternoon
¹~4l+ ¬l¹6F4 P\497H ¹¹4 4+H¬l|7Pl¬ 6¹|6 ·
The train is passing through the beautiful forests and
mountains of central India.
Plr+ - ¬|¬|+ , 9+- 9+- H¬l- , 9+- 9+- Tl++l|+ ,
74l|P6l + H+¬4|B 4l ?
Sister, again and again (these) hills, again and
again (the) forests. Don’t you feel bored?
79l - Hl · H-46 |T T|¹!4l4- ·
Yes, what else can we do?
Plr+ - |96lPr Tl|¾6 T¤l 4± 9l¤4l4- ·
We shall request Grandfather to tell us some story.
79l - B¹4T ·
Good.
79l,Plr+ - 6l6 6l6 T¤l 476 ·
Grandfather, tell us a story.
66 |7+ T¤|4!4l|P ²|6 H476 |T¬ · 6l T¤l ·
On that day you said you will tell us. That story.
|96lPr- - Tl T¤l ?
Which story?
79l - r|¹ãl¹F4 BPl9 T+G¬¬-' |H4+ 7¬9=l96- |H¹-
H9l86 ²|6 H476 · 6l T¤l 476 ·
You said that the head of Dakhaprajapti was severed by
Shiva at a place called kankhal near Hardwar. Tell that
story.
|96lPr- - 4l7 , HT6P ·
Ok, listen.
4rTl¬l6 94 7¬ ²|6 ¹4l6- 9=l9|6- HlBl6 ·
Long time ago there was a prajapati called Daksha.
(A prajapati is a leader of the people )
6F4 H+Tl- B6l- HlB+ ·
He had many daughters.
6lBl P\4 H-46Pl B6l Prl74F4 7|46l HlBl6 ·
Among them was Sati, the wife of Mahadeva.
(Mahadeva -Lord Shiva)
7¬- H|6 7tT7- 969- HlBl6 · (Ht4tT7-)
Daksha was a highly revered person.
6FPl6 B4 74l- 6F4 9TlP HT4+ ·
So all the Gods prostrated before him.
Plr+ - H|9 ¬¬4l+ |4!T- 9TP|6 FP ?
Even Lord Vishnu prostrated before him?
(The interrogative nature of the sentence must be
assumed)
|96lPr- - +, +·
No, no
79l - |H4l5|9 ?
Shiva too?
|96lPr- - +, 6+ Tl¹T+ |H4+ Br |4ã9 HT¹l6 ·
No, and so Daksha developed a hatred for Shiva.
7¬- T+G¬¬-' 9T Prl4:' T6 Hl¹¬6 ·
Daksha started a great Yagna (sacrifice) at the place
Kanakhal.
6|FP+ 4:' ¬l¬¬rTl¤ B4l+ 74l+ |+=7|r6
¬ Hlñ46 ·
He called all the Gods and all his daughters to
take part in the sacrifice.
|T-6 B6lPrl744l- |+P--'T + T64l+ ·
But he did not invite Sati and Mahadeva.
6¤l|9 B6l 4:' 77 |96¹| 77 ¬ 7tBTl HlBl6 ·
Still, Sati was very keen to attend the Yagna and
see her parents too.
Bl |H4+ |+4l|¹6l H|9 6-' Hl¬¬76 ·
Despite Shiva’s objections, she went there.
Plr+ - 7¬T TlcH Hl¬|¹6P ?
What did Daksha do? (Here it means- in the context
of Sati’s visit)
|96lPr- - |9-'l Bl B¹4T Hlc6l ·
She was treated well by her father.
4:' 7¬- B49l 74l+l 4:'¬l¬ H77l6 ·
In the Yagna, Daksha offered oblations to all the Gods.
9¹-6 B- |H4F4 ¬l¬ + BP|964l+ ·
But he did not offer Shiva what was due to him.
F4F4 ¬6- H9Pl+l6 B6l 7-|G6l H¬46 ·
Sati was saddened by the insult to her husband.
Bl |96¹ 6F4 Tl¹T H9¬76 ·
She asked her father the reason for it.
67l+l 7¬- |H4F4 |+-7l HT¹l6 ·
Daksha then abused Shiva.
B6l ¬6 |+-7l HBrPl+l F4F4 7r 4l¬l¬| H7r6 ·
Unable to bear the abuse of her husband, Sati burnt
herself in the Yogagni (Sacrificial fire).
6F4l- P¹T ~t4l |H4- H|6 67- H¬46 ·
Hearing of her death, Shiva was furious.
B- F4F4 B+l9|6 4l¹¬7 9!4 7¬F4 4:' ¤4+lH46 ·
He sent his commander in chief Veerabhadra and
destroyed Daksha’s Yagna.
94 7¬F4 |H¹- H|9 H9lr¹6 ·
Also he severed the head of Daksha.
66 ¬-' 4-' 7¬F4 |H¹- H966 , 66 T+G¬ ²|6
|4¹4l6 H¬46 ·
That place where Daksha’s head fell, became famous
as Kanakhal.
79l,Plr+ - 66- 9¹ |T H¬46 ?
What happened afterwards?
|96lPr- - B4 74l- 4’lT 9¹FTt4 |H4 H6l94+ ·
All the Gods with Brahma at the lead appeased
Shiva (through Hymns)
94 7¬F4 9+=l4+l¤ 9l¤4+ ·
Also they prayed for bringing Daksha back to life.
|H4- 9TF4 H=F4 |H¹- Hl¬-4, 7¬F4 ¬¬ H4l=46 ·
Cutting the head of a goat, Shiva fixed it to
the torso of Daksha.
94 7¬F4 9+=l4+ Hl¬46 ·
Thus Daksha regained life.
9+=l|46- 7¬- ¬PT ²|6 ¹4l6 47F6l-'
|H4F4 9HBl4l HT¹l6 ·
Daksha, who regained life, composed the Vedic Hymn
called Chamakam in praise of Lord Shiva.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-11 Part-8
9¹H-, 7r¬l ¹|~+¬4P
Next day, Delhi Railway station

H*¹- - 44 +6+7r¬l 9l|'4-6- ·
We have reached New Delhi.
HH Hr|+ H-' |F¤t4l , ¹l-'| r|¹ãl¹ 9|6 PFB¹l
t4|¹64l++ ¬¬7lP- ·
After staying here for the day, we will leave for
Hardwar, by the Mussorie express at night.
7Pl - ²7l+l T-' ¬¬7lP- ?
Where shall we go now?
H*¹- - 9¤P~Tl-96l¬l¬4 ¬t4l , 6-' Fll+l|7T
Tt4l, 66- H+-6¹ 7r¬l +¬¹ 77 ¬¬7lP- ·
We shall go to the First class waiting rooms, complete
our baths etc., and then go to see Delhi.
|T|¾6 H+-6¹P · A little later.
9l669lrl¹l+-6¹ 6 +¬¹ 77 ¬¬7|-6 ·
After breakfast, they go to see the city.
|96lPr- - 7r¬l +¬¹F4 9l¬l+ +lP ²-79F¤ ²|6
HlBl6 =l+l¤ 4l ?
Delhi city was called Indraprastha in ancient times.
Did you know that?
+ T4¬ HH ¬l¹6F4 ¹l=«l+l , 9¹-6 9l'74l+l H|9
¹l=«l+l HlBl6 ·
Not only is it the capital of India today, but it
was the capital of the Pandavas too.
Plr+,79l -6|r H-' 9l¬l+l|+ 7¬l|T 9lBl7l|+
¬ B|-6 4l ?
In that case, are there ancient forts and palaces here?
H*¹- - +, 7|¬l¹44Hl6 7r¬l¹l74 PrlP7l4l+l HlB+
4rTl¬ HlBl6 ·
No, unfortunately the kingdom of Delhi was under the
rule of the Mohammadans for a very long time.
|ã|4«l- PrlP7l4l- 7r¬l ¹l74 HlB+ HT4+ ·
96 4PH- B~6l+ 6¤l P¤¬B ²|6 ¹4l6l- ·
Two types of Muslim rulers ruled over Delhi. They were
known as Sultans and Mughals respectively.
6 9l4- 9¾lH6 H|«T 9³H6l|+ 49l|T
7r¬l+¬¹HlBTl- HlB+ ·
They ruled over Delhi for six hundred and fifty years.
67l+l 9l4- B4l|T B+l6+«Pl4 9lBl7l|+ P|-7¹l|T ¬
9\4|¹B6l|+ ·
During that period, all the palaces and temples of
Sanathana Dharma were destroyed.
=-6¹ P-6¹ ²|6 +lPl B4¬-7l|7-|+¹l¬Tl¬4 94 9¬l+9
H4|H7 F4l6 ·
Perhaps Jantar Mantar, the observatory, is the only
remnant.
T6|-P+l¹ BPl9 4- H4B F6¬- H|F6, B- H|9 (Bl5|9)
B+l6+«P96lT- 94 ²|6 T¬+ 47|-6 ·
The iron pillar near Kutubminar, according to some
people, belongs to Sanathana Dharma.
Bl4*l¬- ¹|~+¬4 9t4l¬6l-
Evening - Back at the Railway Station.
H*¹-- Hl¬¬7-6 B4 · HFPlT t4|¹64l+F4
H4+9|³Tl4l ¬t4l H4+ TP- ·
¹~4l+ Bl« 7H4l7+ 9F¤F4|6 ·
We will go to the sleeper compartment of our train and
sleep. The train will leave at 10.30 PM.
9¹|FP+ |7+ 9l6- 9¾4l7+
Next day, 5 O’clock in the morning.
7Pl - =l¬6 , =l¬6 · 9¾7H |+|P9l-6¹
44 r|¹ãl¹ 9l9P- ·
Wake up, wake up. Within fifteen minutes we will
reach Hardwar.
79l,Plr+ - Hl! H|6 Hl6 H|F6 ·
Oh! It is very cold.
7Pl - =l¬6 , Hl¤ 7|v'U6 , H-' ¹|~+¬4 4l+ T4¬
kticn |+P9l|+ |67|6 ·
Wake up and get up quickly. The train stops here only
for a few minutes.
|96lPr- - Hrl |774l · Hr HH4 96l ¬*l 974l|P ·
Oh! It is my fortune. At last I will be able to see
the holy Ganges.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-11 Grammar: Part-1
|¬¹ , |¬¹l6
|¬¹T, |¬¹l4 − All these words mean " for a long
time " or "over a long period" or just
"always". All the three are used synonimously,
ireespective of case ending.
++ − indeed , definitely, surely etc.. This is also an
indeclinable.
9¬ ³l Bl − stands for L.T.C or leave travel concession,
the Indian equivalent of a paid vacation. The
travel costs are paid by the employer.
B4tB¹ − In the year. B4tB¹ , 4tB¹ , 49 , H-7 are
used synonimously though there are subtle
differences between them.
T~9|46P − to plan, to imagine
An example of a 6P+
H|¬Tl|*6 − desired (also means waited for)
9lT − before. Whenever 9lT is used, the event denoted
by the noun or nominal clause refered to by
9lT should be in the fifth case.
e.g., ¬l=+l6 9lT F+l+ T¹l|6 ·
Before food he/she bathes. Here 9lT is used to
imply "before eating".
F4¬÷4P − one’s aim or one’s desire and goal.
HlPl- H|9 |B±l- |96¹l5|9 6|'l-
A sanskrit proverb which is roughly equivalent
to the English proverb " to kill two birds with
one stone"
¬-'P\4 − in the middle of the month of ¬-'
9+6&l³+P - reopening
H4P4 − sandhi H4 ÷ 94
H¬¹466l4l − A very important occasion on the third day
after Newmoon in the month of ¬-'. This was
the day on which Goddess Uma (Parvati)
married Lord Shiva.
¹~4l++ − by train , instrumental case
This word is a modern word coined from ¹¬ and
4l+ , ¹~4l+ means train. Similarly ¬lT4l+ or
Bus.
9'4 − holy
B|'Pl¬94- − As per the traditions of Sanathana Dharma,
residing and leaving the mortal body in one
of these seven towns in India, takes the soul
to heaven. Pl¬P is usually taken to mean
Heaven. In the scriptures it refers to the
liberation of the person from worldly distress.
Indians view the seven towns as places which
remove bondage.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lessson-11 Grammar Part-2
T+G¬ − Refer to the notes given in lesson-7
The place where Daksha’s Yagna was
performed.
7¬- − As per the Puranic lore of India, one of the ten
Prajapathis or leaders of people.
44l G¬ − Youth indeed
4l6l+T¬ − Air-conditioned
A new word in Sanskrit formed from 4l6-
and H+T¬ . Surprisingly, even the English
term is coined !
B7=lT¹TP − preparations
B¬l9P − converse, talk to
äH- − trouble
4l6l+ − purchased, bought
|44l6l+ means sold, the opposite of 4l6l+
H4+F46l|+ − Sleeping bag
A coined word (in English too!)
T¹7l9- − Flash light, or a light held in hand
Note how the word is formed T¹ is now
an adjective refering to the hand and 7l9- refers
to a lamp or source of light.
6l¤9l-' − Water jug, a word coined from 6l¤ and 9l-'
|B&4|6Tl − candle
H|9«l|+ − Medicines
7l9+l|+ − Digestive:
Also =¹Tl4l|+ from the root =l¹
«+l7H- − Cheque ( financial instrument)
coined from «+ and Hl7H-
94lT«+l7H- − 94lT means travel, so you can guess the
meaning of this word easily.
Yes, it means Traveller’s Cheque
|4F66Tl4l+P − Again a coined word.
|4F66 means widened. So a widened car,
meaning thereby a Van or a mini bus.
Refer to the earlier note on ¬lT4l+P
Hl¬64l+ − means "has come"
9464lP- − commence or begin
¬rlT − hold
=+B¹P7 − in the crowd
H4+l4B=¹4l − Berth No. (In a sleeeper coach)
++ − means "only" in this context. "I only"
BPl9 − near or in the vicinity
|+T³ also means the same.
H4+F¤l+ − sleeping place ( the berth in the coach of the
the train with sleeping arrangements)
H* − means a lever. Here it means a small catch that
should be released to swing the berth into
the sleeping position.
H4+|4F6¹ − bed
|4=44l7l − A town on the banks of the river Krishna
in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.
Hl-« − A state in the southern part of India facing the
Bay of Bengal.
6¬¬ − A language spoken in Andhra, characterized as
the language with a melodious flow of words,
where most of the words end in aksharas which
always include a vowel, i.e., not ending in a
generic consonant.
¬7l¬¬ − A holy spot on the banks of the river Godavari
where Lord Rama (one of the ten incarnations of
Vishnu) was supposed to have resided during his
search for Sita.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 11: Grammar part-3
¤'³l − An hour. Also used in the dual sense of
duration and time.
F¤lF4|6 − stops (verb) (is going to stop)
B6 − Bridge
6¹|6 − crosses (verb) 6¹TP − crossing
+l¬9¹l − A city in the heart of India.
9l¬l+ − ancient
T¬l¬l¹- − culture. T¬l¬l¹- − a composite word
formed from T¬l and Hl¬l¹ . We are not
surprised that this combination has manifested
in the word "culture" in English.
T-7 − Center T-7l4 − central
|47¬ − An ancient state (region) of India to which
great emperors like Nala belonged. The emperors
had a common title called ¬l!PT- .
¹l=9-'l − princess
9¹4l66Pl − most well known
~lT!T- − One of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.
Lord Krishna plays an important and central
figure in the epic Mahabharata.
6|1PTl − one among the eight wives of Sri Krishna
+¬ , 7P4-6l − Nala, the king of Nishada on whom the
poet Harsha has composed the Naishada kavya.
T|4¹l=l|«¹l=- − The King of Kings among poets. A
compound noun.
Tl|¬7lB- − One of the greatest poets of India, who
has composed world renowned Sanskrit works
such as Sakuntalam, Raghuvamsam etc..
9¤T − Beaten Rice , used as a cereal and eaten with milk.
¬l¹ − milk . 94-, 7¹« also refer to milk.
P« − honey
Bl¹97l|4T − traditional
B¹97l4- − tradition
96l¬F4 − wait (imperative)
HlTlrl¹- − derived from HlT- meaning vegetable.
Bl|P9lrl¹- − derived from Hl|P9 meaning flesh or meat
:'l+l¤P − In order to know. Just to know. when the ending
H¤ is added to certain nouns, it gives the
purpose for which the action is done or taken up.
Pl¬l¤P − In order to be liberated or for the
purpose of liberation
¬l=+l¤P − for the purpose of taking food
F+l+l¤P − for the purpose of taking a bath
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-11 Grammar part-4
BP4 9l-F4|6 ¬6 − The word ¬6 stands for ’ if ’.
Here it means ’ if the train reaches on time"
A few examples,
9¹l¬l 7v'¹l|P ¬6 If I pass the examination
7Hl¬ 9l-F4|B ¬6 if you get the job
9l³|¬Tl − means a packet, of paper or cloth
In this case it refers to a food packet.
H9¹lñ − Afternoon
94lñ − ante-meridian or before noon
4+ − Forest
4+ , Tl++ , Tl-6l¹- all refer to forest
H¬ − mountain
|¬|¹- , H¬ , 946- refer to mountains
=l|P6l − boredom
T¤|4!4l|P − will tell the story. This word is in Future
tense.
H9lr¹T − removal, in this lesson it refers to the severing
of the head.
4l7P − just means OK or alright
B6l − daughter
B6l , 9-'l , 6+4l , HltP=l , T-4l , 7|r6l
all mean ’ daughter ’
H+Tl − many
The word is formed by prefixing 9T- with H+
The prefix H+ has the effect of negating or
giving the opposite meaning of the word to which
the prefix is added.
Some examples,
H-6P − end or limit H+-6P − limitless
Now, do you see the connection in
ending and unending
oppose and unoppose
armed and unarmed ?
The connection you see is reason enough to
reckon Sanskrit as the very first language of
the world.
There are other prefixes which are similar
The prefix 9 is also seen in the same manner.
It means before. For instance
preschool, predetermine !
6lBl P\4 H-46Pl − One among them
Usage of the word will depend on the gender of
the noun referred to.
e.g., T¬l+l P\4 H-46P B¤4T¬
Apple is one among fruits.
9|646l+l P\4 H-46Pl Bl6l
Among the Pativrata Sthrees (women of honour
in following a life of chastity) Seetha is one.
7Hl+l H46l¹lTl P\4 ~lT!T- H-46P-
Sri Krishna is one of the Avataras (of Lord Vishnu)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 11 Grammar Part-5
7|46l − dearest: Here it means ’ wife ’
It may also mean ’ daughter ’
7tT7- − great
9TlP − obeisance
|4ã9 − enmity
Prl4:' , 4:' − 4:' is a sacrifice and Prl4:' is a
great sacrifice.
¬l¬- − share, portion
|+=7|r6- − one’s daughters
|+P--'T - invitation
B6lPrl744l- − to Sati and Mahadeva
|96¹| − parents.
Note: |96¹| may also mean two fathers (Dual).
Here it means father and mother.
7tBTl − eager, keen (7tBT- − masculine)
|+4l|¹6l − forbidden
Hlc6l − well received , well treated
BP|964l+ − presented
¬6- − of husband
H9Pl+ − insult
H9¬76 − asked or questioned
|+-7l − abuse
HBrPl+l − unable to bear (refers to a person)
BrPl+- − masculine BrPl+l − feminine
bearing or withstanding
(able to bear or withstand)
F4F4 − one’s
7r − body
4l¬l¬| − In the Yogic fire
This is a reference to the fire kindled by the
control of the vital airs in a person. A belief
as per the Sanathana Dharma.
P¹T - death
67- − angry, angered
B+l9|6- − commander in chief
4l¹¬7- − Name of Lord Shiva’s commander in chief
¬-' − a center of Pilgrimage
In general it means a cultivated place.
But may have different meanings in
different contexts.
4’l − The God Brahma
9¹FTt4 − Keeping in the lead
This word is composed of 9¹- − in front
and Tt4l (T6)
9+=l4+l¤ − In order to restore (one’s) life
H=¹4 − unbeatable, unconquerable
Hl¬-4 − having procured or after procuring
The proper meaning is cut into pieces
¬¬ − the part of the body just below the head,
comprising the neck, nape
¬PT − This refers to the Vedic Mantra in the Krishna
Yajur Veda, which Daksha recited. It contains
many instances of the akshara P which resembles
the sound of bleating.
9HBl − praise
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 11 Grammar Part-6
F6l-' − A praise , usually in the form of verse
9¹H- − next day
t4|¹64l+ − Express Train (fast train)
9¤P~Tl − 96l¬l¬4 − First class waiting room
in a railway station
²-79F¤ − The ancient name for Delhi when it was
the capital of the Pandava empire
¹l=«l+l − Capital
9l'74l+l − Of Pandavas,
Please refer to the previous lesson to
get the meaning
7¬l|T − Fortresses, castles 7¬P − singular
9lBl7l|+ − palaces, buildings
7|¬l¹44Hl6 − unfortunately
is derived from 7¬l¹4P − misfortune
by adding 4Hl6 − due to
Tl94Hl6 − due to anger
PrlP7l4l − The followers of Mohammad the Prophet
HlB+ - Under the rule of
4rTl¬ − long time
|ã|4«l- − two types
4PH- − respectively, in that order
B+l6+«P- − The literal translation of this is
" the eternal code" . In this lesson, it refers to
the so called Hindu religion.
P|-7¹ − temple P|-7¹l|T − plural
9\4|B6l|+ − demolished
=-6¹ − P-6¹ − 4--'P|-7¹P
refers to an observatory in Delhi built
several hundreds of years ago. It has a unique
sun-dial.
This word is a rendering in Hindi of the Sanskrit
root words 4--' P|-7¹ or Instrument Palace.
|+¹l¬Tl¬4 − Place of observation
|+¹l¬TP− observation
The word Hl¬4P is added as we have seen
earlier, to many nouns to denote the place of
occurrence of the action specified by the noun.
The word ¬-'P is also used in place of Hl¬4P .
H4|H7P− remaining
H4FF6¬- − H4B F6¬- Iron pillar
H4B or H4- refers to Iron.
This is root word from which the word "Iron"
is derived.
There is a pillar made of Iron in Delhi, in front
of the Kutub Minar which has never rusted. This
is a metallurgical marvel that continues to
puzzle scientists and engineers even now in
the twentyfirst century.
96lT- − symbolic representation.
9¹|FP+ |7+− anothert day , the same meaning as 9¹H-
|774l − fortunately, by good luck
966¬*lP− the Holy Ganges (river)
Lesson-12 Part-1
6l¤ 4l-'l
Introduction: This lesson is a continuation of
events in lesson-11.The sequence of case endings
and tenses is also continued. The novelty here is
to introduce the student to usages of terms typical
of ancient Indian culture.
r|¹ãl¹ ¹¬ |+¬4
Scene at the Haridwar Railway Station.
79l - ++ , B9|6 |T T|¹!4lP-? T-' 6l46 ¬¬7lP-?
TP|9 rl³¬ 4l Bl«+l Hl~P ¬¬7lP- ?
So, what should we do now? Where do we go?
To a Hotel or an Ashram of the Saints?
H*¹- - + 7¬4 · PP Tl4l¬F4 |4~l|-6¬r
H-' ¬*lT¬ H|F6 ·
P+l|T ¹|6 ²|6 F¤l+ H|F6 ·
4F6 6- |¬|¹Pl¬ 94 H|F6 ·
HFPlT 9TlUl|+ 6-' Hl¹|¬6l|+ ·
Neither, my company has a rest house on the
banks of the Ganges, at a place called
Muni ki Reti. In fact, it is on the way to the
mountains. Our rooms are reserved there.
Plr+ - 4l|=HT³+ ¬¬7lP- ?
Shall we go by horse cart?
H*¹- - Hl
Yes.
6 |4~l|-6 ¬r 9l94|-6 - They reach the rest house.
|4~l|-6 ¬r - At the rest house.
|+4lrT- - Hl²4 Blr4 Hl9 P7¹lB B Hl ¹r r + ?
Hl9 Tl +lP 14l H*=l r ?
Caretaker- Please come Sir. Aren’t you coming from
Madras and aren’t you Shankarji ?
7Pl - 99- |T 47|6 ? + |T|¾6 H4¬¬7l|P ·
Uma - What is he saying? I don’t understand anything.
H*¹- - HrP|9 (or PP H|9)
t4 Hl=¹¬¬l9l =l+l|B 4l ?
Shankar - I too (don’t understand)
Do you know English ? (this is addressed to the
caretaker)
|+4lrT- - Bl4 " Pl +l ²=¹¬l9 " |r-7l Hl|-¬ ·
caretaker - Saab, " me no english " Hindi only .
H*¹- - H«+l |T T|¹!4lP- ?
Shankar - What shall we do now?
|96lPr- - rl U r P7¹lB B Hl ¹r r ·
rPl¹ ¹r+ T |¬4 4-7l4F6
|T4l rHl r 14l ?
Grandfather- Yes, we are coming from Madras.
Has any arrangement been made for our stay here?
|+4lrT- - 4l4l|=, Hl9 T |¬4 B4 6¹4l¹ r ·
Hl9 H¬7l |r-7l 4l~6 r· Hl²4 ·
Caretaker- Father, everything is ready for you. You speak
good Hindi. Please come.
7Pl, H*¹- - 6l6, ¬4l+ T¤ |r-7l ¬l9l 47|6 ?
T7l T-' H9ó6 ?
Uma, Shankar - Father,how are you able to speak Hindi?
When and where did you learn ?
|96lPr- - |T P-4B ? 44 4&l- |T|¾6 + =l+lP-
²|6 |4¬l¹4|6 4l ?
94 44 47l 44l+- HlFP , 67l B4 |r-7l
¬l9l ¹l7¬l9l ²|6 |4¬l4 T|6r¬+ 9|ó64-6- ·
Grandfather- What do you think? We old people do not
know anything- Is that what you think ?
When we were young, we learnt Hindi happily
with the feeling that it is the national language.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-12 Part-2
¬*l4l - Scene at the banks of the Ganges.
Plr+ - Hl ..... Ht4+ =7l ¬4|6 ,
H|FP+ =¬ T¤ |+P7=lP- ?
Ah! it is freezing cold. How do we take a dip?
7Pl - + T4¬ Ht4 , 94lrF4 H|9 H6l4 4¬- H|F6 ·
=¬ 97P|9 ¬l6l5|FP , T6l 4l 94H- ?
Not only is it freezing but the flow is so fast.
I am afraid even to touch the water.
Where is the question of dipping?

H*¹- - 4¤l 9¬l9 Pl T6 · B4 Hl¬¬7-6 ·
44 9TTF4 rF6 9¹F9¹
¬rlt4l =¬ 9|4HlP- ·
BT6 P7=+l6 9¹ Ht4 + H+¬4P (or H+¬4lP-)
Come on, give no excuses. Come everybody, we will
hold each other’s hands and enter the water. Once we
dip we shall no longer feel cold.

9¹|FP+ |7+ 9l6-Tl¬ - Next Morning.
6 +9lTH ¬¬7|-6, T7l¹+l¤F4 94 47¹l+l¤F4 Pl¬ ·
6-' ¬÷PT7l¬l 974|-6 · 4l¬| ¬÷PTB6l69|¹ 4l76- ·
¬*l4l- 7v'¹ 6³ Tl¾+ Hl~Pl+ H4¬lT4|-6 ·
6 6-' ¬*l4l Fll+ T4|-6 ·
94 |7+ 6-' Hl|-64±l \4l+P¬l ¬*l c74l
Hl¾4¬|T6l- H¬4+ ·
They reach Rishikesh enroute Kedaranath and Badrinath. They
see the Lakshmana Joola (wooden suspension bridge) across the
Ganges (believed to have been first built by Lakshmana). The
children play on the bridge. They see some of the ashrams on
the other bank of the Ganges. They have their bath there in the
Ganges. Looking at the Ganges which is peaceful and pensive in
comparison with the previous day’s (Ganga at Hardwar), they
are wonderstruck.

66 |7+ Bl4*l¬ · Same Day, in the evening.
H*¹- - H- 9¬l6 44 |rPl¬4946F4l9|¹ Hl¹lrlP- ·
|rPl¬4F4 99 ¬l¬- |68l ¬74l¬ ²|6 ¹4l6- ·
44 9T+ |4F66 Tl¹4l++ ¬l³T 7t4l ¬|P!4lP- ·
94 Pl¬ T|694 P¹4F¤l+l|+ 94 74l¬4l+ 7÷4lP- ·
9¤P64l 47¹l+l¤ 9|6 ¬|P!4lP- ·
We will ascend the Himalaya Parvata tomorrow
morning.
This part of the Himalayas is called Tehri Garhwal.
We shall hire a van and proceed so that we can see some
important places and temples on our way.
First, we shall go to Badrinath.

|96lPr- - +4 (+ 94) · |+4PF6 T7l¹+l¤ c74l 94 47¹l+l¤
9|6 ¬-6¤4 ²|6 · 4F66F6 9¹l 6l¤4l|-'Tl- 9¤P
4P+lv'¹l c74l , 66- ¬*lv'¹l 9|6 ¬t4l, 66- T7l¹47¹l
4l-'l 9T4|-6 ·
No, not that way. The rule is that one should see
Kedaranath first and then go to Badrinath.
Actually, in the olden days, pilgrims would first
see Yamunottari, then to Gangottari and thereafter
proceed to Kedar and Badri.
4l ~lT!TF4 |94l +7l 4P+l Tl|¬-7l ²t4|9 ¬l46 , Bl
4P+lv'¹l6- 9¬4|-6 ·
The river Yamuna, the darling of SriKrishna which is
also called Kalinidi, starts from Yamunottari.
¬*l+7l 6 ¬*lv'¹l6- + 9l7¬4|6 ·
9¹-6 66 F¤l+l6 9l4-
9T 4l=+ 7¹ ¬lPG ²|6 F¤l+l6 ,
9¤P64l c|7¬l¬¹ Hl4l|6 ·
66- ¬*lv'¹l 9|6 94r|6 · ¬lPGF4 Pl¬- H|6|ä7- ·
6FPl6 9l4H- B4 ¬*lv'¹l 94-6P4 ¬¬7|-6 ·
Ganga actually does not start at Gangottari, but she comes
into sight at a place called Gomukh about ten miles from
there. From there she flows towards Gangottari. The way
to Gomukh is very difficult. So most people go only
upto Gangottari.
79l , Plr+ - 6l6 6l6 T¤ ¬lPG ²|6 +lP ?
Grandfather, Why the name Gomukh?
|96lPr- - 4FPl6 ¬*l4l- |+¬Pãl¹ ¬lPGBcH ¬4|6 ,
6FPl6 94 +lP ·
It is because the source sprout of Ganga appears like
the face of a cow. So the name.

79l , Plr+ - 66- 94 ¬*l 9¬4|6 4l ?
Does Ganga start from there?
|96lPr- - + , T6- Bl Hl¬¬7|6 ²|6 + Tl5|9 =l+l|6 ·
¬lPGl6 94 Bl Hc74l ¬t4l
H|67¹l6 Hl¬¬7|6 ²|6
HFPl|¬- ~6P ·
No, Nobody knows where she comes from. We have
heard that she comes from very far away before Gomukh
but is invisible.
H*¹- - 94 ¬6 T7l¹+l¤ 9|6 94 9¤P ¬|P!4lP- ·
If so, let us go to Kedaranath first.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-12 Part-3
7Pl - Hl , H-|4 94 Ht4 ¬6 , 79|¹ TlcH ¬46 ?
Ah! it is so cold here itself. How will it be above?
Plr+ - ¬|P!4PlTl+l F¤l+l+l |T46 7¬|6- F4l6 ?
What will be the height of the places we intend visiting?
H*¹- - ++ H46l7|9 H|«TP4 Tl³ F4l6 ·
Indeed, it will be more than ten thousand feet.
6-' |+¾4+ H|6Ht4 ¬4|6 94· 94 44
Ht4+ T9P|r ·
It will certainly be very cold. We shall shiver in the cold.

79l - 94 ¬6 ²6l5|9 T4¬l|+ HlT4F-'l|T ¬ +6¤4l|+ G¬ ?
If so, should more blankets and woolen clothing be taken?
H*¹- - B4-' T4¬l- ¬-4-6 · 9¹-6 HFPlT HlT4F-'l|T
+6¤4l|+ 94 ·
Blankets will be available everywhere but we have to
take woolen clothing.

9¹|FP+ 9¬l6 Next Morning
|96lPr- - Fll+l+-6¹P4 ¬¬7lP- 4l ?
Do we go after our baths?
Plr+ , 79l - T7l|9 + · |T H-|4 |rP|H¬l|46 ²¬7|6 4l ?
No way, do you wish to freeze (into ice)
here itself?
|96lPr- - Fll+ |4+l T¤ ¬¬7lP- ? 9|¤ Fll+l¤
B|T4 H|F6 + 4l ²|6
+ =l+lP- · ~l-6l- ¬|4!4lP- 94lT+ ·
How can we go without a bath? We do not know if there
are facilites for bathing enroute. We will become
tired after traveling.
H*¹- - |¬-6lPlF6 · 9|7- |T Pl 7¹ 7494l¬-
²|6 F¤¬ |4~l¹4lP- ·
6-' Fllt4l H~9lrl¹ Tt4l 9+- 94lP- ·
Don’t worry. sixty KM from here we will rest at a
place called Devaprayag. There, after our baths and
breakfast, we can proceed.
|96lPr- - 4l7P
OK.

6 ¬*4l- Br |T|¾6 7¹ ¬¬7|-6 ·
P\4 +7l +4+9¤l6 H9¬¬7|6 ·
66l5|9 |T|¾6 7¹ 7494l¬ F¤¬ 9l94|-6 ·
They go along the Ganges for some distance.
Midway, the river disappears from sight. After some
distance, they reach Devaprayag.
Plr+ - 79 , 974 , H-'l|9 9Tl ¬÷PT7l¬l H|F6 ·
4l7l4- , Hl¬¬7 ·
Usha, see, here too there is a Lakshmana Joola.
Let us play, come.
H*¹- - 96lcHl 7l¬l- 4r¤4- B|-6 ·
4l +9lTH |F¤6l Bl 94
¬÷PTH¬l ²|6 7¬46 ·
There are many such bridges. The one in Rishikesh
alone is called Lakshmana Joola.
6 ã4l- +Hl B*P 9l94|-6 ·
They reach the confluence of the two rivers.
H*¹- - BT6 H-' Fll+ TP- ·99l 6 ¬*l 94 , Bl Tl ?
First, let us bathe here.
This is Ganges but which is the other?
|96lPr- - H-' ¬*l¬T+-74l- B*P- ·
|+T³ 94 ¹¤+l¤F4 P|-7¹
¬|46 Hr|6 ·
Here, it is the confluence of the Ganga and Alakananda.
There should be the temple of Raghunatha close by.
79l - 6l6 6l6 , PP |4¬l¹- 6 94l¬- P\4¬l¹6 H¬rl4l7
+¬¹F4 BPl9 466 ²|6 · T¤ H-'l|9 94l¬- ¬4|6 ?
Grandfather, I thought that Prayag was in Central India
near Allahabad city. How is it there is a Prayag here too?
|96lPr- - HT , 4-' 4-' ã4l- B|¹6l- B*P- ¬4|6 ,
6-' 6-' 94l¬ ²|6 +lP ·
Listen, wherever there is a confluence of two rivers,
it is called Prayag.
HFPlT 9|¤ H-45|9 4r4- 94l¬l- B|-6 ·
9|6B*P 66l4l 9Tl H-64l|r+l +7l H|F6
²|6 |r-74- |4HB|-6 ·
On our way, there will be many more Prayagas. The
Hindus believe that at every Prayag, there is a third
river underground, but it is not visible to the eye.
So, in reality, threre are three rivers.
9¹-6 ¬¬¬l¬¹ + ¬4|6 · 6FPl6 4F664l
|6Fl- +H- 94 B|-6 ·
H¬rl4l7 +¬¹F4 BPl9 94l¬F¤¬ ¬*l4l-
4P+l4l- 94 B¹F4t4l- B*Pl ¬4|6 ·
In the Prayag near Allahabad, there is the confluence
of Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswathi.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-12 Part -4

6 Fll+ Tt4l ¹¤+l¤F4 P|7¹ c74l 9+-
94lT 7-PGl- ¬4|-6 ·
They have their bath, see the Raghunatha temple and once
again concentrate on their journey.
7Pl - ²7l+l TF4l- +Hl- Pl¬ H+Bt4 ¬¬7lP- ?
7¬4l H|9 P+lr¹l ·
Now which river do we follow? Both are beautiful.
H*¹- - H¬T+-7l H+Bt4 ¬¬7lP- ·
(or H¬T+-7l4l- 94lrP+¬¬7lP-) ·
We shall follow Alakananda.
²6- H¬T+-7l4l- 6l¹ 94 Tl¹ 4l¤l H|F6 ·
Only along the Alakananda there is a road.
¬*l 9|6 ¬-6 ²¬7l ¬6 9l¬ 94 |6r¹l
Pl¬ ¬-6¤4 HlBl6 ·
If one decides to go along the Ganges, one should have
taken the road to Tehri earlier.
6 ~l+¬¹ 9l94|-6 ·
~l+¬¹- ¤74l¬ 97HF4 P\4 9Tl H|6B-7¹l 7lTl ·
6-' ¬l=+ F4lT64-6- ·
They reach Srinagar. Srinagar is a very beautiful valley in the
Garhwal district. They have their lunch.
|96lPr- - Hl¬T , Hl¬T , Hl¬T - B4-' Hl¬T ·
Hl¬T |4+l |TP|9 H|F6 4l ?
Potatoes, potatoes and potatoes everywhere. Is there
anything without potatoes?
H*¹- - |774l 96l46 94-6 Hl¬T H|9 ¬-46 ·
By God’s grace, at least we are getting potatoes.
²6-9¹ 6 967|9 ¬-46 4l + 4l, + =l+lP- ·
From now on, whether even this will be available,
we do not know.
T4¬ ¬-9l|v' 94 ¬-4- ·
Only chappatti’s will be available.
7Pl - |TP|9 4l ¬46 · 6l6F4 T6 |T|¾6 H!TT¬l|+ 94
H!Tl|+ GlHl|+ +l646l · +±lrl¹l¤ T-' F¤l+P ?
Whatever may be, for Grandfather I have taken some dry
fruits and dry eatables.
H*¹- - 6794l¬ 94-6 HH ¬¬7lP- 94 6-'
¹l-'| 4BlP- ²|6 P-4 ·
66- 9¬l6 ¬¬7lP- ·
We shall proceed upto Rudraprayag and halt there for
the night I think, and proceed from there in the
morning.

6794l¬ At Rudraprayag
79l - 6l6 6l6, H-'l|9 ã +Hl- B*¬76- 4l ?
Grandfather, two rivers join here too?
|96lPr- - Hl ·
Yes.
Plr+ - 6794l¬- ! r ¬¬4+ !
Rudraprayag. Oh, God!
P4l 6 ~6 H-' +¹¬l|=+- ¤4l¤l- 4r4- B|-6 ²|6 ·
I have heard that there are many man-eaters here.
966 P4l |=P Tl4³ Prl74F4
P+ ²³B HlT TPl7+ 9F6T 9|ó6P ·
I have heard that there are many man-eaters here. I read
this in Jim Corbett’s book ’Man eaters of Kumaon’.
H*¹- - Pl ¬9l- · H-' ¤4l¤l- H|9 + B|-6,
|Brl- H|9 + B|-6 ,
T4¬ HFPlcHl- +¹l- B|-6 ·
Don’t be afraid. There are neither tigers here nor lions.
There are only people like us.
79l, Plr+ - ²-7l- B|-74 974 ·
Look at the beauty of the moon.
6F4 |rP|HG¹F4 79|¹ 9c746 · H|6 ¹¹4 + ?
It is visible above that snow peak. Isn’t it charming?
H*¹- - H-' |T46l Hl|-6- ·
|H¬lB =¬94lrF4 ¹4- 94 966 97HF4
9Hl|-6 ¬V4|6 ·
Oh! How peaceful it is here.
Only the sound of the water beating against the rocks,
breaks the silence of this place.
|96lPr- - Hl , 9¹-6 Hl¤P4 4lBF¤l+ 9|6 ¬-6¤4 H|F6 ,
4-' H|¬ BPl9 7!Tl T6 HöP- ·
Yes, but we have to go to the rest house soon where
we can warm ourselves in the fire.
6 6794l¬ 9T |4~l|-6 ¬r ¬¬7|-6 ·
6 9¾ Ht4+ T9Pl+l- HlB+ 4+ Ht4+ 6 H9|¹|¬6l- ·
They go to the rest house at Rudraprayag. All the five
shiver in the cold as they are not used to it.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-12 Part-5
9¹\4- Next morning.
|96lPr- - H-' H¬T+-7l P-7l|T-4l Br B*¬7|6 H6-
H-' |H4|4!Tl- B*P- ·
Here Alakananda joins the Mandakini and so there
is a confluence of Shiva and Vishnu.
79l - T¤ ?
How?
|96lPr- - P-7l|T+l +7l T7l¹+l¤l6 ¬-'l6 Hl¬¬7|6 ·
The Mandakini river comes from Kedaranath
temple town.
H¬T+-7l 47¹l+l¤¬-'l6 Hl¬¬7|6 94 64l- H-'
P¬+ ¬4|6 ·
Alakananda comes from Badrinath and the two
join here.
94l± ¬-' ¬¬46- |H4F4 F¤l+ · H9¹ |4!Tl- F¤l+ ·
The former is the abode of God Shiva and the latter
that of Vishnu.
P4l 7± |T¬ 4-' 4-' ã4l- +Hl- B*P- , 6-' 6-' 66l4l
+7l H-64l|r+l -9T ¬4|6 · Bl B¹F46l 4’-|9Tl ·
Have I not mentioned that wherever two rivers meet,
a third one flows as an undercurrent? That Sarawati is
of the nature of Brahma.
6FPl6 H-' 6794l¬ |r-7+l 9«l+74-'4 |4¹l=6 ·
So, here at Rudraprayag, the important trinity of the
Hindu Gods reside.

H*¹- - ²6- 44 P-7l|T-4l- 6l¹ H+Bt4
T7l¹+l¤94-6 ¬¬7lP- ·
From here, we shall proceed along the Mandakini upto
Kedaranath.
Bl T-'|¬6 HFP6BPl9 94r|6 , T7l|¬6 T|694
rF64¬H6- |+P 94r|6 ·
At some places, she will flow near us and at places,
hundreds of yards, below us.
7Pl - 974 , 946F4 H|FP+ HB| 9lH-
7P¹l46- P¹T674lP- ¬l|6 ·
|T-6 47¹l+l¤F4 9lH H!T¬|P- 94 c746 ·
Look, this side of the mountain is full of trees and
appears green. On that side (towards Badrinath) it
looks barren.
|T|¾6 7¹ ¬t4l After travelling some distance.
H*¹- - 974 |-'4¬l+l¹l4T |=¬|P9- H|FP+
9|¤ ¬-6 Hr|6 ·
Look, those who want to proceed to Triyuginarayan
should take this path.
Plr+ - |-'4¬l+l¹l4T- ²|6 |TP ?
What is Triyuginarayan?
|96lPr- - HF4 946F4 |HG¹ Hr|+H
=l74~4Pl+- H|¬- H|F6 ·
On the top of this peak, there is a fire burning day
and night.
99l H|¬- B7l 74¬|6 94 -'6l4¬l6
Hl¹-4 |+¹-6¹ 74¬|6 ²|6 47|-6·
This fire burns always and is supposed to be burning
right from Tretayuga.
6 ¬|¹lT'7 9l-4 6-' ¹l|-' 7|9t4l 9¹|FP+ 9¬l6
4l-'l 9+- 9l¹¬-6 ·
They reach Gowrikund and stay for the night there.
Next day, they start their trip again.
7Pl - H-' 77¤4 |TP|9 H|F6 4l ?
T¤ HF4 ¬|¹lT'7 ²|6 +lP ?
Is there anything to see here? How did the name Gowri
Kund arise?
|96lPr- - Hl , H-' 7!Tl7T T'7 H|F6 ·
H-|4 ¬¬46l 9l46l
69- H696 |H4 9|¹T6P ·
Yes, there is a hot water spring here. It is here that
Goddess Parvati performed penance intending to marry
Lord Shiva.
H-' Fllt4l =-Pl-6¹ T6l|+ 9l9l|+ +¹- |4+lH4|6 ·
Taking one’s bath here, one destroys all the sins
committed in all one’s previous incarnations.
6 B4 7!Tl7T6l¤ Fll+ T4|-6 ·
They all have their baths in the hot water spring.
H*¹- - ²6- T7l¹+l¤ 94-6 B|' |T Pl 7¹
9T4l 94 ¬¹46 ·
6l6 t47¤ P4l ’7'7l’ BB|7=6l·
From here one has to walk the seven KM distance to
Kedaranath. Father, for you I have arranged a dandi.
|96lPr- - 66 |TP ?
What is that?
H*¹- - HlB+ 9T ã4l- Tl¬T 7'74l- 79|¹
4\4l ¬6|¬- +¹-
FT-«9 +l46 ·
A chair is bound to two bamboo poles and is carried
on the shoulders by four men.
HH+ H|9 ¬-6 H146 9¹-6 66 äHl4 ¬4|6 ·
One can go on horseback too but for father, it will be
difficult.
79 , Plr+ HHF4 79|¹ ¬¬7|B 4l ?
Usha, Mohan, do you want to go horeseback?
79l, Plr+ - + , Hl4l 9T4lP4 ¬¬7l4- ·
No, we shall walk.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-12 Part-6
79l , Plr+ 94 6l6- T7l¹+l¤ 9l-4 7PlH*¹4l-
|+|Pv'P 96l¬T T4|-6 ·
|T|¾6 H+-6¹ H*¹- H|9 9l9l|6 ·
4r|4¬4+ 7Pl äl-6l 6-' 9l9l|6 ·
Usha, Mohan and Grandfaher reach Kedarnath and wait
for Shankar and Uma. A little later Shankar also reaches.
Much later Uma arrives extremely tired.
H*¹- - H-6 t4 9l|'46l ·
¬|¹lT'7 9|6|+4|6646l ²|6 P4l |¬|-66P ·
At last you reached.
I thought you had returned to Gowrikund.
7Pl - ²7l+l t4 P4l Br 4l7|B ·
You are jesting with me now (are you)?
H|6äl-6l 9|¤ 94 P|¹!4l|P ²|6 P4l |¬|-66P ·
|TP¤ T7l¹+l¤- 94 äH+ 9l-4- ·
I am so tired that I thought I’d die on the way.
Why should Kedarnath be so difficult to reach?
|96lPr- - 7P t4 HH ²H4l4 -¤¤° 6P B4tB¹
Hl«|+TB||4\44±
Tl¬ 9|¹74+ T¹l|9 ·
Uma, In A.D.2001, with all modern conveniences you
are complaining.
Hl|7H*¹¬¬4t9l7- 9¾|4H|6 H6 B46B¹-4- 9l¬4
H-' T4¬ Tl9lB4F-'ã4-4±l- 94 TP'7¬+l
Br H-' Hl¬64l+ ·
Bhagavadpada Shankaracharya, attired just in two
cotton clothes and his kamandalu had come here
twentyfive centuries ago.
B- HF4 P|-7¹F4 =lTl&l¹T Tt4l 9=l 9&|6
F¤l9|4t4l 94 9=TF4l|9 |4|« 9|6Ul|964-6- ·
After renovating the temple here, he established the
system of worship and also the rules for the Pujari
(priest).
6+ 47¹l+l¤¬-' H|9 9l|' 94 6-' H¬T+-7l4l-
|rP6l4F4 P\4l6 47¹l+l¤F4 |4¬r- 7\c6- ·
6+ 6 |4¬r P|-7¹
9|6Ul-4 9=l4l- 94 9=TF4 ¬ |4|«- |+|77- ·
He also went to Badrinath and acquired the idol of
Badrinath from the ice cold waters of the Alakananda.
He installed the idol in the temple and also laid down
the rules for the worship and for the priest.
t4 6 T4¬ B|' |T Pl 7¹ 9T4l ¬t4l 67|9
HlT4F-|- Hl¬7lH 94 Pl¬ ¬lä³ H|9 ¬|4t4l
|4¬9|B |T¬ ?
You, having walked only seven KM, that too well
protected in woolen clothing and chewing chocolates
all the way, complain?
7Pl - Hl¬l4 ¬¬479l7F4 |494 PP H|9 BrP|6- 94 ·
9¹-6 , B- HFP7BcH- Bl«l¹T- ¤4|±- + HlBl6 ·
¬4l+ T¤ =l+l|6 , TlcH T7 P4l Pl¬ H+¬6P ·
As far as Shankaracharya is concerned, I agree with you.
But he was no ordinary person like us. How would you
know the difficulties experienced by me on the way?
|96lPr- - t4 |T P-4B , Hr P|B7B 4-B ãl¹l H-'
Hl+l6- ²|6 · 94 + ·
969l 9t4TF4 ¬¬+¹l|6- 9¤T ·
What do you think? That I was brought here in a
Mercedes Benz? It is not so. These four, each one
had a different gait.
|H¬l- ¬°4Pl+l- TlT9 9|¹46Pl+l- Pl 79|¹
H«- 9+- 9+- 9|¬|'4-6- ·
P\4 P\4 Hr 94T H«- 9|6!4l|P ²4 ¬l4+l =l6l ·
¬l¬l+l¤- 94 T4¬ PP ¹¬T- HlBl6 ·
While they avoided the rocks or negotiated bends, they
threw me up and down again and again. I felt that I
will fall down.
6 H4|H7 |7+ |4~l|-6 T64-6- ·
94 T7l¹+l¤ ¬-'F4 H¬||TTl
Hl|-6 B|-74 ¬ c74l |4|FP64-6- ·
9¬l6 P-7l|T-4l Fll+ Tt4l,
P|-7¹ T7l¹+l¤ c74l 9=l T64-6- ·
H*¹- 4’TP¬l|+ Hl+l¹4 ²H¹ -44746 ·
They rest for the remaining part of the day. And they
wondered looking at the divine place and beauty of Kedaranath.
In the morning, they have their baths in the Mandakini and
offer their prayers in the temple of Kedaranath.
Shankar brings some Brahmakamal lotuses and offers them
to the Lord.
7Pl - |T|F¬6 9!9 966 ? 9T ²4 ¬l|6 ?
What kind of flower is this? It looks like a lotus.
H*¹- - 966 4’TP¬ 6¹l69|¹ |4TB|6 77
TP¬|P4 Hl¬l|6 ·
6FPl6 4’TP¬ ²|6 +lP ·
H|FP+ 97H ¬-46 ·
This is Brahmakamal. It blossoms on a tree and looks
like a lotus. So it is called Brahmakamal. It is seen
in this place (means that it grows prdeominantly in this
region).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-12 Part-7
|96lPr- - 79 , Plr+ 974 966 |¬* F44¬ ·
H¤l6 F44P4 Hl|4¬6 + P+!4T T6P ·
Usha, Mohan, look, this Linga is self made.
Swayambhu, i.e., it came up on its own and is
not man made.
7Pl - |T46l B6||'- P+B- ! ²6- |+46+ |¬-6+P4
P+B- äHl4 ·
What satisfaction to the mind! Even to think
of returning from here is painful.
|96lPr- - Bt4 , 9¹-6 966 HBr+l4 Ht4P ·
P\4lñ 7T4F-'F4l|9
H-6¹ 94 T¹9Pl+ H¹l¹P ·
True. But this unbearable cold. Even at noon one
shivers within the woolen clothing.
H*¹- - 66 4¤l6¤l 4l ¬46 · HFPlT 6 47¹l+l¤
H|9 77¤4 |T¬ ?
Be that as it may. Don’t we have to go to Badrinath?
6 ¬|¹lT'7 9T4l 9t4l¬¬7|-6 · 66- 4lr+ãl¹l
6794l¬ 4|-6 ·
9¹|FP+ |7+ 47¹l+l¤ 9|6 9+-94lT 9¬¬|6 ·
9|¤ 74l|6Pó 9l94|-6 ·
They return to Gowrikund by foot. From there to
Rudraprayag by vehicle. Next day, their journey towards
Badrinath is resumed. On the way they reach Jyotirmath.
(Also called Joshi Math)
|96lPr- - H*¹ , |6UlP H-' |T|¾6 Tl¬ ,
P4l ~6 H-' Hl|7H*¹T
F¤l|96 9ló H|F6 ²|6 ·
¬69 |7¬ 6+ 9lól|+ F¤l|96l|+ ·
7v'¹lPl4 9ló H-|4 H|F6 · Hr 66 77 ²¬7l|P ·
Shankar, stop here for sometime. I have heard that
there is a Peetham established by AdiShankara here.
In all the four directions Peethas were established by
him. The northern ritualistic Peetha is here.
I want to see that.
Hl~P c74l 6 47¹l+l¤ ¬-' 9l94|-6 ·
6-' ¹l|-' 7|9t4l 9¬l6
47¹l+l¤ 77 ¬¬7|-6 ·
After seeing the Ashram, they reach Badrinath. After
spending the night there, they go to see Badrinath
(temple) in the morning.
7Pl - 6l6 ¬46l 7± |T¬ H-' +¹+l¹l4Tl¹4| Pr9l
HHl|9 69- T4-6| F6- ²|6 ·
94 +l¹7- P|+¾ H-4 ²-7l|7 74l¾
47¹l+l¤ 9=4|-6 ²|6 ·
Father, did you not say that the two Maharshis Nara and
Narayana are doing penance here even today? And also
that Narada Muni and the Devas like Indra worship
Badrinath?
|96lPr- - 7Pl , 974|B 4l 6 946 : 4F4
Bl+| 47¹l+l¤F4 P|-7¹
H|F6 , B- +l¹l4T- · 96F4 9¹6- 99-
|rP|HG¹l96- 946-
+¹- ²t4¬46 ·
Uma, do you see that mountain at the foot of which
Badrinath’s temple is situated? That hill is Narayana.
Opposite that, the snow peaked mountain is called Nara.
+l¹7F4 |H¬l ¬¬¬rF4 H-6- H|F6 ·
¤PTl¬ 47l |rP + ¬4|6 67l P+!4- 9746 47¹l|4Hl¬- ·
Narada’s idol is inside the Sanctum Sanctorum of
the temple. In the warm months, when there is no snow,
people worship Badri Vishal.
9'PlB 47l |rP+ Hl46 ¬4|6 , 67l 74- 9746 , 67l
+¹- H-' + Hl4l|6 · T4¬ 6¬7l9 974l~4 +¹l- ¬¬7|-6 ·
During the six months when it is covered with snow,
the Devas worship (him), people do not come here.
They just light a lamp and go.
9'PlBl6 H+-6¹ 47l 9+¹l¬|P!4|-6 67l H|9
B- 7l9- 74¬|6 ·
When they return after six months, the lamp remains lit.
H*¹- - 44 6|'T'7 Fll+ Tt4l 9+¹!4lP- ·
Let us have our bath in the hot water spring and return.
66- H¬T+-7l 6l¹ ¬t4l Hl6¬=¬+ 9l¬T
Tt4l +l¹7 |H¬l c74-6- ·
Thereafter they go to the Alakananda river, sprinkle
the cold water on themselves and see the Narada rock.
H*¹-- HFPl6 F¤l+l6 94 47¹l+l¤B |H¬l Hl|7H*¹-
7\c64l+ 94
P|-7¹ F¤l|964l+ ·
From this spot only Adi Shankara lifted the idol
and installed it in the temple
6 Bl¬l6 P|-7¹ ¬t4l 47¹l+l¤ 9T¹4 |+47+ Tt4l
9¹PB-67l- 9|6|+4|664-6- ·
They visit the temple of Badrinath, pray and worship and
return extremely satisfied.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-9 Grammar Part-1
B9|6 − now
Bl«+l Hl~P- − Hermitage, a place where Saints
live, equivalent of a monastery.
+ 7¬4P− neither , 7¬4 − both
|4~l|-6 ¬rP − Rest House
¬*lT¬- − The banks of the river Ganges. ¬*l6l¹-,
¬*l6³- are also terms which mean the same.
4l|=HT³P - Cart drawn by Horses
HT³P − cart
Hl*:¬ ¬l9l − The English Language
H4¬¬7l|P − I understand H4¬¬7 − To understand
4l¬| − two children
Note here that even if one of the two is a girl,
the masculine form is used. However, if both
the children are girls, the corresponding term
would be 4l|¬T .
H4¬lT4|6 − looks, sees
Hl|-64±P − Peaceful, serene, calm
\4l+P¬lP − in deep contemplation
Hl¹lrl4lP- − (they) climb, Hl6r − to climb, ascend
H46P − a word that stands for 10,000
|ä7- − From the root word äH- meaning physically
disabled or strained and also, strenuous.
H|6|ä7- − very strenuous
|+¬Pãl¹P − The meaning here is a source from which
water sprouts.
T9lPr , T9P|r − shiver from
T9 − to shiver, shake
T4¬ − blanket HlT4F-'l|T − woolen clothing
¬¬¬l¬¹ − visible to the eye
+4+9¤ − also means the same
7lTl − a valley
²¬7- − one who desires
Tl¹4l¤l − Motorable road
H+Bt4 − following
B¬P − to join B¬¬76- − two (rivers) join
H9|¹|¬6l − Unfamiliar, not introduced yet
P¹T674lP- − Dark Greenish. P¹T6 is a special
stone deep green in colour.
rF64¬H6l|+ − a measure approximately one yard
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-9 Grammar Part-2
9«l+ 74-'4 − In the Hindu Pantheon, the fundamental
deities are three, in charge of creation,
protection and destruction respectively, of the
universe and its contents. They are known as
Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara (Shiva). This
triad is referred to as 9«l+ 74-'4P .
|4¹l=6 − reigns
H-64l|r+l − subterrain current or flowing inwards
-'6l4¬- − In the Hindu concept of Time, the earth on
which we live, has gone through cyclical aeons
which are four in number. They are
T6 , -'6l , ãl9¹ and T|¬
The cycle of the four spans a period of
43,20,000 human years and they are divided
in the ratio of 4,3,2,1. So Kaliyuga, the last
will be of duration which is a tenth of the span,
or 4,32,000 years or a little less than half a
million years.
The current millennium, i.e., the twentyfirst
century, is approximately the 5100th year
in kaliyuga.
|+¹-6¹ − Permanent, without a gap in time.
=l74~4Pl+- − burning prominently
Hr|+H − Day and Night
H|¬- − Fire
77¤4 − worth seeing
=-Pl-6¹ − in the course of multitudes of births
i.e., among many reincarnations
69- − penance
H696 − did penance
7|9t4l − having stayed
HHl9|¹ − on horseback
4r|4¬4+− After a long time or after much delay
9|6|+4|6646l − returned (she)
P|¹!4l|P − I will die
96l46l − so (much)
9|¹74+ T¹l|9 − are complaining (you)
B||4\4 4± − with comforts
²H4l4 − means A.D (Anna Domini)
9=l − worship 9=T- − one who worships
Also means a priest
9=l 9&|6- − the ritual code
Hl|7H*¹¬¬479l7- − A hallowed saint who lived in
the fifth century B.C. Sankara, was responsible
for teaching the people, the fundamental concept
of Advaita, or principle of non-duality.
Tl9lB 4F-'ã4 − two cotton clothes
9¾|4H|6H6 B4tB¹-4- 94 − Two thousand five hundred
years ago.
TP'7¬ − an earthen or wooden vessel for keeping
water. Saints carry such
a vessel with them wherever they go.
=lTl&l¹T − restoration, renewal from
=lT- − digested
7&l¹TP − reinstallation
|4¬r- − image, idol
7\c6P − secured, upheld (past tense)
9|6Ul9+P − installation (usually of a |4¬rP)
Bl«l¹T- − ordinary
|4H9- − special, the opposite of Bl«l¹T-
¤4|±- − individual
Hl+l¹4 − having brought
66 − tree , so 6¹l69|¹ − on a tree
F44¬ − arising on its own without any external
cause(s)
H¬||TTl − unworldly, meaning divine or heavenly
In this lesson, we formally introduce the verb HB (to be).
HB denotes existence in all its variants.
Sanskrit is unique in that three forms exist for
each noun. They are singlular, plural and dual.
The third form dual is to beused when refering
to two persons at a time.
The Sanskrit names for these forms are
singular 9T4¬+P
¦kavacanam
plural 4r4¬+P
bahuvacanam
dual |ã4¬+P
dvivacanam
As in other languages, Sanskrit also distinguishes
sentences in first, second and third person. The
sanskrit terms for these are.
7v'P 969- - First Person
uttama puruºa©
P\4P 969- - Second Person
madhyama puruºa©
9¤P 969- - Third Person
prathama puruºa©
Let us first look at some sentences.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
This section deals with the verb HB ·
Hr Hl¬l4- H|FP I am a teacher
aha¨ ¡c¡rya© asmi
t4 |H!4- H|B You are a student
tva¨ ¹iºya© asi (Disciple)
99- Prl¹l=- H|F6 He is an emperor
¦¹a© mah¡r¡ja© asti
99l Prl¹l:'l H|F6 She is a queen.
¦º¡ mah¡r¡j±¢ asti

Note that Sanskrit does not use the definite or
indefinite article. The translator has to introduce
the article as required.
9F6T H-' H|F6 The book is here
pustaka¨ atra asti
P|-7¹ 6-' H|F6 The temple is there
mandira¨ tatra asti

Let us now look at some expressions involving
|ã4¬+ or the dual form.
Hl4l 4H| F4- We (two) are doctors
¡v¡m vaidyau sva©
44l ¬±| F¤- You (two) are devotees
yuv¡m bhaktau stha©
96| B4T| F6- They (two) are servants
¦tau s¦vakau sta© (servant-masculine)
96 B|4T F6- They (two) are maids
¦t¦ s¦vik¦ sta© (maid - feminine)
T¬ H-' F6- Two fruits are here
phal¦ atra sta©
9T 6-' F6- Two lotuses are there
padam¦ tatra sta©
Expressions involving the plural form.
44 ¬l¬Tl- FP- We (all) are drivers
vaya¨ c¡lak¡ha sma©
44 9l¬Tl- F¤ you (all) are cooks
y£ya¨ p¡cak¡ha stha
96 44Tl- B|-6 They (all) are young lads
¦t¦ yuvak¡ha santi
96l- 4464- B|-6 They (all) are young women
¦t¡ha yuvataya© santi
4+l|+ H-' B|-6 Forests are here
van¡ni atra santi
9l-'l|T 6-' B|-6 Vessels are there
p¡tr¡²i tatra santi
--------------------------------------------------------------------
In this section, the verb HB is used as H|F6 to denote
possession (in the sense of have)
PP 9-'- H|F6 I have a son or
mama putra© asti My son is here
PP 9-'| F6- I have (two) sons or
mama putrau sta© My (two) sons (are) here
PP 9-'l- B|-6 I have (more than 2) sons
mama putr¡ha santi or My sons (more than 2)
are here
The above sentences can be translated in two ways
since Sanskrit does not have the definite article.
Also the same verb HB is usd in two different ways
to mean "is" and "have".
The correct meaning will have to be understood from the
context. Though this may appear a bit confusing, the
student will be able to make the distinction with some
practice.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2 Section-3
The table given below summarizes the use of
the verb HB in different forms.
Conjugation of the verb HB
Singular Dual Plural
Ist person H|FP F4- FP-
IInd person H|B F¤- F¤
IIIrd person H|F6 F6- B|-6
In Sanskrit, the verb will have to conform to the Person
and Number.

The table below gives examples of the three noun forms
(in the nominative) of the nouns 9-'-, B|4Tl and T¬P
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine 9-'- 9-'| 9-'l-
Feminine B|4Tl B|4T B|4Tl-
Neuter T¬P T¬ T¬l|+
Each noun, will have to be remebered with respect
to its three forms, i.e., singular, Dual and Plural.
The personal pronouns also have three forms
Singular Dual Plural
I per. Hr Hl4l 44
I We two We
II per. t4 44l 44
You You two You(many)
Please note that the personal pronouns in First and
second person have no gender.
The personal pronouns corresponding to the possessive
case are also given in the three forms. In the first
and second person they have no gender.
I per. PP Hl44l- HFPlT
my our our
II per. 64 444l- 4!PlT
your your(two) your
The Demonstrative pronouns have three forms too.
Singular Dual Plural
Mas. 99- 96| 96
he these two these
B- 6| 6
Fem. 99l 96 96l-
she these two these (many)
Bl 6 6l-
Neut. 966 96 96l|+
this these two these
66 6 6l|+
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Exercises for lesson 2.
Exercise-1
Here are some examples of questions and answers
relating to this lesson.

Q. |T 966 64 9F6T Is this your book ?
A. Hl 966 PP 9F6T yes, it is my book.
Q. |T 99- 64 ¬l6l Is he your brother ?
A. + 99- PP ¬l6l +l|F6 No, he is not my brother.
Now, try and answer the questions given below.
The answer may be in the affirmative or negative.
The type of answer required is also indicated.
1. |T Bl 64 F4Bl Hl _______________________
2. |T 99l 64 ¬l4l + _______________________
3. |T 66 64 4lr+P + _______________________
4. |T 99- 64 ¬6- Hl ______________________
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2
Exercise-2
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate singular,
plural or dual form of the noun. Study the example
given before proceeding further. We are introducing
numbers as well.
Example:
H-' 9F6T H|F6 6-' ã 9F6T F6-
ã - two
Questions:
1. H-' 9-'- H|F6 6-' -'4- _____ B|-6
(-'4- -three)
2. H-' B|4Tl H|F6 6-' ¬6Fl4- ____ B|-6
(¬6Fl4- - four)
3. H-' 44|6 H|F6 6-' B|' _______ B|-6
(B|' - seven)
4. H-' 44T- H|F6 6-' H7 _______ B|-6
(H7 - eight)
5. H-' T¬ H|F6 6-' ã ________ F6-
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2
Exercise-3
Fill up the blanks with appropriate demonstrative
pronouns. An example is given first.
6-' ¬r H|F6 66 PP ¬r
----
1. 6-' |96l H|F6 ______ PP |96l
2. 6-' +l¹l H|F6 ______ 64 Pl6l
(+l¹l - lady)
3. 966 T¬ ________ PP T¬
4. H-' 969- H|F6 _______ PP |96l
5. H-' ¬G+l H|F6 _______ 64 ¬G+l
(¬G+l - pen)
Please remember the distinction made earlier
between B- and 99-
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2
Exercise-4
Fill in the blanks With the appropriate form of the noun
and the verb HB . An example sentence is given.
T|6 H*~4- B|-6 7H H*~4- B|-6
-----
1. T|6 B4l- B|-6 9T- ________________
2. T|6 6l¹l- B|-6 4r4- ________________
(4r4- - many)
3. 9T rF6 T|6 H*~4- B|-6 9¾ _____________
4. T|6 +4+l|+ B|-6 ã ___________________
+4+P -eye declines like T¬P
5. T|6 TT- B|-6 ã| __________________
TT- - ear (masculine) declines like 9-'-
6. HHF4 T|6 9l7l- B|-6 HHF4 ¬t4l¹- __________
7. Tl4l+F4 T|6 ¬4l|T B|-6 ¬t4l|¹ ____________
8. 4B|T¬ 4l+F4 T|6 ¬4l|T B|-6 ã ___________
9. T|6 4lTl- B|-6 ã ___________________
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2
Exercise-5
Fill up the blanks with the appropriate form of HB .
Example.
Hr ¬l¹6 H|FP B- HP|¹Tl4l H|F6
-----
Hr +9l¬ H|FP 6| 9l|TF6l+ F6-
−−−−−
1. Hr +9l¬ H|FP 6 ¬l¹6 _______ (Dual)
2. +4l¬¹l HP|¹Tl4l H|F6
T~Tv'l 94 P7¹lB ¬l¹6 __________
3. Hr T9- H|FP 6 T9l- ___________
T9- - thin and lean, declines like 9-'-
4. Hr 7¬6- H|FP 6l- _________
5. HlP T¬ F¤¬ H|F6 HlP T¬l|+ __________
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2
Exercise-6
Form questions as shown in the example.
966 PP «+ 966 |T 64 «+P
----
1. 966 Hl44l- «+ 966 |T ______ «+P
2. 966 HBPlT «+ 966 |T ______ «+P
3. 966 PP 9T 96 |T ______ 9T
4. 966 PP Tl4l+ 96 |T ______ Tl4l+
Tl4l+P - Motor vehicle , declines like T¬
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2
Sanskrit Numerals.
We have used numbers in the sentences seen
earlier. The names given to the ten numerals are given
below. Devanagari has its own symbols for the
numerals and these are also shown alongside.
Please note that number 1 will apply only to
9T4¬+P while 2 will apply to |ã4¬+P . The first
four numbers alone have variations depending on the
gender. The remaining six have the same form for all
the three genders.
Table of Numerals.
N0. Name Sym. Masc. Fem. Neut.
1 9T ° 9T- 9Tl 9T
2 |ã - ã| ã ã
3 |-' ° -'4- |6Fl- -'l|T
4 ¬6¹ v ¬t4l¹- ¬6Fl- ¬t4l|¹
5 9¾+ - 9¾ 9¾ 9¾
6 9³ ° 9³ 9³ 9³
7 B|'+ ÷ B|' B|' B|'
8 H7+ < H7 H7 H7
9 +4+ ° +4 +4 +4
10 7H °¤ 7H 7H 7H
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Let us look at an example. The word ¬|
(in English, cow) may have many distortions
such as
T| (cow) , T (kuh) , ¹4 (gyu) etc..
Panini further gives the sutra |B& H-7l¤B¹4-«
which is interpreted by the Bhashyakaras to mean
the eternal connection between sound and its
meaning. The "Darshana Shastras" place specific
emphasis on this eternal connection between a
word and its meaning. What the Samskritarians
have proceeded on is the conviction that the
Vedic language is the universal and natural
language. There is no place for any other
language in this scheme!
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-2: Summary
In this lesson, we have seen the use of the verb
HB (to be). We have observed that in Sanskrit
there are three numbers, namely Singular, Dual
and Plural. The Dual form is unique to Sanskrit
though one does encounter the dual form in
Arabic and Avestan.
when we use a noun, we must know in which of
the three numbers we must use it. In a later
lesson, when we study cases, we will see that every
noun will have a form for each of the eight cases
that a noun can be used in. With three numbers
and eight cases, there will be 24 forms for each
noun. Don’t be alarmed. The forms are easily
remembered.
Each verb will be remembered in nine forms,
three forms each (singular, dual and plural) for
first person, second person and third person.
The personal pronouns I and you do not have any
gender. There are three forms for each of the
demonstrative pronouns he, she and this.
This lesson deals with elementary conversation.
Here, we introduce a family of four. A couple and their
two children. The elder of the children is the son.
The father is +¬ and the mother 7P4-6l
The son is «P and his younger sister is 4P+l
The conversations take place during the day.
9l6- - It is early morning
7P4-6l - r «P =l¬|r , 4P+l =l¬¹4 ·
Oh Dharma! wake up, wake Yamuna up.
²7l+l 9l6- 9³4l7+P ·
It is now six o’clock in the morning.
r «P Hl¤ 7|v'U , 4P+l 7t¤l94 ·
Oh Dharma! get up quickly, (and) wake
Yamuna up.
A few minutes later:
7P4-6l - 7-6«l4+ T6 4l ?
Have you brushed your teeth ?
«P- - 7-6T+T T-' H|F6 ?
Where is the toothpaste ?
7P4-6l - F4lT6 , 4P+l4l- 7-6T¬ 4¬7 ·
Here, take this, give Yamuna the toothbrush
7P4-6l - 44l ¬l¹ |946 ·
You (both) drink your milk.
+¬- - 4P+ , 974 |7+9|-'Tl Hl¬6l 4l ?
Yamuna, see if the Newspaper has been
delivered. ( The literal meaning of the sentence
is Yamuna, see if the Newspaper has come)
A little later:
7P4-6l - 9TT Fll+ T6 ·
One by one, take bath.
«P- - 4P+ Hl¬¬7 · 9l6- 9l¤+l T4- ·
Come, Yamuna. Let us offer our morning
prayers. (Again, one should note the correct
translation here and not do a literal
translation of the words.)
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-3 part-2
H+-6¹ - Afterwards:
7P4-6l - B4 Hl¬¬7-6 , 79lrl¹- B7=-·
Come, all of you. Breakfast has been set.
+¬- - HH 79lrl¹ |T T646l ?
What have you made for breakfast ?
7P4-6l - 7lBl 94 Bl¹4l¹ ·
Dosa and sambar.
«P- - 7lBl H6l4 6|¬T¹l H|F6 ·
Dosa is very tasty (delicious)
4P+l - Pl6- ²6l5|9 |T|¾6 H|«T Bl¹4l¹ ¬4-·
Mother, give me some more sambar.
(Please note the informal request. This
is the usual manner in which one requests
for additional serving. The formal
"may I have some more sambar" is never
used in Indian homes.)
«P- - T¬lHl¬l4l |4H9T÷4l H|F6 ·
H6- t4¹ Hl¤ ¬¬7l|P ·
I have a special class in the college (so)
I am hurrying.
+¬- - Bl4«l++ 4lr+ ¬l¬4 ·
Drive the vehicle carefully.
(essentially, drive carefully)
7P4-6l - ¬4l+ 4P+l ¬lT4l+ 4l46 +46 ·
Please, take (lead) Yamuna to the school
bus. (this is addressed to Nala).
Observe that 7P4|-6 uses ¬4l+ while
addresing +¬-. This is common practice
in India.

7P4-6l - 4P+ ¬l=+ +l6 4l ?
Yamuna, have you taken your lunch (pack)

+¬- - 7P4-6l , Bl4 |4¬¹4+ Hl¬¬74 ·
Tl4l¬4 P¬+ H|F6 ·
9+|P¬lP- ·
Damayanthi, I will be late in the evening.
There is a meeting in the office.
See you.
7P4-6l - 9+|P¬lP-
See you.
²6l5|9 - there is a new letter in this word 5.
This is not an akshara that is part of the
language. It is known as the "avagraha" . Its
use will be discussed in a later lesson but
here it suffices to say that a very short H
will be pronounced between 6l and |9.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-3 Part-3
H9¹lñ - Afternoon
4P+l - r Pl6- ! 974 T|6 H*l- 9l|'l- ·
¬|T6 HrP4 9¤Pl ·
Mother! see how many marks I have got.
In Maths, I am the first.
7P4-6l - Hl Hl¬+P ·
Oh, good!

Bl4P Tl¬ - In the evening
«P- - Pl6- HH T¬lHl¬l4l |4H9T÷4l HlBl6 ·
=P+l6- 9l\4l9T- T|¾6 Hl¬64l+ ·
¹Bl4+ |4H9¬l9T T64l+ ·
Mother, today we had a special lecture in
college. A professor from Germany came.
He lectured on chemistry.
|96l T-' ? ²7l+l H|9 + Hl¬64l+ 4l ?
Where is father ? Isn’t he home yet ?
(literally, has he not come home yet ?)
7P4-6l - +, |T|¾6 |4¬¹4+ Hl¬|P!4|6 ·
Tl4l¬4 P¬+ H|F6 ·
No, he will be a little late. There is
a meeting in the office.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-3 Part-4
H+-6¹P - Later
4P+l - Pl6- |96l Hl¬64l+ ·
Mother, Father is back.
(literally, Father has come (back))
+¬- - H6l4 ~l-6l|FP ·
7!T=¬ Hl+4 , Fll+ T¹l|P ·
T+T T-' ?
(I am) very tired.
Bring warm water. I will take bath.
Where is te soap?
¹l|-'- - Night
7P4-6l - B4 Hl¬¬7-6 , ¬l=+ F4lT¹4lP ·
Come all. Let us have our dinner.
«P- - |T |T ¬l=+l4 ?
What is for dinner ?
7P4-6l - Hl7+ , B9- ¬ H|F6 ·
7|« H|F6 , HlT- H|F6 ·
Cooked rice, lentils, vegetables and curds.
H+-6¹P − Later
«P- , 4P+l - H¬¹l|-'-
Good night.
+¬- , 7P4-6l- H¬¹l|-'-
Good night.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-3 Grammar
We now look at some points related to grammar.
We have already seen the conjugation of the verb
H|F6 in all its present tense forms in the previous
lesson.
HlBl6 is the past tense for HB in the third person,
singular form. Past tense itself will be discussed
in a future lesson.
There is a verb introduced in this lesson which starts
with the vowel Hl , Hl¬¬7|6. For many verbs, the
addition of Hl as a prefix results in the action
taking place in the reverse direction.
¬¬7|6 - goes Hl¬¬7|6 - comes or returns.
The verb ¬¬7|6 is traced to the roots ¬P and ¬7 .

Here are some more examples.
+4|6 (takes) Hl+4|6 (brings)
77l|6 (gives) Hl77l|6 (receives)
4l|6 (goes) Hl4l|6 (comes)
r¹|6 (takes away) Hlr¹|6 (brings back)
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 - Imperative form.
The following words, used in the lesson are in the
imperative.
=l¬|r ( =l¬¹4) 7|v'U ( 7t¤l94 )
F4lT6 4¬7 77l6 |946 +46
Here =l¬¹4 and 7t¤l94 are in the causal form.
Barring the word =l¬|r (from the root word =l¬ -
to wake up) all the above verbs are similar to the
form given in the table below for the verb
+4 (from the root +l, +4) .
Sing. Dual Plural
person +4l|+ +4l4 +4lP
II person +4 +46 +46
III person +46 +46l +4-6
The verb =l¬ is also conjugated like the above in all
persons except in second person singular where it is
=l¬|r .
The form =l¬¹4 arises in the causative form of the verb
=l¬. There is no equivalent in English for this form of
the verb, but it may be explained as
=l¬|r - to wake up
=l¬¹4 - to wake someone up.
The imperative form of the causative is also conjugated
similar to +4 in the above table.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-3
Formation of simple sentences.
In a simple sentence , there are three parts. They are,
Subject - The part which names the person or thing
we are talking about.

Verb - The part that tells us something about
the person or thing, such as what the person
is doing.
Object - The person or thing that the action
specified by the verb relates to.
In a simple sentence in English, the verb and the object
together form the predicate. Also in English, the object
almost always follows the verb.
In Sanskrit, the verb usually comes at the end.
Let us look at
4l¬- |4Hl¬4 ¬¬7|6 The boy goes to school
4l¬- - (the) boy (subject)
|4Hl¬4 - (to) school (object)
¬¬7|6 - goes (verb)
Examine the table below which has the words
Hr and t4 with the associated verbs
¬¬7l|P , 9ól|P , ¬¬7|B and 9ó|B .
A number of words which qualify as the object for
a simple sentence are also given. You can try and
form sentences by selecting suitable combinations
of the subject, object and verb.
subject object verb
· ¬l9l ·
· 74l¬4 ·
Hr · Tl4l¬4 · ¬¬7l|P
· ¬r · 9ól|P
· Hl9T · ¬¬7|B
t4 · |P-' · 9ó|B
· 9-' ·
· 9F6T ·
Look up the meanings of the words in the glossary
attached to this lesson. You will observe that arbitrary
combinations of the above will not make sense!
------------------------------------------------------------------
Here is a simple chart to let you frame simple
questions. In the middle ring of the chart,
you will find
several indeclinable words.
The verb used in all these cases
is ¬¬7|6 .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
·− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − ·
· 7l-'- 4l¬- =+T- ¬4l+ ·
· ·− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −−· ·
· · |T|P|6 |T T7l · ·
· 99- · ·− − − − − − − − −· · B- ·
· · · · · ·
· · · ¬¬7|6 · · ·
· Bl · ·− − − − − − − − −· · 99l ·
· · |TP¤ T6- T-' T¤ · ·
· ·− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −−−· ·
· ·
· =++l 4l¬l Hl¬l4- ¬46l ·
·− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −·
Select a word each from the outer ring and the
middle ring and add the verb ¬¬7|6 .
You will have a question.

Examlple: ¬4l+ T7l ¬¬7|6 ?
4l¬- T-' ¬¬7|6 ? etc..
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 - Exercises.
Ex.1 Understand the following sentences.
T¬lHl¬l4l 9T |7+P ·
° HH T¬lBl¬l4l 9T P¬+ H|F6·
- ¹!4l 7H6- 9T- 9|B&9lHl9T- Hl¬¬7|6·
° B- ¬||6T HlF-' +l4¬ 9¹FTl¹ 9l|'4l+·
v HH B- HFPlT T¬lBl¬l4l |4B9 ¬l9T T¹l|6·
- Hr 6F4 ¬l9T ~l6 ¬¬7l|P·
Note: 9l|'4l+ - One who has received, (received
in the sense of receiving a prize)
HFPlT - our
9¹FTl¹ - prize
9|B& - famous
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-3 Exercises-2
This section consists of exercises of the type where you
fill in the blanks with appropriate words.
The first set relates to time, i.e., when certain events or
activities take place. Consider the example,
Q. 7l-'- T7l |4Hl¬4 ¬¬7|6 ?
A. 7l-'- 9l6- |4Hl¬4 ¬¬7|6 ·
Now for the exercises.
° |96l T7l Tl4l¬4 ¬¬7|6 ?
|96l __________ Tl4l¬4 ¬¬7|6 ·
- 4l¬- T7l ¬r Hl¬¬7|6 ?
4l¬- __________ ¬r Hl¬¬7|6 ·
° Pl6l T7l Hl7+ Gl7|6 ?
Pl6l ___________ Hl7+ Gl7|6 ·
v ¬4l+ T7l 7|v'U|6 ?
Hr ____________ 7|v'Ul|P ·
- 9-'l T7l |+7l T¹l|6 ?
9-'l ____________ |+7l T¹l|6 ·
° B4- T7l HF6P|6 ?
B4- _____________ HF6P|6 ·
÷ ¬4l+ 79lrl¹ T7l Gl7|6 ?
Hr 79lrl¹ _________ Gl7l|P ·
In answering the above, choose from the following
words.
9l6- - Morning Bl4 - Evening P\4lñ - at noon
¹l-'| - at night 9l6- 974l7+ - 6.00 AM
9l6- 7H4l7+ - 10.00 AM
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson3- Ex.3
Change the following sentences in third person to
sentences in the first person. An example is given.
|96l Tl4l¬4 ¬¬7|6 · Hr Tl4l¬4 ¬¬7l|P ·
-----
° |96l T¬ Gl7|6 · Hr T¬ _______ ·
- ¬l6l 9ló 9ó|6 · Hr 9ló ______ ·
° B4T- Tl4 T¹l|6 · Hr Tl4 ______·
v F4Bl 9l6- 7|v'U|6 · Hr 9l6- ______ ·
- 4l|¬Tl ¬l¹ |94|6 · Hr ¬l¹ ______ ·
° 7l-'- ¬r Hl¬¬7|6 · Hr ¬r _______·
÷ |96l 9-' +4|6 · Hr 9-' ______ ·
< HH- Hl¤ «l4|6 · Hr Hl¤ ______ ·
The verbs used in the above are fromthe following
list. Use the appropriate verb.
¬¬7l|P, 9ól|P, T¹l|P, Gl7l|P, 7|v'Ul|P,
+4l|P, |94l|P, Hl¬¬l|P .
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 - Ex.4
Change the following sentences from first person to
second person. Study the example given.
Hr H-' 79|4Hl|P · t4 H-' 79|4H|B ·
° Hr |¬-' 974l|P · t4 |¬-' _________ ·
- Hr 9-' |¬Gl|P · t4 9-' _________ ·
° Hr BFT6 9ól|P· t4 BFT6 ________ ·
v Hr ¬l+ ¬l4l|P · t4 ¬l+ ________ ·
- Hr BFT6 47l|P· t4 BFT6 _______ ·
° Hr 74 +Pl|P · t4 74 ________ ·
÷ Hr TP¬ +4l|P· t4 TP¬ ________ ·
< Hr «+ 77l|P · t4 «+ _________ ·
Filling in the correct form is easy if we remember
the changes required in the ending of the verb
from first person singular to second person
singular. The rule is .........(Hl)|P changes to
.........|B .
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 - Ex.5

Change the following sentences from third person dual to
first person dual. Look at the example.
6| |4Hl¬4 ¬¬76- · Hl4l |4Hl¬4 ¬¬7l4- ·
° 44l 7¹7H+ 974¤-· Hl4l 7¹7H+ _______ ·
- ¹lP| H-' 4B6- · Hl4l H-' ________ ·
° 4l¬| T¬ Gl76- · Hl4l T¬ _________ ·
v Pl=l¹| H-' 4l76- · Hl4l H-' _______ ·
- ¬=| P|-7¹ |6U6- · Hl4l P|-7¹ _______ ·
° 6| BFT6 476- · Hl4l BFT6- ______ ·
÷ 6 (f) BFT6 9ó6- · Hl4l BFT6 _____ ·
< 6 (n) 6-' |6U6- · Hl4l 6-' _______ ·
° 6| 74 +P6- · Hl4l 74 _______ ·
°¤ 4l¬| 9F6T 9ó6- · Hl4l 9F6T _______ ·
The required words will be found in the following list.
4Bl4- , 974l4- , 4l7l4- , Gl7l4- , 9ól4- , |6Ul4- ,
47l4- , +Pl4- .
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 -Ex.6
Change the following sentences in third person plural to
sentences in second person plural.
Example.
4l¬l- 9ló 9ó|-6 · 44 9ló 9ólP- ·
° =+l- +¬¹ 4B|-6 · 44 +¬¹ _________ ·
- 6 ¬¬|¬¬-' 974|-6 · 44 ¬¬|¬¬-' ______ ·
° 6 Hl7+ Gl7|-6 · 44 Hl7+ ________ ·
v +¹l- BP76l¹ ¬¬7|-6· 44 BP76l¹ ______ ·
- 6l- |7+9|-'Tl 9ó|-6 · 44 |7+9|-'Tl _____ ·
° 4l¬l- 9!9 +4|-6 · 44 9!9 _________ ·
÷ 4|+6l- +t4 T4|-6 · 44 +t4 _________ ·
° P|r¬l- BFT6 |¬G|-6· 44 BFT6 ________ ·
°¤ 6 4F-' 9¬l¬4|-6 · 44 4F-' _________ ·
The required verbs are in the following list.
4BlP-, Gl7lP-, 974lP-, ¬¬7lP-, +4lP-, 9ólP-,
TP-, |¬GlP-, 9¬l¬4lP- .
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 - Ex.7
Change the sentences given below, from third person plural
to second person plural.
Example. ¬±l- ²H +P|-6 · 44 ²H +P¤ ·
° +¹l- 6-' rB|-6 · 44 6-' ____________ ·
- 4l+¹l- T-' 79|4|-6 ? 44 T-' ____________ ·
° 6l- 4lTl 4l74|-6 · 44 4lTl ____________ ·
v HHl- 6-' «l4|-6 · 44 6-' ___________ ·
- 7l-'l- ¬l9l 9ó|-6 · 44 ¬l9l __________ ·
° T¬l|+ ¬P| 96|-6 · 44 ¬P| __________ ·
÷ 6 9F6T +4|-6 · 44 9F6T _________ ·
< 6 Tl4l¬4 Hl¬¬7|-6 · 44 Tl4l¬4 _____ ·
° Hl¬l4l- 9lóHl¬l ¬¬7|-6 · 44 9lóHl¬l ____ ·
°¤ 6 4l7l*T 4l7|-6 · 44 4l7l*T ________ ·
The required verbs are in the following list.
79|4H¤, 4l74¤, rB¤, «l4¤, 96¤, 9ó¤, +4¤,
Hl¬¬7¤, ¬¬7¤, 4l7¤ .
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 - Ex.8
Change the following sentences into imperative
mood.
Example: 4l¬- 9l6- 7|v'U|6 · 4l¬- 9l6- 7|v'U6·
° 4l¬- Fll+ T¹l|6· 4l¬- Fll+ ____________ ·
- 4l¬- 9ló 9ó|6· 4l¬- 9l³ ____________ ·
° |P-' H-' Hl¬¬7|6· |P-' H-' ________ ·
v B- HlB+ 79|4H|6· B- HlB+ ________ ·
- ¬4l+ T¤l 47|6 · ¬4l+ T¤l ________ ·
For answers choose from the following.
T¹l6 , 9ó6 , Hl¬¬76 , 79|4H6 , 476 .
Change the following into second person imperative.
Example: t4 B7l Bt4 47|B· t4 B7l Bt4 47 ·
° t4 ¬r 79|4H|B · t4 ¬r ____________ ·
- t4 9ló 9ó|B · t4 9ló______________ ·
° t4 ¬l¹ |94|B· t4 ¬l¹ ____________ ·
v t4 T¬ Gl7|B· t4 T¬ _____________ ·
- t4 9F6Tl¬4 ¬¬7|B· t4 9F6Tl¬4 _______ ·
The corrrect verbs are in the following list.
Gl7 , ¬¬7 , 9ó , 47 , 79|4H
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 3 - Ex.9

Change the following sentences in third person plural
imperative into second person plural imperative.
Example:
7l-'l- T÷4l4l 79|4H-6· 44 T÷4l4l 79|4H6 ·
° ¬4-6- ¬¬|¬¬-' 974-6 · 44 ¬¬|¬¬-' ___ ·
- 6 ¬l+ H'4-6 · 44 ¬l+ _______________ ·
° 6 9l6- 7|v'U6 · 44 9l6- ______________ ·
v ¬4-6- BFT6 ¬l9T T4-6 ·
44 BFT6 ¬l9T ________ ·
- 9|6|7+ 9ló 9ó-6 · 44 9|6|7+ 9ló _______ ·
Answers are from the following.
9746, HT6, 7|v'U6, T66, 9ó6 ·
Select the suitable conjuagtion of the verb from the
choices given in parantheses.
Example:
4l¬- HlB+ 79|4H|6 (79|4HlP- , 79|4H|6 , 79|4H|B )
° Hr «+ ___________ (77l|P , 77l|6 , 77l|B )
- 9|6|7+ t4 T¬ _____ ( Gl7|6 , Gl7|B , Gl7|-6 )
° 6 74 ____________ ( +P|B , +P|-6 , +P|6 )
v 44 ¬l+ ____________ ( ¬l4|6 , ¬l4lP- , ¬l4l4- )
- 6| T¤l _____________ ( 47|B , 47|-6 , 476- )
------------------------------------------------------------------
The word |B¬l itself is derived as:
|B÷46 H+4l ²|6 |H¬l 4Tl|7
7¬¬l¹T¬¬T |H÷46 ²|6 ·
It is hereby taught. So it is Siksha. |B¬ - To teach.
The pronounciation of the words is taught hereby.
So it is Siksha.
Siksha is the first vedanga among the six.
------------------------------------------------------------------
° F4¹6-- Sound (pitch)
- Tl¬- Time
° F¤l+- Place
v 94t+- effort
- H+97l+P - External effort. i.e., by the
organs of the mouth, the glotis, lips etc..
------------------------------------------------------------------
The eight places are
° 7¹- − chest
- T'ó - neck
° |H¹- - head
v |=ñP¬P - origin of the tongue
- 7-6P - teeth
° +l|BT − nasal
÷ Hl7| - lips
< 6l¬ - palatte
------------------------------------------------------------------
H*l - marks (awarded)
H|«TP - more
HF6P|6 - sets, HF6P+ - the process of setting
Hl9TP - pilgrimage
²H- - lord (usually god)
79|4H - sit down
79lrl¹- - breakfast
7!T=¬P - warm water
9TTP - one by one
T¤l - story
T¬lHl¬l - university, usually means a college within a university
T÷4l - lecture
Tl4l¬4P - place of work
|T|¾6 - a little
T¬P - Brush (a short stick with bristles)
T6 - done T646l - (f)
4l7 - to play
4l7l*TP - playground
¬l4 - sing
¬¬|¬¬-'P - movie
¬l¬ - to drive ( a vehicle)
|67 - to stand
7-6«l4+ - cleaning of the teeth or dental cleaning
|7+9|-'Tl - Daily (Newspaper)
7¹7H+P - television
7lBl - A well known breakfast dish in India.
«l4|6 - moves fast
+P - worship
|+7l - sleep
+l6 - to take with oneself
974 - see
9!9P - flower
9F6Tl¬4P - library (a place for (reading) books)
9l\4l9T- - professor
9l|'- - to get or receive
9l¤+lP - prayers
T+T - paste
4l|¬Tl - little girl
±- - devotee
¬l=+P - meals (roughly, food)
P¬+P - meeting
4¬7 - give
|¬G - write
¬lT4l+P - a peoples’ vehicle (in this context, a schoolbus)
47 - say
4B|-6 - live (plural)
4F-'P - cloth that one wears
4l+¹P - monkey
|4Hl¬4P - school (a place for (receiving) education)
|4H9 - special
Hl¬+P - good! (not in the sense of an adjective)
~l-6- - to feel tired
B7=- - ready
BP76l¹P - beach (sea shore)
Bl¹4l¹ - A liquid dish that goes well with rice
Bl4«l+- - slow and with care
B4- - the Sun
B4T- - man servant
Fll+P - bath
F4Bl - sister
F4lT6 - Take this (or accept this)
¬l¹P - milk
Lesson-4 Part-1
¹|4- BlP- ¬ · Ravi and Soman.
This lesson continues in the same style as lesson-3.
The student is introduced to new words and
expressions through a conversation between two
friends.
Ravi, and Soman are in conversation. They are
old schoolmates meeting in their home town
Madras, after a span of a year. Ravi had continued
school in Madras while Soman had gone to a
school in Srinagar, a city in the state of Jammu
and Kashmir, in the northern part of India.
¹|4-- BlP, ²7l+l t4 T-' 4B|B ?
Soma, where are you staying these days (now) ?
BlP-- Hr ~l+¬¹ 4Bl|P , T-7l4|4Hl¬4 9ól|P ·
I am staying in Sringar and studying at
the Central School in Srinagar.
¹|4-- Hl , ~l+¬¹ 9ó|B· 66 6 Tl!Pl¹97H
H|F6 |T¬ ?
H6l4 B+7¹ 94 G¬ ?
Oh! You are studying in Srinagr. Isn’t it in the
state of Kashmir? Very beautiful isn’t it?
BlP-- Hl , H6l4 B-7¹ ¬4|6 , |4H9T 4B-6Tl¬·
4-' 4-' 974|B , 6-' 6-' 9!9l|T |4T|B6l|+
B|-6 ·
Yes, it is very beautiful, especially in Spring.
Wherever you look, the flowers blossm forth.
¹|4-- H-' 6 B47l ¬l!P 94 · ~l+¬¹ ¬l!PTl¬-
T¤ ¬4|6 ?
Here of course it always summer. How is it in
Srinagar in Summer ?
BlP-- ¬l!P H|9 4l6- |r6- H|F6 ·
Even in Summer it is (the air is) pleasant.
¬l!PTl¬ |rPl¬4 |rP- 74|6, 6+ +H-
=¬+ 9Tl- ¬4|-6 ·
In summer, the snow melts in the Himalayas,
so the rivers are full with water.
(literally, the rivers get full with water.)
44 |+P¬ =¬ |94lP- ·
We drink pure water.
9¹-6 6-' H|«T + 49|6 ·
But it does not rain much there.
¹|4-- P7lB +¬¹ H|«T 49|6 ·
It rains a lot in Madras.
T7l|¬6 Ht4|«T 49|6 ·
Sometimes it rains very much.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-4 Part-2
BlP-- H¹tTl¬ |rPl¬4F4 B|-74 H4'4P ·
During Autumn, the beauty of the Himalyas
cannot be described (is beyond description)
|4H9T 9|TPl¹l|-'9 ·
Especially on Full-moon nights.
9T¬-7- 47l |rPl¬4|HG¹l|T F4+
Hl6|T¹T+ 9TlH4|6 ,
67l 6F4 B|-74 H|¬-t4P ·
when the full moon illuminates the Himalayan
peaks with her cool rays, the beauty is
unimaginable.
|rPl¬4|HG¹ 7¬6³lT ¬ 6F4 9|6|4¹4-
HFPlT 874 HlFl74|6 ·
Her reflection from the Himalayan peaks and the
Dal lake, fill our hearts with joy (pleasure)
67l+l B4-' B¤44¬l- T¬9Tl- B|-6 ·
There everywhere, the apple trees are full of apples.
Tl!Pl¹B¤4T¬ H|66|¬T¹ 9|B& ¬ ·
Kashmir apples are very tasty and famous.
¹|4- |T Tl!Pl¹ B47l 9|¹|F¤|6- |r6l 4l :
Is the weather in Kashmir always pleasant ?
BlP-- +, rP-6 |H|H¹ ¬ H6l4 Hl6 ¬4|6 94 ·
No, during winter it is extremly cold.
67l+l |rP 96|6 H6- ¬P+l¬P+ T7 ¬4|6 ·
Then there is snowfall and so movement becomes
difficult.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-4 Part-3
¹|4-- 9¹ rP-6 94 |H|H¹ P7lB +¬¹ BG7l
¬4|6 ·
(But) during winter it is very pleasant in Madras.
+T4¬ BGl4 |T-6 TTl³T B*l6F4 Tl¬- H|9·
Not only pleasant (to stay) but also it is the time
for classical music.
9|B&l- ¬l4Tl- +6Tl74 ¬ 6-' 6-' ¬l4|-6,
+t4|-6 94 F4F4 9l4l'4 97H4|-6 ·
Famous singers as well as artists (dancers etc.)
sing, dance and display their talents here and there.
49lTl¬ 6-' TlcH ¬4|6 ?
How is it there during the rainy season ?
BlP-− 49lTl¬ 9l4- + 49|6 ²4 ·
9¹-6 67l+l 9T H94 c74 Tl!Pl¹ ¬4|6 ·
(it is) almost like no rain during the rainy season.
But at that time there is a rare sight in Kashmir.
~l+¬¹l6 9l¬4l +l|6 7¹ 9r~¬l +¬¹F4 BPl9
|rP|¬* 9T H|F6 ·
Not far away from Srinagar eastwards, near the
city of Pahalgaon there is a lingam formed of
snow (Lingam - the image of Lord Shiva as
worshipped in India)
¹|4- 94 4l ? 9r~¬l6- |T46 7¹ H|F6 ?
6-' T¤ ¬¬7P ? T- |4B9- ?
Is it so ? How far is Pahalgaon ?
How to go (reach) there ? What is special ?
BlP-- 9r¬¬lPl6 -- |T¬lPl³¹ 7¹ H|F6 ·
4 Hö4|-6 6 9l7l-4l 946 Hl¹lr|-6 ·
H¤4l HH+ ¬¬7|-6 ·
Pahalgaon is 25 KM (from Srinagar).
Those who can, climb the mountain (by foot).
If not (otherwise) they go on horseback.
946F4 79|¹ ¬rl4l |rP+ =l6 |¬* H|F6 ·
6F4 HP¹+l¤- ²|6 +lP ·
On top of the mountain, there is a lingam
formed of snow. It is known as "Amarnath"
( its name is Amarnath)
¹|4-- 66 H|6 4r6 4l ?
Is it very big ?
BlP-- ~l4TPlB 9|TPl 94-6 |¬*F4 4«+ ¬4|6 ·
66- 9¹ 8lB- ¬4|6 ·
66 6 T4¬ ~l4TPlB 94 77 H146 ·
During the month of Sravana (July-Aug.) till the
full moon day, the lingam increases in size.
Thereafter the formation shrinks (decreases in size)
Viewing it (the lingam) is possible only during the
Sravana month (July - August).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson - 4. Points relating to Grammar.
Let us examine some of the expressions
introduced in this lesson. These are often
heard during conversations and are found
in written Sanskrit as well.
1. 47l _________ 67l
This expression is used when one wants to say that
something happens and simultaneously a related event
occurs as well. In english we may see an equivalent.
When the sun rises, darkness vanishes.
47l B4- 77|6 , 67l 6P- H9¬¬7|6 ·
Here is another example.
47l |rP9l6- H|«T- ¬4|6 ,
67l ¬P+l¬P+ T76¹ ¬4|6 ·
When there is heavy snowfall, then movement
becomes more difficult.
This expression may also be used in the negative.
47l H|64|7- ¬4|6 , 67l |4Pl+F4 H46¹T + ¬4|6 ·
When it rains heavily, then the plane does not land.
(Literally, the landing of the place does not take place)
2. + T4¬ _______ |T-6 _______ H|9 or ¬
Not only __________ but also.
+ T4¬ BFT6 9¹l6+ |T-6 Hl«|+T H|9 ·
Not only is Sanskrit an old language but a modern
one too.
3. 4l46 _________ 6l46
so much _________ as required.
4l46 «+ Hl474T , 6l46 «+ +4 ·
Take as much money as required.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-4 Grammar:2
4. 4-' ___ 6-' and 4-' 4-' _____ 6-' 6-'
Where _____ there and wherever____ there all.
4-' «P- H|F6 , 6-' H|¬- H|F6 ·
Where there is smoke, there is fire.
4-' 4-' Bt4 H|F6 , 6-' 6-' =4- H|F6 ·
Wherever there is truth, there is victory.
5. 4- ______ B- one who _______ is
4l ________ Bl one who _______ is
46 _______ 66 that which ______ is
4- 7l¤4lr- B- ¹lP- ·
One who has long arms is Rama.
4l B-7¹l Bl Bl6l ·
One who is beautiful is Sita.
46 Bt4 66 9?4P ·
That which is true is good (beneficial)
6. Use of conjunctions: ¬ - and
rP-6 |H|H¹ ¬
in rP-6 and |H|H¹
Note that the conjunction ¬ is used at the end
of the last noun in the sentence.
¹lP- , TH4- , r|¹- ¬ 4+ ¬¬7|-6 ·
Rama , Kesava and Hari are going to the forest.
¬ is also used in the following manner.
¹lP- ¬ TH4- ¬ r|¹- ¬ 4+ ¬¬7|-6 ·
Rama and Kesava and Hari are going to the forest.
This usage is not common however.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
lesson-4 Grammar:3
7. ¬4|6 94 -
This expression cannot be translated into English
easily or even literally. The word 94 here adds some
sort of emphasis to the sentence. This expression is
used by Soma to contradict Ravi’s statement (question)
about the weather being aways pleasant in Kashmir.
8. 94 -
94 usually means "only"
B- T¬ 94 Gl7|6 · - He eats only fruits.
T¬lHl¬l BPl9 94 H|F6 ·
The college is nearby (only)
9. H6- - Therefore
This word is used in the sense of therefore.
PP 74¹- H|F6 , H6- T¬lHl¬l + ¬¬7l|P ·
I have fever, therfore (so) I am not going to college.
Often in India people say " I have fever " though one
should probably say "I am running temperature"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Directions and Positions.
7v'¹l or 77l¬l
north
|
Hl¬4l | 9Hl+l
. | .
. | .
. | .
9|¾Pl or ..............|................. 94l or 9l¬l
96l¬l west . | . east
. | .
. | .
+¹+6l | 4l¹44l
|
south
7|¬Tl or 4l¹4l

|7Hl- ¬6Fl- · 9l6- Bl4 974+ |67 ·
64 9¹6- 9l¬l |7Hl ·
64 7|¬T 7|¬Tl |7Hl ·
64 97 96l¬l |7Hl ·
64 4lP 77l¬l |7Hl ·
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Relative Positions.
7\4 ¬l¬-
79|¹ above
| . 976-
| . at the back
| .
_______ .
7|¬T right || . ||
------------|| . ||-------------- 4lP- ¬l¬-
7|¬T- ¬l¬- · . || || 4lP left
. _______
. |
. |
9¹6- in front |
9¹l ¬l¬- below H«-
H«l ¬l¬-
These positions are given relative for a person in front
of you and looking at you. We have tried to give an impression
of depth through the dotted line in the picture. Please view
the picture as a representation of positions in three
dimensions.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-4
H¤44 - indeclinables.
The word H¤44 is derived from the root
|4 + ² and H¤44 means that which is not
liable to change or that which retains its form
in all positions.
It is easy to form sentences with H¤44
as was seen from the small exercise given in lesson 3.
H|9 - also
B7l - always
B47l - at all times
6-' - there
H-' - here
B4-' - everywhere
9l6- - in the morning
Bl4 - in the evening
Bl49l6- - In the morning and evening
9|6|7+ - daily
66- - later , then
H¤ - later
H6- - therefore
46- - because
H6- 94 - only because
4l - or
H¤4l - else / or
T¤P|9 - somehow
T7l|9 - sometime
9¹P - but
|T-6 - but
9¹-6 - but
HH - today
H«+l - now
²4 - like
94 - only
7¬¬- - above , loud
94P - thus
|¬¹P - for a long time
9l4- - mostly
+- - again
¹6- - earlier, before
H+- - slowly
B¹4T - well
BH- - immediately
67l - then
T7l ? - when
T-' ? - where
T¤P ? - how
T6- ? -why , from where
|TP¤P ? - for what (reason)
|T|P|6 ? - for what (purpose)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson - 4 Exercise - 1.
The questions given below relate to the conversation in the
lesson. You will be able to answer them if you have understood
the sentences spoken.
° BlP t4 ²7l+l T-' 4B|B ?
- BlP t4 ²7l+l |T 9ó|B ?
° ~l+¬¹ T-' H|F6 ?
v 4B-6Tl¬ ~l+¬¹ TlcH H|F6 ?
- T-' B47l ¬l!P- H|F6 ?
° ¬l!P ~l+¬¹ |T |r6- H|F6 ?
÷ ¬l!PTl¬ |T 74|6 ?
< P7lB +¬¹ Ht4|«T 49|6 4l ?
° HFPlT 874 T- HlFl74|6 ?
°¤ Tl7Pl¹ T7l H6l4 Ht4 ¬4|6 ?
°° 9|B&¬l4Tl- T-' ¬l4|-6 ?
°- |rP|¬* T-' H|F6 ?
°° 946F4l9|¹ ¬rl4l |T H|F6 ?
°v 6F4 |¬*F4 |T +lP ?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson -4 Exercise 2.
Fill up the blanks with appropriate indeclinables.
Example: +¹- _______ ________ ______ 9ó|6 ·
+¹- 9|6|7+ 9l6- 7¬¬- 9ó|6 ·
Please note that more than one word will be required
but there are choices. Based on the meaning of the
indeclinable, select the appropriate combination
for each sentence.
° Hr _______ _______ ______ ²'³+³ 974l|P ·
- B- BFT6 _____ ²¬7|B , ____ ___ BFT6 9ó|6 ·
° 4lr+ ____ ____ ¬¬7|6 , ____ _____ 9l9l|P ·
v Pl¬ ___ ___ ___ |rP 96|6 , ___ 4lr+ + ¬¬7|6 ·
The indeclinables which will fit the above properly are
to be selected fro the following list.
B7l , 9|6|7+ , 9l6- , |¬¹ , B¹4T , H6- , B47l ,
H«+l , BH- , HHl , Hl¤ , B4-'
Exercise - 3
Fill up the blanks selecting suitable words from
B7l , B47l , 6-' , H-' , B4-' , T-' , T7l
Example: +¹- B7l «P9l+ T¹l|6 ·
----
|HH- B47l ¹l7+ T¹l|6 ·
-----
° Pl6l ________ 7¹7H+ 974|6 ·
- +¬¹ ______ H6l4 Ht4 H|F6 ·
° HH- _______ 6-' |67|6 ·
v _________ B7=+- H|F6 ·
- HlTlH ________ P¤l- B|-6 ·
° 4l6l9|-'Tl _________ Hl+4|6 ·
÷ PP ¬G+l _______ H|F6 ·
< 4l¬- _______ 4l7|6 ·
° __________ 7¹ +|7 H|F6 ·
°¤ __________ ¬r 7l9- 74¬|6 ·
You should first understand the sentences and from the
context select the required indeclinables. The meanings
of all the different words are either known to you already
from earlier lessons or may be looked up in the glossary.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson -4 Exercise 4.
Fill up the blanks by selecting words from the list below.
9l6- , Bl4 , HH , H- , O-
Example: 9l6- 9!9 |4TB|6
----
° ______ B4- 77|6, _______ HF6P|6 ¬ ·
- _________ |4Hl¬4F4 |4¹lP|7+P ·
° HH ¹|44lB¹- , _________ BlP4lB¹- ·
v HH ¹|44lB¹- ,
H6- __________ Tl4l¬4B4 |4¹lP|7+P ·
- 9l6- Hr ¬r ¬4l|P ,
|T-6 _______ Hr |P-'F4 ¬r ¬¬7l|P ·
° __________ Tl4l¬4 ¬¬7l|P ,
__________ ¬r Hl¬¬7l|P ·
÷ __________ 7-6«l4+ T¹l|P ,
__________ Hl9T ¬¬7l|P ·
Exercise -5
Fill up the blanks by selecting suitable words from
|T-6 , H6- , 46- , H¤4l
Example:
Hr 9l6- ¬|T6 + 9ól|P , |T-6 Bl4 9ól|P ·
----
° H4 9l6- Fll+ + T¹l|6 ,
_______ Bl4 Fll+ T¹l|6 ·
- B- 9l6- PP ¬r + Hl¬¬7|6 ,
______ Bl4 PP ¬r Hl¬¬7|6 ·
° Hr ¬¬|¬¬-' 77 H6l4 ²¬7l|P ,
______ Hr B47l ¬¬|¬¬-' 974l|P ·
v 4l¬- B7l |4T³ 4l7|6,
________ B |4T³ H6l4 ²¬7|6 ·
- Bl B47l |+7l T¹l|6 , _______ B47l Gl7|6 ·
° 4l¬- B47l 9ló 9ó|6, ______ 9ló |¬G|6 ·
÷ 6 B47l |47H ¬¬7|-6 ,
_______ 6 7Hl³+ ²¬7|-6 ·
< 4&l P«¹T¬ H6l4 ²¬7|6 ,
________ B7l P«¹T¬ Gl7|6 ·
° B- T¬ 94 Gl7|6 ,
________ T¬ H6l4 ²¬7|6 ·
°¤ 9l6- Hr ¬l¹ + |94l|P ,
_______ Bl4 ¬l¹ |94l|P ·
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson -4 Exercise 6.
Fill up the blanks by selecting suitable words from

|¬¹ , 9+- , 7¬¬- , +l¬-
Example: B- 9+- T¬ Gl7|6 ·
---
° t4l c7 _______ Hr H-' |67l|P ·
- TT³- _________ T=|6 ·
° Tl|T¬- ________ ¬l4|6 ·
v ¹l¬l ______ ¬l9T T¹l|6 ·
- HH+ B- ________ 4l-'l T¹l|6 ·
° BPl94l|B _________ Tl¬lr¬ T¹l|6 ·
÷ 7l-'- 7v'¹ _______ 47|6 ·
Exercise 7.
Below you will see many questions. They require
the word B¹4T in their answers. Understand
the questions and in the process, improve your
vocabulary.
Example: ¬4l+ BFT6 T¤ 9ó|6 ?

Hr BFT6 B¹4T 9ól|P ·
° t4 Tl¹ 4lr+ T¤ ¬l¬4|B ?
Hr Tl¹ 4lr+ _____ ¬l¬4l|P ·
- t4 ¬l+ T¤ T¹l|9 ? Hr ______ ¬l+ T¹l|P ·
° H«+l B¹4T 4¬¬l H|F6 4l ?
Hl, H«+l ______ 4¬¬l H|F6 ·
v 4l¬- T¤ 9ó|6 ? 4l¬- _______ 9ó|6 ·
- 79l B¹4T 4lTl 4l74|6 4l ?
Hl , 79l ______ 4lTl 4l74|6 ·
Exercise 8.
Use the following words in appropriate places.
9¹6- - in front of 976- - at the back
7|¬T6- - at the right 4lP6- - at right

79|¹ - above or at the top
HH- - below or at the bottom
Example: 9l6- PP 9¹6- B4- ·
-----
° ________ PP |P-' 79|4H|6 ·
- ________ PP 9-'- ·
° 9l6- PP _______ B4- 77|6 ,
976- ¬-7- HF6P|6 ·
v PP _____ P¤l- ·
- 4¬F4 ______ |67l|P ·
Now you should try and form more sentences with
additional words. Your vocabulary would have
improved considerably in going through this lesson.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson - 4. Forming sentences with indeclinables.
The table below can provide many sentences.
Choose a subject, the corresponding verb
( on the same line as the subject) and an
indeclinable. You will be able to make many sentences.
subject indeclinable verb
¹lP- ¬¬7|6
9!9P |4TB|6
7l-'l- 9l6- 9ó|-6
¬=- H«+l |67|6
Hl4l 6-' 9ól4-
HH| H-' «l46-
6 47|-6
Exercise 9.
Here are many sentences that require the
use of 47l --- 67l .
Example: 47l ¹l¬- ¬4|6 , 67l H|9« F4lT¹l|P ·
° _____ B4- 77|6 , ______ TP¬ |4TB|6 ·
- ___ 4|7- + ¬4|6 , _____ Hr 4|r- ¬¬7l|P ·
° ___ Hr 9l6- 7|v'7l|P , ___ 7-6«l4+ T¹l|P ·
v _____ |99lBl ¬4|6 , _____ =¬ |94l|P ·
- _____ 4¬¬l + ¬4|6 , ____ ¬¬T + Gl7l|P ·
° _____ Tl4l¬4 Tl4 +l|F6 ,
____ Hr Hl¤ ¬r Hl¬¬7l|P ·
÷ ____ B4- HF6P|6 , _____ H-«Tl¹- ·
< ____ P¤- +l|F6 , _____ 4|7- +l|F6 ·
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson -4 . Exercise
Here are some sentences for you to understand the use of
4l46 ...... 6l46 . Figure out where these
should be added in the sentences.
Example: 4l46 Hl¬l4- + Hl¬¬7|6 ,
6l46 9ló- + 9¬¬|6 ·
° ______ PP |P-' + Hl¬¬7|6 ,
_______ Hr 9F6T 9ól|P ·
- ______ |4Pl+ + Hl¬¬7|6 ,
_______ Hr H-' 79|4Hl|P ·
° ______ |rP + 96|6 ,
_______ 4lr+l|+ B¹4T ¬¬7|-6 ·
v ______ ¬l+ H|F6 , _______ HTl|P ·
- ____ 9l4B 9l-' H|F6 , ____ Hr |94l|P ·
The following sentences help you inderstand the use of
+ T4¬ ...... |T-6 .
Example: + T4¬ Hr ¬l+ ¬l4l|P ,
|T-6 +³+ H|9 T¹l|P ·
° _____ 4l¬- ¹l7+ T¹l|6 , F44 |H¹|B 6l74|6 ·
- ______ ¬r H+T- H|F6 ,
______ Pl=l¹- H|9 H|F6 ·
° ______ Hr ¬|T6 9ól|P ,
______ BFT6 ¬l9lP|9 9ól|P ·
v ______ 4lr+ +6+ ¬4|6 , ______ B-7¹ H|9 ·
- ______ Hr Hl7+ Gl7l|P ,
______ T¬l|+ H|9 Gl7l|P ·
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson -4 Chart.
Here is a chart containing nouns, a verb and many
indeclinables. By selecting a noun and an indeclinable,
you can form a short sentence with the verb.
Try and form as many sentences as you can.
If you have a liking for mathematical work, try and
figure out how many different sentences you can
make and how many of them will correctly convey
a meaning.
__________________________________________________
| B- Bl 99- 99l 7l-'- |
| |___________________________________| |
| +¹- | | |
| | B7l 6-' H-' B47l | |
| 4l¬- | | 4l¬l |
| |9l6- | | H«+l | |
| 9-'- | |9ó|6 | | |
| |Bl4 | | 9|6|7+ | |
| | | | | 9-'l |
| | 7¬¬- +l¬- HH- BH- | |
| | |¬¹ 9+- B¹4T 94 | |
| |___________________________________| |
| |
| Pl«4- 7Pl |
|__________________________________________________|
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson - 4. Glossary
The seasons:
rP-6- - (m) winter with snow
H¹6 - (m) winter
4B-6- - (m) spring
¬l!P- - (m) summer
49l- - (f) rainy season
|H|H¹- - (m) dry cold season
|H|H¹- is not experienced in most parts of India.
Each season lasts between 55 and 65 days.
According to the ancient texts, the duration of
each season is fixed at a specific value in the
range given above. The seasons Spring, Summer
and winter generally fall within the corresponding
ones observed in the west
The words give below are in the order in which
they are seen in the text of the lesson.
|rPl¬4- (m) - The Himalayan mountains
|rPP (n) - snow
B-7¹P (n) - beautiful
T-7l4 (m) adj. - central
T-7l4|4Hl¬4- (m) - central school
(a common system of schools run by the
Indian Givernment all over the country.)
|4Hl¬4- (m) - school
9TP (n) - full
9T¬-7- (m) - full moon
|4T|B6l|+ (n) - in full bloom.
+7l (f) - river
|r6- (m) - comfortable (also convenient)
|+P¬P (n) adj. - pure
H|«TP (n) adj. - much
4l6- (m) - wind (air)
H4'4P (n) - beyond description
9|TPl¹l-'| - full moon night (during)
|HG¹l|T - peaks
H|¬-t4P (n) - unimaginable
6F4 - its (this refers to case)
9|6|4¹4- (m) - reflection
|rPl¬4|HG¹ - upon the Himalayan peaks
874P (n) - heart
B¤44¬l- (m) - apple trees
T¬9TP (m) - full of fruits
(this word comes under the second case)
B¤4T¬P (n) - Apple
H|66|¬T¹P (n) - very tasty
9|B&P (n) - famous
¬P+l¬P+P (n) - to and fro movement
BG7l (m) - comfortable
9l4l'4P (n) - talent, expertise
7¬-6³lTl6 (case) - from the Dal lake
9|¹|F¤|6- (f) - climate (though it really
refers to the atmospheric condition)
Ht4P (n) - chillness
Hl6|T¹T+ - with her (cool) rays
97H- - term used to refer to an area
of a country or place.
7H- - country
74|6 - melts
49|6 - rains
96|6 - falls
9TlH4|6 - shines
(the last four words are verbs. They are in
third person singular and in present tense)
97H4|-6 - perform (exhibit).
Verb in present tense, plural.
B|-6 - are
¬4|-6 - become or are
¬l4|-6 - sing (plural, third person)
Given below are some indeclinables. More
indeclinables may be found in the section on
indeclinables.
Indeclinables remain the same (i.e., do not change)
with gender and number. Hence they can be easily
used in sentences and remembered as well.
H6l4 - very
4-' 4-' - wherever 6-' 6-' - there all
(the two are always use together)
|4H9T - specially
B47l - always
H-' - here
94 - adds stress to the subject as in the
use of "too"
6 - but however 6 is not used
in the beginning of a sentence.
9¹-6 - but
T7l|¬6 - sometimes
Ht4|«TP - very much
47l -when 67l - then
the two are always used together
i.e., 67l always follows 47l .
²7l+lP - now
H6- - so, therefore
67l+lP - then (usually refers to the time
of occurrence of a particular event)
+ T4¬P - not only |T-6 - but also
(in using the above two the word H|9 ¬
is used at the end of the sentence)
H|9 - also ¬ - and
9l4- - almost
²4 - like
H¤4l - alternatively
²|6 - so
T4¬P - only
66- 9¹P - thereafter
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-4 Expressing Numbers.
We have already discussed in an earlier lesson
(lesson-2) one uses numbers from one to
nine. In this lesson we will see how one would
handle larger numbers. First we introduce Zero,
the number whose use from very early periods is
credited to India.
Zero is known as H-4P in Sanskrit.
In expressing any number which includes
zeros in any of its digits, the word H-4P
is used to refer to that digit.
Thus one can, in principle say a number by just
expressing the digits making up the number,
much the same way one would do with
telephone numbers.
So 43695 may be expressed as
¬t4l|¹ -'l|T 9³ +4 9¾
In proper usage of Sanskrit, numbers are
expressed in a somewhat different manner.
,he lower order digits are expressed firstd
and then the higher order ones. For example,
125 will be expressed as 9¾|4H|6 H|«T 9T H6P ·
Literally five and twenty above hundred
is the translation.
This system is followed for all numbers above 100.
When we were preparing this note it was still 1997.
we had planned to say
H7+4|6 H|«T +4 H6 H|«T 9T BrFl 49
H¬ TlP+l- ·
Simply, it was to be "good wishes for 1998"
Though it is past Jan.1 1998, the good wishes
continue.
H|«T means more than.
The list below gives the Sanskrit equivalents for
numbers between 0 and 50.
LESSON 5
³lP r|¹- ¬
Lesson 5 continues in the same format as the
two previous lessons, in the form of a conversation.
The conversation here relates to different aspects
of daily routines and will introduce the student to
new words.
Much of the conversation continues to be
simple, most of it being in the present tense.
Some expressions of common use are introduced
and these will help the student form short sentences
to convey simple ideas. This will constitute the
very first step towards speaking Sanskrit.
³lP (Tom) and r|¹- (Hari) are friends. They have
studied together in the U.S. r|¹- has returned home
to India and ³lP visits him.
³lP - r¬l 966 |T 4931129 ?
|4÷T ²'7F³lB 4l ?
Hello, is this 4931129 ?
Is it Vishnu Industries ?
7¹4lTl ¬l|¬Tl - HlP
(Telephone Operator) - Yes
³lP - 6-' r|¹- H|F6 4l ?
Is Hari there ?
(literally, is Hari in there ? )
7 ¬l - HlP 77l|P ·
Literally 77l|P means I will give.
What is meant is, I will connect him to you.
What the Operator says she will give is
the connection.
³lP - r r¹ ! PlP FP¹|B 4l ?
Hey Hari ! Do you remember me ?
r|¹- - H¹ T- ³lP ? T6- ? -44lT 6- ?
Hey, who ? Tom ? Where from ? New York ?
³lP - + H-|4 ¬¬ 6- ·
No, here only, at Chennai.
|ã|7+ 4l46 ¤4l9l¹l¤ Hl¬6l5|FP ·
I have come down for business.
(On a business trip)
r|¹- - T-' 6 4lB- ?
Where are you (put up) staying ?
³lP - rl³¬ ¬l=l, 9TlUB¹4l
9¾|4Ht4|«T |-'H6P (325)
Hotel Chola, Room Number 325
r|¹- - HH BP4- H|F6 4l ?
Do you have time today ?
³lP - HlP , H9¹lñ 64 Tl4l¬4 Hl¬¬7l|P ·
Yes, I will come down to your
office later (in the day)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-5 Part: 2
Tl4l¬4 (In the Office)
³lP - +PF6 PP +lP ³lP ·
r|¹ 77P Hl¬6l5|FP ·
Greetings, my name is Tom. I have
come to see Hari.
7 ¬l - +PF6, r|¹- ¬4-6 96l¬6 ·
Greetings, Hari is expecting you
7|¬T6- ¬t4l 9l¬4lP 9¤P 9TlUP ·
(Go) South and the first room on the East.
³lP - r|¹-
r|¹- - ³lP , Hl¬¬7, Hl¬¬7, 79|4H ·
|¬¹l46 7H+, |TP |94|B ?
TlTl H¤4l ¬l4 ?
Tom, come, come, sit down. Heven’t seen
you in a long time (Long time, no see !)
What will you drink, coffee or tea ?
³lP - + |TP|9 ·
Nothing (Basically, No Thanks)
r|¹- - TH|¬+l 4l Bl¹r ?
Is Sarah well ?
|4¬ 9¾49l4- F4l6 G¬ ?
Bill should be (must be) five years old, no ?
³lP - Hl, B4 TH|¬+- ·
Yes, all are well.
|4¬ 9lóHl¬l ¬¬7|6 ·
Bill goes to school.
Tl 6 T¤l ? |T 6 4v'P ?
What about you ?
(literally, what is your story ?)
r|¹- - Hr H«+l|9 H|44l|r6- ·
I am still a bachelor.
HF6, 4-'T-'l|9 ¬¬7l4- ·
Alright, let us go somewhere.
Hl¬9+l¤P 4r H|F6 ·
There is much to talk.
BP76l¹ ¬¬7l4- ·
(let us) go to the beach.
6-' ¬t4l B¬l9T T4- ·
Reaching there we shall chat.
BP76l¹ - At the beach
r|¹- - H-' 4l¬Tl4l 79|4Hl4- ·
(let us) sit here on the sands.
³lP - FP¹|B 4l HFPlT P4l|P
BP76³ 7H+P ?
Do you remember our visit to Miami Beach ?
(literally, our sight of Miami Beach)
Hr ¬¬ BP76³ ¹¹46¹ P-4 ·
I think Chennai beach is more beautiful.
r|¹- - ¬l¹6 6 ¬¬ BP76³ 94 ¹¹46P
²|6 ¹4l6P ·
It is well known that Chennai beach is the
most beautiful in India.
³lP - 974, 6¹*l- 4¬lPt4 9|6¬¬7|-6 ·
Look, the waves reach the shore and return.
974, 4747l- 6¹*9 +t4|-6 ·
Look, the bubbles dance in the waves.
r|¹- - ³lP B4l74- H-' P+lr¹- H6- 7H+l4- ·
Tom, sunrise here is very beautiful, therefore
worth seeing.
¬r ¬¬7l4- · ¹l-'| P7¬r 94 ¬l=+P ·
Let us go home. Dinner is at my home only.
(meaning, at night, we eat in my house)
³lP - 6l|r ¬¬7l4- ·
If so, let us go.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-5 Part:3
Prl9TP\4 - At the Supermarket
r|¹- - Hr 6 |+¹l|P9 Gl7l|P ·
I eat only vegetarian food.
Hl|P9 ²¬7|B 4l ?
Do you like non-vegetarian (food) ?
³lP - +, 46 t4 Gl7|B 6+ H¬P ·
No, whatever you eat is alright with me.
(literally, I will eat whatever you eat)
B4T- - ¬l , |T 4l Hl474TP ?
Sir, may I help you ?
(literally, what would you like ? )
r|¹- - Pl¬l B9 9|³Tl ã4,
Two packets of tomato soup,
Hl¬T 9T |T¬l,
a kilo of potatoes,
r|¹6 H« |T¬l, 46¬T H« |T¬l ,
cabbage, half a kilo, green peas, half a kilo,
TT³l 9T, |T|¾6 9¬l'7 ,
a cucumber, a few onions,
¬l¹ 9T F96, 7|« H« |T¬l ,
a pack of milk, half a kilo curds,
T¬l|+ 77l6 , T7¬l, +l¹*P ,
give fruits as well, banana, oranges,
B¤4 , H¬lBlT¬P ·
apples and pineapple.
r|¹- - T9l, Hlrt4 T|6 --4Tl|T ?
Please, how much altogether ?
B4T- - H7 9|7 6-4Tl|T 94 9¾|-'H6 9Bl- ·
Sixty eight rupees and thirty five paise.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson - 5 : Grammar
In Sanskrit, the comparative and superlative are formed
by adding the suffixes 6¹ and 6P to the generic form of
the positive. We had an example of this in our previous
lesson (Lesson 4). Let us review it here.
¬P+l¬P+ T7 ¬4|6
¬P+l¬P+ T76¹ ¬4|6
There are two examples in this lesson too.
¬¬ BP76³- (P4l|P BP76³-) 6-
¹¹46¹ H|F6 P-4 ·
¬l¹6 ¬¬ BP76³- ¹¹46P- ²|6 ¹4l6- ·
While the first one is comparitive, the
second is superlative.
Depending on the gender of the noun, the adjective
in the comparitive and superlative form will take
the corresponding gender ending.
e,g. from the root word ¹P we have the adjectives
¹¹4- (m) ¹¹4l (f) ¹¹4P (n)
¹¹4- 9³- beautiful cloth
¹¹4l +l¹l beautiful lady
¹¹4P |¬-'P beautiful painting
Now let us look at the comparitive.
¹¹46¹- 9³- more beautiful cloth
¹¹46¹l +l¹l more beautiful lady
¹¹46¹ |¬-'P more beautiful painting
The superlative.
¹¹46P- 9³- most beautiful cloth
¹¹46Pl +l¹l most beautiful lady
¹¹46P |¬-'P most beautiful painting
Now let us look at another example.
7¬6- 946- a tall mountain
BO- 7¬6- 946- The Sahya is a tall mountain
(The range known as the Western Ghats in India)
|4-\4- H¬66¹- 946- ·
BOl6 |4-\4- 7¬66¹- 946- ·
The Vindhyas are taller.
Vindhyas are taller than the Sahyas
|rPl¬4- 7¬66P- 946- ·
|rPl¬4- |4-\4l6 7¬66¹- ·
|rPl¬4- |4-\4l6° H|9 7¬66¹- ·
|rPl¬4- |4-\4l6 94 BOl6 7¬66P- ·
The Himalayas are the tallest mountains.
(Note that we are rferring to the Himalyas in
singular as is the practice in India)
The Himalayas are taller than the Vindhyas.
The Himalayas are taller than both the Vindhyas
and Sahyas.
Here is an example using a feminine noun.
H4l\4l |4Hl¬l · Ayodhya is big.
Pl4l |4Hl¬6¹l · Maya (Hardwar) is bigger.
TlHl |4Hl¬6Pl · Kasi (Varanasi) is the biggest.
Pl4l H4l\4l4l- |4Hl¬64 Maya is larger than Ayodhya
TlHl Pl4l4l- |4Hl¬64 Kasi is larger than Maya
TlHl Pl4l4- H|9 |4Hl¬l Kasi is even larger than Maya
TlHl H4l\4l4l- 94 Pl4l4l- |4Hl¬6Pl ·
Kasi is larger than both Ayodhya and Maya.
The final example in neuter.
¬679¹lT 4r6 9F6TP ·
Garudapuranam is a big book.
¹lPl4TP 4r66¹ (9F6TP) ·
Ramayanam is bigger (a bigger book)
Prl¬l¹6 4r66P (9F6TP) ·
Mahabharatam is biggest.
¹lPl4TP ¬679¹lTl6 4r66¹P ·
Ramayanam is bigger than Garudapuranam.
Prl¬l¹6 ¹lPl4Tl6 H|9 4r6 ·
Mahabharatam is even bigger than Ramayanam.
Prl¬l¹6 ¹lPl4Tl6 94 ¬679¹lTl6 4r66PP ·
MahaBharatam is bigger than both Ramayanam
and Garudapuranam.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
In Lesson 3, we saw how a simple sentence could be made.
A simple sentence will have three parts : a subject, a verb
and an object. Let us look at some aspects of gender as
applicable to objects.
A simple rule may be remembered for deriving the object
from a noun which is masculine and ends with H. Such nouns
are known as HTl¹l-6- 9|~¬*- .
Here are some of them.
4l¬- +¹- ¬=- Pl«4-
When they become the object in a sentence, they
change to (in singular) :
4l¬ +¹ ¬= Pl«4 respectively
Let us look at a few sentences now.
H\4l9T- 4l¬ 9ló4|6 ·
The teacher teaches the boy.
4l+¹- +¹ 974|6 ·
The monkey sees the man.
[ +¹- , 4l+¹- Do you see a connection ,
linguistic or otherwise ? ]
When the dual form is used (|ã4¬+ ) the nouns become :
4l¬| +¹| ¬=| Pl«4| respectively.
H\4l9T- 4l¬| 9ló4|6 ·
The teacher teaches two (both) boys.
When used in plural, the nouns take the form :
4l¬l+ +¹l+ ¬=l+ Pl«4l+ respectively.
H\4l9T- 4l¬l+ 9ló4|6 ·
The teacher teaches the boys.
4l+¹- +¹l+ 974|6 ·
The monkey sees the men. (many)
What we have introduced here is the "case"
as is known in the English Language. Simply
case relates to how a noun is transformed when
different types of references are made to the noun.
In all our lessons till now, we have mainly used
the nominative case, which is what applies to the
subject of a simple sentence. When a noun or pronoun
is used as the subject of a verb, it is said to be in the
nominative case.

The Nominative is the first of the eight cases
in Sanskrit. Case is known as |4¬|±- and these
are refered to by their numbering order. The
Nominative being the first, is referred to as the
9¤Pl |4¬|±-
We note that the subject of a sentence will always be
in the Nominative case when the sentence is in Active
voice. The subject may be in Singular, Plural or Dual.
Im the English language, when a noun or a pronoun is
used as the object of a verb, it is said to be in the
Accusative case. The Direct object of a sentence should
always be in the Accusative case.
In the English language, one observes that the form
of the noun is the same for the Nominative and the
Accusative. This is not so in Sanskrit. The noun assumes
different endings depending on the number and case. It
is usual in Sanskrit to present the information in the
form of a table, where the rows correspond to cases and
columns correspond to the Number. The variations are
called declensions of the noun.
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative 4l¬- 4l¬| 4l¬l-
Accusative 4l¬ 4l¬| 4l¬l+
Being the second, the Accusative case is called
|ã6l4l |4¬|±-
Discussion of the different cases is really not part of this
lesson. We simply set out to form a simple sentence
consisting of a subject, a verb and an object and found
that we can derive the object form of a noun from
the subject form i.e., the Accusative case form
from the Nominative case form. Full discussion of
cases will be taken up in a subsequent lesson.
Before we close, we should also mention the Vocative
case where a person is addressed.
r r¹ is how r|¹- in the Nominative case is changed
to from the Vocative case. This is similar to English,
where one might say say Oh Harry ! The Vocative case
is the last case in Sanskrit, but is refered to as
B4l«+9¤Pl |4¬|±- and not as H7P- |4¬|±-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 5 - Grammar
--------------------
We have seen in the earlier sections that the Nominative
and Accusative forms of nouns will be found in sentences
containing a subject, verb and direct object.
Let us look at the declensions of a couple of nouns.
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ¬=- ¬=| ¬=l-
Accusative ¬= ¬=| ¬=l+
Nominative 7l-'- 7l-'| 7l-'l-
Accusative 7l-' 7l-'| 7l-'l+
In general, masculine nouns ending in H decline
in the same fashion.
Consider some feminine nouns now.
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Pl¬l Pl¬ Pl¬l-
Accusative Pl¬l Pl¬ Pl¬l-
Nominative T¤l T¤ T¤l-
Accusative T¤l T¤ T¤l-
Again the declensions shown are typical for most
feminine nouns ending in Hl
Here are the declensions for nouns in Neuter.
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative =¬ =¬ =¬l|+
Accusative =¬ =¬ =¬l|+
Nominative 4+ 4+ 4+l|+
Accusative 4+ 4+ 4+l|+
The fact that the declensions for the Nominative and
Accusative are identical need not confuse the student
who might be expecting some variations in the
declensions.
Again the declensions are typical for neuter nouns
ending with H
We must remember that verbs must be conjugated in
accordance with the number and person of the noun
used in the subject. We have already introduced this
concept earlier, but a short revision is useful.
We add suffixes to the root form of the verb to derive
the different conjugations. Consider the verb 9ó which
is in its root form. It means to study. In present tense
9ó conjugates as :
Singular Dual Plural
III Person 9ó|6 9ó6- 9ó|-6
II Person 9ó|B 9ó¤- 9ó¤
I Person 9ól|P 9ól4- 9ólP-
It will be useful for the student to remember the
following suffix rules presented in table form.
These apply in the present tense.

Singular Dual Plural
III P root+H+|6 root+H+6- root+H+H|-6
II P root+H+|B root+H+¤- root+H+¤
I P root+Hl+|P root+Hl+4- root+Hl+P-
Observations
In Sanskrit when conjugations of verbs are shown, the third
person conjugations are shown first followed by second person
and then first person, an indirect reminder that the I (ego !)
should find the last place in the world !
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-5 Exercise I
The exercises in this section are meant to familiarize
the student with the usage of nouns in different persons
and number (Singular, Plural or Dual).
A Brief Review - Formation of simple sentences.
In forming simple sentences the noun and the verb used
should correctly reflect the Number and Person in
respect of the subject. Look at:
+¹- Tl4l¬4 ¬¬7|6 ·
Man goes to the workplace (office)
This when changed to plural becomes
+¹l- Tl4l¬4 ¬¬7|-6 ·
Men go to the workplace
The verb is conjugated in accordance with the form of
the noun. The forms in which the verb HB is used was
discussed in lesson and also the different forms of
the personal pronouns. In this lesson we have also seen
declension of HTl¹l-6 9|¬* words in the nominative
case.
Singular dual Plural
Nominative +¹- +¹| +¹l-
The verb ¬¬7|6 corresponds to the third person
singular (9T4¬+P 9¤P969-). The basic rule for
forming such verb forms was also discussed in an
earlier lesson and the suffixes to be added to the
root form of the verb shown.
Singular dual Plural
Suffix for
Present tense
in third
person |6 6- H|-6
first
person Hl|P Hl4- HlP-
ex: 3rd
person 9ó|6 9ó6- 9ó|-6
first
person 9ól|P 9ól4- 9ólP-
Now for the exercises. Change the following
sentences in third person singular to third
person plural.
1. +¹- ¬lP ¬¬7|6·
The man goes to the village.
2. 7l-'- 9ló 9ó|6·
The student studies the lesson.
3. TlT- T¬ Gl7|6·
The crow eats the fruit.
4. ¬=- =¬ |94|6·
The elephant drinks water.
5. 4l+¹- 4-' 79|4H|6·
The monkey sits there.
Change the following sentences in third person
plural to third person dual.
Example : =+l- ¬¬|¬-' 974|-6·
People watch the movie.
=+| ¬¬|¬-' 9746-·
1. P4¹l- 6-' +t4|-6·
Peacocks dance there.
2. HHl- P-7¹l4l |67|-6·
Horses stand in the stable.
3. 4l¬l- ¬l¹ |9¬|-6·
Boys drink milk.
4. =+Tl- 9-'l+ 9l94|-6·
Fathers bring up sons
5. 44Tl- T¬l|+ Hl+4|-6·
Youths bring fruits.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson - 5 Exercise - II
The personal pronoun Hr declines as :

Singular Dual Plural
Hr Hl4l 44
Change the following sentences in first person singular
to first person Dual as well as first person Plural.
Example :
Hr Tl¹ 4lr+ ¬¬l|P
Hl4l TH¹ 4lr+ ¬¬l4-
44 Tl¹ 4lr+ ¬¬lP-
1. Hr B*l6 9ól|P
2. Hr TlTl |94l|P
3. Hr BP76l¹ ¬¬7l|P
4. Hr |+7l T¹l|P
5. Hr 9F6T |¬Gl|P
The verb 9ó conjugates as :
II person 9ó|B 9ó¤- 9ó¤
(Singular) (Dual) (Plural)
The personal pronoun "you" declines as :

Singular Dual Plural
t4 44l 44
Now change the following sentences in second person
singular to second person plural. The verbs conjugate
in the same manner as indicated for 9ó
Example :
t4 BFT6 9ó|B
44 BFT6 9ó¤
1. t4 T-' 4B|B
2. t4 |TP¤ rB|B
3. t4 +¬¹ =l4|B
4. t4 |47H ¬¬7|B
5. t4 T¬ Gl7|B
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson - 5 Exercise III

Examine the chart form given below. The word in the inner
square is the subject of a sentence to be formed by selecting
an object from the middle square and a verb from the outer
square. Make as many meaningful sentences as possible.
·−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−·
· 9ó|6 ¬¬7|6 ·
· ·−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−· ·
· · BFT6 74l¬4 · ·
· · 9ló- ·−−−−−−−−· ¬r · ·
· · · B- · · ·
· · T¬ ·−−−−−−−−−· =¬ · ·
· · 9F6T Tl4l¬4 · ·
· ·−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−--· ·
· 974|B Gl7|6 |94|6 ·
·−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−·
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Here are some simple questions based on the lesson.
Try and answer them. An example is given.
Example: r|¹- 6-' H|F6 4l ?
Hl r|¹- H-' H|F6 ·
Note however, this is not the same answer
given by the telephone operator. So, answers
to the questions are not to be found in the
sentences of the lesson. The questions are similar
to those found in the lesson but are presented
in a general manner.
1. |96l 6-' H|F6 4l ? Hl ----------
2. 9F6T 6-' H|F6 4l ? +-----------
3. r ¬l¬B , Pl FP¹|B 4l ? Hl,-------------
4. r TPl¹ , H*¹ FP¹|B 4l ? Hl ,-------------
5. r ³lP , 9F6T 9ó|B 4l ? ----------------
6. r r¹ , 9-' |¬G|B 4l ? -----------------
7. r ¬l|4-7 , Hl7+ Gl7|B 4l ? -----------------
8. r ³lP , B~¬¬l¹ 7¹4l'4l ¬l9|B 4l ? ------------
Here are some direct questions.
1. H¹, |4|~¬4 , T6- ? Ans: Hr 7~¬l6- ·
2. T-' 6 4lB- ? Ans: ¬¬ +¬¹ P 4lB- ·
Here the student is introduced to the 6 and P
combination. 6 and P go together.
6 - your, P - my,
so use P in the answer.
3. T-' 6 ¬l=+P ? 7l-'l4lB _________
7l-'l4lB- - student hostel;
a place where students live.
Note how the word is coined from 7l-'- and 4lB-
4. T-' 6 9F6T ?
This question may be answered with a single
word, 9Tl7 .
9Tl7P means room. One word answers are perfectly
appropriate. Now try and answer the questions below.
5.T-' 6 4lr+P ?
6.HH BP4- H|F6 4l ?
7.HH =¬|¬¬-' H|F6 4l ?
8.HH 9¹l¬l H|F6 4l ?
Here are some more questions, good for daily use!
1. |T |94|B : TlTl H¤4l ¬l4 :
TlTl - coffee ¬l4 - tea
you can answer this as ¬l4 94 - only tea
2. |T Gl7|B ? T7¬l H¤4l B¤4T¬ ?
3. |T ¬9|B ? T¬¹B H¤4l ¬l¹P :
4. |T 974|B ? Pl=l¹ H¤4l H+T- ?
Lesson 6 : Part-1
A Conversation
Here is the text of a simple conversation between
two friends ¬|÷P and |4P¬l. Try and understand
the conversation. Word meanings for new words
are given at the end.
|4P¬l - ¬|÷P ! +PF6 ·
¬|÷P - |4P¬ +PF6 · B9¬l6 6 ·
|4P¬l - B9¬l6 · Hl¬¬7, H-6- Hl¬¬7 ·
H|9 TH|¬+l ?
¬|÷P - Hl H6l4 TH|¬+l · t4 T¤ H|B,
H-4 ¬ ?
|4P¬l - Hl HrP|9 · B4-' TH¬P ·
¬|÷P |¬¹l4 t4l 974l|P ·
¬|÷P - Tl 6 7¹4lTl B=¹4l ? B=¹4l +lBl6 ·
H¤- 7¹4lTlP Tt4l Hl¬-6 + H±l ·
|4P¬l - ¬t4l|¹ +4 H-4 9T -'lTl 9¾ B|' ·
4 9 0 1 3 5 7
¬|÷P - Hl PP H|9 ²¬7l H|F6 t4l 77P ·
HH H-' +¬¹ Hl¬6l ·
H6- t4l H|9 77 Hl¬6l ·
|4P¬l - T-' 6 4lB- ? =-P ¬r 4l ?
¬|÷P - +, H¬=F4 ¬r · 6F4 9-'F4
9¤P=-P|7+ H- 94 ·
|4P¬l - B7 , H6- 6 7H+¬l¹4 94 G¬ ?
H«+l |T 9ó|B ?
¬|÷P - BFT6 9P .9 T÷4l4l 9|47l ·
|4P¬l - Bl« , Hr H6l4 B-67l H|FP,
46 t4 BFT6 94 9ó|B ²|6 ·
¬|÷P - ²7l+l BFT6 H|¬6|¬- 4|¤6l ·
²'³+³ Pl\4P H|9 BFT6 9ló-
H|F6 G¬ ?
|4P¬l - 94 4l ? BFT6F4 9¬l¹- B4-' HF6 ·
Word meanings :
----------------
T¤P|B - How are you ?
H-4 ¬ - others too
|¬¹l4 - in a long while
PP ²¬7l H|F6 - I am anxious too
77P - to see
=-P¬r = in the house where one is born
(reference to parents’ house)
H¬=F4 - elder brother’s
9¤P=-P|7+ - first birthday
B7 - good
7H+¬l¹4P - a chance to see (¬l¹4 may actually be
taken as lucky chance)
9|4Ul - admitted (past tense)
Bl« - well
B-67l - happy
H|¬6|¬ - interest
4|¤6l - increased
In the above conversation, try and understand who
is visiting who. Pick up some words from the
conversation, which you can use in your own
conversations in Sanskrit.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Given below is a story. The story is likely to be a
familiar one for those who have read many fables.
The verbs in the story are all in the present tense and
hence it is as if the story is a narration of what is
happening. The words newly seen here will add to
your vocabulary.
HH- TP- ¬
9T7l 9T|FP+ 4+ 9T- HH- H|F6 ·
6F4 |P-' TP- H|F6 ·
TP- P-7 ¬¬|6 ·
|T6 HH- B47l Hl¤ «l4|6 ·
9T|FP+ |7+ HHF4 TPF4 ¬ 9¹F9¹
«l4+ F9«l ¬4|6 ·
9T- 4l+¹- |+T4T- H|F6 ·
TPHH| 4¬BPl9l6 «l4+ T66- ·
=¬lHl494-6 46 7¹ H|F6, 66 4- 94
9l9l|6, B- |4=4l ·
HH- H|6Hl¤ 6F4 «l4+ T¹l|6 ·
T- 94 H|-6PF¤l+ Hl¬¬7|6 :
|¬-6+ Tt4l 966 47 ·
4r7¹ «l|4t4l HH- |6U|6 ·
TP- Hl¬¬7|6 4l 974|6 ·
TP- P-7 P-7 Hl¬¬7|6 ·
HH- |¬-64|6, |T|¾6 |4~l|-6 Tt4l
¬¬7l|P ²|6 ·
HH- 4¬F4 P¬ 79|4H|6 ·
H:'lt4l H+- |+7l T¹l|6 ·
TP- |4~l|-6 |4+l P-7 P-7 ¬¬|6 ·
66- TP- =¬H4F4 BPl9 F4~9BP4+
Hl¬¬7|6 ·
67l+l HH- =l¬|6, Hl¤ 7t¤l4 974|6 ·
TP- =¬H4F4 BPl994-6 9l9l|6, B-
F9«l4l |4=4l ¬4|6 ·
HH- Hl¤ H4|H7F4 7¹F4 «l4+ Hl¹¬6 ·
|T-6 |T 94l=+P : HHF4 Hl¬P+l6 94
TP- |4=4l ¬4|6 ·
|+T4T- 4l+¹- 47|6, t4 H¬B- H|B ·
P-7 |+¹-6¹94t++ F9«l4l |4=49l||'- ·
94 H+- H+- |+¹-6¹ 9|ót4l BFT6¬l9l
H|9 B4 9ó-6 ·
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Word Meanings:
HH- − rabbit
TP- − Tortoise
9T7l − once upon a time
9T|FP+ 4+ − in a forest
6F4 − his
P-7P − slowly
¬¬|6 − moves
Hl¤P − fast
9¹F9¹P − between each other
«l4+F9«l − running race
|+T4T- − judge (umpire)
4¬BPl9l6 − near the tree
(from a place near the tree)
=¬lH494-6P − till the pond
7¹P − distance
|4=4l − winner
H|-6PF¤l+P − finishing point
|¬-6+ Tt4l − thinking over
4r7¹P − for a long distance
|4~l|-6 − rest
4¬F4P¬ − at the bottom of the tree
H:'lt4l − unnoticed
|+7lP − sleep
|4~l|-6 |4+l − without taking rest
F4~9BP4+ − in a short time
67l+l − then
7t¤l4 − arising
H4|H7F4 7¹F4 − remaining distance
|+¹-6¹94t++ − through constant effort
|4=49l9|6- − the attainment of success.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
The conversation below is supposed to have
taken place between Kalidasa, the undisputed
king among the Poets of India who composed
in Sanskrit, and a little girl.
Many things are obvious from the text seen,
from literacy and education for girl children
to the fact that writing was done on Palm
leaves. There is no information available about
Kalidasa’s time, though scholars have conjectured
times which vary from 1400 B.C to 700 A.D
The beauty of this often recited verse is its
metrical structure. Some liberty has been taken
by the Poet in the ordering of the words.
Tl|¬7lB- − Tl t4 4l¬ :
4l¬l − Tl¾+Pl¬l ·
Tl|¬7lB- − TF4l- 9-'l :
4l¬l − T+T¬6l4l- ·
Tl|¬7lB- − rF6 |T 6 :
4l¬l − 6l¬l9-'P ·
Tl|¬7lB- − Tl 4l ¹Gl :
4l¬l − Tl Gl ¬l ¤l ·
The conversation is known through its form in verse.
Tl t4 4l¬ Tl¾+Pl¬l TF4l- 9-'l T+T¬6l4l- ·
rF6 |T 6 6l¬l9-' Tl 4l ¹Gl Tl Gl ¬l ¤l +
We give below the words rearranged for you to
follow the conversation. The words in parantheses
are implied.
4l¬ t4 Tl :
( Hr ) Tl¾+Pl¬l ·
( t4 ) TF4l- 9-'l :
T+T¬6l4l- ( 9-'l )
6 rF6 |T ( H|F6 ) :
( P rF6 ) 6l¬l9-' ( H|F6 )
( 6-' ) Tl 4l ¹Gl :
( 6-' ) Tl Gl ¬l ¤l ·
6l¬l9-'P − Palm leaf (used for writing)
¹Gl − letters ( of a script)
At this website, we have a page on Palm leaf
manuscripts, in which you will see a leaf from
a manuscript. Though small in size, the leaves
often accommodate as many as fourteen to twenty
lines of text, where each line may have more than
thirty syllables! The Multilingual Applications
link seen below in the footer of the page has the
details.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
|4Hl 77l|6 |4+4 |4+4l7 4l|6 9l-'6lP ·
9l-'t4l7 «+Pl9l|6 «+l7 «P 66- BGP ·
Learning gives modesty ; Through modesty
does man attain worthiness; On account of
worthiness, he gains wealth. With the ability
to give for charity with his wealth, he gains
happiness.
BGl¤l ¬6 t4=7 |4Hl |4Hl¤l ¬6 t4=6 BGP ·
BGl|¤+- T6l |4Hl T6l |4Hl|¤+- BGP +
If you desire comfort, you should give up learning;
Should you desire to acquire learning you should
give up comfort. How can a person wanting comfort
acquire learning? And how can a person enjoy
comfort if he wants to learn?
Hl¬l4l6 9l7Pl7v' 9l7 |H!4- F4P«4l ·
9l7 B4’¬l|¹-4- 9l7 Tl¬4PT ¬ +
A student gets a fourth of his learning from his
teacher; a fourth through his own intellectual
efforts, another fourth from his class-mates and
the last fourth in course of time.
TlT- T!T- |9T- T!T- Tl ¬7- |9TTlT4l- ·
4B-6Tl¬ B¹9l|' TlT- TlT- |9T- |9T- +
The crow is black, the cuckoo is black. What
is the difference between the two then?
At spring time, a crow will be a crow and a
cuckoo, a cuckoo!
Lesson - 7 Part-1 Mohan and Usha
In this lesson, the student is introduced to the
concept of past tense. The lesson is presented
through a story. The thoughts mentioned herein
are those of "Sanathana Dharma" as found in the
ancient texts from India and relate to the creation
of the universe.
It is late in the evening, around 8.00PM. Usha
and her younger brother Mohan have finished
dinner and are watching TV. They get bored with
what they see.
Plr+ - ¬|¬|+ , Hrl T¤ ²7 9744 ?
H-' B7l ¬¬|¬¬-'F¤ ¬l+ +6+ ¬ ·
Sister, Oh! How can we watch this?
Always songs and dances from movies.

79l - Hl, 6|r |T T4- ? |96lPr 9¬7l4- ·
B- Hl44l- TlP|9 T¤l 476 ·
Yes, what shall we do then ?
(let us) ask Grandfather. He will tell
us a story.
Plr+ - B¹4T
Good
---------They go to their Grandfather--------
Plr+ , 79l - 6l6 6l6 ! T¤l 476 T¤l 476 ·
Grandfather, tell us a story, tell us a story.
|96lPr- - Tl T¤l ~l6 ²¬7¤- ?
¬¬46T¤l 4l , 9¾6--' 4l , 76 H-4l 4l ?
What story do you wish to hear,
about God, Panchatantra or something else?
79l - ¬4l+ 94 H476|T¬ , T¤ 9¹l ¬¬4l+
4’l'7 HB=6 ²|6 · 6l T¤l T¤46 ·
Once you mentioned how the Lord created the
universe. Tell that story.
|96lPr- - HF6 HF6 , 9Tl¬64l HT6 · 9¹l ............
Well, well, Listen attentively. Long time ago.....
Plr+ - BrFl49-4- 9lT ?
A thousand years ago ?
|96lPr- - + T4¬ BrFl49-4- 9lT ,
|T-6 Tl|³Tl|³ 49-4- H|9 9lT ·
Tl¬F4 ¬T+l H-4|FP+ |7+ 47l|P ·
Not merely a thousand years ago, but crores
of years ago. Another day I will tell you how
to reckon Time.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Part 2. Avyaktam
|96lPr- - B74 Hl7| ²7P¬ HlBl6 ·
In the beginning, only "Sat", the Supreme Being
was there.
Plr+ - 6l6 6l6 , B6 ²t4F4 Tl5¤- ?
Grandpa, What is the meaning of
Supreme Being (here)?
|96lPr- - B6 ²|6 T4¬ ¬6-4 94 HlBl6 ·
67l+l |7T , Tl¬- 4F6 4l |TP|9 + HlBl6 ·
Sat, only pure conciousness, was present.
At that time, there was no space, time
or matter.
67l Tl¬F4 FT¹TP|9 +lBl6 ·
47l B7- BP4- H¬46 67l 6¬¬6-4F4 ²¬7l
H¬46 · ²7l+l B|7 BPl¹¬ ²|6 ·
At that time, there was not even the perception
of time. When it was time for creation, the
desire arose in the Supreme Being.
I shall start creation.
|96lPr- - 66- 66 H¤4± H¬46 ·
Then the Supreme (being) transformed itself
into the "Avyakta" form.
79l - H¤4± ²|6 |T ?
What is Avyaktam ?
|96lPr- - H¤4± ²|6 46 ²7 66 ²|6 F9764l
+ |+T6 H14 66 ·
That cannot be clearly ascertained is called
Avyakta.
46 ²|-74- 77 H14 66 ¤4± ·
That which can be perceived by the senses is
called Vyaktam.
H¤4±F4 66 F4-9 ²|-74- + 77 H14P ·
6FPl6 H¤4± ²|6 +lP ·
That form of the Supreme Being cannot be
perceived by any of the senses. So it is called
Avyaktam.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Part-3 Creation
Plr+ - 6l6 6l6 , |T|¾7|9 + H4¬¬7l|P ·
Grandfather, I don’t understand anything !
|96lPr- - |6U |6U , H4«l++ HT ·
Wait Wait, hear patiently.
B¹4T H4¬¬7-·
You will understand well (it will be clear)
|96lPr- - 66- 9¹ 6F4 B6- H¤4±
F4-9 ¬7:'l+l4 4l¹4 Pr6 H¬46 ·
Then, the form prone to differentiation
began to manifest. Then the Avyakta
form of the Lord changed to the form
of Mahat.
79l - Pr6 ²|6 |T ?
What is Mahat ?
|96lPr- - Pr6 ²|6 + |TP|9 4F6 ·
9¹-6 BP74ltP+-
4’l'7F4 B7- 94F4-9 Pr6 ²|6 ¹4l6P ·
Mahat is not any matter (which you see).
Mahat is the state of the Supreme
being before the creation of the Universe,
(referred to as the whole - yet to take
different forms).
66- 9¹ 66 Pr6 Hr*l¹- H¬46 ·
Then the Mahat form became the Supreme Ego.
Hr*l¹- -'«l ¤4¬=6 ·
The Ahankara divided into three.
6 Bl|t4T¹l=|BT6lP|BTlr*l¹l- ·
They are Satvik Rajasik and Tamasik
Ahankaras.
Plr+ - 6P- ²|6 ?
Thamasa means ?
|96lPr- - 6P- ²|6 H-«Tl¹- ·
Thamas is Darkness.
H-' H-«Tl¹- + 9TlHF4 H¬l446 ·
Here, Darkness is not like the absence of Light.
9¹-6 , ¬6-4F4 9l4- H9TlH6l 94 :'l94|6 ·
But it shows the near absence of Conciousness.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Part 4 The five elements
|96lPr- - 6lPBlr*l¹l6 ¤+l¬l4+ 9¾¬6l|+
H¬4+ ·
From the Tamasa Ahankara emerged the five
prime elements by becoming gross (visibly big)
79l - Tl|+ 96l|+ ¬6l|+ ?
What are these elements ?
|96lPr- - HlTlH- , 4l4- , 6=- , 77T , 94 9|¤4l ·
Ether (Space) , Air, Fire, Water and the Earth.
9¤P64l HlTlH- Hl|4¹¬46 ·
6F4 H-7- 94 ¬T- ·
First emerged the element called Akasa or Ether.
Its quality is Sound.
6FPl6 HlTlHl6 4l4- H=l46 ·
From Ether(space) emerged Vayu or motion.
6F4 4l4l- ã| ¬T| · H-7- 94 F9H- ¬ ·
Vayu possesses two qualities. Sound and touch
(feeling)
4l4l- 6=- H¬46 · 6=F4 -'4- ¬Tl-·
H-7- F9H- -9 ¬ ·
From Vayu came Tejas. It has three qualities,
Sound, touch and Form.
6FPl6 77T H=l46 ·
77TF4 ¬t4l¹- ¬Tl- ·
From it came Water. Water has four qualities.
H-7F9H-9¹Bl- · 66- 9|¤4l H¬46 ·
Sound, touch, form and taste are they.
Finally came the Earth.
6F4l- 9¾ ¬Tl- 79|¹ 7±l- ¬t4l¹-
¬Tl- 94 ¬-«- H|9 ¬ ·
It has five qualities. In addition to the above
four, the quality of smell.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 7 , part-5
Plr+ - 96l|+ ¬6l|+ Tl|+ ?
4l|+ 44 974lP- ?
What are these elements ? Those which we see ?
|96lPr- - +, 96l|+ B÷P¬6l|+ ·
No, these are subtle elements.
47l 96l|+ B÷P¬6l|+ 9¹F9¹ |P~l ¬4|-6,
67l HFPlT c|7¬l¬¹l|T ¬+|-6 6l|+
¬||TT¬6l|+ ·
When these subtle elements combine with each
other, they become perceivable by us: the worldly
elements.
94 9Tl¹T HFPlT c74Pl+ ²7 =¬6 H¬46 ·
In this manner the visible universe was formed.
|96lPr- − HH H-|4 BPl94lP- ·
Today we shall conclude with this.
Plr+ - H-|4 BPl94|6 |T ? T¤ B4- , ¬-7- ,
¬|P- 94 74P+!4l74- 9l¬4+ ?
Are you going to stop here ? How were the
Sun, Moon, Earth and the Devas, Humans
were created ?
79l − + + , Pl+9P¬l7l+l B|7- T¤ H¬46 :
No No, How did the creation of humans and
animals take place ?
|96lPr- - ²7l+l H6l4 |4¬¹4- H¬46 ·
44l |+7l6 ¬¬76P ·
H+-6¹ H-4|FP+ |7+ B4 47l|P ·
It is quite late now. You two go to sleep.
Another day I will tell you everything.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Grammar: Part-1
This lesson has introduced many new concepts to
the student. Among these, the concept of sandhi
B|-«- will be taken up for discussion now.
(Since this concept is very important, a separate
lesson is planned to provide additional details.
The presentation here will suffice to give the
student an idea of the formation of B|-«- )
It is a common practice in Sanskrit to present
combinations of words as a single word. What this
means is that in a sentence two or more words may
be written together as a single combination replacing
the original individual words. So what may be seen
as a single word in a sentence could well be the
combination of of more than one word which could
well have been used independently in the sentence.
When words are combined, Vowels may combine
leading to Vowel combinations called F4¹ B|-«-
or consonants may combine leading to r¬ B|-«-.
Let us now look at some of the words used in the
lesson.
The word F9¹TP|9 is obtained as a combination
of F9¹T and H|9
Thus F9¹T + H|9 = F9¹TP|9
Other examples are:
+ + HlBl6 = +lBl6
The word ¬=l++P means elephant faced and is
actually a combination of
¬= + Hl++ = ¬=l++P
So one can see that a word ending with vowel H or Hl
and a word beginning with vowel H or Hl results in Hl
as the combination.
This is true also when the both the combining vowels
are H . Look at an example:
|rP + H¬¬ = |rPl¬¬P or snow clad mountain.
The student may well ask at this point, how does
one find out if a given word is actually a combination
of other words. That is, are these rules to separate out
a given word into more words? The answer is that
one must have knowledge of the words forming the
sandhis, which comes only after periods of training
in the language. We shall therefore give only the rules
for combining words.
Combining consonants.
The word 6¬¬6-4 is obtained by combining
66 and ¬6-4 . This is an example of hal sandhi or
consonant combinations.
Here are a few more examples.
66 + |¬-6+ = 6|¬¬-6+
Hl|4¹ + H¬46 = Hl|4¹¬46
TlP + H|9 = TlP|9
The consonant sandhi are quite complicated and
we will not be able to deal with them in any detail
except to indicate some and show the manner in
which the sandhi is formed.
H47|-T¬ is the combination of H47+ and |T¬.
In this case, when the consonants combine they
merely form a conjunct.
i.e. + + |T = |-T
likewise ¬¬4-HT is ¬¬4+ + HT
P|--'-47 is P|--'+ + 47
Let us look at ²7P¬ HlBl6
This is a combination of ²7P + H¬ + HlBl6
Note that the text combine H¬ where as we have split
it as H¬. The rule for sandhi in this case says that when
the swara 9 is followed by the long vowel Hl, the 9
becomes H4 and 4 becomes silent.
Thus H¬ becomes H¬. Here H¬ means first.
²7P + H¬ follows the same principle as mentioned
earlier and would become ²7P¬ if not followed
by any word beginning with H. ex. ²7P¬ ¬4|6
When however the same 9 if followed by the short
vowel H , the H will become silent in the combined
word.
Ex: ²7P¬ + H¬46 -> ²7P¬5¬46
Note that between ¬ and ¬ a special symbol has
been written.
This symbol known as the H4¬r- (avagraha)
denotes that in the combination the swara H
has been rendered silent but will appear when the
words are split and pronounced separately.
We have now seen a few examples of combinations
involving 9 as the initial or first vowel. If the second
word begins with a swara (vowel) different from H ,
the 9 in the first word becomes H and the swara in
the second word is retained as it is.
When the swara in the second word is H it is rendered
silent but shown through the 5 avagraha symbol which
looks similar to the english letter s.
The student may keep in mind the fact that sandhis
involving 9 as the ending vowel in the first word
will in general change to H .
More examples of sandhi.
²t4F4 is ²|6 + HF4
Ht4~9P is H|6 + H~9P
²t4l|7 is ²|6 + Hl|7
The coombinations of ² and H results in 4.
Consider a new case.
Tl5¤- T- + H¤-
In this particular instance, the sandhi between T-
and H¤- takes the form Tl5¤-. This is quite a
common case of sandhi involving the visarg.
Whenever a combination of a consonant with
Visarg occurs before a short H, it will take the
form Hl. As explained earlier, the avagraha denotes
the silent H and when the combined word is
split the H will come back to the second word.
At this point, the student will do well to remember
the different types of sandhis by memory, even
though there are rules expounded in the Vyakarana
of Panini as to how such sounds are derived. It is
beyond the scope of this short course to go into
the finer details of the sandhis at this point. There
will be a separate lesson devoted to this topic.
Examples of combinations involving a change
of consonants.
B|7|6 B6 + ²|6
6|7|6 66 + ²|6
674 66 + 94
67|9 66 + H|9
67± 66 + 7±
One may take it in general that the consonant 6
ending a word followed by any vowel(short or long)
in the next word will transform into a 7.
|7Tl¬ |7T + Tl¬ is a single consonant sandhi.
H-|4 H-' + 94
The general rule is to change 9 or 9 ending a
second word to 9 , when the first word ends in
H or Hl -
PP4 PP + 94
474 47l + 94
PP14 PP + 914
General caution on sandhis.
Please note that splitting a word cannot be done
arbitrarily. It would require a lot of reading and
practice and sizeable vocabulary on the part of
the student.
For reference and also to present the intricacies
of sandhis has been derived from the information
provided in the Sanskrit Reader prepared by the
Samskrit Education Society.
For this reason the student should not attempt to
split any word into constituent words, until his/her
understanding of the language is good and he/she is
familiar with many roots from which words are
derived.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Grammar: Part-2
1.Word repetitions:
|6U |6U , HF6 HF6 etc.,
These repetitive words are frequent in Sanskrit
and other Indian languages as well. One finds
them used in conversations. There are generally
no rules about which words can repeat. Typically
when a person answers a question with a single
word or commands one with a single word, such
repetitions are heard. It is common practice for
many Indians to retain this in their converstions
in English too ! You might find someone saying
wait wait, no no, good good etc. Amusing is it not ?
yes yes !
|6U means wait and HF6 means alright or yes.
2.Negation of nouns.
It is to Sanskrit that most ancient languages have
their tradition of negating a noun by the additions
of a short vowel H as a prefix.
ex: ¤4±P - clear, manifested, perceivable clearly
by the senses.
When H is added as a prefix the word becomes
H¤4±P - unclear
Other examples are:
Bt4P - Truth HBt4P - Falsehood
P¹TP - death HP¹TP - immortality
Now, when the noun begins with a Swara
(i.e.vowel) the H prefix becomes H+ .
These are some examples:
H-6P - end, H+-6P - endless
+6P - Truth H+6P − false
(note + is a swara)
7!TP - heat H+!TP - lack of heat
The reader’s attention is drawn to the presence
of similar usage in the Romantic languages
and English as well.
Theist atheist
gnostic agnostic
aerobic anaerobic
official unofficial
ending unending
A Word of Caution
The student is advised that he\she should remember
that the meaning of a word is negated with the
prefix H only when the word is a noun or adjective.
Any word beginning with H is not a negation of the
word without the H. When H precedes a verb, the
meaning may be different. The student is informed
that most verbs in their simple past tense take the
prefix H . This will be explained later in the course
of the lesson. We did see however in lesson 2 that
the prefix Hl (long vowel) will give the opposite
meaning of the verb as in the example:
¬¬7|6 Hl¬¬7|6
goes comes
+4|6 Hl+4|6
takes along comes back with
For the beginner who is eager to speak Sanskrit as
quickly as possible, some of these discussions
may seem unimportant. Yet these points are given
primarily to reinforce the idea that many words in
Sanskrit are built from related words and in all cases
from fundamental roots.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Grammar: Part-3
In this lesson, a few examples of what are known
as BPlBl- have been used. A BPlB- is basically
a combination of two nouns, adjectives or nominal
stems. A detailed explanation of BPlBl- is beyond
the scope of this on-line series of lessons. The
student is however introduced to the concept through
examples used in the lesson.
The word Pr6F4-9P is a combination of two
nouns Pr6 and F4-9P . The components of the word
are in neuter and are in the nominative case.
This is an example of ã-ãBPlB- .
Consider the somewhat long word:
Bl|t4T¹l=|BT6lP|BTlr*l¹l-
This is a combination of
Bl|t4T Hr*l¹- ¹l=|BT Hr*l¹-
and 6lP|BT Hr*l¹-
When joined together, the three attributes of the
same noun Hr*l¹- , which means self or ego, will
naturally become plural. so the ending becomes
Hr*l¹l-
Also note the B|-« in the final part of the word
6lP|BTlr*l¹l- .The word 6lP|BT and Hr*l¹l-
combine into 6lP|BTlr*l¹l-.
Let us see another example:
74P+!4l74- is 74 + P+!4 + Hl74-
This word means the Gods, the humans and
others. In the English language, one would probably
write this as gods, humans, etc.
Consider the word:
H-7F9H-9¹Bl- This will be identified as
H-7- + F9H- + -9- + ¹B-
This is another example of a samasa similar to
Pr6F4-9P explained earlier. Here four nouns
have been combined into a single word. However
note the difference in this example. The final
component noun ¹B- is ending as ¹Bl- in plural.
This is the indication that all the four nouns are
taken together.
In the previous example of Pr6F4-9P, the
component Pr6 was actually an adjective of the
noun F4-9P and so together they formed a
Nominative singular. In the present case however,
H-7-, F9H-, -9- and ¹B- are distinct and
independent from each other. Collectively they
form one word in plural.
Use of respectable form ¬4-6- (¬4l+)
The student will note that the children when
addressing their grandfather, use the respectable
form of addressing a person. This is not really very
common. However most children in India were
taught to use the respectable form with all elders.
So instead of saying t4, the child addresses the
grandfather as ¬4l+ .
Difference between ²t4l7l|+ and ²t4l|7-
Both words are used to signify the meaning of
etcetera (and so on, & others). However, unlike in
English the singular and plural are differentiated.
For instance, if one were using a string of singular
words such as
HH-, ¬=- .... then ²t4l|7 would be used to
signify etcetera. When used in the context of a string
of words in plural form like T¬l|+ , 9!9l|T ......
then ²t4l7l|+ would be the correct usage.
²t4l74- is the adjective form.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Grammar Part-4
Deriving nouns and adjectives from other nouns :
In Sanskrit, one can derive nouns and adjectives
from other nouns by slightly transforming them.
Let us look at
¹lP- 7H¹¤F4 9-'- ·
Rama (is) Dasaratha’s son.
We can say this as:
¹lP- 7lH¹|¤-
where 7lH¹|¤- denotes Dasaratha’s son.
Likewise
¬÷PT- B|P-'l4l- 9-'- would become
¬÷PT- B||P|-'-
The student will observe that such derivations
generally apply to the genitive case where a noun
is derived to indicate something relating to or
derived from it.
In the Upanishads, one finds the name ¬l¬l (gargi).
This is derived from ¬¬F4.
¬¬F4 9-'l ¬l|¬ · Similarly in Kenopanishad one
sees rP46l which is derived from
|rP46- 9-'l rP46l
In our lesson, the terms Bl|t4T- is derived from
the Bt4 which denotes a gentle or good quality.
An ahankara which partakes of the satvaguna is
Bl|t4Tlr*l¹- (note the sandhi).
Similarly words are derived from the qualities
¹=B and 6PB respectively.
Let us look at some other interesting derivations.
H+- means dog and 9¬7P means tail. Thus
H+-9¬7P means dog’s tail. If a word is derived from
H+-9¬7P then it would be H|+-9¬7P .
Consider another example. The idea of a gedanken
experiment is from Einstein. It is a thought
experiment performed by the mind. Let us see
how we will derive the word for it in Sanskrit.
In Sanskrit, mind is P+B. Any activity relating to
the mind may be termed Pl+BP and the gedanken
experiment may therefore be termed as
Pl+B 4:' . 4:' means an activity to achieve
something, typically a religious activity aimed
at the well being of the society.
Another example is ~|6TP, an activity ordained
by the Vedas. ~|6 means the vedas and ~|6 means
from the, of the, by the Vedas.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 7 Principles of Sandhi
This section deals with the basic rules of Sandhi.
When two words in Sanskrit are combined to form
one word, the rules specify the transformations that
must be applied depending on the vowel in the last
letter of the first word and the vowel in the first
letter of the second word.
Another section in this lesson deals with many
examples taken from the lesson itself. Given below
are the most important rules to be followed.
1. F4¹B|-«-
Specifies the rules for combining short and long
vowels.
H÷H-Hl, H÷Hl-Hl, Hl÷H-Hl, Hl÷Hl-Hl
²÷²-², ²÷²-², ²÷²-², ²÷²-²
7÷7-7, 7÷7-7, 7÷7-7, 7÷7-7
+÷+-+
2. ¬TB|-«-
Rules to be applied when H /Hl combine with
² , 7 , + and ª
H÷²-9 , Hl÷²-9 , Hl÷²-9 , H÷²-9
H÷7-Hl , Hl÷7-Hl , H÷7-Hl , Hl÷7-Hl
H÷+-H¹ , Hl÷+-H¹ , H÷ª-H¬
3. 4|&B|-«-
Rules to be applied when H /Hl combine with
9 9 Hl and H|
H÷9-9 , Hl÷9-9 , H÷9-9 , H÷Hl-H|
Hl÷Hl-H| , Hl-Hl-H| , Hl÷H|-H|
4. 4'B|-«- Sandhi that results in 4
²÷H-4 , ²÷Hl-4l , ²÷7-4 , ²÷7-4
²÷+-4 , ²÷9-4 , ²÷9-4 , ²÷H|-4|
²÷H-4 , ²÷9-4 , 7÷Hl-4 , 7÷7-4
7÷²-4l , 7÷9-4 , 7÷H|-4| , +-H-¹
+÷Hl-¹l , +÷9-¹
5. H44l4l4 B|-«-
Specifies the rules for combining 9 ,9 , Hl , H|
with an H¬ .
9 ÷ Hl - Hl4
9 ÷ Hl - Hl4
Hl ÷ Hl - Hl4
H| ÷ 7 - Hl4
We will include detailed discussions on Sandhi Rules
in a separate lesson. For the present, The above may
just be noted by the student.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 7 Past Tense
In this lesson we have introduced sentences. Some
sentences use verbs in the Past Tense. Past tense
refers to an action that has already taken place. In
the previous lessons we saw how some verbs
conjugate in the present tense through the addition
of appropriate suffixes to the root form of the verb.
In deriving the form of the Past tense of a verb, a
similar procedure may be adopted, though the
derivation will involve both a prefix and a suufix
to the root form.
Let us look at the conjugations of 9ó
1.Present Tense
Singular Dual Plural
III person 9ó|6 9ó6- 9ó|-6
II person 9ó|B 9ó¤- 9ó¤
I person 9ól|P 9ól4- 9ólP-
2.Past Tense
Singular Dual Plural
3rd person H9ó6 H9ó6l H9ó+
2nd person H9ó- H9ó6 H9ó6
1st person H9ó H9ól4 H9ólP
Let us recall the suffixes added in the case of the
Present Tense.
Singular Dual Plural
3rd person -----|6 ----6- -----H|-6
2nd person -----|B ----¤- -----¤
1st person -----|P ----4- -----P-
Past Tense Singular Dual Plural
3rd person H----6 H---6l H---+
2nd person H----- H---6 H----6
1st person H----P H----4 H---P
The rule given above applies to many verbs used in normal
conversations.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 7 Exercise -1
Here are some questions from the lesson.
Answers are mostly found in the lesson itself.
So read the lesson again.
1. 66 ²t4F4 Tl5¤- ?
2. H¤4± ²t4F4 Tl5¤- ?
3. Pr6 ²|6 |T ?
4. 6P- ²|6 97F4 9TlHF4 H¬l4- ²|6
H¤- 4l ?
5. Tl|+ 96l|+ 9¾¬6l|+ ?
6. HlTlHF4 T- ¬T- ?
7. 4l4l- T|6 ¬Tl- ?
8. 6=B- T|6 ¬Tl- ? T 6 ?
9. 77TF4 T|6 ¬Tl- ?
10. 9|¤¤4l- T|6 ¬Tl- ?
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 7 Exercise -2
In this lesson, we have introduced the compound
words formed through sandhis. It is useful for the
student to remember the simple rules to be applied
depending on the vowels and consonants at the end
and the beginning of the combining words. In the
sentences below the words to be combined are
indicated the underscore symbol. Try and form
compund words froms from the given words.
At the same time see if you can understand the
sentence as well.
1.¬4-6- 94 H47+ |T¬ T¤ 94 Hl4¬'-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
¬l¬-6¹HF-' 9F6T ·
2.B7 94 Bl¹4 ²7 H¬ HlBl6_²|6
−−−−−−−−−−
79|+96 4l14P ·
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
3.B6 ²|6 HF4 T- H¤- ?
−−−−−−−−−−
4.66 ¬6-4 ¬lTB|7 HTlP46 ·
−−−−−−−−−−−−−
5.6l6F4 T¤l ~t4l |T|¾6 H|9 + H4¬¬7l|P ·
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-7 Exercise -3
1. Try and read the following sentences. They
contain some verbs in the past tense. You
should be able to translate the sentences as well.
a. 94rl |¬*+ HP|¹Tl 7HF4 9|B7'³ HlBl6 ·
b. ¬|++ 94 F³l|¬+ ¹!4l 7HF4 +6l¹| HlF6lP ·
c. B¬l9¬-7 4B , B¹ Bl 4l ¹lP+ , rlPl 4l4l
²t46 B4 ¬lT9|B&l- HlB+ ·
The sentences have used the past tense of the verb
H|F6 in singular, dual as well as plural.
2. Fill up the blanks in the following sentences with
the appropriate form of the verb, as in the sentences
above:
1. H*¹¹lPl+=| ¬l¹6 Hl¬l4l ------·
2. ~l|+4lB¹lPl+=- ¬|T6 |+9T- ------·
3. =4r¬l¬ +r6 ¬l¹6F4 9«l+P--'l ------·
4. HHlT¬446l H|rBl6t4F4 9¬l¹T- ------·
5. |44Tl+-7|¬-P4l+-7| Hl\4l|tPTl¬l4l ------·
6. Hl4¬' ¬lFT¹l¬l4 4¹lr|P|r¹l-
74l|6¬l¬HF-':'l- ------·
7. Tl|¬7lB- T|4 ------·
8. ~lt4l¬¹l=- 9|B&PlT- ------·
9. ²|-7¹l¬l-«l ¹l=l4¬l-«l ¬ ¬l¹6
9«l+P--'lT| ------·
10. 4l¬Pl|T- ¤4lB- ¬ 9l¬l+l¬l4l- ------·
II. Change the following sentence into first person
and past tense.
Ex: B- ¬6PlB |HTl¬l +¬¹ HlBl6 ·
Hr ¬6PlB |HTl¬l +¬¹ HlBP ·
1. P--'l ¬6|7+ |7|~¬+¬¹ HlBl6 ·
2. Bl ¬6PlB =9l+ +¬¹ HlBl6 ·
3. |4=4- O- Tl4l¬4 HlBl6 ·
4. |4~4¹B O- ¬¬|¬¬-' 77 ¬64l+ HlBl6 ·
5. +¹- ¬6B|'lr BFT6 9|ó64l+ HlBl6 ·
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 7 Exercise -4
Change the following 3rd person singular sentences
in the past tense into 3rd person plural as well as
second person singular.
ex: B- BFT6 H9ó6 ·
6 BFT6 H9ó+ ·
t4 BFT6 H9ó- ·
1. Bl Tl4l¬4 H¬¬76 ·
H¬¬76 - went
2. 4l¬- T¬ HGl76 ·
HGl76 - ate
3. B- 4l¬ H+46 ·
H+46 - led
4. +¹- +¬¹ H4B6 ·
H4B6 - lived
5. Pl«4- =¬ H|946 ·
H|946 - drank
2. Choose the appropriate word from those given in
parantheses to fill up the blanks. (you will also have
to use the appropriate conjugation).
1. 7l-'- B47l BFT6---------·
(H|676, H47+ , H966 )
2. +¹l- T¬---------·
(HrB6, H|946 , HGl76 )
3. Pl6l 9-'---------·
(H4l76, H¬¹46 , HGl76 )
4. t4 ²H¹ ---------·
(H4¬76, H+P6, H|¬G6 )
5. Hr ¬¬|¬¬-' ---------·
(H¬=6, H=46 , H9746 )
6. 44 7|¹774 «+ ---------·
(H4l76, H|¬G6, H4¬76 )
7|¹774 - to the poor
7. Hl4l B7l Bt4 ---------·
(H476, H+P6 , H|946 )
8. 44 O- |T---------·
(H¬=6, H|¬G6 , H9ó6)
9. 44l 9|6|7+ |T ---------·
(H9746, HrB6, HT¹l6)
10. 6l|+ T¬l|+ 4¬l6 ---------·
(H9746, H966, H|676 )
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 7 Exercise 5
Fill up the blanks in the following sentences.
(Choose the appropriate word from the following)

Hr, Hl4l, 44, t4, 44l, 44
1.------O- 7¹7H+ H974P ·
2.------ +¬¹ H¬¬7l4
3.------ |TP¤ HrB6- ?
4.------ T7l ¬l=+ HGl76 ?
5.------ ¬6B|'lr 9-' H|¬G6 ·
6.------ 74 |H4 H+PlP ·
7.------ |+¹-6¹ BFT6 H9ólP ·
8.------ BFT69¹l¬l4l H=4l4 ·
-------------------------------------------------------------
II
See if you can write Ten simple sentences about
your childhood. The list of verbs given in section
will be more than adequate for you to form the
required sentences.
Lesson-8 Part 1 Mohan, usha and Grandfather

H4 H|+4lB¹- ·
79l Plr+ ¬ |96lPr 9|6 ¬t4l 476- ·
It is Saturday. Usha and Mohan approach their
grandfather and ask him.
79l, Plr+- 6l6 H- ¹|44lB¹- ·
¬¬|¬¬-' 77 ¬¬7lP- 4l ?
Grandfather, tomorrow is Sunday.
Shall we go and watch a movie?
|96lPr- - +,+ · 9¹-6 TlPl¬l74l¬4 ¬¬7lP- ·
No, no. Instead let us go to the Kamakshi
temple.
7, Pl - T94l ¬¬|¬¬-' 77 94 ¬¬7lP- ·
Hl4l ¬4-6 ¬¬|¬¬-' 77 +!4l4- 94 ·
Please let us go only to see the movie.
We will take you to see the movie only.
|96lPr- - H¹ ! 44l + FP¹¤- |TP ?
94|FP+ 9ló 7¹7H+ 9|6 |T H476P ²|6 ?
Hey, don’t you remember what you said in
the last lesson, about the television program?
66 +6+ 77 94 ¬l+ ~l6 , + Hl¬|P!4l|P
²|6 G¬ ·
That I will not go to see that singing and
dancing.
7,Pl - ¬46- H+P|6 |4+l 94,
Hl4l |6Fl- 794|HTl- Hl¹¬l4 ·
Even without your permission, we have
reserved three seats.
|T F4l6 ¬¬|¬¬-'F4 +lP ? ......... Prl¬l¹6P ·
What would be the name of the movie? .....
Mahabharatam !
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-8 Part 2 Scene at Home

|96lPr- 9|-'| ¬ Prl¬l¹6 +lP ¬¬|¬¬-'
c74l ¬r 9t4l¬¬7+ ·
Scene after the three have watched the film and
returned home.
Plr+ - Hrl ! T|6 +l4Tl- +l|4Tl- 9T|FP+ ¬¬|¬¬-' !
Oh! how many heros ans heroines in one movie!
69l 9¹F9¹B4-«l+ :'l6 P 4r T7 H|F6 ·
It is difficult for me to understand (know)
their relationships.
6¤l|9 +l¬74lP¬ T!T, 6¤l 6F4 4l7l 77
H6l4 7tBTl5|FP ·
But of course I am eager to see the dark blue
Krishna and his (divine) actions.
79l- HF6 94 , 6¤l|9 69l 9¹F9¹ B4-«l+
²7l+lP|9 +l4¬¬7l|P ·
May be so, but I cannot understand their
relationships even now.
6l6 ! 476 6l46 , Tl54 ¬|¹4T-
9l'7- +lP ?
Grandfather! Please tell who that fair skinned
(almost white skinned) person called Pandu.
T¤ 6F4 H-«969T B4-«- ?
What is his relationship with the blind person?
Plr+ - PP H|9 94 94 ·
Same here. (means: I too have the same question)
6-' |96lPr- ²|6 4 6 Hlr- , B- 4F66-
6=F4l Prl+ ¬ 9|6¬l|6 ·
The one whom they called grandfather, appeared
really radiant and great.
79l - Hrl ! Hl¾4 , H¹ 74l«+F4 |T 9Tl+H6
¬l6¹- HlB+ ?
Oh! Amazing ! Did Duryodhana really have
ninetynine brothers?
|96lPr- - HT , 94 9¬76- ¬6 9t4v'¹
7l6 + Höl|P ·
Listen, if you pester me like this I cannot
answer.
Hr 6l46 Prl¬l¹6T¤l 94 4T4l|P ·
HH T|¹49l'74l+l =-P94-6 T¤4l|P ·
I will now tell you the story of the
Mahabharata.
Today I will tell you upto the birth of the
Kauravas and Pandavas.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 8 Part 3:
Pandavas and Kauravas
¹|44lB¹ - Sunday
|96lPr- - H-6+- G¬ BlP4H ¹l=l ·
6F4 -'4- 9-'l- HlB+ ·
Shantanu (was) the king of the Soma
(Lunar) dynasty. He had three sons.
74UP|r!4l ¬*l4l ¬l!P- +lP 9-'- H¬46 ,
Bt44t4l |ã6l4l4l ¬l4l4l ã| 9-'| ·
|4|¬-'4l4- ¬ |¬-'l*7¾ ·
Through his first Consort Ganga, he had a son
called Bhishma. From the second wife
Satyavati he had two sons, Vichitraveerya
and Chitrangada.
¬l!PF4 +lP 94 7446- ²|6 HlBl6 ·
Bhishma was earlier known as Devavrata.
47l 6+ Hl=l4+ 4’¬446 «6 , 67l 6F4 +lP
¬l!P ²|6 9|B& H¬46 ·
When he took a vow of celebacy for his entire
life, he became famous and his name Bhishma.
4l~4 94 |¬-'l*7 9Tl ¬-«4- Hr+ ·
|4|¬-'4l4l H|9 4|4+l4F¤l4l
94 ¹l¬¬F6l ¬t4l |74¬6- ·
During his childhood itself, Chitrangada was
killed by a Gandharva (Semidivine being).
Vichitraveerya too died in his youth
due to disease.
6F4 ¬l44l- 94 7lF4l -'4- 9-'l- H¬4+ ·
69l +lPl|+ 4PT «6¹l7- 9l'7- 94 |47¹- ·
He had three sons from his two wives and a maid.
Their names were Dhritrashtra, Pandu and Vidura
respectively.
|96lPr- - Plr+ 47 |4|¬-'4l4F4
¬l!PT T- B4-«- ?
Mohan, tell the relationship between
Vichitraveerya and Bhishma.
Plr+ - BPl6=l ¬l6l ·
Step brother.
|¬-'l*7- |4|¬-'4l4F4 ¬l6l ·
Chtrangada was the brother of Vichitraveerya.
|96lPr- - 79 , t4 4|r 9l'7l-
|4|¬-'4l4T T- B4-«- ²|6 ·
Usha, you tell, what is the relationship between
Pandu and Vichitraveerya.
79l - |96l ¬ 9-'- ·
Father and Son.
|96lPr- - 66- ¬l!P- ......... ?
Then Bhishma .......?

79l- ¬l9P- 9l'7l- 74U|96¤4- ·
Bhishma was Pandu’s Father’s elder brother
(Uncle. Note the specific reference to
father’s elder brother)
|96lPr- - 9l'7l- ã ¬l4 HlF6lP ·
T-6l Pl7l ¬ ·
Pandu had two wives. Kunthi and Madri.
T-6l ¬¬46- ~lT!TF4 |96¤4l
(|96F4Bl) HlBl6 ·
Kunthi was Lord SriKrishna’s father’s sister
(Aunt).
Pl7l P77Hl4l ¹l=T-4l HlBl6 ·
Madri was the princess of the kingdom of Madra.
6F4l H|9 H~4- +lP ¬l6l HlBl6 ·
She also had a brother by name Salya.
P77H- 67l+l ¬l¹67HF4 4l4¤4 |7¹¬l¬
9T- 97H- HlBl6 ·
In those days, Madradesa was a kingdom in the
northwest of Bharat (part of present day
Afghanistaan).
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 8 Part 4
|96lPr- - 4FPl6 «6¹l7- =-P9|6 H-«-
HlBl6 , 6FPl6 B-
|BrlB+ Hl¹l7 + HHöl6 ·
Since Dhritarashtra was congenitally blind, he
could not ascend the throne.
66- 9l'7- r|F6+l9¹F4 ¹l=l H¬46 ·
So Pandu became the king of Hastinapura.
r|F6+l9¹l T69l¾l¬7HF4 ¹l=«l+l HlBl6 ·
Hastinapuri was the capital of the
KuruPanchala Desa.
9l'7l- 9¾ 9-'l- HlB+ ·
Pandu had five sons.
-'4- T-t4l, 94 ã| Pl74l ¬ ·
Three from Kunthi and two from Madri.
9-'=++l+-6¹ 9l'7- Hl¤P4 P6- H¬46 ·
Soon after the birth of his sons, Pandu died.
67l+l Pl7l H|9 9t4l Br |74¬6l ·
Then Madri entered the funeral pyre along with
her husband.
«6¹l7F4 ¬l-«l4l H6 9-'l- HlB+, 9Tl B6l ¬ ·
Dhritarashtra had a hundred sons and a daughter
through Gandhari.

|96lPr- - 79 47 , ²7l+l T-t4l- T|6 9-'l-
HlB+ ? T 96 ?
Usha, now tell, how many sons did Kunthi have?
Who are they?

79l - -'4- , 4|«|U¹- , ¬lPB+- , H=+¾ ·
Three, Yudhishtira , Bhimasena and Arjuna.
|96lPr- - Plr+ , =l+l|B 4l Pl74l- ã4l-
9-'4l- +lP |T|P|6 ?
Mohan, do you know what the names of the
two sons of Madri are?
Plr+ - 9T- +T¬- , H-4- Br74- ·
One was Nakula and the other Sahadeva.
|96lPr- - 64l- T- =U- ?
Who was elder among them?
Plr+ - T¤ ? 6| 4P¬| G¬ ?
How ? They were twins (were’nt they?)
|96lPr- - B¹4T , 6¤l5|9 +T¬l 74U-
Good, Even then Nakula was the elder.
(It appears that there was a system of ranking
twins too as elder and younger. What would be of
interest here is to know that the one born first
will be the younger! The concept is that the one
born second has spent more time in his mother’s
womb.)
«6¹l7F4 9-'9 T- =7- ?
Well, who was the elder among the sons
of Dhritarashtra?

Pl , 7 - B4l«+- ·
Suyodhana.
|96lPr- - Hl , 9¹-6 6F4 7P|6 c74l 74l«+-
²|6 6 H47+ ·
Yes, on account of the wickedness seen in him,
he was called Duryodhana.
74l«+l7l+l Tl Brl7¹l HlBl6 ?
Who was the sister of the Duryodhana brothers?
Plr+ - 77H¬l ·
Dussala.
|96lPr- - H|¬P-4- TF4 9|-'- HlBl6 ?
Whose grandson was Abhimanyu?
Plr+ - H|¬P-4l- |96lPr- 9l'7- ·
Abhimanyu’s grandfather was Pandu.
79l - 6l6 6l6 ! 9-'F4 9-'- 9|-'- ¬6 9-4l-
9-'- T- ?
Grandfather! if one’s son’s son is called poutra,
then who is one’s daughter’s son ?
|96lPr- - 7v'P- 9~- · 6 7||r-'- ²|6 47|-6 ·
Good question. He is called douhitra.
4|7 9-4l- 9-'l 6|r 7||r-'l ¬4|6 ·
If it is daughter’s daughter, then she is called
douhitree.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson 8 Part-5
|96lPr- - T- =l+l|6 9¹l|¬6- Prl¹l=F4
Pl6lPrl Tl ²|6 ?
Who remembers (knows) who was the maternal
grandmother of Parikshit Maharaja ?
79l, Plr+ - Hl4l + =l+l4- ·
9¹-6 , 9¹l|¬6 Prl¹l=l TF4 9-'- ?
We do not know butWhose son was
Parikshit Maharaja?
|96lPr- - B- H|¬P-4l- 9-'- ·
He was Abhimanyu’s son.
79l, Plr+ - H|¬P-4l- ¬l4l Tl ?
Who was Abhimanyu’s wife?
|96lPr- - H|¬P-4l- ¬l4l 797¹l=9-'l 7v'¹l
HlBl6 · HF6 , H-4 9~ 9¬7l|P ·
Abhimanyu’s wife was Uttara, the princess of
(kingdom of) Drupada. OK, let me ask
another question.
74l«++ Br HT+- T- B4-«- ?
What is the relationship between Sakuni and
Duryodhana?
Plr+ - Pl6¬- ·
Uncle (Mother’s brother)
|96lPr- - 9l'74l+l «6¹l7F4 T- B4-«- ?
What is the relationship between Dhritarashtra
and the Pandavas?
79l - B- 9l'74l+l |96¤4- G¬ ·
Paternal Uncle of the Pandavas.
|96lPr- - 4l7 · 6|r 476 T-6lPl74l-
|P¤- T- B4-«- ?
Correct. Then tell what is the relationship
between Kunthi and Madri?

79l - B9t-4| ·
Wives of the same person.

|96lPr- - BPl¬l+ 7v'¹P ·
9l'7«6¹l74l- |96lPr- H-6+- ,
|96lPrl Bt446l ·
Correct answer. Shantanu was the grandfather
of Pandu and Dhritarashtra, and their
grandmother Satyavati.
7|97l T-t4l- F+9l HlBl6 94 9l'7-
7|9Hl- HH¹- T-6l ~- ¬ ·
Draupadi was the daughter in law of Kunthi
and Pandu was Draupadi’s father in law. Kunthi
was the mother in law.
HT|+- «6¹l7F4 F4l¬- ·
Sakuni was Dhritarashtra’s brother in law.
«6¹l7- HT+- ¬|¬+l9|6- ·
Dhritarashtra was Sakuni’s sister’s husband.
(Brother in law)
74l«+- HT+- ¬l|¬+4- ·
Duryodhana was Sakuni’s nephew (sister’s son).
T¤l ¹l¬6 G¬ · ²6-9¹ H-4|FP+ |7+ 9ólP- ·
H¬¹l|-'- ·
Story was interesting wasn’t it? Will follow it up
another day. Good night.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Grammar for Lesson-8
__________ Part-1__________
9|6¬t4l − 9|6 is used here like the English preposition
"towards". However here it is a prefix and not an
independent word.
9|6 may also be used like a preposition in
Sanskrit. In such cases it will have different
meanings like

"about" or "in connection with"
Unlike the perposition in English which is written
before the noun, 9|6 is written following the
noun. When written like this, the noun which
occurs before 9|6 should be expressed in the
Accusative case (|ã6l4l |4¬|±-). Clearly this
difference in use must be remembered. In lighter
vein, should we call this a "postposition" rather
than a "preposition"?
Here are some examples of the use of 9|6
B- ¬r 9|6 ¬¬7|6
He is going towards his house or just
He goes home.
9|6 is used after ¬r
Here is another example.
74l+ 9|6 Pl1B P~¬¹ |T H476 :
What did Max Muller say about the Vedas?
There is something else about 9|6 which should
be kept in mind.
9|6 may also be used as prefix to a verb, typically
a transitive verb such as ¬¬7 (a verb of motion).
Thus 9|6¬¬7|6 will mean "goes towards"
9|6 may also be used as a prefix to a noun as in
9|6|7+P which means "everyday".
Thus, when you see 9|6 its meaning will depend on
the context.
Is it used after a noun?
Is it a prefix to a verb?
Is it a prefix to a noun?
later in the lesson, you will read about
9|6¬l|6 and 9t4v'¹P
While on the use of 9|6, we might bring the reader’s
attention to a famous and important verse
HlTlHl6 9|66 6l4 4¤l ¬¬7|6 Bl¬¹P
B474 +PFTl¹- TH4 9|6 ¬¬7|6 +
We will discuss the meaning of this beautiful verse
in one of the later lessons.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-8 Grammar Part-2
77P , ~l6P - These are 6P+ words. The concept of
6P+ was introduced in Lesson-6
+ Hl¬|P!4l|P − literally ’ I will not come’
In the context of this lesson, it should be
taken to mean ’I will not go to see the
movie’ or simply ’I shall not come’.
|4+l 94 − even without
|4+l − without.
Please remember that the noun against which
|4+l is used should be in the second case.
i.e., Accusative case (|ã6l4l |4¬|±-)
9|-'| − Normally means two grandsons (|ã4¬+P).
There are some special conventions used in
describing grandchildren. When both are of
the same gender, the form depends on the
gender.
Ex., 9|-'| − two male grandchildren
9|-4| − two grand daughters
However in dual or plural, even if one of the
grandchildren is male, the male form is used to
refer to the two grandchildren. This applies to
groups of people as well. Krishna and his Gopis
(Gopika ladies) will be referred to as 6 (m) and
not as 6l- (f).
9T|FP+ − This is the seventh case of the pronoun 9T-
meaning "in a" or "in one"
69lP − Their (m) Sixth case plural
+l¬74lP¬P − Adjective used to describe Lord krishna
(his colour). It means dark blue. +l¬ −Blue
74lP¬P − dark. Note however the order of the
colours in the expression.
6¤l|9 − even then
Tl54P − T- ÷ H4 A example of a Sandhi
94 94 − Both are indeclinables. These may be used
independently too. When used together they
mean ’it is so’
PP H|9 94 94 − Here it means ’I too feel the same’.
6=F4l − A person with divine radiance.
4F66- − actually, really, infact
this word is an indeclinable.
4T4l|P − means describe, used in first person here.
T|¹49l'74l+l − Example of a Samasam. This is a
compound of two nouns. It means ’ of Kauravas and
Pandavas ’ . The samasam is used in the dual form
as the compound noun is formed to describe two
groups of people and not a group consisting of
Kauravas and Pandavas. Hence the plural form
T|¹49l'74l+l is used. When we examine it,
the dual form does seem appropriate. Now if the
grandfather were intending to refer to the
Pandavas and Kauravas independently, the sentence
would go like,
HH T|¹4lTl 9l'74l+l ¬ =-P94-6 T¤4l|P ·
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson8: Grammar Part-3
=-P94-6P − Upto the birth
The word is also an indeclinable.
94-6 which denotes "upto" or "till"
is added to nouns to indicate an event in time.
It may also be used in this fashion to describe
"upto a physcial boundary"
Examples;
Tl¬94-6 − Upto the duration
H|-6P94-6 − Till the last (of one’s life)
H-694-6 − Till the end
BlPl94-6 − Upto the border
4l46 ( 94-6 ) − Upto any amount of Time, or as
much time. 4l46 itself means till
the end.
P|r9l − Consort , used in the sense of King’s wife
Hl=l4+P − As long as one lives
4’¬446 − vow of celebacy
¬l!P − means a person whom people approach
with caution or fear.
(In the sense of not being able to find a person of
match in respect of the great qualities of the person).
In this case, he has taken a vow, a fearful one that can
be fulfilled only on account of extraordinary
courage.
4PT − respectively or in the order
9l'7l- − of Pandu
|4|¬-'4l4T − from or by Vichtraveerya
~lT!TF4 − SriKrishna’s
P77Hl4l − of Madra Desa
All the above four words, reflect the use of nouns
in different |4¬|±-
4FPl6 − 6FPl6 − two words used as a pair. Usage is
similar to 4l46 − 6l46
4FPl6 means "since" or "because" and 6FPl6
means "as a consequence". Here is an example
of a sentence using this pair.
4FPl6 |4HB9T=l¬ H|F6 , 6FPl6 ¬4l+ 966
BFT69ló 9|ó6 Höl|6
Since the internet is there, you are able to read this
Sanskrit lesson.
|4HB9T=l¬P A compound noun built up of
|4H- world, B9T communication, =l¬P net
Based on the ending word, the compound noun
becomes neuter.
=-P9¬|6 − Congenitally, i.e., from birth
The word 9¬|6 can be added to any process
from any point. It means from then on. Some
examples,
7¤³+l9¬|6 - from the time of the accident
9¹l¬l9¬|6 − from the time of the examination
|44lrlt9¬|6 − from the time of marriage
9-'=++l-6¹ − After the birth of the children. This is a
compund word from 9-' , =++ and H+-6¹
H+-6¹ is an indeclinable.
H+-6¹ may be added as a suffix just as 9¬|6
|44lrl+-6¹P meaning after the marriage
4P¬| − twins
|4¹l³¹l=P|r9l − the consort of the King of |4¹l³ (7H-.
A compound word formed from |4¹l³ , ¹l=l
and P|r9l
|4¬|±- − Case
It is assumed that the reader has reached this point
after reading the introduction to the "cases".
Case declensions for a noun are obtained by adding
different suffixes to the basic form of the noun.
The suffix will be different based on the case,
gender and number of the noun.
The word ¹lP- is the word representative of
most masculine nouns in Sanskrit which end in
the vowel H . This coupled with the fact that the
name ¹lP- has a special significance for people
in India, is the reason why most Primers for
Sanskrit start with ¹lP- for illustrating the
declensions.

Case form of the noun
1. ¹lP-
2. ¹lPP
3. ¹lPT
4. ¹lPl4
5. ¹lPl6
6. ¹lPF4
7. ¹lP
8. r ¹lP !
Thus knowing the declensions for ¹lP- will help the
student identify the case declensions for many many
nouns which are masculine and end with H .
Now let us see the declensions for a feminine noun
ending in ² , ¬|¹l
Case Form of the noun
1. ¬|¹l
2. ¬|¹l
3. ¬|4l
4. ¬|4
5. ¬|4l-
6. ¬|4l-
7. ¬|4l
8. r ¬|¹l !
The two examples do illustrate the concept that
suffixes are added to the noun to get at the declensions.
Now, we shall see exmples of sentences which have
nouns in different cases. The same noun is used in
all the sentences. The noun chosen for this purpose
is HH- or horse. This is a masculine noun similar
to ¹lP- and you will see the rules applied as in the
case of ¹lP- .
Case 1. The Nominative case
HH- |6U|6 − The horse is standing
HH- «l4|6 − The horse is running
In bothe cases, HH- is the subject of the
sentence and is hence given in its basic form
as the nominative case.
The name for the nominative case in Sanskrit is
9¤Pl |4¬|±- , 9¤Pl meaning first and |4¬|±-
meaning case. There is also a name for this case
given according to Sanskrit Grammar. This is
known as Tl¹T |4¬|±- .
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Case 2. The Accusative case.
969- HH Hl¹lr|6 · The man ascends the horse
969- HH 6l74|6 · The man beats the horse
In these sentences, the horse forms the direct object
of the verbs Hl¹lr|6 and 6l74|6 . Hence the use in
the Accusative case. The second case is usually
referred to as |ã6l4l |4¬|±- though it does have
another name , TP|4¬|±- .
Case 3. The Instrumental case.
9¹9- HH+ ¬r ¬¬7|6 ·
The man goes home by horse
¹l=l HH+ 4+ ¬¬7|6 ·
The King goes to the forest on horse.
In these examples, the meaning conveyed by the
case declension is "by" or "through". The third
case in Sanskrit is known as |-'6l4l |4¬|±- . Its
other name is T¹T |4¬|±- .
It may be noted that the declension here is HH+
though the student might expect it to be HHT as
per the declensions of ¹lP- . This need not confuse
the student, for according to other grammar rules of
Sanskrit, the use of + or T will be prescribed
based on the consonants present in the noun.
Case 4. The Dative case.
B- HHl4 6T 4¬7|6 ·
He gives grass to the horse (to eat)
B- HHl4 |4¹H|6 BrFl --4Tl|T 9¬7|6 ·
He is asking Rs. 20,000 for the horse.
In the Dative case, the meaning conveyed is
"for" or "to" . The Dative case is known as
¬6¤l |4¬|±- or B¹97l+ |4¬|±-
Case 5. The Ablative case
Bl HHl6 H«-96|6 ·
She falls down from the horse.
HHl6 ¬=F4 P~4 H|«TP ·
The elephant is more expensive than the horse.
The statement in Sanskrit when interpreted
literally, means that the price of the elephant
is higher than that of the horse. The meaning
conveyed by this case is "from" or "than"
i.e., comparisons. This case also is used to
convey the meaning "because of".
H|G~¬B 9|B&- H¬46 , 9¬BB HHl6 ·
Achilles became famous because of the horse
Pegasus.
The fifth case is known as
9¾Pl |4¬|±- or H9l7l+ |4¬|±- .
Case 6. The possessive case.
HHF4 4T- T- : What is the colour of the horse?
HHF4 9|6- T- : Who is the owner of the horse?
In this case or 97l |4¬|±- , the meaning is that of the
Genitive case in English i.e., "of" or "belonging to"
etc.. This case is also known as B¹4-« |4¬|±- .
Case 7. The Locative case
HH 4¬ H|F6 · In the horse is strength.
HH +¹- 79|4H|6 · The man sits on the horse.
²-7F4 7¬¬~4- +lP HH Hl9l (H|F6) ·
Indra has a liking for the horse called Uchchaisravas.
The seventh case is known as B|'Pl |4¬|±-. Its
other name is H|«T¹T |4¬|±- .
Case 8. The vocative case.
The last case is known as B¹4l«+9¤Pl |4¬|±-.
It is generally not referred to by its expected name
H7Pl |4¬|±- ·
r HH , Hl¤ ¬¬7 ·
Oh horse! go fast.
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
The examples given above are meant to introduce the
basic idea behind the |4¬|±- . The person learning
Sanskrit is expected to know the declensions for many
many nouns. Practice will be required. In the following
sections we will go into the details of each |4¬|±- and
see several examples of nouns in different genders and
nouns.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
In the following sections we will provide
different examples of declensions of nouns.
Each case is discussed individually with
additional information relating to special
forms.
Case1. The Nominative case.
Rule: The subject of a verb is in the Nominative
case.
The noun is declined in all the three numbers
(4¬+l|+).
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lP| ¹lPl-
T!T- T!T| T!Tl-
¬=- ¬=| ¬=l-
4¬- 4¬| 4¬l-
General Rule: All masculine nouns ending in H
will decline as above in the Nominative case.
Feminine Nouns ending in Hl
Bl6l |B6 |B6l-
¹Pl ¹P ¹Pl-
¬6l ¬6 ¬6l-
General Rule: All feminine nouns ending in Hl
will decline as above in the Nominative case.
Neuter nouns ending in H . Please note that
the anuswar is not to be reckoned in fixing the
ending vowel.
T¬ T¬ T¬l|+
+-' +-' +-'l|T
9F6T 9F6T 9F6Tl|+
9-' 9-' 9-'l|T
(As mentioned earlier in the declensions of HH-,
the suffix + or T will be used depending on
other grammar rules). Most Neuter nouns ending
in H will decline as above.
Here are some examples of use of nouns in the
Nominative case.
4l¬| 4l76-
Bl6l 9¬|6
9!9l|T |4TB|-6
44 9ó¤
6 Gl7|-6
T H-' |6U|-6 :
Observe that the verb is also declined based on the
case of the noun. Thus there is consistency in a
sentence between the declensions of the noun and
the verb. It will be helpful to remember the simple
rule, that both the noun and the verb should be
consistent with each other.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Lesson-9 Cases
Case-2 The Accusative Case
The direct object of the verb in a sentence is in the
Accusative case.
Declensions.
Masculine nouns ending in H
(¹lP-) ¹lP ¹P| ¹lPl+
(¬=-) ¬= ¬=| ¬=l+
(rF6-) rF6 rF6| rF6l+
(4¬-) 4¬ 4¬| 4¬l+
As a general rule, all masculine nouns ending in H
will decline as above in the Accusative case.
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
(Bl6l) Bl6l Bl6 Bl6l-
(¹Pl) ¹Pl ¹P ¹Pl-
(¬6l) ¬6l ¬6| ¬6l-
As a general rule, all Feminine nouns ending in Hl
will decline as above in the Accusative case.
Neuter nouns ending in H
( T¬ ) T¬P T¬ T¬l|+
( +-' ) +-'P +-' +-'l|T
( 9F6T ) 9F6T 9F6T 9F6Tl|+
( 9-' ) 9-'P 9-' 9-'l|T
As a general rule, all neuter nouns ending in H
will decline as above.
Also, Neuter nouns will have the same declensions
in the Nominative and Accusative cases.
Now for the declensions of the personal pronouns
Hr Pl, Pl Hl4l, +| HFPl+ , +-
t4 t4l, t4l 44l, 4l 4!Pl+ , 4-
B- 6 6| 6l+
Bl 6l 6 6l-
66 66 6 6l|+
H4 ²P ²P| ²Pl+
H4 9+ 9+| 9+l+
²4 ²Pl ²P ²Pl-
²4 9+l 9+ 9+l-
²7 ²7 ²P ²Pl|+
99- 96 96| 96l+
99- 9+ 9+| 9+l+
99l 96l 96 96l-
99l 9+l 9+ 9+l-
966 966 96 96l|+
T- T T| Tl+
Tl Tl T Tl-
|T |TP T Tl|+
Please note that for some of the personal pronouns
two different forms are indicated. This is not an
inconsistency.
Here are some examples of sentenses using the
Accusative.
=+l- 74 +P|-6 · people are offering salutations
to the deity
¬=- =¬ |94|6 · The elephant is drinking the water
6 HHl+ 974|-6 · They are seeing the horses
t4 Hl¬l4 +P|B · You areoffering salutations to
the teacher
Hr |¬-' 974l|P · I am viewing the picture
Observation:
These simple sentences are ordered as

(noun) (direct object) (verb)
which ordering is different from the familiar ordering
in English which is
(noun) (verb) (direct object)
In Sanskrit and many other Indian languages, the
verb often gets placed at the end. Some European
languages also have this structure (German).
Note however, the sentence in Sanskrit will
make perfect sense even if the ordering is changed
e.g., t4 +P|B Hl¬l4P ·
Some questions which use the noun in the
Accusative.
t4 9l6- |T 9ó|B :
Bl T +P|6 :
B- T 6-' 974|6 :
Indeclinables which go with the Accusative
There are some indeclinables which must be
used with the accompanying nouns in the
Accusative. These are
9|6 − towards |4+l − without
B46- − All around 7¬46- − on both sides
Examples:
7l-'l- 9F6T |4+l ¬¬7|-6 ·
The students are going without the books.
Hr |4Hl¬4 9|6 ¬¬7l|P ·
I am going to (towards) the school.
|4Hl¬4 7¬46- 4¬l- B|-6 ·
There are trees on both sides of the school.
9!94l³l B46- 4l¬l- ·
There are children all around the garden.
Special Note:
What about sentences which have two direct objects?
In Sanskrit it is known that there are 32 verbs which
can take two objects in the same sentence. We give
below a few.
97|6 − cooks
7'74|6 − punishes
9¬7|6 − asks
+4|6 − takes along
r¹|6 − takes away by force ( steals)
Example sentences.
B 6'7¬l+ Hl7+ 9¬|6 ·
He cooks rice as food.
6'7¬l+ and Hl7+ are both in the Accusative.
+9- F6+ H6 7'74|6 ·
The King fines the thief a hundred (units of currency)
B- PlT4T 9-¤l+ 9¬7|6 ·
He asks the student the way.
6 H=l+ ¬r +4|-6 ·
They take the sheep home.
There are some questions in the exercises section
relating to the Accusative case. You must try and
answer them.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|-'6l4l |4¬|±- Case -3 Instrumental case
The instrumental case involves the form of the noun
which provides answers to questions invovling
phrases such as
with what? by which ? along with what or whom?
Here are the examples of declensions.
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lPT ¹lPl-4lP ¹lP-
¬=- ¬=+ ¬=l-4lP ¬=-
rF6- rF6+ rF6l-4lP rF6-
4¬- 4¬T 4¬l-4lP 4¬-
Masculine nouns ending in ²
P|+- P|++l P|+-4lP P|+|¬-
r|¹- r|¹Tl r|¹-4lP r|¹|¬-
Masculine nouns ending in 7
H¬- H¬+l H¬-4lP H¬|¬-
4l4- 4l4+l 4l4-4lP 4l4|¬-
What is given above is representative of the declensions
of masculine nouns in different ending vowels. Given
below are some more nouns which decline as above.
Masc. H =+T- − father ¬l9l¬- − Cowherd
B4- − Sun HH- − horse
4l¬- − boy 4lT- − Arrow
Masc. ² |+|«- − treasure H|6|¤- − guest
H|7- − mountain ¹l|H- − heap
|¬|¹- − mountain \4|+- − sound
Masc. 7 9¬- − boss 4lr- − hand
B6- − bridge 4T- − Bamboo flute
9¹H- − axe 6-6- − manuscript
Now for feminine nouns.
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
|B6l |B6l4l Bl6l-4lP Bl6l|¬-
¹Pl ¹P4l ¹Pl-4lP ¹Pl|¬-
¬6l ¬6l4l ¬6l-4lP ¬6l|¬-
4l¬l 4l¬l4l 4l¬l-4lP 4l¬l|¬-
Feminine nouns ending in ²
P|6 Pt4l P|6-4lP P|6|¬-
¬|P ¬¹4l ¬|P-4lP ¬|P|¬-
Feminine nouns ending in 7
«+ «++l «+-4lP «+|¬-
¬¾ ¬¾+l ¬¾-4lP ¬¾|¬-
Other examples of Feminine nouns.
Fem. Hl |4Hl − education 4l-'l − journey
|+7l − sleep ¬|-7Tl − moon
¹Gl − line 9¬l − light
Fem. ² 4|7 − tinsel +l|6 − moral
¬l|6 − fear H|± − strength
Asa general rule, the declensions given above are
representative of declensions of feminine nouns ending
in the specified vowels.
Now for Neuter nouns.
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬+ T¬l-4lP T¬-
+-' +-'T +-'l-4lP +-|-
9F6T 9F6T+ 9F6Tl-4lP 9F6T-
9-' 9-'T 9-'l-4lP 9-|-
Neuter nouns ending in ²
4l|¹ 4l|¹Tl 4l|¹-4lP 4l|¹|¬-
Neuter nouns ending in 7
P« P«+l P«-4lP P«|¬-
4F6 4F6+l 4F6-4lP 4F6|¬-
Other neuter nouns
Neut. H
9TP − lotus 9'TP − town
Bt4P − truth ¬l=+P − food
6¬P − oil 4¬P − strength
Let us now list the declensions for the personal
pronouns
Hr P4l Hl4l-4lP HFPl|¬-
B- 6+ 6l-4lP 6-
Bl 64l 6l-4lP 6l|¬-
66 6+ 6l-4lP 6-
H4 H++ Hl-4lP 9|¬-
²4 H+4l Hl-4lP Hl|¬-
²7 H++ Hl-4lP 9|¬-
99- 96+ 96l-4lP 96-
99l 964l 96l-4lP 96l|¬-
966 96+ 96l-4lP 96-
T- T+ Tl-4lP T-
Tl T4l Tl-4lP Tl|¬-
|T T+ Tl-4lP T-
Try and get the patterns to memory. The student
would have no doubt discerned some patterns
already.
Let us see some example sentences.
=+l- 9!9- 74 9=4|-6 ·
people worship with flowers the deity.
Let us note here that the same sentence is sometimes
written as "people worship the deity with flowers".
The second form is ambiguous however, as it does
not explicitly state if
it is with flowers that the deity is worshipped
or
(the deity with flowers) is worshipped.
Sanskrit is quite flexible on the ordering of the words.
¬9|6- ¹¤+ ¬¬7|6 ·
The king travels by his chariot.
t4 rF6+ |¬G|B ·
You write with your hands.
¤4lT¹TP 9l|T|++l T6P ·
Grammar was formulated by Panini
6|96- rF6l-4l =¬ |94|6 ·
The thirsty person drinks water with both hands
For those who are used to drinking water from a
cup or a fountain, the use of hands might cause some
amusement. Drinking from one’s own hand, by cupping
the palm and let the fountain flow through it into one’s
mouth is an age old custom in India. It is clean, simple
and does not require any dish washing ot throw away
plastic!
Now for a few questions.
=+l- T- 74 9=4|-6 : (See answer above)
¤4lT¹T T+ T6P :
t4 Tl-4l ¬¹|B : − With what do you walk?
Hr 9l7l-4l ¬¹l|P · I walk with my (two) feet.
Note the use of the noun in "Dual". We mentioned
before that the dual form is used with things which
exist in nature as two like two eyes, two hands etc..
Now, if you must say that the elephant walks with
its legs, you would not use the dual form but the
plural since the elephant has four legs. So it will be,
¬=- 9l7- ¬¹|6 ·
Special note:
As in english, where prepositional phrases are used
to decline the noun in the instrumental case, a few
Sanskrit words are also used along with nouns to
give the meaning of "along with". The indeclinables
Br and BlT are used with nouns to give the same
meaning. However, they come after the noun as in,
¬÷PT- ¹lPT Br 4+ ¬¬7|6 ·
Lakshmana goes with Rama to the forest.
Hr |P-'T Br H-' 4Bl|P ·
I live here with my friend.
6 T¬- 9!9¾ BlT H-' Hl¬¬7|-6 ·
They come here with fruits and flowers.
(BlT is used with Neuter nouns)
4l¬T- ¬6Tl Br Hl9T ¬¬7|6 ·
The students goes to the shop with the teacher.
Similar to Br , the indeclinables |4+l and H¬P
also go along with the noun in case 3.
9l|T+- =¬+ |4+l + =l4|-6 ·
Living beings cannot (do not) live without water.
If your stomach is full with a meal, you can say,
¬l=++ H¬P ! (I have had )Enough food!
Would you ever want to say
BFT6+ H¬P :
Certainly not of course, if you want to continue
the lessons!
Of course, this is getting to be a little prolonged.
We must go over to the next case.
Before that, be sure to look at the section on exercises
and answer the questions given there.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Case-4, the Dativ case.
This case relates to the meanings such as
"for whom", "regarding", " for the sake of",
"in connection with" etc..
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lPl4 ¹lPl-4lP ¹lP-4-
¬=- ¬=l4 ¬=l-4lP ¬=-4-
rF6- rF6l4 rF6l-4lP rF6-4-
4¬- 4¬l4 4¬l-4lP 4¬-4-
Other masculine nouns which decline as above,
Hlrl¹- − food |H!4- − Student 49¬- − Bull
9-'- − Son 74- − Deity
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
|B6l Bl6l4 Bl6l-4lP Bl6l-4-
¹Pl ¹Pl4 ¹Pl-4lP ¹Pl-4-
¬6l ¬6l4 ¬6l-4lP ¬6l-4-
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬l4 T¬l-4lP T¬-4-
+-' +-'l4 +-'l-4lP +-'-4-
9F6T 9F6Tl4 9F6Tl-4lP 9F6T-4-
Nouns such as 4+ , 4¬ , B|¬¬ − water
=¬ − water ¹l74 − Kingdom will also
decline as above.
Other examples:
Masc. ²
r|¹- r¹4 r|¹-4lP r|¹-4-
H|7- H74 H|7-4lP H|7-4-
Masc. 7
H¬- H¬4 H¬-4lP H¬-4-
9¬- 9¬4 9¬-4lP 9¬-4-
|¹9- |¹94 |¹9-4lP |¹9-4-
Feminine ²
P|6 P64 P|6-4lP P|6-4-
H|± H±4 H|±-4lP H|±-4-
Feminine 7
«+ «+4 «+-4lP «+-4-
Neuter ²
4l|¹ 4l¹4 4l|¹-4lP 4l|¹-4-
Neuter 7
P« P«4 P«-4lP P«-4-
The declensions of the personal pronouns in
the Dativ case.
Hr PO ,P Hl4l-4l ,+| HFP-4 ,+-
t4 6-4 ,6 44l-4l ,4l 4!P-4 ,4-
B- 6FP 6l-4l 6-4-
Bl 6F4 6l-4l 6l-4-
66 6FP 6l-4l 6-4-
H4 HFP Hl-4l 9-4-
²4 HF4 Hl-4l Hl-4-
²7 HFP Hl-4l 9-4-
99- 96FP 96l-4l 96-4-
99l 96F4 96l-4l 96l-4-
966 96FP 96l-4l 96-4-
T- TFP Tl-4l T-4-
Tl TF4 Tl-4l Tl-4-
|T TFP Tl-4l T-4-
Now for examples of sentences with nouns in the
Dative case.
7l-'l- Hlrl¹l4 ¬r ¬¬7|-6 ·
Students go home for food.
|¬¬- Hlrl¹l4 H³|6 ·
The beggar roams around for food.
¬6- |H!4l4 6t4 79|7H|6 ·
The teacher expounds the principle for the (sake of)
student.
T9T- 49¬l4 69 4¬7|6 ·
The farmer gives fodder to two bulls.
t4 H|6|¤-4l ¬l¹ Hl+4|B ·
You bring milk for two guests.
Hr 9H-4l ¤lB Hl+4l|P ·
I bring grass for two cows.
It is interesting to observe that the word for "grass"
in Sanskrit is ¤lBP .
¬6-4- +P- · Obeisanse to the teachers.
+P- 6 · Salutations to you
According to the grammar rules and Sandhi,
+P- 6 becomes +PF6 !
Special note:
+P- is an indeclinable. When you use it as such
the noun will be in Dativ. However +P is also
the root for a verb. When using the verb the person
will be referred to in the second case.
Hr ¬-+ +Pl|P · I offer salutations to the Guru.
But, there are some verbs which when used will
have the accompanying noun in Dativ only!
+9- 4l¬T-4- T¬l|+ 4¬7|-6 ·
|96l 9-'l4 T-4|6 ·
4l¬T- 4l7+Tl4 F9r4|6 ·
Some questions and answers involving nouns
in the Dativ.
|4Hl |TP¤P : |4Hl :'l+l4 ·
9!9l|T |TP¤P : 9=l4 9!9l|T ·
64 94t+- TFP : PP 94t+- BGl4 ·
4F6¹ TFP 94l=+l4 : 4F-' 9|¹«l+l4 ·
HTl4 |T ¹l¬6 : HTl4 T¬ ¹l¬6 ·
|T 9l9l4 ¬4|6 : 9¹9l7l 9l9l4 ¬4|6 ·
Please attempt the exercises before reading
further.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Case-5 The Ablative case.
The ablative case is used in general to effect a
comparison or indicate an effect of separation from
the noun.
The Ablative case is known as 9¾Pl |4¬|±-
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP ¹lPl6 ¹lPl-4l ¹lP-4-
¬= ¬=l6 ¬=l-4l ¬=-4-
rF6 rF6l6 rF6l-4l rF6-4-
¬r ¬rl6 ¬rl-4l ¬r-4-
4¬ 4¬l6 4¬l-4l 4¬-4-
Masc. ²
P|+- P+- P|+-4l P|+-4-
r|¹- r¹- r|¹-4l r|¹-4-
The nouns |+|«- H|7- 9l|T|+- ¹l|H- H|6|¤- |¬|¹-
will decline in the same fashion as above
Masc. 7
H¬- H¬l- H¬-4l H¬-4-
4l4- 4l4l- 4l4-4l 4l4-4-
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
Bl6l Bl6l4l- Bl6l-4l Bl6l-4-
¹Pl ¹Pl4l- ¹Pl-4l ¹Pl-4-
¬6l ¬6l4l- ¬6l-4l ¬6l-4-
Feminine ²
P|6- P6- P|6-4l P|6-4-
¬|P- ¬P ¬|P-4l ¬|P-4-
The nouns 4|7- ¬l|6- 4|7- +l|6- H|±- Tl|6-
will decline in the same fashion as ¬|P-
Feminine 7
«+- «+l- «+-4l «+-4-
¬¾- ¬¾l- ¬¾-4l ¬¾-4-
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬l6 T¬l-4l T¬-4-
+-' +-'l6 +-'l-4l +-'-4-
9F6T 9F6Tl6 9F6Tl-4l 9F6T-4-
9-' 9-'l6 9-'l-4l 9-'-4-
Neuter ²
4l|¹ 4l¹- 4l|¹-4l 4l|¹-4-
Neuter 7
P« P«l- P«-4l P«-4-
4F6 4F6l- 4F6-4l 4F6-4-
Example sentences.
H-'l- ¬l|6- =l46 · From the enemy arises fear.
Bl«l- B¬¬|¹-' |H¬6 · (He) learns good behaviour
from good people.
6¹l- 9T 96|6 · The leaf falls from the tree.
|¬¹- +7l 94r|6 · From the mountain flows the river.
¬¹l- |4Hl H|«6 · (He) learns from the preceptor
In the following sentences the process of one thing
getting separated from the other is very clear.
rF6l-4l 9F6Tl|+ 96|-6 ·
The books drop from the hands.
6| 946l6 H46¹6- ·
They descend from the mountain
+-'l-4l HFl Fl4|6 ·
Tear rolls down from the eyes.
7l-'l- 9lóHl¬l4l- Hl¬¬¬|-6 ·
Students return from school.
The following sentences are examples of situations
where one entity is differentiated from another.
6l¹ BP7l6 7¬6P · The shore is higher than the sea.
67l¬- BP7l6 H~9- · The pond is smaller than the sea.
|rPl¬4- H-4-4- |¬|¹-4- 7¬6- ·
Himalaya is taller than other mountains.
Other situations where the Ablative case applies.
When a verb in a sentence implies that some one
is scared or someone is saving (protecting), the
concerned noun will be in the Ablative.
+9l- H-'l- ¹l74 ¹¬|-6 ·
Kings protect the kingdom from the enemies.
«+- ¤4l¤l6 -'F4|6 ·
The cow fears from the Tiger.
«l¹- H-'l- + -'F4|6 ·
The brave person does not fear (from) the enemy.
4H- ¹l¬l6 4l¬T ¹¬|6 ·
The physician saves the boy from disease.
In situations where the verb is associated with meanings
uch as
disgust, resting from, deviating (or faulting) from
the noun concerned will be in the Ablative.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Case-6 The Possessive case
Nouns in case 6 generally convey the meaning of
"Whose" , "belonging to" etc.. In general, the case
refers to a connection between one thing and another.
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lPF4 ¹lP4l- ¹lPlTl
¬=- ¬=F4 ¬=4l- ¬=l+l
¬r- ¬rF4 ¬r4l- ¬rlTl
4¬- 4¬F4 4¬4l- 4¬lTl
Nouns such as
74- − deity 4¬- − compilation ¬T- − character
¹B- − taste HlTlH- − sky Hl+-7- − delight
also decline as in ¹lP-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Masc. ²
P|+- P+- P+4l- P|+9
r|¹- r¹- r4l- r|¹9
Nouns such as
|+|«- − treasure ¹|7P- − ray of light H|6|¤ − guest
¹l|H- − heap H|¬- − bee \4|+- − sound
¤4l|«- − disease 7-7|¬- − large drum (Musical Inst.)
H|7- − mountain Hl|«- − mental illness
will decline as in r|¹-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Masc. 7
H¬- H¬l- H-4l- H¬9
Nouns such as
9¹H- − axe 4lr- − hand 9¬- − boss |¹9- − enemy
4l4- − air B6- − bridge r6- − cause
4T- − flute |HH- − baby P6- − mountain
²¬- − sugarcane F¤lT- − Lord Shiva
6-6- − manuscript HH- − ray of light
decline as in H¬-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
Bl6l |B6l4l- Bl64l- Bl6l+l
¹Pl ¹Pl4l- ¹P4l- ¹PlTl
¬6l ¬6l4l- ¬64l- ¬6l+l
Nouns such as
¬l¤l − story ¹?4l − street 9¬l − bright light
will also decline as in Bl6l
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Feminine ²
P|6- P6- Pt4l- P6l+l
Nouns such as
4|7- − Maize 4|7- − rain +l|6- − moral
Tl|-6- − luminance ¬|6- − shelter
Tl|6- − fame ¬l|6- − fear ¬|P- − earth
H|±- − strength «l|¬- − dust 7¬|6- − greatness
4|&- − knowledge P|6- − shape ¹l|-'- − night
decline as P|6-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Feminine 7
«+- «+l- «-4l- «++l
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬F4 T¬4l- T¬l+l
+-' +-'F4 +-'4l- +-'lTl
9-' 9-'F4 9-'4l- 9-'lTl
9F6T 9F6TF4 9F6T4l- 9F6Tl+l
Nouns such as 4+ 4¬ =¬ B|¬¬ also
decline as in T¬
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Now for the declensions of personal pronouns.
Hr PP ,P Hl44l- ,+| HFPlT ,+-
t4 64 ,6 444l- ,4l 4!PlT ,4-
B- 6F4 64l- 69l
Bl 6F4l- 64l- 6lBl
66 6F4 64l- 69l
H4 HF4 H+4l- ,9+4l- 99l
²4 HF4l- H+4l- ,9+4l- HlBlP
²7 HF4 H+4l- ,9+4l- 99lP
99- 96F4 964l- ,9+4l- 969lP
99l 96F4l- 964l- ,9+4l- 96lBP
966 96F4 964l- ,9+4l- 969lP
T- TF4 T4l- T9lP
Tl TF4l- T4l- TlBlP
|T TF4 T4l- T9lP
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Let us now see some examples of sentences
with nouns in case-6, the possessive case.
²7 64 ¬rP · This is your house.
Bl6l ¹lPF4 9t+l · Sita is Rama’s wife
+l|BTl +-'4l- P\4 H|F6 ·
The nose is between the (two) eyes.
¬6- |H!4lTl |4=4+ 6!4|6 ·
The teacher is delighted at the students’ success.
Pl6l |HHl- 4l7+ 974|6 ·
The mother sees the play(ing) of two children.
4l7l*T 4l¬l+l F9«l ¬¬|6 ·
The competition of the students takes place
at the playground.
²4 ¬÷Pl · HF4l- ¬l6- ¬l|4-7- ·
This is Lakshmi . Her brother is Govind.
¬÷P- ¬r T-' H|F6 : Where is Lakshmi’s house?
+964- T4l+l B¹Pl+ T4|-6 ·
Kings honour (felicitate) poets.
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Special uses of the sixth case.
"for the reason"
A sentence incorporating this phrase will have
the accompanying noun in the Possessive case.
r6- − reason r6l- − for the reason
=+l- BG4lBF4 r6l- Tl7Pl¹ ¬¬7|-6 ·
People go to Kashmir for a pleasant stay.
When one refers to directions in a sentence,
the nouns associated will be in Possessive case.
946- (to the east of) 9|¾P6- − (to the west of)
7¬lT6- (to the south of) 7v'¹6- − (to the north of)
¬lPF4 946- +7l 94r|6 ·
The river runs east of the village (on the eastern side)
Hl¬4F4 7|¬T6- 67l¬- H|F6 ·
To the south of the temple is the tank (pond)
|4Hl¬4F4 9|¾P6- 4l7l*T H|F6 ·
To the west of the school is the playground.
It may be noted that the four words given above
are actually indeclinables.
There are instances of use of the indeclinables
in a slightly different form as in
94T , 9|¾P+ , 7|¬T+ , 7v'¹T
Though these are indeclinables, they appear to
have suffixes of the instrumrntal case (case-3).
When expressed this way, the indeclinables are
accompanied by nouns in either case 6 or 2.
for example,
94T ¬l¹6F4 4*BP7- H|F6 ·
Bay of Bengal is in the east of India.
7v'¹T ¬l¹6 |rPl¬4l- 466 ·
Himalayas are in the north of India.
When referring to something done by a person,
the person is expressed in the possessive case.
When referring to someone having done something,
that which was done is expressed in the
sixth case.
Examples.
4r7lH¹l¬4F4 |+Pl6l ¹l=¹l=¬l=-
Rajaraja Chola is the creator of the Brhadeeswara
Temple
(The temple referred to here is more than a thousand
years old and worship continues to this day. This is
truly a massive edifice qualifying for the adjective
4r6 meaning massive. The temple has been included
among the world heritage monuments by Unesco.
|4HH¹l4F4 B|7- T!T¹l=Bl¬¹- ·
Krishnaraja Sagar is the creation of of Visweswaraiah.
(Visweswaraiah was a civil engineer who lived in
South India during the early part of the twentieth
century and is called the father of engineering in
India. The structure referred to here is a dam)
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Sometimes, a noun qualifying for case 2 may get
expressed in case 6. Consider for instance,
The boy thinks of his mother.
Here "mother" forms the indirect object of the verb.
The meaning of this sentence could well be that the
boy is thinking about his mother’s affection towards
him. Then "mother’s" comes in the sixth case. In
Sanskrit this can also be expressed in the sixth case.
4l¬- Pl6¹ FP¹|6 case-2 or
4l¬- Pl6- FP¹|6 case -6
It is possible that a noun qualifying for expression
in the third case also gets expressed in the Possessive.
¬|«6- H¬F4 6-4|6 ·
The famished person is satisfied by food. This could
have also been expressed as
¬|«6- H¬+ 6-4|6 ·
Such examples are given only to give a hint to the
student about the variations seen in the use of the
words. Only experience will help master these.
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
This has been a long section. Please go over the
section a second time and do the exercises.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Case-7 The Locative case:
The locative case indicates the locality or position
of a thing generally expressive of the meaning given
by the use of prepositions such as
in, into, inside, out of a group of, out of etc.
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¬lP- ¬lP ¬lP4l- ¬lP9
H¹'4- H¹'4 H¹'44l- H¹'49
9l7- 9l7 9l74l- 9l79
77|«- 77«| 77\4l- 77|«9
9l|T- 9lT| 9l'4l- 9l|T9
|¬|¹- |¬¹| |¬4l- |¬|¹9
¬6- ¬¹| ¬4l- ¬69
4-«- 4-«| 4-\4l- 4-«9
H-'- H-'| H-'4l- H-'9
Declensions of personal pronouns
Hr P|4 Hl44l- HFPlB
t4 t4|4 444l- 4!PlB
B- 6|FP+ 64l- 69
Bl 6F4l 64l- 6lB
66 6|FP+ 64l- 69
H4 H|FP+ H+4l- 99
9+4l-
²4 HF4l H+4l- HlB
²7 H|FP+ H+4l- 99
9+4l-
99- 96|FP+ 964l- 969
9+4l-
99l 96F4l 964l- 96lB
966 96|FP+ 964l- 969
T- T|FP+ T4l- T9
Tl TF4l T4l- TlB
|T T|FP+ T4l- T9
Example sentences
9l'4l- H*~4- B|-6 · Fingers are (present) in both hands
|¬|¹9 ¬rl- B|-6 · Caves are present in mountains
PlT4TF4 ¬69 Hl|«Tl 9l|6- ·
The students has much affection for his teacher.
9l-'9 =¬ +l|F6 · There is no water in the vessels
77«| |6|P*¬l- ¬¹|-6 ·
Whales roam about in the ocean
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Now look up the section on exercises and answer
the questions given there.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Case-8 The Vocative case
Addressing a person is handled via the Vocative
case. Mostly usage in this case will accompany
a directive or an order to the person addressed.
Also a request may be applicable. The Vocative
case may also apply in third person where one
might say,
Let him help us. Let them sing his praise etc..
Declensions:
Masculine
¹lP- r ¹lP r ¹lP| r ¹lPl-
r|¹- r r¹ r r¹l r r¹4-
H¬- r H¬l r H¬ r H¬4-
Feminine
Pl¬l r Pl¬ r Pl¬ r Pl¬l-
P|6- r P6 r P6l r P64-
«+- r «+l r «+ r «+4-
Neuter
4+ r 4+ r 4+ r 4+l|+
4l|¹ r 4l¹ r 4l|¹Tl r 4l|¹|T
P«- r P«l r P«+l r P«|+

A¬ is pronounced as in down, noun etc. ---------------------------------------------------------------------The Support Vowels The two support vowels are known as "ubhayakshara" and are mostly appended to syllables. They are not used independently like other vowels. They add specific sounds to the syllables they are appended to. These two support vowels are represented using the first vowel A . A| a¨ A: a©

The first is known as the "anuswara" and the second "visarga" The anuswara adds a sound similar to the sound of m in "sum" to the syllable. The visarga adds a sound similar to "ha" to the syllable. The "ha" will change depending on the vowel ending the syllable. The visarga more or less extends the vowel in the syllable with h+the same vowel as in the syllable. Example: if the syllable ends in vowel i then the visarga would add a sound like "hi". There may be differences in the manner in which these two are introduced in conventional Sanskrit Primers. When reading Sanskrit, it will be necessary to render the visarga in a way that will distinguish it from the syllables ha, hi, hu etc. This may be accomplished by shortening the vowel in the visarga. One is tempted to ask, "well how can Sanskrit be a phonetic language then, if the sound for a letter is context dependent?". We shall answer this in a later section dealing with phonetics. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Let us look at the first consonant.

k

(ka)

The generic form of k is kq . The nether stroke q is attached below the letter k . Now, the familiar form of a consonant in Sanskrit is the form when it is sounded with the first vowel i.e., A . Thus kq + A = k Pronouncing a consonant in its generic form requires that no vowel sound be added to the consonant’s generic sound. The generic sound is quite similar to the sound associated with a basic phoneme corresponding to a consonant in English. For the consonant k the associated generic sound will be like the ending syllable of the words "lake", "bake" etc.. A pure consonant is linguistically defined to be one without any vowel attached to it. Consonants can be meaningful in practice only when uttered along with a vowel. Ancient linguistic scholars refered to the vowels as "life giving" aksharas while the consonants were likened to the body. It is common practice to introduce the consonants to the student, in the form where the first vowel A forms the syllable with the generic sound of the consonant. Thus the student learns that k is is pronounced like the first syllable of "cup" . In India, children are often taught the aksharas in this manner. ---------------------------------------------------------------------The first group of consonants are the Gutterals. k ka k K K kha g ga G gha H °a

sounds like the first syllable in cup is the aspirated form of k

g G

sounds like the g in gum is the aspirated form of g

H sounds like the ng in finger ---------------------------------------------------------------------The second group consists of the Palatals. c ca c C j J C cha j ja J jha M ±a

sounds as in chair is the aspirated form of c sounds as in jar, just is the aspirated form of j

M sounds similar to the last syllable of the spanish word espana where the n has the combination sound of the English n and y. ---------------------------------------------------------------------The third group of consonants are the cerebrals. z ·a z Z f Z ·ha f ¸a F ¸ha N ²a

sounds similar to the t in taylor is the aspirated form of z sounds similar to the d in day, differ etc.

. t ta t T d D T tha d da D dha n na sounds like the first syllable of thirty is the aspirated form of t sounds like the first syllable of thus is the aspirated form of d n sounds like the n in null. p pa p P pha b ba B bha m ma sounds like p in pun P is the aspirated form of p b B sounds like the b in butter is the aspirated form of b m sounds like the m in man ---------------------------------------------------------------------- . ---------------------------------------------------------------------The fourth group is made up of the dentals.F is the aspirated form of f N sounds similar to the n in fund. name etc. ---------------------------------------------------------------------The fifth group of consonants are the Labials.

It is like the "g" a German would pronounce while speaking English and saying Germany ! x s h sounds like the first syllable in shall similar to the s in same sounds like the h in harmony.Semivowels y ya Sibilants S ¹a Aspirate h ha --------------------------------------------------------------------y sounds like the y in young r sounds like the r in real. There are three other consonants that one finds in use. similar to the Scottish pronounciation. sounds like the l in laugh sounds like the v in vast x ºa s sa r ra l la v va l v S has no direct equivalent in English. L µa X kºa åO j±a .

Such combinations are written using special ligatures (specific shapes different from those of the normal vowels). Any of the consonants can form a syllable with any of the vowels. We will see that while this is reasonable. Some matras are added to the right of the consonant. the term medial vowel is sometimes used to refer to vowels seen inside a word. It is similar to l but is pronounced with the tip of the tongue folded back. before drawing the consonant. when added to the basic shape of a consonant. This is known as a "matra" or simply vowel extension. In standard literature. Vowel: A Aa i iI u U . X is actually a conjunct being k + x åO is also a conjunct j + M The first and the third are used freqently in old sanskrit texts. Sanskrit is a phonetic language.L is usually included in the semivowels. A matra.e. The second is in common use today. The matras associated with the vowels are shown below. some above or below the consonant and one specific matra in Sanskrit is added to the left of the consonant i. results in a syllable consisting of the consonant and the vowel.. The Devanagari script follows fairly consistent rules to write a consonant vowel combination. Hence some scholars in the past have refered to the ligatures as medial vowels. Each vowel has a special shape associated with it for use with a combining consonant. --------------------------------------------------------------------Consonant Vowel combinations. exceptions do occur.

---------------------------------------------------------------------In respect of Sanskrit.matra : Ex. : k § ¦ k] a ka e © kE ¢ ¢k eE ª kW £ k£ AaE « kaE ¤ k[ A¬ ¬ k¬ ¥ k\ No matra is used for the combination with A since this is considered the basic syllable for a consonant. The consonant r has an exception for combinations with u and U . : Vowel: matra : Ex. . The name Krishna is familiar to one and all. For consonants not having a vertical stroke. are â and ã The forms for r with u and U respectively. In consonants having a vertical stroke in their shapes. d è da dE ¢d dW d£ daE d^ d¬ do All the thirtythree consonants strictly follow the above convention with very few exceptions. The combination of h and § is written as ¶ . the matras that get added above or below are drawn coinciding the vertical stroke. Take d for example. the term conjunct refers to a syllable formed with two or more consonants and a vowel. Let us look at an example of a conjunct. the matras are usually added centered with respect to the horizontal span of the consonant. As seen above d and § will be è .

The consonants which do not have the vertical stroke in their shape come under this category. The following 22 consonants have a vertical stroke in them. g" Øp Þt = = = g m s + + + n p t Note that in the first conjunct a half form of n is attached to the vertical stroke of the first consonant. In Sanskrit.In Devanagari it is written as k]ÝNa and the word is made up of the two syllables k] and ÝNa . different conventions have been adopted for writing conjuncts. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Writing methods for Conjuncts As a general rule. Here are some examples of two consonant conjuncts. the first consonant has lost its vertical stroke while the second consonant is written in full. K N B g t m G T y c D l j n v J p S M b x s . N and Aa . Over the centuries. We will see some variations in the next section. The first syllable has the consonant k combining with the vowel § and the second syllable is a combination of x . consonants in a conjunct are written in their half form except for the final consonant which is written in its full form. In the second and third case. There are exceptions to this rule when the consonants do not have a clear half form. we reckon k]ÝNa as being made up of two aksharas.

For the nine in the middle row above. For k . The half form for P is very close to that of p itself. Considerable flexibility exists in writing conjuncts with these consonants. a clear half form is not standardized. For the twentytwo shown first. Please note that there are nearly a thousand of these. M p z d f d H k S h z d + + + + + + + + + + + + c t z m y v k t r m r g = = = = = = = = = = = = · çO Êó î ÌY ¹ Äð ³ ½ ’ z® é .The following do not have a vertical stroke in them. H F C d z r Z h f k and P have a stroke in the middle. Often the letters are just reduced in size and placed before the succeeding consonant in the conjunct. the half form is obtained by simply removing the vertical stroke. the half form is À (not to be confused with v ). The information relating to IITM software has pointers to all the supported conjuncts. will be given below. Only some are included here. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Here are some examples of conjuncts. Examples of conjuncts with these nine.

ma. x. the bottom . da. K may be confused with r followed by a v i. rv. n. z t d D n s combine with § ¯ is seen mostly with k When r combines with § . The unit of time is not an absolute value by itself. The first part of K will in general be more curved than r but in in the case of the gutteral K .. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Letters which look similar and thus might confuse the student initially are shown below. d.. Among § ¨ and ¯ only § is normally used as a vowel with consonants. The other two are mostly used as independent vowels and in cases where they do combine with consonants. dha. The short vowels are pronounced for one unit of time and the long ones two units. ya. i i T tha F ¸ha b ba f ¸a y.n s x + + + d t z + + + r r v = = = Ód# ÞæO ¾qv ---------------------------------------------------------------------Devanagari.Rarely used Aksharas their representations. it is generally shown as rq§ and not r¦ . na.e. Note on timing. ºa. the following consonants are the ones which figure most. G gha p pa D. v va h ha B bha t ta m.

the presence of r is indicated by a shape resembling a hook above the last consonant of the conjunct. In these conjuncts. we had mentioned about a conjunct with five consonants. The consonant r is special in that conjuncts where r occurs as the first consonant. are written using a special ligature. kaÏÞÓyaI Just two syllables in the word! ---------------------------------------------------------------------Let us now look at some conjuncts in which r appears as the second or third consonant. r r r r + + + + k t k t = = + + kI tI y y = = ÀyI ÏyI r combines with almost every other consonant and one finds several words in Sanskrit with r as well as y in a conjunct.stroke will overlap with the round of the v . Earlier. We have already seen that r belongs to the group of semivowels. Here is the word with the conjunct. K rv The student is urged to keep these similar looking shapes in mind when learning the script. Let us look at a few examples. The comparison will be effected by writing the two aksharas one below the other. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Conjuncts with r as the first consonant. Most consonants will combine with .

Speak out the following conjuncts. We have put spaces between the letters for you to identify the aksharas easily. Speak out the folowing aksharas. you might want to see for yourself how well you can identify and read the Devanagari script. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Now that you have learnt the basic writing system used in Sanskrit. Please observe the following carefully and remember the writing method for the consonant.¢l xg. The presence of r in the conjunct will be seen through a special stroke added to the first consonant. @ kra c# cra z® ·ra æO tra p# pra m# mra Sanskrit books printed during the early part of the twentieth century may show variations from the above. Identify the following aksharas and speak them. s£ va z®W haE ma @« b£ t¦ ¢¹ n¬ l¥ p#E dE FaE ÞlE 3. i Hq g.r£ kq . No clues are given but figure out what the words are.with r and the resulting conjunct will usually end with r and an appropriate vowel. You might also wish to distinguish vowels from the consonants. 4. 1. i AaE G eE y D k d r l K u h t C 2.

n£zq g¤fq eÀsEsªIsAt this point you would see the advantage of a phonetic system of writing! .iIs.ta ja p n£ sA mE ¢r k nAaE mW gafq ¢ds.la ¢z nh£ b#¥ A vE s.

masculine (m). has three genders. In these expressions. 1. The prelude to these tutorial lessons introduced the vowels and consonants of Sanskrit and also indicated how they are to be pronounced. The student is advised to refer to this prelude as well to memorize the basic letters.(to be) is understood and is not explicitly used. feminine (f) and neuter (n). mm nam ram: mama n¡ma r¡ma© mm nam s£ta mama n¡ma s¢t¡ mm nam SEKr: mama n¡ma ¹¦khara© mm nam uma mama n¡ma um¡ mm dEv: ¢Sv: mama d¦vaha mm dEv£ pavIt£ mama d¦v¢ p¡rvat¢ mm p¤æO: maDv: mama putra© mm p¤æO£ ¢vjya mama putr¢ vijay¡ My son is Madhava (m) m¡dhava© My daughter is Vijaya (f) ¹iva© My Goddess is Parvati (f) My God is Siva (m) My name is Uma (f) My Name is Sekhara (m) My Name is Sita (f) My Name is Rama (m) . like other classical languages. the verb As.1 Here are some common expressions in the first person. The student is advised to learn these expressions by memory.s¤p#vES: INTRODUCTION: In this first lesson. the student will learn some expressions of common everyday use. Sanskrit. These are indicated in the examples given.

mm BtaI ¢vÝN¤ mama bhart¡ viº²u mm BayaI pîa mama bh¡ry¡ padm¡ mm ¢pta jydEv: mama pit¡ jayad¦va© mm mata s¤Bd#a mama m¡t¡ subhadr¡ mm B#ata ¢vjy: mama bhr¡t¡ vijaya© mm Þvsa m¢Úlka mama svas¡ mallik¡ mm ¢mæO| k]ÝN: mama mitra¨ k¤º²a© mm vahn| taEyaEta mama v¡hana¨ t§y§t¡ My husband is Vishnu (m) My wife is padma (f) My father is Jayadeva (m) My mother is subhadra (f) My brother is Vijay (m) My sister is Mallika (f) My friend is Krishna (n) My vehicle is Toyota (n) Note that the verb "to be" (i. The explicit form of the verb As. tv nam ¢k| tava n¡ma ki¨ tv dEv: k: tava d¦va© ka© tv dEv£ ka tava d¦v¢ k¡ tv p¤æO: k: Who is your son? Who is your Goddess? Who is your God? What is your name? . the personal pronoun mm has no gender. as in most languages. -----------------------------------------------------------------1.e. the form "is" in English) is not used in any of the expressions..1. This subsection deals with expressions invoving a question. the answers to which are similar to the expressions in section 1.(to be) is always implied in expressions of this nature and in Sanskrit.2 Simple expressions involving a question.

Gender becomes apparent in these sentences as can be observed with the ending akshara of the words i. the verb As(to be) is not explicitly used. the punctuation is recognized from the intonation. ¢Sv:. no punctuation is ever used. ¢pta. ka and ¢k| .tava putra© ka© tv p¤æO£ ka tava putr¢ k¡ tv B#ata k: tava bhr¡t¡ ka© tv Þvsa ka tava svas¡ k¡ tv ¢mæO| ¢k| tv vahn| ¢k| Who is your friend? What is your vehicle? tava mitra¨ ki¨ tava v¡hana¨ ki¨ Observe that there are no question marks in any of the sentences. Generally. k: . ram:. k: is the masculine form known as p¤|¢lÄñ: (pumli°ga©) ka is the feminine form known as ÞæO£¢lÄñ: (str¢li°ga©) ¢k| is the neuter form known as np¤|sk¢lÄñ: (napumsakali°ga©) Who is your sister? Who is your brother? Who is your daughter? Among the words used in the sentences given above. In Sanskrit.e. dEv:. B#ata . maDv:.. ¢vjy:. the following words are masculine in gender. p¤æO:. Even in the interrogative form. jydEv:. SEKr:.

Often.. A Note on the word tv . the form with respect Bvt: (m) or BvÏya: (f) is used. s¤Bd#a. dEv£. nam. kmlm. gender is not decided by the meaning of the word but is fixed by other considerations such as the form of the word and its ending.. is mostly used in circumstances involving persons who enjoy a close relationship with the person speaking the sentence. However. Dnm. BayaI. Demonstrative pronouns. jlm. pavIt£. This is similar to the usage of the German words "dein" and "ihr". ¢vjya. mata. pîa. Masculine ex: s: Feminine exa sa Neuter ettThis ttThat He (who is nearby) He (who is farther away) She (who is nearby) She (who is farther away) .. p¤æO£. Þvsa. we are following the practice of using tv for the familiar form of address and Bvt:/BvÏya: for the respectful form.The following are feminine words s£ta. vahnm. uma.. In keeping with modern trends. it is observed that the form tv was in regular use in earlier times and did not mean any disrespect. The form of address tv . it should be noted . m¢Úlka Some examples of nouns in the neuter gender are ¢mæO|. AaBrNmIn Sanskrit.

this is equivalent to the difference between "this" and "that".Aasnmtat ¡sanam tt.kmlm¦tat ¦tat kamalam tava ¦ºaha mama gaja© ¦º¡ mama bh¡ry¡ ett.tv AasnmThat (is) your seat That (is a) seat . ex: exa ¦º¡ kak: mala m¡l¡ This (is) my elephant This (is) my wife This (is a) lotus This (is a) crow This (is a) garland ¦ºaha k¡ka© ex: mm gj: exa mm BayaI ett. Essentially.-----------------------------------------------------------------The use of the demonstrative pronoun will depend on whether the speaker is refering to a person in the immediate vicinity or someone at a distance. In Sanskrit this distinction applies for all the three genders.tv kmlm.This (is) your lotus kamalam That (is) Krishna s: k]ÝN: sa© k¤º²a© sa k]ÝNa That is Krishnaa (f) (Krishnaa is a feminine name) tt. ex: ¦ºa© exa ¦º¡ ett¦tat and and and s: sa© sa s¡ tttat (neuter) (feminine) (masculine) Let us look at some examples.

son .name .3 Some common expressions used in daily life.vehicle . dEv: ¢mæOm¢pta nam p¤æO: vahnmB#ata .God .brother Þvsa .father .daughter mata .friend .sister p¤æO£ .mother dEv£ . nmÞtE namast¦ s¤p#Batmsuprabh¡tam k[Slm.va ku¹alam v¡ DÓyvada: dhanyav¡d¡: Þvagtmsv¡gatam DÓyaE¢Þm dhany§smi p¤n¢mIlam: punarmil¡ma© XØytamkºamyat¡m S¤BmÞt¤ ¹ubhamastu -----------------------------------------------------------------Glossary: Words already seen in the sections. Thanks How do you do? Good Morning Greeetings .Goddess Best wishes Please excuse me See you again I am thankful (I am grateful) Welcome Thank you.tat tava ¡sanam -----------------------------------------------------------------1.

garland .man .peacock .wife Here are some more (new) words.hall .my .dog kak: .house kmlmjlm.monkey .mercy .creeper .seat Dnm.Goddess of learning 3.face Aasnm.husband BayaI .female cat . Feminine gender mala dya sBa k]pa lta vanr£ bdva majaIr£ nar£ Sarda ..woman .sympathy .elephant − cat .water Aannm.name of a Goddess my¥r£ .female monkey .horse Acl: . 1.crow 2.mm BtaI .mare .hand . Masculine gender nr: my¥r: vanr: kr: gj: majaIr: Aá: . Neuter gender Bvnm.wealth ------------------------------------------------------------------ ..female dog Baxa .mountain S¤nk: .story srÞvt£ .language kTa .lotus .peahen S¤n£ .

(f) Salutations. gaE¢vÓd: caâmt£ BaÞkr: s¤kÓya Brt: AâNa g¢Nt: lßm£ vamn: l¢lta laEk: vaN£ p¤ÞtkmAØba p¢Îft: gaEm¢t 2. 3. That is your lotus. Try and pronounce the following words. This is Govinda.2. try to form sentences similar to those in sections 1. 1.Exercises.1 and 1. Try and form sentences in Sanskrit. Make use of the Roman transliteration given alongside when necessary. Learn to pronounce all the words introduced in the earlier sections. This is my lotus. That is your son.4. (m) That is Vimalaa. Krishna. daughter. Correct pronounciation is essential for Sanskrit. . See you again. This is your husband. Using the words intoduced in section 1.

Past tense: B¥t kal: Past tense has three forms associated with it. Future tense: B¢vÝyt. Of these six relate to the tenses and four relate to moods.e. English grammar specifies three . Expressing something that had happened in the distant past about which we may not have much or any knowledge. 3. Expressing something that is certainly going to happen. Expressing something that might have just happened. ------Verb forms not associated with time. typically last few days. 2. The tenses directly relate to the time associated with the activity specified in the verb. verbs are associated with ten different forms of usage.. 1. Expressing something that is likely to happen. Six tenses are identified as follows.kal: Future tense has two forms associated with it. Present tense: vtIman kal: There is only one form for the present tense. In Sanskrit.−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Lesson-10 General introduction to the tenses. whether the activity referred to in the verb is taking place now or has it happened already or if it will happen or going to happen etc. There are four forms of the verb which do not relate to any time. i. Expressing something that had happened sometime in the recent past. typically in the earlier part of the day. 2. These forms are called "moods" in the English language. 1. We shall examine the usages now.

One more Lakara is known to be seen in Vedic texts. Indicative mood. Since the nomenclature differs we will have to see what the moods in Sanskrit actually refer to. 8. In Sanskrit primers one sees a reference to four moods with a slightly different nomenclature. Hence the forms are called the ten "lakaras" (Even though two of the forms do not strictly start with l .perfect Future tense . 10. These are. 3. 9. It must also be remembered that verbs in Sanskrit belong to two categories depending on whether the activity specified in the verb applies to the person himself or whether it applies to someone other than the subject of the verb. Verbs which can take both forms are known as "Ubhayapada" uBypd verbs. Verbs referring to the activity for the self are said to be "Atmanepada" AaÏmnEpd verbs. 4. 5. the term lkara: 1.imperfect Past tense . Imperative mood. potential mood. 7. The ten forms of usage of the verb are each given a name in Sanskrit and all the names start with the akshara l. 2. 6.aorist Past tense . Imperative mood and the Subjunctive mood. Verbs referring to the activity for others are said to be "Parasmaipada" prÞmWpd verbs.moods which are.likely Future tense . It is known as lEzq . conditional mood and benedictive mood. lzq lHq l¤Hq ¢lzq l¤zq l¦zq l¦Hq ¢v¢D¢lHq AaS£¢lIHq laEzq applies) Present tense Past tense . .certain Conditional mood Potential mood Benedictive mood Imperative mood It may be noted that five of the lakaras end in zq and the remaining five in Hq .

The form of the infix is dependent on the root form as well as person. Later in this lesson we shall study the conjugations for the other tenses and moods.. i. "Atmanepada" or "Parasmaipada". These will be covered in independent sections. The root form is known as Dat¤ . the aksharas in the infix are termed as ¢vkrNp#Ïyy: and those in the suffix are called ¢tHqp#Ïyy: .e.Each verb in Sanskrit can be traced to a root which we may refer to as the root form of the verb. ---------------------------------------------------------------------−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Lesson10 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Past tense (simple past tense): The form considered here is lHq . We have seen in lesson 3 the conjugations of the verb in the present tense. The form of the root used in deriving the verb will depend on the tense. Three persons and three numbers for each person make up the nine. So we may say that the general for of any "lakara" is (prefix) + root form + infix + suffix The paranthesis indicates that the prefix is not present in all the forms. The infix is generally referred to as the conjugational sign. nine suffixes will have to be remembered. Forms of the verb for the different tenses and moods are obtained by adding suffixes or prefixes or both to the root form and adding an infix as well. It may be borne in mind that the verbal termination signs also depend on the type of the verb. The suffix is referred to as the verbal termination sign. The form of the suffix depends on the lakara and we can apply some rules to arrive at the suffixes. For each of the lakaras. In Sanskrit. There are many instances of verbs being derived from two different forms of a root.

I. I Sing. A+vr+A+tA+vr+A+tamA+vr +A+AnA+vr+A+s¥ A+vr+A+tmA+vr+A+t A+vr+Aa+A| A+vr+Aa+v A+vr+Aa+m Now for the forms (past tense) of the verb gÅC¢t. A is the prefix. III Dual III Pl. Sing. II. Dual Pl. The terminations are as follows. Per. For the simple past tense.As seen in the introduction. Per. . ts¥ A| Dual ta| t| v Pl. II Sing. I Dual I Pl. The root form for the verb is gÅCq The infix corresponding to the root gÅC qis also A for second and third person but Aa for first person. (prefix) + verb root + infix + suffix The infix is based on the root and the personwhile the suffix. the formation of the verb may be specified through a formula. II Dual II Pl. depends on the tense or the mood. Ant m Applying the formula the forms of a verb will be obtained as III Sing. These apply for verbs in "parasmaipada". III. referred to as the verb termination. Sing.

. gÅCq are the two root forms given for gÅC¢t. Future Tense may express something that is certainly going to happen (l¦zq) or express something that may happen(l¤zq). For many verbs. We will not dwell on this much. gm. The infix for future tense is Þy.. the suffix s¥ . AgÅC: You went I. For example. becomes a visarg. In some cases it may become Ýy.when added to a noun or verb root. Typically. AgÅCtHe went AgÅCta| They two went AgÅCt| You two went AgÅCav We two went AgÅCnThey went AgÅCt You went AgÅCam We went II.III. There is no direct rule or formula which we can remember in respect of this infix. there is no conformity with the indicated termination s¥ or why differences are seen in applying Sandhi rules? It must be remembered that there are specific grammar rules in repect of how sounds are modified when suffixes are added. two root forms may be seen. ----------------------------------------------------------------------−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Lesson 10 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Future Tense. This infix changes its form to iÝy when applied to some roots.B¢vÝyÏkal: As seen in the introduction. It will be necessary to commit to memeory the forms for different verbs. as this is beyond the scope of our current lessons. l¦zq is seen in frequent use. Of these two. AgÅC| I went The discerning reader would want to know why in the case of the second person singular.

the second form of the root will be used in generating the verb in present tense. past tense and imperative mood. III paÞy¢t He will drink II paÞy¢s You will paÞyt: They two will drink paÞyT: You (two) paÞy¢Ót They will drink paÞyT You will . Ýy¢t Ýy¢s Ýya¢m Dual Ýyt: ÝyT: Ýyav: Pl. III II I Sing. ¢t¿q for ¢t¿¢t .Likewise. III g¢mÝy¢t He will go II g¢mÝy¢s You will go I g¢mÝya¢m I will go g¢mÝyt: They two will go g¢mÝyT: You two will go g¢mÝyav: We two will go g¢mÝy¢Ót They will go g¢mÝyT You will go g¢mÝyam: We will go The forms for ¢pb¢t. The infix and the tense terminations are combined together and shown here. ¢pb. The form of the verb for future tense will be based on the first root where two roots are specified. Let us look at the terminations for future tense. Ýy¢Ót ÝyT Ýyam: Now for the forms of the verb gÅC¢t in future tense.for ¢pb¢t and ÞTa . The table applies to verbs in "parasmaipada" Per. Please note that the form of the root that is taken is pa . As seen earlier. pa .

If you arew curious as to what these 300 are. It will be necessary to remember the root forms for many verbs. you may have to wait for advanced lessons to be put up in these pages! This is a big task and we would like to know if you are interested. Terminations for the present Tense prÞmWpd III II I ¢t ¢s ¢m t: T: A¢Ót T AaÏmnEpd tE itE sE iTE i vhE AÓtE ÒvE mhE v: m: Terminations for the Past (imperfect) tense III II ts¥ tamtmAnt t ita| Ta: iTa| AÓt Òvm- . had listed about 1950 root forms for Sanskrit. knowledge of just about 300 of the root forms will be adequate for understanding Sanskrit texts.drink I paÞya¢m I will drink will drink paÞyav: We (two) will drink drink paÞyam: We will drink The student would have observed by now that he/she will have to remember the root forms for many verbs to be able to correctly form the verbs. The tables given below may be used as a basic reference for determining the forms of the verbs in different tenses. Panini. Surprisingly. Send us a note. the foremost among Grammarians. The student is reminded that the table is given only as a reference and the terminations cannot be blindly applied to a root form. --------------------------------------------------------------------−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−Lesson 10−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Summary of root terminations and verbal terminations for different tenses and moods.

Þy changes to Ýy and also takes i in the beginning of the termination.I Am. The form shown above may be interpreted in the light of this observation.v m i v¢h m¢h Terminations for the Future Tense III II I Ýy¢t Ýyt: Ýy¢Ót Ýy¢s ÝyT: ÝyT Ýya¢m Ýyav: Ýyam: ÝytE ÝysE ÝyE ÝyEtE ÝyTE ÝyÓtE ÝyÒvE ÝyavhE ÝyamhE In case of the Future Tense. Terminations for the Imperative Mood III II I t¤ tatta| t| AÓt¤ t ta| Þv eE ita| iTa| AÓta| Òvm- Aa¢n Aav Aam- AavhW AamhW Terminations for the Potential Mood III II I iItiI: iIy| iItamiItmiIv iIy¤: iIt iIm iIt iIyata| iITa: iIyaTa| iIy iIv¢h iIrniIÒv| iIm¢h . In some verbs. we have already seen that the general termination is Þy.

pvItE vnE va p#k]Ïya sh ¢k¢·Ïkal| vsam: . We should certainly go somewhere this summer. A place far away from this crowd into the mountains or forests and spend some time with nature. We can think of a long trip not worrying about the expenses (or: and not worry about the expenses) ¢ptamh:. for a long time I have had a wish to go to Badrinath and Kedarnath before my death. Father (Shankar). Let me think. SÄðr: . AÞmat.ÛyyÞy k]tE ¢cÓta| ¢vna doryaæOa| kÚp¢yt¤| S. mata (uma).....z£ s£ ¢vram: p#aÔÞytE .. tÞmat. uma ¢crat. Aa .. tÅc mm m¦ÏyaE: p#akq .g#£ÝmE k[æOa{¢p gÓtÛymEv . Family . Shankar.) A¢Þmn.ev ka¢Äütvt£.. Yes. ¢crEN mya bdr£naT| kEdarnaT| c d#¾¤| A¢Bka¢Äütm. Mother (Uma). Mohan and Usha. yes we will go to the Himalayas and view the snow capped peaks.c . uxa maEhn.¢cÓtyEym.. ¢hm¢SKra¢N pÜyam: ? Ah!. Aa| n¥n| ¢hmalypvIt| gÅCam: .SÄðr !.. tv mata A¢p ett.Lesson-11 t£TIyaæOa .s|vÏsrE mm el.[m: .Springtime k[z¤|bm. prÓt¤ Þvlßy| .Grandfather.. ¢pta (SÄðr:). For a long time we have not had a vacation. This year my paid vacation is due..ÞTanat..¢ptamh: . (It is a long time since we have had a vacation.dorE k¢Þm|¢àt. A¢Þmn.A pilgrimage vsÓtkal: .vy| ¢vram| n p#açOvÓt: .jnsÄð^lat.

vWSaKÞy mÒyE . ¢ptamh: . Middle of Visaka (End of May) ---------------------------------------------------------------------lesson -11 Part-2 SÄðr: . Remember the saying? The manes are satisfied and the mangoe trees also watered. If so.ek masÞy smy: A¢Þt Kl¤ ? AymEv uäOm: kal: bdr£naTXEæO| gÓt¤m.AXÙyt¦t£ya: AnÓtrmEv bdr£naT-kEdarnaTaly¬ dSInaTI| u¼azyEtE . Your mother too had the same wish. we shall plan our trip. maEhn. Þmr¢s va ? " ¢ptraE{¢p t¦çOa: Aam#a: A¢p ¢s³a: i¢t " . tTa ¹¬ sva©IäOm¬ Aaly¬ d#ßyam: . uxE .AlÖÒva ev sa m¦ta .Aa| vy| ¢hmalypvIt| ev g¢mÝyam: . If so. Yes. The two temples at Badrinath and Kedarnath open . t¢hI kda tÞy p¤nâ¼aznm.ev| t¢hI tdTI| yaEjna| k¢rÝyam: .ev| cEt..p#k]¢t| A¢p BaEßyam: ev| p¤ÎygÄñaÞa"anm¢p k¢rÝyam: .y¤vyaE: ¢vïalyÞy g#£Ým¢vram: kda Aar×ytE ? Usha. SÄðr: . Like that we shall enjoy nature and also take our bath in the holy Ganges. But she died without achieving her desire ( without getting her wish fulfilled) uma. we will go to the Himalayas only and see two of the most important shrines (temples).? That is in the beginning of May and when does it reopen? maEhn. Mohan when does your school’s summer vacation begin? uma t¢¼ mE masÞy Aar|BE Kl¤ . uxa .. we have a month’s time and that is the best time to go to Badrinath. t¹t.

So it is decided. uxa . Tell me. ¢pta n y¤va Kl¤ . tæO p¤ÎygÄñaya| Þa"an| k]Ïva t£TIyaæOar|B| k[mI: ..kayaIly¹ara AÞmak| rEÚyanc£¢zkaya: AarXN| vatan¤k\l-¢æOÞtr SynpE¢zkaya| kar¢yÝya¢m .AnÓtr| vßya¢m . p#Tmtya rEÚyanEn dEhl£| p#¢t gÅCam: ..At: ett.. Train journey is more comfortable than journey by bus. kaE{y| v£rBd#: ? Who was Daksha ? And who is this Veerabhadra ? ¢ptamh:. ATva dEhradon. SÄðr: . tt:prm. kTy .. tt:pr| rEÚyanEn ev . h¢r¹ar| p#¢t rEÚyanEn laEkyanEn va gÓt¤| SÀytE . we shall start our pilgrimage. . n t¤ dEhradon. Listen. to Hardwar. I will tell later.p#¢t . or to Dehra Doon..for worship only after Akshaya thritheeya.¢n¢àtm. maEhn. Then we go by train again. First we go to Delhi by train. SÄðr: .h¢r¹armEv gÅCam: . laEkyanat.. After a dip in the holy Ganges..kTy . Indeed! father is not young. ¢ptamh: .....S¦N¤ ...... Tell me ! kaE va dX: .rEÚyan| s¤Ktrm. p¥vI| dEhl£| p#¢t rEÚyanEn g¢mÝyam: . I will get our A/C three tier sleeper berths reserved . h¢r¹ar| g¢mÝyam: .. first we go to Delhi by train and then .. It was at Kanakhal that Daksha’s head was severed by Veerabhadra. To Hardwar we can take a train or bus. knKlXEæOE ev dXÞy ¢Sr: v£rBd#EN CE¢dtm. SÄðr: .. Let us go to Hardwar and not Dehara Doon. h¢r¹arXEæO| sçOmaEXp¤r£x¤ AÓytmm.

have you taken water cans.va.nEÝya¢m tæO tæO p¢T ¢väOkaESatDnaÏmna p¢rNam| k[mI: . Ah| yaæOaTI| sÇj£kraE¢m . So I am preparing some dry food for you.maEhn-. match box and some books to read. gÅCtm. yes. uma Ah| k¢tpya¢n A¬xDa¢n d£pna¢n vÞt¥¢n c nEÝya¢m .tat . tat . ev| sE¢Ótl. Mohan. I will take some traveller’s cheques. Aa| ..A¢p AæO Aagtvan. We have also packed candles. ¢ptamhEn sh s|lap| k[ât| @£ftm. Father. Bvan. Go. Usha.) SÄðr: . .. (that will last so that you can avoid eating food from outside as far as possible.t¤ b¢h: @£tan. The van is here and Senthil has come to pick up our luggage.maEhn .maEhn-. A¢pc ¢s¼v¢tIka: A¢g"pE¢zka ev| pZnaTI| ka¢ncn p¤Þtka¢n A¢p Þv£k]ta¢n . ---------------------------------------------------------------------lesson 11 Part-3 cWæO mÒyE t£TIyaæOaya: ¢dvs: . I am preparing for the trip. flash light.ÏvdTI| ¢k¢·t.umE . uxa. Father! you don’t eat anything bought from outside. sleeping bags and such? uxa. On the way we can exchange them at banks for cash. I shall take few medicines and digestives.. uma uxE. tÞmat. do not trouble me.n Kad¢s .S¤ÝkBßya¢N sÇj£kraE¢m . ²ES| ma k[âtm. t£TIpaæOa¢N krd£p: ev| SynÞy¥ta¢n iÏyad£¢n g¦h£ta¢n va ? Uma.Ah| p#yaN-DnadESan.through my office. talk to your grandfather or play. the day of the pilgrimage.¢vÞt¦t-karqyan| Aagt|. SÄðr: . Early May.pdaTaIn.AÞmak| yaæOavÞt¥¢n nEt¤m.

we shall pray to the Deity and then proceed with our trip. prÓt¤ kT| AæO Syn| Bv¢t ? SynÞTan| k[æO ? Ïv| t¤ u³van. Senthil.. exa t¤ vatan¤k\l SynpE¢zka.n.. itÞtt: ma Davtm. No. but how do we lie down? Where is the place (to sleep)? You said it is a sleeper compartment. n¥n| Ah| tæO up¢vSa¢m .Ïv| mm ¢nkzE AæO up¢vS .uxE .. no. sE¢Ótl. OK. you sit here next to the window.. gmnat. Mohan. Fine. Hold my hand. k[æO A¢Þt ¢æOÞtrSynpE¢zka ? Aa .¢kl "SynpE¢zka" i¢t . uäOm| . Syn£ysHqÁya 40 t: 44 pyIÓtm. you sit here next to me and Usha. Usha. please take the luggage there. maEhn. n. AÓyTa jnsØmdEI n¾¬ BvEtam. Mohan. I will sit there (near the window) ¢ptamh: . before departure.tat Bvan. tæO A¢Þt . ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-11 Part-4 At the station rEÚyan ¢nlyE SÄðr: . you sit in front of me near that window. lest you be lost in the crowd. maEhn-uxa n¥n| Ah| tæO up¢vSa¢m . AÞmak| yaæOavÞt¥¢n tæO ny . Where is three tier? Ah! there it is. mm hÞt| g¦ÿ£t| .. SÄðr: .maEhn. uxE Ïv| t¤ mm p¤rt: tÞy gvaXÞy sm£pE up¢vS . Berth numbers 40 to 44... . Father.uma - AÞt¤ . Don’t run here and there. prÓt¤ ¢¹ÞtrSynpE¢zka . I will sit near the window. This is an airconditioned compartment but it is two tier.p#akq dEvta| p#aÐyI yaæOa| p#vtIyam: .AæO gvaXÞy ¢nkzE up¢vSt¤ .

yæO Bgvan.ha . ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-11 Part-5 prEï¤: .. tda nd£| d#¾¤| S. prÓt¤ rEÚyan| Bd#aclE n ÞTaÞy¢t . . where long ago.. AæO et| SÄð^| AakxIyt¤ . Ha.Next Morning. gaEdavr£ t¤ sm£pE A¢Þt ¢k| ? k¢t ¢nmExa: tæO p#açO¤m-? Oh! Are we in Andhra? Telugu is spoken here. You will sleep here. Ha Ha! (laugh) Grandfather. but the train does not stop at Bhadrachalam. haha (hst:) tat Bvan. s: Aæ¬v gaEdavr£t£rE A¢Þt . Do you know Bhadrachalam. uxa . We are now near Vijayavada.AaE ! AaÓD#p#dESE Þm: . BaEjnaTI| nagp¤r£| p#aÔÞyam: . ¢ptamh: .Syn| kraE¢t .it: p#ay: ekGÎzasmyE p#ap"¤m: . AæO t¤ tEl¤g¤ Baxa p#cl¢t.n jana¢t . SÄðr: ..n¥tn| ¢vïan| ¢k¢·t. ¢ptamh: . yda rEÚyan| sEt¤| tr¢t . you don’t know even a little bit of things modern.k[æO vy| p#açOa: ? Where have we come? SÄðr: . Lord Sri Ramachandra resided for some time? It is situated here on the banks of the Godavari. See your sleeper berth is spread (folds out).[m: . For lunch we will be at Nagpur. we can see the river.½£ramcÓd#: p¤ra ¢k¢·t-kal| Avst.maEhn. From here in about an hours time we will reach. When the train crosses the bridge. Isn’t Godavari close by? How many minutes to reach there? jana¢t va Bd#acl|.vy| idan£| ¢vjyvafa sm£pE Þm: . pÜyt¤ Bvt: Syn¢vÞtr| Aagtm. AæO Bvan. Pull this lever.

---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-11 Part-6 ¢ptamh: − Aa| . the caterer will come. AÞm×y| upaharE ¢k| p#yÅC¢s ? Usha. Rukmini. please eat your beaten rice mixed with milk and honey. uxa dmyÓt£ A¢p. maEhn. â¢ÀmN£ . tat: ÞvÞy sa|p#da¢yk "kanI PqlEÀs-" Kad¢t . Wait. Mohan. SÄðr: . I know. p¢rvExk: AagÅC¢t . Who (between the two) remembers? who was the most famous princess of Vidarbha? maEhn.Ah| jana¢m . Nagpur was a great center of our ancient culture. the dear wife of Sri Krishna. uxE . A¢p k¢vraja¢Draj: ka¢ldas: Aæ¬v jat: i¢t ekE . Mohan.. .uxE. She (Nagpur) is in Vidarbha.(Means: by lunch time we will reach Nagpur) ¢ptamh: . see. according to some the king of kings among poets. ¢k| Aany¢t i¢t pÜyam: . Let us see what he brings. Father. Father is eating his traditional "corn flakes"! Uma. wife of Nala.. Bvt: mD¤na X£rEN c ¢m¢½t| p¦T¤k| Kadt¤ . what are you giving us for breakfast? uma p#t£XÞv . umatat.. Yes. sa ¢vdBIdESE AÓtB¥Ita . S½£k]ÝNÞy ¢p#ya BayaI . maEhn. uma . Kalidasa was also born here. Also Damayanti. pÜyt|..nagp¤r£ AÞmak| p#ac£n klacarÞy ek| mhtkEÓd#| Aas£t. k: jana¢t ? ¢vdBIdESÞy p#Áyattma rajp¤æO£ ka Aas£t. nlÞy BayaI .i¢t ? Usha.

ifql£ . Idli. Vegetarian only.sa¢mxE ¢k| ¢k| p#yÅC¢s ? What do you give in Non-vegetarian? uma ¢kmTI| p¦ÅC¢s .¢¹vadnE nagp¤yaI| . Sakahar: ev . SÄðr: .Breakfast.åOanaTI| ev . Just to know. .¢v|S¢t ãÔyka¢N . Ïv| t¤ sa¢mx| n Kad¢s . upahar: . Vada. SÄðr: .Aanyt¤ .upahar: . SÄðr: . kaP£ caya va. Toast and Omelette. SÄðr: . Pongal. Twenty Rupees. Coffee or Tea.BaE . when do we get lunch ? p¢rvExk: . ev| ev BaEjn| kda l×ytE ? We will have four breakfasts. Why do you ask? You do not eat Non-vegetarian.Sakahar: va ? sa¢mxaE va ? Vegetarian or Nonvegetarian ? SÄðr: . smyE p#aÔÞyam: cEt. upaharay ¢k| p#yÅC¢s ? What are you giving (providing) for breakfast? p¢rvExk: .c .AÞmak| ct¤r: upaharan. Voice .SÖd: .. SÄðr: . breakfast. By the way. p¢rvExk: . Vegetarian.Sakahar: . paEÄñl.k¢t ãÔyka¢N ? How much ? (How many Rupees?) p¢rvExk: . vfa . p¢rvExk: .zaEÞzq ev AaØlEzq .

curds (yoghurt) and papad. . p¤n: p¤n: SWla: .AÞmak| ¢tÞa#: paEz¢lka:.ka| kTa| ? Which story? uxa h¢r¹arÞy sm£pE knKlXEæOE ¢SvEn dXp#japtE: ¢Sr: Apa¶t| i¢t Avdt. again and again (these) hills. On that day you said you will tell us. maEhn. chappati or puri. what else can we do? maEhn. cÔpa¢äO: p¥r£ va. vegetables.¢ptamh| ka¢·t.. ta| kTa| . Grandfather. Good.tat tat kTa| vdt¤ . Don’t you feel bored? uxa .. Sak: . AaEdn| . tt. Twenty five Rupees. d¢D ev| pÔp¢zka ..maEhn. lentils.sØykq . sambhar.Two O’clock at Nagpur.¢k| k¢rÝyav: . d¢XNBart£ya: . Yes. ¢ptamh: . The train is passing through the beautiful forests and mountains of central India. again and again (the) forests. uxa . if we reach on time. We shall request Grandfather to tell us some story. p¤n: p¤n: kanna¢n . ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-11 Part-7 Apraþ: .¢kl . AÓyt. South Indian and North Indian packets can be had. ta| kTa| vdt¤ . Rice. Çya¢mta| n An¤Bv¢s va ? Sister.. SÄðr: . That story.B¢g¢n . uxa. sa|barq .kTa| v³[| p#aTIyav: . p·¢v|S¢t ãÔyka¢N .¢dnE kT¢yÝya¢m i¢t Avdt.Aa| . s¥p: . tell us a story.Afternoon rEÚyan| BartÞy mÒyp#dESE rØy| vnSWla¢dmagI| tr¢t . For us three lunch packets. Southern type. d¢XN Bart£ya ev| uäOrBart£ya paEz¢lka p#aÔya .

p¥vI| dX i¢t Áyat: p#jap¢t: Aas£t.¢njd^¢ht_ c Aaºyt. ¢ptamh: .dEvan.You said that the head of Dakhaprajapti was severed by Shiva at a place called kankhal near Hardwar. dX: knKlXEæOE ek| mhayåO| kt¤I| AarBt . tEn karNEn ¢SvEn sh ¢v¹Ex| AkraEt. He called all the Gods and all his daughters to take part in the sacrifice.. the wife of Mahadeva.n.¢vÝN¤: p#Nm¢t Þm ? Even Lord Vishnu prostrated before him? (The interrogative nature of the sentence must be assumed) ¢ptamh: . n. (A prajapati is a leader of the people ) tÞy AnEka: s¤ta: Aasn. ¢ptamh: . bh¤kalat. Ok. tÞmat.. . tTa¢p st£ yåO| d#¾¤| ¢ptr¬ d#¾¤| c uÏs¤ka Aas£t..baF| . listen. maEhn.n. Among them was Sati. (AÏy¤Ïk]¾:) Daksha was a highly revered person.A¢p Bgvan. So all the Gods prostrated before him. Tell that story. But he did not invite Sati and Mahadeva.... (Mahadeva -Lord Shiva) dX: A¢t uÏk]¾: p¤âx: Aas£t. t¢Þmn. ¢kÓt¤ st£mhadEvyaE: ¢nmÓæON| n k]tvan. He had many daughters. and so Daksha developed a hatred for Shiva. No..sv©I dEva: tÞy p#Nam| Ak[vIn.yåOE Bagg#hNaTI| svaIn. tasa| mÒyE AÓytma st£ mhadEvÞy d¢yta Aas£t.. Long time ago there was a prajapati called Daksha. no uxa ¢SvaE{¢p ? Shiva too? No.. S¦N¤tm. Daksha started a great Yagna (sacrifice) at the place Kanakhal...

in the context of Sati’s visit) ¢ptamh: . Shiva was furious.. sa ¢SvEn ¢nva¢rta A¢p tæO AagÅCt.. tdan£| dX: ¢SvÞy ¢nÓda| AkraEt...? What did Daksha do? (Here it means. tt. st£ Bt¤I ¢nÓda| Ashmana ÞvÞy dEh| yaEgag"¬ Adht.. ev| dXÞy ¢Sr: A¢p Apahrt. Sati was saddened by the insult to her husband....¢pæOa sa sØykq Aaèta ...tt: pr| ¢k| ABvt.. He sent his commander in chief Veerabhadra and destroyed Daksha’s Yagna. tt. she went there. yåOE dX: sv©Ixa| dEvana| yåOBag| Addat.. Also he severed the head of Daksha.dXEN k£èS| Aac¢rtm. maEhn. uxa.? What happened afterwards? ¢ptamh: . That place where Daksha’s head fell. Sati burnt herself in the Yogagni (Sacrificial fire). Sati was very keen to attend the Yagna and see her parents too.st£ d^:¢Kta ABvt. s: ÞvÞy sEnap¢t| v£rBd#| p#EÝy dXÞy yåO| ÛynaSyt. Despite Shiva’s objections. Daksha then abused Shiva.. All the Gods with Brahma at the lead appeased ..knKl. Unable to bear the abuse of her husband.i¢t ¢vÁyat| ABvt. sa ¢ptr| tÞy karN| Ap¦ÅCt. Daksha offered oblations to all the Gods. She asked her father the reason for it.XEæO| yæO dXÞy ¢Sr: Aptt.Still. prÓt¤ s: ¢SvÞy Bag| n sm¢pItvan.sv©I dEva: b#’aN| p¤rÞk]Ïy ¢Sv| AtaExyn. became famous as Kanakhal. In the Yagna. tÞya: mrN| ½¤Ïva ¢Sv: A¢t â¾: ABvt. But he did not offer Shiva what was due to him. Hearing of her death.. She was treated well by her father.maEhn. ÞvÞy Bt¤I: Apmanat.

uma idan£| k[æO gÅCam: ? Where shall we go now? k]Ïva.. tt: AnÓtr| dEhl£ ngr| d#¾¤| gÅCam: .... dEhl£ rE¢ÚnlymNext day.AnÓtrm.jan£T va ? SÄðr: . Daksha. composed the Vedic Hymn called Chamakam in praise of Lord Shiva. complete our baths etc. we will leave for Hardwar. who regained life. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-11 Part-8 prEï¤:. Shiva fixed it to the torso of Daksha.. p#atâpaharanÓtr| tE ngr| d#¾¤| gÅC¢Ót .. We shall go to the First class waiting rooms. ¢k¢·t. raæO¬ h¢r¹ar| p#¢t mÞs¥r£ Ïv¢rtyanEn gÅCam: . Delhi Railway station SÄðr: . dXÞy glE AyaEjyt. tæO Þa"ana¢dk| . Cutting the head of a goat. by the Mussorie express at night. Aï Ah¢n AæO ¢ÞTÏva . p¤nj£I¢vt: dX: cmk| i¢t Áyat| vEdÞtaEæO| ¢SvÞy p#S|saya| AkraEt. We have reached New Delhi.p#Tm½EN£-p#t£Xaly| gÏva . Thus Daksha regained life. ¢ptamh: . they go to see the city.Shiva (through Hymns) ev| dXÞy p¤nj£IvnaTI| p#aTIyn. and then go to see Delhi. ¢Sv: ekÞy AjÞy ¢Sr: Aal×y.vy| n¥tndEhl£ p#açOvÓt: . A little later. After breakfast. ev| dXÞy p¤nj£Ivn| AaBvt.dEhl£ ngrÞy p#ac£n nam iÓd#p#ÞT| i¢t Aas£t. After staying here for the day. Also they prayed for bringing Daksha back to life.

Did you know that? n kEvl| Aï BartÞy rajDan£ .. k[t¤¢Ömnarq sm£pE y: Ays.... They were known as Sultans and Mughals respectively. etE @mS: s¤Útan.Þt|B: A¢Þt. the observatory. Two types of Muslim rulers ruled over Delhi. sayÄðal: rE¢Únly| p#Ïyagta: Evening .tTa m¤Gl-s. is the only remnant. but it was the capital of the Pandavas too.n. unfortunately the kingdom of Delhi was under the rule of the Mohammadans for a very long time. No. jÓtrq mÓtrq i¢t nam"a s¥yIcÓd#a¢d-¢nr£XNaly| ev p#c£nEx¤ Av¢S¾| Þyat. Perhaps Jantar Mantar. The iron pillar near Kutubminar.dEhl£raÇy| mhamd£yana| SasnE bh¤kal| Aas£t.A¢Dk xzqSta¢n vxaI¢N dEhl£ngrSaska: Aasn.Back at the Railway Station. tE p#ay: p·aSt. are there ancient forts and palaces here? SÄðr: . s: A¢p (saE{¢p) snatnDmIp#t£k: ev i¢t kEcn vd¢Ót . ¢¹¢vDa: mhamd£ya: dEhl£ raÇyE Sasn| Ak[vIn.Delhi city was called Indraprastha in ancient times. all the palaces and temples of Sanathana Dharma were destroyed.uxa -t¢hI AæO p#ac£na¢n d^gaI¢N p#asada¢n c s¢Ót va ? In that case. according to some people.i¢t Áyata: . d¬BaIÂyvSat. . During that period. belongs to Sanathana Dharma.. They ruled over Delhi for six hundred and fifty years. prÓt¤ paÎfvana| A¢p rajDan£ Aas£t. maEhn-. Not only is it the capital of India today. tdan£| p#ay: svaI¢N snatnDm£Iy p#asada¢n m¢Ódra¢N c p#Òv¢Østa¢n .

AhaE ¢d¾Ya . AÞmak| Ïv¢rtyanÞy SynpE¢zkaya| gÏva Syn| k[mI: . The train will leave at 10. surely etc.. n¥n| − indeed . Oh! It is very cold. Ah| AïWv p¥ta| gÄña| pÜya¢m . Wake up and get up quickly. We will go to the sleeper compartment of our train and sleep. Wake up.. uma jag#t . The train stops here only for a few minutes. uma jag#t . At last I will be able to see the holy Ganges. el z£ s£ − stands for L. AÖd| are used synonimously though there are subtle . definitely. Oh! It is my fortune. wake up.Aa! A¢t S£t| A¢Þt . S£G#| u¢äO¿t . vxI| . ireespective of case ending.¢dnE p#at: p·vadnE Next day.T. uxa. pr¢Þmn. p·dS ¢n¢mxaÓtrE vy| h¢r¹ar| p#ap"¤m: . This is also an indeclinable. The travel costs are paid by the employer. rEÚyan| saDI dSvadnE p#ÞTÞy¢t .C or leave travel concession. 5 O’clock in the morning.maEhn. Within fifteen minutes we will reach Hardwar.30 PM. s|vÏsr| . All the three are used synonimously. ¢cray − All these words mean " for a long time " or "over a long period" or just "always". vÏsr| . jag#t . s|vÏsrE − In the year. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-11 Grammar: Part-1 ¢cr| . the Indian equivalent of a paid vacation. ¢crat¢crEN. ¢ptamh: .SÄðr:- AagÅCÓt¤ sv©I . AæO rE¢ÚnlyE yan| kEvl| kticn ¢nmExa¢n ¢t¾¢t .

Aam#a: A¢p ¢s³a: ¢ptraE{¢p t¦çOa: A sanskrit proverb which is roughly equivalent to the English proverb " to kill two birds with one stone" cWæOmÒyE − in the middle of the month of cWæO| p¤nâ¼aznm. e. kÚp¢yt¤m. Þvlßym.is usually taken to mean Heaven.g. p¤Îy − holy sçOmaEXp¤yI: − As per the traditions of Sanathana Dharma. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lessson-11 Grammar Part-2 knKl− Refer to the notes given in lesson-7 .p#akq Þnan| kraE¢t . rEÚyanEn − by train . In the scriptures it refers to the liberation of the person from worldly distress. Whenever p#akq is used.reopening AymEv − sandhi Ay| + ev AXÙyt¦t£ya − A very important occasion on the third day after Newmoon in the month of cWæO.. to imagine An example of a t¤m¤nA¢Bka¢Äüt| p#akq − − desired (also means waited for) before.. Before food he/she bathes. the event denoted by the noun or nominal clause refered to by p#akq should be in the fifth case. rEÚyan| means train.differences between them. BaEjnat. Here p#akq is used to imply "before eating". This was the day on which Goddess Uma (Parvati) married Lord Shiva. Indians view the seven towns as places which remove bondage.− to plan. residing and leaving the mortal body in one of these seven towns in India. instrumental case This word is a modern word coined from rEl and yan| . Similarly laEkyan| or Bus. maEXm.− one’s aim or one’s desire and goal. takes the soul to heaven.

meaning thereby a Van or a mini bus. t£TIpaæO| A¬xDa¢n d£pna¢n DnadES: − Water jug. dX: − As per the Puranic lore of India. it means Traveller’s Cheque ¢vÞt¦tkayaInm. − Youth indeed − Air-conditioned A new word in Sanskrit formed from vat: and An¤k\l .means sold. So a widened car. ¢vÞt¦t means widened. Yes. so you can guess the meaning of this word easily.− Again a coined word.− preparations s|lapm. even the English term is coined ! sÇj£krNm. the opposite of @£tanSynÞy¥ta¢n − Sleeping bag A coined word (in English too!) krd£p: − Flash light. one of the ten Prajapathis or leaders of people. Surprisingly.The place where Daksha’s Yagna was performed.− converse. a word coined from t£TI| and paæO| − Medicines − Digestive: Also jrN£ya¢n from the root j£rq − Cheque ( financial instrument) coined from Dn| and AadES: p#yaNDnadES: − p#yaN| means travel. Refer to the earlier note on laEkyanmAagtvan. or a light held in hand Note how the word is formed kr is now an adjective refering to the hand and d£p: refers to a lamp or source of light. talk to ²ES: @£tan− trouble − purchased. bought ¢v@£tan.− means "has come" p#vtIyam: g¦haN − − commence or begin hold ¢s¼v¢tIka − candle y¤va Kl¤ vatan¤k\l .

A language spoken in Andhra. i.− crossing nagp¤r£ p#ac£n| klacar: . where most of the words end in aksharas which always include a vowel.jnsØmdEI n¥n| sm£pE − in the crowd − Berth No. kEÓd# − Center kEÓd#£y − central ÞTaÞy¢t − stops (verb) (is going to stop) sEt¤ tr¢t − crosses (verb) trNm. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 11: Grammar part-3 GÎza − An hour. (In a sleeeper coach) Syn£ysHqÁya − − means "only" in this context. − sleeping place ( the berth in the coach of the the train with sleeping arrangements) SynÞTan| SÄð^ − means a lever. We are not surprised that this combination has manifested in the word "culture" in English. characterized as the language with a melodious flow of words. Here it means a small catch that should be released to swing the berth into the sleeping position. Syn¢vÞtr| ¢vjyvafa − AaÓD# − tEl¤g¤ − A state in the southern part of India facing the Bay of Bengal. not ending in a generic consonant. − ancient − culture.. "I only" near or in the vicinity ¢nkzE also means the same. − Bd#acl| A holy spot on the banks of the river Godavari where Lord Rama (one of the ten incarnations of Vishnu) was supposed to have resided during his search for Sita. − bed A town on the banks of the river Krishna in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. klacar: − a composite word formed from kla and Aacar .e. − Bridge − A city in the heart of India. Also used in the dual sense of duration and time.

py:. dmyÓt£ − Nala.− In order to know. Raghuvamsam etc. p¦T¤k| X£r| − − Beaten Rice . Lord Krishna plays an important and central figure in the epic Mahabharata.− for the purpose of taking a bath ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-11 Grammar part-4 smyE p#aÔÞy¢t cEt. milk . − princess − most well known rajp¤æO£ p#Áyattma ½£k]ÝN: − One of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu. One of the greatest poets of India.− In order to be liberated or for the purpose of liberation BaEjnaTIm. â¢ÀmN£ − one among the eight wives of Sri Krishna nl . d^ÂD| also refer to milk. sa¢mxahar: − derived from Aa¢mx meaning flesh or meat ATI is added to certain nouns.¢vdBI − An ancient state (region) of India to which great emperors like Nala belonged. it gives the purpose for which the action is done or taken up.stands for ’ if ’.− for the purpose of taking food ÞnanaTIm. A compound noun. mD¤ − honey saØp#da¢yk| − traditional sØp#day: − tradition p#t£XÞv − wait (imperative) Sakahar: − derived from Sak: meaning vegetable. Here it means ’ if the train reaches on time" A few examples. Just to know.− The word cEt.. the king of Nishada on whom the poet Harsha has composed the Naishada kavya. maEXaTIm. k¢vraja¢Draj: − ka¢ldas: − The King of Kings among poets. when the ending . pr£Xa| uäOra¢m cEt. who has composed world renowned Sanskrit works such as Sakuntalam. used as a cereal and eaten with milk.If I pass the examination åOanaTIm. The emperors had a common title called B£Ýmk: .

This word is in Future tense. kaÓtar: all refer to forest − mountain ¢g¢r: .− limitless Now. AÓtm. of paper or cloth In this case it refers to a food packet. p¤æO£ . in this lesson it refers to the severing of the head. kÓya . pvIt: − boredom − will tell the story. d^¢hta all mean ’ daughter ’ AnEka − many The word is formed by prefixing ek: with AnThe prefix An. For instance preschool. It means before. SWl| . There are other prefixes which are similar The prefix p# is also seen in the same manner. kT¢yÝya¢m refer to mountains − Afternoon ApahrN| − removal. AaÏmja . − ante-meridian or before noon − Forest vn| . do you see the connection in ending and unending oppose and unoppose armed and unarmed ? The connection you see is reason enough to reckon Sanskrit as the very first language of the world. baFms¤ta − just means OK or alright − daughter s¤ta .if you get the job paEz¢lka − Apraþ p¥vaIþ vn SWl| ja¢mta means a packet. Some examples.− end or limit AnÓtm. tnya .has the effect of negating or giving the opposite meaning of the word to which the prefix is added. kann| .uïaEg| p#aÔÞy¢s cEt. predetermine ! tasa| mÒyE AÓytma − One among them .

− asked or questioned ¢nÓda − abuse shman: − masculine shmana − feminine Ashmana − unable to bear (refers to a person) − eager.g. Plana| mÒyE AÓytm| sEÛyPl| Apple is one among fruits. yåO| − yåO is a sacrifice and mhayåO is a great sacrifice. e. Bag: ¢njd^¢ht_: ¢nmÓæON| st£mhadEvyaE: ¢ptr¬ − − share. well treated − presented − of husband ¢nva¢rta − forbidden sm¢pItvan- . Here it means father and mother. dSana| AvtaraNa| mÒyE ½£k]ÝN: AÓytm: Sri Krishna is one of the Avataras (of Lord Vishnu) ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 11 Grammar Part-5 d¢yta uÏk]¾: p#Nam| ¢v¹Ex| − great − obeisance − enmity − dearest: Here it means ’ wife ’ It may also mean ’ daughter ’ mhayåO| .. portion − one’s daughters .invitation − to Sati and Mahadeva parents. uÏs¤ka Aaèta Bt¤I: Apman| − insult Ap¦ÅCt. keen (uÏs¤k: − masculine) − well received . p¢tv#tana| mÒyE AÓytma s£ta Among the Pativrata Sthrees (women of honour in following a life of chastity) Seetha is one.Usage of the word will depend on the gender of the noun referred to. Note: ¢ptr¬ may also mean two fathers (Dual).

angered mrN| â¾: sEnap¢t: − commander in chief v£rBd#: − Name of Lord Shiva’s commander in chief XEæO| − a center of Pilgrimage In general it means a cultivated place.bearing or withstanding (able to bear or withstand) ÞvÞy dEh| yaEgag"¬ − one’s − body − In the Yogic fire This is a reference to the fire kindled by the control of the vital airs in a person. usually in the form of verse − next day Ïv¢rtyan| − Express Train (fast train) .death − angry. − The God Brahma This word is composed of p¤r: − in front and k]Ïva (k]t) p¤nj£IvnaTI| AjÙy − − In order to restore (one’s) life unbeatable. But may have different meanings in different contexts. It contains many instances of the akshara mE which resembles the sound of bleating. which Daksha recited. nape − This refers to the Vedic Mantra in the Krishna Yajur Veda. . p#S|sa − praise ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 11 Grammar Part-6 ÞtaEæO| prEï¤: − A praise . comprising the neck. A belief as per the Sanathana Dharma. unconquerable b#’a p¤rÞk]Ïy − Keeping in the lead Aal×y − having procured or after procuring The proper meaning is cut into pieces glE cmk| − the part of the body just below the head.

It has a unique sun-dial.− observation snatnDmI: m¢Ódr| p#Òv|¢sta¢n jÓtrq − mÓtrq − yÓæOm¢Ódrm- . Please refer to the previous lesson to get the meaning d^gaI¢N p#asada¢n d¬BaIÂyvSat− Fortresses.. castles d^gIm. The word XEæOm. buildings − unfortunately is derived from d^BaIÂym.p#Tm½EN£ − p#t£Xaly| − First class waiting room in a railway station iÓd#p#ÞT| − The ancient name for Delhi when it was the capital of the Pandava empire rajDan£ − Capital paÎfvana| − Of Pandavas.− singular − palaces.− due to kaEpvSat. − temple m¢Ódra¢N − plural − demolished refers to an observatory in Delhi built several hundreds of years ago.− due to anger mhamd£ya − The followers of Mohammad the Prophet SasnE .Under the rule of bh¤kal| − long time ¢¹¢vDa: − two types @mS: − respectively.is also used in place of Aalym.is added as we have seen earlier. in that order − The literal translation of this is " the eternal code" . This word is a rendering in Hindi of the Sanskrit root words yÓæO m¢Ódr or Instrument Palace. to many nouns to denote the place of occurrence of the action specified by the noun. Av¢S¾m.− remaining ¢nr£XNm. In this lesson.− misfortune by adding vSat. ¢nr£XNaly| − Place of observation The word Aalym. it refers to the so called Hindu religion.

p#t£k: ¢d¾Ya − symbolic representation.¢dnE− anothert day . There is a pillar made of Iron in Delhi.Þt|B: Iron pillar Ays. in front of the Kutub Minar which has never rusted. This is root word from which the word "Iron" is derived. the same meaning as prEï¤: p¥ttgÄñam-− the Holy Ganges (river) .AyÞÞt|B: − Ays.or Ay: refers to Iron. by good luck pr¢Þmn. − fortunately. This is a metallurgical marvel that continues to puzzle scientists and engineers even now in the twentyfirst century.

Aap.Aa| Yes.gÅCam:? km¢p haEzl| va saD¥na| Aa½m| gÅCam: ? So. vÞt¤ t: ¢g¢rmag©I ev A¢Þt .Lesson-12 Part-1 t£TI yaæOa Introduction: This lesson is a continuation of events in lesson-11. ¢nvaIhk: . tE ¢v½a¢Ót g¦h| p#ap"¤v¢Ót . uxa . s|p#¢t ¢k| k¢rÝyam:? k[æO tavt. The novelty here is to introduce the student to usages of terms typical of ancient Indian culture. mm kayaIlÞy ¢v½a¢Ótg¦h| AæO gÄñak\lE A¢Þt .sE Aa rhE hW| n ? Aap ka nam Àya SÄðj£I hW ? Caretaker. h¢r¹arq rEl. Our rooms are reserved there.Please come Sir. In fact.At the rest house.They reach the rest house. m¤n£¢k rE¢t i¢t ÞTanE A¢Þt . AÞmak| p#kaE¿a¢n tæO Aar¢Xta¢n . what should we do now? Where do we go? To a Hotel or an Ashram of the Saints? SÄðr: .¢nlyE Scene at the Haridwar Railway Station. Neither. Aren’t you coming from Madras and aren’t you Shankarji ? . maEhn.nn¤ . at a place called Muni ki Reti.AaiIyE sahb.The sequence of case endings and tenses is also continued.mdras.n uBy| .. ¢v½a¢Ót g¦hE . it is on the way to the mountains.va¢jSkzEn gÅCam: ? Shall we go by horse cart? SÄðr: . my company has a rest house on the banks of the Ganges.

Aap AÅC£ ¢hÓd£ baEÚtE hW|.Ahm¢p (or mm A¢p) Ïv| AaHqÂlBaxa| jana¢s va ? Shankar . AaiIyE . " me no english " Hindi only .how are you able to speak Hindi? When and where did you learn ? ¢ptamh: .Saab. we learnt Hindi happily .kT| ¢hÓd£ Baxa| vd¢t ? kda k[æO ApZt. SÄðr: .I too (don’t understand) Do you know English ? (this is addressed to the caretaker) ¢nvaIhk: . tda sv©I ¢hÓd£ Baxa| ra¾®Baxa i¢t ¢vcayI k¬t¥hlEn p¢ZtvÓt: . Bvan.tat. everything is ready for you.sab.AD¤na ¢k| k¢rÝyam: ? Shankar ." ¢hÓd£ AaE¢Ól .What is he saying? I don’t understand anything. hmarE rhnE kE ¢lyE bÓdaEbÞt¢kya h¤Aa hW Àya ? Grandfather.n jan£m: i¢t ¢vcary¢t va ? p¥vI| vy| yda y¤van: AaÞm . Uma . Please come." m£ naE iHqÂl£x.sE Aa rhE hW| . Aap kE ¢lyE sb tÙyarq hW . Shankar .? Uma. Grandfather.Father.What shall we do now? ¢ptamh: . Has any arrangement been made for our stay here? ¢nvaIhk: . caretaker . we are coming from Madras.uma .What do you think? We old people do not know anything. You speak good Hindi.ex: ¢k| vd¢t ? n ¢k¢·t.¢k| mÓysE ? vy| v¦¼a: ¢k¢·t. SÄðr: .baba¢j. uma. SÄðr: .Is that what you think ? When we were young.Father.Yes.AvgÅCa¢m . Caretaker.ha| ~ h| mdras.

mÇjnat. They see some of the ashrams on the other bank of the Ganges.jlE kT| ¢nmÇjam: ? Ah! it is freezing cold. Come everybody.¢dnE tE p#at:kalE . Where is the question of dipping? SÄðr: .. bal¬ lßmNsEtaEâp¢r @£ft: . Looking at the Ganges which is peaceful and pensive in comparison with the previous day’s (Ganga at Hardwar). jl| p#¾¤m¢p B£taE{¢Þm . tæO lßmNdaEla| pÜy¢Ót . sv©I AagÅCÓt¤ . How do we take a dip? uma ..AvlaEky¢Ót . give no excuses.pr| SWÏy| n An¤BvEm (or An¤Bvam:) Come on.Scene at the banks of the Ganges. .. sk]t. SWÏyEn jf£ Bv¢t . p¥vI| ¢dn| tæO Sa¢Óty¤³a| Òyanmg"a| gÄña| è¾qva AaàyIc¢kta: ABvn.n kEvl| SWÏy| . vy| ekWkÞy hÞt| prÞpr| g¦h£Ïva jlE p#¢vSam: . tE tæO gÄñaya| Þa"an| k[vI¢Ót . p#vahÞy A¢p At£v vEg: A¢Þt . They reach Rishikesh enroute Kedaranath and Badrinath. they are wonderstruck. They have their bath there in the Ganges.with the feeling that it is the national language.. Once we dip we shall no longer feel cold. gÄñaya: uäOr tzE ka|àn Aa½man. They see the Lakshmana Joola (wooden suspension bridge) across the Ganges (believed to have been first built by Lakshmana)..v¦Ta p#lap| ma k[â . I am afraid even to touch the water. pr¢Þmn. we will hold each other’s hands and enter the water. A¢Þmn. §x£kES| gÅC¢Ót. maEhn.. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-12 Part-2 gÄñaya| .Aa . k[taE va p#vES: ? Not only is it freezing but the flow is so fast.Next Morning. The children play on the bridge. kEdarnaTÞy ev| bdr£naTÞy mag©I .

ya ½£k]ÝNÞy ¢p#ya nd£ ym¤na ka¢lÓd£ iÏy¢p g£ytE. but she comes into sight at a place called Gomukh about ten miles from there. prÓt¤ tt. From there she flows towards Gangottari.tt.i¢t Áyat: . p#Tmtya 袾gaEcr| Aaya¢t . ¢hmalyÞy ex Bag: ¢t»£ gfqval. p#Tmtya bdr£naT| p#¢t g¢mÝyam: . The way . in the evening. Actually.p#ayS: sv©I gÄñaEäOr£ pyIÓtmEv gÅC¢Ót . vy| ekEn ¢vÞt¦t karqyanEn Bazk| dÏva g¢mÝyam: .ÞTanat. Same Day. gaEm¤KÞy magI: A¢t¢²¾: . tt: gÄñaEäOr£| p#¢t gÏva. in the olden days.p#ay: ek yaEjn dorE gaEm¤K| i¢t ÞTanat. The rule is that one should see Kedaranath first and then go to Badrinath. not that way.¢dnE sayÄðalE . ¢ptamh: . This part of the Himalayas is called Tehri Garhwal. The river Yamuna. tÞmat. vÞt¤tÞt¤ p¤ra t£TIya¢æOka: p#Tm| ym¤naEäOr£| è¾qva . we shall go to Badrinath. pilgrims would first see Yamunottari. We shall hire a van and proceed so that we can see some important places and temples on our way. starts from Yamunottari. We will ascend the Himalaya Parvata tomorrow morning. gÄñand£ t¤ gÄñaEäOr£t: n p#ad^BIv¢t . ¢nymÞt¤ kEdarnaT| è¾qva ev bdr£naT| p#¢t gÓtÛy| i¢t . No. tt: gÄñaEäOr£| p#¢t p#vh¢t . tt: kEdarbdr£ yaæOa| p#k[vI¢Ót . then to Gangottari and thereafter proceed to Kedar and Badri. SÄðr: . the darling of SriKrishna which is also called Kalinidi. Ganga actually does not start at Gangottari. ev| mag©I k¢tpy m¤ÁyÞTana¢n ev| dEvalyan.nWv| (n ev|) . sa ym¤naEäOr£t: p#Bv¢Ót .. First.d#ßyam: .á: p#BatE vy| ¢hmalypvItÞyaEp¢r AaraEham: .

It is because the source sprout of Ganga appears like the face of a cow..kEdarnaT| p#¢t ev p#Tm| g¢mÝyam: . Aæ¬v ev| SWÏy| cEt.ev| nam . uxa ev| cEt.itaE{¢p k|bla¢n AaENIvÞæOa¢N c nEtÛya¢n Kl¤ ? If so. should more blankets and woolen clothing be taken? . SÄðr: . No. ev| vy| SWÏyEn k|pEm¢h . So most people go only upto Gangottari. maEhn. So the name. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-12 Part-3 uma Aa . gaEm¤Kat. tæO ¢nàyEn A¢tSWÏy| Bv¢t ev. We have heard that she comes from very far away before Gomukh but is invisible.gÄñaya: ¢ngIm¹ar| gaEm¤KsèS| Bv¢t . tÞmat. uxa . Why the name Gomukh? ¢ptamh: . uxa . maEhn...to Gomukh is very difficult.n¥n| Ay¤tad¢p A¢DkmEv P£zq Þyat.? What will be the height of the places we intend visiting? SÄðr: . It will certainly be very cold...tat tat kT| gaEm¤K| i¢t nam ? Grandfather.? Ah! it is so cold here itself.yÞmat. up¢r k£èS| BvEt.n .. We shall shiver in the cold. How will it be above? maEhn.u°¢t: Þyat. it will be more than ten thousand feet. k[t: sa AagÅC¢t i¢t n kaE{¢p jana¢t . let us go to Kedaranath first.tt: ev gÄña p#Bv¢t va ? Does Ganga start from there? ¢ptamh: .AagÅC¢t i¢t AÞma¢B: ½¤tm.p¥vI| sa AèÜya B¥Ïva A¢tdorat.g¢mÝymaNana| ÞTanana| ¢kyt. Indeed.ev| cEt. Nobody knows where she comes from. If so.

they reach Devaprayag. mÒyE nd£ nynpTat. after our baths and breakfast. the river disappears from sight. ½aÓta: B¢vÝyam: p#yaNEn . pr¢Þmn. uxa .Þa"ananÓtrmEv gÅCam: va ? Do we go after our baths? maEhn. There. tæO Þa"aÏva AÚpahar| k]Ïva p¤n: p#yam: . do you wish to freeze (into ice) here itself? ¢ptamh: .. Midway.p#BatE Next Morning ¢ptamh: .svIæO k|bla: l×yÓtE . They go along the Ganges for some distance. After some distance.baFmOK. x¢¾: ¢k m£ dorE dEvp#yag: i¢t ÞTlE ¢v½aØyam: .¢cÓtamaÞt¤ .ApgÅC¢t . Blankets will be available everywhere but we have to take woolen clothing. we can proceed.SÄðr: . SÄðr: . ¢ptamh: . prÓt¤ AÞmak| AaENIvÞæOa¢N nEtÛya¢n ev . . ttaE{¢p ¢k¢·t. Don’t worry. How can we go without a bath? We do not know if there are facilites for bathing enroute.dor| gÅC¢Ót . We will become tired after traveling.kda¢p n .dorE dEvp#yag ÞTl| p#ap"¤v¢Ót . tE gÄñya: sh ¢k¢·t. sixty KM from here we will rest at a place called Devaprayag.Þa"an| ¢vna kT| gÅCam: ? p¢T Þa"anaTI| s¬kyI| A¢Þt n va i¢t n jan£m: . ¢k| Aæ¬v ¢hm¢Sla¢yt¤| iÅC¢t va ? No way.

uxE . Usha. AagÅC . Listen. I thought that Prayag was in Central India near Allahabad city. wherever there is a confluence of two rivers.exa t¤ gÄña ev . but it is not visible to the eye. . The one in Rishikesh alone is called Lakshmana Joola. it is the confluence of the Ganga and Alakananda. uxa tat tat . tE ¹yaE: nïaE sÄñm| p#ap"¤v¢Ót . see. ya §x£kESE ¢ÞTta sa ev lßmNJ¥la i¢t uÅytE .. p#¢tsÄñm| t¦t£ya eka AÓtvaI¢hn£ nd£ A¢Þt i¢t ¢hÓdv: ¢vás¢Ót . On our way. there will be many more Prayagas. Let us play. it is called Prayag.sk]t. @£fav: . let us bathe here. pÜy .S¦N¤ . AæOa¢p eka lßmNdaEla A¢Þt . They reach the confluence of the two rivers. ¢nkzE ev rG¤naTÞy m¢Ódr| B¢vt¤| AhI¢t . kT| AæOa¢p p#yag: Bv¢t ? Grandfather.AæO Þa"an| k[mI: . mm ¢vcar: t¤ p#yag: mÒyBartE Alhabadq ngrÞy sm£pE vtItE i¢t . SÄðr: . there is a third river underground. How is it there is a Prayag here too? ¢ptamh: . sa ka ? First. Here.maEhn. come. SÄðr: .etaèS£ daEla: bhqÛy: s¢Ót . yæO yæO ¹yaE: s¢rtaE: sÄñm: Bv¢t . AÞmak| p¢T AÓyE{¢p bhv: p#yaga: s¢Ót . There should be the temple of Raghunatha close by. here too there is a Lakshmana Joola. There are many such bridges.AæO gÄñalknÓdyaE: sÄñm: . The Hindus believe that at every Prayag. tæO tæO p#yag i¢t nam . This is Ganges but which is the other? ¢ptamh: .

vÞt¤tya ¢tÞa#: nï: ev s¢Ót .svIæO Aal¤k| .p#dESÞy mÒyE eka A¢ts¤Ódr£ d#aEN£ . prÓt¤ cX¤ga©Icr| n Bv¢t . ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-12 Part -4 tE Þa"an| k]Ïva rG¤naTÞy m|¢dr| è¾qva p¤n: p#yaNE uÓm¤Ka: Bv¢Ót .AlknÓda| An¤s¦Ïy gÅCam: . there is the confluence of Ganga.p#ag. (or AlknÓdaya: p#vahmn¤gÅCam:) . uma idan£| kÞya: nïa: magI| An¤s¦Ïy gÅCam: ? uBy£ A¢p mnaEhra . They reach Srinagar. ¢ptamh: .. tæO BaEjn| Þv£k]tvÓt: . Srinagar is a very beautiful valley in the Garhwal district.So.Aal¤k| . tÞmat. They have their lunch. Alhabadq ngrÞy sm£pE p#yagÞTlE gÄñaya: ym¤naya: ev| srÞvÏya: sÄñmaE Bv¢t . it: AlknÓdaya: t£rE ev kar v£T£ A¢Þt .ev ¢thr£ mag©I gÓtÛy| Aas£t. ½£ngr: Gfqval. We shall follow Alakananda. one should have taken the road to Tehri earlier. see the Raghunatha temple and once again concentrate on their journey. in reality. They have their bath. threre are three rivers. In the Prayag near Allahabad. tE ½£ngr| p#ap"¤v¢Ót . SÄðr: . Now which river do we follow? Both are beautiful. Yamuna and Saraswathi. Aal¤k| . If one decides to go along the Ganges. Aal¤k| . Aal¤k| ¢vna ¢km¢p A¢Þt va ? . Only along the Alakananda there is a road. gÄña| p#¢t gÓt¤| iÅCa cEt.

âd#p#yagE uxa At Rudraprayag tat tat. By God’s grace. Is there anything without potatoes? SÄðr: . we do not know. I have heard that there are many man-eaters here. ett.. Yes. From now on. We shall proceed upto Rudraprayag and halt there for the night I think.mya ¢jm. Only chappatti’s will be available. kEvl| cÔpa¢äO ev l×y: . Oh.S¤ÝkPla¢n ev| S¤Ýka¢n Kaïa¢n n£tvt£ . tatÞy k]tE ¢k¢·t. tt: p#BatE gÅCam: .kab©Izq mhaEdyÞy mEn.Potatoes.! Rudraprayag. it:pr| t¤ etd¢p l×ytE va n va. whether even this will be available. I have heard that there are many man-eaters here. uma ¢km¢p va Bvt¤ .pyIÓt| Aal¤k| A¢p l×ytE .¢d¾Ya etavt.. SÄðr: .âd#p#yag pyIÓt| Aï gÅCam: ev| tæO raæO¬ vsam: i¢t mÓyE . n³aharaTI| k[æO ÞTanm.Aa| . and proceed from there in the morning.iIzs-I AaP k[maUnp¤ÞtkE p¢Ztm. AæOa¢p ¹E nïaE: sÄñÅCt: va ? Grandfather. .âd#p#yag: ! hE Bgvn. for Grandfather I have taken some dry fruits and dry eatables. n jan£m: . potatoes and potatoes everywhere. at least we are getting potatoes. I read this in Jim Corbett’s book ’Man eaters of Kumaon’. maEhn. God! mya t¤ ½¤t| AæO nrBaE¢jn: ÛyaG#a: bhv: s¢Ót i¢t .? Whatever may be. two rivers join here too? ¢ptamh: .

SÄðr: . ¢ptamh: . AæO ÛyaG#a: A¢p n s¢Ót.p#dESÞy p#Sa¢Ót| B¸y¢t . There are only people like us. A¢t rØy| n ? It is visible above that snow peak. There are neither tigers here nor lions.AæO ¢kyt£ Sa¢Ót: .. Don’t be afraid.ma BWx£: . ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-12 Part-5 prEÒy¤: Next morning. Oh! How peaceful it is here. maEhn. breaks the silence of this place. uxa kT| ? . tE âd#p#yagE ek| ¢v½a¢Ót g¦h| gÅC¢Ót .AæO AlknÓda mÓda¢kÓya sh sÄñÅC¢t At: AæO ¢Sv¢vÝNaE: sÄñm: . Look at the beauty of the moon. Yes.[m: . Isn’t it charming? SÄðr: . ¢s|ha: A¢p n s¢Ót . but we have to go to the rest house soon where we can warm ourselves in the fire. ¢ptamh: . tE p· SWÏyEn k|pmana: Aasn. All the five shiver in the cold as they are not used to it. Only the sound of the water beating against the rocks.yEn SWÏyEn tE Ap¢r¢cta: .iÓdaE: s¬ÓdyI| pÜy .Aa| . prÓt¤ S£G#mEv vasÞTan| p#¢t gÓtÛy| A¢Þt . kEvl| AÞmaèSa: nra: s¢Ót . Here Alakananda joins the Mandakini and so there is a confluence of Shiva and Vishnu. uxa. yæO A¢g" sm£pE uÝN£ kt¤I| S. They go to the rest house at Rudraprayag. ¢Slas¤ jlp#vahÞy rv: ev ett. tÞy ¢hm¢SKrÞy up¢r p#èÜytE .

Alakananda comes from Badrinath and the two join here. The former is the abode of God Shiva and the latter that of Vishnu.it: vy| mÓda¢kÓya: t£r| An¤s¦Ïy kEdarnaTpyIÓt| gÅCam: . hundreds of yards.AagÅC¢t ev| tyaE: AæO mEln| Bv¢t . AlknÓda bdr£naTXEæOat. On that side (towards Badrinath) it looks barren. Look. From here. sa srÞvt£ b#’ã¢pN£ .How? ¢ptamh: . tæO tæO t¦t£ya nd£ AÓtvaI¢hn£ ãpEN Bv¢t .As¬ paáI: d#^mWrav¦t: mrktÜyam: Ba¢t .dor| gÏva After travelling some distance. tÞmat. mya u³| ¢kl yæO yæO ¹yaE: nïaE: sÄñm: . a third one flows as an undercurrent? That Sarawati is of the nature of Brahma. Apr| ¢vÝNaE: ÞTan| . the important trinity of the Hindu Gods reside. here at Rudraprayag.AagÅC¢t . this side of the mountain is full of trees and appears green. So.XEæOat. below us.AæO âd#p#yagE ¢hÓdona|| p#DandEvæOy| ¢vrajtE . p¥va©I³| XEæO| Bgvt: ¢SvÞy ÞTan| . pvItÞy A¢Þmn. SÄðr: . . sa k[æO¢ct. The Mandakini river comes from Kedaranath temple town. she will flow near us and at places. Have I not mentioned that wherever two rivers meet. ¢k¢·t.k¢tpy hÞty¤gStW: ¢nm"E p#vh¢t . ¢kÓt¤ bdr£naTÞy paá©I S¤ÝkB¥¢m: ev èÜytE .AÞmt-sm£pE p#vh¢t . At some places.mÓda¢kn£ nd£ kEdarnaTat. uma pÜy . kda¢ct. we shall proceed along the Mandakini upto Kedaranath.

AÞy pvItÞy ¢SKrE Ah¢nIS| jaÇvÚyman: A¢g": A¢Þt . there is a fire burning day and night. AæO uÝNaEdk k[Îf| A¢Þt . On the top of this peak.pÜy ¢æOy¤g£narayN| ¢jg¢mx¤: A¢Þmnp¢T gÓt¤| AhI¢t .. They all have their baths in the hot water spring. exaE A¢g": sda Çvl¢t ev| æOEtay¤gatAar×y ¢nrÓtr| Çvl¢t i¢t vd¢Ót.¢Sv| p¢rNEt¤m.p#BatE yaæOa| p¤n: p#arBÓtE .¢æOy¤g£narayN: i¢t ¢km. They reach Gowrikund and stay for the night there. those who want to proceed to Triyuginarayan should take this path.? What is Triyuginarayan? ¢ptamh: . This fire burns always and is supposed to be burning right from Tretayuga. AæO Þa"aÏva jÓmaÓtrE k]ta¢n papa¢n nr: ¢vnaSy¢t . It is here that Goddess Parvati performed penance intending to marry Lord Shiva.Aa| . Look. uma AæO d#¾Ûy| ¢km¢p A¢Þt va ? kT| AÞy g¬r£k[Îf| i¢t nam ? Is there anything to see here? How did the name Gowri Kund arise? ¢ptamh: . there is a hot water spring here. Next day. one destroys all the sins committed in all one’s previous incarnations. Yes. tE sv©I uÝN£dkt£T©I Þa"an| k[vI¢Ót . tE g¬r£k[Îf| p#aÔy tæO ra¢æO| u¢xÏva pr¢Þmn.SÄðr: .. Aæ¬v Bgvt£ pavIt£ tp: Atpt. Taking one’s bath here. they start their trip again. maEhn. .

I thought you had returned to Gowrikund. ¢ptamh: . At last you reached. ¢k¢·t. Father.SÄðr: ... maEhn. it will be difficult. tat ÏvdTI| mya ’dÎf£’ s¤s¢Çjta.AÓtE Ïv| p#açOvt£ . A little later Shankar also reaches. AáEn A¢p gÓt¤| SÀytE prÓt¤ tt.AnÓtr| SÄðr: A¢p p#ap"aE¢t . Aava| pìyamEv gÅCav: . uxE . Mohan. Usha.AáÞy up¢r gÅC¢s va ? Usha.tt. g¬r£k[Îf| p#¢t¢nv¢tItvt£ i¢t mya ¢c¢Óttm.n . ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-12 Part-6 uxa . From here one has to walk the seven KM distance to Kedaranath. do you want to go horeseback? uxa. maEhn.¢km. Mohan and Grandfaher reach Kedarnath and wait for Shankar and Uma. . Much later Uma arrives extremely tired. A chair is bound to two bamboo poles and is carried on the shoulders by four men.²ESay Bv¢t . for you I have arranged a dandi. SÄðr: .? What is that? SÄðr: . bh¤¢vl|bEn uma ²aÓta tæO p#ap"aE¢t . maEhn.ev| tat: kEdarnaT| p#aÔy umaSÄðryaE: ¢n¢mäOm.it: kEdarnaT pyIÓt| sçO ¢k m£ dor| pìYa| ev gØytE .Aasn| ek| ¹yaE: k£ck dÎfyaE: up¢r bÒva ct¤¢BI: nrW: ÞkÓDEx¤ n£ytE . we shall walk.p#t£XN| k[vI¢Ót . One can go on horseback too but for father. No.

he established the system of worship and also the rules for the Pujari (priest). . attired just in two cotton clothes and his kamandalu had come here twentyfive centuries ago. He also went to Badrinath and acquired the idol of Badrinath from the ice cold waters of the Alakananda.D.. You are jesting with me now (are you)? A¢t²aÓta p¢T ev m¢rÝya¢m i¢t mya ¢c¢Óttm. Why should Kedarnath be so difficult to reach? ¢ptamh: . s: AÞy m¢ÓdrÞy j£Na©I¼arN| k]Ïva p¥ja p¼¢t| ÞTap¢yÏva ev| p¥jkÞya¢p ¢v¢D| p#¢t¿a¢ptvÓt: .bdr£naTÞy ¢vg#h: uÒèt: . In A. that too well protected in woolen clothing and chewing chocolates all the way. Uma. ¢kmTI| kEdarnaT: ev| ²ESEn p#aÔy: . complain? uma . with all modern conveniences you are complaining.uma - idan£| Ïv| mya sh @£f¢s ..AacayI BgvdqpadÞy ¢vxyE mm A¢p shm¢t: ev . having walked only seven KM. Aa¢dSÄðrBgvÏpad: p·¢v|S¢t St s|vtsrE×y: p#agEv AæO kEvl| kapaIsvÞæO¹yEÓy¤³a: ev| kmÎfl¤na sh AæO Aagtvan. I am so tired that I thought I’d die on the way. Ïv| t¤ kEvl| sçO ¢k m£ dor| pìya| gÏva td¢p AaENIvÞæ¬: AaÅCaï ev| mag©I ca²Ezq A¢p c¢vIÏva ¢vlp¢s ¢kl ? You. Bhagavadpada Shankaracharya. After renovating the temple here. tEn t| ¢vg#h| m¢ÓdrE p#¢t¿aÔy p¥jaya: ev| p¥jkÞy c ¢v¢D: ¢n¢dI¾: . tEn bdr£naTXEæO| A¢p p#açO| ev| tæO AlknÓdaya: ¢hmtaEyÞy mÒyat.2001. He installed the idol in the temple and also laid down the rules for the worship and for the priest.umE Ïv| Aï iISv£yE 2001 tmE s|vÏsrE AaD¤¢nks¬¢vÒyy¤³E kalE p¢rdEvn| kraE¢x .

.prÓt¤ . What do you think? That I was brought here in a Mercedes Benz? It is not so.? pî| iv Ba¢t ? What kind of flower is this? It looks like a lotus. In the morning. s: AÞmdqsèS: saDarN: Ûy¢³: n Aas£t.p¤Ýp| ett. mÒyE mÒyE Ah| p#vNE AD: p¢tÝya¢m iv Bavna jata . SÄðr: . Bvan. tE Av¢S¾E ¢dnE ¢v½a¢Ót| k]tvÓt: . p#BatE mÓda¢kÓya| Þa"an| k]Ïva. SÄðr: b#’kmla¢n AanaÙy iIár| ÓyvEdyt.. ev| n . they threw me up and down again and again. While they avoided the rocks or negotiated bends. As far as Shankaracharya is concerned. etExa| p#ÏyEkÞy clnr£¢t: p¦Tkq . each one had a different gait. They rest for the remaining part of the day.b#’kml| traEâp¢r ¢vks¢t d#¾¤| kml¢mv AaBa¢t . BaElanaT: ev kEvl| mm rXk: Aas£t.bEÓs ¹ara AæO Aan£t: i¢t . And they wondered looking at the divine place and beauty of Kedaranath. Ah| mE¢sIfEs. tÞmat. m¢ÓdrE kEdarnaT| è¾qva p¥ja| k]tvÓt: .b#’kml| i¢t nam . How would you know the difficulties experienced by me on the way? ¢ptamh: .kT| jana¢t ..ett. uma ¢k|¢Þct. they have their baths in the Mandakini and offer their prayers in the temple of Kedaranath. . These four.Ïv| ¢k| mÓysE . But he was no ordinary person like us. ¢Sla: l|Ãymana: kaENEx¤ p¢rvtImana: ma| up¢r AD: p¤n: p¤n: p#¢XçOvÓt: .. ev| kEdarnaT XEæOÞy Al¬¢kk£| Sa¢Ót| s¬ÓdyI| c è¾qva ¢v¢ÞmtvÓt: . Shankar brings some Brahmakamal lotuses and offers them to the Lord. I felt that I will fall down. I agree with you. k£èS| k¾| mya mag©I An¤B¥tm.

It is seen in this place (means that it grows prdeominantly in this region). tt: vahn¹ara âd#p#yag| y¢Ót . AÞmak| t¤ bdr£naT| A¢p d#¾Ûy| ¢kl ? Be that as it may.sÏy|. Mohan. Don’t we have to go to Badrinath? tE g¬r£k[Îf| pìYa| p#ÏyagÅC¢Ót . look.tt. ¢ptamh: . their journey towards Badrinath is resumed. On the way they reach Jyotirmath.A¢Þmn. mÒyaþE UNIvÞæOÞya¢p AÓtrE ev| kØpman| Sr£rm. i. Swayambhu. p¢T ÇyaE¢tmIZ| p#ap"¤v¢Ót . Usha. But this unbearable cold. So it is called Brahmakamal. Next day.pÜy ett. They return to Gowrikund by foot. uma ¢kyt£ s|t¦¢çO: mns: ! it: ¢nvtIn ¢cÓtnmEv mns: ²ESay . pr¢Þmn..e.p#dESE l×ytE ..¢dnE bdr£naT| p#¢t p¤n:p#yaN| p#cl¢t . True. prÓt¤ ett. ATaIt. it came up on its own and is not man made. It blossoms on a tree and looks like a lotus. maEhn. SÄðr: .ÞvymEv Aa¢vB¥It| n mn¤ÝyEN k]tm. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-12 Part-7 ¢ptamh: .¢lÄñ| Þvy|B¤ ..uxE . this Linga is self made. Even at noon one shivers within the woolen clothing.Ashn£y| SWÏym. From there to Rudraprayag by vehicle. This is Brahmakamal.yTatTa va Bvt¤ . What satisfaction to the mind! Even to think of returning from here is painful. (Also called Joshi Math) ..

pÜy¢s va t| pvIt| ? yÞy san¬ bdr£naTÞy m¢Ódr| A¢Þt . Shankar. Ah| tt. In all the four directions Peethas were established by him. tæO ra¢æO| u¢xÏva p#BatE bdr£naT| d#¾¤| gÅC¢Ót . Opposite that.uma . the snow peaked mountain is called Nara. Father. ¢t¿am AæO ¢k¢·t. After seeing the Ashram. stop here for sometime. I have heard that there is a Peetham established by AdiShankara here. they go to see Badrinath (temple) in the morning. did you not say that the two Maharshis Nara and Narayana are doing penance here even today? And also that Narada Muni and the Devas like Indra worship Badrinath? ¢ptamh: . Uma. GmIkalE yda ¢hm| n Bv¢t tda mn¤ÝyW: p¥ÇytE bdr£¢vSal: . s: narayN: . Narada’s idol is inside the Sanctum Sanctorum of . ct¤x¤I ¢dX¤ tEn p£Za¢n ÞTa¢pta¢n .SÄðr .d#¾¤| iÅCa¢m . The northern ritualistic Peetha is here. After spending the night there. uma tat Bvta u³| ¢kl AæO nrnarayNaÁy¬ mhx£I Aïa¢p tp: k[vIÓt¬ Þt: i¢t . etÞy p¤rt: ex: ¢hm¢SKraEpEt: pvIt: nr: iÏy¤ÅytE . Aa½m| è¾qva tE bdr£naT XEæO| p#ap"¤v¢Ót . nardÞy ¢Sla gBIg¦hÞy AÓt: A¢Þt . I want to see that. ev| nard: m¤¢nà AÓyE iÓd#a¢d dEvaà bdr£naT| p¥jy¢Ót i¢t . mya ½¤t| AæO Aa¢dSÄðrEN ÞTa¢pt| p£Z| A¢Þt i¢t .¢ptamh: . do you see that mountain at the foot of which Badrinath’s temple is situated? That hill is Narayana. they reach Badrinath. uäOram"ay p£Z| Aæ¬v A¢Þt .kal| .

ev| m¢ÓdrE ÞTa¢ptvan. They visit the temple of Badrinath. They just light a lamp and go.the temple. Rest House saD¥na| Aa½m: n uBym.ÞTanat. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-9 Grammar Part-1 s|p#¢t − now − Hermitage. Thereafter they go to the Alakananda river. xÎmasE yda ¢hmEn Aav¦t| Bv¢t . people do not come here.. When they return after six months. During the six months when it is covered with snow. SÄðr: . equivalent of a monastery. the lamp remains lit. tda dWvW: p¥ÇytE. uBy| − both ¢v½a¢Ót g¦hm. sprinkle the cold water on themselves and see the Narada rock. people worship Badri Vishal.− .m¢Ódr| gÏva bdr£naT| p#NØy ¢nvEdn| k]Ïva prmsÓt¤¾a: p#¢t¢nv¢tItvÓt: . From this spot only Adi Shankara lifted the idol and installed it in the temple tE saXat. SÄðr:AÞmat. In the warm months. when there is no snow. Let us have our bath in the hot water spring and return. tda nr: AæO n Aaya¢t .vy| tçOk[ÎfE Þa"an| k]Ïva p¤nrEÝyam: . tt: AlknÓda t£r| gÏva S£tljlEn p#aEXN| k]Ïva nard ¢Sla| è¾vÓt: . pray and worship and return extremely satisfied. kEvl| tWld£p| p#ÇvaÚy nra: gÅC¢Ót . the Devas worship (him). xÎmasat. a place where Saints live.ev bdr£naTs ¢Sla| Aa¢dSÄðr: uÒètvan.− neither .AnÓtr| yda p¤nrag¢mÝy¢Ót tda A¢p s: d£p: Çvl¢t .

calm Òyanmg"am. sees Sa¢Óty¤³m.− The meaning here is a source from which water sprouts. hÞty¤gSta¢n − a measure approximately one yard ------------------------------------------------------------------------- . However. strenuous. gÄñatz: are also terms which mean the same. not introduced yet mrktÜyam: − Dark Greenish. Aaâhq − to climb.− Peaceful. k|pamhE . shake k|bl| − blanket AaENIvÞæOa¢N − woolen clothing cX¤ga©Icr − visible to the eye nynpT| − also means the same d#aEN£ − a valley iÅC¤: − one who desires karqv£T£ − Motorable road An¤s¦Ïy − following s|gm. the masculine form is used. AvlaEky¢t − looks.Cart drawn by Horses Skzm− cart The English Language AaÄñ?l Baxa − bal¬ − AvgÅCa¢m − I understand AvgÅCq − To understand two children Note here that even if one of the two is a girl.− ¢²¾: a word that stands for 10.− to join s|gÅCt: − two (rivers) join Ap¢r¢cta − Unfamiliar. serene.. k|pEm¢h − shiver from k|p. gÄñat£r:.000 − From the root word ²ES: meaning physically disabled or strained and also. the corresponding term would be ba¢lkE . va¢jSkzm. ascend Ay¤tm. mrkt is a special stone deep green in colour. if both the children are girls.− in deep contemplation AaraEhayam: − (they) climb. A¢t¢²¾: − very strenuous ¢ngIm¹arm.− to shiver.gÄñak\l: − The banks of the river Ganges.

. ¢vrajtE − reigns AÓtvaI¢hn£ − subterrain current or flowing inwards æOEtay¤g: − In the Hindu concept of Time. æOEta . − burning prominently jaÇvÚyman: A¢g": d#¾Ûy| − Fire − worth seeing Ah¢nIS| − Day and Night jÓmaÓtrE − in the course of multitudes of births i. They are k]t .20. or 4. among many reincarnations tp: Atptu¢xÏva − penance − did penance − having stayed AáaEp¢r − on horseback bh¤¢vl|bEn − After a long time or after much delay p#¢t¢nv¢tItvt£ − returned (she) m¢rÝya¢m − I will die etavta − so (much) p¢rdEvn| kraE¢x − are complaining (you) .e. i. the earth on which we live. The current millennium.2. the twentyfirst century. the last will be of duration which is a tenth of the span.. protection and destruction respectively.000 years or a little less than half a million years. ¢nrÓtr| − Permanent. of the universe and its contents.32. has gone through cyclical aeons which are four in number. They are known as Brahma. So Kaliyuga. in charge of creation.. is approximately the 5100th year in kaliyuga.e. This triad is referred to as p#Dan dEvæOym.000 human years and they are divided in the ratio of 4. the fundamental deities are three. ¹apr and k¢l The cycle of the four spans a period of 43. without a gap in time.Lesson-9 Grammar Part-2 p#Dan dEvæOy| − In the Hindu Pantheon. Vishnu and Maheswara (Shiva).3.1.

s¬¢vÒy y¤³E iISv£yE p¥ja p¥ja p¼¢t: − with comforts − worship p¥jk: − one who worships Also means a priest − the ritual code − means A. renewal from j£NI: − digested u¼arNm. or principle of non-duality. the opposite of saDarN: Ûy¢³: tâ Þvy|B¤ Al¬¢kk£ − individual − tree .C. the fundamental concept of Advaita. kmÎfl¤ − an earthen or wooden vessel for keeping water. kapaIs vÞæO¹y| − two cotton clothes Two thousand five hundred p·¢v|S¢tSt s|vÏsrE×y: p¥vI| − years ago. was responsible for teaching the people. upheld (past tense) − installation (usually of a ¢vg#hm-) ¢vSEx: − special. Sankara.− reinstallation ¢vg#h: uÒètmp#¢t¿apnm− image. idol − secured. meaning divine or heavenly saDarN: − ordinary . so traEâp¢r − on a tree AanaÙy − having brought − arising on its own without any external cause(s) − unworldly.D (Anna Domini) Aa¢dSÄðrBgvdqpad: − A hallowed saint who lived in the fifth century B. j£Na©I¼arN| − restoration. Saints carry such a vessel with them wherever they go.

First Person . Ah| AacayI: A¢Þm A¢s A¢Þt I am a teacher You are a student (Disciple) He is an emperor She is a queen. They are singlular.(to be).Second Person . Sanskrit is unique in that three forms exist for each noun.In this lesson. aha¨ ¡c¡rya© asmi Ïv| ¢SÝy: tva¨ ¹iºya© asi ex: mharaj: ¦¹a© mah¡r¡ja© asti exa mharaåO£ A¢Þt ¦º¡ mah¡r¡j±¢ asti . second and third person. Sanskrit also distinguishes sentences in first. The Sanskrit names for these forms are singular plural dual ekvcnm¦kavacanam bh¤vcnmbahuvacanam ¢¹vcnmdvivacanam As in other languages. Asdenotes existence in all its variants. The third form dual is to beused when refering to two persons at a time. plural and dual. The sanskrit terms for these are. we formally introduce the verb As.Third Person . uäOm p¤âx: uttama puruºa© mÒym p¤âx: madhyama puruºa© p#Tm p¤âx: prathama puruºa© Let us first look at some sentences. -------------------------------------------------------------------This section deals with the verb As..

Note that Sanskrit does not use the definite or indefinite article. The translator has to introduce the article as required. p¤Þtk| AæO A¢Þt pustaka¨ atra asti m¢Ódr| tæO A¢Þt mandira¨ tatra asti Let us now look at some expressions involving ¢¹vcn| or the dual form. Aava| vWï¬ Þv: ¡v¡m vaidyau sva© y¤va| B³¬ ÞT: Þt: Þt: You (two) are devotees They (two) are servants (servant-masculine) They (two) are maids (maid - feminine) Two fruits are here sta© Two lotuses are there yuv¡m bhaktau stha© We (two) are doctors The temple is there The book is here

et¬ sEvk¬ etE sE¢vkE ¦t¦

¦tau s¦vakau sta© s¦vik¦ sta©

PlE AæO Þt: phal¦ atra pîE tæO Þt: padam¦ tatra sta©

Expressions involving the plural form. vy| calka: Þm: vaya¨ c¡lak¡ha sma© y¥y| packa: ÞT y£ya¨ p¡cak¡ha stha etE y¤vka: s¢Ót ¦t¦ yuvak¡ha santi eta: y¤vty: s¢Ót ¦t¡ha yuvataya© santi vna¢n AæO s¢Ót Forests are here They (all) are young women They (all) are young lads you (all) are cooks We (all) are drivers

van¡ni atra santi paæOa¢N tæO s¢Ót p¡tr¡²i tatra santi -------------------------------------------------------------------In this section, the verb As- is used as A¢Þt to denote possession (in the sense of have) mm p¤æO: A¢Þt mama putra© asti mm p¤æO¬ mm p¤æOa: Þt: s¢Ót mama putrau sta© mama putr¡ha santi I have a son or My son is here I have (two) sons or My (two) sons (are) here I have (more than 2) sons or My sons (more than 2) are here The above sentences can be translated in two ways since Sanskrit does not have the definite article. Also the same verb As- is usd in two different ways to mean "is" and "have". The correct meaning will have to be understood from the context. Though this may appear a bit confusing, the student will be able to make the distinction with some practice. -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2 Section-3 The table given below summarizes the use of the verb Asin different forms. Vessels are there

Conjugation of the verb AsSingular Ist person IInd person IIIrd person A¢Þm A¢s A¢Þt Dual Þv: ÞT: Þt: Plural Þm: ÞT s¢Ót

In Sanskrit, the verb will have to conform to the Person

and Number. The table below gives examples of the three noun forms (in the nominative) of the nouns p¤æO:, sE¢vka and PlmSingular Masculine Feminine Neuter p¤æO: sE¢vka PlmDual p¤æO¬ sE¢vkE PlE Plural p¤æOa: sE¢vka: Pla¢n

Each noun, will have to be remebered with respect to its three forms, i.e., singular, Dual and Plural. The personal pronouns also have three forms Singular I per. Ah| I II per. Ïv| You Dual Aava| We two y¤va| You two Plural vy| We y¥y| You(many)

Please note that the personal pronouns in First and second person have no gender. The personal pronouns corresponding to the possessive case are also given in the three forms. In the first and second person they have no gender. I per. II per. mm my tv your AavyaE: our y¤vyaE: your(two) AÞmak| our y¤Ýmak| your

The Demonstrative pronouns have three forms too. Singular Dual Plural

Mas.

ex: he s:

et¬ these two t¬ etE these two tE etE these two tE

etE these tE eta: these (many) ta: eta¢n these ta¢n

Fem.

exa she sa

Neut.

ettthis tt-

-------------------------------------------------------------------Exercises for lesson 2. Exercise-1 Here are some examples of questions and answers relating to this lesson.

Q. A. Q. A.

¢k| ett- tv p¤Þtk| Aa| ett- mm p¤Þtk| ¢k| ex: tv B#ata

Is this your book ? yes, it is my book. Is he your brother ? No, he is not my brother.

n ex: mm B#ata na¢Þt

Now, try and answer the questions given below. The answer may be in the affirmative or negative. The type of answer required is also indicated. 1. 2. 3. ¢k| sa tv Þvsa Aa| _______________________ n _______________________ n _______________________

¢k| exa tv BayaI ¢k| tt- tv vahnm-

4. ¢k| ex: tv g¤â: Aa| ______________________ -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2 Exercise-2

two .mm g¦h| ---1. 5. tæO ¢pta A¢Þt tæO nar£ A¢Þt (nar£ . We are introducing numbers as well. 4. 5. plural or dual form of the noun.four) tæO sçO _______ s¢Ót (sçO .lady) ettPl| ________ mm Pl| _______ mm ¢pta _______ tv lEKn£ (lEKn£ . 2. 4. 3.seven) tæO A¾ _______ s¢Ót (A¾ .pen) Please remember the distinction made earlier between s: and ex: AæO p¤âx: A¢Þt AæO lEKn£ A¢Þt ______ mm ¢pta ______ tv mata tæO ¹E p¤ÞtkE Þt: ¹E .eight) tæO ¹E ________ Þt: ------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2 Exercise-3 Fill up the blanks with appropriate demonstrative pronouns. 2. tæO g¦h| A¢Þt tt. 3. Study the example given before proceeding further.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate singular. AæO p¤æO: A¢Þt AæO sE¢vka A¢Þt AæO y¤v¢t A¢Þt AæO y¤vk: A¢Þt AæO Pl| A¢Þt tæO æOy: _____ s¢Ót (æOy: -three) tæO ctÞa#y: ____ s¢Ót (ctÞa#y: . Example: AæO p¤Þtk| A¢Þt Questions: 1. An example is given first.

ear (masculine) declines like p¤æO: 6. bWsW¢kl yanÞy k¢t c@a¢N s¢Ót AáÞy cÏvar: __________ cÏva¢r ____________ ¹E ___________ 9..many) p· _____________ ¹E ___________________ nynm.-eye declines like Plm5. k¢t v£Na: s¢Ót ¹E ___________________ -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2 Exercise-5 Fill up the blanks with the appropriate form of As. k¢t tara: s¢Ót 3. k¢t AÄñ^Úy: s¢Ót 1.-------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2 Exercise-4 Fill in the blanks With the appropriate form of the noun and the verb As . AáÞy k¢t pada: s¢Ót 7. Example. k¢t s¥yaI: s¢Ót 2. Ah| BartE A¢Þm s: AmE¢rkaya| A¢Þt ----- . ek hÞtE k¢t AÄñ^Úy: s¢Ót 4. An example sentence is given. kayaInÞy k¢t c@a¢N s¢Ót 8. k¢t nyna¢n s¢Ót dS ek: AÄñ^Úy: s¢Ót ----________________ bhv: ________________ (bhv: . k¢t kNI: s¢Ót ¹¬ __________________ kNI: .

Motor vehicle . The first four numbers alone have variations depending on the gender. The remaining six have the same form for all the three genders. 4.¢k| ______ Dnmett.while 2 will apply to ¢¹vcnm.¢k| ______ DnmetE ¢k| ______ pîE etE ¢k| ______ kayaInE kayaInm. Please note that number 1 will apply only to ekvcnm. We have used numbers in the sentences seen earlier.¢k| tv Dnm---ett.AavyaE: Dn| ett. Ah| nEpalE A¢Þm 2.Asmak| ett.. Ah| k]x: A¢Þm 4. Ah| u°t: A¢Þm tE k]xa: ___________ k]x: . mm Dn| ett. nyagra AmE¢rkaya| A¢Þt kÚkäOa ev| mdqras. 2. Aam# Pl| ÞT¥l| A¢Þt Aam# Pla¢n __________ -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2 Exercise-6 Form questions as shown in the example.BartE __________ 3. . declines like p¤æO: ta: _________ 5. The names given to the ten numerals are given below..mm pî| ett.mm kayaIn| Dn| ett. 3.thin and lean. Devanagari has its own symbols for the numerals and these are also shown alongside.Ah| nEpalE A¢Þm t¬ pa¢kÞtanE Þt: −−−−− tE BartE _______ (Dual) 1. ett1. declines like Pl| -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2 Sanskrit Numerals.

Panini further gives the sutra ¢s¼E SÖdaTIsØbÓDE which is interpreted by the Bhashyakaras to mean the eternal connection between sound and its meaning. ek: ¹¬ æOy: cÏvar: p· xzq sçO A¾ nv dS Fem. The "Darshana Shastras" place specific emphasis on this eternal connection between a word and its meaning. Dual and Plural.. ek| ¹E æO£¢N cÏva¢r p· xzq sçO A¾ nv dS -------------------------------------------------------------------Let us look at an example. cow) may have many distortions such as k¬ (cow) . Ây¥ (gyu) etc. The word g¬ (in English. There is no place for any other language in this scheme! -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-2: Summary In this lesson. namely Singular. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Masc. N0. We have observed that in Sanskrit there are three numbers. The Dual form is unique to Sanskrit though one does encounter the dual form in Arabic and Avestan.Table of Numerals. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name ek ¢¹ ¢æO ct¤rq p·nxzq sçOnA¾nnvndS Sym. What the Samskritarians have proceeded on is the conviction that the Vedic language is the universal and natural language. we have seen the use of the verb As. k[ (kuh) .(to be). . eka ¹E ¢tÞa#: ctÞa#: p· xzq sçO A¾ nv dS Neut.

dual and plural) for first person. There are three forms for each of the demonstrative pronouns he. when we study cases. Don’t be alarmed. In a later lesson. second person and third person. she and this. With three numbers and eight cases. The forms are easily remembered. there will be 24 forms for each noun. we must know in which of the three numbers we must use it. we will see that every noun will have a form for each of the eight cases that a noun can be used in. three forms each (singular. Each verb will be remembered in nine forms.when we use a noun. The personal pronouns I and you do not have any gender. .

ym¤naya: dÓtk\cI| yÅC . ( The literal meaning of the sentence is Yamuna. You (both) drink your milk. p#at: dmyÓt£ . (and) wake Yamuna up. The father is nl and the mother dmyÓt£ The son is DmI and his younger sister is ym¤na The conversations take place during the day.It is early morning hE DmI jag¦¢h . see if the Newspaper has been delivered. ym¤na| uÏTapy . hE DmI S£G#| u¢äO¿ . Here. Oh Dharma! wake up. wake Yamuna up. we introduce a family of four. see if the Newspaper has come) dmyÓt£ - A little later: . take this. give Yamuna the toothbrush dmyÓt£ y¤va| X£r| ¢pbt| . A couple and their two children. A few minutes later: dmyÓt£ DmI: dÓtDavn| k]t| va ? Have you brushed your teeth ? dÓtPEnk| k[æO A¢Þt ? Where is the toothpaste ? Þv£k[â . idan£| p#at: xzqvadnm. Here. Oh Dharma! get up quickly. The elder of the children is the son.This lesson deals with elementary conversation.. nl: ym¤nE . It is now six o’clock in the morning. ym¤na| jagry . pÜy ¢dnp¢æOka Aagta va ? Yamuna.

Let us offer our morning prayers. p#at: p#aTIna| k[vI: . (Please note the informal request. nl: savDanEn vahn| caly . take bath. nl: Aï upaharE ¢k| k]tvt£ ? What have you made for breakfast ? daEsa ev| saØbarq . Breakfast has been set. The formal "may I have some more sambar" is never used in Indian homes. all of you. dmyÓt£ - Dosa and sambar.Afterwards: sv©I AagÅCÓt¤ . . Come. Mother. At: ÏvrE S£G#| gÅCa¢m . One by one. Dosa is very tasty (delicious) ym¤na mat: itaE{¢p ¢k¢·t. Come. I have a special class in the college (so) I am hurrying. DmI: ym¤nE AagÅC .A¢Dk| saØbarq B¥y:. DmI: daEsa At£v â¢ckr£ A¢Þt . This is the usual manner in which one requests for additional serving. Yamuna. upahar: sÇj:.) DmI: klaSalaya| ¢vSExkßya A¢Þt . one should note the correct translation here and not do a literal translation of the words. give me some more sambar. (Again.) -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-3 part-2 AnÓtr| dmyÓt£ .dmyÓt£ - ekWk| Þa"an| k[â .

g¢NtE Mother! see how many marks I have got. I am the first.Afternoon hE mat: ! pÜy AhmEv k¢t AÄða: p#açOa: . This is common practice in India.ym¤na| laEkyan| yavt. Damayanthi. (essentially. In Maths. (this is addressed to Nala). itaE{¢p . -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-3 Part-3 ApraþE ym¤na . See you. . dmyÓt£ p¤n¢mIlam: See you. It is known as the "avagraha" .there is a new letter in this word {.nyt¤ . p#Tma . Its use will be discussed in a later lesson but here it suffices to say that a very short A will be pronounced between taE and ¢p.while addresing nl:. dmyÓt£ ym¤nE BaEjn| n£t| va ? Yamuna. Please. take (lead) Yamuna to the school bus. nl: - A¢Þt . say| ¢vlØbEn kayaIlyE mEln| p¤n¢mIlam: . This is not an akshara that is part of the language. I will be late in the evening. There is a meeting in the office. AagÅCEy| . Observe that dmy¢Ót uses Bvan. drive carefully) dmyÓt£ Bvan.Drive the vehicle carefully. have you taken your lunch (pack) dmyÓt£ .

va ? Where is father ? Isn’t he home yet ? (literally. kayaIlyE mEln| A¢Þt . he will be a little late. A professor from Germany came.Later mat: ¢pta Aagtvan. has he not come home yet ?) dmyÓt£ - n. today we had a special lecture in college.. rsaynE ¢vSExBaxN| k]tvan. Father is back. Oh.Night sv©I AagÅCÓt¤ . Mother. ¢pta k[æO ? idan£| A¢p n Aagtvan..dmyÓt£ .. Father has come (back)) nl: At£v ½aÓtaE¢Þm . Þa"an| PEnk| k[æO ? (I am) very tired. There is a meeting in the office.Aa SaEBnm. ¢k¢·t. kraE¢m . Mother. Come all.. uÝNjl| Aany . No. jmIn£t: p#aÒyapk: k¢àtAagtvan. Bring warm water. He lectured on chemistry. ¢k| ¢k| BaEjnay ? What is for dinner ? . good! saymDmI: kalE . Let us have our dinner.. (literally. BaEjn| Þv£krvam .In the evening mat: Aï klaSalaya| ¢vSExkßya Aas£t.¢vlØbEn Aag¢mÝy¢t . Where is te soap? ra¢æO: dmyÓt£ DmI: . -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-3 Part-4 AnÓtrmym¤na . I will take bath.

Aas£t. the addition of Aa as a prefix results in the action taking place in the reverse direction.is the past tense for As. For many verbs. -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-3 Grammar We now look at some points related to grammar.dmyÓt£ - AaEdn| . dmyÓt£S¤Bra¢æO: Good night. AagÅC¢t. d¢D A¢Þt . Sak: Cooked rice. s¥p: c A¢Þt . nl: . AnÓtrmDmI: . Past tense itself will be discussed in a future lesson. There is a verb introduced in this lesson which starts with the vowel Aa . ym¤na − Later S¤Bra¢æO: Good night.goes AagÅC¢t comes or returns. lentils.and gCq . gÅC¢t . ny¢t (takes) dda¢t (gives) ya¢t (goes) Aany¢t (brings) Aadda¢t (receives) Aaya¢t (comes) hr¢t (takes away) Aahr¢t (brings back) ------------------------------------------------------------------ . A¢Þt . Here are some more examples. We have already seen the conjugation of the verb A¢Þt in all its present tense forms in the previous lesson. singular form. vegetables and curds. The verb gÅC¢t is traced to the roots gm.in the third person.

They are.to wake someone up. there are three parts. used in the lesson are in the imperative. Barring the word jag¦¢h (from the root word jag¦ to wake up) all the above verbs are similar to the form given in the table below for the verb ny (from the root n£. but it may be explained as jag¦¢h jagry . The form jagry arises in the causative form of the verb jag¦. The following words. In a simple sentence .Lesson 3 . There is no equivalent in English for this form of the verb. .Imperative form. person II person III person nya¢n ny nyt¤ Dual nyav nyt| nyta| Plural nyam nyt nyÓt¤ The verb jag¦ is also conjugated like the above in all persons except in second person singular where it is jag¦¢h . Sing. The imperative form of the causative is also conjugated similar to ny in the above table. -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-3 Formation of simple sentences. jag¦¢h ( jagry) u¢äO¿ ( uÏTapy ) Þv£k[â yÅC ddat¤ ¢pbt| nyt¤ Here jagry and uÏTapy are in the causal form.to wake up . ny) .

gÅCa¢m pZa¢m gÅC¢s pZ¢s . object and verb. . Baxa| dEvaly| kayaIly| g¦h| AapN| ¢mæO| pæO| p¤Þtk| verb . . . . . . Also in English. such as what the person is doing. subject object . . A number of words which qualify as the object for a simple sentence are also given. Let us look at bal: ¢vïaly| gÅC¢t The boy goes to school bal: . the object almost always follows the verb. . You can try and form sentences by selecting suitable combinations of the subject. In Sanskrit. .Subject .The part which names the person or thing we are talking about. . .(the) boy (subject) ¢vïaly| . Ah| . Ïv| . the verb usually comes at the end. Object . In a simple sentence in English. the verb and the object together form the predicate.The part that tells us something about the person or thing. gÅC¢s and pZ¢s . pZa¢m .goes (verb) Examine the table below which has the words Ah| and Ïv| with the associated verbs gÅCa¢m . .The person or thing that the action specified by the verb relates to.(to) school (object) gÅC¢t . Verb .

ex: . . . Ex. . . ¢kmTI| gÅC¢t k[t: 4 jnk: ¢k| . . . 1 2 . .− − − − − − − − −. k[æO 5 Bvan. 6 7 . . . . .1 Understand the following sentences. The verb used in all these cases is gÅC¢t . -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 3 .− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −−. . . . You will observe that arbitrary combinations of the above will not make sense! -----------------------------------------------------------------Here is a simple chart to let you frame simple questions. .− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − .Exercises.. .− − − − − − − − −. . s: . . klaSalaya| ek| ¢dnm. . . You will have a question.Look up the meanings of the words in the glossary attached to this lesson. Select a word each from the outer ring and the middle ring and add the verb gÅC¢t . Examlple: Bvankda gÅC¢t ? bal: k[æO gÅC¢t ? etc. .. sa . you will find several indeclinable words. . .− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −−−. . jnn£ bala AacayI: Bvt£ CaæO: . .− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −. . . . exa kT| . 8 . . . . kda . . In the middle ring of the chart. 3 bal: ¢k¢m¢t . .

CaæO: kda ¢vïaly| gÅC¢t ? A.1 2 3 4 5 Aï klasalaya| ek| mEln| A¢Þt. i.One who has received.kda u¢äO¿¢t Ah| p¤æO£ ? ____________ u¢äO¿a¢m . s: B¬¢tk SaÞæOE naEbEl.e. p¤æO£ kda ¢nd#a| kraE¢t ? s¥yI: kda AÞtmE¢t ? s¥yI: _____________ AÞtmE¢t .. CaæO: p#at: ¢vïaly| gÅC¢t . Consider the example. Q.p¤rÞkar| p#açOvan-.our p¤rÞkar| . 7 Bvan. bal: kda g¦h| AagÅC¢t ? bal: __________ g¦h| AagÅC¢t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 ¢pta kda kayaIly| gÅC¢t ? ¢pta __________ kayaIly| gÅC¢t . when certain events or activities take place. Bvan.upahar| kda Kad¢t ? . mata kda AaEdn| Kad¢t ? mata ___________ AaEdn| Kad¢t . ____________ ¢nd#a| kraE¢t . rÝya dESt: ek: p#¢s¼p#aïapk: AagÅC¢t. (received in the sense of receiving a prize) AÞmak| . The first set relates to time.prize p#¢s¼ . Ah| tÞy BaxN| ½aEt¤| gÅCa¢m. Note: p#açOvan. Aï s: AÞmak| klasalaya| ¢vsEx BaxN| kraE¢t.famous -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-3 Exercises-2 This section consists of exercises of the type where you fill in the blanks with appropriate words. Now for the exercises..

pZa¢m.Ex. kayaIly| gÅCa¢m .at night p#at: xfqvadnE .Ah| upahar| _________ Kada¢m .3 Change the following sentences in third person to sentences in the first person. p#at: . -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 3 . ¢pta kayaIly| gÅC¢t . Aagca¢m . choose from the following words. ¢pta p¤æO| ny¢t . Ah| ----1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ¢pta Pl| Kad¢t . ______ . _______. gÅCa¢m. sEvk: kayI| kraE¢t . The verbs used in the above are fromthe following list. Ah| p#at: ______ . u¢äO¿a¢m.Ex. Use the appropriate verb. . nya¢m.00 AM -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson3. ¢pba¢m. ______ .6. Ah| g¦h| Ah| S£G#| ______ . B#ata paZ| pZ¢t . Study the example given. Kada¢m.at noon raæO¬ . Þvsa p#at: u¢äO¿¢t . kraE¢m. ba¢lka X£r| ¢pb¢t .Morning say| .10. ______.00 AM p#at: dSvadnE .Evening mÒyaþE . Ah| paZ| Ah| kayI| Ah| X£r| Ah| p¤æO| ______ .4 Change the following sentences from first person to second person. In answering the above. Ah| Pl| _______ . Aá: S£G#| Dav¢t . CaæO: g¦h| AagÅC¢t . An example is given.

Ïv| AæO up¢vS¢s . ________ .. s|Þk]t: ______ . Aava| ¢vïaly| gÅCav: . Look at the example. Ah| ¢cæO| pÜya¢m ....(Aa)¢m changes to . Dn| dda¢m . _______ .Ex. ________ .. Ïv| s|Þk]t| ________ . Ah| gan| gaya¢m . Aava| Aava| Aava| Aava| Aava| Aava| Aava| Aava| Aava| dordSIn| pÜyT:.. Ah| dEv| nma¢m Ah| Ah| . Ah| pæO| ¢lKa¢m . ------------------------------------------------------------------ Lesson 3 . _______ . The required words will be found in the following list. Dn| _________ . majaIr¬ AæO @£ft: . Filling in the correct form is easy if we remember the changes required in the ending of the verb from first person singular to second person singular.. _______ . vdt: . _____ . _______ . t¬ ¢vïaly| 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 y¤va| gÅCt: . _______ . The rule is .. Ïv| ¢cæO| _________ . ________ . Ïv| pæO| Ïv| gan| Ïv| s|Þk]t| Ïv| Ïv| dEv| Ïv| kml| _________ ... ________ . kml| nya¢m. . _________ . Ah| s|Þk]t| vda¢m. Aava| ram¬ AæO vst: .5 Change the following sentences from third person dual to first person dual.. dordSIn| AæO Pl| AæO m¢ÓdrE s|Þk]t| tæO dEv| p¤Þtk| _______ .. _______ .. 10 bal¬ p¤Þtk| pZt: . gj¬ m¢ÓdrE t¬ s|Þk]t| ¢t¿t: .¢s .Ah| 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 AæO up¢vSa¢m . bal¬ Pl| Kadt: . tE (n) tæO ¢t¿t: t¬ dEv| nmt: . Ah| s|Þk]t| pZa¢m. tE (f) s|Þk]t| pZt: .. ...

vsav: . -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 3 -Ex. CaæOa: Baxa| pZ¢Ót . y¥y| v£Na| ____________ . tE cl¢ÅcæO| pÜy¢Ót . Kadav: . ¢t¿av: . Aáa: tæO Dav¢Ót . vdav: . m¢hla: s|Þk]t| ¢lK¢Ót. Example. vy| cl¢ÅcæO| AaEdn| sm¤d#t£r| ______ . __________ . n¦Ïy| vÞæO| _________ . p#Xalyam: . nmav: . pÜyam:. The required verbs are in the following list. v¢nta: n¦Ïy| k[vI¢Ót . __________ . Pla¢n B¥m¬ pt¢Ót . ______ . vy| ngrE vy| vy| vy| vy| vy| vy| vy| _________ . from third person plural to second person plural. ta: ¢dnp¢æOka| pZ¢Ót . bala: paZ| pZ¢Ót . pÜyav: . nyam:. y¥y| iIS| nmT . tE p¤Þtk| ny¢Ót . y¥y| tæO ___________ . _________ . pZam:. ta: v£Na| vady¢Ót . vy| paZ| pZam: . ¢lKam:. s|Þk]t| ________ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 nra: tæO hs¢Ót .Ex. gÅCam:. @£fav: . k\mI:. _________ . bala: p¤Ýp| ny¢Ót . B³a: iIS| nm¢Ót . y¥y| Baxa| y¥y| B¥m¬ y¥y| p¤Þtk| . -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 3 .7 Change the sentences given below. 10 tE vÞæO| p#Xaly¢Ót .6 Change the following sentences in third person plural to sentences in second person plural. pZav: . Example. ____________ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 jna: ngrE vs¢Ót . tE AaEdn| Kad¢Ót . ________ . nra: sm¤d#t£r| gÅC¢Ót. p¤Ýp| _________ . vsam:. ¢dnp¢æOka| _____ . y¥y| tæO vanra: k[æO up¢v¢Ót ? y¥y| k[æO ____________ . Kadam:.

Ïv| sda sÏy| vd . -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 3 . gÅC . 1 2 3 4 5 Ïv| g¦hE up¢vS¢s . Ïv| g¦hE ____________ . kraEt¤ . pZT. ptT. Ïv| paZ| pZ¢s . bal: p#at: u¢äO¿t¤. tE @£faÄñNE @£f¢Ót . pZt¤ . 1 2 3 4 5 bal: Þa"an| kraE¢t. Ïv| p¤Þtkaly| _______ . Bvan. ____________ . up¢vS -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 3 . nyT. hsT. The corrrect verbs are in the following list. Ïv| X£r| ¢pb¢s.kTa| ____________ . Ïv| X£r| Ïv| Pl| Kad¢s. _____________ . DavT. y¥y| @£faÄñNE ________ . AagÅCT. Kad .9 Change the following sentences in third person plural . bal: paZ| pZ¢t. AacayaI: paZSala| gÅC¢Ót .kTa| vd¢t . ________ . ________ . Ïv| Pl| Ïv| p¤Þtkaly| gÅC¢s. vd . s: AasnE up¢vS¢t. The required verbs are in the following list. pZ . Change the following into second person imperative. gÅCT. Example: bal: p#at: u¢äO¿¢t .8 9 10 tE kayaIly| AagÅC¢Ót . ________ . Ïv| paZ|______________ . AagÅCt¤ .Ex. ¢mæO| AæO AagÅC¢t. up¢vST.8 Change the following sentences into imperative mood.Ex. vdt¤ . y¥y| paZSala| ____ . up¢vSt¤ . bal: paz| ¢mæO| AæO s: AasnE Bvan. vadyT. bal: Þa"an| ____________ . For answers choose from the following. y¥y| kayaIly| _____ . Example: Ïv| sda sÏy| vd¢s. @£fT .

nm¢Ót . pÜyt. It is hereby taught. Example: CaæOa: kßyaya| up¢vSÓt¤. gayav: ) 5 t¬ kTa| _____________ ( vd¢s . S¦N¤t. Kad¢s . BvÓt: s|Þk]tE BaxN| k[vIÓt¤ . y¥y| kßyaya| up¢vSt . vdt: ) -----------------------------------------------------------------The word ¢sXa itself is derived as: ¢sßytE Anya i¢t ¢SXa vNaI¢d uÅcarNlXN| ¢SßytE i¢t . tE p#at: u¢äO¿t¤ . gayam: . So it is Siksha. vd¢Ót .To teach. Answers are from the following. p#¢t¢dn| paZ| pZÓt¤ . ------------------------------------------------------------------ . y¥y| p#¢t¢dn| paZ| _______ . y¥y| gan| _______________ . Siksha is the first vedanga among the six. tE gan| S¦ÎyÓt¤ . pZt . nm¢t ) p#¢t¢dn| Ïv| Pl| vy| gan| ____________ ( gay¢t . dda¢s ) _____ ( Kad¢t .imperative into second person plural imperative. Kad¢Ót ) ____________ ( nm¢s . 1 2 3 4 5 BvÓt: cl¢ÅcæO| pÜyÓt¤ . up¢vS¢t . Select the suitable conjuagtion of the verb from the choices given in parantheses. dda¢t . Example: bal: AasnE up¢vS¢t (up¢vSam: . up¢vS¢s ) 1 2 3 4 Ah| Dn| tE dEv| ___________ (dda¢m . k[ât. y¥y| cl¢ÅcæO| ___ . ¢sX. y¥y| s|Þk]tE BaxN| ________ . y¥y| p#at: ______________ .. So it is Siksha. u¢äO¿t. The pronounciation of the words is taught hereby.

sets.(f) .Time 3 ÞTan. lips etc.one by one .e.place of work .lord (usually god) .1 Þvrt:.External effort.more .lecture . i.story .Brush (a short stick with bristles) ..6 na¢sk − 7 AaE¾¬ − chest neck head origin of the tongue teeth nasal lips 8 tal¤ palatte -----------------------------------------------------------------AÄða A¢DkmAÞtmE¢t AapNmiIS: up¢vS upahar: uÝNjlmekWkmkTa klaSala kßya kayaIlym¢k¢·tk\cImk]t @£f .pilgrimage .a little . usually means a college within a university .Sound (pitch) 2 kal.university.Place 4 p#yÏn.sit down ..done . by the organs of the mouth.breakfast ... -----------------------------------------------------------------The eight places are 1 ur: 2 kÎZ 3 ¢Sr: 4 ¢jºm¥lm. AÞtmn.warm water .effort 5 An¤p#danm.the process of setting .marks (awarded) . the glotis.to play k]tvt£ .5 dÓtm.

Daily (Newspaper) .monkey .flower .professor .good! (not in the sense of an adjective) .to drive ( a vehicle) .library (a place for (reading) books) .@£faÄñNmgay cl¢ÅcæOmcal ¢t¾ dÓtDavn| ¢dnp¢æOka dordSInmdaEsa Dav¢t nm ¢nd#a n£t pÜy p¤Ýpmp¤Þtkalymp#aÒyapk: p#açO: p#aTInamPEnk| ba¢lka B³: BaEjnmmElnmyÅC ¢lK laEkyanmvd vs¢Ót vÞæOmvanrm¢vïalym¢vSEx SaEBnm½aÓt: .live (plural) .cloth that one wears .to feel tired .television .sleep .A well known breakfast dish in India.special .prayers .to take with oneself .movie .say .to get or receive .to stand . a schoolbus) .moves fast .worship .paste .a peoples’ vehicle (in this context. food) .meeting .devotee . .cleaning of the teeth or dental cleaning .give .sing .little girl .school (a place for (receiving) education) .meals (roughly.playground .see .write .

bath .A liquid dish that goes well with rice .sÇj: sm¤d#t£rmsaØbarq savDan: s¥yI: sEvk: Þa"anmÞvsa Þv£k[â X£rm- .the Sun .ready .Take this (or accept this) .beach (sea shore) .sister .milk .man servant .slow and with care .

Lesson-4 Part-1 r¢v: saEm: c . so the rivers are full with water. Wherever you look. Ravi. . I am staying in Sringar and studying at the Central School in Srinagar. especially in Spring. They are old schoolmates meeting in their home town Madras. Ravi and Soman. Even in Summer it is (the air is) pleasant. This lesson continues in the same style as lesson-3. g#£ÝmkalE ¢hmalyE ¢hm: d#v¢t. after a span of a year. r¢v:AæO t¤ svIda g#£Ým ev . in the northern part of India. the flowers blossm forth. Yes. tt. where are you staying these days (now) ? Ah| ½£ngrE vsa¢m . At£v s¤Ódr| Bv¢t . tæO tæO p¤Ýpa¢N ¢vk¢sta¢n s¢Ót . idan£| Ïv| k[æO vs¢s ? Soma. The student is introduced to new words and expressions through a conversation between two friends. kEÓd#£y¢vïalyE pZa¢m .t¤ kaÝm£rp#dESE A¢Þt ¢kl ? At£v s¤ndr| ev| Kl¤ ? Oh! You are studying in Srinagr. ½£ngrE g#£Ýmkal: kT| Bv¢t ? Here of course it always summer. Isn’t it in the state of Kashmir? Very beautiful isn’t it? saEm:Aa| . In summer. How is it in Srinagar in Summer ? saEm:g#£ÝmE A¢p vat: ¢ht: A¢Þt . yæO yæO pÜy¢s . ½£ngrE pZ¢s. r¢v:Aa . r¢v:saEm:saEm. it is very beautiful. tEn nï: jlEn p¥NaI: Bv¢Ót . Ravi had continued school in Madras while Soman had gone to a school in Srinagar. ¢vSExEN vsÓtkalE. the snow melts in the Himalayas. and Soman are in conversation. a city in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

hEmÓtE ¢S¢SrE c At£v S£t| Bv¢t ev . when the full moon illuminates the Himalayan peaks with her cool rays. No. tda tÞy s¬ÓdyI| A¢cÓÏym. Especially on Full-moon nights. . Kashmir apples are very tasty and famous. There everywhere. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-4 Part-2 saEm:SrÏkalE ¢hmalyÞy s¬ÓdyI| AvÎyIm. during winter it is extremly cold. During Autumn. fill our hearts with joy (pleasure) tdan£| svIæO sEÛyv¦Xa: Plp¥NaI: s¢Ót . r¢v:md#as. kda¢ct. the apple trees are full of apples. Sometimes it rains very much. But it does not rain much there.AÏy¢Dk| vxI¢t .(literally. It rains a lot in Madras.. the beauty of the Himalyas cannot be described (is beyond description) ¢vSExEN p¥¢NImara¢æOx¤ . Her reflection from the Himalayan peaks and the Dal lake.ngrE A¢Dk| vxI¢t .) vy| ¢nmIl| jl| ¢pbam: . ¢hmaly¢SKrE dl-tzakE c tÞy p#¢t¢bØb: AÞmak| ¶dy| Aaýady¢t .. prÓt¤ tæO A¢Dk| n vxI¢t . kaÝm£rsEÛyPl| A¢tâ¢ckr| p#¢s¼| c . r¢vsaEm:¢k| kaÝm£rE svIda p¢r¢ÞT¢t: ¢hta va ? Is the weather in Kashmir always pleasant ? n. tdan£| ¢hm| pt¢t At: gmnagmn| k¾| Bv¢t . the rivers get full with water. We drink pure water. the beauty is unimaginable. p¥NIcÓd#: yda ¢hmaly¢SKra¢N ÞvEn S£t¢krNEn p#kaSy¢t .

p#aÅya| na¢t dorE phÚga| ngrÞy sm£pE ¢hm¢lÄñ| ek| A¢Þt . Those who can. . climb the mountain (by foot). If not (otherwise) they go on horseback. ½£ngrat. yE S.dor| A¢Þt ? tæO kT| gÅCEm ? k: ¢vsEx: ? Is it so ? How far is Pahalgaon ? How to go (reach) there ? What is special ? saEm:phl-g#amat. nkEvl| s¤Kay ¢kÓt¤ kNaIzk sÄñ£tÞy kal: A¢p.the image of Lord Shiva as worshipped in India) r¢vev| va ? phÚga|t: ¢kyt.) sing.ngrE s¤Kda Bv¢t . But at that time there is a rare sight in Kashmir. Pahalgaon is 25 KM (from Srinagar). vxaIkalE tæO k£èS| Bv¢t ? How is it there during the rainy season ? saEm:− vxaIkalE p#ay: n vxI¢t iv . prÓt¤ tdan£| ek| Ap¥vI| èÜy| kaÝm£rE Bv¢t . Not far away from Srinagar eastwards. Not only pleasant (to stay) but also it is the time for classical music. p#¢s¼a: gayka: ntIkady c tæO tæO gay¢Ót. dance and display their talents here and there. (But) during winter it is very pleasant in Madras. (it is) almost like no rain during the rainy season.[v¢Ót tE pada×ya| pvIt| AaraEh¢Ót .Then there is snowfall and so movement becomes difficult. dorE A¢Þt . near the city of Pahalgaon there is a lingam formed of snow (Lingam . ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-4 Part-3 r¢v:pr| hEmÓtE ev| ¢S¢SrE md#as.25 ¢klaEm£zrq ATva AáEn gÅC¢Ót . n¦Ïy¢Ót ev| ÞvÞv p#av£Îy| p#dSIy¢Ót . Famous singers as well as artists (dancers etc.

August).4. During the month of Sravana (July-Aug. Points relating to Grammar. .va ? Is it very big ? ½avNmasE p¥¢NIma pyIÓt| ¢lÄñÞy vDIn| Bv¢t . These are often heard during conversations and are found in written Sanskrit as well. then movement becomes more difficult. there is a lingam formed of snow. tÞy AmrnaT: i¢t nam . Thereafter the formation shrinks (decreases in size) Viewing it (the lingam) is possible only during the Sravana month (July . When there is heavy snowfall. tda gmnagmn| k¾tr| Bv¢t . yda s¥yI: udE¢t . 1. darkness vanishes. tda tm: ApgÅC¢t . It is known as "Amarnath" ( its name is Amarnath) r¢v:tt. Here is another example. yda ¢hmpat: A¢Dk: Bv¢t . saEm:- Let us examine some of the expressions introduced in this lesson.t¤ kEvl| ½avNmasE ev d#¾¤| SÀytE . When the sun rises.) till the full moon day. In english we may see an equivalent.A¢t b¦ht. tt. tt: pr| »as: Bv¢t .pvItÞy up¢r g¤haya| ¢hmEn jat| ¢lÄñ| A¢Þt . yda _________ tda This expression is used when one wants to say that something happens and simultaneously a related event occurs as well. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson . the lingam increases in size. On top of the mountain.

yavt. Not only is Sanskrit an old language but a modern one too. One who has long arms is Rama. there is victory.This expression may also be used in the negative. tæO A¢g": A¢Þt . . yavt. y: ______ s: ya ________ sa yt. Wherever there is truth. yæO D¥m: A¢Þt . Take as much money as required. yda A¢tv¦¢¾: Bv¢t . there is fire. the landing of the place does not take place) 2. tæO tæO jy: A¢Þt . Where there is smoke. n kEvl| s|Þk]t| p¤ratn| ¢kÓt¤ AaD¤¢nk| A¢p . yæO yæO sÏy| A¢Þt . then the plane does not land. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-4 Grammar:2 4._________ tavtso much _________ as required. 3. tavt. n kEvl| _______ ¢kÓt¤ _______ A¢p or c Not only __________ but also. 5. tda ¢vmanÞy AvtrN| n Bv¢t ._______ tty: d£GIbah¤: one who _______ is one who _______ is that which ______ is s: ram: .Dn| AavÜyk| . (Literally. yæO ___ tæO and yæO yæO _____ tæO tæO Where _____ there and wherever____ there all. When it rains heavily.Dn| ny .

h¢r: c vn| gÅC¢Ót . . That which is true is good (beneficial) 6. This usage is not common however.ya s¤Ódr£ sa s£ta . Use of conjunctions: c hEmÓtE ¢S¢SrE in hEmÓt c . Rama and Kesava and Hari are going to the forest. c is also used in the following manner.He eats only fruits. ------------------------------------------------------------------------lesson-4 Grammar:3 7. ram: . kESv: . ev ev usually means "only" . Kesava and Hari are going to the forest. One who is beautiful is Sita. yt.. Rama . 8. Bv¢t ev This expression cannot be translated into English easily or even literally. The word ev here adds some sort of emphasis to the sentence. This expression is used by Soma to contradict Ravi’s statement (question) about the weather being aways pleasant in Kashmir.and and ¢S¢Sr Note that the conjunction c is used at the end of the last noun in the sentence. s: Pl| ev Kad¢t . ram: c kESv: c h¢r: c vn| gÅC¢Ót .sÏy| ttpÐym.

........ tv vamE ud£c£ ¢dSa . The college is nearby (only) 9. . nWrq§t£ | | | | | south d¢XNa or yaØya ¢dSa: ctÞa#: . . tv p¤rt: p#ac£ ¢dSa . At: . | . eSan£ p¢àma or p#t£c£ west . p¥vaI or p#ac£ east . vaÙvya .. .. p#at: s£yI pÜyn... tv d¢XNE d¢XNa ¢dSa . mm Çvr: A¢Þt . uäOra or ud£c£ north | Aag"EyaE . ......klaSala sm£pE ev A¢Þt ..... therfore (so) I am not going to college.. ..... tv p¦¾E p#t£c£ ¢dSa ... .. I have fever.¢t¾ . | .Therefore This word is used in the sense of therefore. . Often in India people say " I have fever " though one should probably say "I am running temperature" ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Directions and Positions.|. | | . At: klaSala| n gÅCa¢m .

Please view the picture as a representation of positions in three dimensions. || ||-------------. The word AÛyy is derived from the root ¢v + i and AÛyy means that which is not liable to change or that which retains its form in all positions. | . . .vam: Bag: vamE left ------------|| . || || . . p¦¾t: at the back d¢XN: Bag: . . | p¤rt: in front p¤raE Bag: | below AD: ADaE Bag: These positions are given relative for a person in front of you and looking at you.indeclinables. We have tried to give an impression of depth through the dotted line in the picture. _______ . It is easy to form sentences with AÛyy as was seen from the small exercise given in lesson 3. UÒvI Bag: up¢r above | | | _______ d¢XNE right || . .------------------------------------------------------------------------- Relative Positions. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-4 AÛyy . .

because At: ev ..now ev .somehow kda¢p prm.only uÅcW: .also sda .again rt: .In the morning and evening p#¢t¢dn .later At: .there AæO .at all times tæO .but Aï iv .above .therefore yt: .always svIda .earlier.thus ¢crm.A¢p .like AD¤na .only because va .or ATva .sometime .today .in the evening say|p#at: . loud evm. before SnW: .for a long time p#ay: .well .daily tt: .else / or kTm¢p .but ¢kÓt¤ .here svIæO .everywhere p#at: . then AT .slowly sØykq .in the morning say| .but prÓt¤ ..later .mostly n: .

1.immediately tda .then kda ? .sï: . The questions given below relate to the conversation in the lesson.4 Exercise .where kTm. 1 saEm Ïv| idan£| k[æO vs¢s ? 2 saEm Ïv| idan£| ¢k| pZ¢s ? 3 ½£ngr| k[æO A¢Þt ? 4 5 vsÓtkalE ½£ngr| k£èS| A¢Þt ? k[æO svIda g#£Ým: A¢Þt ? 6 g#£ÝmE ½£ngrE ¢k| ¢ht: A¢Þt ? 7 g#£ÝmkalE ¢k| d#v¢t ? 8 md#as. from where ¢kmTIm.for what (purpose) ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson .? .when k[æO ? . You will be able to answer them if you have understood the sentences spoken.how k[t: ? -why .for what (reason) ¢k¢m¢t ? .ngrE AÏy¢Dk| vxI¢t va ? 9 10 11 AÞmak| ¶dy| k: Aaýady¢t ? kaÜm£rE kda At£v SWÏy| Bv¢t ? p#¢s¼gayka: k[æO gay¢Ót ? 12 ¢hm¢lÄñ| k[æO A¢Þt ? .? .

AD¤na . Fill up the blanks with appropriate indeclinables. ____ ___ s|Þk]t| pZ¢t . S£G#| .13 pvItÞyaEp¢r g¤haya| ¢k| A¢Þt ? 14 tÞy ¢lÄñÞy ¢k| nam ? ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson -4 Exercise 2. The indeclinables which will fit the above properly are to be selected fro the following list. vahn| ____ ____ gÅC¢t . ____ _____ p#ap"aE¢m .3 Fill up the blanks selecting suitable words from . sda . sØykq . Please note that more than one word will be required but there are choices. mag©I ___ ___ ___ ¢hm| pt¢t . p#¢t¢dn| . ¢cr| . Example: nr: nr: _______ ________ ______ pZ¢t . Aïa . ___ vahn| n gÅC¢t . p#¢t¢dn| p#at: uÅcW: pZ¢t . s: s|Þk]t| _____ iÅC¢s . select the appropriate combination for each sentence. p#at: . 1 2 3 4 Ah| _______ _______ ______ iÎzn©Izq pÜya¢m . svIda . At: . Based on the meaning of the indeclinable. sï: . svIæO Exercise .

. AakaSE ________ mEGa: s¢Ót . mm lEKn£ _______ A¢Þt .sda . ----1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mata ________ dordSIn| pÜy¢t . Aá: _______ tæO ¢t¾¢t . kda Example: nr: sda D¥mpan| kraE¢t . vataIp¢æOka| _________ Aany¢t . bal: _______ @£f¢t . The meanings of all the different words are either known to you already from earlier lessons or may be looked up in the glossary. ---¢SS¤: svIda raEdn| kraE¢t . AæO . You should first understand the sentences and from the context select the required indeclinables. __________ dorE n¢d A¢Þt . __________ g¦hE d£p: Çvl¢t . tæO . _________ sÇjn: A¢Þt . ngrE ______ At£v SWÏy| A¢Þt . k[æO . svIda . svIæO . Fill up the blanks by selecting words from the list below. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson -4 Exercise 4.

_______ AÞtmE¢t c . At: . Exercise -5 Fill up the blanks by selecting suitable words from ¢kÓt¤ . 5 p#at: Ah| g¦hE Bva¢m . . /: p¤Ýp| ¢vks¢t Example: p#at: ---- 1 ______ s¥yI: udE¢t.. ---1 Ay| p#at: Þa"an| n kraE¢t . 7 __________ dÓtDavn| kraE¢m . Aï . Aï r¢vvasr: . yt: . At: __________ kayaIlysy ¢vram¢dnm. ¢kÓt¤ say| pZa¢m . say| . 2 3 4 _________ ¢vïalyÞy ¢vram¢dnm. ¢kÓt¤ _______ Ah| ¢mæOÞy g¦h| gÅCa¢m . á: . __________ AapN| gÅCa¢m .. 6 __________ kayaIly| gÅCa¢m . Aï r¢vvasr: . _________ saEmvasr: . ATva Example: Ah| p#at: g¢Nt| n pZa¢m .p#at: . __________ g¦h| AagÅCa¢m .

p¤n: . 9 s: Pl| ev Kad¢t . 5 6 7 sa svIda ¢nd#a| kraE¢t . 3 Ah| cl¢ÅcæO| d#¾¤| At£v iÅCa¢m . --- . ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lesson -4 Exercise 6. _______ say| X£r| ¢pba¢m . 4 bal: sda ¢@kEz| @£f¢t. ______ paZ| ¢lK¢t . ________ sda mD¤rPl| Kad¢t . 2 s: p#at: mm g¦h| n AagÅC¢t . 10 p#at: Ah| X£r| n ¢pba¢m . tE svIda ¢vdES| gÅC¢Ót ._______ say| Þa"an| kraE¢t . bal: svIda paZ| pZ¢t. ________ s ¢@kEz| At£v iÅC¢t . ______ say| mm g¦h| AagÅC¢t . Fill up the blanks by selecting suitable words from ¢cr| . 8 v¦¼a mD¤rPl| At£v iÅC¢t . _______ svIda Kad¢t . ________ Pl| At£v iÅC¢t . _______ tE dESazn| iÅC¢Ót . n£cW: Example: s: p¤n: Pl| Kad¢t . ______ Ah| svIda cl¢ÅcæO| pÜya¢m . uÅcW: .

AD¤na ______ b¤B¤Xa A¢Þt . Ïv| gan| kT| kraE¢x ? Ah| ______ gan| kraE¢m . sm£pva¢s _________ kaElahl| kraE¢t . improve your vocabulary.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ïva| 辤| _______ Ah| AæO ¢t¾a¢m . 4 5 bal: kT| pZ¢t ? bal: _______ pZ¢t . Understand the questions and in the process. Example: Bvan. They require the word sØykq in their answers. AD¤na sØykq b¤B¤Xa A¢Þt va ? Aa|. k[±[z: _________ k\j¢t . 1 Ïv| karq vahn| kT| caly¢s ? Ah| karq vahn| 2 3 _____ calya¢m . uxa sØykq v£Na| vady¢t va ? . kaE¢kl: ________ gay¢t . AáEn s: ________ yaæOa| kraE¢t . Exercise 7. CaæO: uäOr| _______ vd¢t .s|Þk]t| kT| pZ¢t ? Ah| s|Þk]t| sØykq pZa¢m . Below you will see many questions. raEg£ ______ BaxN| kraE¢t .

2 3 ________ mm p¤æO: . Exercise 8. ----1 ________ mm ¢mæO| up¢vS¢t . the corresponding verb ( on the same line as the subject) and an indeclinable. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson . 4 5 mm _____ mEGa: . Choose a subject. uxa ______ v£Na| vady¢t .at the back vamt: .4.above or at the top Aï: . p#at: mm _______ s¥yI: udE¢t . Use the following words in appropriate places. Your vocabulary would have improved considerably in going through this lesson.Aa| . Example: p#at: Now you should try and form more sentences with additional words. v¦XÞy ______ ¢t¾a¢m .at the right up¢r . p¤rt: . You will be able to make many sentences. Forming sentences with indeclinables.at right d¢XNt: . The table below can provide many sentences. . p¦¾t: cÓd#: AÞtmE¢t .below or at the bottom mm p¤rt: s¥yI: .in front of p¦¾t: .

7 8 ____ s¥yI: AÞtmE¢t . ___ dÓtDavn| kraE¢m . ______ kml| ¢vks¢t . _____ AÓDkar: . _____ Ah| b¢h: gÅCa¢m . ------------------------------------------------------------------------- .subject ram: p¤ÝpmCaæOa: gj: Aava| AᬠtE indeclinable verb gÅC¢t ¢vks¢t p#at: AD¤na tæO AæO pZ¢Ót ¢t¾¢t pZav: Davt: vd¢Ót Exercise 9. ___ Ah| p#at: u¢äO¾a¢m . _____ jl| ¢pba¢m . ____ Ah| S£G#| g¦h| AagÅCa¢m . Example: yda raEg: Bv¢t . _____ b¤B¤Xa n Bv¢t . tda A¬xD| Þv£kraE¢m . _____ ¢ppasa Bv¢t . ____ BXN| n Kada¢m . 1 2 3 4 5 6 _____ s¥yI: udE¢t . ____ mEG: na¢Þt .tda . _____ v¦¢¾: na¢Þt . _____ kayaIlyE kayI| na¢Þt . Here are many sentences that require the use of yda --. ___ v¦¢¾: n Bv¢t .

1 ______ mm ¢mæO| n AagÅC¢t . The following sentences help you inderstand the use of n kEvl| .. _______ Ah| AæO up¢vSa¢m . ¢kÓt¤ nzn| A¢p kraE¢m . 2 ______ ¢vman| n AagÅC¢t . 4 5 ______ gan| A¢Þt ..AacayI: n AagÅC¢t . 3 ______ Ah| g¢Nt| pZa¢m . Figure out where these should be added in the sentences. tavt. 1 _____ bal: raEdn| kraE¢t .Lesson -4 ..paZ: n p#cl¢t .. ______ majaIr: A¢p A¢Þt . Example: n kEvl| Ah| gan| gaya¢m . tavt. _______ Ah| p¤Þtk| pZa¢m . _______ vahna¢n sØykq gÅC¢Ót . ¢kÓt¤ ... ¢Sr¢s tafy¢t . Example: yavt.... Exercise Here are some sentences for you to understand the use of yavt. _______ S¦NaE¢m .. ____ Ah| ¢pba¢m . Þvy| 2 ______ g¦hE S¤nk: A¢Þt . . 3 ______ ¢hm| n pt¢t ... ____ pays| paæOE A¢Þt .

a verb and many indeclinables. 4 5 ______ vahn| n¥tn| Bv¢t . If you have a liking for mathematical work.4. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson -4 Chart. ______ Pla¢n A¢p Kada¢m .______ s|Þk]t Baxam¢p pZa¢m . try and figure out how many different sentences you can make and how many of them will correctly convey a meaning. Try and form as many sentences as you can. __________________________________________________ | | | | bal: | | p¤æO: | | | | | | s: sa ex: exa CaæO: |___________________________________| | | sda | |p#at: | |say| | | | |pZ¢t | | | | uÅcW: n£cW: Aï: sï: tæO AæO svIda | | | bala | AD¤na | | | p¤æO£ | | p#¢t¢dn| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | nr: | ¢cr| p¤n: sØykq ev| | |___________________________________| | maDv: uma | |__________________________________________________| ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lesson . you can form a short sentence with the verb. Glossary . By selecting a noun and an indeclinable. ______ Ah| AaEdn| Kada¢m . Here is a chart containing nouns. ______ s¤Ódr| A¢p .

(f) rainy season .central kEÓd#£y¢vïaly: (m) .The seasons: hEmÓt: . Each season lasts between 55 and 65 days.(m) winter vsÓt: .(m) spring g#£Ým: .in full bloom. nd£ (f) .full moon ¢vk¢sta¢n (n) .The Himalayan mountains ¢hmms¤Ódrm(n) . .river ¢ht: (m) .much vat: (m) . The seasons Spring.) ¢vïaly: (m) . According to the ancient texts. Summer and winter generally fall within the corresponding ones observed in the west The words give below are in the order in which they are seen in the text of the lesson.school p¥NIm.wind (air) .comfortable (also convenient) ¢nmIlm.pure A¢Dkm.(m) summer vxaI: ¢S¢Sr: .full p¥NIcÓd#: (m) .snow (n) .beautiful kEÓd#£y (m) adj.(n) adj.(n) .(m) winter with snow Srt. .(m) dry cold season ¢S¢Sr: is not experienced in most parts of India.(n) adj.central school (a common system of schools run by the Indian Givernment all over the country. . the duration of each season is fixed at a specific value in the range given above. ¢hmaly: (m) .

apple trees Plp¥NIm.term used to refer to an area of a country or place.heart sEÛyv¦Xa: (m) . Verb in present tense.reflection ¢hmaly¢SKrE .talent.comfortable p#av£Îym.are Bv¢Ót . They are in third person singular and in present tense) p#dSIy¢Ót .become or are gay¢Ót .full of fruits (this word comes under the second case) sEÛyPlm.rains pt¢t . dES: .peaks A¢cÓÏym.AvÎyIm.Apple A¢tâ¢ckrm.chillness S£t¢krNEn .famous gmnagmnm.climate (though it really refers to the atmospheric condition) SWÏym.(n) . plural.melts vxI¢t . expertise dl-tzakat.very tasty p#¢s¼m.country d#v¢t .full moon night (during) ¢SKra¢N .(n) . s¢Ót .upon the Himalayan peaks ¶dym.to and fro movement s¤Kda (m) .(n) .falls p#kaSy¢t .sing (plural.(case) .(n) .from the Dal lake p¢r¢ÞT¢t: (f) .(n) .(m) . third person) .perform (exhibit).its (this refers to case) p#¢t¢bØb: (m) .unimaginable tÞy .(n) .with her (cool) rays p#dES: .(n) .beyond description p¥¢NImaraæO¬ .(n) .(n) .shines (the last four words are verbs.

.almost iv .but prÓt¤ . t¤ .but also (in using the above two the word A¢p c is used at the end of the sentence) A¢p . therefore tdan£m.and p#ay: .so.also c . Hence they can be easily used in sentences and remembered as well.Given below are some indeclinables.so kEvlm.always AæO .very much yda -when tda .very yæO yæO . More indeclinables may be found in the section on indeclinables..e.alternatively i¢t ..specially svIda .only tt: prm.then the two are always used together i.sometimes AÏy¢Dkm..there all (the two are always use together) ¢vSExEN .e.not only ¢kÓt¤ .then (usually refers to the time of occurrence of a particular event) n kEvlm..like ATva . do not change) with gender and number.. idan£m.thereafter .here ev .now At: .adds stress to the subject as in the use of "too" however t¤ is not used in the beginning of a sentence.but kda¢ct.. Indeclinables remain the same (i. At£v .wherever tæO tæO . tda always follows yda ...

First we introduce Zero.. Simply. the word S¥Óymis used to refer to that digit. numbers are expressed in a somewhat different manner. In expressing any number which includes zeros in any of its digits. 125 will be expressed as p·¢v|S¢t A¢Dk ek Stm. So 43695 may be expressed as cÏva¢r æO£¢N xzq nv p· In proper usage of Sanskrit. Literally five and twenty above hundred is the translation. we had planned to say A¾nv¢t A¢Dk nv St A¢Dk ek shÞa# vxI S¤B kamna: . This system is followed for all numbers above 100. in principle say a number by just expressing the digits making up the number. Thus one can. Zero is known as S¥Óymin Sanskrit. We have already discussed in an earlier lesson (lesson-2) one uses numbers from one to nine. it was to be "good wishes for 1998" . For example. the number whose use from very early periods is credited to India. When we were preparing this note it was still 1997.------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-4 Expressing Numbers. In this lesson we will see how one would handle larger numbers.he lower order digits are expressed firstd and then the higher order ones. much the same way one would do with telephone numbers. .

. A¢Dk means more than. The list below gives the Sanskrit equivalents for numbers between 0 and 50. the good wishes continue.1 1998.Though it is past Jan.

Yes zam. . most of it being in the present tense. zamh¢r: zamhE hrE ! mam.va ? Hello. Literally dda¢m means I will give.Þmr¢s va ? Hey Hari ! Do you remember me ? do ca .visits him.(Tom) and h¢r: (Hari) are friends. This will constitute the very first step towards speaking Sanskrit. What is meant is. in the form of a conversation. The conversation here relates to different aspects of daily routines and will introduce the student to new words. h¢r: has returned home to India and zam. is Hari in there ? ) . is this 4931129 ? Is it Vishnu Industries ? dorvaN£ ca¢lka . They have studied together in the U. zam.? k[t: ? Óy¥yakI t: ? Hey. Some expressions of common use are introduced and these will help the student form short sentences to convey simple ideas.S.tæO h¢r: A¢Þt va ? Is Hari there ? (literally. who ? Tom ? Where from ? New York ? n Aæ¬v cE°W t: .¢k| 4931129 ? ¢vßN¤ iÎfÞz®£s. zam. What the Operator says she will give is the connection.hlaE ett.dda¢m .LESSON 5 zamh¢r: c Lesson 5 continues in the same format as the two previous lessons.ArE k: zam.Aam. I will connect him to you. Much of the conversation continues to be simple.Aam(Telephone Operator) .

coffee or tea ? zamh¢r: n ¢km¢p . .¢pb¢s ? kaP£| ATva cay|| ? Tom.(325) Hotel Chola. ¢¹¢dn| yavt. sit down.AagtaE{¢Þm Greetings. my name is Tom.caELa. AagÅC. at Chennai. I have come to see Hari. ¢km. . Heven’t seen you in a long time (Long time. .nmÞtE mm nam zamh¢r| d#¾¤m. Hari is expecting you d¢XNt: gÏva p#aÅyam. ApraþE tv kayaIly| AagÅCa¢m . No Thanks) .p#Tm| p#kaE¿mzamh¢r: h¢r: ¢craytE dSIn|. (Go) South and the first room on the East. do ca nmÞtE. p#kaE¿s|Áya p·¢v|SÏy¢Dk ¢æOStm.. Yes. up¢vS . I will come down to your office later (in the day) ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-5 Part: 2 kayaIlyE zam(In the Office) . come. Greetings.. (On a business trip) h¢r: zamk[æO tE vas: ? Where are you (put up) staying ? haEzEl. k[S¢ln£ va sarhq ? Nothing (Basically. here only. h¢r: BvÓt| p#t£XtE .ÛyaparaTI| AagtaE{¢Þm I have come down for business. no see !) What will you drink. Room Number 325 h¢r: zamAï smy: A¢Þt va ? Do you have time today ? Aam. .No.zam. AagÅC. . come.

Alright.Kl¤ ? Bill should be (must be) five years old. sm¤d#tz dSInm. tæO gÏva s|BaxN| k[vI: .Is Sarah well ? ¢bl.? What about you ? (literally.Ah| AD¤na¢p A¢vva¢ht: I am still a bachelor.paZSala| gÅC¢t Bill goes to school. There is much to talk. I think Chennai beach is more beautiful. all are well. . . our sight of Miami Beach) Ah| cE°W sm¤d#tz| rØytr| mÓyE h¢r: .p·vx£Iy: Þyat. sv©I k[S¢ln: . ka tE kTa ? ¢k| tE v¦äOm.bh¤ A¢Þt . . trÄña: vElamEÏy p#¢tgÅC¢Ót .BartE t¤ cE°W sm¤d#tz| ev rØytm| i¢t Áyatm.Þmr¢s va AÞmak| mya¢m (let us) sit here on the sands. the waves reach the shore and return. yæOk[æOa¢p gÅCav: AalpnaTIm.AæO val¤kaya| up¢vSav: . let us go somewhere. sm¤d#t£r| gÅCav: . (let us) go to the beach. no ? zamAa|.At the beach .pÜy. Look. Yes. . zam. It is well known that Chennai beach is the most beautiful in India. AÞt¤. what is your story ?) h¢r: . . Reaching there we shall chat.? Do you remember our visit to Miami Beach ? (literally. ¢bl. . sm¤d#t£rE h¢r: zam.

Aal¤k| ek| ¢klaE. ¢k| va AavÜykm. Look.pE¢zka ¹y|. kdl£. cabbage. a few onions. sEÛy|.Ïv| Kad¢s tEn Alm. sunrise here is very beautiful. Let us go home. d¢D ADI ¢klaE.n. a kilo of potatoes. b¤dqb¤da: trÄñEx¤ n¦Ïy¢Ót .zam. g¦h| gÅCav: . half a kilo curds. kkIz£ ek|.At the Supermarket . at night. therefore worth seeing. ¢k¢·t.? Sir.. raæO¬ mdqg¦hE ev BaEjnm. (meaning. oranges. Pla¢n ddat¤ . a cucumber.mac£ s¥p. A°as£Plm. If so. (literally. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-5 Part:3 mhapNmÒyE h¢r: . the bubbles dance in the waves. . banana.s¥ya©Idy: AæO mnaEhr: At: dSIn£y: .plaÎf¤ . Dinner is at my home only. No. green peas. X£r| ek| Þp¥t|. a pack of milk. Tom. half a kilo.BaE.ta¢hI gÅCav: . h¢rt| ADI ¢klaE.pÜy.Ah| t¤ ¢nra¢mx| Kada¢m I eat only vegetarian food. I will eat whatever you eat) sEvk: . Aa¢mx| iÅC¢s va ? Do you like non-vegetarian (food) ? zam. narÄñm. let us go. h¢r: . Two packets of tomato soup.. give fruits as well. we eat in my house) zam. may I help you ? (literally. yt. h¢r: . what would you like ? ) . half a kilo. vt¤Ilk| ADI ¢klaE. whatever you eat is alright with me.

apples and pineapple. h¢r: - k]pa, AahÏy k¢t ãÔyka¢N ? Please, how much altogether ?

sEvk: - A¾ x¢¾ âÔyka¢N ev- p·¢æO|St- pEsa: . Sixty eight rupees and thirty five paise. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson - 5 : Grammar In Sanskrit, the comparative and superlative are formed by adding the suffixes tr and tm to the generic form of the positive. We had an example of this in our previous lesson (Lesson 4). Let us review it here. gmnagmn| k¾| Bv¢t gmnagmn| k¾tr| Bv¢t There are two examples in this lesson too. cE°W sm¤d#tz: (mya¢m sm¤d#tz:) t: rØytr| A¢Þt mÓyE . BartE cE°W sm¤d#tz: rØytm: i¢t Áyat: . While the first one is comparitive, the second is superlative. Depending on the gender of the noun, the adjective in the comparitive and superlative form will take the corresponding gender ending. e,g. from the root word rm- we have the adjectives rØy: (m) rØya nar£ rØya (f) beautiful lady beautiful painting rØym(n) rØy: pz: beautiful cloth rØym- ¢cæOm-

Now let us look at the comparitive. rØytr: pz: rØytra nar£ rØytr| ¢cæOmThe superlative. rØytm: pz: most beautiful cloth more beautiful cloth more beautiful lady more beautiful painting

rØytma nar£ rØytm| ¢cæOm-

most beautiful lady most beautiful painting

Now let us look at another example. u°t: pvIt: a tall mountain s/: u°t: pvIt: The Sahya is a tall mountain (The range known as the Western Ghats in India) ¢vÓÒy: A°ttr: pvIt: . s/at- ¢vÓÒy: u°ttr: pvIt: . The Vindhyas are taller. Vindhyas are taller than the Sahyas ¢hmaly: u°ttm: pvIt: . ¢hmaly: ¢vÓÒyat- u°ttr: . ¢hmaly: ¢vÓÒyat1 A¢p u°ttr: . ¢hmaly: ¢vÓÒyat ev| s/at- u°ttm: . The Himalayas are the tallest mountains. (Note that we are rferring to the Himalyas in singular as is the practice in India) The Himalayas are taller than the Vindhyas. The Himalayas are taller than both the Vindhyas and Sahyas. Here is an example using a feminine noun. AyaEÒya ¢vSala maya ¢vSaltra . kaS£ ¢vSaltma . . Ayodhya is big. Maya (Hardwar) is bigger. Kasi (Varanasi) is the biggest. Kasi is larger than Maya

maya AyaEÒyaya: ¢vSalty Maya is larger than Ayodhya kaS£ mayaya: ¢vSalty kaS£ mayay: A¢p ¢vSala Kasi is even larger than Maya kaS£ AyaEÒyaya: ev| mayaya: ¢vSaltma . Kasi is larger than both Ayodhya and Maya. The final example in neuter. gâfp¤raN| b¦ht- p¤Þtkm- . Garudapuranam is a big book. ramayNm- b¦ht-tr| (p¤Þtkm-) .

Ramayanam is bigger (a bigger book) mhaBart| b¦ht-tm| (p¤Þtkm-) . Mahabharatam is biggest. ramayNm- gâfp¤raNat- b¦ht-trm- . Ramayanam is bigger than Garudapuranam. mhaBart| ramayNat- A¢p b¦ht. . Mahabharatam is even bigger than Ramayanam. mhaBart| ramayNat- ev| gâfp¤raNat- b¦ht-tmmMahaBharatam is bigger than both Ramayanam and Garudapuranam. ------------------------------------------------------------------------In Lesson 3, we saw how a simple sentence could be made. A simple sentence will have three parts : a subject, a verb and an object. Let us look at some aspects of gender as applicable to objects. A simple rule may be remembered for deriving the object from a noun which is masculine and ends with A. Such nouns are known as AkaraÓt: p¤¢ÚlÄñ: . Here are some of them. bal: nr: gj: maDv:

When they become the object in a sentence, they change to (in singular) : bal| nr| gj| maDv| respectively Let us look at a few sentences now. AÒyapk: bal| paZy¢t vanr: nr| pÜy¢t The monkey sees the man. [ nr: , vanr: Do you see a connection , linguistic or otherwise ? ] When the dual form is used (¢¹vcn|) the nouns become : bal¬ nr¬ gj¬ maDv¬ . respectively. AÒyapk: bal¬ paZy¢t . .

The teacher teaches the boy.

The teacher teaches two (both) boys.

When used in plural, the nouns take the form : balannrangjanmaDvan. respectively.

AÒyapk: balan- paZy¢t vanr: nran- pÜy¢t .

The teacher teaches the boys. The monkey sees the men. (many) What we have introduced here is the "case" as is known in the English Language. Simply case relates to how a noun is transformed when different types of references are made to the noun. In all our lessons till now, we have mainly used the nominative case, which is what applies to the subject of a simple sentence. When a noun or pronoun is used as the subject of a verb, it is said to be in the nominative case. The Nominative is the first of the eight cases in Sanskrit. Case is known as ¢vB¢³: and these are refered to by their numbering order. The Nominative being the first, is referred to as the p#Tma ¢vB¢³: We note that the subject of a sentence will always be in the Nominative case when the sentence is in Active voice. The subject may be in Singular, Plural or Dual. Im the English language, when a noun or a pronoun is used as the object of a verb, it is said to be in the Accusative case. The Direct object of a sentence should always be in the Accusative case. In the English language, one observes that the form of the noun is the same for the Nominative and the Accusative. This is not so in Sanskrit. The noun assumes different endings depending on the number and case. It is usual in Sanskrit to present the information in the form of a table, where the rows correspond to cases and columns correspond to the Number. The variations are called declensions of the noun.

masculine nouns ending in A decline in the same fashion. we should also mention the Vocative case where a person is addressed. but is refered to as s|baEDnp#Tma ¢vB¢³: and not as A¾m: ¢vB¢³: ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lesson 5 .Case Nominative Accusative ¢¹t£ya ¢vB¢³: Singular bal: bal| Dual bal¬ bal¬ Plural bala: balan- Being the second. . This is similar to English. the Accusative case is called Discussion of the different cases is really not part of this lesson. Full discussion of cases will be taken up in a subsequent lesson. Let us look at the declensions of a couple of nouns. a verb and an object and found that we can derive the object form of a noun from the subject form i. Consider some feminine nouns now.. hE hrE is how h¢r: in the Nominative case is changed to from the Vocative case.e. the Accusative case form from the Nominative case form. Before we close. where one might say say Oh Harry ! The Vocative case is the last case in Sanskrit. Singular Dual Plural Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative gj: gj| CaæO: CaæO| gj¬ gj¬ CaæO¬ CaæO¬ gja: gjanCaæOa: CaæOan- In general.Grammar -------------------We have seen in the earlier sections that the Nominative and Accusative forms of nouns will be found in sentences containing a subject. We simply set out to form a simple sentence consisting of a subject. verb and direct object.

Again the declensions are typical for neuter nouns ending with A| We must remember that verbs must be conjugated in accordance with the number and person of the noun used in the subject. In present tense pZq conjugates as : Singular III Person II Person I Person pZ¢t pZ¢s pZa¢m Dual pZt: pZT: pZav: Plural pZ¢Ót pZT pZam: . but a short revision is useful. Consider the verb pZq which is in its root form.Singular Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative mala mala| kTa kTa| Dual malE malE kTE kTE Plural mala: mala: kTa: kTa: Again the declensions shown are typical for most feminine nouns ending in Aa Here are the declensions for nouns in Neuter. We add suffixes to the root form of the verb to derive the different conjugations. Singular Dual Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative jl| jl| vn| vn| jlE jlE vnE vnE Plural jla¢n jla¢n vna¢n vna¢n The fact that the declensions for the Nominative and Accusative are identical need not confuse the student who might be expecting some variations in the declensions. It means to study. We have already introduced this concept earlier.

. In forming simple sentences the noun and the verb used should correctly reflect the Number and Person in respect of the subject. the third person conjugations are shown first followed by second person and then first person. The forms in which the verb As. Singular III P II P I P root+A+¢t root+A+¢s root+Aa+¢m Dual root+A+t: root+A+T: root+Aa+v: Plural root+A+A¢Ót root+A+T root+Aa+m: Observations In Sanskrit when conjugations of verbs are shown.It will be useful for the student to remember the following suffix rules presented in table form. In this lesson we have also seen declension of AkaraÓt p¤¢l|Äñ words in the nominative case. Men go to the workplace The verb is conjugated in accordance with the form of the noun.Formation of simple sentences. Look at: nr: kayaIly| gÅC¢t . A Brief Review . Man goes to the workplace (office) This when changed to plural becomes nra: kayaIly| gÅC¢Ót . an indirect reminder that the I (ego !) should find the last place in the world ! ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-5 Exercise I The exercises in this section are meant to familiarize the student with the usage of nouns in different persons and number (Singular. Plural or Dual). These apply in the present tense.is used was discussed in lesson and also the different forms of the personal pronouns.

. Change the following sentences in third person singular to third person plural. kak: Pl| Kad¢t.Singular Nominative nr: dual nr¬ Plural nra: The verb gÅC¢t corresponds to the third person singular (ekvcnm. 2. nr: g#am| gÅC¢t. 1. 3. CaæO: paZ| pZ¢t. Singular Suffix for Present tense in third person first person ex: 3rd person first person pZa¢m pZav: pZam: pZ¢t pZt: pZ¢Ót Aa¢m Aav: Aam: ¢t t: A¢Ót dual Plural Now for the exercises. 5. gj: jl| ¢pb¢t. The crow eats the fruit. 4. vanr: væO up¢vS¢t. The basic rule for forming such verb forms was also discussed in an earlier lesson and the suffixes to be added to the root form of the verb shown. The student studies the lesson. The man goes to the village. The elephant drinks water. The monkey sits there.p#Tmp¤âx:).

Ah| sÄñ£t| pZa¢m 2. y¤vka: Pla¢n Aany¢Ót. my¤ra: tæO n¦Ïy¢Ót. Peacocks dance there.5 Exercise . Ah| kaP£| ¢pba¢m . jnka: p¤æOan. Boys drink milk. bala: X£r| ¢pB¢Ót.II The personal pronoun Ah| declines as : Singular Ah| Dual Aava| Plural vy| Change the following sentences in first person singular to first person Dual as well as first person Plural. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson .Change the following sentences in third person plural to third person dual. 3. Example : Ah| karq vahn| cla¢m Aava| kArq vahn| clav: vy| karq vahn| clam: 1. 1. Youths bring fruits. Example : jna: cl¢cæO| pÜy¢Ót. 2. Aáa: mÓd^raya| ¢t¾¢Ót. People watch the movie. 4.paExy¢Ót. Horses stand in the stable. jn¬ cl¢cæO| pÜyt:. Fathers bring up sons 5.

Ïv| ¢vdES| gÅC¢s 5.3. Ïv| k[æO vs¢s 2. Ïv| Pl| Kad¢s ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson . The verbs conjugate in the same manner as indicated for pZq Example : Ïv| s|Þk]t| pZ¢s y¥y| s|Þk]t| pZT 1.5 Exercise III Examine the chart form given below. Ïv| ¢kmTI| hs¢s 3. . Ah| ¢nd#a| kraE¢m 5. Ïv| ngrE j£v¢s 4. The word in the inner square is the subject of a sentence to be formed by selecting an object from the middle square and a verb from the outer square. Ah| sm¤d#t£r| gÅCa¢m 4. Make as many meaningful sentences as possible. Ah| p¤Þtk| ¢lKa¢m The verb pZq conjugates as : II person pZ¢s (Singular) pZT: (Dual) pZT (Plural) The personal pronoun "you" declines as : Singular Ïv| Dual y¤va| Plural y¥y| Now change the following sentences in second person singular to second person plural.

SÄðr Þmr¢s va ? 5.. Example: Aa| h¢r: tæO A¢Þt va ? h¢r: AæO A¢Þt . .. The questions are similar to those found in the lesson but are presented in a general manner. . ma| Þmr¢s va ? 4. . ¢v¢Úly|. Ans: cE°W ngrE mE vas: . Note however. kayaIly| Kad¢t . 1.−−−−−−−−−. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Here are some simple questions based on the lesson.. . . Pl| . s|Þk]t| . . . pæO| ¢lK¢s va ? ? Aa| ---------n----------Aa|. .−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−. k[t: ? 2. pZ¢t . .−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−--. jl| . paZ: . . . s: p¤Þtk| gÅC¢t dEvaly| . ArE. p¤Þtk| pZ¢s va 6. . . An example is given. . p¤Þtk| tæO A¢Þt va ? 3. hE gaE¢vÓd .. . pÜy¢s ¢pb¢t .−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−. g¦h| . hE hrE . . k[æO tE vas: ? Ans: Ah| fEÚl£t: . So. . hE zam. . 1. sEÚl¥lar dorvaÎya| Bax¢s va ? -----------Here are some direct questions. this is not the same answer given by the telephone operator. .−−−−−−−−. . ¢pta tæO A¢Þt va ? 2.------------Aa|. . . AaEdn| Kad¢s va ? ----------------8. . . hE zam. answers to the questions are not to be found in the sentences of the lesson. . . Try and answer them.-------------------------------------------- 7. hE k[mar .−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−. . hE calIs.

student hostel. mE .k[æO tE vahnm. One word answers are perfectly appropriate.your. 3.Here the student is introduced to the tE and mE combination. k[æO tE BaEjnm. 5. ¢k| c¥x¢s ? kdl£ ATva sEÛyPl| ? ? Plrs| ATva X£rm.Aï pr£Xa A¢Þt va ? Here are some more questions.tea you can answer this as cay| ev .only tea 2. ¢k| pÜy¢s ? majaIr| ATva S¤nk: . good for daily use! 1. Now try and answer the questions below.coffee cay| .my. a place where students live. tE .Aï jl¢ÅcæO| A¢Þt va ? 8.? ? 4. ¢k| ¢pb¢s ? kaP£| ATva cay| ? kaP£| . and vas: Note how the word is coined from CaæO: 4. p#kaE¾E.? 6. k[æO tE p¤Þtk| ? This question may be answered with a single word. ¢k| Kad¢s 3.Aï smy: A¢Þt va ? 7.? CaæOavasE _________ CaæOavas: . p#kaE¾m. so use mE in the answer.means room. tE and mE go together.

saD¤ ..Ïv| sÞk]t| ev pZ¢s i¢t ... mm A¢p iÅCa A¢Þt Ïva| d#¾¤m. . Word meanings for new words are given at the end. tÞy p¤æOÞy p#TmjÓm¢dn| á: ev .e kßyaya| p#¢v¾a .cÏva¢r 4 . ¢vmla l¢ßm ¢vmla l¢ßm ¢vmla l¢ßm . svIæO k[Slm.n.Aa| At£v k[S¢ln£ .k[æO tE vas: ? jÓm g¦hE va ? . Ah| At£v sÓt¤¾a A¢Þm. AÓyE c ? ¢vmla . . . At: tE dSInBaÂy| ev| Kl¤ ? AD¤na ¢k| pZ¢s ? .idan£| s|Þk]tE A¢Bâ¢c: v¢TIta .k]Ïva AagÓt¤| n S³a .Aa| Ahm¢p .s¤¾¤ . s¤p#Bat| tE .. . Ag#jÞy g¦hE .s|Þk]t| em. yt.ev| va ? s|Þk]tÞy p#car: svIæO AÞt¤ .l¢ßm ! nmÞtE .Aa| nv S¥Óy| ek| æO£N£ p· 9 0 1 3 5 7 sçO . Try and understand the conversation. ¢vmla . iÎzn©Izq maÒymE A¢p s|Þk]t paZ: A¢Þt Kl¤ ? . ¢vmla l¢ßm ¢vmla . Aï AæO ngr| Aagta . Ïv| kT| A¢s. A¢p k[S¢ln£ ? l¢ßm . ¢vmla l¢ßm .ka tE dorvaN£ sHqÁya ? sHqÁya nas£t.s¤p#Bat| . l¢ßm ¢cray Ïva| pÜya¢m . AagÅC. AÓt: AagÅC . l¢ßm .Lesson 6 : Part-1 A Conversation Here is the text of a simple conversation between two friends l¢ßm and ¢vmla. AT: dorvaN£m. . At: Ïva| A¢p d#¾¤| Aagta .¢vmlE nmÞtE .

tÞy ¢mæO| k\mI: A¢Þt .in a long while . ek¢Þmn. which you can use in your own conversations in Sanskrit.good . The verbs in the story are all in the present tense and hence it is as if the story is a narration of what is happening.I am anxious too . ¢k|t¤ SS: svIda S£G#| Dav¢t .Word meanings : ---------------kTm¢s AÓyE c ¢cray d#¾¤m. ------------------------------------------------------------------Given below is a story. k\mI: mÓd| cl¢t .increased In the above conversation. try and understand who is visiting who.a chance to see (BaÂy may actually be taken as lucky chance) p#TmjÓm¢dn| .vnE ek: SS: A¢Þt .admitted (past tense) .happy .How are you ? .first birthday .elder brother’s .well .¢dnE SSÞy k\mIÞy c prÞpr| . SS: k\mI: c ekda ek¢Þmn. The words newly seen here will add to your vocabulary. Pick up some words from the conversation.others too .interest . The story is likely to be a familiar one for those who have read many fables.to see mm iÅCa A¢Þt jÓmg¦hE = in the house where one is born (reference to parents’ house) Ag#jÞy s¤¾¤ dSInBaÂymp#¢v¿a saD¤ sÓt¤¾a A¢Bâ¢c v¢TIta .

k\mI: mÓd| mÓd| AagÅC¢t .Davn| k[ât: . −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Word Meanings: SS: k\mI: ekda − rabbit − Tortoise − once upon a time − in a forest ek¢Þmn.p¥vI| k\mI: ¢vjy£ Bv¢t . AåOaÏva SnW: ¢nd#a| kraE¢t . jlaSaypyIÓt| yt. ¢k¢·t.dor| A¢Þt. SS: ¢cÓty¢t.vnE .Davn ÞpDaI Bv¢t . s: ¢vjy£ . tdan£| SS: jag#¢t. SS: S£G#| Av¢S¾Þy dorÞy Davn| AarBtE .y: p¥vI| p#ap"aE¢t. k: p¥vI| A¢ÓtmÞTan| AagÅC¢t ? ¢cÓtn| k]Ïva ett. Ïv| Als: A¢s . mÓd| ¢nrÓtrp#yÏnEn ÞpDaIya| ¢vjyp#a¢çO: . k\mI: jlSyÞy sm£ppyIÓt| p#ap"aE¢t. k\mI: ¢v½a¢Ót| ¢vna mÓd| mÓd| cl¢t . ev| SnW: SnW: ¢nrÓtr| p¢ZÏva s|Þk]tBaxa| A¢p sv©I pZÓt¤ . ¢kÓt¤ ¢k| p#yaEjnm. k\mI: AagÅC¢t va pÜy¢t .? SSÞy Aagmnat. tt. S£G#| uÏTay pÜy¢t .¢v½a¢Ót| k]Ïva gÅCa¢m i¢t . tt: k\mI: jlSyÞy sm£p| ÞvÚpsmyEn AagÅC¢t .vd . ek: vanr: ¢nNIyk: A¢Þt . ¢nNIyk: vanr: vd¢t. SS: A¢tS£G#| tÞy Davn| kraE¢t . k\mISS¬ v¦Xsm£pat. bh¤dor| Da¢vÏva SS: ¢t¿¢t . s: ÞpDaIya| ¢vjy£ Bv¢t . SS: v¦XÞy m¥lE up¢vS¢t .

the undisputed king among the Poets of India who composed in Sanskrit.− between each other DavnÞpDaI ¢nNIyk: − judge (umpire) v¦Xsm£pat− near the tree (from a place near the tree) jlaSypyIÓtmdorm¢vjy£ − till the pond − distance − winner − finishing point − thinking over for a long distance A¢ÓtmÞTanm¢cÓtn| k]Ïva bh¤dorm− ¢v½a¢Ót| − rest v¦XÞym¥lE − at the bottom of the tree AåOaÏva − unnoticed ¢nd#am− sleep − without taking rest − in a short time ¢v½a¢Ót| ¢vna ÞvÚpsmyEn tdan£| uÏTay − then − arising − through constant effort Av¢S¾Þy dorÞy − remaining distance ¢nrÓtrp#yÏnEn ¢vjyp#ap¢t: − the attainment of success. ------------------------------------------------------------------The conversation below is supposed to have taken place between Kalidasa.tÞy mÓdmcl¢t S£G#m- − his − slowly − moves − fast − running race prÞprm. and a little girl. though scholars have conjectured . Many things are obvious from the text seen. from literacy and education for girl children to the fact that writing was done on Palm leaves. There is no information available about Kalidasa’s time.

− tal£pæOm. ka¢ldas: − ka Ïv| balE ? bala bala bala bala − ka·nmala . ka Ïv| balE ka·nmala kÞya: p¤æO£ knkltaya: . Some liberty has been taken by the Poet in the ordering of the words.C to 700 A. balE Ïv| ka ? ( Ah| ) ka·nmala .times which vary from 1400 B. ( Ïv| ) kÞya: p¤æO£ ? knkltaya: ( p¤æO£ ) tE hÞtE ¢k| ( A¢Þt ) ? ( mE hÞtE ) tal£pæO| ( A¢Þt ) ( tæO ) ka va rEKa ? ( tæO ) ka Ka ga Ga . − ka Ka ga Ga . ka¢ldas: − hÞtE ¢k| tE ? ka¢ldas: − ka va rEKa ? The conversation is known through its form in verse.− Palm leaf (used for writing) rEKa − letters ( of a script) At this website. in which you will see a leaf from a manuscript. ka¢ldas: − kÞya: p¤æO£ ? − knkltaya: .D The beauty of this often recited verse is its metrical structure.. hÞtE ¢k| tE tal£pæO| ka va rEKa ka Ka ga Ga ¡ We give below the words rearranged for you to follow the conversation. Though small in size. The words in parantheses are implied. tal£pæOm. the leaves often accommodate as many as fourteen to twenty . we have a page on Palm leaf manuscripts.

s¤KaT£I cEt. How can a person wanting comfort acquire learning? And how can a person enjoy comfort if he wants to learn? AacayaIt.. s¤Ka¢TIn: k[taE ¢vïa k[taE ¢vïa¢TIn: s¤Km. another fourth from his class-mates and the last fourth in course of time. where each line may have more than thirty syllables! The Multilingual Applications link seen below in the footer of the page has the details.. ------------------------------------------------------------------¢vïa dda¢t ¢vny| ¢vnyadq ya¢t paæOtam. pad| sb#’ca¢r×y: pad| kal@mEN c ¡ A student gets a fourth of his learning from his teacher. a fourth through his own intellectual efforts.ÏyjEt. Through modesty does man attain worthiness. On account of worthiness.¡ If you desire comfort.s¤Km. Learning gives modesty . With the ability to give for charity with his wealth.. vsÓtkalE sØp#açOE kak: kak: ¢pk: ¢pk: ¡ The crow is black.padmadäOE pad| ¢SÝy: ÞvmEDya . paæOÏvadq Dnmap"aE¢t Dnadq DmI| tt: s¤Km. a crow will be a crow and a cuckoo.lines of text. he gains happiness. Should you desire to acquire learning you should give up comfort.ÏyjEdq ¢vïa| ¢vïaT£I cEt. he gains wealth. the cuckoo is black. you should give up learning. a cuckoo! . What is the difference between the two then? At spring time. kak: k]ÝN: ¢pk: k]ÝN: kaE BEd: ¢pkkakyaE: .

i¢t . Grandfather. They get bored with what they see. Panchatantra or something else? uxa . the student is introduced to the concept of past tense. ¢ptamh: .7 Part-1 Mohan and Usha In this lesson.. Sister. He will tell us a story..B¢g¢n . maEhn. Yes. ut AÓya va ? What story do you wish to hear. s: AavyaE: kam¢p kTa| vdEt. It is late in the evening.ka| kTa| ½aEt¤| iÅCT: ? Bgvt-kTa va . t¢hI ¢k| k[vI: ? ¢ptamh| p¦ÅCav: . p·tÓæO| va .. The lesson is presented through a story. ta| kTa| kTyt¤ . tell us a story.Lesson . tell us a story. The thoughts mentioned herein are those of "Sanathana Dharma" as found in the ancient texts from India and relate to the creation of the universe. Oh! How can we watch this? Always songs and dances from movies. AhaE kT| id| pÜyEv ? AæO sda cl¢ÅcæOÞT| gan| ntIn| c .00PM. what shall we do then ? (let us) ask Grandfather. kT| p¤ra Bgvanb#’aÎf| As¦jt.Bvan.sØykq Good ---------They go to their Grandfather-------maEhn. Usha and her younger brother Mohan have finished dinner and are watching TV. uxa . maEhn. about God.p¥vI| Avdt-¢kl . .tat tat ! kTa| vdt¤ kTa| vdt¤ . uxa Aa|. around 8..

I shall start creation. Sat. there was no space.tat tat .AÛy³| ABvt. Listen attentively.AÞt¤ AÞt¤ . only "Sat". When it was time for creation.shÞa#vx©I×y: p#akq ? A thousand years ago ? ¢ptamh: ..tda tÅcWtÓyÞy iÅCa ABvt... kal: vÞt¤ va ¢km¢p n Aas£t. maEhn. well.st.. time or matter.Once you mentioned how the Lord created the universe....n kEvl| shÞa#vx©I×y: p#akq .... tdan£| ¢dkq . st...i¢t kEvl| cWtÓy| ev Aas£t.. p¤ra . idan£| s¦¢¾| smarBE i¢t .sdEv Aad¬ idmg# Aas£t. Not merely a thousand years ago. Well. What is the meaning of Supreme Being (here)? ¢ptamh: . ekag#tya S¦N¤t| .iÏyÞy kaE{TI: ? Grandpa.tt: tt... the Supreme Being was there. Long time ago. At that time. Another day I will tell you how to reckon Time. there was not even the perception of time.. maEhn. only pure conciousness. was present..¢dnE vda¢m .. --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Part 2. ¢ptamh: .. but crores of years ago. ¢ptamh: ... tda kalÞy ÞP[rNm¢p nas£t. Tell that story. ¢kÓt¤ kaE¢zkaE¢z vx©I×y: A¢p p#akq . Avyaktam ¢ptamh: . In the beginning. . kalÞy gNna| AÓy¢Þmn. At that time. the desire arose in the Supreme Being. yda s¦¾E: smy: ABvt.

AvDanEn S¦N¤ . uxa .i¢t Þp¾tya n ¢nN©It¤| SÀy| tt. AÛy³Þy tt.i¢Ód#yW: d#¾¤| SÀy| tt.tt: pr| tÞy st: AÛy³| Þvãp| BEdåOanay yaEÂy| mht.mht. You will understand well (it will be clear) ¢ptamh: .i¢t n ¢km¢p vÞt¤ .id| tt. So it is called Avyaktam. --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Part-3 Creation maEhn.Ûy³| .AÛy³| i¢t yt.tat tat . yt. That cannot be clearly ascertained is called Avyakta.ABvt. Then. sØykq AvgÅCE:. .¢t¿ ¢t¿ . ¢k¢·d¢p n AvgÅCa¢m .Þvãp| i¢Ód#yW: n d#¾¤| SÀym. That form of the Supreme Being cannot be perceived by any of the senses.. I don’t understand anything ! ¢ptamh: .AÛy³| i¢t nam .Then the Supreme (being) transformed itself into the "Avyakta" form.. tÞmat. Then the Avyakta form of the Lord changed to the form of Mahat. That which can be perceived by the senses is called Vyaktam. hear patiently. Wait Wait.mht.. Grandfather.. uxa AÛy³| i¢t ¢k| ? What is Avyaktam ? ¢ptamh: . the form prone to differentiation began to manifest.i¢t ¢k| ? What is Mahat ? ¢ptamh: .

i¢t Áyatm. First emerged the element called Akasa or Ether. ¢ptamh: .Gn£BavEn p·B¥ta¢n ABvn.tm: i¢t AÓDkar: .AhÄðar: ABvt.. Here. tÞy SÖd: ev g¤N: .. vay¤: . Water and the Earth.tamsahÄðarat.AakaS: . tE sa¢Ïvkraj¢sktam¢skahÄðara: . Air..yet to take different forms). tt: pr| tt. . ¢ptamh: . AhÄðar: æOEDa ÛyBjt. p#Tmtya AakaS: Aa¢vrBvt. (referred to as the whole . tEj: . Then the Mahat form became the Supreme Ego. Darkness is not like the absence of Light. ev| p¦¢Tv£ .prÓt¤ sm¾YaÏmn: b#’aÎfÞy s¦¾E: p¥vIÞvãp| mht. But it shows the near absence of Conciousness. From the Tamasa Ahankara emerged the five prime elements by becoming gross (visibly big) uxa ... The Ahankara divided into three. udk|. AæO AÓDkar: n p#kaSÞy ABavvt. Mahat is not any matter (which you see). maEhn. Fire. Mahat is the state of the Supreme being before the creation of the Universe. They are Satvik Rajasik and Tamasik Ahankaras. prÓt¤ .mht.ka¢n eta¢n B¥ta¢n ? What are these elements ? Ether (Space) .. cWtÓyÞy p#ay: Ap#kaSta| ev åOapy¢t .tm: i¢t ? Thamasa means ? Thamas is Darkness. --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Part 4 The five elements ¢ptamh: .

From Ether(space) emerged Vayu or motion.. yda eta¢n s¥ßmB¥ta¢n prÞpr| ¢m½£ Bv¢Ót. touch and Form. tda AÞmak| 袾gaEcra¢N Bn¢Ót ta¢n l¬¢kkB¥ta¢n . It has five qualities. tÞy vayaE: ¹¬ g¤N¬ . tÞmat.vay¤: Ajayt .ABvt. SÖd: ÞpSI: ãp| c .AakaSat. they become perceivable by us: the worldly elements. Sound and touch (feeling) vayaE: tEj: ABvt. part-5 maEhn.n. When these subtle elements combine with each other. Water has four qualities. From Vayu came Tejas. Vayu possesses two qualities. form and taste are they. udkÞy cÏvar: g¤Na: . eta¢n s¥ßmB¥ta¢n . tÞya: p· g¤Na: up¢r u³a: cÏvar: g¤Na: ev| gÓD: A¢p c . ev| p#karEN AÞmak| èÜyman| id| jgt. the quality of smell. SÖd: ev| ÞpSI: c . touch.Its quality is Sound. No. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 7 .. these are subtle elements. In addition to the above four.. tÞmat. Finally came the Earth. From it came Water. . Sound. SÖdÞpSIãprsa: .eta¢n B¥ta¢n ka¢n ? ya¢n vy| pÜyam: ? What are these elements ? Those which we see ? ¢ptamh: . In this manner the visible universe was formed.udk| Ajayt . tt: p¦¢Tv£ ABvt. It has three qualities. tEjÞy æOy: g¤Na:. Sound.

When words are combined. Vowels may combine leading to Vowel combinations called Þvr s¢ÓD: or consonants may combine leading to hl. So what may be seen as a single word in a sentence could well be the combination of of more than one word which could well have been used independently in the sentence. Earth and the Devas. B¥¢m: ev| dEvmn¤Ýyady: p#aBvn. You two go to sleep. What this means is that in a sentence two or more words may be written together as a single combination replacing the original individual words.? No No. (Since this concept is very important. maEhn. Let us now look at some of the words used in the lesson.s¢ÓD:. y¤va| ¢nd#at¤I| gÅCtm. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Grammar: Part-1 This lesson has introduced many new concepts to the student. The presentation here will suffice to give the student an idea of the formation of s¢ÓD: ) It is a common practice in Sanskrit to present combinations of words as a single word.? Are you going to stop here ? How were the Sun.¢ptamh: − Aï Aæ¬v smapyam: .. cÓd#: . AnÓtr| AÓy¢Þmn. Today we shall conclude with this. the concept of sandhi s¢ÓD: will be taken up for discussion now..idan£| At£v ¢vlØb: ABvt.¢dnE svI| vda¢m . Humans were created ? uxa − n n . . a separate lesson is planned to provide additional details.Aæ¬v smapy¢t ¢k| ? kT| s¥yI: . It is quite late now. Another day I will tell you everything. Among these. man¤xm¦gad£na| s¦¢¾: kT| ABvt. How did the creation of humans and animals take place ? ¢ptamh: . Moon.

which comes only after periods of training in the language. . The student may well ask at this point. when the consonants combine they merely form a conjunct.and cWtÓy|. are these rules to separate out a given word into more words? The answer is that one must have knowledge of the words forming the sandhis. That is.The word Þp¤rNm¢p is obtained as a combination of Þp¤rN| and A¢p Thus Þp¤rN| n + A¢p = Þp¤rNm¢p = nas£tOther examples are: + Aas£tThe word gjannm. In this case. We shall therefore give only the rules for combining words. Here are a few more examples. The word tÅcWtÓy| is obtained by combining tt.and ¢kl. Combining consonants. how does one find out if a given word is actually a combination of other words. Look at an example: ¢hm + Acl| = ¢hmaclm.or snow clad mountain. This is true also when the both the combining vowels are A . ttkam+ ¢cÓtn| + A¢p = t¢ÅcÓtn| = Aa¢vrBvt= kam¢p Aa¢vrq + ABvt- The consonant sandhi are quite complicated and we will not be able to deal with them in any detail except to indicate some and show the manner in which the sandhi is formed.means elephant faced and is actually a combination of gj + Aann| = gjannmSo one can see that a word ending with vowel A or Aa and a word beginning with vowel A or Aa results in Aa as the combination. This is an example of hal sandhi or consonant combinations. Avd¢Ókl is the combination of Avdn.

Here Ag# means first. the e in the first word becomes A and the swara in the second word is retained as it is. The rule for sandhi in this case says that when the swara e is followed by the long vowel Aa.e. When the swara in the second word is A it is rendered silent but shown through the { avagraha symbol which looks similar to the english letter s. the e becomes Ay.and y. Thus Ag#E becomes Ag#. The student may keep in mind the fact that sandhis involving e as the ending vowel in the first word . n- + ¢k = ¢Ók BgvÓS¦N¤ is Bgvnm¢ÓæOn+ S¦N¤ is + vd + Ag#E + Aas£t- likewise m¢ÓæOÓvd Let us look at idmg# Aas£tThis is a combination of idmNote that the text combine Ag# where as we have split it as Ag#E. the A will become silent in the combined word. Ex: idmg#E + ABvt.+ Ag#E follows the same principle as mentioned earlier and would become idmg#E if not followed by any word beginning with A. ex.i.becomes silent. If the second word begins with a swara (vowel) different from A . idmg#E Bv¢t When however the same e if followed by the short vowel A . This symbol known as the Avg#h: (avagraha) denotes that in the combination the swara A has been rendered silent but will appear when the words are split and pronounced separately. We have now seen a few examples of combinations involving e as the initial or first vowel. idm.-> idmg#E{BvtNote that between g#E and B a special symbol has been written.

the avagraha denotes the silent A and when the combined word is split the A will come back to the second word. iÏyÞy AÏyÚpmiÏya¢d is i¢t is i¢t + AÞy + Aa¢d is A¢t + AÚpm- The coombinations of i and A results in y. More examples of sandhi.+ u³| One may take it in general that the consonant t ending a word followed by any vowel(short or long) in the next word will transform into a d. the sandhi between k: and ATI: takes the form kaE{TI:. kaE{TI: k: + ATI: In this particular instance. ¢d±al Aæ¬v ¢dkq + kal is a single consonant sandhi. As explained earlier.will in general change to A . s¢d¢t t¢d¢t tdEv td¢p td^³| st. AæO + ev .+ i¢t tt. the student will do well to remember the different types of sandhis by memory. it will take the form AaE. Examples of combinations involving a change of consonants. Whenever a combination of a consonant with Visarg occurs before a short A. It is beyond the scope of this short course to go into the finer details of the sandhis at this point. At this point. This is quite a common case of sandhi involving the visarg.+ ev tt.+ A¢p tt. even though there are rules expounded in the Vyakarana of Panini as to how such sounds are derived.+ i¢t tt. There will be a separate lesson devoted to this topic. Consider a new case.

no no. It is to Sanskrit that most ancient languages have . It is common practice for many Indians to retain this in their converstions in English too ! You might find someone saying wait wait. AÞt¤ AÞt¤ etc.Negation of nouns. -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Grammar: Part-2 1.Word repetitions: ¢t¿ ¢t¿ . These repetitive words are frequent in Sanskrit and other Indian languages as well. There are generally no rules about which words can repeat. It would require a lot of reading and practice and sizeable vocabulary on the part of the student. One finds them used in conversations. 2. when the first word ends in A mmWv ydWv mmWÀy| or Aa : mm + ev yda + ev mm + eEÀy| General caution on sandhis. Please note that splitting a word cannot be done arbitrarily. Amusing is it not ? yes yes ! ¢t¿ means wait and AÞt¤ means alright or yes. For reference and also to present the intricacies of sandhis has been derived from the information provided in the Sanskrit Reader prepared by the Samskrit Education Society. Typically when a person answers a question with a single word or commands one with a single word. good good etc..The general rule is to change e or eE ending a second word to e . For this reason the student should not attempt to split any word into constituent words. such repetitions are heard. until his/her understanding of the language is good and he/she is familiar with many roots from which words are derived.

end.vowel) the A prefix becomes An.endless An¦tm.clear. when the noun begins with a Swara (i. ex: Ûy³m.Falsehood . We did see however in lesson 2 that the prefix Aa (long vowel) will give the opposite ..e. manifested. Any word beginning with A is not a negation of the word without the A. perceivable clearly by the senses.lack of heat (note § is a swara) The reader’s attention is drawn to the presence of similar usage in the Romantic languages and English as well.immortality Now.Truth .− false An¤ÝNm.heat AnÓtm.their tradition of negating a noun by the additions of a short vowel A as a prefix.. The student is informed that most verbs in their simple past tense take the prefix A . the meaning may be different. When A is added as a prefix the word becomes AÛy³munclear Other examples are: sÏymmrNmTruth death AsÏymAmrNm. This will be explained later in the course of the lesson. . Theist gnostic aerobic official ending atheist agnostic anaerobic unofficial unending A Word of Caution The student is advised that he\she should remember that the meaning of a word is negated with the prefix A only when the word is a noun or adjective. When A precedes a verb. These are some examples: AÓtm§tmuÝNm.

will naturally become plural.and Þvãpm. so the ending becomes AhÄðara: Also note the s¢ÓD in the final part of the word . A smas: is basically a combination of two nouns.. the three attributes of the same noun AhÄðar: . some of these discussions may seem unimportant.meaning of the verb as in the example: gÅC¢t goes ny¢t takes along AagÅC¢t comes Aany¢t comes back with For the beginner who is eager to speak Sanskrit as quickly as possible. a few examples of what are known as smasa: have been used. -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Grammar: Part-3 In this lesson. adjectives or nominal stems. Yet these points are given primarily to reinforce the idea that many words in Sanskrit are built from related words and in all cases from fundamental roots.is a combination of two nouns mht. This is an example of ¹Ó¹smas: . The student is however introduced to the concept through examples used in the lesson. The components of the word are in neuter and are in the nominative case. A detailed explanation of smasa: is beyond the scope of this on-line series of lessons. Consider the somewhat long word: sa¢Ïvkraj¢sktam¢skahÄðara: This is a combination of sa¢Ïvk AhÄðar: raj¢sk AhÄðar: and tam¢sk AhÄðar: When joined together. which means self or ego. The word mht-Þvãpm.

the child addresses the grandfather as Bvan. Difference between iÏyad£¢n and iÏya¢d: Both words are used to signify the meaning of etcetera (and so on. humans.The word tam¢sk and AhÄðara: combine into tam¢skahÄðara:. In the previous example of mht-Þvãpm-. etc. use the respectable form of addressing a person. However. However note the difference in this example. So instead of saying Ïv|. Use of respectable form BvÓt: (Bvan-) The student will note that the children when addressing their grandfather. the component mht. The final component noun rs: is ending as rsa: in plural. However most children in India were taught to use the respectable form with all elders. SÖd:. the humans and others. Here four nouns have been combined into a single word. In the present case however. In the English language.was actually an adjective of the noun Þvãpm. Let us see another example: dEvmn¤Ýyady: is dEv + mn¤Ýy + Aady: This word means the Gods. Collectively they form one word in plural. This is not really very common.explained earlier. & others). Consider the word: SÖdÞpSIãprsa: This will be identified as SÖd: + ÞpSI: + ãp: + rs: This is another example of a samasa similar to mht-Þvãpm. ÞpSI:. unlike in .tam¢skahÄðara: . This is the indication that all the four nouns are taken together..and so together they formed a Nominative singular. ãp: and rs: are distinct and independent from each other. one would probably write this as gods.

Rama (is) Dasaratha’s son.. For instance. Let us look at ram: dSrTÞy p¤æO: . In the Upanishads. the terms sa¢Ïvk: is derived from the sÏv which denotes a gentle or good quality.... iÏyady: is the adjective form.. We can say this as: ram: daSr¢T: where daSr¢T: denotes Dasaratha’s son. then iÏyad£¢n would be the correct usage. When used in the context of a string of words in plural form like Pla¢n . This is derived from ggIÞyE.. ------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Grammar Part-4 Deriving nouns and adjectives from other nouns : In Sanskrit. if one were using a string of singular words such as Aá:.English the singular and plural are differentiated. one can derive nouns and adjectives from other nouns by slightly transforming them. then iÏya¢d would be used to signify etcetera. Similarly in Kenopanishad one sees hWmvt£ which is derived from ¢hmvt: p¤æO£ hWmvt£ In our lesson.. Likewise lßmN: s¤¢mæOaya: p¤æO: would become lßmN: s¬¢m¢æO: The student will observe that such derivations generally apply to the genitive case where a noun is derived to indicate something relating to or derived from it. p¤Ýpa¢N . ggIÞyE p¤æO£ ga¢gI . gj: . An ahankara which partakes of the satvaguna is .. one finds the name gag£I (gargi).

and the gedanken experiment may therefore be termed as mans yåO .and tms. Any activity relating to the mind may be termed mansm. It is a thought experiment performed by the mind.respectively. 1. of the. Consider another example. The idea of a gedanken experiment is from Einstein. Similarly words are derived from the qualities rjs. Thus S¤n:p¤ÅCm. Let us see how we will derive the word for it in Sanskrit. Þvrs¢ÓD: Specifies the rules for combining short and long vowels. ½¤¢t means the vedas and ½¬t means from the. by the Vedas. yåO means an activity to achieve something. If a word is derived from S¤n:p¤ÅCm. Another section in this lesson deals with many examples taken from the lesson itself. .then it would be S¬n:p¤ÅCm.means tail. an activity ordained by the Vedas.sa¢ÏvkahÄðar: (note the sandhi). In Sanskrit.. Given below are the most important rules to be followed. When two words in Sanskrit are combined to form one word. Another example is ½¬tkmI.means dog’s tail. S¤n: means dog and p¤ÅCm. mind is mns-. the rules specify the transformations that must be applied depending on the vowel in the last letter of the first word and the vowel in the first letter of the second word. Let us look at some other interesting derivations. typically a religious activity aimed at the well being of the society. -----------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 7 Principles of Sandhi This section deals with the basic rules of Sandhi.

Aa+A=Aa. u+e=vE .. i+iI=iI. § and ¯ A+i=e . i+e=yE . Aa=AaE=A¬ . iI+iI=iI u+u=U. u+U=v u+iI=v£ . §=A=r §+Aa=ra .A+A=Aa. v¦¢¼s¢ÓD: Rules to be applied when A /Aa combine with e eE AaE and A¬ A+e=eE . U+u=U. iI+eE=yW . u . iI+i=iI. i+Aa=ya . Aa+§=Arq . U+U=U §+§=§ 2. Aa+u=AaE .eE . Aa+A¬=A¬ 4. Aa+iI=e . yÎs¢ÓD: Sandhi that results in y i+A=y . i+U=y¥ i+§=y¦ . A+AaE=A¬ Aa+AaE=A¬ . A+iI=e A+u=AaE . u+A¬=v¬ . i+eE=yW . u+Aa=v . A+U=AaE . A+Aa=Aa. e + Aa = AayeE + Aa = AayAaE + Aa = AavA¬ + u = AavWe will include detailed discussions on Sandhi Rules . Aa+i=e . i+A¬=y¬ iI+A=y . i+u=y¤ . Aa+Aa=Aa i+i=iI. u+U=U. §+eE=rW 5. AaE . g¤Ns¢ÓD: Rules to be applied when A /Aa combine with i . A+eE=eE . A+¯=Al3. Aa+e=eE . A¬ with an Ac. Aa+U=AaE A+§=Arq . Ayvayav s¢ÓD: Specifies the rules for combining e .

a similar procedure may be adopted. In deriving the form of the Past tense of a verb. Singular Dual Plural 3rd person 2nd person 1st person Past Tense 3rd person 2nd person -----¢t -----¢s -----¢m Singular A----tA----: ----t: ----T: ----v: Dual A---ta| A---t| -----A¢Ót -----T -----m: Plural A---nA----t . ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 7 Past Tense In this lesson we have introduced sentences.Present Tense Singular III person II person I person 2. Some sentences use verbs in the Past Tense. In the previous lessons we saw how some verbs conjugate in the present tense through the addition of appropriate suffixes to the root form of the verb.Past Tense Singular 3rd person 2nd person 1st person ApZtApZ: ApZ| Dual ApZta| ApZt| ApZav Plural ApZnApZt ApZam pZ¢t pZ¢s pZa¢m Dual pZt: pZT: pZav: Plural pZ¢Ót pZT pZam: Let us recall the suffixes added in the case of the Present Tense. Let us look at the conjugations of pZq 1. For the present. Past tense refers to an action that has already taken place.in a separate lesson. though the derivation will involve both a prefix and a suufix to the root form. The above may just be noted by the student.

iÏyÞy kaE{TI: ? 2. tm: i¢t pdÞy p#kaSÞy ABav: i¢t ATI: va ? 5. vayaE: k¢t g¤Na: ? 8. In the sentences below the words to be combined are indicated the underscore symbol. p¦¢TÛya: k¢t g¤Na: ? ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 7 Exercise -2 In this lesson. 1. Try and form compund words froms from the given words. we have introduced the compound words formed through sandhis.¢kl kT| p¥vI| AayIBÊó: −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− gaElÓtrSÞæOE p¤Þtk| . tEjs: k¢t g¤Na: ? kE tE ? 9. udkÞy k¢t g¤Na: ? 10. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 7 Exercise -1 Here are some questions from the lesson. It is useful for the student to remember the simple rules to be applied depending on the vowels and consonants at the end and the beginning of the combining words. AÛy³|| iÏyÞy kaE{TI: ? 3. At the same time see if you can understand the sentence as well. ka¢n eta¢n p·B¥ta¢n ? 6. So read the lesson again.BvÓt: p¥vI| Avdn.i¢t ¢k| ? 4. Answers are mostly found in the lesson itself.sdq ev saEØy id| Ag#E Aas£t-_i¢t . mht. 1. tt. AakaSÞy k: g¤N: ? 7.1st person A----m- A----v A---m The rule given above applies to many verbs used in normal conversations. 2.

−−−−−−−−−− up¢nxt- vaÀym- . −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− 3.st- i¢t AÞy k: ATI: ? −−−−−−−−−− 4.tt- cWtÓy| laEks¦¢¾| Akamyt- . −−−−−−−−−−−−− 5.tatÞy kTa| ½¤Ïva ¢k¢·t- A¢p n AvgÅCa¢m . −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-7 Exercise -3 1. Try and read the following sentences. They contain some verbs in the past tense. You should be able to translate the sentences as well. a. eb#ha| ¢lÄðn- AmE¢rka dESÞy p#E¢sfEÎz Aas£t- . b. lE¢nn- ev| Þza¢ln- rÝya dESÞy nEtar¬ AaÞtam- . c. s¤BaxcÓd# bs¤ , srq s£ v£ ramn- , haEm£ baba iÏyEtE sv©I laEkp#¢s¼a: Aasn- . The sentences have used the past tense of the verb A¢Þt in singular, dual as well as plural. 2. Fill up the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb, as in the sentences above: 1. SÄðrraman¤j¬ BartE AacayaªI ------. 2. ½£¢nvasraman¤j: g¢NtE ¢np¤N: ------. 3. jvhlaIl- nEhâ BartÞy p#DanmÓæO£ ------. 4. ASaEkc@vt£I A¢h|satÏvÞy p#cark: ------. 5. ¢vvEkanÓd¢cÓmyanÓd¬ AaÒya¢ÏmkacayaªI ------. 6. AayIBÊó BaÞkracayI vrah¢m¢hra: ÇyaE¢tBaIlSÞæOåOa: ------. 7. ka¢ldas: k¢v ------. 8. ½£Ïyagraj: p#¢s¼mak: ------. 9. i¢ÓdragaÓD£ raj£vgaÓD£ c BartE p#DanmÓæO£N¬ ------.

10. valm£¢k: Ûyas: c p#ac£nacayaªI: ------. II. Change the following sentence into first person and past tense. Ex: s: gtmasE ¢SkagaE ngrE Aas£t- . Ah| gtmasE ¢SkagaE ngrE Aasm- . 1. mÓæO£ gt¢dnE ¢d¢ÚlngrE Aas£t- . 2. sa gtmasE jpan- ngrE Aas£t- . 3. ¢vjy: /: kayaIlyE Aas£t- . 4. ¢vÚyØs- /: cl¢ÅcæO| d#¾¤| gtvan- Aas£t- . 5. nr: gtsçOahE s|Þk]t| p¢Ztvan- Aas£t- . --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 7 Exercise -4 Change the following 3rd person singular sentences in the past tense into 3rd person plural as well as second person singular. ex: s: s|Þk]t| ApZt- . tE s|Þk]t| ApZn- . Ïv| s|Þk]t| ApZ: . 1. sa kayaIly| AgÅCt- . AgÅCt- - went 2. bal: Pl| AKadt- . AKadt- - ate 3. s: bal| Anyt- . Anyt- - led 4. nr: ngrE Avst- . Avst- - lived 5. maDv: jl| A¢pbt- . A¢pbt- - drank 2. Choose the appropriate word from those given in parantheses to fill up the blanks. (you will also have to use the appropriate conjugation).

1. CaæO: svIda s|Þk]t|---------. (A¢t¾t-, Avdn-, Aptt- ) 2. nra: Pl|---------. (Ahst-, A¢pbt-, AKadt3. mata p¤æO|---------. (A@£ft-, Ac¤Øbt-, AKadt4. Ïv| iIár| ---------. (AyÅCt-, Anmt-, A¢lKt- ) 5. Ah| cl¢ÅcæO| ---------. (AgjIt-, Ajyt-, ApÜyt- ) 6. vy| d¢rd#EÜy Dn| d¢rd#Üy ---------. ) (A@£ft-, A¢lKt-, AyÅCt- to the poor 7. Aava| sda sÏy| ---------. (Avdt-, Anmt-, A¢pbt- ) 8. y¥y| /: ¢k|---------. (AgjIt-, A¢lKt-, ApZt-) 9. y¤va| p#¢t¢dn| ¢k| ---------. (ApÜyt-, Ahst-, AkraEt-) 10. ta¢n Pla¢n v¦Xat- ---------. (ApÜyt-, Aptt-, A¢t¾t- ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 7 Exercise 5 Fill up the blanks in the following sentences. (Choose the appropriate word from the following) Ah|, Aava|, vy|, Ïv|, y¤va|, y¥y| 1.------/: dordSIn| ApÜym- . 2.------ ngr| AgÅCav 3.------ ¢kmTI| Ahst: ? 4.------ kda BaEjn| AKadt ? 5.------ gtsçOahE pæO| A¢lKt| . 6.------ dEv| ¢Sv| Anmam . 7.------ ¢nrÓtr| s|Þk]t| ApZam . 8.------ s|Þk]tpr£Xaya| Ajyav . ) )

------------------------------------------------------------II See if you can write Ten simple sentences about your childhood. The list of verbs given in section will be more than adequate for you to form the required sentences.

We will take you to see the movie only. ¢ptamh: . no. Usha and Mohan approach their grandfather and ask him.n.Lesson-8 Part 1 Mohan.i¢t ? Hey...cl¢ÅcæOÞy nam ? . No.tat á: r¢vvasr: . u.ArE ! y¤va| n ÞmrT: ¢km.ntIn| d#¾¤| ev| gan| ½aEt... maE . ¢k|| Þyat. about the television program? tt. Instead let us go to the Kamakshi temple. mhaBartm.maE Bvt: An¤m¢t| ¢vna ev.n . Aava| ¢tÞa#: upvE¢Ska: AarXav . Aava| BvÓt| cl¢ÅcæO| d#¾¤| nEÝyav: ev .. tomorrow is Sunday. Mahabharatam ! ----------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-8 Part 2 Scene at Home . Shall we go and watch a movie? ¢ptamh: . What would be the name of the movie? . uxa maEhn. u.. uxa. we have reserved three seats.. It is Saturday.. That I will not go to see that singing and dancing.k]pya cl¢ÅcæO| d#¾¤| ev gÅCam: .. Even without your permission.? p¥vI¢Þmn. prÓt¤ kamaX£dEvaly| gÅCam: . usha and Grandfather Ay| S¢nvasr: . cl¢ÅcæO| d#¾¤| gÅCam: va ? Grandfather.c ¢ptamh| p#¢t gÏva vdt: ..paZE dordSIn| p#¢t ¢k| Avdtm.. Please let us go only to see the movie. n Aag¢mÝya¢m ¤| i¢t Kl¤ .. maEhn-.. don’t you remember what you said in the last lesson.

tTa¢p tExa| prÞpr s|bÓDanidan£m¢p navgÅCa¢m . May be so.AhaE ! k¢t nayka: na¢yka: ek¢Þmn.åOat¤| mE bh¤ k¾| A¢Þt . The one whom they called grandfather. (means: I too have the same question) tæO ¢ptamh: i¢t y| tE Aah¤: . Same here. appeared really radiant and great. s: vÞt¤t: tEjÞv£ mhan. tat ! vdt¤ tavt.. uxaAÞt¤ ev| . maEhn...¢ptamh: p¬æO¬ c mhaBart| nam cl¢ÅcæO| è¾qva g¦h| p#ÏyagÅCn. It is difficult for me to understand (know) their relationships. kT| tÞy AÓDp¤âxEN s|bÓD: ? What is his relationship with the blind person? maEhn. ArE d^ya©IDnÞy ¢k| ekaEnSt| B#atr: Aasn. tTa At£v uÏs¤kaE{¢Þm . Scene after the three have watched the film and returned home.. tTa¢p n£lÜyaml| k]ÝN|.? Oh! Amazing ! Did Duryodhana really have ninetynine brothers? tÞy @£fa| d#¾¤| .mm A¢p ev| ev .cl¢ÅcæOE ! Oh! how many heros ans heroines in one movie! tExa| prÞprs|bÓDan. kaE{y| g¬rvNI: paÎf¤: nam ? Grandfather! Please tell who that fair skinned (almost white skinned) person called Pandu. uxa AhaE ! AaàyI| .c p#¢tBa¢t . But of course I am eager to see the dark blue Krishna and his (divine) actions. but I cannot understand their relationships even now.

¢v¢cæOv£ya©I A¢p y¬vnavÞTaya| ev raEgg#ÞtaE B¥Ïva ¢dv|gt: . if you pester me like this I cannot answer. Ah| tavt. yda tEn Aaj£vn| b#’cyIv#t| D¦t| . I will now tell you the story of the Mahabharata. Bhishma was earlier known as Devavrata. Through his first Consort Ganga.SÓtn¤: Kl¤ saEmv|SE raja . tÞy æOy: p¤æOa: Aasn. He had three sons. ev| p¦ÅCt: cEt. ¢v¢cæOv£yI: c ¢cæOaÄñdà . B£ÝmÞy nam p¥vI| dEvv#t: i¢t Aas£t. sÏyvÏya| ¢¹t£yaya| BayaIya| ¹¬ p¤æO¬ . When he took a vow of celebacy for his entire life...mhaBartkTa| ev vNIya¢m .. During his childhood itself.. ÇyE¿m¢hÝya| gÄñaya| B£Ým: nam p¤æO: ABvt. he became famous and his name Bhishma. baÚy ev ¢cæOaÄñd| ekaE gÓDvI: Ahn. Chitrangada was killed by a Gandharva (Semidivine being).«¢m . Aï k¬rvpaÎfvana| jÓmpyIÓt| kTya¢m . Today I will tell you upto the birth of the Kauravas and Pandavas..¢ptamh: .Sunday ¢ptamh: . he had a son called Bhishma. Vichitraveerya and Chitrangada. Shantanu (was) the king of the Soma (Lunar) dynasty.S¦N¤ . --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 8 Part 3: Pandavas and Kauravas r¢vvasrE . Listen. From the second wife Satyavati he had two sons. tda tÞy nam B£Ým i¢t p#¢s¼| ABvt.p#Ïy¤äOr| dat¤| n S. Vichitraveerya too died in his youth .

. Chtrangada was the brother of Vichitraveerya... what is the relationship between Pandu and Vichitraveerya. tell the relationship between Vichitraveerya and Bhishma.. Their names were Dhritrashtra. k[Ót£ mad#£ c . ¢cæOaÄñd: ¢v¢cæOv£yIÞy B#ata . maEhn..maEhn. Bhishma was Pandu’s Father’s elder brother (Uncle.uxE . ¢ptamh: ... tÞy BayIyaE: ev| daÞya| æOy: p¤æOa: ABvn. tExa| nama¢n @mEN D¦tra¾®: paÎf¤: ev| ¢vd^r: He had three sons from his two wives and a maid.. Kunthi was Lord SriKrishna’s father’s sister (Aunt). Ïv| b#¥¢h paÎfaE: ¢v¢cæOv£y©IN k: s|bÓD: i¢t . Usha. .vd ¢v¢cæOv£yIÞy B£ÝmEN k: s|bÓD: ? Mohan. Kunthi and Madri.paÎfaE: ¹E Bay©I AaÞtam...smat¦jaE B#ata .. Pandu had two wives.tt: B£Ým: . ? Then Bhishma .? uxaB£xm: paÎfaE: ÇyE¿¢pt¦Ûy: .. Note the specific reference to father’s elder brother) ¢ptamh: .. ¢ptamh: . Pandu and Vidura respectively. Step brother. Father and Son.. k[Ót£ Bgvt: ½£k]ÝNÞy ¢pt¦Ûya (¢pt¦Þvsa) Aas£t. ¢ptamh: . ...due to disease.. you tell. uxa ¢pta c p¤æO: ..

«t. p¤æOjnnanÓtr| paÎf¤: S£G#mEv m¦t: ABvt. So Pandu became the king of Hastinapura. idan£| k[ÓÏya: k¢t p¤æOa: .. Since Dhritarashtra was congenitally blind..D¦tra¾®: jÓmp#¦¢t AÓD: Aas£t. Madradesa was a kingdom in the northwest of Bharat (part of present day Afghanistaan). æOy: k[ÓÏya|. Dhritarashtra had a hundred sons and a daughter through Gandhari. Madri was the princess of the kingdom of Madra. tÞya A¢p SÚy: nam B#ata Aas£t. Soon after the birth of his sons. tt: paÎf¤: h¢Þtnap¤rÞy raja ABvt. tdan£| mad#£ A¢p pÏya sh ¢dv|gta . ¢ptamh: . he could not ascend the throne. eka s¤ta c . In those days.. D¦tra¾®Þy gaÓDayaI| St| p¤æOa: Aasn-. Pandu died. She also had a brother by name Salya. -------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 8 Part 4 ¢ptamh: . paÎfaE: p· p¤æOa: Aasn.yÞmat.. md#dES: tdan£| BartdESÞy vayÛy ¢dÂBagE ek: p#dES: Aas£t. h¢Þtnap¤r£ k[âpa·aldESÞy rajDan£ Aas£t. Hastinapuri was the capital of the KuruPanchala Desa. tÞmat.uxE vd . Then Madri entered the funeral pyre along with her husband. Pandu had five sons..s: ¢s|hasn| AaraEd^| n AS...mad#£ md#dES£ya rajkÓya Aas£t. Three from Kunthi and two from Madri... ev| ¹¬ mad#Ya|| c .

(It appears that there was a system of ranking twins too as elder and younger.maEhn. ¢ptamh: .. Aj¤Inà .? kE etE ? Usha. y¤¢D¢¿r: . Even then Nakula was the elder. on account of the wickedness seen in him.kT| ? t¬ yml¬ Kl¤ ? How ? They were twins (were’nt they?) ¢ptamh: . Yudhishtira .sØykq . B£msEn: . . he was called Duryodhana. Yes..) D¦tra¾®Þy p¤æOEx¤ k: jE¾: ? Well. who was the elder among the sons of Dhritarashtra? maE . do you know what the names of the two sons of Madri are? maEhn. One was Nakula and the other Sahadeva. jana¢s va mad#Ya: ¹yaE: p¤æOyaE: nam ¢k¢m¢t ? Mohan. ¢ptamh: . how many sons did Kunthi have? Who are they? uxa æOy: .Aasn. prÓt¤ tÞy d^mI¢t| è¾qva d^ya©IDn: i¢t t| Avdn. Bhimasena and Arjuna. tTa{¢p nk[laE ÇyE¿: Good. What would be of interest here is to know that the one born first will be the younger! The concept is that the one born second has spent more time in his mother’s womb. Three.ek: nk[l: . Suyodhana.tyaE: k: jE¿: ? Who was elder among them? maEhn. now tell.s¤yaEDn: . u ..Aa| . AÓy: shdEv: . ¢ptamh: ..

d^ya©IDnad£na| ka shaEdr£ Aas£t- ? Who was the sister of the Duryodhana brothers? maEhn- - d^ÜSla . Dussala. ¢ptamh: - A¢BmÓy¤: kÞy p¬æO: Aas£t- ? Whose grandson was Abhimanyu? maEhn- - A¢BmÓyaE: ¢ptamh: paÎf¤: . Abhimanyu’s grandfather was Pandu. uxa tat tat ! p¤æOÞy p¤æO: p¬æO: cEt- p¤æya: p¤æO: k: ? Grandfather! if one’s son’s son is called poutra, then who is one’s daughter’s son ? ¢ptamh: - uäOm: p#½": . t| d¬¢hæO: i¢t vd¢Ót . Good question. He is called douhitra. y¢d p¤æya: p¤æO£ t¢hI d¬¢hæO£ Bv¢t . If it is daughter’s daughter, then she is called douhitree. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson 8 Part-5 ¢ptamh: - k: jana¢t pr£¢Xt: mharajÞy matamh£ ka i¢t ? Who remembers (knows) who was the maternal grandmother of Parikshit Maharaja ? uxa, maEhn- - Aava| n jan£v: . prÓt¤ , pr£¢Xt- mharaja kÞy p¤æO: ? We do not know butWhose son was Parikshit Maharaja? ¢ptamh: - s: A¢BmÓyaE: p¤æO: . He was Abhimanyu’s son. uxa, maEhn- - A¢BmÓyaE: BayaI ka ?

Who was Abhimanyu’s wife? ¢ptamh: - A¢BmÓyaE: BayaI d#^pdrajp¤æO£ uäOra Aas£t- . AÞt¤ , AÓy| p#½"| p¦ÅCa¢m . Abhimanyu’s wife was Uttara, the princess of (kingdom of) Drupada. OK, let me ask another question. d^ya©IDnEn sh Sk[nE: k: s|bÓD: ? What is the relationship between Sakuni and Duryodhana? maEhn- - mat¤l: . Uncle (Mother’s brother) ¢ptamh: - paÎfvana| D¦tra¾®Þy k: s|bÓD: ? What is the relationship between Dhritarashtra and the Pandavas? uxa - s: paÎfvana| ¢pt¦Ûy: Kl¤ . Paternal Uncle of the Pandavas. ¢ptamh: - baF| . t¢hI vdt| k[Ót£mad#Y«: ¢mT: k: s|bÓD: ? Correct. Then tell what is the relationship between Kunthi and Madri? uxa spÏÓy¬ . Wives of the same person. ¢ptamh: - sm£c£n| uäOrm- . paÎf¤D¦tra¾®yaE: ¢ptamh: SÓtn¤: , ¢ptamh£ sÏyvt£ . Correct answer. Shantanu was the grandfather of Pandu and Dhritarashtra, and their grandmother Satyavati. d#¬pd£ k[ÓÏya: Þn¤xa Aas£t- ev| paÎf¤: d#¬pïa: áS¤r: k[Ót£ ½¥: c . Draupadi was the daughter in law of Kunthi and Pandu was Draupadi’s father in law. Kunthi

was the mother in law. Sk[¢n: D¦tra¾®Þy Þyal: . Sakuni was Dhritarashtra’s brother in law. D¦tra¾®: Sk[nE: B¢gn£p¢t: . Dhritarashtra was Sakuni’s sister’s husband. (Brother in law) d^ya©IDn: Sk[nE: Ba¢gnEy: . Duryodhana was Sakuni’s nephew (sister’s son). kTa raEctE Kl¤ . it:pr| AÓy¢Þmn- ¢dnE pZam: . S¤Bra¢æO: . Story was interesting wasn’t it? Will follow it up another day. Good night. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Grammar for Lesson-8 __________ Part-1__________ p#¢tgÏva − p#¢t is used here like the English preposition "towards". However here it is a prefix and not an independent word. p#¢t may also be used like a preposition in Sanskrit. In such cases it will have different meanings like "about" or "in connection with" Unlike the perposition in English which is written before the noun, p#¢t is written following the noun. When written like this, the noun which occurs before p#¢t should be expressed in the Accusative case (¢¹t£ya ¢vB¢³:). Clearly this difference in use must be remembered. In lighter vein, should we call this a "postposition" rather than a "preposition"? Here are some examples of the use of p#¢t s: g¦h| p#¢t gÅC¢t He is going towards his house or just He goes home.

p#¢t is used after g¦h| Here is another example. dEvan- p#¢t maÀs- m¤Úlrq ¢k| Avdt- ? What did Max Muller say about the Vedas? There is something else about p#¢t which should be kept in mind. p#¢t may also be used as prefix to a verb, typically a transitive verb such as gÅC (a verb of motion). Thus p#¢tgÅC¢t will mean "goes towards" p#¢t may also be used as a prefix to a noun as in p#¢t¢dnm- which means "everyday". Thus, when you see p#¢t its meaning will depend on the context. Is it used after a noun? Is it a prefix to a verb? Is it a prefix to a noun? later in the lesson, you will read about p#¢tBa¢t and p#Ïy¤äOrmWhile on the use of p#¢t, we might bring the reader’s attention to a famous and important verse AakaSat- p¢tt| taEy| yTa gÅC¢t sagrmsvIdEv nmÞkar: kESv| p#¢t gÅC¢t ¡ We will discuss the meaning of this beautiful verse in one of the later lessons. --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-8 Grammar Part-2 d#¾¤m- , ½aEt¤mt¤m¤n- These are t¤m¤n- words. The concept of was introduced in Lesson-6

n Aag¢mÝya¢m − literally ’ I will not come’ In the context of this lesson, it should be taken to mean ’I will not go to see the movie’ or simply ’I shall not come’.

Accusative case (¢¹t£ya ¢vB¢³:) p¬æO¬ − Normally means two grandsons (¢¹vcnm-). − A person with divine radiance. infact this word is an indeclinable. the form depends on the gender. There are some special conventions used in describing grandchildren. kaE{ym. This applies to groups of people as well.¢vna ev ¢vna − even without − without. used in first person here. n£lÜyamlm- tTa¢p ev| ev − even then − Both are indeclinables. The samasam is used in the dual form . even if one of the grandchildren is male.− k: + Ay| A example of a Sandhi mm A¢p ev| ev tEjÞv£ vÞt¤t: − vNIya¢m k¬rvpaÎfvana| − Example of a Samasam. When used together they mean ’it is so’ − Here it means ’I too feel the same’.. really. It means ’ of Kauravas and Pandavas ’ . Ex.e.. Please remember that the noun against which ¢vna is used should be in the second case. − means describe.− dark. These may be used independently too. p¬æO¬ − two male grandchildren p¬æy¬ − two grand daughters However in dual or plural. It means dark blue. actually. the male form is used to refer to the two grandchildren. Note however the order of the colours in the expression. n£l| −Blue Üyamlm. This is a compound of two nouns. ek¢ÞmntExam- − This is the seventh case of the pronoun ek: meaning "in a" or "in one" − Their (m) Sixth case plural − Adjective used to describe Lord krishna (his colour). i. Krishna and his Gopis (Gopika ladies) will be referred to as tE (m) and not as ta: (f). When both are of the same gender.

the sentence would go like.− Upto the birth The word is also an indeclinable. Hence the plural form k¬rvpaÎfvana| is used.− As long as one lives b#’cyIv#t| − B£Ým − means a person whom people approach with caution or fear. or as @mEN paÎfaE: − ¢v¢cæOv£y©IN − from or by Vichtraveerya . It may also be used in this fashion to describe "upto a physcial boundary" Examples. pyIÓt| which denotes "upto" or "till" is added to nouns to indicate an event in time. In this case. When we examine it.itself means till the end. the dual form does seem appropriate. he has taken a vow.as the compound noun is formed to describe two groups of people and not a group consisting of Kauravas and Pandavas.( pyIÓt| ) − Upto any amount of Time. used in the sense of King’s wife vow of celebacy Aaj£vnm. --------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson8: Grammar Part-3 jÓmpyIÓtm. m¢hx£ − Consort . Now if the grandfather were intending to refer to the Pandavas and Kauravas independently. Aï k¬rvaNa| paÎfvana| c jÓmpyIÓt| kTya¢m . respectively or in the order − of Pandu yavt. a fearful one that can be fulfilled only on account of extraordinary courage. (In the sense of not being able to find a person of match in respect of the great qualities of the person). kalpyIÓt| − Upto the duration A¢ÓtmpyIÓt| − Till the last (of one’s life) AÓtpyIÓt| − Till the end s£mapyIÓt| − Upto the border much time. yavt.

from birth The word p#B¦¢t can be added to any process from any point. Here is an example of a sentence using this pair.½£k]ÝNÞy − SriKrishna’s md#dES£ya − of Madra Desa All the above four words. Some examples.from the time of the accident pr£Xap#B¦¢t − from the time of the examination ¢vvahaÏp#B¦¢t − from the time of marriage p¤æOjnnaÓtr| − After the birth of the children.− tavtyÞmat.etts|Þk]tpaZ| p¢Zt¤| S. you are able to read this Sanskrit lesson. s|pkI communication.− tÞmat− two words used as a pair.meaning after the marriage yml¬ − twins A compound word formed from ¢vraz . jnn and AnÓtr| AnÓtr| is an indeclinable. jÓmp#B¦¢t − Congenitally. jalm. This is a compund word from p¤æO .«¢t Since the internet is there. raja and m¢hx£ ¢vrazrajm¢hx£ − the consort of the King of ¢vraz (dES:. tÞmat. yÞmat. the compound noun becomes neuter. . AnÓtr| may be added as a suffix just as p#B¦¢t ¢vvahanÓtrm.Bvan.A compound noun built up of ¢vá: world. Usage is similar to yavt.¢vás|pkIjal| A¢Þt . It means from then on.means "since" or "because" and tÞmatmeans "as a consequence". reflect the use of nouns in different ¢vB¢³: yÞmat.. d^GIznap#B¦¢t .e.net Based on the ending word. ¢vás|pkIjalm. i.

g¬r£ Case 1. This coupled with the fact that the name ram: has a special significance for people in India. 5. 2. The word ram: is the word representative of most masculine nouns in Sanskrit which end in the vowel A . Case declensions for a noun are obtained by adding different suffixes to the basic form of the noun. 6. 4. 3. Form of the noun g¬r£ g¬r£| g¬yaI g¬y©I . form of the noun ram: rammramEN ramay ramatramÞy ramE hE ram ! Thus knowing the declensions for ram: will help the student identify the case declensions for many many nouns which are masculine and end with A . is the reason why most Primers for Sanskrit start with ram: for illustrating the declensions.¢vB¢³: − Case It is assumed that the reader has reached this point after reading the introduction to the "cases". 4. Now let us see the declensions for a feminine noun ending in iI . 8. 7. The suffix will be different based on the case. 3. 2. gender and number of the noun. Case 1.

The second case is usually referred to as ¢¹t£ya ¢vB¢³: though it does have . Now. The man beats the horse In these sentences. This is known as kark ¢vB¢³: . The noun chosen for this purpose is Aá: or horse. Aá: is the subject of the sentence and is hence given in its basic form as the nominative case. p#Tma meaning first and ¢vB¢³: meaning case. The name for the nominative case in Sanskrit is p#Tma ¢vB¢³: . 8. Case 1. we shall see exmples of sentences which have nouns in different cases. The same noun is used in all the sentences. p¤âx: Aá| AaraEh¢t . The Accusative case. the horse forms the direct object of the verbs AaraEh¢t and tafy¢t . 6. This is a masculine noun similar to ram: and you will see the rules applied as in the case of ram: . Hence the use in the Accusative case. The Nominative case Aá: ¢t¿¢t − The horse is standing Aá: Dav¢t − The horse is running In bothe cases. There is also a name for this case given according to Sanskrit Grammar. The man ascends the horse p¤âx: Aá| tafy¢t . g¬yaI: g¬yaI: g¬yaI| hE g¬r£ ! The two examples do illustrate the concept that suffixes are added to the noun to get at the declensions. 7. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Case 2.5.

another name . He is asking Rs.000 for the horse.gjÞy m¥Úy| A¢Dkm. kmI¢vB¢³: . Aáat. for according to other grammar rules of Sanskrit. p¤rx: AáEn g¦h| gÅC¢t . He gives grass to the horse (to eat) s: Aáay ¢vØS¢t shÞa# ãÔyka¢N p¦ÅC¢t . 20. Its other name is krN ¢vB¢³: . It may be noted that the declension here is AáEn though the student might expect it to be AáEN as per the declensions of ram: . The man goes home by horse raja AáEn vn| gÅC¢t . The statement in Sanskrit when interpreted . The King goes to the forest on horse. Case 3. the meaning conveyed by the case declension is "by" or "through". In the Dative case. The Dative case is known as ct¤T£I ¢vB¢³: or sØp#dan ¢vB¢³: Case 5. This need not confuse the student. The Dative case.. the meaning conveyed is "for" or "to" . Case 4. She falls down from the horse. s: Aáay t¦N| yÅC¢t . The Ablative case sa Aáat. The elephant is more expensive than the horse. The third case in Sanskrit is known as ¢æOt£ya ¢vB¢³: . the use of n or N will be prescribed based on the consonants present in the noun. The Instrumental case. In these examples.AD:pt¢t .

. comparisons.e. The meaning conveyed by this case is "from" or "than" i. The last case is known as sØbaEDnp#Tma ¢vB¢³:. Case 7. Indra has a liking for the horse called Uchchaisravas. The fifth case is known as p·m£ ¢vB¢³: or Apadan ¢vB¢³: . means that the price of the elephant is higher than that of the horse. Its other name is A¢DkrN ¢vB¢³: . Case 8.literally. A¢KÚls. iÓd#Þy uÅcW½v: nam AáE Aaxa (A¢Þt) . The seventh case is known as sçOm£ ¢vB¢³:. This case is also known as sØbÓD ¢vB¢³: .. S£G#| gÅC . AáE nr: up¢vS¢t .p#¢s¼: ABvt. The man sits on the horse. The Locative case AáE bl| A¢Þt .. In the horse is strength. The vocative case. the meaning is that of the Genitive case in English i.Aáat. pEgss. AáÞy vNI: k: ? What is the colour of the horse? AáÞy p¢t: k: ? Who is the owner of the horse? In this case or x¾£ ¢vB¢³: . It is generally not referred to by its expected name A¾m£ ¢vB¢³: . Case 6. hE Aá . −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− The examples given above are meant to introduce the . Achilles became famous because of the horse Pegasus. Oh horse! go fast. This case also is used to convey the meaning "because of".e. The possessive case.. "of" or "belonging to" etc..

The Nominative case. Each case is discussed individually with additional information relating to special forms. Rule: The subject of a verb is in the Nominative case. The person learning Sanskrit is expected to know the declensions for many many nouns.basic idea behind the ¢vB¢³: . Please note that . Feminine Nouns ending in Aa s£ta rma lta ¢stE rmE ltE ¢sta: rma: lta: General Rule: All feminine nouns ending in Aa will decline as above in the Nominative case. In the following sections we will go into the details of each ¢vB¢³: and see several examples of nouns in different genders and nouns. Practice will be required. Masculine nouns ending in A ram: k]ÝN: gj: v¦X: ram¬ k]ÝN¬ gj¬ v¦X¬ rama: k]ÝNa: gja: v¦Xa: General Rule: All masculine nouns ending in A will decline as above in the Nominative case. Neuter nouns ending in A . The noun is declined in all the three numbers (vcna¢n). -------------------------------------------------------------------- In the following sections we will provide different examples of declensions of nouns. Case1.

the anuswar is not to be reckoned in fixing the ending vowel. Masculine nouns ending in A (ram:) (gj:) ram| gj| rm¬ gj¬ ramangjan- . bal¬ @£ft: s£ta pc¢t p¤Ýpa¢N ¢vks¢Ót y¥y| pZT tE Kad¢Ót kE AæO ¢t¿¢Ót ? Observe that the verb is also declined based on the case of the noun. the suffix n or N will be used depending on other grammar rules). Pl| nEæO| p¤Þtk| pæO| PlE nEæOE p¤ÞtkE pæOE Pla¢n nEæOa¢N p¤Þtka¢n pæOa¢N (As mentioned earlier in the declensions of Aá:. ------------------------------------------------------------------Lesson-9 Cases Case-2 The Accusative Case The direct object of the verb in a sentence is in the Accusative case. that both the noun and the verb should be consistent with each other. Declensions. Most Neuter nouns ending in A will decline as above. Here are some examples of use of nouns in the Nominative case. It will be helpful to remember the simple rule. Thus there is consistency in a sentence between the declensions of the noun and the verb.

. n: y¤Ýman. Also.. ma Ïva|. Neuter nouns ending in A ( Pl| ) ( nEæO| ) ( p¤Þtk| ) ( pæO| ) PlmnEæOmp¤Þtk| pæOmPlE nEæOE p¤ÞtkE pæOE Pla¢n nEæOa¢N p¤Þtka¢n pæOa¢N As a general rule. Ïva t| ta| ttim| en| ima| ena| id| et| en| eta| Aava|. all Feminine nouns ending in Aa will decline as above in the Accusative case. va| t¬ tE tE im¬ en¬ imE enE imE et¬ en¬ etE AÞman. Feminine nouns ending in Aa (s£ta) (rma) (lta) s£ta| rma| lta| s£tE rmE lt¬ s£ta: rma: lta: As a general rule.(hÞt:) (v¦X:) hÞt| v¦X| hÞt¬ v¦X¬ hÞtanv¦Xan- As a general rule. all masculine nouns ending in A will decline as above in the Accusative case. n¬ y¤va|. Neuter nouns will have the same declensions in the Nominative and Accusative cases. v: tanta: ta¢n imanenanima: ena: ima¢n etanenaneta: . Now for the declensions of the personal pronouns Ah| Ïv| s: sa ttAy| Ay| iy| iy| id| ex: ex: exa ma|. all neuter nouns ending in A will decline as above.

The elephant is drinking the water tE Aáan. Ïv| p#at: ¢k| pZ¢s ? sa k| nm¢t ? . jna: dEv| nm¢Ót . They are seeing the horses Ïv| AacayI| nm¢s . Note however. Some questions which use the noun in the Accusative.exa ettk: ka ¢k| ena| ettk| ka| ¢km- enE etE k¬ kE kE ena: eta¢n kanka: ka¢n Please note that for some of the personal pronouns two different forms are indicated. I am viewing the picture Observation: These simple sentences are ordered as (noun) (direct object) (verb) which ordering is different from the familiar ordering in English which is (noun) (verb) (direct object) In Sanskrit and many other Indian languages.. This is not an inconsistency. Here are some examples of sentenses using the Accusative.pÜy¢Ót . people are offering salutations to the deity gj: jl| ¢pb¢t . Some European languages also have this structure (German). You areoffering salutations to the teacher Ah| ¢cæO| pÜya¢m .g. the verb often gets placed at the end. the sentence in Sanskrit will make perfect sense even if the ordering is changed e.. Ïv| nm¢s AacayIm.

p¤Ýpvaz£| svIt: bala: . tÎf¤lan.s: k| tæO pÜy¢t ? Indeclinables which go with the Accusative There are some indeclinables which must be used with the accompanying nouns in the Accusative. The King fines the thief a hundred (units of currency) .AaEdn| pc¢t .and AaEdn| are both in the Accusative. The students are going without the books. I am going to (towards) the school. He cooks rice as food. We give below a few. pC¢t − cooks dÎfy¢t − punishes p¦ÅC¢t − asks ny¢t − takes along hr¢t − takes away by force ( steals) Example sentences. n¦p: ÞtEn| St| dÎfy¢t . Ah| ¢vïaly| p#¢t gÅCa¢m . There are children all around the garden. There are trees on both sides of the school. Special Note: What about sentences which have two direct objects? In Sanskrit it is known that there are 32 verbs which can take two objects in the same sentence. s tÎf¤lan. ¢vïaly| uByt: v¦Xa: s¢Ót . These are p#¢t − towards ¢vna − without uByt: − on both sides svIt: − All around Examples: CaæOa: p¤Þtk| ¢vna gÅC¢Ót .

s: maNvk| pÓTan| p¦ÅC¢t . Given below are some more nouns which decline as above. You must try and answer them. There are some questions in the exercises section relating to the Accusative case. tE Ajan. Masc. Masculine nouns ending in A ram: gj: hÞt: v¦X: ramEN gjEn hÞtEn v¦XEN rama×yamgja×yamhÞta×yamv¦Xa×yamramW: gjW: hÞtW: v¦XW: Masculine nouns ending in i m¤¢n: h¢r: m¤¢nna h¢rNa m¤¢n×yamh¢r×yamm¤¢n¢B: h¢r¢B: Masculine nouns ending in u S|B¤: vay¤: S|B¤na vay¤na S|B¤×yamvay¤×yamS|B¤¢B: vay¤¢B: What is given above is representative of the declensions of masculine nouns in different ending vowels. -------------------------------------------------------------------¢æOt£ya ¢vB¢³: Case -3 Instrumental case The instrumental case involves the form of the noun which provides answers to questions invovling phrases such as with what? by which ? along with what or whom? Here are the examples of declensions. He asks the student the way. A jnk: − father gaEpal: − Cowherd .g¦h| ny¢Ót . They take the sheep home.

i ¢n¢D: − treasure A¢d#: − mountain ¢g¢r: − mountain Masc. . the declensions given above are representative of declensions of feminine nouns ending in the specified vowels.s¥yI: − Sun bal: − boy Masc. u p#B¤: − boss sEt¤: − bridge prS¤: − axe Now for feminine nouns. i y¢¾ − tinsel yaæOa − journey c¢Ód#ka − moon p#Ba − light n£¢t − moral B£¢t − fear S¢³ − strength Asa general rule. Feminine nouns ending in Aa ¢sta rma lta bala ¢staya rmya ltaya balaya s£ta×yamrma×yamlta×yambala×yams£ta¢B: rma¢B: lta¢B: bala¢B: Aá: − horse baN: − Arrow A¢t¢T: − guest ra¢S: − heap Òv¢n: bah¤: − sound − hand vEN¤: − Bamboo flute tÓt¤: − manuscript Feminine nouns ending in i m¢t B¥¢m mÏya B¥Øya m¢t×yamB¥¢m×yamm¢t¢B: B¥¢m¢B: Feminine nouns ending in u DEn¤ c·¤ DEn¤na c·¤na DEn¤×yamc·¤×yamDEn¤¢B: c·¤¢B: Other examples of Feminine nouns. Fem. Aa ¢vïa − education ¢nd#a − sleep rEKa − line Fem. Now for Neuter nouns.

− strength Let us now list the declensions for the personal pronouns Ah| s: sa ttAy| iy| id| ex: exa ettk: ka ¢k| mya tEn tya tEn AnEn Anya AnEn etEn etya etEn kEn kya kEn Aava×yamta×yamta×yamta×yamAa×yamAa×yamAa×yameta×yameta×yameta×yamka×yamka×yamka×yamAÞma¢B: tW: ta¢B: tW: e¢B: Aa¢B: e¢B: etW: eta¢B: etW: kW: ka¢B: kW: Try and get the patterns to memory.− town BaEjnm.− oil pÊóNm.− food blm. The student .− lotus sÏym. A pîm.− truth tWlm.Neuter nouns ending in A Pl| nEæO| p¤Þtk| pæO| va¢r mD¤ vÞt¤ PlEn nEæOEN p¤ÞtkEn pæOEN va¢rNa mD¤na vÞt¤na va¢r×yammD¤×yamvÞt¤×yamPla×yamnEæOa×yamp¤Þtka×yampæOa×yamva¢r¢B: mD¤¢B: vÞt¤¢B: PlW: nEæ¬: p¤ÞtkW: pæ¬: Neuter nouns ending in i Neuter nouns ending in u Other neuter nouns Neut.

ÛyakrNm. Sanskrit is quite flexible on the ordering of the words. . Drinking from one’s own hand. Grammar was formulated by Panini t¦¢xt: hÞta×ya| jl| ¢pb¢t . The second form is ambiguous however. B¥p¢t: rTEn gÅC¢t .? Ïv| ka×ya| cr¢s ? − With what do you walk? Ah| pada×ya| cra¢m .would have no doubt discerned some patterns already.. the use of hands might cause some amusement.pa¢N¢nna k]tm. people worship with flowers the deity. Let us see some example sentences. You write with your hands. It is clean. Let us note here that the same sentence is sometimes written as "people worship the deity with flowers". by cupping the palm and let the fountain flow through it into one’s mouth is an age old custom in India. The thirsty person drinks water with both hands For those who are used to drinking water from a cup or a fountain. simple and does not require any dish washing ot throw away plastic! Now for a few questions. The king travels by his chariot. jna: kW: dEv| p¥jy¢Ót ? (See answer above) ÛyakrN| kEn k]tm. as it does not explicitly state if it is with flowers that the deity is worshipped or (the deity with flowers) is worshipped. jna: p¤ÝpW: dEv| p¥jy¢Ót . Ïv| hÞtEn ¢lK¢s . I walk with my (two) feet.

two hands etc. you can say. If your stomach is full with a meal. So it will be. a few Sanskrit words are also used along with nouns to give the meaning of "along with". BaEjnEn Alm. (sak| is used with Neuter nouns) balk: g¤âNa sh AapN| gÅC¢t . if you must say that the elephant walks with its legs. Now. Special note: As in english. The indeclinables sh and sak| are used with nouns to give the same meaning. Living beings cannot (do not) live without water. Lakshmana goes with Rama to the forest. They come here with fruits and flowers. p#a¢Nn: jlEn ¢vna n j£v¢Ót . you would not use the dual form but the plural since the elephant has four legs.! (I have had )Enough food! Would you ever want to say . The students goes to the shop with the teacher. Ah| ¢mæOEN sh AæO vsa¢m . lßmN: ramEN sh vn| gÅC¢t . tE PlW: p¤ÝpWà sak| AæO AagÅC¢Ót . Similar to sh . they come after the noun as in. We mentioned before that the dual form is used with things which exist in nature as two like two eyes.Note the use of the noun in "Dual". the indeclinables ¢vna and Almalso go along with the noun in case 3. where prepositional phrases are used to decline the noun in the instrumental case.. gj: padW: cr¢t . I live here with my friend. However.

. --------------------------------------------------------------------Case-4. This case relates to the meanings such as "for whom". Aahar: − food ¢SÝy: − Student v¦xB: − Bull p¤æO: − Son ¢sta rma lta dEv: − Deity s£ta×yamrma×yamlta×yams£ta×y: rma×y: lta×y: Feminine nouns ending in Aa s£tayW rmayW ltayW Neuter nouns ending in A Pl| nEæO| p¤Þtk| Play nEæOay p¤Þtkay Pla×yamnEæOa×yamp¤Þtka×yamPlE×y: nEæOE×y: p¤ÞtkE×y: Nouns such as vn| . Declensions: Masculine nouns ending in A ram: gj: hÞt: v¦X: ramay gjay hÞtay v¦Xay rama×yamgja×yamhÞta×yamv¦Xa×yamv¦XE×y: ramE×y: gjE×y: hÞtE×y: Other masculine nouns which decline as above..? Certainly not of course. "regarding". be sure to look at the section on exercises and answer the questions given there. bl| .s|Þk]tEn Alm. this is getting to be a little prolonged. the Dativ case. Before that. " for the sake of". We must go over to the next case. "in connection with" etc. s¢ll| − water jl| − water raÇy| − Kingdom will also decline as above. if you want to continue the lessons! Of course.

n¬ y¤va×ya| .v: tE×y: ta×y: tE×y: e×y: Aa×y: e×y: etE×y: eta×y: etE×y: kE×y: ka×y: kE×y: .Other examples: Masc.n: y¤Ým×y| .mE t¤×y| . u S|B¤: p#B¤: ¢rp¤: m¢t S¢³ DEn¤ Neuter i va¢r Neuter u mD¤ mDvE mD¤×yammD¤×y: varyE va¢r×yamva¢r×y: S|BvE p#BvE ¢rpvE mtyE S³yE DEnvE S|B¤×yamp#B¤×yam¢rp¤×yamm¢t×yamS¢³×yamDEn¤×yamS|B¤×y: p#B¤×y: ¢rp¤×y: m¢t×y: S¢³×y: DEn¤×y: hryE Ad#yE h¢r×yamA¢d#×yamh¢r×y: A¢d#×y: Feminine i Feminine u The declensions of the personal pronouns in the Dativ case.va| ta×ya| ta×ya| ta×ya| Aa×ya| Aa×ya| Aa×ya| eta×ya| eta×ya| eta×ya| ka×ya| ka×ya| ka×ya| AÞm×y| . i h¢r: A¢d#: Masc. Ah| Ïv| s: sa ttAy| iy| id| ex: exa ettk: ka ¢k| m/| .tE tÞmW tÞyW tÞmW AÞmW AÞyW AÞmW etÞmW etÞyW etÞmW kÞmW kÞyW kÞmW Aava×ya| .

It is interesting to observe that the word for "grass" in Sanskrit is G#asm. CaæOa: Aaharay g¦h| gÅC¢Ót . balk: @£fnkay Þp¦hy¢t . ¢BX¤: Aaharay Az¢t . k]xk: v¦xBay t¤x| yÅC¢t . The farmer gives fodder to two bulls. Salutations to you According to the grammar rules and Sandhi. g¤â×y: nm: . nm: tE .Now for examples of sentences with nouns in the Dative case. nm: tE becomes nmÞtE ! Special note: nm: is an indeclinable. . When using the verb the person will be referred to in the second case. there are some verbs which when used will have the accompanying noun in Dativ only! n¦p: yackE×y: Pla¢n yÅC¢Ót . g¤â: ¢SÝyay tÏv| up¢dS¢t . The beggar roams around for food. I bring grass for two cows.. Students go home for food. However nm is also the root for a verb. ¢pta p¤æOay k[Ôy¢t . Some questions and answers involving nouns in the Dativ. You bring milk for two guests. Ïv| A¢t¢T×ya| X£r| Aany¢s . I offer salutations to the Guru. Ah| pS¤×ya| G#as| Aanya¢m . Ah| g¤ãn. The teacher expounds the principle for the (sake of) student. But.nma¢m . When you use it as such the noun will be in Dativ. Obeisanse to the teachers.

? p¥jayW p¤Ýpa¢N . Please attempt the exercises before reading further. ---------------------------------------------------------------------Case-5 The Ablative case. vÞtr| kÞmW p#yaEjnay ? vÞæO| p¢rDanay . ¢k| papay Bv¢t ? prp£fa papay Bv¢t . The ablative case is used in general to effect a comparison or indicate an effect of separation from the noun.¢vïa ¢kmTIm. i m¤¢n: h¢r: m¤nE: hrE: m¤¢n×ya| h¢r×ya| m¤¢n×y: h¢r×y: ramatgjathÞtatg¦hatv¦Xatrama×ya| gja×ya| hÞta×ya| hÞtE×y: g¦ha×ya| v¦Xa×ya| g¦hE×y: v¦XE×y: ramE×y: gjE×y: The nouns ¢n¢D: A¢d#: pa¢N¢n: ra¢S: A¢t¢T: ¢g¢r: will decline in the same fashion as above Masc. u S|B¤: vay¤: S|BaE: vayaE: S|B¤×ya| vay¤×ya| S|B¤×y: vay¤×y: Feminine nouns ending in Aa . tv p#yÏn: kÞmW ? mm p#yÏn: s¤Kay .? ¢vïa åOanay . p¤Ýpa¢N ¢kmTIm. S¤kay ¢k| raEctE ? S¤kay Pl| raEctE . The Ablative case is known as p·m£ ¢vB¢³: Declensions: Masculine nouns ending in A ram gj hÞt g¦h v¦X Masc.

traE: pN|I pt¢t . (He) learns good behaviour from good people. ¢grE: nd£ p#vh¢t . The books drop from the hands. The leaf falls from the tree. SæOaE: B£¢t: jaytE . (He) learns from the preceptor In the following sentences the process of one thing getting separated from the other is very clear. g¤raE: ¢vïa| A¢DtE .s£ta rma lta m¢t: B¥¢m: s£taya: rmaya: ltaya: mtE: B¥mE s£ta×ya| rma×ya| lta×ya| m¢t×ya| B¥¢m×ya| s£ta×y: rma×y: lta×y: m¢t×y: B¥¢m×y: Feminine i The nouns y¢¾: B£¢t: v¦¢¾: n£¢t: S¢³: k£¢tI: will decline in the same fashion as B¥¢m: Feminine u DEn¤: c·¤: Pl nEæO p¤Þtk pæO va¢r Neuter u mD¤ vÞt¤ mDaE: vÞtaE: mD¤×ya| vÞt¤×ya| mD¤×y: vÞt¤×y: DEnaE: c·aE: PlatnEæOatp¤ÞtkatpæOatvarE: DEn¤×ya| c·¤×ya| Pla×ya| nEæOa×ya| p¤Þtka×ya| pæOa×ya| va¢r×ya| DEn¤×y: c·¤×y: PlE×y: nEæOE×y: p¤ÞtkE×y: pæOE×y: va¢r×y: Neuter nouns ending in A Neuter i Example sentences. saDaE: sÅc¢ræO| ¢SXtE . hÞta×ya| p¤Þtka¢n pt¢Ót .Avtrt: . From the mountain flows the river. They descend from the mountain . From the enemy arises fear. t¬ pvItat.

"belonging to" etc. tfag: sm¤d#at.AÚp: . In general. t£r| sm¤d#at. When a verb in a sentence implies that some one is scared or someone is saving (protecting). The brave person does not fear (from) the enemy.balk| rX¢t . the concerned noun will be in the Ablative. The following sentences are examples of situations where one entity is differentiated from another. Students return from school. Tear rolls down from the eyes. ¢hmaly: AÓyE×y: ¢g¢r×y: u°t: .æOÞy¢t . vWï: raEgat. D£r: SæOaE: n æOÞy¢t . Kings protect the kingdom from the enemies. The physician saves the boy from disease. deviating (or faulting) from the noun concerned will be in the Ablative.. The pond is smaller than the sea.. Himalaya is taller than other mountains. n¦paE: SæOaE: raÇy| rX¢Ót . resting from. The cow fears from the Tiger.nEæOa×ya| AÞa#| Þa#v¢t . Declensions: . Other situations where the Ablative case applies.u°tm. CaæOa: paZSalaya: AagÅc¢Ót . The shore is higher than the sea. In situations where the verb is associated with meanings uch as disgust. DEn¤: ÛyaG#at. ----------------------------------------------------------------------Case-6 The Possessive case Nouns in case 6 generally convey the meaning of "Whose" . the case refers to a connection between one thing and another.

u S|B¤: S|BaE: S|×vaE: S|B¤x¤ Nouns such as prS¤: − axe bah¤: − hand p#B¤: − boss ¢rp¤: − enemy vay¤: − air sEt¤: − bridge hEt¤: − cause vEN¤: − flute ¢SS¤: − baby mEâ: − mountain iX¤: − sugarcane ÞTaN¤: − Lord Shiva tÓt¤: − manuscript A|S¤: decline as in S|B¤: −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Feminine nouns ending in Aa s£ta rma lta ¢staya: rmaya: ltaya: s£tyaE: rmyaE: ltyaE: s£tana| rmaNa| ltana| − ray of light Nouns such as .Masculine nouns ending in A ram: gj: g¦h: v¦X: ramÞy gjÞy g¦hÞy v¦XÞy ramyaE: gjyaE: g¦hyaE: v¦XyaE: ramaNa| gjana| g¦haNa| v¦XaNa| − character Nouns such as dEv: − deity vgI: − compilation g¤N: also decline as in ram: −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Masc.) A¢d#: − mountain Aa¢D: − mental illness will decline as in h¢r: −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Masc. i m¤¢n: h¢r: m¤nE: hrE: m¤nyaE: hya©I: m¤¢nx¤ h¢rx¤ rs: − taste AakaS: − sky AanÓd: − delight Nouns such as ¢n¢D: − treasure r¢Üm: − ray of light A¢t¢T − guest ra¢S: − heap A¢l: − bee Òv¢n: − sound Ûya¢D: − disease d^Ód^¢B: − large drum (Musical Inst.

v: tExa| tasa| tExa| exa| AasamexametExam- .tE tÞy tÞya: tÞy AÞy AÞya: AÞy etÞy AavyaE: .mE tv .enyaE: etyaE: .enyaE: AÞmak| .gaTa − story rÐya − street p#Ba − bright light will also decline as in s£ta −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Feminine i m¢t: mtE: mÏyaE: mt£na| Nouns such as y¢¾: − Maize v¦¢¾: − rain n£¢t: − moral ka¢Ót: − luminance g¢t: − shelter k£¢tI: − fame B£¢t: − fear B¥¢m: − earth S¢³: − strength D£¢l: − dust u°¢t: − greatness b¤¢¼: − knowledge m¥¢tI: − shape ra¢æO: − night decline as m¢t: −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Feminine u DEn¤: DEnaE: DEÓvaE: DEn¥na| −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Neuter nouns ending in A Pl| nEæO| pæO| p¤Þtk| PlÞy nEæOÞy pæOÞy p¤ÞtkÞy bl| PlyaE: nEæOyaE: pæOyaE: p¤ÞtkyaE: jl| s¢ll| also Plana| nEæOaNa| pæOaNa| p¤Þtkana| Nouns such as vn| decline as in Pl| −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Now for the declensions of personal pronouns.n¬ y¤vyaE: .enyaE: AnyaE: .va| tyaE: tyaE: tyaE: AnyaE: .enyaE: AnyaE: .n: y¤Ýmak| . Ah| Ïv| s: sa ttAy| iy| id| ex: mm .

The competition of the students takes place at the playground. id| tv g¦hm. When one refers to directions in a sentence. Kings honour (felicitate) poets. Her brother is Govind. @£faÄñNE balana| ÞpDaI cl¢t . lßmE: g¦h| k[æO A¢Þt ? Where is Lakshmi’s house? n¦pty: kv£na| sØman| k[vI¢Ót . the possessive case. AÞya: B#at: gaE¢vÓd: . iy| lßm£ . −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Special uses of the sixth case..enyaE: kyaE: kyaE: kyaE: etasmetExamkExamkasamkExam- −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Let us now see some examples of sentences with nouns in case-6. hEt¤: − reason hEtaE: − for the reason jna: s¤KvasÞy hEtaE: kaÜm£r| gÅC¢Ót .enyaE: etyaE: . g¤â: ¢SÝyaNa| ¢vjyEn t¤Ýy¢t . The mother sees the play(ing) of two children. "for the reason" A sentence incorporating this phrase will have the accompanying noun in the Possessive case.exa ettk: ka ¢k| etÞya: etÞy kÞy kÞya: kÞy etyaE: . The teacher is delighted at the students’ success. mata ¢SáaE: @£fn| pÜy¢t . This is Lakshmi . The nose is between the (two) eyes. People go to Kashmir for a pleasant stay. This is your house. . s£ta ramÞy pÏn£ . the nouns associated will be in Possessive case. Sita is Rama’s wife na¢ska nEæOyaE: mÒyE A¢Þt .

d¢XNEn . There are instances of use of the indeclinables in a slightly different form as in p¥v©IN . the person is expressed in the possessive case. Himalayas are in the north of India. they appear to have suffixes of the instrumrntal case (case-3). p¢àmEn . The river runs east of the village (on the eastern side) AalyÞy d¢XNt: tfag: A¢Þt . Examples. b¦hd£áralyÞy ¢nmaIta rajrajcaEL: Rajaraja Chola is the creator of the Brhadeeswara Temple (The temple referred to here is more than a thousand . When referring to something done by a person. To the west of the school is the playground. for example. When expressed this way. p¥v©IN BartÞy vÄñsm¤d#: A¢Þt . When referring to someone having done something. To the south of the temple is the tank (pond) ¢vïalyÞy p¢àmt: @£faÄñN| A¢Þt . Bay of Bengal is in the east of India. the indeclinables are accompanied by nouns in either case 6 or 2.p¥vIt: (to the east of) p¢àmt: − (to the west of) dX£Nt: (to the south of) uäOrt: − (to the north of) g#amÞy p¥vIt: nd£ p#vh¢t . uäOrEN Bart| ¢hmalyaE: vtItE . that which was done is expressed in the sixth case. It may be noted that the four words given above are actually indeclinables. uäOrEN Though these are indeclinables.

The boy thinks of his mother. In Sanskrit this can also be expressed in the sixth case. This is truly a massive edifice qualifying for the adjective b¦ht. The famished person is satisfied by food. Please go over the section a second time and do the exercises. X¤¢Dt: A°Þy t¦Ôy¢t .years old and worship continues to this day. a noun qualifying for case 2 may get expressed in case 6. (Visweswaraiah was a civil engineer who lived in South India during the early part of the twentieth century and is called the father of engineering in India. −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− This has been a long section. Then "mother’s" comes in the sixth case.meaning massive. The meaning of this sentence could well be that the boy is thinking about his mother’s affection towards him. Consider for instance. ----------------------------------------------------------------------Case-7 The Locative case: The locative case indicates the locality or position of a thing generally expressive of the meaning given by the use of prepositions such as . bal: matr| Þmr¢t case-2 or bal: mat¤: Þmr¢t case -6 It is possible that a noun qualifying for expression in the third case also gets expressed in the Possessive. The structure referred to here is a dam) −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Sometimes. The temple has been included among the world heritage monuments by Unesco. This could have also been expressed as X¤¢Dt: A°En t¦Ôy¢t . Such examples are given only to give a hint to the student about the variations seen in the use of the words. Here "mother" forms the indirect object of the verb. Krishnaraja Sagar is the creation of of Visweswaraiah. ¢váEárayIÞy s¦¢¾: k]ÝNrajsagr: . Only experience will help master these.

inside.in. out of a group of. into. Declensions: Masculine nouns ending in A g#am: ArÎy: pad: ud¢D: pa¢N: ¢g¢r: g¤â: bÓD¤: SæO¤: g#amE ArÎyE padE udD¬ paN¬ ¢gr¬ g¤r¬ bÓD¬ SæO¬ g#amyaE: ArÎyyaE: padyaE: udÒyaE: paÎyaE: ¢gya©I: g¤va©I: bÓÒvaE: SæO-vaE: g#amEx¤ ArÎyEx¤ padEx¤ ud¢Dx¤ pa¢Nx¤ ¢g¢rx¤ g¤âx¤ bÓD¤x¤ SæO¤x¤ Declensions of personal pronouns Ah| Ïv| s: sa ttAy| iy| id| ex: exa ettk: ka ¢k| m¢y Ïv¢y t¢ÞmntÞya| t¢ÞmnA¢ÞmnAÞya| A¢Þmnet¢ÞmnetÞya| et¢Þmnk¢ÞmnkÞya| k¢ÞmnAavyaE: y¤vyaE: tyaE: tyaE: tyaE: AnyaE: enyaE: AnyaE: AnyaE: enyaE: etyaE: enyaE: etyaE: etyaE: kyaE: kyaE: kyaE: etas¤ etEx¤ kEx¤ kas¤ kEx¤ etEx¤ Aas¤ ex¤ AÞmas¤ y¤Ýmas¤ tEx¤ tas¤ tEx¤ ex¤ . out of etc.

--------------------------------------------------------------------Case-8 The Vocative case Addressing a person is handled via the Vocative case. Let him help us. Let them sing his praise etc.Example sentences paÎyaE: AÄñ^Úy: s¢Ót . Whales roam about in the ocean −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Now look up the section on exercises and answer the questions given there. The students has much affection for his teacher. paæOEx¤ jl| na¢Þt . Fingers are (present) in both hands ¢g¢rx¤ g¤ha: s¢Ót . Caves are present in mountains maNvkÞy g¤âx¤ Aa¢Dka p#£¢t: . Mostly usage in this case will accompany a directive or an order to the person addressed. Declensions: Masculine ram: h¢r: S|B¤: mala m¢t: DEn¤: Neuter vn| va¢r mD¤: hE vn hE varE hE mDaE hE vnE hE va¢rN£ hE mD¤n£ hE vna¢n hE va¢r¢N hE mD¥¢n hE ram hE hrE hE S|BaE hE malE hE mtE hE DEnaE hE ram¬ hE hr£ hE S|B¥ hE malE hE mt£ hE DEn¥ hE rama: hE hry: hE S|Bv: hE mala: hE mty: hE DEnv: Feminine .. There is no water in the vessels udD¬ ¢t¢mÄñla: cr¢Ót . The Vocative case may also apply in third person where one might say. Also a request may be applicable.

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