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TN-3781

TN-3781

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. .

--. -- ——-.

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.. . .—. .... ,.

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~..,-“ AD?-lSORY . W. C(NIXiH’TiL2 FORAEROPNJrIICS
TECHNICAL NOTE 3781

TECHNICAL LIB MY AFL 2291

OAR

=~q
*

I - BUCKIJNG OF FLAT PLATES “-e -~d andHerbert Becker

Xew YarkUniversity

. . ?*.

I
.

Wmngtoil my 1957
.

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I

.

llllllllll]llll[lkl E
IIOLLL+

S!!m.lw.-. -.a

. . .. ... .. .... . .. . . ... . . . .
. . . . . ...* . . . ----.: ---. . . . .

1 1 3

1N3%C)IXJCTIOH... . . . . . . . . S!mKKIJJ”. . . . . . . . .. . ...

-----

---13ASZ2.PRIIJC?X’L =....... . . . . . . . . -----* . ---Generalemarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .--. R . . F@.ilLbriun Di.t<=z~alEquation . . . . . . s.-.....- -..-*_~lntegrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . *.”. dilutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .?... . ..q

‘i
10

7 7

!3

~coxmmcxs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*I2 lkthe=timl~sis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. -12 Jhticlastic e?lzz-ture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..l~ .. SZEESS-STRA12T ~IGlii311 YIELD RBHON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s 5hree-Parameter kcription of Stress-Strain Cum=5=5 . . . . . . K . 17 inelastic lkdti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. me3.astic Poi=$=*sRatio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...17
q

~fx!rY-Rxmnz%aFxxmS . . . ..*...-.. 2Mastic-EwI&Lqj-Stress Equation. . . . . . J3mrparisoa55koriesnd&pertiintal of. a &ta . Assumptions ZEelastic-BuckMng of Theories. . Inelastic-Bu_ !X%eo5es . . . . . . . . . . Factors sedim C!mqwtations . . . . . . . . U . Euckling-s CcLnstmction 3hndizensionlQ of

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . ..+19 . . . . . . - 19 . . . . . . . 2Q . . . . - . . 20 . . . . ...23 . . . . . ..24 . . . . . . . 25

~m-GREMscTJEE EwmRs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..33esic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. --’ . lkrivation W of Stress-Strain Curve . . . . . . . . . ..-.= #2cmpzmL5un ofmeQrysmd Eqerhent . . . . . . - . -......27 kivations Of ~fied c~g Reduction ~CtC2ZZZ * a e - a. - 28 pletes incompr~~~ . . . . - 26 I!sse. IOng~Iy supporte~ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2g Csse2. Pkteaums Case3. Longs&k@y supporte~ plates inshear - . . . . . . . 2g ~ QFmAT E=2!2K?I=ULAR UN!ERccMmEssm= X&ms . . . . 31 -Pup 3fstorical E.se~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 ~cal Values C=pressive-13uckMng =- =ur =f Coeffic Ehtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -’

., 1.

... r....%1.6;-,

l?.-:.: Sup~rted Plate, ~ces E ElasiicQ>?==T==–.-==== &=illst Rotation . . . . . . . . ------------. -- ”=-” . Plates ith W Unequal klge ZZ-L ‘~ —.. . F RoLLL .. . - . - . . - . . . “--Supported klangesithElastic~—-—====.. W : %===-=int. . . . . . . Effect f Iateralestmint ~~? ‘--~- - - . . . . . . . . . . o R on
q

32 33 33 3%

-

EUCKLIWJ FiiT OF RECTAXXJLAR PIJ== ===== ==== WADS . = . - . - ~~ Historical Ihckground. . . -----------. ---- =”35 Symmetric andAntisyrmetric M&-= . . - . . . . - . . . . - - - . 3%5 Eumerical Values f Shear-~cUq 2==—--=:——- - - - - - - = - o Effect Plate of Length BuckltLKi&kfEZL*2s?- . . . . . . . . 36 on , . KXKGING OFFIATFWTANGULMPLATES EZZ=T LSXJ=XG 3JMDS. . - - - - 36 Historical l?ackgroun d... ----------.-- ~----% ;&s*- e-.--*. - 36 Numsrical Vah~es Bending-Ewxz%l$-~ of _Z~ P Q3KK==. --* ~--’?mms ------ 37 HJCHJN3 Phil’ OF RECTMGULARrA!i55 ~ne~~~c~o~a.... . . . . . . . . . . . . --.....37 Biaxial .Co-=pression . -----------... -----t--3T Shear an&Hoxmal +xess.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . % S BendingndNormal a Stress.-----------..--..-39 Bending,and Stress.. -------------Shear -.=---$x -.***. ---- kl Ber~ing, Shear, ndTransverse a and Longittiinal Benin, Longitud+= S.”-==-, Transverse Coxzpression.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...42 . Combined ~elastic Stresses ---------. . . . . . ...& EETK?l? PRESSURE KHKDG = E%=====”= OF ON .-IT-T= - - - . - &3 ?kmgeofPublished Results.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...~~ ~Plates ... .. Longitudiral%f Compressed .~!= Iaw %~. . . . . . . . ..* Lmgitudini Coqressed Lcmz~ +.iz. . SPECIALC . . . . . ...* AS:3 -,-----------*’-- ”-* -. . . ...” & Useof Elastic-Eucklin6-%ress %*..=-.Z-. ~— -.-~~ and!IMclmess . # . Axially oqressed late C P WithW=- ----Axially ompressed Withm-i=+- ‘2 C P:.lte =3 Cond=nt ‘l%ickne.= . ..-. ---------.. --------oPar&Llelogmm Panels Ln 4 Cmp~-------------.- :; ParaUelogram Plates.m. . -----------.--- =-~ Triangular Plates . . . . . -- a --------. -----.== . APPEWDIX - APPlzT4TIoNsEtmmN-. --- m.--- . . . . . . . ...’= A Intr&.uction =...... . - j------------------~ Physical Properties ofMaterial=. . .. -.- . . . - . . . . . . . @ . Compressive Eucklinc. . . . . . ---------< -..---~~

.

.— -----

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., .. . .. .... --..:-

PIRteE . . . . .. FlsrAes . . . . . Plate Coluzms . . 9xw.rB~ckli . . ng %in~ Buckling. C!cmbir~& Lading . RL3RJCH TEtiAEs*. FKXZELZS . .
. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . .

. . . .

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. .

.

. .

. . . .

-.. -.. -.. -.. .-. ----.. *-.

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.

-,. . . .--, . .- ., -, .

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HN21PC)OKoSINJCZIJLIL OF SYYLKCLIi’Y OFFIATPL4TSS PART1 - PLJCKLIRG ~ Georgz Gerard &.EerLertecker a B SUMMA.RY Thevariousactorsoverninz f g bucklirg flat of plates arecritically retie-~ed andtheresultsresumarized na coqrehensive a i series of charts Numerical values arepresented forbuc’kling coefficients of acd+&bles. flat plates withvariousoundary b conditions andappliedoadings. l The effectsf plasticity o areinco~ratedinnondimensional buckling charts utilizing thethree-parazeter description stress-strain of curves. INTRODUCTION His “Ikmdbook Stmctural of Stability” presents rather oqrekena c sive retiew andco.~ilation theories experi=iental of &ail datarelsting-o t thebuckling failuref plate arid o elements encountered theairf~. in ~ =et theanticipateii of those ceeds whowould usethisrew.e~: aadcorripilation, appeared tQ adopt handbook it best. a style presentation. of Thersterial isnotintended a textbook as inwhich tF&ez@ELsls often is on ther~themtical develowentf dif~erent o types relatedroblenz. of p Neithers it intended i to>orpeteiththef~ar t aircraft-c&pany structures mcualswhich generdJy presentesign d info?nr~tion, empirical data, andmetkaisf extending o resultseyond hescope theoriginal b t of report. ‘This handbook attezpts cover to thegenerally neglected areabetween thetext-k andthestxwctures ranual. Noattemptstie topresent n i a exhaustive coverage mathematical of techniques areof great which importance thesolution buckling In of prablers”. =terialhaBbeenwell This presented severalxcellent in e books andpapers hich w areincluded the in reference list.Thesubjectf colunns comprehensively o is treatedn i severalooks b and,therefore, theinclusion such of material this in review idnotappear bewarranted. d to Thispresentation primrily constitutes a critical retiew develof opwsntsoncerning c buckling andfailuref, o plate ele=ntssince the datehnebeenselected since thelastcomprehensive early 1940’s.This review f this o nature (ref. appeared tlwt 1) at time.

r $ .7

----- —q

———. _

In theraintext thi~ of report,hevariousactorsppearing t f a in thegeneral buckling-stress equation ucr(cm7==)
= qij

12 )) 121- ~e2( b (
ha

(1;

arecritically examined thes~.dpointf their from o theoretical developmentanQtheagreement of-theory test with da’a. In tbesectionntitled e “Easicrinciples” P a brief review f the o Lasic xmthematical principles involved solution buckling in of problem la given.Theprbaryobjecti--e inpresenting material to this is acquahtthereader iththeapproximate w methodssedinorder u tobe ableta indicate theaccuracy tkeresultsfparticular of c solutions discussed insubsequent sections. Tnthesectionntitled e %uudary Conditions” theini’lu=.ce of the geometric &nm&ry conditio~s upontkebuckling stress tsdis~sed et somelength.It isindicated thattheuseofa freeunloaded edgeina plate involves Poisson’s ratio inthecompressive b??ckling coefficient. Ass example, an thebuckling coefi’icients forplate colu!ms, flanges, and simply supported plates redetermice5 a fromtheory o dezmnstrate t the effect afvariousoundary b conditions uponthebehatior suchelements. of Also, theth&e-parar&er method frmthe-~tically o describing stressstrain relations ispresented inan introductory manner inthesection entitled “Stress-Strain Relations in.theield Y Region.” Useof this methd affords considerable a simplification inthepresentation of resultsf ineLstic o buck’ing theories. Theeffectsf exceeding o theproportional ofa rmterial limit are incorporated plasticity-reduction ina factorq. Because thenriof ouatheories thathave keen recently advanced together withthefact thatno onepublication hasreviewed theconflicting assumptions of * !

.

,,. .,-:p . . . . . .. ..- f:. .

J

Theeffect f claddin& theL.ickling o u~n stress f flat o plahes as h keen treate~y an extension inelastic-buckling h of theory.In tl:eecs a treat..mnt of tion entitled “Cladding Reduction Factors” simplified buckling clad of plates ispresented which iri values forthecladding Correction factor~ arederived. Thebaclc~~?d ordeterringtheelastic-kuckllng f coefficient k haskeenwell documented. Tkerefore, thelastsections ercconcerfied withthebuckling coefficients large fora number cases.Thepresenof tation onsi6ts, c fortt.em6t ? part, ofa straightforward cataloging of resultsntheform buckling-coefficient i of charts. Theappendix hasbeenorganized fcrunimpeded useinanalysis and design ndforthis a reason O references R appear inthisportionf’ o the repOrt. references are examined The indetail thepertinent. part of in themaintext.Theliterature reviewed is anddiscussed as toconboth teut andapplicationtheparticular to problem. Experimental evidence Ispresented where ittend6 Substantiate to onethecry amng several which mayhavebeen advanced a particular on phase thebuckling of problem; plasticity-reduction areperhapshemastconspicuous factors t e~mpleof this.Thus, therecozzzendation particular fora theoqy s geni esupported byexperimental data. The=& text also contains some newmterialdeveloped during the course f thiscompilation. o Although material important such is tothe unification prior of results, ithasnotbeenconsidered sufficient of consequence tomerit separate publication. Therefore, wkensuch materialdoesappear inthis handbook itisin a detailed form. Thissurvey asconducted w under the sponsorship andwiththefinancial assistance theEational of Adviso~Committee forAeronautics. -IS
.

Ar a b

areaof ribcross sectioa, in. sq long dimension ofplate, suallynloaded u u edgefnuniaxial compression, in. short dimension ofplate, sually oaded u l edge inuniaxial compression, in.
#

.

..-.

.

I

cl. ..c4

]
h

D D1 E

plate cross-cectioa rigidity,t3/12(1V2),lb-h. E plasticlate p cross-section rigidity, E6t39, lb-in. / Young’culus, psi d secent dulus, O/c m tangentdulus, du/de m secant ndtangent a rzodulus forclad plates,espectively r ratio total of claading thickness total to plate thickness shear nmdulus

!

cmuient ofinertia 3=
K

(%/E) 1 Vez)1- Vq (- (
mdified buckling coefficient, kx2@(l - V2) buckling coefficie~t length fplate, o in. bending moment pplied a inplane ofplate, n-lb i axial load, lb/in. number flongitudinal waves o half inbuckledlate; p also, shape parameter forstress-strain curve . normal load appliei plane of plate,atb,lb in nornul ressure, p psi 4

k L
M N n.

P P

,. -; i;.G--

. .

veo+\)~
shesr louding, lb/in.

~

6= E2+ ve(flb/A)2 R t u= w w X,y, z y.l+3pf a * $ ratio cla~ding of yield stress o core stress, t ‘cl/acore$ also, loadingatio r forplate withvarying axial bad, Maxhmlload/14imim71 lead edgeangle, deg;also,12M/(Pb 6M) +
strezs ratio

thickness plate, of W. %+ - ks )/( + ks ) - %+ ( potential energy,n-lb i displacement nomal toplane ofplate, in. coordinates

& = fi(b/A)L/2

Y

shear strain normal strain;lso, a ratio rotational of rigidity plate of e~gesti?fener toro~=tional rigidity ofplate . . plasticity-reduction factor cladding reduction factor total-reduction factor, qfi buckle halfwavelength, in.
.

v

inelastic Poisson’s l%tiOj V orthotropic solids
-. .

=

Vp - ~p-J’e) (%/E) for

,.. . ...’.... ., ...

~ ~x2+ ~y2- axay 3T,1/2 psi + stress ntensity, i ) , ( respectively, psi o.p.=d 0.85E, a m ~o.7JJo.85 stresst secantdulus,
T. ~

shear stress> psi
or radians deg taplate width, angle ofdiagonal support

Subscripts : A,B av b c c1
cr e

values t station andstation seefig. a A B; 30 average bending compression cladding proportional limit critical orbuckling elastic plastic proportional limit intraverse ribof compressed plate shea”r shear infinitely plate on long directions loading of loadings producing tension loadings producing compression .

P pl r B Sm X,y +.

“--’. . ... ~u:,.:if:c,::s:

c F Ss

c h!!.pd

free
s iqiy

suppurtei (hinged)

Insketches acccnyanying figures, supported edges with elusticotar tiofial restraint areshwn shaded. Unshaded loaded dges e aresimply sup~orted. Unshaded unloaded edges arefree. BASIC PRINCIPLES Generalenarks R Thetheoretical buckling stress fa flatstructural o ele~~ntsthe i stresstwhich exchange stable quilibrium a an d e configurations occurs tet-~en thestraight and.thelightly form.Itmarks s bent theregion in which continued application load of resultsnaccelerated i growth f o deflections perpendicular to theplane ofthe~:ate.Itsimportance lies in thefactthat kuckling initiates thephysi~-~.l processes which leadto 74< eventual failure theplate. of *.. Themathe.=tical” solution ofparticular kuckling problems reqtires that equilibrium andboundary conditions satisfied. be Thiscanbe accozplishe~integrationtheequilibrium by of partialifferential d equation theflat of plate by useof mathematical or n&thods which maynot completely satis&theboundary equilibrium or conditions. Theformer solutions areexact whereashemethodsased t b generally ecer~ inteon grals areapproximate although usuallyery v accurate.heneedfor T approximate rithodsrises a fromthefactthat exact solutions canbe found foronlyalimitedumber buckling n of problems practical of importance.
In thissection, brief a outlinef themethodsf analysis o o of buckling problems ispresented.orextensive F discussionsthevariof

/ t

ousmethodsfanalysis o andtheir applicationa wide to variety probof lems, reference thelooks Timshenko, to of Sokolrdkoff, andDleich (refs.tok) issuggested. 2 Equilibrium Differential Equation Thegenemlformofthedifferential equation describing theslightly bentequilibrium conflgumtion ofan initially plate flat wasderivedy b StQvelln thefollowing i form(ref. 5]:
.

,.. .,.

..’

I
inwhich theconstants aredefineds: a cl= 1- (3/4) (a+=,)’ - ..(%/’s] ~ C2 = 3u~Tai

(2)

( /2)~-(%,’s]
-’

*

C=j=l- (3/4) py’-’)k C4= 3ay7 ai ( I’)p(’a

s (w’ ]

(3)

t

These definitions oftheconstmts are&sed on theassumption no that Furthermore, a elasticnloading u occurs uring hebuckling d t process. value Misson’s of ratio eqwl to 11’2was assured forboth theelastic andinelastic rangee. fora32loadings In the elasticange,%.~% = 1,and,therefore, r and C2 = C4 = O,andequation (2)reduces the to C1.C3=C5=I familiar equilibria equation fortheelasticase: c &=&+2&+3 ax4
.

t

(4)

.

whereasthe elasticalue v is krdingrigidity D‘ = l?L3/9, of D = Et3/12(1 Ve2). 8

Thesolution individual of buckllng prohle=s canbe mostreadily handledy selection b ofappropriate solutions equation2), of ( insertion of proper boundary conditions, minimization to obtain hebuckling and t stress. thisconnection, h thebuckling stresses fors@ly supported plete columns, compressed flanges, andplates areconsidered some in detail thesectionntitled in e “Boundary Conditions” illustrate to the differences inb~ckling behatior tkse structural of elezients. Knergy ntegrals I Since exact solutions equations to (2)and(4)canbefound for only llmitedumber f bucklid a n o problems practical of importance approximate solutions genemlly utilizing ener~ integrals havefound tideapplication. Thepotential energy of theplate anditsloadingystem s repres i T integr~ equaof sented y thedifference twointegrals.hefirst b of tion(5)represents theincrease strain nergy uetabendingnd in e d a tuisting oftheplate durir~ thebuckling process, whereas thesecond integral represents energy ssociated rrembrane a with stresses resulting If arefixed during uckling, b fmm lateraleflection. thepkte edges d experience a thelatter ermesents r themembrane ener~. If theedges relati.~ shif~, hesecond ntegral t i rep~esents thewo=koftheexternal loadingystem. s t .. supported edges Thegeneralnergy ntegral e i forpkteswithsimply wasderivedy Stowell ref. fortheinelastic b ( 5) case:
1

+

(5)
.

. , ,

I

restraints magnitude along t!.o edges th!plate, of c of tlien tt~etrnin s enerm inthese rcstrnintm isadded toequation (5). These terms have theform

‘ oJ

\QY/y=yo

where y. Istheedgecoordinate. Fortheelasticase, c equation5)c-k ( simplified to dxdy-

(6)

Soluttons h principle, aU thedeflection of functions satisfying thegeometric boundary conditions theproblem, of thepotential ener~ AM will be zero forthat function which also satisfies theequilibrium differential equation.hisfunction T would an exact be solution theproblem. of Since exact solutions cank-e found inonlya lfmitedumber f cases, n o theener~integrals areof great usefulness infinding approximate solutions which satisfy thegeometric bcmndsry conditions exactlyndthe a differential equation approximately. oftheseveral Thus, ~.ctions satisfying thegeometric boundary cotiitions butnotnecessarily thedifferential equation, thefunction forwhich theener~integral miniIsa xmnnonstitutes c tkebeet approximate solution thedifferential of equation. Probably thebestlmmun energyethod m fordetermining thebuckling Themethod constressf thin o plates theRayleigh-Ritz is procedure. sists thefo~ouing of steps: . (1]Thedeflection surfacefthebuckled o plate isexpressed in expended as thesumof an infinite fom setof functions having ndeteru mined coefficients. Ingeneral, termoftheexpmsion each mst satisfy thegeometrical boundary conditions theproblem. of

.

,—-—

.-—

—-

.——

——

- -—

z

~

i f

horzogeneous (3)This minimizing procedure leads a set of lineu.r to equations theundetcr.i~c2 in coefficients. equations These hRvenollof coefficient vanishes. vanishing solutions onlyif thedeteralr%nt their provides theequation that Thevanishing thisstability of determintint rnybe solved ortheb!!ckling f stress. Whentkesetof fuctions use~is a complete setcapablsf repreo sentinghedeflection, t slope, curvature anypossible arid of plate deforhowever, mation,hesolution t obtained is,inprinciple, exact.Since, theexact. stability de’termlnant isusuRllynfinite,finite eterminant i a d yielding approximate resultssusedinstead. i Thebuckling stresses obtained theapproximate by method realways a higher thantkeexact solution although naybeveryaccurate. they This is 8 result thefactthatthedeflection of function approximates the truebuckle shape andtherefore the~tential eneraresulting fromuse of theapprox~ting function isgreaterhanzero. Ifthedeflection t fumctian isthetrueone,thenanexact solution thedifferential to equation obtained. is If a deflection function ischosen hich w satisfies thegeometrical boundary conditions approxtitely, ispossible it toobtain tuckling stresses which approach theexact solution from thelower side.This canbeaccomplished revision theRayleigh-Ritz bya of procedure known as theLagrangian multiplier method. TheIagmngian ultiplier m method ollowshegeneral f t procedure outlined fortheRayleigh-Ritz method ithbutonesignificant w cluznge. The restriction instep(1)thatthekaundary conditions satisfied be by every termof theexpmsion isdiscafied andisreplaced thecondition, by This thattheexpansion a whole as satisfies theboundsrj conditions. condition ismathematically satisfied step(2), in during heminimization t process, theuseof Iagrangian by .titipllers. Theadvantage theI.agrangian of multiplier method iesin thefact l that, withtherejection thenecessity thefulfillmentboundnv of of of conditions termby term, thechoice f an expansion o ismuchlessrestrictedForexample, theclamped-plate in compression problem, simple a Fourier expansion nayke usedinsteadf thecomplicated o functions usuallyssured a in theRayleigh-Ritz analyses this of problem. Ftihermore, theorthogonality properties thesimple of Fourier expansion toenergy lead expressions a simplicity of that1s instnment.al inpermitting accurate computations. c

,..

... ., ,,

&Itd f ThLslWi!IOi i.tSi~~IliCZLiO:l t iOSpecticprO*L~VIG isU,:..: rit;wl hive treatei kckgranl~im ul.~ m tl. by h.dimlsky HU (Wr. 6). l%cy WA plier r=tlxxl namer inwhich ispossible ina it toobtuin upproxIz&Le As of solutions forioth upper andloxer bourds. dewrmin:~ntslli~!ler order usedto o!.:.ain approxlmitioas, arz better taththeup>er andl~wcr Thu6, theIagrangian mltibounds pproach a thetme buckling strcsc. plier method aybeusedto ohtsd.n r results tithir. anydesiredegree d of accuracy. Inaddition totheabove procedures which srebased onenergy ir.tcgrals, ther o methodsf obtaining o approximate solutions buckling of problems havebeen use~which involveheequilibrium t differential equation. tiundary conditions exactlyre a ~CtiOnS which sfythegeorr~trical &&:l used sat~sfy~.eoverning differential to t g equation approxkately by processes thatleadto integrationthese of fucctions.alerkln’s =thod, G finite-difference e.~uations, relaxation techniques, anditeration aresome of thenumerical nethodshatcanbeused. t KUNDARY CONDITIONS dependsotonlyupon n Thenature f thebuckle atternna relate o r i thetype appliedoading of l butalso uponthe=%er in which theeds=s aresupported. Thisis illustrated infigure inwhich 1 thes&me-al compressive loadings seen to generate i three types buckle atterns of p on a longrectangular with plate different geo~’trical boucdary conditions.Thesingleaveisrepresentative w of coluzn behatior, thetwisted waveis representative of flangeehatior, b andtkemultiple-buckle pattern 58representative of plate tehatior. N indicate them=nne= which geometric in tine boundary condltio-= mathe-tically influence thebuc’kling behavior an~alsotodamnstrate thesolution theequilibrium of differential equationeq.(4)) ( forsome particular cases, heplates t shown infigure cueanalyzed. 1 I!o-..f conditions vhich c~cterize simply qrporte~ s vi~ecolumns, ~ges, andplates areconsidered.
q

Wthemtical&ialysis Theequilibrium differential equation forelasticuckling a b of unlaxially compressed canbecbtained plate fromequation4)in the ( form (7)

-,, .,,.
...!

.J. ;

T!, isES.5UT.*2,3 .&Ild ~h~’refore

;

w= uhere

c1 (

.—

(9)

(lo)

.

(m

Thecoefficients to C4 areto be dete.nzined cl by thegeometrical bmndaryconditions along the‘&nloadei of theplate. edges Fortiewidecolumn,keunloaded t edges locatedt y = tb/2 are a free, andconsequently theedge EmQent6ndre-iuced she?~s must be zero. a . Therefore,

I

Ii
A~ +
q

2(1 -Ve)zz-

*O

(1’)

ax~ytib/2 1

Fortheflange,heunloaded at y = O isassumedo he simply t edge t supported andthat y b is free: at
.

.

A:-

.,.,..”)”, ;:; ‘. ‘ ;,:

.

(W)y=() =o

(=+veG),=o,b=o
&+2~-’e)-]y=b=0
(w)y~b/2 =o
a’% —+,,22 *& ~2 ~*~/2 = 0
.

Theplate isassumedobe siMPly uppmted t s along theunloaded ed~es” located y = ~b/2: ai

()

boundary conditions Incorporation of these intothesolution given by equation (8)leads thefollowing to implicit expressions for kc. Forthecolumn,

. for the

flange,

1

#p sinh&cosp - ~%coshtisln~= O andfortheplate
[itanh{~/2) +j3 tan(5/2~-1= O

(16) .

1

(17)

where

#-

5=&2 - ve(xb/A)2 .

!.,

~lebuckling coefficient sixply upported fora s flangeasderived w (ref. in theform 8) ~,y t,w@@st andStowell kc = (6/Lr2) (1 {

‘e)i[fib/A)2/6]}
(18) (19)

kc=0.83 -0.93ve+L34(A/fib)2+ 0.10(xb/A)2 Forthe s*W supported plate kc=

[m +(b/AjJ2

(a

Anticlastic-titure AS my be seenfrom thesolutions inthepreceding section, the s plate depends upononly ,,U:kling coefficient thesimply upported for ~d 1s independent ofRissonts ratio,hile w thecoefficients for ‘J/A de columnndflmgearefunctions a ofboth Ve and b/L ThiS the@ isnotlimitedotbecase 6fmple upport t of s alone butper~5tufition ~tl,v toa~ degree f rotational o restraint along theW-A ed=s of Theinfluence v= upon ~ istraceable thereducedof to ~ ~lfitec of andcolumns. Boundary condi~~lemr te- atthefreeedges flanges such simple upport notImpose herequirementzero as s do t of til)rl~ eliminates Ve influthe ~ettuc~he= ~ong theunloaded , which s edges ,ntofrom therelationship kc. for me value thecompressive of buckling coefficient foranelement unloaded dependspon edge u thedegree fanticlastlc o ~mtdinin6 free Fora very a developed. narrow lementuch a be&m, e s as complete ~~lrV/LtUL~
.

I “

en biclastlc curuture occurs anithelending rigiditiyslc.plyI. ?01” iu E a relatively Btrip, ?ma:iticlaztic vitie t CU-JatIJre suppressed t?.t~t is so thecross sectiofi reraizs relntlve>y except flat fora highly aculize; l Curling thefree at eiges vkre the~tressistribution d rermrapges itself to satisfy thegeometrical bow-simy comiibions. Therestraint ant.iof cksticcurnture res-dts inm increase inbendingtiffIMss. s Fora verywideele~ent, tkek.::.<irg stiff~ess approaches EI/(1 v2); this limiting condition is~.r-~:: as cylindrical kending. Plate columns andflanges oft-en relatively my he narrow,nwhich i case thebendingtiffness Lctweenhelimiting s lies t values iscbssed. d effect anteacccunted c forby useoffigure . 2 This STRESS-STRAIN R!21ATIONS INYIELD RIGION Three-tineter Description ofStress-Stmin Curves Stress-strain cumesareof f’undanental iqcmtancenthecosrputai buckling stresses.henumber T ofdesire harts ewired c r tionof inelastic forthemny materials a~-ilable andthevariousllowabie a stresses ~or these mterials nomalandelevate~ at temperatures canbetrewmdous;ly reducedyuseof a nondimensional b mathematical descriptionstressof strain elations. r RambergndOsgod(ref. a 9)have proposed three-pszaneter a representation stress-strain of relations intheyield region hich w FRSfound wide application. TY.eir e~uation specifies thestress-strain ky curve ThemduluEof elasticity thesecant E, theuseof three par==ters: field stressCO-7 corres~nding theintersectionthestressto of straln urve c anda secantf 0.7E, o andtheshape parameter which n describes thecwxa:uzze thekneeof thestress-strain of curve.The ebape pa.raceter function ‘Jo.7 isa of ~d ~0.85J helatter tress t s corresponding secantf0.55E shown figure (a).Theshape toa o as in 3 ~ter n ispresentti infigure (b) a function 3 as oftheratio ‘0.7 ‘0.85” / Thethree-paraceter is base~ theexperimen~l method on observation thatformny mterials simplewer lawdescribes a ~ therelation between theplasticndelastic a components strain. of Eyuseof this fact, tke following nondimensional equation canbederived: Ee= =0.7 e +2A 7U0.7

#

()

n

(a)

.

.

i ! ,

tire andccmsc~uefiLly ThequalitiesM-/ l?~.y an: u/ C(-J,7 nond~rwmio::al tk nondimensional stress-struin shorn figure canLeplottei. curves in h Therefore, thestress-strain curwxof rany ffi%erials my be found with‘ forthespetheaidof figy?e providing, n, ahd =0.7 areknown h E cific mterials.

Moduli Inelastic Forinelastic-tickling problems, modulusatiosEe/E,Et/E, tile r innondimensional form and Et/Esappear. These ratios anbe co~”~ted c byuseof equation (21).SinceES= u/c,itfollows directly equafrom tion(21) that ~~ = 1+ (3/7) @o.7)n-1 Since~ = du)de, ifferentiation d ofequation leads (21) tothe * expression “. E~ = Fronequations and(23) followshat (22) it t Et/Es =
(23)

(22)

(%%)/(%)
1+ (3m\u/%.7)n-l ~+ (3/7) n(u/uo.~)n-1 (24)

areusedinsubsequent seetions These quantities concem,ed with inelastic buckling. Inelastic Poisson’s Ratio Poissen’s ratio forengineering mterials usually hasa value in theelasticegion f between r o 1/4and1/3and,ontheassumption ofa plastically irlcompressible i$otropic solid,ssures value 1/2in a a of theplasticegion. r Thetransition theelastico theplasticalue from t v isnxxtpronounced intheyield region f thestress-strain o curve.Since
q 

.

is of sore i:uport:mce in ir.elastic-iucklit:~ proLlc%s. Gerard ndWildhorn, a w..;::K ot~.ers, havestudieJhis t problemn o severallu~dtuum a alloys ndhuve a shorn that Poisson’c ratio seriously is affected misotmpyof thematerial by (ref. 10). Forrmterkls UMCII canke considered orthotropic tote (e.g.,ating hesmc properties h t z-~e6iflotied10ng x-is) 8 tkle the rolbW@ rehtion along they- .?U_d describes thetransition Intheyield region:
v =
ti

‘P -

@sIE)~p - ‘e)

(&j)

plasticalue Poisson’s v of ratio. this relation, is thefully ‘P materials Vp For isotropic rmterials p= 1/2, ukreas fororthotropic V is generally different a value 1/2. from of

!
I , I

*

Itisevident from thebuckling stress xpression e thattworaterials which differ nlyintheir o values fPoisson’s o ratio shouldavedifferent h buckling stresses.s a rule, A however, thevalue v= istirtually of constant fora material whoseproperties m3ychange as a result ofheat treatment, detailsf composition, o orarcou.nt of cold-work. I
I

structural of ye for EOst technically inportant mterials I#sween.25 and0.35.~Lere are exceptions, is 0 however. One of themostextrer~ ~terials Isberyllium, forwhich Udy,Shav, 8nd Wulgerreport atiue of 0.02(ref. ). n
The USUEL1 mge

Intheinelastic range, resmblybecausef anisotropy, p o numerical values f v have o beenfound which considerably me inexcess f the o theoretical limit 0.5, upper of which isderived tke assumption on of incompressibility isotropic of=terial.Forexa@e, Gerard and Wildhorn obtained values f v as Imge as0.70forseveraligh-strength o h aluminum alloys (ref. 10), vhile ~n andRusselleportedvalue r a of 0.77 forcanzercially puretitanium sheet and0.62forFS-lh =gnesium G andNewcan lsoobtained at vara data alloy(ref. 2). Stang, reenspan, 1 iance withthetheoretical of 0.5forplastictrainsref. value s ( 13). These three reports cover a large varietyfalloys,eformed o d byvarious total. strainsnboth i barandsheet stock, ndshoulde consulted a b for morecomplete data.
.

0-

.

t

PLASTICITY-RZHK’TICW FACTURS Inelastic-Buckling-St .-ess EquatSon Theelastic buckltng stress fa flat o rectangular canbe plate ~2 12(1- Ve )() 2 b ~2E

I
(26)

expressed in theform

‘Cre=

Whenthebuckling stress xceeds e theproportional of theplate limit

material, theterms inequation which (26) areinfluenced ~, E, are and v. Thebuckling coefficient depends k uponthetype ofloading, thebuckle avelength s affected thegeometrical w a by features boundof aryconditions andaspect atio, hestressevel, ndPoisson’s r t l a ratio in thecaseofplatesithfree w edges.Theelastic MUIUS E iS altered by thereduction intendingtiffness s associated withinelastic behatior. Poisson’s ratio theyield in region xhibits gradualransition e a t from theelasticalueVe to8 value 1/2for8 plastically v of incompressible isotropic material.
q

Forsimplicity calculation effects of exceeding of all theproportional limit-are .&nera12y incorporated single oefficient in a c referred to as theplasticity-reduction factorq. Bydefinition ~ = aq~cre ,Substituting equation into (27) equation (26), (28) (2’7)

0-

Since q =“1 In the elasticange, quation isperfectly r e (28) general anditisnotnecesssxy distinguish to between elasticndplastic a buckling !Ihealues f k @ . v o ve arealways heelasticalues t v since thecoefficient contains ~ allchangesn those i terms resulting frominelastic behatior.

.

I

3J

* ,,. i. .\ f.,.. J:, IL...

;.

:

.-

Thetheoretical andexperimental determinations of thevnlues q of appropriate tov’.trious of loadings types andtiund[lry conditioner lIQVC reaulte~ i3extensive literatu~e. Theassumptions underlying the‘v%riau$ theories differ withrespectoplaatlclty t laws, Btress-strain relaticws, and.buckling mdelsused. Inorder t~avoid possible confusion indiscussinghevariousheories, t t itappearsesirable d toresort tke to expedient comparing of theories withtest datafirst. Rather recisexperimental p e dataexist forplasticuckling b of colurms, sinply u~orted s flangesndplates nder a u compressive loads, andelastically sup~rt.ed plates nder u shear loads.Forpractical alundnum-a~oy columsunder compression, itisa well-known facttk=t theexperimental failingtress s closelypproximatedtheEuler s i a by formulaiththetangentmdulusubstituted w n s fortheelasticodulus. m In figure , test 5 dataforbuckling sl.mply of supported flanges under compression areshown incomparison withthetheoretical values as derivedy Stowell ref. b ( 14)according themethod to ofGerard agreent is obtained. (ref. 15). Excellent In figure , test dataofPride 6 andHeimerl ref. ( 16]andPeters (ref. 17)forplasticuckling sinply upported b of s plates nder u covression areshown co,xparison in withthetheories Bijleard of (ref. 18), Handelman andPrager (ref. 19),H.yushin (ref. 20),andStowell ref. ( 5), andthe~thodof Gerard (ref. 5). Pooragreement 1 isobtained betweea thetest dataandtheflowtheoryf Handehn andPrager,hereaselato w r ively good agree~ent obtained is forthedeformation theories tke of othqrs ithStowell’s w theory inbestagreer~ct. Infigure testdataforplasticickling elastically 7, t of supported plates under sheer areshown comparison in withthetheories Bi~laard of (ref. 18), Gerard (ref. 21), andStowell ref. ( 5). Itcanb.cobs_.ed thatthemethod ofGerard,hich based themaximum-shear w is on plasticity lawto transform axial. an stress-strain inti shear curve a stress-strain curve, in goodagreement is withtestdataon aludnum alloys. On the-basis theagreercnt of withtestdata, thevalues q of recommended forusewithequation28) ( appear intheappendix. lso, A nondimensional buckling charts erivedhrough d t theuseof these reduc~tionfactorsppear a infi~es 8, 9,and10foraxially .compressed flangesnd plates and for shear-loaded a plates. Assumptions Inelastic-Buc?Xng of Theories Thestate knowledge to 1936concerning inelastic of up buckling of plates andshells hasbeens~rfzed by Tiimmkenko (ref. 2). The=:Q

,
I

i

Lk!varivlth ei’?or<s rc?crt.c’l “Jere tl:cv-ei~ ca[~c.~~ccdatl~iii~)t.s t-o modify dlfrcrentltil e.~u~tionE by t!.c! ousL-erldiu~-rrfirest e~:l~litriu~, tcrl:s td::~ of useof suitak,lc plasticity coefficients determiried e~.eri.rental from date on columns. Alt?.oIIgh senier~frical such effortsfititha reasonet~le r w degree f success, o thetkoretical deterntinatlon ofplasticity-re~uction factorsorflat f plates asbeen h echleved within ecentears the r y as result f thedevelopzxmta Satisfactory o of inelestic-kuck~ing theory. Becauseuch s developrxmts arerecent ndbecauqehevariousheories a t t Iave notbeen, yet,adequately as treatedntext i books, thefollowing disCUS6LOnoncerning c the.assu~ptions andreSLiltS theVEiriOU6 theories of is presented soue in detail. Mathematical theories plasticity of arephenomsnological innature since such theories generally proceedrom f theexperirr~ntally determined I stress-strain relations forsimpleniaxial u loadings. ntheelastic range, stress strain relinearly W a relatedy theelastic b mdulus. At strains beyond heproportional t lfm~t, finite tress-strain a s relationcanbeusedin thefora

or an incremental relation canbeused

h either elation r thesec~tmodulus Es or thetangent tiulus % varies ithstress ndappliess long theloadingontinues w a a as c to increase.nloading U usual.ly occurs long elastice parallel a an w to ttienitial-tic portionf thestress-strain i e o curve. Inthebuckling process, forexample, thestress tate s isc&siderablynrmecomplexhansimpleniaxial t u loading. Therefore, formulation of suitable stress-strain forthree-dimensional states eyond laws stress b theproFortiorsl forms limit oneof thebasic assumptionsthevarious C* phsticity heories. ase3 generalizations t E on of equation which (3) involveinite elations, f r deformation of stress-strain t~s lawshave g of equation involving (30) increbeenad-ted. Similareneralizations h mental relations arereferred toas flow-type theories. boththeories, unloading occurs lastically. e Theuseofthevariouslasticity p theories isgreatlyacilitated f by theintroductionrotationa~y of invariant fimctions todefine the three-dimensional andstrain tates; stress s suchfunctions aretermed Theassumption thestress ntensity that i stress ndstrain ntensities. a I isa uniquely defined, single-valued function thestrain ntensity of i

fora @ven rzterial thesLress ntensity wt.en i incre%ses (loadin~) ur.i is elastictenitdecre-fies W (unloading) is a second thefunda%entsl of hypotkesefi ofplasticity theory.

Thedefinitions .of,the stress.dstrain ntensities w i tkeoretlcali.v canLechosen fro.n f~all%y rotationally a of invariant fi,anctior.s. Two suchfunctions referre~ toas diemQximLK-shear lawend-octahedral-skar Iawhavebeenfound tobe of considerable usefuhese correlaLin3 for —— stress dataonductileterials.Thus, z troth these of laws.h.ave teen assumedoapply variousolutions t in s forinelastic buckling. Inorder obtain to solutions tovariouslasticity p problerrs, adiiitional ssurzptions a are~-nerally er@oyed.These ordinarily includehe t assun@ion that thepri~cipal of stressndstrain axes a coincide andthe assunrption ofpksticTsotropy.therrmre, W thevariation Poisson’s of ratio fromtheelasticalue v tothevalue 0.5fora plastically of incompressible, isotropic solid isnmst pronounced theyield in region. Some solutions accountorthe instantaneous of Poisson’s f value ratio whereas others ssume value a a of0.5forboth theehsticardplastic region. The latter issumptioa serves o sirplify t theanalysis considerably. Corrections fortheuseof thefully pl.astic of Poisson’s value ratio cangeneraUy incorporatedthefinal be in results. Alltheforegoing assumptions formthebasis forsolution plasof Forthespecific probleaf inelastic o ticity roblems geneti. p in buckling, isnecessary It tamakeanadditional assumption concerning thestress istribu~idn d attheinstant ofbuckling.
From thestandpoint classical of stability theory,tteuckling t b load is theloadatvhich exchang@ stable quilihriurr an of e configurations theloadrezains occurs betweenhestraight andthebent t form form. Sti.ce consknt during thisexc.Wnge,strain eversal occur theco~vex a r must on side and,therefore, tkebuckling nndel leadingothereduced-mdulus t conseptorcolumnsscorrectheoretically. f i t

q

%ictical plates COIUMRSnvariabwontainnitialerectarxi i c i @ ions of somesort, and,therefore, loadingndbendingroceed axial a p simultaneously.thisczse, In thebentformis theonlystable onfi~c Since thepresence relatively in of large axial compressive uration. stresses thetendingtresses aresmll, no strain eversal s r occurs nd a theincremental bendingtresses s intheinelastic range aregiven by equation (30).
q

Since failingoads l obtained tests ahuninum-alloy columns from on arecloselypproxinuited a bytheEuler buckling equation withthetangent modulusubstituted s fortheelastic modulus, certainf theinelastico tuckling theories assume theno-strain-reversal, or ~.gent-nmdulus, model thebasic as buckling process andthen proceedo solutions t byuse of equilibrium equations based classical on stability concepts.

::;..-;,

f 1. ‘x .;;.: Inelusiicikcklirrg i-~.eori~s

Different invectlgntcrs hnveused variousnesof t},ose o assuw Lions di.~cussed above,In order toindicate themaJor assuimpkions underlyirl~ each tl:eheories,sunrary present~a table of t EL is in 1. Historically, EiJlaard appezrsohavekeenthefirst t toarrive at 6Qtisfactor~ theoretim~ solutions forinelast.ic-buck~ing theories of allthose considered (ref. 18). Hisworkis thenestcomprehensive inthat heconsiders incre.~ntal kth anddeforrztion theories conand cludes hat t thedeformation is correctince leads lower type s it to inelastic uckling b loadB th&n areobtained fromincrerzntal theories.is E work wasfirst publishe~ in1937.!Ihis pnper later ancl publications includeolutions s to.wnyi.@ortnnt inelastic-buckling problem.Hovever, this workappearsohave t remained unknoumonestof thelater t investigators. Ilyushin brieflyeferred Bijkard’sorkandthen r to w proceeded to derive hebasic t differential equation forinelastic buckling flat of plates ccording a tothestrain-reversal (ref. rdel 20). Thederivation of thisequation israther legantndwasusedby Stowell, e a who,however, usedtheno-strain-reversal (ref. mdel 5). Thedifferential equation obtained BiJlaard by reduces that to derivedy Stawelly setting b b v . 1/2 intheformer. Handelrxm andFrager,uring d thistime, obtained solutions severalnelastic-buckl.ing by useof incremental to f groblems theory (ref. 9). Test 1 data, such shown figure , indicate as in 6 that theresults incremental of theories, regardless thebuckling of model, aredefinitely unconsemtive, whereasefomtion-type d theories arein relatively agreerent. good Alltheforegoing theories weretzscd tteuseof theoctahedralon shear law. Eovever, test data theinelastic on buckling aluminum-alloy of plates shear in indicated theresultsf theabove that o theories were unconservative. Gerardsedthemaximum-shear u lawin place the of octahedral-shear transform lawto axial stress-strain curves shear to stress ndfound a good agreezent withthealuuinum-alloy-plate shearbuckling data(ref. 1.). 2 Tc sumarize,hen, t theassuruptions leadtothebestagreement which betweenheory ndtest t a data inelastic on buckling aluminum-alloy of flat plates nder u compression andshear loadings includeeformation-type d stre~s-strain stressndstrain ntensities laws, a i definedy theoctahedralb shear law, andtheno-strain-reversal of inelastic model buckling.lthos.$ A there maybetheoretical obJectior-is todeformation theories a class as and theuseof a no-strain-reversal inconjunction model withclassical stibility concepts, data suggestheuseof resultsbtained a test do t o from theory ased these b on assurrgtions inengineering applications. Thechoice ,oflawsto transform axial s‘ress-strain datato shear stress-strain data

-,I } -,

-:-..,.), :.,.;.i,:l

.— .. ~

de~endspontj:ee~ree f currc::,:l u d o G:l Obt.::irtczl eachor th,JJs b::”dc%!rl L’” laws wlih polyaxial dntufor ir.iivldwd test, I:LLtF:rlfLIs. FactorssedinCo:qm&it.icms U As alreadynilicated, i thelnelastlc-kuckl~ng u.~yc coxstress b puted byuseof plasticity-reductfon appropriate theboundfectors to aryandloadin~onditions. c ThefacLar3ncoqymatelleffectsf i a o exceeding the proportion92 lizxit upon k,,E,a~d v. Forconveaienee in. reparing p desi~ charts forinelastic buckding, thecritical elastic strain anbe used: c
Ecr =
k#

+
Frcmequations end (31) (28)

tz 1#)
5

()

(31)

Ucr* V%r

(32)

Therecommended values q sregiven of intable Forcowressive 2. loads, hevalues q derivedy Stowellorinfinitely plates t of b f long except inthecase plate of columns see ( refs. and22)havebeencor5 rected toaccountorthetistant~leous of Poisson’s f value ratio according to a method suggested Stowe12. by andPride (ref. 23). Thusj

,=,8(+) k-v2)

(33)

where qs is theoriginal value given Sti#ell. by Equation is the (33) formof theplasticity-reduction tkat factors appearsntable sndhas i 2 beenuse~to constmct thenondimensional buckling charts f figures, o 8 9, andlo. Forlongsimply upported s plates under coxzbined co~ression axial andbendingijlaard B found theoretically, finite-difference bya approach (ref. 24), that
q

,..
.*. . . . . .

.

,,7 :,

..-&

.,,

~?

Equation (Zl)) t}.e plasticity-red.uction craxial factor f compression. r~luces tMs value tO foraxial loud alofie, since a = O forthiscase. Forpurebending = 2 andequation is equal theplasticityu (34) to reiiuction fora hinged b.nge. factor f Todetermine instanta~eous value ofPoisson’s the ratio, quation25) e ( canbeused. Forthenond~nencional buckling charts hetheoretical t fully plastic value of 0.5wasas3um4forPoissonts ratio,s wasassvcedy a b Stowellnhisdeterminations i oftheplasticity-reduction factors. Stowell andPride reported computations using on tie equation insteadf (34) o v = 0.5 andshowed hat t there waslittleifference d betweenhetwocurves t forflanges andsimply upported s pliates 23). Bijlaard (ref. tookexception to this report (ref. 25); however, thedifferences slight,s wns were a pointedutby Stowell o andRride, nditcanbe assuredorpractical a f purposes that theplasticity-reduction shown factors intheappend~ix aresatisfactory general desi~ andanalysis. for &mStrUCtiOn Nondimensional Of BUC~Ilg (%Sl_tS Thenondimensional buckling-stress of figures, 9,and10 charts 8 wereconstructed thebasic from nond~sionalstress-strain of curves figure andtheplasticity-reduction shown h factors intheappendix, incorporating themethod f critical o strains depicted as throughquae tions (31) and(32).Since there islittle ifference d among thenwzericalvalues f thebuckling o stresses wcxildbe that obtained forthe plasticity-reduction applicable longckuxpedlange ndto factors toa f a a hug plate withanyamuntof edgerotational restraint, tkese cases weregroupednto i onee@oying thereduction factor orthesiuply upf s @rtedplate, hich theaveragef thethree w is o factors. CIADDIM3 RRXCTIONFACTORS Eaiic %inciples Thepresence cladding thefaces of on ofplates y haveanapprecim ableeffect n thebuckling o stress ince s thecladding raterial, which usually has lower mechanical strength theplate than core, is locatedt a theextremeibers f thephte cross f o sectionfig. ( 11)where thebending strains during buckling attain their highestalues. v Buchertetermined d buckling-stress-reductionforclad factors plates which include plasticity effectsswell reduction a as dueto cladding (ref. 26). However, ispossible it todetezminereduction a factor or f

.

-. .. .

., .,., ..’L ..I.

‘L-il ~.“.”’; .

claddind :.. <a;: !J..lt & uciltli~”tli~-i lxiy L:( inclzstic tl,e t)uc}:lic~ stress t~yiel~ i’innl a bucklifi~ strc:s orL1.e pl;ite a~rees f clmi tl~:~t quite close~withtketest data. Thecladdir~g reductio~l i’uckrs maytlhc:. kc used withtheexi.stin& inelasti.c-bucKLix~of fig~es8, ~, aT.A3. curves 1

. —

— Theform ofbuckling eqmtion co~mdy usei for detercinin~ t!:c buckling stress f a bureflat o plate with anytype loadingndlm~n~~ of a “ arysuppcrts isgiven equation as (28).Forclai plates this exprec~ian isusedtofindc nominaluckling b stress, wliere thethic!v.ess is tt~t of thetotl-.l andtheraterial plate properties arethose thecore. of Theactual’ buckling stress f a clad o @ate then be found applying my by a simple tczerical n multiplieri to this f stress. Thisrultlplier, termed thecladding reduction factor ecausetreducesheratio the b i t o: nominalore c stress o thebuc’kling t stress f tkeclad o plate, a fxncis tion therelative andcladding of core stress evelsndtherespective l a mduli of thecore andcladding materials.keclad-plate T buckling stress canbe found from 1
acr = <ucr

(35)

E tine nominaluckling b stress xceedsk.eroportional of e t p limit thecore =terial, thenthenominaluckling b stress ortheclad f plate my be found using by theappropriate of q, theplasticityvalue of reduction factor f thecore o mterial.Values q maybe obtained fromtheclad-plate stress-strain shown curve infigure 2,thederi1 vation fwhich o isdiscussed belo-w., It shoulde noted b thattheplasticity-reduction depenti factor uponthestress evel l andconsequently requires estimte thefinal an of buckling stress f theplate o before equation canbeusedto fi~~ (28) ffcr. Thecladding reduction factor asbeenfourd h tobe of sucha -ture, however, little that errnr isinmlved infirst ~inding thenominaluckb lingstressndthen a multiplying itdirectly thecladding by reductiaa fact-or find to theactual uckling b stress f tlcelad o c plate.Theproduct qfiis ~T$which wasdetermined Buck.ert. by Table containsa istingf the=riouscladding 3 l o reduction factors detemined insubsequent portions thissection. of Inthetable, R forwhich tke allplates relor& a andsti,ply supported..allcases t b cladding proportional-limit Ucl exceedshenoninaluckling stress reduction factor sequal i tounity.TheymnstressUcr thecladding of tity p %sdefineds P = aclci a ~ cr,ad f istheratio thetotal cladding thickness theclad-plate thi-kness. to total

.. ..... . . .. . ... ....:.”,”:1

7 DcrfvaLion Core Or Stress-ZkrEln Curve

Tkecorestress-strein curve My be derivedrom skress-str8fn f a curve fortheentirelad c p~%te shown us infi=ve12. Using thenotition fl~e 11,inuhtch sectiofi clad of a ofa plate isshown, hetotal t axial load acting n thesection o isdetermirtible ikon (36) Dividing expression tucoreyields this by
,

=1 5/ocore -f+pf where $ = ‘cllacore”

(37)

!Ums, thecore stress-strain canbeconstructedplotting curre by tF&corestresseterrzined equation at each d from (37) value strain of forwhich thecorresponding clad-plate stressasfound.(See w fig.12. ) ~.einitial. of thecore slope curve,hich w isthesarze theinitial as slope oftheclad-plate curve, stheelastic i mdulustobe usedinthe noril.n.=1-buckling-stress ince equation. S thebuckling stress refers o t thecore ruiterial., Ucorewasreplaced itscounterpart in the by Ucr succeeding derivations. ~ical values f f foralclad late o p appear n table forsevi k eralaluninum alloys. Ducherthowed value acl= 10,~ psifor s a of ll(X)-KL4alloy 26). However, (ref. thecladding stressillvary t with thecladding material, ofwhich different types areused different on alloy cores.
.

Comparison ‘Tkeov nd@erfm_ent of a Thetotal-reduction defineds theproductftheplasticityf8ctor, 8 o andcladding-reduction hasbeen fnctors, plot-ted fi,-.re as a funcin 13 tiffn stress orboththetest of f data andthetlfeory thecase axially ir, of compressed plates. mterials Wo arerepresented, with different each a percentage cladding of thl.ckness. purthe~ore, thefirst (202h-T@L sheet) isa sirrply supported plate whereashesecond ~zk-~ sheet) sa long t ( i colum. Plasticity-reduction forthese factors twocases were obtained frontable Itis instructive 2. tonotice heclose t correlation forthe colunn case, forwhich thetangent mdulusistheapplicable plasticityreduction mdulus. Thisfo~owstheprediction thesimplified of theo~,

I

‘,/,. ,

, ,..

l“\ . :.: ..

4

Derivations ofSimplified Cladding Reduction Factors

Bucherterivedxpressions d e forthetotal-reduction forfist factor simply upported s rectangular plates ubjected severalypes lce.iings. s to t of sections arepreriented derivations simplified of cla.idin In thefollowing reduction factorshat t yield buc’kling .stres6es atallstressevels ~’rel l z by mLtLplying thenGzinaltress elastic inelastic) s ( or bythecladding Thisisdofie separating clad.iing by the reduction factort tkt stress. a effect romtketotal-reduction byusing f factor therelationship ~/~. fi =

in Buchert derive tied Case1. LongSs!lySuppo plates coqression.(ref. X): theevressiori ~ at a==> upl (ofthecore) for

(*)
where ~ = (3f%/Es)1A) + (3/4)(%/%] [ Fora bare platef = O and ~= q,ufiich give “

(39)
.

(cf. table 2). Then

5= l+3r 1

3

1.+

(,&,E=jl+(mJEs] (,,4) +{[l p,,,+ (2,,++w]~f’
“1+11A)+ (3/4) (%/%]1’2

)

(Q)

I .

<=

2(1 + 3f) {

(l+3Pf)

+*p+39f)(4+313fp2}

(41)

vhich JllSy written be

-(8[+ i~
(c)Forl.arge stresses,-O P

[$vfm + 3,f)l}”2)

If it iS ass-d that 9W/(1+ 3Pf) <<4, thefoUowing siaple xprese forthecladding reduction factor: sionisobtained * (42) mdtheretore (43)

1 ?=— l+sf

Equations ad (43) m=r infi~ 13 ~nthefo~of qT= Tfi> (42) where they, maybe seen toagree closely withthetotal-reduction factor .,andthetest data. columns.Thederivations I forshort of andlong Case Plate 2. plate columns followhefomn t usedincase forthesupported 1 plate Theresults areshown table in 3. uithoutnysimpli~ing a assumptions. W COlumnurve c isplottednfi~e 13 int~~eo~ qT= vi>where i f it is seen toagree closely withthedata andwithF!uchert’s theory. Buchertre&. 6) ( 2 s plates nshear.i Case Langsimply upported ~. ona long simply upported s plate is shows that ~ forshear

,

where thenodal-li[,e of theshear slope bucklessobtaine~ the i from @licit equation

The&nLmm-energy state occurs forunclad elsstic plates hen w a-l I~, andthere islittle eason oexpect significantly y t a different Consequently, value a isassuredn this of i value forclad plates. thefollowing development:
C5T EsE

M .wpa+p3T/%)+*iJ 4(l*3f) (a)When acr< ~c13 Ipfi=lq=l.

(45)

,.

(b)Theplasticity-reduct~on for a=r>dcl isderivable factor fromthetot.al-reductian in theform factor
,=

(E8,8E)f + +-+] (~ps)

-.. . -,,..

,. :

:=—
1:3f
where Y . 1+ 3pf.

I
hi-

(E@)++ - (@.)]
1

(47)

4+(qEJ+3/~-(%iq

The expression in braces deviates about percent rom 2 f unity for f . 0.10 andfor $–>0.2, u~ch willbein theneighborhoodthe of proportional fortypicaltructural limit s aluminum alloys.Consequently, ittill notintroduce appreciable to consider an error itequal unity, to inwhich case equation42) ( forthecompressed simply supported plate F=lds true. (c) Forlarge stresses, $-+0, and therefore {= ~.

l+3f
I

KEKLING FIATILECTMGUIAR OF PLATES NDER U COMPRESSIVE LOADS In the preceding sections themathe=tical endphysical background fortheflat-plate buckling probleaasbeenpresented.twasshown h I that basic equation1)canbe usedforthesolution buckling ( of problems pertaining flatrectan~ plates to under variousypes loadings t of in theelasticndInelzstic a ranges y suitable b choice f reduction o factors andbuckling coefficients. Considerations thatinfluence thedeterminationof k have beenanalyzed thesections in entitled “Easic Principles” . and“Boundary Conditions.’! Theplastici@-reduction SM cladding reduction factors werediscussed thesections in “Plasticity-Reduction and Fac~ors” ‘Cladding Reduction Factors.” thissection, h andinthose follow,%.e to t buckling coefficient wi~ be discussed k anditsnumerical values for variousoadingndboundary l a conditions ti12be presented.
Historical Background

.

_ inves-kigated thebuckling simp~y ofa s-~pported flatrec-tangularplate under txial loadingntheelasticange i r using theenerw method (ref. 27). He obtained theexplicit formfor ~ forthistype of l~dingandsupport: kc = ~a/nb) (nb/a]2 “ + (48)

.. . ,,,,, ,, :..

j:

:

:.

Ti ,sI.w2s w.. tr~tcdt].wnerou~tiMAI ,-nses h)”l(t i 1,;; :.I;..1 t?,UI,~I{Uy niii . ot’ ar,d Llk4: olul-iott s 01’ t~.e Ut~liZf:lg bo~h bk eIi.2. -~ up~rc:tct: differential equntion (ref. 2). liiil constructed Q churt kc covisY:ng of thecomplete rzn.ge ofpossi~;?: til&X:~’;~ conditiol]s f~i[l~ fOr ]@’k~iIl+i: c“j~port~~d, or free simply clamped Cir;c: one st.ie, awl simply Guppor!& on or ck,peded~~s theother, iththe lomhi C:WS either lumpedr on w c o simply upported s (ref. 28).
cOrtd~tiOI15

Lundquist and%owe~ presented first tk’e unifiedreatrent tkc t of compressive-buckling intheir problem analyses, boththedifferentialby equation andenergy ethods, thecases supported r of of plates ndflanges a withsimply supported lomlti dges e andwithvaryingegreesf elastic d o rotational restraint along tkesupprkd unloadeii edges(refs. and29). 8 Stein andLibove,nconsidering i co~bined longitudiml andtransverse axial loads, overedheeffectsf c~~ing along c t o theunloaded edges ot (ref. ~). rectangular plates Values Compressive-Buckling of Coefficients Numerical
*

forPktes

Figure isa sumarychart 14 depicting thevariation ~ asa of ~CtiOn Of a/b fOrVSriOUSimithgconditions edgeSupportnd l Of a rotational restraint a rectangular fht plate.It isapparent on that forvalues f a/b greaterhanfcmrtheeffect rotational o t of restraint along theloaded dges e beccmesegligible n andthatthecl~ed plate would buckle tirha12.y samecompressive as a plate at tine bad with siqpl.y supported loaded dges. e . ,, Supported Plate, ~~ws Elastically Restrained

~otation Against . Thebehavior compressed of plates withvariouamuntsof elastic a rotational restraint along theunloaded edges canbe understood by exmining therelation between bucklingoefficient c andbuckle wave Forplates upported s along bothuriloa.ied thecurves edges length. appear figure 5forrotational in 1 restraint fromfullclamping =) (e= w 1s fromthe tohinged SUppO1’tS O). From thisfigure,hich taken (~= report y Lundqulst b andStoveI-l 29),it ispossible seether~(ref. to ner inwhich~he buckle avelength ecreases rotational w d as restraint increases, andthevalue A/b for a minimum value of ~ canbe of seen increase 2/3fore-lamped to 1.00forhinged to from edges edges. Thelower portions these of curves ndtheportions theleftof tke a to mininum ~ lineform thefirst armsof thecurves of ~ as a function
.

!&:;,~,~;“il.>~ i . i

of a/b,as in ?X&me16. Forco.~)leieness, tr~nsttimsrom to 2, 2 to 3, . . . n ta f 1 included infigure 5. Theintersections 1 of these Ii’ties withtl.eurves c of ~ against A/b correspon~ tothecusps thecurvesf figure 6. ort o 1 PlatesithUnequaldge W E Rotational Restraint Figure 5 canalsobeusedwhenthere 1 areunequalotational r restraints theunloaded along edges a plate.Thiscanbe done of by determining & value the for$he e on each unloaded edge.Theeffective value foruseinequationl)canthen found ( be fro= (49) -

Theaccuracy this of method asbeerI h demonstratedLun.iquist by andStowell whocompared resultsoobtati.ed s withthevalues btained solting o by directly withtheequations usedby themforthegeneral case ro’caof tional -. restraint (ref. 29). Theelasticestraints r aremathemticallye quivalent o a series f t o unconnected torsional springs. Since thisdoes notriecessarily conform to thebehatior theusual of edge ~r or stiffener flat ofa panel, it isnecessary evaluate to theeffective single pring tiffness the s s of actual. stiffener inorder touseeither igure 5 or figure 6. However, f 1 1 it fs notnecessary determine to thisstiffne=s a high to degree f o accuracy since theinfluence E upon & embraces large range of of a sttffness ratios}s is shown figure ? forinfinitely plates. a in 1 long Whenthestiffener rotational rigidity hasbeenfound,e naybe conputed forming lzy theratio thisrigidity of tatherotatiordigidiw r of the@ate.
...

Rorntest data Gerard asableto constructchart k for w a of lo~g plates s a functionof a b/t forstrong ndweakstiffeners a (-f. 31andfig;18). Above b/t=200 itisseentbatnnst stiffeners willeffectively theplate clmzp edge. Supported Flanges WithZlasticotational R Restraint i forflanges Therelationships ~, A/b,-d e aredepicted amng in figure 19. Itshoulde noted b thatthese curves ereconstructed w for a @isson’s ratio value 0.3,which of alsoapplieso thecurves f & t o as a function a/b infigure of 20. Thedetermination ~ forother of values v isdis$ussed thesectionntitled of in e “Boundary Conditions.” .
.

.}:: .

. . .. ... .. . . & . .-..-/.. ,4 “>,

Thc~lTUISitiO!l lh~S fO1’ tO 2, ~ tb 3, . . . n ~ n + ~ buckl~:, 1 :LW shorn infigure 9. %Jever,it shouldenoted 1 b thak therinimuzn lizc does notintersect thecurve fora hir~ged flange (c= O). Forthiscase there isonly occbuckle hich w extends thefulllength f t?.e’lange. o I As inthecase theplate, of thetheoretical restrafnt action ttLe on supported of theflange sassumedobe a series’of eiige i t disconnected torsional springs, andit isnecessary inthiscase alsoto determine theeffective restraint fortheedgestiffener inorder touse thecurves f figures9and20. However, fnthecaseof supported o 1 as plates,t isnotnecessary i todetermine tooaccurately,figure 7 c as 1 shows,ince& is relatively s insensitivelarge to variations c. in
unloaded

Effect ofIateralestraint Buckling R on h theusual buckling-stress computations theplate analyzed is assumed tobeunrestrained againstistortion itsplane d in uriler the external loads applied. However, forlongitudinal compressive on loads a rectangular plate, theedges parallel totheloads would tend ~ve to a~rt as a result f thePoisson’s o ratio expansion. Ifthis mtion shoulde restrained anyextent,orcesould developed b to f w be transverse tatheappliedad which b would influence thelongitudinal stress kat t thephte tight Withstand before itwould buckle.Iftheinteraction concept isemployed, 5sapparent thetransverse it that compression uculd loyer theperniissible longittiinal stressyan amuntthatcould.be b ‘ found frominteraction-curves utillzing stress atios. r Iftheplate edges .&erest~inedy rigid b stiffeners In place held ~transverse ribs each witha section area ~, thebalancef transverse o . . forcesequires r that .

(50)
Thedirections ax, Uy,and Crr are shown infigure of 2L. Theec@valence transverse of strain equires r that

q

(5U
r.

assuming theribs”and that plate of thesame are mterlal. Fromequations (!%3) and(51), thetransverse stressecomes b

“,.

.’ ,-.

.:

s
1

Fromthispoint itisa sirpleotter odetermtfie reduced r t tt.e longitudinal-buckling This stress. my keexpressed te=5 of the in newvalue of thebuckllng coefficient es shown ~ infigure1,which 2 isa modificationcurvesresented of p byArgyrisndDunne a (ref. 32). BWXZNG OFZ’IATECTANLUUR R HATESUNDER SII!WR LOADS Historical E!ackground Southwell Skan computed and thecritical shear losdfora flatrectangular plate withsimply upported s edges andwithffied edges means by of tkebuckling differential equation (ref. 33). Tinxmhenko investigated shear bucklirg also(ref. 2);however, heused theenergy ethod nd m a obtained critical a loading.5 percent. 6 higher han t theexact result of Soutbwell andSkan. Stowel.1 deteqmi.nedshear-buckling coefficients forinfinitely long supported plates iththeedges w elastically restrained agair~totation r (ref. %). Heutilized thedifferential equation foran exact solution andtheenergy integrals forplotting purposes.toweHpresented S his results thenanner Southwell in of andSkan, whoplottedhebuckling t coefficient function A/b forlong asa of plates. Thisisthesame procedure by I.undquist used andStowell forcompressive loadlng plates on ofanylength (refs. and2g). 8 mtricatihtisptric Modes

Thesolutions obtalned~Southwell andSk- (ref. andby 33) !J!imshenlm(ref. pertained a buckle orm 2) to f temedthesymetric mode because the~etxy of themodeshape of withrespectoa diagonal t acros6 heplate thenode-line t at slope.Stein andNeff exmined the ‘ antisynmetric tie forsimply upported buckle s plates ndfoti thatit a t hasa lower buckling stress, within stall. a range a/h values,han of does thesymmetric-tie 35). Stein Neff (ref. aiid also repeated Timoshenko’s calculations forgreater precision andobtsined estian =ted error 1 percent. of Budiansky andConnor investigated theshort clamped plate forlmth. symmetric andantisymetric buckle ales m using thelagrangian mltiplier f range a/b values,kesymmetric of t method (ref. 36). Except ora small tie wasshown toyield lower buckling the stress.

u

.

Numerkal

Values fShe4r-Duckllng o Coefficient .—

r

i 2 Theplotof k~,as a fmctim of a/b appearsnfigure 2. It maybe seenfromthecurves ozthesymzitric h andnntisynmetric modes Forlong plates the alternate withoneanotk.er a/b increases. as value ks my be found of from figure 23(a), inwhich ksm appearss a a function c. of Coefficient =fectofPlate Length Buckling on

andzero When k~ isplottedsa function a/b forinfinite a of values e (clamped of andhi.nged edges) s shown a infigure 3(b), 2 it my be seen thatthere littleifference is d betweenhetwocurves. t Thissuggestsrapid a method f computing o theshear-buckling coefficient foranyvalue e. Thecoefficient of forthespecified isob-ti~ E cf of which isa fromthecurw= &= as a function e (fig. 23(a)), theratio replot f the-minimum line(n= m) of figure 4. Also, o ks 2 a from figure 3(b).Then k~ forthespecified/b 2 ks~ksmisfound and E maybe found computing by theproductf these o twonumbers. free Estimation thecorrect of value ks &= willbe relatively from of I error becausef theproximity thetwolimiting o of curves infi~e 23(b). ? #
PLATES UNDER BEND~W2 LOADS BUCKLIM FLATREC711GUIAR OF

Historical Background . .

.’

Timmhenko nvestigated i thebuckling stresses forflat rectangular plates under combined longitudinal andbendingoads l using energy integrals andobtained values for kb that agree we~ withlater calculations andMcCulloch analyzed plates long of higher recision p (ref. 2). Schuette under pure bendingithsupported t edges andelasticotational r restraint (ref. 37). JohnsonndNoel a alsoinvesti~ted thebuck31ngQf plates under longitudinal load axial andbending ref. ( 38), andNoelanalyzed plates forlongitudinal bendinglussxialp loadcombined withtransverse =ial load(ref. 39).

Numerical Values f Bendin~-Buckling o Coefficient me relations betweenuckle avelength ndbuckling b w a coefficient for=ious values f rotational o restraint appear infigure 5 together 2 o withthewave-length transition lines.Thecurves f ~ as a function to of ajb areshown figure6. It isof interest notethatthe in 2
,,.

7

value kb forinfinite of pl.te6 isroughlylxtines great the s as as o restraint. value forthesupported plate~ forallvalues f rotational BUCRLING OFFIATRSC3XMWLAR PIATES NDER U COM31NED LOADS Generalackground B Flat rectangular plates requently f aresubjected combinations to of elementary loadings. thasbeencommon ractice consider I p to elementary loadings inpairs andtodetermine interaction or curves orthe “ an curve f combination. Eowever, tworecent apers p treat triple combinationsthe of elementary loads, o that interaction s an surface stress atios genin r is erated, andby taking pp~priateections a s (e.g.,ettingneof thel o stkess atios qual r e zero) t ispossible i toreproduce theinteraction curves hat t k“ere derivedreviously p intheliterature. . Interaction curves forthecodination ofbending, shear, ndtransa verse compressionlong on plates eredeveloped Johnsonndlhcbert w by a (ref. &.O), andNoelConstmcted tbetwo-dtinsiond sections the6urof faceforlongitudinal bending, longitudinal compression, andtransverse forthevariousombinations c of compression 39). Thebackgrounds (ref. loadings arediscussed inthefollowing paragaphs. Interaction charts areshown figures7and28, in which in 2 sections thetriple of stressratio surfaces appear. A sumzaryofheloading~ditiOn6 iscuese~ t C d inthefo~owing pars9gmphsappearsntable Interaction i 5. equations which exist fora few t cases areincluded thetable. in
,r

Biaxialompression C Tinnshenko derived relatlon a betweenhelongitudinal t andtransverse edgestresses acting narec~r o plate ~tbucklingref. ( 2). This relation wasenluated forthelowestossible p combination stresses of by means ofa chart that MUSt drawn be foreach a/b mlue under consideration.As oneMslting case plate of proportion andloading, !lEhmshenko denmnstrated a squarelate that p loadedy equal. b biaxialtrecses s hasa bucklLngcoefficient2,or halfof thatfora uniaxially of loaded square e plate. Libove ndStein a evaluated buckling under biaxialoadings the l by energy ethod orrectangular m f plates support@ several in different nannersandpresented theresultsncharts f -~ as fWnction6 a/b i o of * forvariousalues f kyjwhere v o

. ..: .

qf

I&D =kx — b%

()
s*D
()

I
(53)
1

~Y=%~

1

I

and ax and Uy =e thetwostresses acting n theplate o atbucklira (ref. 30). No simple nteraction i expressions forthestress atios n exist r i thegeneralase c fortheloadings emdsupports investigated byLibove endStein.However, forsqusre anels,r forlong p o panels that buckle In squareaves, canbe shokm, rom w it f Tircoshenko’s results, that Rxt~=l Noelconsidered marecomplicated loading conditions andpresente~ dak from which interaction curvesybe constructed u forbiaxialoadtis l foranyvalue a/b (ref. of 39). Noel’s urves ppe=in figure 8. c a 2
Shear

andkimalStress

Bye,pplicationof theener~method,towell S andSchwartz examined theconditions which under buckling willoccur ona long, flat, rectangular panel withedges elastlca~restrained againstotation r under the sinmltaneous action f shear o andnozmall. stresses (ref. 41). ~ey derived ratios “ thefo-im h theinteraction re~tionship betweenhestre3s t

.~+F@= 1

‘ (55)

Theyalso derivedn expression thestress o~bination a for c at eqyation andtested heintert buckling throughuse.thedifferential of action quation e forseveral values f restraint o coefficient The e. agreement withtheinteraction eqution wasfound tobe excellent, asa consequence ofwhich theinteraction equation writtenbove a raybe appliedothisloadingaseforallvalues f restraint t c o coefficient andmy be used whentheaxial loadiseither ompression c ortensioc, protided therestraint coefficients arethesame onbothedges andtie panel infinitely is long.

i !

.. .

..

Theproblemf~etci%inln~ o critical loadin~ combinations fa?d.cur andHouLoltyboth b anitransverse norml stress was solved by ~ltdorf tt.energy cttiod thedifferenti~l e m ud equation (ref. 42). Tti~ signifiworkisthedemonstration roughly that halfof tl:e cantresult this of critical shear stressaybe appliedoa transversely r t compressed pmel withoutcx~ering l itspermissible compressive-buckling .atress. This work wasdone infinitely panels iththelongedges on long w T supported andelastically restrained againstotation.herestraint r coefficient wasfound exert appreciable to an (although notverylarge) effect ponthecriticaLloading u combination. Theresults forthis type of loading, conseque~tly, do notlend themselves thewritingfa to o simple xplicit e interaction equation betweenhestress atios. t r The curvesere w plotted BatdorfndHoubo2torbothcompressive by a f andtensile transverse nomalloadings cofiination in withshear over theentire =nge of restraint coefficients. Thetwopreceding loadingonditions ~ werereexamined forsimplysupported plates f finitea/b by Batdorf o andStein with theuseof showed hat t theparabolic intertheener~equations (ref. 43). They act~on xpression StowellndSchwartz e of a (eq.(55)) greesiththe a w interaction curves orfinite alues afi forshear f v of pluslongitudithecurve derivedor f nalcompression (ortension) (ref. 41). However, infinitely panels nder long u shear andtranm’erse loading requires mxlitheparabola fication finitealues f.a/b. Fora square panel for v o agrees ithther!ndified w curve, hile w thesimple+dge-support of case EatdotindHoubolt ref.-k2) a ( maybeusedfor a/b.= Thetransition k. between region romthemdifiedcurves o those f t for a/b=m lies these twotiuesof a/b. TheMge shear stress hat t maybe superimposed uponthecritic~l Compressi-tressithoutowering s w l thepermissible cwressfvestress forinfinitely panels isnotpossible long forsqmreplates. fact, = itappearsobe possible t for.infinitely plates nly. long o BendingndHOrmSl tres; a S Tirmshenko determined thecritical combination ofbendingndnora =1 stresses acting n simply upported o s fl%z.rectangular using plates thebuckling coefficient as theenergy et?xd m (ref. 2). He determined a function a forseveral of ratios fmoment osdlngoaxial o l t loading forpanels ithvarious w values f a/b. o JohnsonndNoel a broadened thescope theproblemhy ncluding of i elasticotational r restraint along theunloaded compression edge(ref. 38). Their results plotteds kb versusA/b forallvalues f restraizt were a o
1.

c

.—

. . ..

Lo

?iACA 5751 V!

coefficient. Onechart rquired i6 fOreachof theloadingntios r (longitudinal loading moment “to loading), of.which values erechosen. four w Theloadingatio.is r de~icedy” b ~.— 12M Pb+6M Pb=6(2-G) al M

(56)

where P isthelongitudinal load,M isthebendingxment,nd b n a Is thepanel width.TheyalSOplOt kb asa function a/b forthe of cases simple upportndclamping of s a oftheunloaded compression of edge thepanel.In addition, theeffect f fti}~y f thetioadedtension o o edgeisdepicted forvariousalues u..% a plotof kb vers= ab v of inwhich thehinge~ ndfixed a cases aredrawq thesane on graph.It is apparent thatedgefixity oesnotbecome d important untilu falls below 7/4, which corresponds approximately Pb/M of 1 ormore. toa Grossman examined bendingn cofiination i withtransverse compression using theenergy ethod m (ref. 4f+). found He that forinfinite a/b tke bendingtress tio canbe 0.9at thesametir& s m that thetransnrse omc pressive stress atio 1. He also r is provides graph thestress a of ratios forseveral values of 8/b; however, apparently onlytheinfinitely ong l plate iscapablef withstanding o bendingtresses s without buckling while thetransverse stress isat itscritical value.Thisis similarotheresult ourd Batdorf Ste~~ t f by ti forshear andtransverse compression 45). (ref. Noel protides Interaction c&ve&forsimply upperted s re&angular plates loaded n longitudinal i bendi~,longitudinal compression, and transverse compression 39]. Ibrthelimiting of no transv&rse (ref. case , loading agree they withtheresultsfJohnsonndHeel(ref. o a 38), and whenthelongitudinal compression vanishes agree they withthose of their c Grossmanref. ( 44). Consequently, charts anbe usedforbothof these loading combinations. ~.ecurvesppem in figure8. a 2 Thedata JohnsonndNoelandoflibel of a wereobtained equafrom tions solved orinfinite f values am andwereapplledo finite of t =luesof 8/b by useof theidentity / A/b=’amb / .. . (57)

l%i~ procedure raybe qtiestioned for62311 aspect ratios;c.yever, h it maybeJustifici co~arisonitil by w theworkof Timx:~enko (longitudinalco~ressionmlbending) a andwithtk.eorkof Grossmantransverse w ( compression andbending), withwhich theresultsfJohnsonnd Nuel o a andof Noel6how god agreex.e;.t..
.“

Berziing andShear Stress r TLmoshenko reportsheresult fanalyzingrectangular t o a flatplate todetermine thecritical combination ofbendingndshear e stresses (ref. 2). He usedtheefier~ thodand.plotted m thebucklirz coefficient, thepanel a fhction theshear of as of stress atio.Tineoeffir c cient,hendividedy th& forthebendingoad w b l alone, ecomeshe b t bendingtress s ratio, ndthesetof curvesrotided Ttishenko a p by for variousues of a/b becomesn fiteraction ~ a chart, romwhich f itnay be seen that theinteraction equation unitcircle: isa * R~2+Rb2=l

(*)

Themnge of a/b forwhich Tinm&enkolottedhecurves p t isfrom0.5 to 1.0. However, thecurves loop backO% themselves a,b increases, as thusindicating thatlargeralues a/b would v of yield curves falling within theplot. The~imun variation stress atios bmt thevalues of r a obtainable thecircular frm interaction equation percent, is7 withthe equation values thehwest (and hence ther.stconservative) of all.
8

Bending, Shear,:and Transverse Compressfbn JohnsonndBucherttilized a u theLagran&ian multiplier rethod to determine critical co~binations the ofbendtng, shear,nd transverse a a/b (ref. 40). compressive on rectangular plates f infinite loads flat o Theresultsppear s interaction a a surfaces inthethree stress atios~, r R6,and ~. Thetwotypes mpportfortheplate of aresimple upport s along bothlongedges andsimpleupport along thetension due s ( to bending) edgewithclamphg along thecompression tobending) (due edge. Sections tlii interaction-surfaces of taken perpendicular toanyof thethree stress-ratio yield sxes plane stress-ratio curves hatagree t withtheresultsbtained o directly forthese cases inprevious publications.Thisistzmeonly thesimplyupported of s plate, course,ince of s nothingasappeared h intheliterature forshear plus bendingf plates o withthecompression clamped. edge Theinteresting resul~ fa shear o Stress ratio equal. tO l.~, tith Rb eqwil to 0.5, isrevealed (fig. 27(b)), as wellas thecombination of,Rc = 0.94,Rb = O.X$ and Rs = 0.43.

42

Transverse CGrpress ion

Theworkof Ircel (ref. 39)on t~Lemb~em~f lonElud p ~ iru~~ { ~XOWl I‘:{ ~on@tudinal compression, andtransverse coripression LQShccrl t~[xc’’jfi”’” in thesectionn conibinc,i andfiorc-al o bending stress.me pertlni~rl~ interaction curves ppear a infigure 8. 2 Combined tielastic Stresses Stowelltilized u theconceptf an eqtivalent=stress ~tensftfl ‘“r o I:,,.]nLlcombined stresses appliedn consbnt ratio during loadingn t~l’: i i ~rlt[cu~ ticrange(ref. 45). He examined theproblem fdete~ni~gtl.c ,,r@ o combination shear of andlongitudinal compression elastically in s’l~] -. flat rectangular plates y using b theenergy method detemnfnc to tl;c bUC~llgstresses. nQ these r resfit~, stress ratios erep~otte?d w ,directly thetheoretical from resultsndwerealsocorrected a for‘i’e changesn effective i madulus. Wornthis, StowellODClUd~ C that~jt]’ little @mor thefollowing stress-ratio equation isapplicable:

% 2+

(ES)
% () ai

[1
()

Es ps %— ‘S () ai

2

=1

(ya

i In equation591s(Es)p.isthesecantodulust a = acr forWrd ( m a , compression, Es~~ iS thecorresponding secant ti= forput?a~)nnr) ~ a ~ () , secant rmdul.usror the effective stress of the‘m: ~ (%)=i is’the

bindldngathcW&;

(~)ai= ~(”~+3T’)~3.$+~]’’2*g’” ‘

s~~i~y of thisexpression tothatforthee&tic case apPnret]t; is ti fact, theehsticrange in theexpression r~ucesto theeq~tion‘or elasticoads. l
tQrSiOEl

of

recent investigation ofpeters long ~gwe tu&5 lo~ded f~ on and compression (ref. 17) fidic~tes~t a StEss.mtio eqwb~ion t thefoxq
A
q

R&+R#=l .

(60)

i“ ag?ec= li@KLy s betterit.11 w thetestIiatufig. ( 29)than doestkemdi~icd Ff4ratmlaStowellref. of ( 45). Actually, data yield tlie slightly hifjler stress-ratio cmi-oination.s ei~her f interaction tli2n do o eluations or (59) (@), tiththe discrepncy,,crea~ing i l~ithdeereasir@ levels. stress For stresces wholly theelastic in range thedataareasmuchas lCQpercent higher (that is, Rb is0.4insteadf 0.2for &- equal 1). The o to dataalso agree closely withe theoretical obtained Ekx3iansw, curve by Stein, ndGilbertorlongsquare ubes a f t loaded elastically intorsion andcompression 46).– (ref. FL4T EFFECT PRESU~@ BUCKGIG3 RECTANGULAR PLATES OF 01{ OF Range Published of Results Theeffect fnormal ressure thelongitudinal o p on compressivebuckling stress f a rectangular o flatphte hasbeeninvestigated for bothsimply upported s andclanpeddges.Levy, e Goldenberg, and Zibritos’~ (ref. 47)analyzed thesimply upported s plate using the largedeflection differential equations ofVonI&r&. Theplate length. wasfour times thewidth, kiich w places in thelong-plate it category. Thedatar%feal rise in longitudinal a compressive-buckling for stress thisconfi~tionwhich increases withpressure. owever, H thisrise E%yW realizable onlyina plate such of proportions endloading because of tkesignificant difference inwaveforms thelong of plate under compressive andpressure loadings. t maybe intuitively I evidenthat t when there islittle ifference d betweenhese t wavefoz%i, uch fora short s as plate under combtie~ lor~itudinal compression norml pressure, there and raybe a reduction intheco~ressive:buc.kling oftheplate.No stress dataareavailable this in case, however.
Longitudinally

I i

=

.

Corcpressed LongSimply Supported Plates

Highnormlpnessure found increase =s to thecompressive-buckling stress ~nsiderably forthelongsimply upported s plate tested y Levy, b whenthdpressure Goldenberg, Zibritosky 47).. Forexample, and (ref. 24.03Et4/b4, appliedoa plate t withlength ourtimes f the@.dth reached thebuckling stressas3.1 times w thatforzero normal ressure the p on phte. Levy, @lderiberg, andZibritosky alsoshowed hat t morethanone equilibrium configuration oftheplate waspossible When’normlressuzze p wasapplied, withtheconfiguration atanyinstant depending uponthe previous loadingistory. h Theplate couldbe either uckledr unbuckled b o under variouspecific s combinationsaxial load and 110~1 pressure. of
q

-.

Lcm.gitudinally Compressed C1.n.mped Long Plates Wmlley,Corrick, smdLevyanulyzed lox~itudinnlly a co.rpressed 10T1c c~ei plate(ref. 43). Forthis casetheeffect fpressure o wasnotso prcmxncel as forsimply supported ewes. Theratinmmueklir.c b loadfor 44u wasfound a pressure 37.75tt of ~ tobe1.3times thstforno norxul pressure. lso, A forcti~edplates thebuckle atternasfo’~ti he p w to unique foranyparticular combination ofpressure andaxial lcmding. SPECW*CASB Useof Elastic-Buckling-Stress Expression
It hasbeenshown that theelastic-buckling fora~ flatrecstress tangular plate constant of thickness canbecomputed using equation%) ( forvariousoadingindoundary l f b conditions. There also flatplates are of interest toaeronautical engineers areneitherectar~arnor that r of constant thichess.By suitable choice f thebuckling o coefficient anddefinition theplate of thickness andproportions is pssibleto It utilizequation26) computehebuckling e ( to t stresses forthese plates also
q

*

Axially ompressed C Plate WithVariable Loading andThiclmess.
Pines and Gerard inve~clgated theproportions simply upported ofa s flatrectangular under plate vsxyingxial a loadingodetemiae effit an cient thicbess variation forminimumeight w (ref. 49). Theplate rigidityvasassmedtobe proportionaltheaxial to loadinorder satisfy to Theloadvariation along the equation26) anyspanwise ( at station. plate uasassuredo be produced shear t by stresses small enough o have t negligible influence uponthebuckling characteristics of theplate. R.rrthernore, theairloading a typicalhg develops cover on w a axial loadir~hatcloselyollovsn exponential t f a variation thatdecays from theroot outboard. Thiswi~ dictateaximumxial m a loadingn theco~r o at theroot, which depicted station in figure 0,inwhich is as A 3 a sketch f thetaperedlate shown o p is together theloadingndplate wcfth a thickess variations thatfollovas result f theassumptions a o madeby Pines andGerard.

Resultsresented p intheform thebuckling of coefficient a ftincas tionof a/b forvariousalues thelogarithm v of oftheloadingatio r (Y-_ lotiing,~inimm loting)reveal ittle l increase ofbuckling baseof coefficient theloadingatio until r begins o exceede (the t naturalogarithms) 30). l (fig.
.

Varieble Loadingnd a Axiallyorpresscd With C Plate Thickness cons-ant stressf an axiallyomo c Theproblemfdetermining buckling o the pressedlat f rectan~lar plate basinvestiga~ed by Libcve,erdmin, F and Peusch ora simply f supported plate with’ cozstant thickness anda linear axial load grdient(ref. ~). Theyplottedheeffective t bucklingstress oefficient fumction the.loading for variousalues c asa of ratio v of a/b. Forthesake ofuniformity presentation, curves ave of their h beenreplotted hereintheformof ~av asa function a/b for of variousalues f theloading v o ratio, including negative values (tension atoneedge) large -3. Tke.se as as curves ppear figure a in S1. Thebuc’kling coefficient -~av applieso theaveragexial t a loadingon keplate, hich t w isequal (oA+6B)~ with UA assumed to tobe thelarger f thetw endloads.Theaveragelate o p loadis (uA/2)~ +(1/P)].~iswtit. rapid c~~=isontiththe~c~ing stressf a plate o withconstant axial load, which thecurve is for S = 1 infigure 1. 3 LmR dateswill buckle t theendatwhich a themaximumoadis l applied,~f=r which ~ isequal 4. to parallelo~ Panels Compression in Anderson inv&tigated ofa flatsheet subcompressive buckling dividednto i panels ynondeflectirg b supports forma parallelogram that griduork tier thesheet (ref. 51). Onesetof supports equally (all spsced) longitudina~y, tkLeother runs and mm at an angleq to the nomal.,r transverse, o direction.helongitudiml. T spacingf thediago onal.supports a, andthetransverse is spacinqf thelongitudinal o supports b. Euckling is coefficients wereplotteds functions a/b a of fof%oth longitudinal corspresgion andtransverse compression’for various vahmSOf theangleQ (figs.2(a) 3 and32(b)). tiaddition, interaction curvesereprovided w forcombinationsthese of twoloadings in theformof, uckling-coefficient b combinations forvariousalues q v of (fig. 32(c)):

.

:.r-

!:? m; f,. : L’ii

The transverse-buckling coefficient isnotso severely af’~eci.ed I’y V, sincek increases 4 ‘to as q increases zero to joO. from ~ from For q equal to60°, k is9at a/b=l.

Parallelo&am Plates -. Witt~ick-determined thelxc?di ~ stress faparallelogran o plate withclazpeddges e under theaction ofuniformompression c inocediraction(ref. 52). Hiswork differsromtheworkof Anderson f (ref. ~) in thatspecified rotational boundary conditions areappliedo tke t plate inthiscase.BothWtttrlck a~dAndersoa employed tkeener~ apgroach inobllq~eoordinatesobtain olutions. c to s Resultsreprea sented intheform curves f %kebuckling of c coefficient as a Fazck= presented dataforedge angles of 00 (rectar~~tionof a/b. Wittrick Iarplate),“, and47 as shQwn figure 3(a), ‘vhich ~ in 3 in thepbte geomet~isdepicted. Guest (ref. andGuest 53) andSilberstein ~) analyzed (ref. sirply supported paral.lelcE.~m undgr pla~~s longitudinal compression fora and, Wittrick rhoffibic of 3@ edgesagle,eteru...ed ~ =’5.60. plate d t~~t also analyzed clarped parallelogram platie shear ifi andobtained the resultshoun figure3(b)V(,ref, 55). Hasee%wa s in 3 analyzed buckling or clampedhombiclates shear r p in (re~. ~)j forwhich buckling coefficients appear inthetable below.Thegenerallate p geor~tzyof figure 3(b) 3 applies thiscase. M
q

#

Et, deg. .
ks
q

0 14.7 ?

15 21.0

1

20 ‘6 L .6

w 40.0 *

35 51.0

. . .

IYiangular Plates

‘Ikeuckling trien.@arlates nder : of p u various lea@:-and edgescpports wasinvestigatedVoinowsky-.Krieger57), by (ref. Klit&hieff (ref. 7J” Wittrick (refs. 59 to 61), and CoxandKlein (ref. 62). Woinowsky-YXicgPu ccrptedthebuckling stress ofa simply upported s equilateral triangular

._

, .-

t

Fk Le unter uniforv. cc,~rczs smlfcna,dw Laequal when1.Ec 3..n k > base (X,. Klitchieff s? thetri~r.yle istaken e;ual b inequ2”.icn LO :nv~’sti~~t ed thek.xklin~ rig?, of t--, Lsoscelcs -w~e tria:>d=llar pla=s ‘.’it.11 pureshear the0rVr,0;J2nSl uppliedoas toproduceOmofi side3 s c ?ressicn alGP< thealtitu~e up>ntlie kypotenase. Wittrick evuluated the
bucklingoefficient c forshear appliei as to produce so eftkr coqm2scadalsoincluded effectsf nortk.e o sienor tension alorg the alti%lude

C .--1tresses s applied t!.b’”e;ualof L?.e to le~s triangle.oxandKlein &nalyzcd buckling inisosceles trlanz~es a~yvertex ngle normal of a for stress alone andforshear alone.

.

Thebuckling coefficients presented tinis in section aretobe used ~eo~etry a triangular of plate inconjunction titkequation (%). ‘l’rLe appear n figure i 3k(a) issho%~. infigure 4. ThedataofcoxandKlein 3 foruniform co~re~aion andinfigwe34(b) forshear along theequal legs.Eoth simply upporte~ s andchwed -es werec=,sidered. The results CO%and~ein agree of withthedataofWi.ttrick forri&ht-an@e isosceles triangdarlates, p ‘~hich appe=intable ‘R,ehear 6. s buc-kling topuzzehear s loadings which produce coefficients and ~- refer ks+ tension andcompression, respectively, thealtittie along upon.the hypotenuseofthetriangle. For.she= andnorml stressn a right-angle o isosceles plate the interaction equatien

(
4-,. .. .

2T

+U

‘cr+ + ‘cr.

)
2

+ A(1 - U2] = 1
acr

(61)

applies, n whichu“= i

ks++ (% - k~ )/( k6-. +)

Research Division, College Engineerir!!, of NewYork University, NewYork, R.Y.lOctober9,19.34. 2 “

,

..

Froccdures forthecomputationtheelasticndplasticuckli::~; of a b stresses flatplates ased general of b on plate-bucklir~ equation1) ( mre summarized thiseectica. factorsppeari~g in me a inthisequation are brieflyiscussed d andcharts represented which a from nurerical values of these factorsy be obtained. m Theelemeritary loadings as coqressionj shear,ndbending such a frequently areconsidered inprelizdnary design yusir~ b thebucklir~ coefficients forthe13miting cases (infinite values ah, ckping of or hingingf theplate o edses, ndsoforth). a Forconvenience 7 table has beencompiled containing thewalues f tkebuckling o coefficients thatpertaino so~e these t of limiting cases,hile w figure 4displays 1 of combinations thecurves or ~ asa function a/b fordifferent f of llmiting edgeconditions. .-.. “, . .. .. . Physical Properties ofYsterials
q

The bucklir!!stress of a flat plate isdetermined whentheIoadir&, plate geometry, andcaterial aresFeclfied. Theloading dictates the particular chart tobe usedto find thebwkMng coefficient and tke k, plate a/b andedgerestraintlocate henunerical t value k tobe of p (fi buckleslase found fromthatchart.Foran unclad late = 1)which directly fromequation (1)if E is tically~= 1), Ucr canbe fourid ( o ~~dplasticity depend ponthetype u of known * Theeffectsf cladding loadingndthestress evel a l andtherefore require more a detailed knculedgeof thestress-stmfn characteristics ofthematerial.
.

Thethree-parameter description stress-strain c-be useif of daW = a convenient ge~eralized approach inbuckling problems.iththis ~tkod figure can be employed 3 tofind theshape factorn. Since2,” uoa7, and n canbe readily determined table foraveke values (see 8 of n),nondimension~ curves reavailable a fromfigure . It iS to be 4 noted that$ in~ny cases, lastic,-buckling have p charts beenpreparei from which theplnstic-buckling maybe determined stress ifoneknows E; U0.7) md n.

.

0.1loys .

I
i

!l%eeu”designat.ions. n areusedWm3ughcmt tMf3 report awl t.ke forusewithLkevarious references. Characteristics tableisinclu+ed

~ I

1

of theckddicg usedon se;’eral structural aluminum alloys reshe-m a in table 4. Poicson’s ratio beyond heproportional c= be calculated t limit
Usfng Vpl = 0.5 in th~ expression

I

v =

Vpl- Vpl

1

( ‘ve)(ES/E)
.

(Al)

Frequently buc’kling stresses areco~~tecl using theequation ucr= fiq~(tfi)2

(A2)

‘where = h2/1.2(1 @). me expression canbe found a funcK K/k as tionof v infi~e 35.
[

“i

1“ 1
1
[

I

Compressive Buckling i afb kc appearsnflgue16 Interms-of Plates. - Forplates, and e andinfigure 5 interns A/b ad E. Foran infinitely 1 of lo~gplate,‘~ rfiye found b frcn figure ~ in tees of E alone. 1 Wcen e is notthesame forboth umloaded edges, hegeclzetric t mean of the & values oreach f edge r&ybeused(eq.(49)). Theplastici,m-reduction fo$& long factor plate withsimply ups ported edges is

.-.

w%~le fora long clamped plate

~tresses maybe calculated thenondirenusing Izelastic plate-buckling sionnl chart figure . of 9

I

Theeffect f “lateral o restraint reducing & maybe detem~ned in a e o taz-r fromfigure forv=~’~es Ar/at) ndtk.effectsf thickness 21 of andaxial load variation maybe calculated theaidof figuresV ‘with . and31. Thegaininbuckling stress ithobliquity theloaded dges w of e :s : sho’vn fi~-e33(a) in forclaE@ parallelogram plates,hile v figure 32 sheetsivi~e~nto d i perallelcgran depictsuckling b coefficients fo:large F plates,igf ! panels by nondeflectkg supports. ordataon triangular m,34(aj raybe usedto find ~.

‘The variation & with b/t forstiffezedphtes in withtors~cnally weak strong dgestiffeners or e &~earsinfigme18. Becausef tkesparse o dataa=ilable, o recG~.endatica n canbemadecomse.rning theeffect ofnormalpressure uponbuc-kling.

Forfhlges, ~ naybe found figure0 as a fucction in 2 of.a b acd c andiafigure as a functionf A/b and E for 19 o lonGflange,i~xe17 contains as a f ~ v = 0.3. Foran infinitely i Z. o function e alone.Tkeeffect f varyingv appearsnfigure of - Theplasticity-reiuction fora long hinged factor flang~ .“ ~ = @s/E) (1- Vez (1 - &) )/
is (A~)

F .-

Fora longcl’a~dfla%ge,

!-J].
t

For flange c.lxkling reiuction factors wkn ~cr B upl~ it rayh“ permissible touseequation.(&O). Alth,.P@l fuctor ;asotco.~ute.J this ‘ n in thesection~titled e “Cl@cling !hxluction Factors,” itappears obe t reasonnb:e coxp~riso~ by withtl.e’ectors i forpletes mdcolurms. c

Plate col.ums.- plate Fc5r colums., thebuckingstress aybe deterr mined using figure (a). 2 -, Fore sh~rt plate colun (L/b 1) tkeplasticity-reduction < factor i.s (A7) Fora square late p colwzn (L/b l), =
,.

(A8]
,’

Fora long plate colum (L/b ~1), theplasticity-reduction factor is
8

IIS (%/E)@ - V=2 (I- -

)/

~)

(A9)

The claddingrduction factorfor short plate colurnsnwhich i
4-

3f)

(Ale)
..-”

..

andwhen UcrB ~Pl equaticm4C) ( kol~s true which isalsoapplicable
to long plate colu!!sat all stresslevelsabove 6=1. Shear Buckling The shear-buc.kliri-stress coefficienta function a/b is as of shcwn infigure 2J%I.lmpd Endhinged late 2 c p edges.Forlongplates, ,
. . ..

withtheai~

OS tke nondtrenslocal chart of ?igure 10.

“ -

reduc%ion factor or GCI< acre ap~ is given f Thec“ladding by equation (42), andfor Ucrs Cpl equation holds (LO) true. Forclawedobliquelates p fiKme32(b) be ussito find k~ ~ whentheplate edge angle is45°. Fortriargflar-plnte shear-’ticklicg coefficients figure 4(b) be used. Inadiition, section 3 ~y tile entitle,d “Special Cases” shoulde consulted. b Bendinguckling B Thebending-buckling coefficient appearsn figure as a fuznction i % of a/b and e endinfi~e 25es a function A/b. Theplasticityof reduction factor a siKp4supported for plate thesane fora hinzed is as Little error shoulde expected b inusing elastically restrained mef-e phsticlty-reduction f’orlastically factors e restrained plates in beading. Forthese cases theplastic-bucklkg off@re 9 raybe chart usedto find CTcr, which istheEaximumo.qressive c stress n theplate o i. section. order.to theccmresponding In fird rxxrent itisnecessazy to . integrate thestress istribution, d forwhich purposehecurves f fig- !:. t o ure 9 may be used. # Corbined badi~g Interaction equations forvariouso-~tilations c o? compression, shear, expressions arepresented in-phiandbendingppear table ~iese a in 5. comcalformin figures axial for elastic ~ 28 buc~ing.Forlongitudinal pression andshear a long rectangular plate, ithkothapplied on w stresses (6o) holds true: in the inelasticange, r equation
~e2 + RE2 = 1 (~)

The plasticity-reduction fora simply uf~r+.ed factor s plate ;omin blned compression andsu?ial loadvaries etween b thatfora hinged fl%-$e ~d thatfOra SiEPIY GUppOrtC+d pht~ under =id COInpZWSiO!I} depemii~~

.

.

.

Actually, utilizationtheplastic-buc?ding of figu!!eforall of chart 9 Cxcs Of coxbined kcfidi~nda.ial a ~O[fi fir?d tO acr (aftmrhich w the plate loadingmy be found by integr&ti~ tk.e cross-section stress dMtritution) should giveconservative results.

On right-angle i~osceles triar+y.rlar loadednder shearand plates u
co.zpression shown is the sketches in figures 34(a) ami 3h(b), equaas

tion(61) applies:
.,
.

( -)

2T ‘ ‘2 ~ ~ U2) = ~ *U + —( Ucr ‘cr+ + Tcr

(61)

Table contains 6 nmericai values ~ Of ofplate edgesupports.

and ~

fordifferent tws

.

::

-,; *

‘.. . .

. ..-. ,.. ,i .

P.,,

,,-: ..1-. . f’.

b’ 1. Scchler, E.,andKewell,. S.: Pro~ess E. J Report m Wtkods of f.ircraft Structures. Tech. Rep. Analysis Applicable to Monocoque No.4313,Air-terielComATi, Ar.~AirForces,ict. C l~\7. 2. Timskenko,.: Theory Elastictability. S of S First cd., McGraw-HiU BookCo.,rnc., 1936. 1.S.: Mathematical Theory ~asticity. of First cd., 39 Sokolnikoff, McGraw-Hill Co.,~AC., Book 19460 F Strength ofMetal Structures. First .*-. 4. Bleich,rieHch: Buckling cd., McGraw-Hill lbokCO.,tic., 19~2. Elbridge A Unifiedheory fPlastic~ckling Z.: T o B ofcol~ 5* StoweU, likcA 898, 19k8. (Supersedes 15%.) Rep. andPlates. NACATN andHu,PaiC.: TkeLagrangian 6. B@iarx@,Bernmt, HiLtiplfer Mettii of Finding er andLover W L@d.t6 o Critical t Stresses Clamped of Plates NACA . Rep.848,1946. JchII Elbridge Critical Z.: Stress fPlate o 7* Ho~bolt, C.,andStouell, columns NACAT?f~63,1959. .

”Euge~e E.,andStowe~, Elbridge ~ritical. Z.: Compressfi(e ~ 8. Lundquist, Stress oroutstanding f Flmges. HACAPep. 734,1942.

Walter,ndOsgood,illiam.: Descriptionstress-st~in . a W R of 9. Raniberg, NAcATN W2, 1943. Curvesy Three b Parameters. 10 Gerard,eorge} and Wihihorn, G Sorrel: Study Poisson’s A of Ratio k theYield Regloa. NACATN 2561, Jw. 1952. .
q

.

M. H. B F.W.: &pertiesof Be@li-2. 11. Ud.y, C.,Sha*~, L.,ariladger, Nucleonics, vol.U, no.5, M2y1953,pp. 52-59. 12 Goodran, Stanley, Russell, aiid Stanton Poisson’s B.: Ratio ofAircraft Sheet I.kterial forLarge Strains. Tech. Rep.53-7, Contracz PO 33(038)51-4061, ati Nat. WADC Bur.Standards, 19j3. Feb.
q

A M.,afil;e~, S. B.: Poisson’s Ratio of 13. Stang, . H.,Greenspnn, some Stzmc.-lAlloys forLarge Strains. Res. Paper RP 17L2, Jo’>-. Res., Nat.Bur. Standards, 37, no. 4, Oct.19%, pp..11-221. vol. 2 14. Stowell, Elbridge Compressive Z.: Strength ofFlsnges. NACARep.1229, 1951, (Supersedes NACATN 2020. )

.. ..

...1 ,f. ..i

:

...

-“/.

M M2t!md forIkteninir;g PlateInainbiiity ~~rard, Secaat alulus G.: Limit.J~ur. Aerti. Sci., vol.13,no.1, _Lbovelie roFortizmal t P Jan.@6, pp.33-44, 8. 4

, .P
-,.

Pridej ichard R A.,andHeimerl, George .: ?lasticuckling J B of XACA‘IN 181~, 1949. SiE@ySupported Co~res~ed late~. P

,

17. Peters,oger R W:: Buckling of Lou Square Tubesin Cm~incdCoIEpressionand Torsionand Comparisonz~ith F1.at-Plat.e Buckding N 1954. Theories.kCATN 31@+, 13. Bijlaard, P.: Theory ndTests thePlastictability Plates P. a on S of andShells. Jour. Aero”. Sci., vol.16,no.9,Sept. 1943, “PP* 5a-541* 19. Handelman$ H.,andPrager, B GW.: Plasticuckling of a Rectangular Plate Under EdgeThrusts. NACA Rep.946, 1949. (Supersedes NACA TN 1530.) 20.I@xshin, .A.: TheTheory f Elasto-Plastic A o Swains and ItsApplication. Bull. Acad. Sci., URSS, Sec.Tech. Services, June@@, pp.769-788. 21.Gerard,.: Critical G Shear Stress f Plates bove o A theProportionRl I&nit.Jour: Appl. Mech., vol.15,no.1,Mar.194-8, pp.7-12’. 22.St6uell, ElhrMge Z.: Critical Shear Stress ofan Infinitely Img ,Plate n thePlasticegion. i R “NACATN 16812 1948. 23.StQwell, E.Z.,andPride, . A.: TheEffect fCompressibility R o of theMaterial Plastic~ckUng on D Stresses. ea.3ers’ R Forun, our. J Aero. Sci., vol.1.8,o. I.lj Nov. 1951, 773; n p. andAuthor’s Reply, Readers’ Fonun, orr. J Aero. Sci., vol. 19,no.7,July1952, 4*. p. 24.Bijlaard, P.P.: Theory f Plasticuckling Flat.es Applicao B of S& tion Si@.ySupported to Plates Subjected Bendingr Eccentric to o Compression inTheir Plaue.-eprinto.55 - A-8,A.S.M.E., R N Rev. 1955. 25. Bi~hard, P.P.: WsingAccountf tkeCorpressi=~Lf.ty O of theMaterialin thePlasticuckling Plates. B of Readers’ Forum, 70ur. . Aero. Sci., vol.19,no.7,JuIY1952, PP.493-494. Kenneth.: Stibility P ofAIclad lates.IWICA P TN1986,1949. . 27. Eryan,.H.: On theStability a Plane G of Plate Under Thrustsn Its i &n-Plane,ithApplications-to“Buckling” of theSfdes a W the of Ship.Froc. LmdonMath. Sot., vol. 22,WC. ~, 18x, pp.54-67.
q

.

i i 1

! . .

26

Mc&tj

I

, 3“; .-

.

. .

.

,.. w. .;.F... .

*

strcxs Of ~Orc~f~.~c~l co~.p~essive 28. Hill, E. N.: C~.r-~t larPltites. TN 733, l;~!JO. KL:A

Fl?3tR~CkALL-.~-

29. Lurdquist, .EuLwfie E.,andStm-ell) Elkridge, Critical Z.: Compres-

siveStress orFlat f ~cc:~-=tizr Plzces ~p~orted S AIGzg AllEdge: andElastically Restrair.ei Agahst iwtution Alor?g theUnloadeti Edges.NACA Rep.fij,lS~2’. 30.Litmve,harles, C andStein, anuel: M Ckarts forCritical Cor.binatLLr.s of Lar@tudinal andTrans-{erse Stress orFlat Direct f P.ectanguk-cr NACA‘Xl L-22h, 6. (Fo~erly LCA @ N ARRL&05. ) Plates. Effective Yidth T-astlcally of Supported FlatP19zes. 31.Gerard,eorge: G Jour. Aero. Sci., vol.13, no.lo,&t. 1946,pp. 518-724.
t

32. fWYZ-iS,J. H., and Dw-me,P. C.: Structural Principles andData. o no. 1, pt.2, X52. Handbook f Aero., 33.Southwell, V.,andSk-, Silvia .: On tkeStability R. W Under Shearing Forces f a Flat o Elastictrip.fiOC. S Roy.%C. (Locdon), ser. vol.105, 1924, A, pp.582-607. 34.
Stwell,

Shear Stress fan Infinitely o Lor& Elbrldge Critical Z.: FlatPlate Wi& Equal Elastic Restraints Againstotation R theParallel SSges.NA2A L-476, ‘%R 1943. (Forccrly .X4CA ARR3K12.)

35.Stein, 3nuel,ndNeff, M a J&-An: uckling B Stre5ses Simply of Rectangular Plates Flat inShear.HACAT?{ 1222, 1947. X. Budiansky, Eerr.ard, andCo=!rzm, Robert *: %uckling W Stresses of’ Clfcpedectangular R FlatPlates inShear.:iACA 1559, 1348. ‘IN 37. Schuette, F.,andW2dloch,Jarrs Evan C.; Charts ortheMini-zf Weight Design ofMultiweb Wings inBendhg. NACA 1323, lTT 19ki’. Bendingtress S %. Johnson, ~ames E.,Jr.,ani,oel, N Rotert.: Criticti G forFlatRectan@arPlates tipported AllHges andZlaso Along t~callyestminedgairs,t.Rotat+ontheUnloaded R A Along CorqressXn Aero. Sci., vol.20,r~.8,Aug.1953, pp.555-540. . Wge. Jour. S of S FlatRec39.libel, Robert G.: Elastictability Simply upporte& tangukr Platesnder U Critical Combinations ofLongitudinal BeL5i:g, Longitudinal Co-wressia’., andLateralompression. C Jour. Aero. Sci., vol.19,no.12,Tee.1952, Pp. ?9-834. ‘ 8 40.Johnson, Aldic E.,Jr.,E@ I@chert, Kenneth.: Critical P Co~bir&tions Bendir&, of Shear,nd!!!ransverse a CoWressive Stresses fcr TN2536, 1951. Buckling Infinitely Flat~tes. wicA of La~g

-.. ..... .. ..:.’i “A:;, ;. .

-i

.

41.

z, F~iwcrd Critical Z.: Stcr.-ell, Flbridge Z.,andSchwtirt. Strc3s for Plate hlthElastically Restrained Edges s.~ Infinitely Flat Low Under Conbl~zL Shcnr andDirect tress. NAMWR S L-3$0, 1543. (F’ornerly ARR3Kt3.) RX!A

42.Batdorf, B.,atiHoukolt, S. JohnC.: Critical Ccr~binution3 of Shear andTransverse Dirzct tress oran Infinitely S f LongFlctFlute With ~&es Elastically Restmined@~st Rotction. A RACA 847,1346. TR 43.EQtdorf, Critical CombinationsShear of S.B.,andStein, anuel: M andDirect tress orSimply upprted S f S Rectangular P@tes. Flat wcA n{ 1223, 1947. -.. Uorzz: Elastic Stability Simply upported of S FlatRec44.Grossran, tangular Plates nder U Critical t?cmbinations of Transverse doEPresslon andLcmgitudinal Bending. Jour. Aero. Sci., vol.16,no.5, Pay1949, PP.272-276. Elbridge Plasticuc’klinga LongFlatPlate Z.: B of Under 45.Stowell, Combined S~&ar Longitudinal and Coqression. lLtCA 19, 1949. TN 46.Budiansky, Bernard, Stein, knuel,ndGilbert, M a Arthur C.: Buckling ofa LongSquare ubeInTorsionndCompression. T a NACATN i751, \ 1948. 47.Levy, Samel,Golden%rg, Daniel,ndZlbrltosky, a George:simply Supported Rectangular Upder Lang Plate Combir.ed Loadti Axial . Xoml tiessure.ACA 949, N TN 194. 48.Wcalley, F!.,orrick, Ruth C Josephine N.,endLevy, Sazuel: Clamped LongRect~alarPlate Under Chibined Axial Laad andNorrBl Pressure.NACATN1047, 1946. . 49.Pines, .,and&ard, G.: htebility Anelysis andDeGigy. an of S Efficiently Taperedlate P Under Compressive Loading. Jour. Aero. Sci., vol.14,no.10,Oct.1947,pp. 594-599. C Ferdmn, Saul, Reusch,ohnJ.: Elatiicuckling arsd J B 50.Libove,harles, ofa Simply upported S Plate Under Compressive a Stress hatVaries t Linear~ intheDirection Ioeding. of NACA 1831, TN 1949., 51 Anderson, Roger A.: CkrtsGiving ritical C Compressive Stress f Cono tinuous Sheet Flat Dividednto I Parallelogram-SkiFed Panels.NACA TN2392, 1951.
q

.

#

52.Wtttrlck, W.H.: Buckling Oblique of Plates ithClamped&lges W ‘ Under Uniformompression. 94.182, C Rep. Aero. Res. Labs., ept. D SUpply (Melbowne), 1951. (lUso, kW. Aero. Quart., Vol. 4, pt. 11, Feb.1953, pp.151-163.)

. .. .

.

i ,

>3. 24 Guest’, J.,andSil&rsLeit~,P.O.: ;, J. Hoteor, theBuckling of Simply qqmrte3 S %rallelo~ram Plabes. r~ctures I.titcrinl: St and. Hote20~, Aero. Res. Labs., ept. D Supply (Mel&~rie), M.y1953.
q

‘?’. l!?~:~~irig H.: ofOblique:ztes ithClamped F W Ziges U~~er 55. ‘JitiriCk, Uniformkar. Rep. S SM.210, Aero. &s. Labs.,ept. D Supply (Melbourriej,1953. June M.: On B~skling Clamped ofa Rhonb16%fn Y Plate Shear. in 56. Hase@ra, Readers’ Fom.m, our. J Aero. Sci., vol. 21, no. 10, Oct. 1954, p. 720.
s.: durchEinzelLns~e& >7. Woinowsky-Krieger, ~er dieBieL~ vonPlatten mit rechteckiger .hfstandsftiche. ArcMv, lr#. ”~l. 21,1953$ . -pp.331-338.
*

ofa Plate Forces. 58. Klitchieff,14. ~ckl.ing Triangular by Shearing J. : Quart.our. J Mech. andAppl. Math., VO1.~, pt.3, 19Z, PP.257-253. W.H.: B~ckJirg Simply upported ofs S Triangular in Plate 59. Wittrick, Combtne& Compression She%r.Rep. SM. & . lm, Aero. Res. Labs., Dept. Supply (Melbourne), July1952. V. 60. Vittrick, H.: Backling F?i@-.&.gled ofa Isosceles Triangular Plate inCo=klrA-C oxpressian atiSiear (Perpendicular Ed~es S~ly Supported, ‘$~tenuselamped).ep.@. 220, C R Aero. Res. Labs., ept. D Supply (Melburne), Nov.1973. 61. Kittrick, H.: F!uckling Right-Angled W. ofa Isosceles Triangular. Plate inCo~bine~ Co~ression andShear (Perper&cular Si~qS Clamped, Hypotenuse Simply w~rted). Rep.SK.211, ~ Aeti; Res. Iabs.,fipt. r Supp2J’@elbowxe), Jwne 1953. B of Tria~mlar 62. Cox, H. L.,and~ein,B.: ‘IkeucklfrK Isosceles ‘ Aero~ vol. 22,n:.5,MaY1955, pp.~21-325. Piates.Jo~ur. SCi., 63.Cozzone, F.P.,and%lcon,M.A.: Ncniimensionsl Bucklir~ Curves Their Development andApplication. Jour. Aero. Sci., vol. 13, no.10,tit. 196, pp.511-517. Co~sition Limits Alurdnun for Alloys. Alcoa,, Dati 64.Anon.:Chemical Sheet, luminuzn A Co.ofLm., Jan.4, 1955. -. .,
. 1

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Btrom-strain law Incrernentoll anddcformtion types, v ins*tmeOus Incrmentsl typ3, v instantaneous
Defommtlon type, v R 0.5

PIMticlw

law

SuckliW umkl No strain reverml

Octahedral. 8hear

octahedral

shear

Strain reversal
Stmin reversal No strsincverml. r

(ref. 9) 1 Ilyushln (ref. ) ~ Stowell 8. ~ (rof and34) I

Octahedral

shear

De forsmtlon @pe, v = 0.5 --

octahedral shear

.,

t=..

TABLE PLAS’MCITY-RZLUCTION i 2.FACTORS

Loadir~

Structure

v/d

Compression flange, unlcz:ed ~ Img ofie

edgesimply upportd s Longfla~e,oneunloaded 0.330 0.335 + (3Z@j 1/2 + ~ elge” clsuzped . Long plate, othunloaded O.~ + 0.250 + (3~/Es~ b ~ 1/2 edges si.np~y supported Icing plate, othunloaded b 0.352 0.32i~+ (~~,E~~l/2’ + edges Ck7,F~ Short plate loadedsa e coluxm << 1) (L/b b Squarelate p loaded sa a column (i@ = 1) bng column (L/b 1) “ >> Shear 0.291 + 3q/Esj [(
q

0.114 0.886~/Es) . + ( %/%

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t,

.,--.,,

-.,

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.

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1 li-3f
1 +I --i
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Img plate columns

1 l+3f

1

1

l+3i?
1

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shear panels

3pf l+3f

l+3f

TAELE A.- CLADDIKG

FORALCLAD P~TES TRzclcmss
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TABLE - COXBINiZ3 ~. LQADIHGONDITIONS C FORWHICH INTERACTION CU-fl.% EXIST

nleory

Loadingorcbir.ation c

Interaction equation

Figure 28 ~ 28
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Bi=ialcompression Forplates ~ tir~t. buckle in square aves,Rx+~=l w
q

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Lcmgitudina

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None Bending, shear; nd a transverse comres6ion Longitudinal cowressionofie H andbendingnd,ransa t verse compression -‘ess hnlgi’cudinal ion@+ c%=. nelastic andshear Rs2.1

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10.0 15.6 18.8

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ks = ‘3.3’3 IL4CA 1222 TN ~ref. 35)

ks = 8.98~~CA~ Q3 (ref. 43)

Bending SS on alledges C onalledges H D
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TABLE ~.-VALUES SHAPE OF PAF#&’EX’ER” n. . FORSZVZZLEWGIXTi311K MATI.RIALS z.. Data [

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n

Material

3 5 — 10

Gne-fourth hardto full‘hard 16-8stainless steel,. withgrain One-fourth hard18-8stainless st,e?l, cross grain One-half hardandthreefourth,s hard18-9stiim.less steel, cross grain IMllhard18-8stainless steels cross grain 2024-Z’=nd707’5-T alumin=-a12Gy skeet andext~=ion 2024X-Turdnu%-&oysheet &

2021L-350, 2Q24-~1, ~2k-T86aluezinum-~llcy & sIieet a extmsions 20-LO 2024-T huninu%-alloy 25 SAE4130steel heat-trea’=dta lCO,XXIsiclti,=te up C p stress ~~b~ m XX.*-T aluminu!-alloy extrusions SAZh130steel heat-tre~ted la,~ above SAE1025(mild)teel s
.

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21.. Compressive-buckling coefficientflatpla”~s of restrained cqsinst lateral e~snsion.Poisson’s ratio equ91S.3;~~x = 0 Wa’M” ‘W”

.

I

/5

/J

SYMMETRIC
MOE
* 9 LAMPkD EDGES

t

AmfsYHMETRfc
7 /YVGED

SYMM5%7C MODE

EDGES

5,

!
I

/

3

5
I

0/’3
coefficientplates s a function of a Fig~e 22. Shesr-buckl~--stress of a/b forckupe~sndhinged dges. e

i

. ., .,,..,-. -

., i

I i

k,*898
ATE~W

9-

i !

8‘

k%
7-

IQ

m

.

I

-..

0

2

4

6

,8

m

.

(b)

k+s=

as a q Jllctionof

b/a.

~Qu= z3=- Curvesfor

cstimtion of sh~=-buckli~ coifficimt of plmtes with vsrious amnm% of eti&crotatioml restraint.

I .

. .

. . . . .

/25 /20 //..

\ ~ ~.... ......- —------..
1[0

:

}s

.Q5 A2i9 S?5
9.0 k
t

85 a z’ Zo 6S

. . .

6.0
q

55: I so I

-

#.68

A212Mt#5bg
A,

20 ez

24

b

.

coefficient forplates btatned o Cfon Figure 24.- Sheer-buckling-stress analy. isof infinitely platee s a function A/b forvarhms 10%’ a of aaountsfcc@.rotational o restraivt.

\

J

.. . ,,. .

52
51 45 47 45 43 4f 39
k,

-— . .—... I
~

1

I

a
!\

\YI

I\/!

M42WW

&bAr

37
.
b

35 33 3/

., i

i

23 27 25 23
i

J t t

i

,,1

I

I

I

!\ll.

I

I

;:

II

1354555’

65Z3W
A/

S!!5 In5

/[5

m

. i

b as a function A/b of restraint.

Figure25.I

.

-—

I

56 52 ““-””’ I

Izz%
-.-—— ?— -------

kb

32-” ___-— 241 m/6 /2” 8 4 , ... ----. ———

L

e =/b F@.lre 6*wtii~-bucm~ coefficient plates a~ of as functionf o of for}tiiom Sr.OuntS edgerotat ioml restra~t.

., I .,i...-

0?
Ov J? ..,.

468
l,’ . .

ro

i., < -—--:--”,-R= 6 :! —.. -’ ~..~. !. .— [ .— > ‘b

8 foEi!i!!! I

.

,

;... !

10

.-+ . .m
c-) -, ..
Jo
a . . . ---.—— ,, I ,, t

IsJ“ y -:. - . i’ 1 .. >.- ‘—-t- -; ~ I
8 o 6/?=4 * 0

(a)Upper andlo*r edges sir.ply supported.

3
o

2 .-1--;
# . ~“i; #, II 4 –-”

1 ““

B
oz4u*nrz
~;

—i
---

+

–f

t

!.

--i’

—+. ;iO*

+.;

4

1

._. L -.f I,:t --

Rc

Upper edges simply supported, edges lower cls=peL InteractIon curves forlongflat plates uniier variouEm-c binatlons compression, of bending, andshesr. d

1.

.!

. .. . .. .

0.2.4

Rr

-44W

RY -

(a) a/b= 0.8.
10

(b) a/ii = LO.

(C)

a/b= l.=.

s

%’
4 2 0

(d) a/b= 1.60.

“ (e) a/b= 2.0.

(f) a~b= 3.0.

(g) a/b= =.
Figure 28.- Interaction curves orflat f rectangular plates nder u conbir.ed bin.xisl-compres sionamilongitudinal-bend~ng loadings.urves C taken fromreference 39.

.! ., -,.,,

.,,...

,’,

:.”1”. I

,“ .

.


i ! i.
i

R= TwZM57?CALCWVES —---—.— —-Figure 29.~STIC FLAT PLATE ELAS?7C FLAr PtiTE E~ST1~ SQUARETuBE — /?=+/?==/ ZEST RESULTS

q q

ELASW RANGE .

PLAST7CRANGE

Cor.perison of plastic interaction theory and test data for cozbined axial compression andshear flat on plates. Tests weremade with2014.T6 squaretubes.

.

—..———————.—-

.-. -

-.

(

Eiz3ii’ “ ,- -——-----&l
6 5 ~

-------

.-—

——

.

%

Fill

I
5 10 Ls Sf2 25 30

I
Js

4D

45

:o

o/b

Figure ~.. Compress ive-buckling-stressIcient coeff forn Elmply supporLed rectangular flatpl.ute minimum eight. of w ‘Thickness andl.ondl@ary v

1

..
-.,

7.,. ,,: .-

f

6

--:-—i
+

-J

5

—/ ——— Ss ———

~– m
l,l?

:

-.. —--

——— :

-..

A —

i /

i I I

‘–

*,rj

15

0 ——

.—

~~ !Z.=
i—— !— I.—

I f

/fcm

A7

4

I

u/b = m {
/ t
I

au

3

\

2

I
q

I

.

I

f

2

3

4

0/”

.
.

load.

C?av=

.-. , .-.--,.. .*.,,
. ,- : ,*

-{s . --,.. ,.-

~a

>

..

“ -.,
.,.

5

-. ..

.

db

. ..:+

(a) Lmd.lng

inx-direction.

e.:;
# [

II

I

.1

‘3

I

I

.

uzib (b)Loadingny-direction. i

.

3~mFigure Compressive-buckling coefficients forflat sheet onnondeflecting supports dlvlded fitopmtielogem-shaped panels. JKIJ penel sides nreequal.

.. ,.

..
. ...
.’

..:

+..J

L.
y

% --

. . . .. ...,.: .* ..,:> -. .. /i -. ,- .-, .
,.;

.. -. .-

-.

-,

*“ ..

,-

--- “-’< -. ,,

..

.“

.

.

.

4“.: .4

., .. F
. ,.

P lQ/& ‘

1-1

.-.

.

. . -. .* ...>-. 1-”:” ““”=”
.. . ...- .( .. ; .. . . -- .”.-.
. . -.

u

.

. . .. .4 : ..,=---6 .. --.:

“/0

...

.

d

,4

i

”~ f 4

“- (c)C=b$nedz@”-=mrse los.di&. !, .’ . --z. -,-. -=we 32. coIxckd,d. ~ ;;”-”.” . . .. “a- . .. . ..- ,-.... . . ,“. .-: . . . .“-----

.

,-=:. ,-.

.. .
F.

.. . . ..-.,

.-.

----- ._.-;.-..

.s -:

.

.’.. ----.-.. .
.

.. .. .+

.

...

,-. . ..
.

..: .<.

-“.- . :.

- . w+. :7?
-:

.L. ,

T-’+L .-

-

2C i
I

.-

. ... .

.

...-----

/s

4
a

s

i“. > 4 ;.. . .. ,.. 1-..,.--r.g.--. . %. --= -. ..
.!

.a#‘“-- - . .:””% ....
-.”.

,.-.

.,” .

..

.

,. . :,

{a)-tiwressim
.,

lciding. .
...

..-.
, ., --,,.

.

,. ,..,-t., ,. .. . .. ; ., ., . .,
1

1

4

8A.

.

.

.

.-

.“

(b)Shem’1.oa&g. .,

“’
., .

“-. . ..

mgure33.-. Buddingcoefficientclamped “of bbliquelat f plstes.. . .

-.

,

,

’~

—-—.

. ..

. . .

+ ---”-----

.* -----

.,.+

-.

...,

.._

... ...,.

-

.,

60

so

m

.

30 -,.

—.

—-—--4———

20 — .——

10

-

I

0

, I 1 0

I

am (a) W3iform compreEsicm.
Figure 34. - Buckling

F
---,.,
O/b

‘SW%.Y SIJPPOR7”D

(b) Shmr coefficients for iBo6celes trianguhr plates.

d-.

.4-

.,.

—.,—.

.

..

.-

. .

.

7

6

s

4 K/k 3

2

1

,0
P

H&we

35, - K/k

M

u Sunctlon Of Poj.snon’s rutlo. K/k = #/12(1 - @) .

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