Report for MTE521 Metallurgy in Welding By ndrilon 2009

What is WELDING 

in engineering, any process in which two or more pieces of metal are joined together by the application of heat, pressure, or a combination of both.

Master chart of Arc Welding and Related Methods .

Types of welds         Bead Groove Fillet Surfacing Tack Plug Slot Resistance .

Bead weld    Produced by a single pass Stinger Beadwhich is made without weaving motion. Weave Beadmade by side-side oscillation .

Groove weld  Groove welds are simply welds made in the groove between two members to be joined. .

or cutting edges. is often used to build up worn shafts. gears. . Surfacing. sometimes k nown as hardfacing or wearfacing.Surfacing welds   a surfacing weld is com posed of one or more stringer or weave beads.

Fillet weld  This weld is used to join two surfaces that are at approximately right angles to each other in a lap. or comer joint . tee.

Plug and Slot weld  are welds made through holes or slots in one member of a lap joint. .

but never more than 1 inch in length.Tack weld   is a weld made to hold parts of an assembly in proper alignment temporarily until the final welds are made. . they are normally between 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch in length.

Basic Welding Positions .

Common Welding Types  Arc Welding (AW) Gas Welding(OFW) Welding  Oxyfuel  Resistance .

Types of ARC Welding    Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW or TIG) Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW or MIG)   .

the coating of the metal electrode will form as shield to the molten metal.SMAW is performed by striking an arc between a coated-metal electrode and the base metal.  .  Flux.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding .


Arc Welding MAchines .

Electrode and Holder .

 .Advantages of SMAW High quality welds are made rapidly at a low cost.  Can be used from thinner to thicker materials.  Can be used easily even to thick and wide work piece to be joined.

Disadvantages SMAW Consumes bigger electric current  Dirty work finish  Root pass is lower than TIG and MIG  Prone to slag inclusions  Weld deposits is prone to blue holes  .

.SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)  Is a process in which is done by an automatic electrode feeding machine wherein the tip of the electrode is submerged into a granular flux which shields the arc and the molten metal.

SAW operations .

SAW Welding Machine

SAW block diagram


widely used in heavy steel plate fabrication work. welding of structural shapes. longitudinal seam of larger diameter pipe. manufacture of machine components for all types of heavy industry. manufacture of vessels. pressure and storage tanks.

smooth.Advantages of SAW high quality of the weld metal. no arc flash. normally. high utilization of electrode wire. . thus minimal need for protective clothing. extremely high deposition rate and speed. little or no smoke. no involvement of manipulative skills. easy automation for high-operator factor. uniform finished weld with no spatter.

high-heat input. Unseen arc and puddle can cause poor penetration. limited-position welding process only flat and horizontal .Disadvantages of SAW     used only to weld mild and low-alloy high-strength steels. slow-cooling cycle can be a problem when welding quenched and tempered steels.

normally done with a pure tungsten or tungsten alloy rod. but multiple electrodes are sometimes used. A shielding gas is used. normally Argon.GTAW or TIG  Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or Tungsten Inert Gas or HELIARC Welding is a process in which the joining of metals is produced by heating therewith an arc between a tungsten (non consumable) electrode and the work. Aluminum and Bronze. Filler metals are used such as stainless steel.     .

The process is used with shielded gas from a flux contained within the tubular electrode with or without additional shielding from an externally supplied gas.Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)  is an automatic or semi-automatic electric arc welding process that uses an arc between a continuously fed flux-filled electrode and the weld pool. .

FCAW flux filled electrode and torch .

No shielding gas (FCAW) .

With Shielding Gas (FCAW) .

. This is known informally as "dual shield" welding.Two Types of FCAW  no shielding gas .gas that must be supplied by an external supply.using flux core in the tubular consumable electrode  uses a shielding gas .

Uses of FCAW  Mild and low alloy steels  Stainless steels  Some high nickel alloys  Some wear facing/surfacing alloys .

g..Advantages of FCAW       FCAW may be an "all-position" process with the right filler metals (the consumable electrode) No shielding gas needed making it suitable for outdoor welding and/or windy conditions A high-deposition rate process (speed at which the filler metal is applied) in the 1G/1F/2F Some "high-speed" (e. automotive applications) Less pre cleaning of metal required Metallurgical benefits from the flux such as the weld metal being protected initially from external factors until the flux is chipped away .

leaving holes in the welded metal More costly filler material/wire as compared to GMAW Less suitable for applications that require painting. . Cannot be used in a rugged environment limited to shop use only.Disadvantages of FCAW       Melted Contact Tip ± happens when the electrode actually contacts the base metal. thereby fusing the two Irregular wire feed ± typically a mechanical problem Porosity ± the gases (specifically those from the flux-core) don¶t escape the welded area before the metal hardens. such as automotive body works.

FCAW Equipment set up .


GTAW or TIG process .

GTAW Welding Equipment .

TIG Welding Machine .

TIG Torch .

ADVANTAGES of GTAW       most popular method for welding aluminum stainless steels. No smoke or fumes clean no slag and spatter to be clean during welding reduced distortion in the weld joint because of the concentrated heat source. and nickel-base alloys. Produces top quality welds. . is very good for joining thin base metals because of excellent control of heat input.

welding process by fusion alone without the addition of filler metal.  .  excellent to use for the reactive metals like titanium and zirconium. which dissolve oxygen and nitrogen and become brittle if exposed to air while melting.( non-consumable electrode)  Used in very critical service application and on very expensive metal or parts.ADVANTAGES of GTAW especially useful for joining aluminum and magnesium which form refractory oxides.

d. which require less precise controls. high price of Inert gases for shielding such as Argon and Helium. b.Disadvantages of GTAW  EXPENSIVE a. c. such as SMAW. Equipment costs are greater than that for other processes. price of Tungsten electrode is high. Arc travel speed and weld metal deposition rates are lower.  MANY LIMITATIONS and cannot be used in full welding operations .

During transfer of molten tungsten from the electrode to the weld. During exposure of the hot filler rod to air. FAST CONTAMINATION 1.  2. When there is improper welding techniques along the line . 4. tungsten inclusion(unbalance gas shielding the inclusion is hard & brittle) 3.Limitations of GTAW  SLOWER WELDING PROCESS slower than consumable electrode arc welding.

 . Shielding of the arc and molten weld pool is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture both inert and reactive gases.GMAW  or MIG is an electric arc welding process which joins metals by heating them with an arc established between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work.

GMAW Welding Operations .

MIG Machine with Spool feeder .

GUN used in GMAW .

MIG Torch .

GMAW Weld Diagram .

Minor weld spatter is produced.    . and it is easily removed. Very little loss of alloying elements as the metal transfers across the arc. No flux is used no slag entrapment in the weld metal.Advantages of GMAW  Produced High quality welds & much faster than with SMAW and TIG welding.

The process can be operated in several ways. including semi. such as Aluminum. and structures.Advantages of GMAW  Versatile and can be used with a wide variety of metals and alloys. parts. Nickel.and fully automatic. Iron and many of their alloys.   . Copper. MIG welding is widely used by many industries for welding a broad variety of materials. Magnesium.

.  Has complex equipment compared to equipment used for the shielded metal-arc welding process.Disadvantages of GMAW  IT cannot be used in the vertical or overhead welding positions due to the high heat input and the fluidity of the weld puddle.

.Oxygen Fuel Gas Welding (OFW) is a group of welding processes which join metals by heating with a fuel gas flame or flares with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal.

Types of Oxy-fuel Gas Welding Oxy-Acetylene or Oxygen.Hydrogen Gas Welding  Methylacetone-Propadiene Gas Welding  Pressure Gas Welding.Acetylene Gas Welding  Oxy-Hydrogen or Oxygen.  .

Advantages of Oxy-fuel Gas Welding     Easy to use both welding and cutting Controlled heat input Controlled bead size Convenient to use in welding thin sheets. tubes and small diameter pipes .

Disadvantages of Oxy-Fuel Gas Welding  Cannot be use to weld on thick work piece. Expensive gas  .

Oxy-Acetylene Diagram Welding Equipment .

Complete Oxy-Acetylene Welding Equipment .

When the metals are heated to a melting temperature.Resistance Welding  is a process in which the fusing temperature is generated at the joint by the resistance to the flow of an electrical current.   is accomplished by clamping two or more sheets of metal between copper electrodes and then passing an electrical current through them. forging pressure is applied through either a manual or automatic means to weld the pieces together. Two common types are Spot and Seam welding .

2 Types of Resistance Welding SPOT WELDING SEAM WELDING .

SPOT WELDING The metal to be joined is placed between two electrodes and pressure is applied. . A charge of electricity is sent from one electrode through the material to the other electrode.

. making a continuous weld seam.SEAM Welding is like spot welding except that the spots overlap each other.

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